Sample records for stenotrophomonas maltophilia cgmcc

  1. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Vishwanath, Shashidhar; Gupta, Ashu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection is gaining importance as an important cause of nosocomial pneumonia due to its characteristic inherent resistance to many broad- spectrum antibiotics. In this study we evaluated the demographic, clinical and microbiological profile of patients with lower respiratory tract infection due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 33 patients diagnosed with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia lower respiratory tract infections during a period of two years from 2012 - 2013 was done. Results: The predominant predisposing factor observed was mechanical ventilation in 17(51.5%) cases. Fluoroquinolones were the most effective antibiotic (26;78.8%) followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (24;72.7%). Among the 19 patients treated with proper antibiotic, 13(68.4%) showed clinical improvement. Among the 14 patients who did not receive appropriate antibiotic for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection, 8(57.1%) showed improvement. Two (6%) had blood culture positive for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Mortality rate was 21.2%. Conclusion: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is emerging as an important nosocomial pathogen with increased risk in patients on mechanical ventilation in ICU. Empiric therapy should include agents active against S.maltophilia such as newer flouroquinolones and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PMID:25653948

  2. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: an Emerging Global Opportunistic Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging multidrug-resistant global opportunistic pathogen. The increasing incidence of nosocomial and community-acquired S. maltophilia infections is of particular concern for immunocompromised individuals, as this bacterial pathogen is associated with a significant fatality/case ratio. S. maltophilia is an environmental bacterium found in aqueous habitats, including plant rhizospheres, animals, foods, and water sources. Infections of S. maltophilia can occur in a range of organs and tissues; the organism is commonly found in respiratory tract infections. This review summarizes the current literature and presents S. maltophilia as an organism with various molecular mechanisms used for colonization and infection. S. maltophilia can be recovered from polymicrobial infections, most notably from the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis patients, as a cocolonizer with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Recent evidence of cell-cell communication between these pathogens has implications for the development of novel pharmacological therapies. Animal models of S. maltophilia infection have provided useful information about the type of host immune response induced by this opportunistic pathogen. Current and emerging treatments for patients infected with S. maltophilia are discussed. PMID:22232370

  3. Community-acquired Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Falagas; A. C. Kastoris; E. K. Vouloumanou; G. Dimopoulos

    2009-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a pathogen that causes infections mainly in immunocompromised patients. However, community-acquired S. maltophilia infections have been occasionally reported. The objective of this paper was to collect and evaluate the available published\\u000a data referring to community-acquired S. maltophilia infections. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Scopus for articles providing data for patients with community-acquired\\u000a S. maltophilia infections.

  4. Structure of Aminodeoxychorismate Synthase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Asim K.; Atanasova, Vesna; Dhanda, Anjali; Ladner, Jane E.; Parsons, James F.

    2012-01-01

    PabB, aminodeoxychorismate synthase, is the chorismic acid binding component of the heterodimeric PabAB complex that converts chorismic acid to 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate, a precursor of p-aminobenzoate and folic acid in microorganisms. The second component, a glutamine amidotransferase subunit, PabA, generates ammonia that is channeled to the PabB active site where it attacks the C4 carbon of a chorismate derived intermediate that is covalently bound, through C2, to an active site lysine residue. The presence of a PIKGT motif was, until recently, believed to be discriminate PabB enzymes from the closely related enzyme anthranilate synthase, which typically contains a PIAGT active site motif and does not form a covalent enzyme-substrate intermediate with chorismate. A subclass of PabB enzymes that employ an alternative mechanism requiring two equivalents of ammonia from glutamine and that feature a noncovalently bound 2-amino-2-deoxyisochorismate intermediate was recently identified. Here we report the 2.25 Å crystal structure of PabB from the emerging pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. It is the first reported structure of a PabB that features the PIAGT motif. Surprisingly, no dedicated pabA is evident in the genome of S. maltophilia suggesting that another cellular amidotransferase is able to fulfill the role of PabA in this organism. Evaluation of the ammonia-dependent aminodeoxychorismate synthase activity of S. maltophilia PabB alone revealed that it is virtually inactive. However, in the presence of a heterologous PabA surrogate, typical levels of activity were observed using either glutamine or ammonia as the nitrogen source. Additionally, the structure suggests that a key segment of the polypeptide can remodel itself to interact with a nonspecialized or shared amidotransferase partner in vivo. The structure and mass spectral analysis further suggest that S. maltophilia PabB, like Escherichia coli PabB, binds tryptophan in a vestigial regulatory site. The observation that the binding site is unoccupied in the crystal structure, however, suggests the affinity may be low relative to E. coli PabB. PMID:23230967

  5. Structure of aminodeoxychorismate synthase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Bera, Asim K; Atanasova, Vesna; Dhanda, Anjali; Ladner, Jane E; Parsons, James F

    2012-12-21

    PabB, aminodeoxychorismate synthase, is the chorismic acid binding component of the heterodimeric PabA-PabB complex that converts chorismic acid to 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate, a precursor of p-aminobenzoate and folic acid in microorganisms. The second component, a glutamine amidotransferase subunit, PabA, generates ammonia that is channeled to the PabB active site where it attacks C4 of a chorismate-derived intermediate that is covalently bound, through C2, to an active site lysine residue. The presence of a PIKGT motif was, until recently, believed to allow discrimination of PabB enzymes from the closely related enzyme anthranilate synthase, which typically contains a PIAGT active site motif and does not form a covalent enzyme-substrate intermediate with chorismate. A subclass of PabB enzymes that employ an alternative mechanism requiring 2 equiv of ammonia from glutamine and that feature a noncovalently bound 2-amino-2-deoxyisochorismate intermediate was recently identified. Here we report the 2.25 Å crystal structure of PabB from the emerging pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. It is the first reported structure of a PabB that features the PIAGT motif. Surprisingly, no dedicated pabA is evident in the genome of S. maltophilia, suggesting that another cellular amidotransferase is able to fulfill the role of PabA in this organism. Evaluation of the ammonia-dependent aminodeoxychorismate synthase activity of S. maltophilia PabB alone revealed that it is virtually inactive. However, in the presence of a heterologous PabA surrogate, typical levels of activity were observed using either glutamine or ammonia as the nitrogen source. Additionally, the structure suggests that a key segment of the polypeptide can remodel itself to interact with a nonspecialized or shared amidotransferase partner in vivo. The structure and mass spectral analysis further suggest that S. maltophilia PabB, like Escherichia coli PabB, binds tryptophan in a vestigial regulatory site. The observation that the binding site is unoccupied in the crystal structure, however, suggests the affinity may be low relative to that of E. coli PabB. PMID:23230967

  6. Immunostimulatory Properties of the Emerging Pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie J. Waters; Marisa I. Gomez; Grace Soong; Sunil Amin; Robert K. Ernst; Alice Prince

    2007-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a multiple-antibiotic-resistant opportunistic pathogen that is being isolated with increasing frequency from patients with health-care-associated infections and especially from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). While clinicians feel compelled to treat infections involving this organism, its potential for virulence is not well established. We evaluated the immunostimulatory properties and overall virulence of clinical isolates of S. maltophilia using

  7. In vitro susceptibility of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia to various antimicrobial combinations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd S. Krueger; Erin A. Clark; David E. Nix

    2001-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has emerged as a significant pathogen in compromised patients, causing infections which are difficult to treat. Clinical isolates from patients in the Tucson area were tested against single and combination antibiotics using three testing methods. Ticarcillin\\/clavulanate, trimethoprim\\/sulfamethoxazole and trovafloxacin provided comparable inhibitory activity, in vitro. Ciprofloxacin, imipenem and ticarcillin were active less often. Agreements between disk diffusion and

  8. Microbiological and Clinical Aspects of Infection Associated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    PubMed Central

    Denton, Miles; Kerr, Kevin G.

    1998-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is increasingly recognized as an important cause of nosocomial infection. Infection occurs principally, but not exclusively, in debilitated and immunosuppressed individuals. Management of S. maltophilia-associated infection is problematic because many strains of the bacterium manifest resistance to multiple antibiotics. These difficulties are compounded by methodological problems in in vitro susceptibility testing for which there are, as yet, no formal guidelines. Despite its acknowledged importance as a nosocomial pathogen, little is known of the epidemiology of S. maltophilia, and although it is considered an environmental bacterium, its sources and reservoirs are often not readily apparent. Molecular typing systems may contribute to our knowledge of the epidemiology of S. maltophilia infection, thus allowing the development of strategies to interrupt the transmission of the bacterium in the hospital setting. Even less is known of pathogenic mechanisms and putative virulence factors involved in the natural history of S. maltophilia infection and this, coupled with difficulties in distinguishing colonization from true infection, has fostered the view that the bacterium is essentially nonpathogenic. This article aims to review the current taxonomic status of S. maltophilia, and it discusses the laboratory identification of the bacterium. The epidemiology of the organism is considered with particular reference to nosocomial outbreaks, several of which have been investigated by molecular typing techniques. Risk factors for acquisition of the bacterium are also reviewed, and the ever-expanding spectrum of clinical syndromes associated with S. maltophilia is surveyed. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, pitfalls in in vitro susceptibility testing, and therapy of S. maltophilia infections are also discussed. PMID:9457429

  9. The emergence of epidemic, multiple-antibiotic-resistant Stenotrophomonas (Xanthomonas) maltophilia and Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Spencer

    1995-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas (Xanthomonas) maltophilia has recently emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen in immunocompromised cancer patients and transplant recipients. S. maltophilia has been documented as a cause of bacteraemia, infections of the respiratory and urinary tracts, meningitis, serious wound infections, mastoiditis, epididymitis, conjunctivitis and endocarditis. The reservoir of S. maltophilia and the mechanisms by which it is transmitted, remain largely unknown.

  10. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia endogenous endophthalmitis: clinical presentation, antibiotic susceptibility, and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Chhablani, Jay; Sudhalkar, Aditya; Jindal, Animesh; Das, Taraprasad; Motukupally, Swapna R; Sharma, Savitri; Pathengay, Avinash; Flynn, Harry W

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe clinical presentation, antibiotic susceptibility, and outcomes in patients with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia endogenous endophthalmitis. Design Retrospective case series. Participants Four eyes of four patients with S. maltophilia endogenous endophthalmitis. Methods Retrospective chart review of culture-positive S. maltophilia endogenous endophthalmitis treated at L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India, between January 2007 and December 2012, was done. Collected information included demographic, clinical, and microbiology data. Results These four patients with S. maltophilia endogenous endophthalmitis cases accounted for 0.47% (4/836) of total bacterial endophthalmitis cases treated in this period. All patients were from a rural setting and younger than 40 years. Two of the four patients had a history of immune compromise or hospitalization. The visual acuity at presentation was less than 20/320 in all patients. Common presenting features were severe anterior and posterior segment inflammation and hypopyon. All patients underwent vitrectomy with injection of intravitreal antibiotics and dexamethasone. Direct microscopy of the vitreous sample was positive in all cases. All isolates were sensitive to fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol; sensitivity to aminoglycosides and third-generation cephalosporins was highly variable. The final visual acuity was 20/80 or more in three patients. The time to presentation did not seem to influence the visual or anatomical outcome. Conclusion S. maltophilia is a rare cause of endogenous endophthalmitis and usually occurs in young and apparently healthy individuals. Clinical presentation is moderate to severe, and recovery is variable. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol were the most sensitive antibiotics against S. maltophilia in this series of patients. PMID:25170244

  11. Antibiotic resistance in the opportunistic pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, María B.

    2015-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an environmental bacterium found in the soil, associated with plants and animals, and in aquatic environments. It is also an opportunistic pathogen now causing an increasing number of nosocomial infections. The treatment of S. maltophilia is quite difficult given its intrinsic resistance to a number of antibiotics, and because it is able to acquire new resistances via horizontal gene transfer and mutations. Certainly, strains resistant to quinolones, cotrimoxale and/or cephalosporins—antibiotics commonly used to treat S. maltophilia infections—have emerged. The increasing number of available S. maltophilia genomes has allowed the identification and annotation of a large number of antimicrobial resistance genes. Most encode inactivating enzymes and efflux pumps, but information on their role in intrinsic and acquired resistance is limited. Non-typical antibiotic resistance mechanisms that also form part of the intrinsic resistome have been identified via mutant library screening. These include non-typical antibiotic resistance genes, such as bacterial metabolism genes, and non-inheritable resistant phenotypes, such as biofilm formation and persistence. Their relationships with resistance are complex and require further study.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Novel Giant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Phage  SMA5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsiao-Chuan Chang; Chiy-Rong Chen; Juey-Wen Lin; Gwan-Han Shen; Kai-Ming Chang; Yi-Hsiung Tseng; Shu-Fen Weng

    2005-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is one of the most prevalent opportunistic bacteria causing nosocomial infec- tions. It has become problematic because most of the isolates are resistant to multiple antibiotics, and therefore, development of phage therapy has attracted strong attention. In this study, eight S. maltophilia phages were isolated from clinical samples including patient specimens, catheter-related devices, and waste- water. These phages

  13. In vitro susceptibility of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia to various antimicrobial combinations.

    PubMed

    Krueger, T S; Clark, E A; Nix, D E

    2001-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has emerged as a significant pathogen in compromised patients, causing infections which are difficult to treat. Clinical isolates from patients in the Tucson area were tested against single and combination antibiotics using three testing methods. Ticarcillin/clavulanate, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and trovafloxacin provided comparable inhibitory activity, in vitro. Ciprofloxacin, imipenem and ticarcillin were active less often. Agreements between disk diffusion and broth microdilution results were poor for ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole; however, agreement was > or = 90% for the other drugs tested. Major or very major errors were observed with ticarcillin, ticarcillin/clavulanate, and trovafloxacin. The addition of aztreonam to ticarcillin/clavulanate enhanced the activity compared to ticarcillin/clavulanate alone using the double-disk diffusion, broth microdilution (checkerboard), and time-kill testing methods. Trovafloxacin exhibited good activity by all three methods, with bactericidal activity at > or = 2x MIC. These results indicate that the newer fluoroquinolones or the triple combination of ticarcillin/clavulanate plus aztreonam may be potential options for treatment of infection caused by S. maltophilia in patients who are intolerant to or fail trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole therapy. PMID:11687317

  14. The Efflux Pump SmeDEF Contributes to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, María Blanca; Martínez, José Luis

    2015-07-01

    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) is one of the antimicrobials of choice for the treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections. The analysis of mutants either lacking or overexpressing the efflux pump SmeDEF shows that this efflux pump contributes to intrinsic and acquired co-trimoxazole resistance in S. maltophilia. Since SmeDEF can extrude a variety of antibiotics, selection with such antimicrobials, including quinolones, might also select for S. maltophilia co-trimoxazole resistance. PMID:25918144

  15. Biofilm Compared to Conventional Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Isolates from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kitty; Yau, Yvonne C. W.; Matukas, Larissa

    2013-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a multidrug-resistant organism increasingly isolated from the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. One hundred twenty-five S. maltophilia isolates from 85 CF patients underwent planktonic and biofilm susceptibility testing against 9 different antibiotics, alone and in double antibiotic combinations. When S. maltophilia isolates were grown as a biofilm, 4 of the 10 most effective antibiotic combinations included high-dose levofloxacin and 7 of the 10 combinations included colistin at doses achievable by aerosolization. PMID:23295930

  16. Persistence and variability of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in cystic fibrosis patients, Madrid, 1991-1998.

    PubMed Central

    Valdezate, S.; Vindel, A.; Maiz, L.; Baquero, F.; Escobar, H.; Cantón, R.

    2001-01-01

    During 1991 to 1998 at least one Stenotrophomonas maltophilia pulmonary infection was observed in 25 (24%) of 104 cystic fibrosis patients at the same unit of our hospital in Spain. Ribotyping and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of 76 S. maltophilia isolates from these patients indicated an overall clonal incidence of 47.1%, reflecting new strains in 44% of patients with repeated positive cultures for S. maltophilia. Six patients with repeated episodes were persistently colonized (> or = 6 months) with the same strain. S. maltophilia bacterial counts were higher (geometric mean, 2.9 x 10(8) cfu/mL) in patients with repeated episodes than in those with a single episode (8.4 x 10(4) cfu/mL, p < 0.01). Single episodes of S. maltophilia occurred in patients < 10 years of age (43% [6/14]), whereas chronic colonization occurred more frequently in older patients (> 16 years of age). PMID:11266301

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain UV74 Reveals Extensive Variability within Its Genomic Group

    PubMed Central

    Conchillo-Solé, Oscar; Yero, Daniel; Coves, Xavier; Huedo, Pol; Martínez-Servat, Sònia

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia UV74, isolated from a vascular ulcer. This draft genome sequence shall contribute to the understanding of the evolution and pathogenicity of this species, particularly regarding isolates of clinical origin. PMID:26067959

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain UV74 Reveals Extensive Variability within Its Genomic Group.

    PubMed

    Conchillo-Solé, Oscar; Yero, Daniel; Coves, Xavier; Huedo, Pol; Martínez-Servat, Sònia; Daura, Xavier; Gibert, Isidre

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia UV74, isolated from a vascular ulcer. This draft genome sequence shall contribute to the understanding of the evolution and pathogenicity of this species, particularly regarding isolates of clinical origin. PMID:26067959

  19. A Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Inferring Population Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Kaiser; Klaus Biehler; Daniel Jonas

    2009-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic, highly resistant, and ubiquitous pathogen. Strains have been assigned to genogroups using amplified fragment length polymorphism. Hence, isolates of environmental and clinical origin predominate in different groups. A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was developed using a highly diverse selection of 70 strains of various ecological origins from seven countries on all continents including strains

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Biofilm-Forming Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain 53

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Sirwan; Rout, Simon P.

    2015-01-01

    A clinical strain of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (designated strain 53) was obtained, and a whole-genome sequence was generated. The subsequent draft whole-genome sequence demonstrated the presence of a number of genes encoding for proteins involved in resistance to a number of antimicrobial therapies. PMID:25883296

  1. Functional Characterization of the RNA Chaperone Hfq in the Opportunistic Human Pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    PubMed Central

    Roscetto, Emanuela; Angrisano, Tiziana; Costa, Valerio; Casalino, Mariassunta; Förstner, Konrad U.; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Di Nocera, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Hfq is an RNA-binding protein known to regulate a variety of cellular processes by interacting with small RNAs (sRNAs) and mRNAs in prokaryotes. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important opportunistic pathogen affecting primarily hospitalized and immunocompromised hosts. We constructed an hfq deletion mutant (?hfq) of S. maltophilia and compared the behaviors of wild-type and ?hfq S. maltophilia cells in a variety of assays. This revealed that S. maltophilia Hfq plays a role in biofilm formation and cell motility, as well as susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Moreover, Hfq is crucial for adhesion to bronchial epithelial cells and is required for the replication of S. maltophilia in macrophages. Differential RNA sequencing analysis (dRNA-seq) of RNA isolated from S. maltophilia wild-type and ?hfq strains showed that Hfq regulates the expression of genes encoding flagellar and fimbrial components, transmembrane proteins, and enzymes involved in different metabolic pathways. Moreover, we analyzed the expression of several sRNAs identified by dRNA-seq in wild-type and ?hfq S. maltophilia cells grown in different conditions on Northern blots. The accumulation of two sRNAs was strongly reduced in the absence of Hfq. Furthermore, based on our dRNA-seq analysis we provide a genome-wide map of transcriptional start sites in S. maltophilia. PMID:22923593

  2. Simple, time saving pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for the typing of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Shueh, Chong Seng; Neela, Vasanthakumari; Hussin, Salasawati; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2013-08-01

    We developed a time-saving and cost-efficient Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) method for the typing of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by modifying the conventional procedures. Our modifications related to the cell suspension preparation, lysis of bacterial cells in plugs, washing steps, and consumption of restriction enzyme. Although few rapid PFGE protocols on Gram-negative bacteria are available, the use of comparatively large amounts of costly reagents prompted us to look for other alternative. Hence, by considering the speed, simplicity, and relatively low cost, the modified protocol may be of more practical value than other established protocols in investigating S. maltophilia nosocomial outbreaks. PMID:23756145

  3. Siderophores of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: detection and determination of their chemical nature.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos A; Passerini De Rossi, Beatriz; Alcaraz, Eliana; Vay, Carlos; Franco, Mirta

    2012-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging nosocomial pathogen. Despite the broad spectrum of syndromes associated with S. maltophilia infections, little is known about its virulence factors, including siderophore production. The aims of this work were to detect S. maltophilia siderophores and to determine their chemical nature. We studied 31 S. maltophilia isolates from device-associated infections, recovered over the period 2006-2011 at Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and the strain K279a, whose genome has been fully sequenced. The production of siderophores was screened by the chrome azurol S (CAS) agar assay, previously modified to detect siderophores in this species. When grown on modified CAS agar plates, all the clinical isolates and K279a were CAS-positive for siderophore production. In order to determine the chemical nature of siderophores, the Csáky (hydroxamate-type) and Arnow (catechol-type) assays were used. All S. maltophilia isolates produced catechol-type siderophores, but hydroxamate-type siderophores were not detected. PMID:23102461

  4. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection among young children in a cardiac intensive care unit: a single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Ciji; Tang, Xinyu; Romero, Jose R; Gossett, Jeffrey G; Harik, Nada; Prodhan, Parthak

    2015-03-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia can present as bacteremia, respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, soft tissue and wound infections, bone and joint infections, meningitis, and endocarditis especially in immunosuppressed patients and those with underlying medical conditions. The incidence and impact of S. maltophilia in young children with heart disease are poorly defined. A single center retrospective observational study was conducted in infants <180 days of age with positive S. maltophilia cultures over a period of 5 years. The overall incidence for S. maltophilia infection was 0.8 % (n = 32/3656). Among 32 identified infants, there were 47 episodes of S. maltophilia infection 66 % of infants had prior exposure to broad spectrum antibiotics. 97 % of positive isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and 91 % to levofloxacin as well as ticarcillin/clavulanate. Ventilator-free days and absolute lymphocyte count prior to acquiring infection were significantly lower in non-survivors than in survivors. 100 % of survivors had clearance of positive cultures compared to 50 % in non-survivors (p < 0.05). The crude all-cause mortality rate was 37.5 %. All non-survivors had increased length of ICU stay and duration of mechanical ventilation and had delayed clearance of infection and required longer duration of treatment. PMID:25293429

  5. Genotypic and Phenotypic Relationships between Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Gabriele; Roskot, Nicolle; Smalla, Kornelia

    1999-01-01

    While the gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is used in biotechnology (e.g., for biological control of plant pathogens and for bioremediation), the number of S. maltophilia diseases in humans has dramatically increased in recent years. A total of 40 S. maltophilia isolates from clinical and environmental sources (plant associated and water) was investigated to determine the intraspecies diversity of the group and to determine whether or not the strains could be grouped based on the source of isolation. The isolates were investigated by phenotypic profiling (enzymatic and metabolic activity and antibiotic resistance patterns) and by molecular methods such as temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis of the 16S rRNA gene fragment, PCR fingerprinting with BOX primers, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion with DraI. Results of the various methods revealed high intraspecies diversity. PFGE was the most discriminatory method for typing S. maltophilia when compared to the other molecular methods. The environmental strains of S. maltophilia were highly resistant to antibiotics, and the resistance profile pattern of the strains was not dependent on their source of isolation. Computer-assisted cluster analysis of the phenotypic and genotypic features did not reveal any clustering patterns for either clinical or environmental isolates. PMID:10523559

  6. Resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia to Fluoroquinolones: Prevalence in a University Hospital and Possible Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wei; Wang, Jiayuan; Xu, Haotong; Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical distribution and genotyping of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, its resistance to antimicrobial agents, and the possible mechanisms of this drug resistance. Methods: S. maltophilia isolates were collected from clinical specimens in a university hospital in Northwestern China during the period between 2010 and 2012, and were identified to the species level with a fully automated microbiological system. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for S. maltophilia with the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of norfloxacin, ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, minocycline, ceftazidime, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin against S. maltophilia were assessed using the agar dilution method, and changes in the MIC of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were observed after the addition of reserpine, an efflux pump inhibitor. Fluoroquinolone resistance genes were detected in S. maltophilia using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and the expression of efflux pump smeD and smeF genes was determined using a quantitative fluorescent (QF)-PCR assay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was employed to genotype identified S. maltophilia isolates. Results: A total of 426 S. maltophilia strains were isolated from the university hospital from 2010 to 2012, consisting of 10.1% of total non-fermentative bacteria. The prevalence of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin resistance was 32.4%, 21.9% and 13.2% in the 114 S. maltophilia isolates collected from 2012, respectively. Following reserpine treatment, 19 S. maltophilia isolates positive for efflux pump were identified, and high expression of smeD and smeF genes was detected in two resistant isolates. gyrA, parC, smeD, smeE and smeF genes were detected in all 114 S. maltophilia isolates, while smqnr gene was found in 25.4% of total isolates. Glu-Lys mutation (GAA-AAA) was detected at the 151th amino acid of the gyrA gene, while Gly-Arg mutation (GGC-CGC) was found at the 37th amino acid of the parC gene. However, no significant difference was observed in the prevalence of gyrA or parC mutation between fluoroquinolone-resistant and -susceptible isolates (p> 0.05). The smqnr gene showed 92% to 99% heterogenicity among the 14 S. maltophilia clinical isolates. PFGE of 29 smqnr gene-positive S. maltophilia clinical isolates revealed 25 PFGE genotypes and 28 subgenotypes. Conclusions: Monitoring the clinical distribution and antimicrobial resistance of S. maltophilia is of great significance for the clinical therapy of bacterial infections. Reserpine is effective to inhibit the active efflux of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin on S. maltophilia and reduce MIC of fluoroquinolones against the bacteria. The expression of efflux pump smeD and smeF genes correlates with the resistance of S. maltophilia to fluoroquinolones. PMID:25985315

  7. Facile biosynthesis of phosphate capped gold nanoparticles by a bacterial isolate Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nangia, Yogesh; Wangoo, Nishima; Sharma, Saurabh; Wu, Jin-Song; Dravid, Vinayak; Shekhawat, G. S.; Raman Suri, C.

    2009-06-01

    We report intracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) by a strain Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (AuRed02) isolated from the soil samples of Singhbhum gold mines, India. An aqueous solution of gold chloride was reduced to metallic gold in a suspension of disrupted cell mass of AuRed02, which progressively turns into cherry red within 8 h of incubation at 25 °C. The optical spectrum showed the plasmon resonance at 530 nm and analysis by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering confirmed the formation of around 40 nm GNPs. Zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared measurements confirmed GNPs are capped by negatively charged phosphate groups of NADP.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of the green tea polyphenol (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola C. Gordon; David W. Wareham

    2010-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is increasingly recognised as an important nosocomial pathogen. Treatment options are limited due to intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics as well as concerns over toxicity of the mainstay of treatment, co-trimoxazole. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin found in green tea, has been shown to have antimicrobial effects against a number of bacterial pathogens. We evaluated the in vitro

  9. The DSF quorum sensing system controls the positive influence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia on plants.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Peyman; Müller, Henry; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Zachow, Christin; Sánchez, María B; Martínez, José Luis; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of the Gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with eukaryotes can improve overall plant growth and health, but can also cause opportunistic infections in humans. While the quorum sensing molecule DSF (diffusible signal factor) is responsible for the regulation of phenotypes in pathogenic Stenotrophomonas, up until now, no beneficial effects were reported to be controlled by it. Our objective was to study the function of DSF in the plant growth promoting model strain S. maltophilia R551-3 using functional and transcriptomic analyses. For this purpose, we compared the wild-type strain with a mutant deficient in the rpfF (regulation of pathogenicity factors) gene that is essential for the synthesis of DSF. Oilseed rape seeds treated with the wild-type strain showed a statistically significant increase in germination rate compared with those treated with the rpfF mutant. Similarly, the wild-type strain exhibited better plant growth promotion and a greater efficiency in colonizing oilseed rape compared to the mutant strain. Moreover, only the wild-type was capable of forming structured cell aggregates both in vitro and in the rhizosphere, a characteristic mediated by DSF. Gene transcription analyses showed that numerous genes known to play a role in plant colonization (e.g. chemotaxis, cell motility, biofilm formation, multidrug efflux pumps) are controlled by the rpf/DSF system in S. maltophilia. In addition, we detected new potential functions of spermidine, primarily for both growth promotion and stress protection. Overall, our results showed a correspondence between the regulation of DSF and the positive interaction effect with the plant host. PMID:23874407

  10. A Highly Thermostable Xylanase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: Purification and Partial Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sharad; Singh, Sudheer Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Seven xylanolytic bacterial strains were isolated from saw-dust dump soil. The bacterial strain X6 was selected on the basis of the highest xylanase activity with no cellulase contamination. It was identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach. Xylanase production studies by S. maltophilia on different commercial xylans and agro-industrial residues suggested that wheat bran was the best carbon source for xylanase production (26.4 ± 0.6?IU/mL). The studies with inorganic and organic nitrogen sources suggested yeast extract as the best support for xylanase production (25 ± 0.6?IU/mL). Maximum xylanase production was observed at initial medium pH = 8.0 (23.8 ± 0.4?IU/mL) with production at pH = 7.0 and pH = 9.0 being almost comparable. Xylanase produced by S. maltophilia was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatography. The final purification was 5.43-fold with recovery of 19.18%. The molecular weight of the purified xylanase protein was ~142?kDa. Both crude and purified xylanase had good stability at pH = 9.0 and 80°C with activity retention greater than 90% after 30?min incubation. The enzyme stability at high temperature and alkaline pH make it potentially effective for industrial applications. PMID:24416589

  11. Infections Caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in Recipients of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Anazi, Khalid Ahmed; Al-Jasser, Asma M.

    2014-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) is a globally emerging Gram-negative bacillus that is widely spread in environment and hospital equipment. Recently, the incidence of infections caused by this organism has increased, particularly in patients with hematological malignancy and in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) having neutropenia, mucositis, diarrhea, central venous catheters or graft versus host disease and receiving intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy, immunosuppressive therapy, or broad-spectrum antibiotics. The spectrum of infections in HSCT recipients includes pneumonia, urinary tract and surgical site infection, peritonitis, bacteremia, septic shock, and infection of indwelling medical devices. The organism exhibits intrinsic resistance to many classes of antibiotics including carbapenems, aminoglycosides, most of the third-generation cephalosporins, and other ?-lactams. Despite the increasingly reported drug resistance, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is still the drug of choice. However, the organism is still susceptible to ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, tigecycline, fluoroquinolones, polymyxin-B, and rifampicin. Genetic factors play a significant role not only in evolution of drug resistance but also in virulence of the organism. The outcome of patients having S. maltophilia infections can be improved by: using various combinations of novel therapeutic agents and aerosolized aminoglycosides or colistin, prompt administration of in vitro active antibiotics, removal of possible sources of infection such as infected indwelling intravascular catheters, and application of strict infection control measures. PMID:25202682

  12. The contribution of class 1 integron to antimicrobial resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Wei; Hu, Rouh-Mei; Lin, Yi-Tsung; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Yang, Tsuey-Ching

    2015-02-01

    Two hundred clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were examined for the presence of class 1 integron and for the susceptibility to 12 different antimicrobials and detergents. The prevalence of class 1 integron in S. maltophilia isolates was 11%. The class 1 integron-positive isolates exhibited a higher resistance to kanamycin, tobramycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) than the class 1 integron-negative ones. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), amplifying the variable region of the class 1 integron, showed the existence of six different amplicon sizes, indicating that there are at least six different class 1 integrons distributed in the 23 class 1 integron-positive isolates. Sequence analysis of six representative PCR amplicons revealed that qacK, aac(6')-Ib', qacK-aac(6')-Ib, qacK-aac(6')-Ib-aac(6')-Ib, and qacL-aadB-cmlA-aadA2 were identified in the 550-, 800-, 1,200-, 1,800, and 3,600-bp amplicons, respectively. The sequence analysis of the 150-bp PCR amplicon demonstrated no additional resistance-associated genes except the basic genetic elements of class 1 integron. The impact of class 1 integron acquisition on the antimicrobials susceptibility was assayed by isogenic integron deletion mutant construction and the susceptibility test. The most significant contribution of the class 1 integron acquisition to S. maltophilia is the increased resistance to SXT. PMID:25243757

  13. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with histopathological features mimicking cutaneous gamma/delta T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kash, Natalie; Vin, Harina; Danialan, Richard; Prieto, Victor G; Duvic, Madeleine

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of cutaneous Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection which presented with clinical and histopathological findings that mimicked a gamma/delta (??) T-cell lymphoma. In this case, tissue culture of the biopsy specimen was key to determining the diagnosis and allowing appropriate treatment with oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and topical silvadene. A prompt complete resolution of lesions was observed following antibiotic treatment, with no recurrence of disease over the last 5 years, supporting an infectious rather than malignant etiology. In our patient, radiation therapy was indicated based on the misdiagnosis of ?? T-cell lymphoma, which was supported both clinically and histopathologically. However, tissue culture in this case avoided unnecessary radiation exposure and highlights the role of tissue culture in the evaluation of the biopsy of an undiagnosed cutaneous lesion. PMID:25462188

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain B418, a Promising Agent for Biocontrol of Plant Pathogens and Root-Knot Nematode

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuanzheng; Wang, Yilian; Li, Jishun; Hu, Jindong; Chen, Kai; Wei, Yanli; Bazhanov, Dmitry P.; Bazhanova, Alesia A.

    2015-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain B418 was isolated from a barley rhizosphere in China. This bacterium exhibits broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against plant pathogens and root-knot nematode along with growth-promoting effects. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of S. maltophilia B418. PMID:25700397

  15. In vitro efficacy of high-dose tobramycin against Burkholderia cepacia complex and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates from cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Ratjen, Anina; Yau, Yvonne; Wettlaufer, Jillian; Matukas, Larissa; Zlosnik, James E A; Speert, David P; LiPuma, John J; Tullis, Elizabeth; Waters, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia complex and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections are associated with poor clinical outcomes in persons with cystic fibrosis (CF). The MIC50 based on planktonic growth and the biofilm concentration at which 50% of the isolates tested are inhibited (BIC50) of tobramycin were measured for 180 B. cepacia complex and 101 S. maltophilia CF isolates and were 100 ?g/ml for both species. New inhalation devices that deliver high tobramycin levels to the lung may be able to exceed these MICs. PMID:25348526

  16. Effects of Green Tea Compound Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Infection and Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Vidigal, Pedrina G.; Müsken, Mathias; Becker, Katrin A.; Häussler, Susanne; Wingender, Jost; Steinmann, Eike; Kehrmann, Jan; Gulbins, Erich; Buer, Jan; Rath, Peter Michael; Steinmann, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro and in vivo activities of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), a green tea component, against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Sm) isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. In vitro effects of EGCg and the antibiotic colistin (COL) on growth inhibition, survival, and also against young and mature biofilms of S. maltophilia were determined. Qualitative and quantitative changes on the biofilms were assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Further, in vivo effects of nebulized EGCg in C57BL/6 and Cftr mutant mice during acute Sm lung infection were evaluated. Subinhibitory concentrations of EGCg significantly reduced not only biofilm formation, but also the quantity of viable cells in young and mature biofilms. CLSM showed that EGCg-exposed biofilms exhibited either a change in total biofilm biovolume or an increase of the fraction of dead cells contained within the biofilm in a dose depended manner. Sm infected wild-type and Cftr mutant mice treated with 1,024 mg/L EGCg by inhalation exhibited significantly lower bacterial counts than those undergoing no treatment or treated with COL. EGCg displayed promising inhibitory and anti-biofilm properties against CF Sm isolates in vitro and significantly reduced Sm bacterial counts in an acute infection model with wild type and CF mice. This natural compound may represent a novel therapeutic agent against Sm infection in CF. PMID:24690894

  17. A Polysaccharide Lyase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with a Unique, pH-regulated Substrate Specificity*

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Logan C.; Berger, Bryan W.

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharide lyases (PLs) catalyze the depolymerization of anionic polysaccharides via a ?-elimination mechanism. PLs also play important roles in microbial pathogenesis, participating in bacterial invasion and toxin spread into the host tissue via degradation of the host extracellular matrix, or in microbial biofilm formation often associated with enhanced drug resistance. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative bacterium that is among the emerging multidrug-resistant organisms associated with chronic lung infections as well as with cystic fibrosis patients. A putative alginate lyase (Smlt1473) from S. maltophilia was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified in a one-step fashion via affinity chromatography, and activity as well as specificity determined for a range of polysaccharides. Interestingly, Smlt1473 catalyzed the degradation of not only alginate, but poly-?-d-glucuronic acid and hyaluronic acid as well. Furthermore, the pH optimum for enzymatic activity is substrate-dependent, with optimal hyaluronic acid degradation at pH 5, poly-?-d-glucuronic acid degradation at pH 7, and alginate degradation at pH 9. Analysis of the degradation products revealed that each substrate was cleaved endolytically into oligomers comprised predominantly of even numbers of sugar groups, with lower accumulation of trimers and pentamers. Collectively, these results imply that Smlt1473 is a multifunctional PL that exhibits broad substrate specificity, but utilizes pH as a mechanism to achieve selectivity. PMID:24257754

  18. High genetic diversity among Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains despite their originating at a single hospital.

    PubMed

    Valdezate, Sylvia; Vindel, Ana; Martín-Dávila, Pilar; Del Saz, Begoña Sánchez; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael

    2004-02-01

    The levels of genetic relatedness of 139 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains recovered from 105 hospitalized non-cystic fibrosis patients (51% from medical wards, 35% from intensive care units, and 14% from surgical wards) and 7 environmental sources in the same hospital setting during a 4-year period were typed by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) technique. A total of 99 well-defined distinct XbaI PFGE patterns were identified (Simpson's discrimination index, 0.996). The dendrogram showed a Dice similarity coefficient ranging from 28 to 80%. Two major clusters (I and II), three minor clusters (III, IV, and V), and two independent branches were observed when using a 36% Dice coefficient, indicating a high diversity of genetic relatedness. It is of note that 84% of strains were grouped within two major clonal lineages. No special cluster gathering was found among strains belonging to the same sample type specimen, patients' infection or colonization status, and ward of precedence. Despite this fact, three different clones (A, B, and C) recovered from respiratory samples from six, three, and two patients, respectively, and two clones, D and E, in two bacteremic patients each, were identified. Isolation of an S. maltophilia strain belonging to the clone A profile in a bronchoscope demonstrated a common source from this clone. This study revealed a high genetic diversity of S. maltophilia isolates despite their origin from a single hospital, which may be related to the wide environmental distribution of this pathogen. However, few clones could be transmitted among different patients, yielding outbreak situations. PMID:14766838

  19. Isolation and characterization of a novel strain of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia possessing various dioxygenases for monocyclic hydrocarbon degradation

    PubMed Central

    Urszula, Guzik; Izabela, Gre?; Danuta, Wojcieszy?ska; Sylwia, ?abu?ek

    2009-01-01

    A Gram-negative bacterium, designated as strain KB2, was isolated from activated sludge and was found to utilize different aromatic substrates as sole carbon and energy source. On the basis of morphological and physiochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolated strain KB2 was identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Strain KB2 is from among different Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains the first one described as exhibiting the activities of three types of dioxygenases depending on the structure of the inducer. The cells grown on benzoate and catechol showed mainly catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity. The activity of 2,3-dioxygenase was detected after phenol induction. Protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase was found in crude cell extracts of this strain after incubation with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid. Because of broad spectrum of dioxygenases’ types that Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KB2 can exhibit, this strain appears to be very powerful and useful tool in the biotreatment of wastewaters and in soil decontamination. PMID:24031359

  20. Aflatoxin B(1) degradation by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and other microbes selected using coumarin medium.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shu; Ji, Cheng; Zhou, Ting; Li, Junxia; Ma, Qiugang; Niu, Tiangui

    2008-08-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is one of the most harmful mycotoxins in animal production and food industry. A safe, effective and environmentally sound detoxification method is needed for controlling this toxin. In this study, 65 samples were screened from various sources with vast microbial populations using a newly developed medium containing coumarin as the sole carbon source. Twenty five single-colony bacterial isolates showing AFB(1) reduction activity in a liquid culture medium were selected from the screen. Isolate 35-3, obtained from tapir feces and identified to be Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, reduced AFB(1) by 82.5% after incubation in the liquid medium at 37 degrees C for 72 h. The culture supernatant of isolate 35-3 was able to degrade AFB(1) effectively, whereas the viable cells and cell extracts were far less effective. Factors influencing AFB(1) degradation by the culture supernatant were investigated. Activity was reduced to 60.8% and 63.5% at 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C, respectively, from 78.7% at 37 degrees C. The highest degradation rate was 84.8% at pH 8 and the lowest was only 14.3% at pH 4.0. Ions Mg(2+) and Cu(2+) were activators for AFB(1) degradation, however ion Zn(2+) was a strong inhibitor. Treatments with proteinase K, proteinase K plus SDS and heating significantly reduced or eradicated the degradation activity of the culture supernatant. The results indicated that the degradation of AFB(1) by S. maltophilia 35-3 was enzymatic and could have a great potential in industrial applications. PMID:19325817

  1. Antibiogram of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Isolated From Nkonkobe Municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Adegoke, Anthony Ayodeji; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Assessment of resistance genes is imperative, as they become disseminated to bacterial flora in plants and to the indigenous bacterial community, and thus ultimately contributes to the clinical problems of antibiotic resistant pathogens. Objectives: The research was to assess the antibiotic characteristics and incidence of sul3 genes of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates recovered from rhizospheres plant in Nkonkobe Municipality. Materials and Methods: Identification and assessment of resistance genes (sul2 and sul3 genes) were carried out using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analytical profile index (API) was used for biochemical characterization for identification before the PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out using the approved guidelines and standards of Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). Results: A total of 125 isolates were identified, composed of 120 (96%) from grass root rhizosphere and 5 (4%) from soil butternut root rhizosphere. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility tests showed varying resistances to meropenem (8.9%), cefuroxime (95.6 %), ampicillin-sulbactam (53.9%), ceftazidime (10.7%), cefepime (29.3 %), minocycline (2.2%), kanamycin (56.9%), ofloxacin (2.9%), levofloxacin (1.3%), moxifloxacin (2.8%), ciprofloxacin (24.3%), gatifloxacin (1.3%), polymyxin B (2.9 %), cotrimoxazole (26.1%), trimethoprim (98.6%) and aztreonam (58%). The isolates were susceptible to the fluoroquinolones (74.3-94.7%), polymycin (97.1%) and meropenem (88.1%). The newest sulphonamide resistance gene, sul3, was detected among the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (cotrimoxazole)-resistant isolates, while the most frequent sulphonamide-resistant gene in animal source isolates, sul2, was not. Conclusions: The commensal S. maltophilia isolates in the Nkonkobe Municipality environment harbored the resistant gene sul3 as clinical counterparts, especially from the perspective of reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants. PMID:25789125

  2. Purification, characterization, and gene cloning of a chitinase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia N4.

    PubMed

    Jankiewicz, Urszula; Brzezinska, Maria Swiontek

    2015-06-01

    The Stenotrophomonas maltophilia synthesises high-activity chitinase in response to chitin or chitosan induction. The enzyme was purified 8.5 fold and subjected to characterisation. The optimum hydrolysis conditions for this enzyme when using colloidal chitin as substrate were pH 5.6 and temperature of 45?(°) C. The enzyme demonstrated high thermal stability at 45?(°) C within 2?h. The studied chitinase exhibited high activity towards colloidal chitin, glycol chitin and chitosan, while it did not hydrolyse glycosidic bonds in carboxymethylcellulose. The enzyme exhibited the highest activity, equalling 90?U/ml, towards Nitrophenyl ?-D-N,N',N?-triacetylchitotriose and activity of 37?U/ml towards 4-Nitrophenyl N,N'-diacetyl-?-D-chitobioside. The Km value in the presence of the two former substrates was:1.2 and 3.9?mM, respectively, which classifies the studied enzyme as an endochitinase. Cysteine and 2-mercaptoethanol stimulated to a small degree the activity of the chitinase which may indicate the involvement of cysteine residues in the catalysis mechanism. The full length of the nucleotide sequence of this chitinase gene is 2106?bp, which amounts to 702 amino acids. PMID:25684706

  3. The complete genome, comparative and functional analysis of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia reveals an organism heavily shielded by drug resistance determinants

    PubMed Central

    Crossman, Lisa C; Gould, Virginia C; Dow, J Maxwell; Vernikos, Georgios S; Okazaki, Aki; Sebaihia, Mohammed; Saunders, David; Arrowsmith, Claire; Carver, Tim; Peters, Nicholas; Adlem, Ellen; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Lord, Angela; Murphy, Lee; Seeger, Katharine; Squares, Robert; Rutter, Simon; Quail, Michael A; Rajandream, Mari-Adele; Harris, David; Churcher, Carol; Bentley, Stephen D; Parkhill, Julian; Thomson, Nicholas R; Avison, Matthew B

    2008-01-01

    Background Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a nosocomial opportunistic pathogen of the Xanthomonadaceae. The organism has been isolated from both clinical and soil environments in addition to the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients and the immunocompromised. Whilst relatively distant phylogenetically, the closest sequenced relatives of S. maltophilia are the plant pathogenic xanthomonads. Results The genome of the bacteremia-associated isolate S. maltophilia K279a is 4,851,126 bp and of high G+C content. The sequence reveals an organism with a remarkable capacity for drug and heavy metal resistance. In addition to a number of genes conferring resistance to antimicrobial drugs of different classes via alternative mechanisms, nine resistance-nodulation-division (RND)-type putative antimicrobial efflux systems are present. Functional genomic analysis confirms a role in drug resistance for several of the novel RND efflux pumps. S. maltophilia possesses potentially mobile regions of DNA and encodes a number of pili and fimbriae likely to be involved in adhesion and biofilm formation that may also contribute to increased antimicrobial drug resistance. Conclusion The panoply of antimicrobial drug resistance genes and mobile genetic elements found suggests that the organism can act as a reservoir of antimicrobial drug resistance determinants in a clinical environment, which is an issue of considerable concern. PMID:18419807

  4. A novel highly charged exopolysaccharide produced by two strains of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia recovered from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cescutti, Paola; Cuzzi, Bruno; Liut, Gianfranco; Segonds, Christine; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni; Rizzo, Roberto

    2011-09-27

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a non-fermenting Gram-negative microorganism capable of causing chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis patients and its ability to form biofilms on polystyrene and glass surfaces, as well as on cystic fibrosis-derived bronchial epithelial IB3-I cells was recently demonstrated. The latter evidence might explain the power of S. maltophilia to produce persistent lung infections, despite intensive antibiotic treatment. In addition to being important components of the extracellular biofilm matrix, polysaccharides are involved in virulence, as they contribute to bacterial survival in a hostile environment. With the aim of contributing to the elucidation of S. maltophilia virulence factors, the exopolysaccharides produced by two mucoid clinical isolates of S. maltophilia obtained from two cystic fibrosis patients were completely characterised, mainly by means of ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy. The results showed that, although the two isolates were recovered from two different patients living in different countries (Italy and France), the exopolysaccharides produced have an identical primary structure, with the following repeating unit: The exopolysaccharide is highly negatively charged for the presence of three uronic acids on four residues in the repeating unit. Moreover, an ether-linked d-lactate substituent is located on C-3 and one O-acetyl group on C-4 of the galacturonic acid side chain. Another O-acetyl group substitutes C-2 of the galacturonic acid in the backbone, making this primary structure unique. PMID:21636078

  5. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Virulence and Specific Variations in Trace Elements during Acute Lung Infection: Implications in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Crocetta, Valentina; Consalvo, Ada; Zappacosta, Roberta; Di Ilio, Carmine; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Metal ions are necessary for the proper functioning of the immune system, and, therefore, they might have a significant influence on the interaction between bacteria and host. Ionic dyshomeostasis has been recently observed also in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, whose respiratory tract is frequently colonized by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. For the first time, here we used an inductively mass spectrometry method to perform a spatial and temporal analysis of the pattern of changes in a broad range of major trace elements in response to pulmonary infection by S. maltophilia. To this, DBA/2 mouse lungs were comparatively infected by a CF strain and by an environmental one. Our results showed that pulmonary ionomic profile was significantly affected during infection. Infected mice showed increased lung levels of Mg, P, S, K, Zn, Se, and Rb. To the contrary, Mn, Fe, Co, and Cu levels resulted significantly decreased. Changes of element concentrations were correlated with pulmonary bacterial load and markers of inflammation, and occurred mostly on day 3 post-exposure, when severity of infection culminated. Interestingly, CF strain – significantly more virulent than the environmental one in our murine model - provoked a more significant impact in perturbing pulmonary metal homeostasis. Particularly, exposure to CF strain exclusively increased P and K levels, while decreased Fe and Mn ones. Overall, our data clearly indicate that S. maltophilia modulates pulmonary metal balance in a concerted and virulence-dependent manner highlighting the potential role of the element dyshomeostasis during the progression of S. maltophilia infection, probably exacerbating the harmful effects of the loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator function. Further investigations are required to understand the biological significance of these alterations and to confirm they are specifically caused by S. maltophilia. PMID:24586389

  6. Friends or foes: can we make a distinction between beneficial and harmful strains of the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia complex?

    PubMed

    Berg, Gabriele; Martinez, Jose L

    2015-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging multi-drug-resistant global opportunistic pathogen of environmental, mainly plant-associated origin. It is also used as a biocontrol or stress protecting agent for crops in sustainable agricultural as well as in bioremediation strategies. In order to establish effective protocols to distinguish harmless from harmful strains, our discussion must take into consideration the current data available surrounding the ecology, evolution and pathogenicity of the species complex. The mutation rate was identified as one of several possible criteria for strain plasticity, but it is currently impossible to distinguish beneficial from harmful S. maltophilia strains. This may compromise the possibility of the release and application for environmental biotechnology of this bacterial species. The close relative S. rhizophila, which can be clearly differentiated from S. maltophilia, provides a harmless alternative for biotechnological applications without human health risks. This is mainly because it is unable to growth at the human body temperature, 37(?)C due to the absence of heat shock genes and a potentially temperature-regulated suicide mechanism. PMID:25873912

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Isolated from Clinical Specimens from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis and Associated Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Denton, Miles; Todd, Neil J.; Kerr, Kevin G.; Hawkey, Peter M.; Littlewood, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was isolated from the respiratory tracts of 41 (25%) of 163 children attending our pediatric cystic fibrosis unit between September 1993 and December 1995. The extents of S. maltophilia contamination of environmental sites frequented by these patients were investigated with a selective medium incorporating vancomycin, imipenem, and amphotericin B. Eighty-two isolates of S. maltophilia were cultured from 67 different environmental sites sampled between January and July 1996. The organism was widespread in the home environment, with 20 (36%) and 25 (42%) of sampled sites positive in the homes of colonized and noncolonized patients, respectively. In the nosocomial setting, it was isolated from 18 (32%) sites in the hospital ward and from 4 (17%) sites in the outpatient clinic area. The most common sites of contamination were sink drains, faucets, and other items frequently in contact with water. All environmental and clinical isolates were genotyped with enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences as primers. A total of 33 of the 41 patients were colonized with unique strains, and four pairs of patients shared strains. Further characterization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after digestion with XbaI found that there was no evidence of patient-to-patient transmission; however, there was some evidence that a small number of patients may have acquired the organism from the hospital environment. Resampling of environmental sites in the hospital ward in January 1997 revealed evidence of genetic drift, complicating the accurate determination of environmental sources for clinical strains. The source of the majority of S. maltophilia strains colonizing the respiratory tracts of these patients with cystic fibrosis remained uncertain but may have represented multiple, independent acquisitions from a variety of environmental sites both within and outside the hospital. PMID:9650943

  8. Involvement of Mutation in ampD I, mrcA, and at Least One Additional Gene in ?-Lactamase Hyperproduction in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    PubMed Central

    Talfan, Asmaa; Mounsey, Oliver; Charman, Matthew; Townsend, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that targeted disruption of ampD I or mrcA causes ?-lactamase hyperproduction in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. We show here that ?-lactamase-hyperproducing laboratory selected mutants and clinical isolates can have wild-type ampD I and mrcA genes, implicating mutation of at least one additional gene in this phenotype. The involvement of mutations at multiple loci in the activation of ?-lactamase production in S. maltophilia reveals that there are significant deviations from the enterobacterial paradigm of AmpR-mediated control of ?-lactamase induction. We do show, however, that S. maltophilia ampD I can complement a mutation in Escherichia coli ampD. This suggests that an anhydromuropeptide degradation product of peptidoglycan is used to activate AmpR in S. maltophilia, as is also the case in enteric bacteria. PMID:23979761

  9. Degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1.

    PubMed Central

    Binks, P R; Nicklin, S; Bruce, N C

    1995-01-01

    A mixed microbial culture capable of metabolizing the explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was obtained from soil enrichments under aerobic and nitrogen-limiting conditions. A bacterium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1, isolated from the culture used RDX as a sole source of nitrogen for growth. Three moles of nitrogen was used per mole of RDX, yielding a metabolite identified by mass spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis as methylene-N-(hydroxymethyl)-hydroxylamine-N'-(hydroxymethyl)nitroamin e. The bacterium also used s-triazine as a sole source of nitrogen but not the structurally similar compounds octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, cyanuric acid, and melamine. An inducible RDX-degrading activity was present in crude cell extracts. PMID:7747953

  10. Prevalence of Smqnr and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia from Japan: novel variants of Smqnr.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, H; Yano, H; Tanouchi, A; Kakuta, R; Endo, S; Ichimura, S; Ogawa, M; Shimojima, M; Inomata, S; Ozawa, D; Aoyagi, T; Weber, D J; Kaku, M

    2015-09-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important pathogen in healthcare-associated infections. S. maltophilia may contain Smqnr, a quinolone resistance gene encoding the pentapeptide repeat protein, which confers low-level quinolone resistance upon expression in a heterologous host. We investigated the prevalence of Smqnr and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants in S. maltophilia isolates from Japan. A total of 181 consecutive and nonduplicate clinical isolates of S. maltophilia were collected from four areas of Japan. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for these strains were determined. PCR was conducted for Smqnr and PMQR genes, including qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib and qepA. PCR products for Smqnr and aac(6')-Ib were sequenced. For the S. maltophilia isolates containing Smqnr, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed using XbaI. Resistance rates to ceftazidime, levofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol and minocycline were 67.4%, 6.1%, 17.7%, 8.8% and 0%, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 50% and 90% of organisms were 0.5 and 2 mg/L for moxifloxacin but 1 and 4 mg/L for levofloxacin, respectively. Smqnr was detected in 104 of the 181 S. maltophilia isolates (57.5%), and the most frequent was Smqnr6, followed by Smqnr8 and Smqnr11. Eleven novel variants from Smqnr48 to Smqnr58 were detected. The 24 Smqnr-containing S. maltophilia isolates were typed by PFGE and divided into 21 unique types. Nine S. maltophilia isolates (5.0%) carried aac(6')-Ib-cr. No qnr or qepA genes were detected. This study describes a high prevalence of Smqnr and novel variants of Smqnr among S. maltophilia from Japan. Continuous antimicrobial surveillance and further molecular epidemiological studies on quinolone resistance in S. maltophilia are needed. PMID:26110061

  11. Prevalence of Smqnr and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia from Japan: novel variants of Smqnr

    PubMed Central

    Kanamori, H.; Yano, H.; Tanouchi, A.; Kakuta, R.; Endo, S.; Ichimura, S.; Ogawa, M.; Shimojima, M.; Inomata, S.; Ozawa, D.; Aoyagi, T.; Weber, D.J.; Kaku, M.

    2015-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important pathogen in healthcare-associated infections. S. maltophilia may contain Smqnr, a quinolone resistance gene encoding the pentapeptide repeat protein, which confers low-level quinolone resistance upon expression in a heterologous host. We investigated the prevalence of Smqnr and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants in S. maltophilia isolates from Japan. A total of 181 consecutive and nonduplicate clinical isolates of S. maltophilia were collected from four areas of Japan. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for these strains were determined. PCR was conducted for Smqnr and PMQR genes, including qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrS,aac(6?)-Ib and qepA. PCR products for Smqnr and aac(6?)-Ib were sequenced. For the S. maltophilia isolates containing Smqnr, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed using XbaI. Resistance rates to ceftazidime, levofloxacin, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol and minocycline were 67.4%, 6.1%, 17.7%, 8.8% and 0%, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 50% and 90% of organisms were 0.5 and 2 mg/L for moxifloxacin but 1 and 4 mg/L for levofloxacin, respectively. Smqnr was detected in 104 of the 181 S. maltophilia isolates (57.5%), and the most frequent was Smqnr6, followed by Smqnr8 and Smqnr11. Eleven novel variants from Smqnr48 to Smqnr58 were detected. The 24 Smqnr-containing S. maltophilia isolates were typed by PFGE and divided into 21 unique types. Nine S. maltophilia isolates (5.0%) carried aac(6?)-Ib-cr. No qnr or qepA genes were detected. This study describes a high prevalence of Smqnr and novel variants of Smqnr among S. maltophilia from Japan. Continuous antimicrobial surveillance and further molecular epidemiological studies on quinolone resistance in S. maltophilia are needed. PMID:26110061

  12. Synergistic Activities of Macrolide Antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans Isolated from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Saiman; Yunhua Chen; Pablo San Gabriel; Charles Knirsch

    2002-01-01

    Azithromycin and clarithromycin were paired with other antibiotics to test synergistic activity against 300 multidrug-resistant pathogens isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Clarithromycin-tobramycin was most active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and inhibited 58% of strains. Azithromycin-trimethoprim-sulfa- methoxazole, azithromycin-ceftazidime, and azithromycin-doxycycline or azithromycin-trimethoprim-sulfame- thoxazole inhibited 40, 20, and 22% of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cepacia complex, and Ach- romobacter (Alcaligenes) xylosoxidans strains, respectively.

  13. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia responds to exogenous AHL signals through the LuxR solo SmoR (Smlt1839)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Paula; Huedo, Pol; Martinez-Servat, Sònia; Planell, Raquel; Ferrer-Navarro, Mario; Daura, Xavier; Yero, Daniel; Gibert, Isidre

    2015-01-01

    Quorum Sensing (QS) mediated by Acyl Homoserine Lactone (AHL) molecules are probably the most widespread and studied among Gram-negative bacteria. Canonical AHL systems are composed by a synthase (LuxI family) and a regulator element (LuxR family), whose genes are usually adjacent in the genome. However, incomplete AHL-QS machinery lacking the synthase LuxI is frequently observed in Proteobacteria, and the regulator element is then referred as LuxR solo. It has been shown that certain LuxR solos participate in interspecific communication by detecting signals produced by different organisms. In the case of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, a preliminary genome sequence analysis revealed numerous putative luxR genes, none of them associated to a luxI gene. From these, the hypothetical LuxR solo Smlt1839, here designated SmoR, presents a conserved AHL binding domain and a helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif. Its genomic organization—adjacent to hchA gene—indicate that SmoR belongs to the new family “LuxR regulator chaperone HchA-associated.” AHL-binding assays revealed that SmoR binds to AHLs in-vitro, at least to oxo-C8-homoserine lactone, and it regulates operon transcription, likely by recognizing a conserved palindromic regulatory box in the hchA upstream region. Supplementation with concentrated supernatants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which contain significant amounts of AHLs, promoted swarming motility in S. maltophilia. Contrarily, no swarming stimulation was observed when the P. aeruginosa supernatant was treated with the lactonase AiiA from Bacillus subtilis, confirming that AHL contributes to enhance the swarming ability of S. maltophilia. Finally, mutation of smoR resulted in a swarming alteration and an apparent insensitivity to the exogenous AHLs provided by P. aeruginosa. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that S. maltophilia senses AHLs produced by neighboring bacteria through the LuxR solo SmoR, regulating population behaviors such as swarming motility. PMID:26029670

  14. Heavy Metal Tolerance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Delphine Pages1,2,3

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    tolerance to antibiotics by efflux mechanisms, S. maltophilia Sm777 has developed at least two different for its biological control of plant pathogens and was therefore utilized for the development weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [8], possessing therefore a potential for soil decontamination

  15. Degradation of abamectin by newly isolated Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ZJB-14120 and characterization of its abamectin-tolerance mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Shan; Zheng, Xing-Chang; Hu, Qi-Wei; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2015-06-01

    An abamectin (ABM)-degrading bacterium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ZJB-14120, was isolated and identified. This strain is capable of degrading 84.82% of ABM at an initial concentration of 200 mg/L over a 48 h incubation period. This strain showed efficient biodegradation ability (7.81 mg/L/h) to ABM and high tolerance (1000 mg/L) to all macrolides tested. In addition to ABM, emamectin, erythromycin and spiramycin can also be degraded by this strain. Modifications involving either reduction of the double bond between C22-C23 or replacement of the C25-group of ABM with a cyclohexyl group can completely inhibit biodegradation of ABM. The ABM-degrading capability of strain ZJB-14120 is likely to be intrinsic to its metabolism and could be inhibited by incubating with erythromycin, azithromycin, spiramycin or rifampicin. A new and successive degradation pathway was proposed based on metabolite analysis. Although there is evidence for metabolite inhibition, this strain has high ABM degradation activity and reusability. Further investigation showed that activated macrolide efflux pump(s) and an undetermined mechanism for regulating the intracellular ABM concentration are responsible for normal uptake of essential metabolites while pumping out excess harmful compounds. Strain ZJB-14120 may provide efficient treatment of water and soil contaminated by toxic levels of abamectin and emamectin. PMID:25957243

  16. Persistent Organic Pollutants Induced Protein Expression and Immunocrossreactivity by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PM102: A Prospective Bioremediating Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Piyali; Roy, Pranab

    2013-01-01

    A novel bacterium capable of growth on trichloroethylene as the sole carbon source was identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PM102 by 16S rDNA sequencing (accession number of NCBI GenBank: JQ797560). In this paper, we report the growth pattern, TCE degradation, and total proteome of this bacterium in presence of various other carbon sources: toluene, phenol, glucose, chloroform, and benzene. TCE degradation was comparatively enhanced in presence of benzene. Densitometric analysis of the intracellular protein profile revealed four proteins of 78.6, 35.14, 26.2, and 20.47?kDa while the extracellular protein profile revealed two distinct bands at 14?kDa and 11?kDa that were induced by TCE, benzene, toluene, and chloroform but absent in the glucose lane. A rabbit was immunised with the total protein extracted from the bacteria grown in 0.2% TCE + 0.2% peptone. Antibody preadsorbed on proteins from peptone grown PM102 cells reacted with a single protein of 35.14?kDa (analysed by MALDI-TOF-mass-spectrometry) from TCE, benzene, toluene, or chloroform grown cells. No reaction was seen for proteins of PM102 grown with glucose. The PM102 strain was immobilised in calcium alginate beads, and TCE degradation by immobilised cells was almost double of that by free cells. The beads could be reused 8 times. PMID:23878815

  17. Site Selective Binding of Zn(ll) ot Metallo-b-Lactamase L1 from Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia

    SciTech Connect

    Costello,A.; Periyannan, G.; Yang, K.; Crowder, M.; Tierney, D.

    2006-01-01

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies of the metallo-{beta}-lactamase L1 from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia containing 1 and 2 equiv of Zn(II) and containing 2 equiv of Zn(II) plus hydrolyzed nitrocefin are presented. The data indicate that the first, catalytically dominant metal ion is bound by L1 at the consensus Zn1 site. The data further suggest that binding of the first metal helps preorganize the ligands for binding of the second metal ion. The di-Zn enzyme displays a well-defined metal-metal interaction at 3.42 Angstroms. Reaction with the {beta}-lactam antibiotic nitrocefin results in a product-bound species, in which the ring-opened lactam rotates in the active site to present the S1 sulfur atom of nitrocefin to one of the metal ions for coordination. The product bridges the two metal ions, with a concomitant lengthening of the Zn-Zn interaction to 3.62 Angstroms.

  18. A Patient Presenting with Cholangitis due to Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Successfully Treated with Intrabiliary Colistine

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Pablo N.; Ramírez, María A.; Fernández, José A.; de Guevara, Laura Ladrón

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical barriers for antibiotic penetration can pose a particular challenge in the clinical setting. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SM) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) are two pathogens capable of developing multiple drug-resistance (MDR) mechanisms. We report the case of a 56-year-old female patient with a permanent percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), who was admitted to our hospital with a cholangitis due to a MDR Escherichia coli strain. Upon admission, culture-guided antimicrobial therapy was conducted and the biliary catheter was replaced, with poor clinical response. Subsequently, SM and PA were detected. Treatment with fosfomycin and colistine was initiated, again without adequate response. Systemic colistine and tigecycline along with an intrabiliary infusion of colistine for 5 days was then used, followed by parenteral fosfomycin and tigecycline for 7 days. The patient was then successfully discharged. This is the first case report we are aware of on the use of intrabiliary colistine. It describes a new approach to treating cholangitis by MDR bacteria in patients with a PTBD. PMID:25002957

  19. A Patient Presenting with Cholangitis due to Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Successfully Treated with Intrabiliary Colistine.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Pablo N; Ramírez, María A; Fernández, José A; de Guevara, Laura Ladrón

    2014-05-13

    Anatomical barriers for antibiotic penetration can pose a particular challenge in the clinical setting. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SM) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) are two pathogens capable of developing multiple drug-resistance (MDR) mechanisms. We report the case of a 56-year-old female patient with a permanent percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), who was admitted to our hospital with a cholangitis due to a MDR Escherichia coli strain. Upon admission, culture-guided antimicrobial therapy was conducted and the biliary catheter was replaced, with poor clinical response. Subsequently, SM and PA were detected. Treatment with fosfomycin and colistine was initiated, again without adequate response. Systemic colistine and tigecycline along with an intrabiliary infusion of colistine for 5 days was then used, followed by parenteral fosfomycin and tigecycline for 7 days. The patient was then successfully discharged. This is the first case report we are aware of on the use of intrabiliary colistine. It describes a new approach to treating cholangitis by MDR bacteria in patients with a PTBD. PMID:25002957

  20. Identification of a Novel 6?-N-Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase, AAC(6?)-Iak, from a Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Isolate of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Tatsuya; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Dahal, Rajan K.; Mishra, Shyam K.; Shimada, Kayo; Ohara, Hiroshi; Pokhrel, Bharat M.

    2014-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia IOMTU250 has a novel 6?-N-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase-encoding gene, aac(6?)-Iak. The encoded protein, AAC(6?)-Iak, consists of 153 amino acids and has 86.3% identity to AAC(6?)-Iz. Escherichia coli transformed with a plasmid containing aac(6?)-Iak exhibited decreased susceptibility to arbekacin, dibekacin, neomycin, netilmicin, sisomicin, and tobramycin. Thin-layer chromatography showed that AAC(6?)-Iak acetylated amikacin, arbekacin, dibekacin, isepamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, netilmicin, sisomicin, and tobramycin but not apramycin, gentamicin, or lividomycin. PMID:25092711

  1. Identification of a novel 6'-N-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase, AAC(6')-Iak, from a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Tada, Tatsuya; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Dahal, Rajan K; Mishra, Shyam K; Shimada, Kayo; Ohara, Hiroshi; Kirikae, Teruo; Pokhrel, Bharat M

    2014-10-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia IOMTU250 has a novel 6'-N-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase-encoding gene, aac(6')-Iak. The encoded protein, AAC(6')-Iak, consists of 153 amino acids and has 86.3% identity to AAC(6')-Iz. Escherichia coli transformed with a plasmid containing aac(6')-Iak exhibited decreased susceptibility to arbekacin, dibekacin, neomycin, netilmicin, sisomicin, and tobramycin. Thin-layer chromatography showed that AAC(6')-Iak acetylated amikacin, arbekacin, dibekacin, isepamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, netilmicin, sisomicin, and tobramycin but not apramycin, gentamicin, or lividomycin. PMID:25092711

  2. Antibacterial and cytotoxic efficacy of extracellular silver nanoparticles biofabricated from chromium reducing novel OS4 strain of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Oves, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Zaidi, Almas; Ahmed, Arham S; Ahmed, Faheem; Ahmad, Ejaz; Sherwani, Asif; Owais, Mohammad; Azam, Ameer

    2013-01-01

    Biofabricated metal nanoparticles are generally biocompatible, inexpensive, and ecofriendly, therefore, are used preferably in industries, medical and material science research. Considering the importance of biofabricated materials, we isolated, characterized and identified a novel bacterial strain OS4 of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (GenBank: JN247637.1). At neutral pH, this Gram negative bacterial strain significantly reduced hexavalent chromium, an important heavy metal contaminant found in the tannery effluents and minings. Subsequently, even at room temperature the supernatant of log phase grown culture of strain OS4 also reduced silver nitrate (AgNO3) to generate nanoparticles (AgNPs). These AgNPs were further characterized by UV-visible, Nanophox particle size analyzer, XRD, SEM and FTIR. As evident from the FTIR data, plausibly the protein components of supernatant caused the reduction of AgNO3. The cuboid and homogenous AgNPs showed a characteristic UV-visible peak at 428 nm with average size of ~93 nm. The XRD spectra exhibited the characteristic Bragg peaks of 111, 200, 220 and 311 facets of the face centred cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. From the nanoparticle release kinetics data, the rapid release of AgNPs was correlated with the particle size and increasing surface area of the nanoparticles. A highly significant antimicrobial activity against medically important bacteria by the biofabricated AgNPs was also revealed as decline in growth of Staphylococcus aureus (91%), Escherichia coli (69%) and Serratia marcescens (66%) substantially. Additionally, different cytotoxic assays showed no toxicity of AgNPs to liver function, RBCs, splenocytes and HeLa cells, hence these particles were safe to use. Therefore, this novel bacterial strain OS4 is likely to provide broad spectrum benefits for curing chromium polluted sites, for biofabrication of AgNPs and ultimately in the nanoparticle based drug formulation for the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:23555625

  3. Plasmid Location and Molecular Heterogeneity of the L1 and L2 ?-Lactamase Genes of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    PubMed Central

    Avison, Matthew B.; Higgins, Catherine S.; von Heldreich, Charlotte J.; Bennett, Peter M.; Walsh, Timothy R.

    2001-01-01

    An approximately 200-kb plasmid has been purified from clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. This plasmid was found in all of the 10 isolates examined and contains both the L1 and the L2 ?-lactamase genes. The location of L1 and L2 on a plasmid makes it more likely that they could spread to other gram-negative bacteria, potentially causing clinical problems. Sequence analysis of the 10 L1 genes revealed three novel genes, L1c, L1d, and L1e, with 8, 12, and 20% divergence from the published strain IID 1275 L1 (L1a), respectively. The most unusual L1 enzyme (L1e) displayed markedly different kinetic properties, with respect to hydrolysis of nitrocefin and imipenem, compared to those of L1a (250- and 100-fold lower kcat/Km ratios respectively). L1c and L1d, in contrast, displayed levels of hydrolysis very similar to that of L1a. Several nonconservative amino acid differences with respect to L1a, L1b, L1c, and L1d were observed in the substrate binding-catalytic regions of L1e, and this could explain the kinetic differences. Three novel L2 genes (L2b, L2c, and L2d) were sequenced from the same isolates, and their sequences diverge from the published sequence of strain IID 1275 L2 (L2a) by 4, 9, and 25%, respectively. Differences in L1 and L2 gene sequences were not accompanied by similar divergences in 16S rRNA gene sequences, for which differences of <1% were found. It is therefore apparent that the L1 and L2 genes have evolved relatively quickly, perhaps because of their presence on a plasmid. PMID:11158734

  4. The SmeYZ Efflux Pump of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Contributes to Drug Resistance, Virulence-Related Characteristics, and Virulence in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Tsung; Huang, Yi-Wei; Chen, Shiang-Jiuun; Chang, Chia-Wei; Yang, Tsuey-Ching

    2015-07-01

    The resistance-nodulation-division (RND)-type efflux pump is one of the causes of the multidrug resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The roles of the RND-type efflux pump in physiological functions and virulence, in addition to antibiotic extrusion, have attracted much attention. In this study, the contributions of the constitutively expressed SmeYZ efflux pump to drug resistance, virulence-related characteristics, and virulence were evaluated. S. maltophilia KJ is a clinical isolate of multidrug resistance. The smeYZ isogenic deletion mutant, KJ?YZ, was constructed by a gene replacement strategy. The antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence-related physiological characteristics, susceptibility to human serum and neutrophils, and in vivo virulence between KJ and KJ?YZ were comparatively assessed. The SmeYZ efflux pump contributed resistance to aminoglycosides and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Inactivation of smeYZ resulted in attenuation of oxidative stress susceptibility, swimming, flagella formation, biofilm formation, and secreted protease activity. Furthermore, loss of SmeYZ increased susceptibility to human serum and neutrophils and decreased in vivo virulence in a murine model. These findings suggest the possibility of attenuation of the resistance and virulence of S. maltophilia with inhibitors of the SmeYZ efflux pump. PMID:25918140

  5. Abundance of the Quorum-Sensing Factor Ax21 in Four Strains of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Correlates with Mortality Rate in a New Zebrafish Model of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yero, Daniel; Mongiardini, Elías; Torrent, Gerard; Huedo, Pol; Martínez, Paula; Roher, Nerea; Mackenzie, Simon; Gibert, Isidre; Daura, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative pathogen with emerging nosocomial incidence. Little is known about its pathogenesis and the genomic diversity exhibited by clinical isolates complicates the study of pathogenicity and virulence factors. Here, we present a strategy to identify such factors in new clinical isolates of S. maltophilia, incorporating an adult-zebrafish model of S. maltophilia infection to evaluate relative virulence coupled to 2D difference gel electrophoresis to explore underlying differences in protein expression. In this study we report upon three recent clinical isolates and use the collection strain ATCC13637 as a reference. The adult-zebrafish model shows discrimination capacity, i.e. from very low to very high mortality rates, with clinical symptoms very similar to those observed in natural S. maltophilia infections in fish. Strain virulence correlates with resistance to human serum, in agreement with previous studies in mouse and rat and therefore supporting zebrafish as a replacement model. Despite its clinical origin, the collection strain ATCC13637 showed obvious signs of attenuation in zebrafish, with null mortality. Multilocus-sequence-typing analysis revealed that the most virulent strains, UV74 and M30, exhibit the strongest genetic similitude. Differential proteomic analysis led to the identification of 38 proteins with significantly different abundance in the three clinical strains relative to the reference strain. Orthologs of several of these proteins have been already reported to have a role in pathogenesis, virulence or resistance mechanisms thus supporting our strategy. Proof of concept is further provided by protein Ax21, whose abundance is shown here to be directly proportional to mortality in the zebrafish infection model. Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated that this protein is a quorum-sensing-related virulence factor. PMID:23840626

  6. In vitro efficacy of copper and silver ions in eradicating Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Acinetobacter baumannii: implications for on-site disinfection for hospital infection control.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsin-I; Shih, Hsiu-Yun; Lee, Chien-Ming; Yang, Thomas C; Lay, Jiunn-Jyi; Lin, Yusen E

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Acinetobacter baumannii are major opportunistic waterborne pathogens causing hospital-acquired infections. Copper-silver ionization has been shown to be effective in controlling Legionella colonization in hospital water systems. The objective was to determine the efficacy of copper and silver ions alone and in combination in eradicating P. aeruginosa, S. maltophilia and A. baumannii at the concentration applied to Legionella control. Kill curve experiments and mathematical modeling were conducted at copper and silver ion concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08 mg/L, respectively. The combinations of copper and silver ions were tested at concentrations of 0.2/0.02 and 0.4/0.04 mg/L, respectively. Initial organism concentration was ca. of 3 x 10(6)cfu/mL, and viability of the test organisms was assessed at predetermined time intervals. Samples (0.1 mL) withdrawn were mixed with 10 microL neutralizer solution immediately, serially diluted and plated in duplicate onto blood agar plates. The culture plates were incubated for 48 h at 37 degrees C and enumerated for the cfu (detection limit 10 cfu/mL). The results showed all copper ion concentrations tested (0.1-0.8 mg/L) achieved more than 99.999% reduction of P. aeruginosa which appears to be more susceptible to copper ions than S. maltophilia and A. baumannii. Silver ions concentration of 0.08 mg/L achieved more than 99.999% reduction of P. aeruginosa, S. maltophilia and A. baumannii in 6, 12 and 96 h, respectively. Combination of copper and silver ions exhibited a synergistic effect against P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii while the combination exhibited an antagonistic effect against S. maltophilia. Ionization may have a potential to eradicate P. aeruginosa, S. maltophilia and A. baumannii from hospital water systems. PMID:17655912

  7. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia D457R Contains a Cluster of Genes from Gram-Positive Bacteria Involved in Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Ana; Sanchez, Patricia; Martínez, José L.

    2000-01-01

    A cluster of genes involved in antibiotic and heavy metal resistance has been characterized from a clinical isolate of the gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. These genes include a macrolide phosphotransferase (mphBM) and a cadmium efflux determinant (cadA), together with the gene cadC coding for its transcriptional regulator. The cadC cadA region is flanked by a truncated IS257 sequence and a region coding for a bin3 invertase. Despite their presence in a gram-negative bacterium, these genetic elements share a common gram-positive origin. The possible origin of these determinants as a remnant composite transposon as well as the role of gene transfer between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria for the acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants in chronic, mixed infections is discussed. PMID:10858330

  8. Topoisomerase II and IV Quinolone Resistance-Determining Regions in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Clinical Isolates with Different Levels of Quinolone Susceptibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Valdezate; Ana Vindel; Aurora Echeita; Fernando Baquero; R. Canto

    2002-01-01

    The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of topoisomerase II and IV genes from Stenotropho- monas maltophilia ATCC 13637 were sequenced and compared with the corresponding regions of 32 unrelated S. maltophilia clinical strains for which ciprofloxacin MICs ranged from 0.1 to 64 g\\/ml. GyrA (Leu-55 to Gln-155, Escherichia coli numbering), GyrB (Met-391 to Phe-513), ParC (Ile-34 to Arg-124), and ParE (Leu-396

  9. Potential novel therapeutic strategies in cystic fibrosis: antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity of natural and designed ?-helical peptides against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment of cystic fibrosis-associated lung infections is hampered by the presence of multi-drug resistant pathogens, many of which are also strong biofilm producers. Antimicrobial peptides, essential components of innate immunity in humans and animals, exhibit relevant in vitro antimicrobial activity although they tend not to select for resistant strains. Results Three ?-helical antimicrobial peptides, BMAP-27 and BMAP-28 of bovine origin, and the artificial P19(9/B) peptide were tested, comparatively to Tobramycin, for their in vitro antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity against 15 Staphylococcus aureus, 25 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 27 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains from cystic fibrosis patients. All assays were carried out in physical-chemical experimental conditions simulating a cystic fibrosis lung. All peptides showed a potent and rapid bactericidal activity against most P. aeruginosa, S. maltophilia and S. aureus strains tested, at levels generally higher than those exhibited by Tobramycin and significantly reduced biofilm formation of all the bacterial species tested, although less effectively than Tobramycin did. On the contrary, the viability-reducing activity of antimicrobial peptides against preformed P. aeruginosa biofilms was comparable to and, in some cases, higher than that showed by Tobramycin. Conclusions The activity shown by ?-helical peptides against planktonic and biofilm cells makes them promising “lead compounds” for future development of novel drugs for therapeutic treatment of cystic fibrosis lung disease. PMID:22823964

  10. Copper Enhanced Monooxygenase Activity and FT-IR Spectroscopic Characterisation of Biotransformation Products in Trichloroethylene Degrading Bacterium: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PM102

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Piyali; Roy, Pranab

    2013-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PM102 (NCBI GenBank Acc. no. JQ797560) is capable of growth on trichloroethylene as the sole carbon source. In this paper, we report the purification and characterisation of oxygenase present in the PM102 isolate. Enzyme activity was found to be induced 10.3-fold in presence of 0.7?mM copper with a further increment to 14.96-fold in presence of 0.05?mM NADH. Optimum temperature for oxygenase activity was recorded at 36°C. The reported enzyme was found to have enhanced activity at pH 5 and pH 8, indicating presence of two isoforms. Maximum activity was seen on incubation with benzene compared to other substrates like TCE, chloroform, toluene, hexane, and petroleum benzene. Km and Vmax for benzene were 3.8?mM and 340?U/mg/min and those for TCE were 2.1?mM and 170?U/mg/min. The crude enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by dialysis. Zymogram analysis revealed two isoforms in the 70% purified enzyme fraction. The activity stain was more prominent when the native gel was incubated in benzene as substrate in comparison to TCE. Crude enzyme and purified enzyme fractions were assayed for TCE degradation by the Fujiwara test. TCE biotransformation products were analysed by FT-IR spectroscopy. PMID:24083236

  11. Regulation by SoxR of mfsA, Which Encodes a Major Facilitator Protein Involved in Paraquat Resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    PubMed Central

    Srijaruskul, Kriangsuk; Charoenlap, Nisanart; Namchaiw, Poommaree; Chattrakarn, Sorayut; Giengkam, Suparat; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon

    2015-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia MfsA (Smlt1083) is an efflux pump in the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). Deletion of mfsA renders the strain more susceptible to paraquat, but no alteration in the susceptibility levels of other oxidants is observed. The expression of mfsA is inducible upon challenge with redox cycling/superoxide-generating drug (paraquat, menadione and plumbagin) treatments and is directly regulated by SoxR, which is a transcription regulator and sensor of superoxide-generating agents. Analysis of mfsA expression patterns in wild-type and a soxR mutant suggests that oxidized SoxR functions as a transcription activator of the gene. soxR (smlt1084) is located in a head-to-head fashion with mfsA, and these genes share the -10 motif of their promoter sequences. Purified SoxR specifically binds to the putative mfsA promoter motifs that contain a region that is highly homologous to the consensus SoxR binding site, and mutation of the SoxR binding site abolishes binding of purified SoxR protein. The SoxR box is located between the putative -35 and -10 promoter motifs of mfsA; and this position is typical for a promoter in which SoxR acts as a transcriptional activator. At the soxR promoter, the SoxR binding site covers the transcription start site of the soxR transcript; thus, binding of SoxR auto-represses its own transcription. Taken together, our results reveal for the first time that mfsA is a novel member of the SoxR regulon and that SoxR binds and directly regulates its expression. PMID:25915643

  12. Symbiotic Plant–Microbe Interactions: Stress Protection, Plant Growth Promotion, and Biocontrol by Stenotrophomonas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriele Berg; Dilfuza Egamberdieva; Ben Lugtenberg; Martin Hagemann

    \\u000a The genus Stenotrophomonas is[COMP16] phylogenetically placed[COMP17] in the ?-subclass of Proteobacteria (Moore et al., 1997). The genus was first described with the type species Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Palleroni and Bradbury, 1993), previously called Pseudomonas maltophilia (Hugh and Ryschenko, 1961) and later changed to Xanthomonas maltophilia (Swings et al., 1983). Actually, the genus comprises eight validly described species: S. maltophilia, S. nitritireducens

  13. Decolorization of an industrial effluent by free and immobilized cells of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia AAP56 . Implementation of efficient down flow column reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Said Galai; Ferid Limam; M. Nejib Marzouki

    2010-01-01

    A bacterial strain AAP56, isolated from a polluted soil (from Kelibia city) and identified as Stentrophomonas maltophilia, was particularly interesting for its ability to decolorize recalcitrant dyes of an industrial effluent: SITEX Black. The\\u000a final percentage decolorization 60% was shown by bacterial culture after incubation in LB medium at 30°C under shaking conditions.\\u000a The decolorization was closely correlated with the

  14. Structure of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia FeoA complexed with zinc: a unique prokaryotic SH3-­domain protein that possibly acts as a bacterial ferrous iron-transport activating factor

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yi-Che; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Hung, Hui-Chih; Shen, Gwan-Han; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Iron is vital to the majority of prokaryotes, with ferrous iron believed to be the preferred form for iron uptake owing to its much better solubility. The major route for bacterial ferrous iron uptake is found to be via an Feo (ferrous iron-transport) system comprising the three proteins FeoA, FeoB and FeoC. Although the structure and function of FeoB have received much attention recently, the roles played by FeoA and FeoC have been little investigated to date. Here, the tertiary structure of FeoA from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Sm), a vital opportunistic pathogen in immunodepressed hosts, is reported. The crystal structure of SmFeoA has been determined to a resolution of 1.7?Å using an Se single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (Se-SAD) approach. Although SmFeoA bears low sequence identity to eukaryotic proteins, its structure is found to adopt a eukaryotic SH3-domain-like fold. It also bears weak similarity to the C-terminal SH3 domain of bacterial DtxR (diphtheria toxin regulator), with some unique characteristics. Intriguingly, SmFeoA is found to adopt a unique dimer cross-linked by two zinc ions and six anions (chloride ions). Since FeoB has been found to contain a G-protein-like domain with low GTPase activity, FeoA may interact with FeoB through the SH3–G-protein domain interaction to act as a ferrous iron-transport activating factor. PMID:20516589

  15. Stenotrophomonas, Mycobacterium, and Streptomyces in home dust and air: associations with moldiness and other home/family characteristics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Aims: (1) To investigate the dustborne and airborne bacterial concentrations of three emerging moisture-related bacteria: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces, and Mycobacterium. (2) To study the association between these bacteria concentrations and Environmenta...

  16. The versatility and adaptation of bacteria from the genus Stenotrophomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.P.; van der Lelie, D.; Monchy, S.; Cardinale, M.; Taghavi, S.; Crossman, L.; Avison, M. B.; Berg, G.; Dow, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The genus Stenotrophomonas comprises at least eight species. These bacteria are found throughout the environment, particularly in close association with plants. Strains of the most predominant species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, have an extraordinary range of activities that include beneficial effects for plant growth and health, the breakdown of natural and man-made pollutants that are central to bioremediation and phytoremediation strategies and the production of biomolecules of economic value, as well as detrimental effects, such as multidrug resistance, in human pathogenic strains. Here, we discuss the versatility of the bacteria in the genus Stenotrophomonas and the insight that comparative genomic analysis of clinical and endophytic isolates of S. maltophilia has brought to our understanding of the adaptation of this genus to various niches.

  17. Stenotrophomonas panacihumi sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hoonbok; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Myung Kyum

    2010-02-01

    The study isolated a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium from the soil of a ginseng field in Daejeon, South Korea and characterized it to determine its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, revealed that strain MK06(T) belongs to the family Xanthomonadacea, and showed the highest degree of sequence similarity to Stenotrophomonas rhizophila e-p10(T) (98.6%), Xanthomonas campestris LMG 568T (98.0%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 1d3637(T) (97.3%), and Stenotrophomonas humi R-32729(T) (96.9%). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain MK06(T) possesses ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant respiratory lipoquinone, which is common in the genus Stenotrophomonas, and that the predominant fatty acids were 15:0 iso (41.1%), 15:0 anteiso (12.6%), and 17:1 iso omega9c (8.6%). The results of physiological and biochemical tests clearly demonstrated that strain MK06(T) represents a distinct species and supported its affiliation with the genus Stenotrophomonas. Based on these data, MK06(T) (KCTC, 22893(T); JCM, 16536(T); KEMB, 9004-002(T)) should be classified as the type strain for a novel species, for which we propose the name Stenotrophomonas panacihumi sp. nov. PMID:20221726

  18. De-novo synthesis of 2-phenylethanol by Enterobacter sp. CGMCC 5087

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background 2-phenylethanl (2-PE) and its derivatives are important chemicals, which are widely used in food materials and fine chemical industries and polymers and it’s also a potentially valuable alcohol for next-generation biofuel. However, the biosynthesis of 2-PE are mainly biotransformed from phenylalanine, the price of which barred the production. Therefore, it is necessary to seek more sustainable technologies for 2-PE production. Results A new strain which produces 2-PE through the phenylpyruvate pathway was isolated and identified as Enterobacter sp. CGMCC 5087. The strain is able to use renewable monosaccharide as the carbon source and NH4Cl as the nitrogen source to produce 2-PE. Two genes of rate-limiting enzymes, chorismate mutase p-prephenate dehydratase (PheA) and 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonic acid 7-phosphate synthase (DAHP), were cloned from Escherichia coli and overexpressed in E. sp. CGMCC 5087. The engineered E. sp. CGMCC 5087 produces 334.9 mg L-1 2-PE in 12 h, which is 3.26 times as high as the wild strain. Conclusions The phenylpyruvate pathway and the substrate specificity of 2-keto-acid decarboxylase towards phenylpyruvate were found in E. sp. CGMCC 5087. Combined with the low-cost monosaccharide as the substrate, the finding provides a novel and potential way for 2-PE production. PMID:24766677

  19. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SeITE02, a New Bacterial Strain Suitable for Bioremediation of Selenite-Contaminated Environmental Matrices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Antonioli; Silvia Lampis; Irene Chesini; Giovanni Vallini; Sara Rinalducci; Lello Zolla; Pier Giorgio Righetti

    2007-01-01

    strongly interferes with selenite removal when the two oxyanions (NO2 and SeO3 2 ) are simultaneously present, suggesting that the two reduction\\/detoxification pathways share a common enzymatic step, probably at the level of cellular transport; (iii) in vitro, selenite reduction does not take place in the membrane or periplasmic fractions but only in the cytoplasm, where maximum activity is exhibited

  20. Catalytic performance of a highly enantioselective ( R)-ester hydrolase from a new isolate Acinetobacter sp. CGMCC 0789

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing-Hua Qian; Jian-He Xu

    2004-01-01

    A highly enantioselective (R)-ester hydrolase was partially purified from a newly isolated bacterium, Acinetobacter sp. CGMCC 0789, whose resting cells exhibited a highly enantioselective activity toward the acetate of (4R)-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-(2-propynyl)- cyclopent-2-enone (R-HMPC). The optimum pH and temperature of the partially purified enzyme were 8.0 and 60°C, respectively. The enantioselectivity of the crude enzyme was increased by 1.2-fold from 16 to

  1. Purification and characterisation of a bifunctional alginate lyase from novel Isoptericola halotolerans CGMCC 5336.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wenfang; Wei, Dan; Li, Hui; Li, Heng; Rahman, Muhammad Masfiqur; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-11-01

    A novel halophilic alginate-degrading microorganism was isolated from rotten seaweed and identified as Isoptericola halotolerans CGMCC5336. The lyase from the strain was purified to homogeneity by combining of ammonium sulfate fractionation and anion-exchange chromatography with a specific activity of 8409.19 U/ml and a recovery of 25.07%. This enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of approximately 28 kDa. The optimal temperature and pH were 50 °C and pH 7.0, respectively. The lyase maintained stability at neutral pH (7.0-8.0) and temperatures below 50 °C. Metal ions including Na(+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), and Ca(2+) notably increased the activity of the enzyme. With sodium alginate as the substrate, the Km and Vmax were 0.26 mg/ml and 1.31 mg/ml min, respectively. The alginate lyase had substrate specificity for polyguluronate and polymannuronate units in alginate molecules, indicating its bifunctionality. These excellent characteristics demonstrated the potential applications in alginate oligosaccharides production with low polymerisation degrees. PMID:24053829

  2. Production of valienamine by a newly isolated strain: Stenotrophomonas maltrophilia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Guo Zheng; Ya-Ping Xue; Yin-Chu Shen

    2006-01-01

    Valienamine, an aminocyclitol, is an important medicinal intermediate with broad use in the synthesis of some stronger ?-glucosidase inhibitors. The bacterial strain Stenotrophomonas maltrophilia CCTCC M 204024 was recently isolated in our laboratory for production of valienamine from validamycin A. In this study, conditions were varied to investigate valienamine production using this strain. We found the optimized conditions included (1)

  3. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Marina; Darimont, Christian; Drapeau, Vicky; Emady-Azar, Shahram; Lepage, Melissa; Rezzonico, Enea; Ngom-Bru, Catherine; Berger, Bernard; Philippe, Lionel; Ammon-Zuffrey, Corinne; Leone, Patricia; Chevrier, Genevieve; St-Amand, Emmanuelle; Marette, André; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo

    2014-04-28

    The present study investigated the impact of a Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 (LPR) supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women over 24 weeks. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial, each subject consumed two capsules per d of either a placebo or a LPR formulation (1.6 × 10(8) colony-forming units of LPR/capsule with oligofructose and inulin). Each group was submitted to moderate energy restriction for the first 12 weeks followed by 12 weeks of weight maintenance. Body weight and composition were measured at baseline, at week 12 and at week 24. The intention-to-treat analysis showed that after the first 12 weeks and after 24 weeks, mean weight loss was not significantly different between the LPR and placebo groups when all the subjects were considered. However, a significant treatment × sex interaction was observed. The mean weight loss in women in the LPR group was significantly higher than that in women in the placebo group (P = 0.02) after the first 12 weeks, whereas it was similar in men in the two groups (P= 0.53). Women in the LPR group continued to lose body weight and fat mass during the weight-maintenance period, whereas opposite changes were observed in the placebo group. Changes in body weight and fat mass during the weight-maintenance period were similar in men in both the groups. LPR-induced weight loss in women was associated not only with significant reductions in fat mass and circulating leptin concentrations but also with the relative abundance of bacteria of the Lachnospiraceae family in faeces. The present study shows that the Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 formulation helps obese women to achieve sustainable weight loss. PMID:24299712

  4. Degradation Potential of Protocatechuate 3,4-Dioxygenase from Crude Extract of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain KB2 Immobilized in Calcium Alginate Hydrogels and on Glyoxyl Agarose

    PubMed Central

    Krysiak, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Microbial intradiol dioxygenases have been shown to have a great potential for bioremediation; however, their structure is sensitive to various environmental and chemical agents. Immobilization techniques allow for the improvement of enzyme properties. This is the first report on use of glyoxyl agarose and calcium alginate as matrixes for the immobilization of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase. Multipoint attachment of the enzyme to the carrier caused maintenance of its initial activity during the 21 days. Immobilization of dioxygenase in calcium alginate or on glyoxyl agarose resulted in decrease in the optimum temperature by 5°C and 10°C, respectively. Entrapment of the enzyme in alginate gel shifted its optimum pH towards high-alkaline pH while immobilization of the enzyme on glyoxyl agarose did not influence pH profile of the enzyme. Protocatechuate 3,4-dioygenase immobilized in calcium alginate showed increased activity towards 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate, caffeic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate. Slightly lower activity of the enzyme was observed after its immobilization on glyoxyl agarose. Entrapment of the enzyme in alginate gel protected it against chelators and aliphatic alcohols while its immobilization on glyoxyl agarose enhanced enzyme resistance to inactivation by metal ions. PMID:24693536

  5. A novel phytase appA from Citrobacter amalonaticus CGMCC 1696: gene cloning and overexpression in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huiying; Huang, Huoqing; Yang, Peilong; Wang, Yaru; Yuan, Tiezheng; Wu, Ningfeng; Yao, Bin; Fan, Yunliu

    2007-09-01

    A novel phytase gene appA, with upstream and downstream sequences from Citrobacter amalonaticus CGMCC 1696, was cloned by degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL) PCR and was overexpressed in Pichia pastoris. Sequence analysis revealed one open reading frame that consisted of 1311 bp encoding a 436-amino-acid protein, which had a deduced molecular mass of 46.3 kDa. The phytase appA belongs to the histidine acid phosphatase family and exhibits the highest identity (70.1%) with C. braakii phytase. The gene was overexpressed in P. pastoris. The secretion yield of recombinant appA protein was accumulated to approximately 4.2 mg.mL(-1), and the enzyme activity level reached 15,000 U x mL(-1), which is higher than any previous reports. r-appA was glycosylated, as shown by Endo H treatment. r-appA was purified and characterized. The specific activity of r-appA for sodium phytate was 3548 U.mg(-1). The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were 4.5 and 55 degrees C, respectively. r-appA was highly resistant to pepsin or trypsin treatment. This enzyme could be an economic and efficient alternative to the phytases currently used in the feed industry. PMID:17657539

  6. A novel beta-propeller phytase from Pedobacter nyackensis MJ11 CGMCC 2503 with potential as an aquatic feed additive.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huoqing; Shao, Na; Wang, Yaru; Luo, Huiying; Yang, Peilong; Zhou, Zhigang; Zhan, Zhichun; Yao, Bin

    2009-05-01

    A phytase with high activity at neutral pH and typical water temperatures ( approximately 25 degrees C) could effectively hydrolyze phytate in aquaculture. In this study, a phytase-producing strain, Pedobacter nyackensis MJ11 CGMCC 2503, was isolated from glacier soil, and the relevant gene, PhyP, was cloned using degenerate PCR and thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report of detection of phytase activity and cloning of phytase gene from Pedobacter. PhyP belongs to beta-propeller phytase family and shares very low identity ( approximately 28.5%) with Bacillus subtilis phytase. The purified recombinant enzyme (r-PhyP) from Escherichia coli displayed high specific activity for sodium phytate of 24.4 U mg(-1). The optimum pH was 7.0, and the optimum temperature was 45 degrees C. The K (m), V (max), and k (cat) values were 1.28 mM, 71.9 micromol min(-1) mg(-1), and 45.1 s(-1), respectively. Compared with Bacillus phytases, r-PhyP had higher relative activity at 25 degrees C (r-PhyP (>50%), B. subtilis phytase (<8%)) and hydrolyzed phytate from soybean with greater efficacy at neutral pH. These characteristics suggest that r-PhyP might be a good candidate for an aquatic feed additive in the aquaculture industry. PMID:19139877

  7. Rhamsan gum production by Sphingomonas sp. CGMCC 6833 using a two-stage agitation speed control strategy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao Ying; Zhu, Ping; Li, Sha; Chen, Xiao Ye; Jiang, Xing Huan; Xu, Hong

    2013-12-19

    Varying the agitation speed could greatly affect rhamsan gum production by Sphingomonas sp. CGMCC 6833. Batch fermentations at agitation speeds of 400, 600, 800, and 1,000 rpm were therefore carried out. The time course of specific cell growth rate, specific glucose consumption rate, and specific rhamsan gum formation rate was subsequently determined. Based on the results, a novel two-stage agitation speed control strategy was developed. From 0 to 13 H, the high specific cell growth and glucose consumption rates were achieved by setting the agitation speed of the fermenter at 800 rpm. From 13 H onward to the end of fermentation, the glucose consumption rate and specific cell growth rate were high at the agitation speed of 600 rpm. Using this method, the maximum concentration and productivity of rhamsan gum reached 21.63 ± 1.76 g L(-1) and 0.338 ± 0.028 g L(-1)  H(-1) , respectively, which were both higher than the optimum results obtained at constant agitation speeds. PMID:24354661

  8. C-S targeted biodegradation of dibenzothiophene by Stenotrophomonas sp. NISOC-04.

    PubMed

    Papizadeh, Moslem; Ardakani, Mohammad Roayaei; Motamedi, Hossein; Rasouli, Iraj; Zarei, Mohammad

    2011-10-01

    Crude oil-contaminated soil samples were gathered across Khuzestan oilfields (National Iranian South Oil Company, NISOC) consequently experienced a screening procedure for isolating C-S targeted dibenzothiophene-biodegrading microorganisms with previously optimized techniques. Among the isolates, a bacterial strain was selected due to its capability of biodegrading dibenzothiophene in a C-S targeted manner in aqueous phases and medium mostly consisting of separately biphasic water-gasoline. The 16S rDNA of the isolate was amplified using eubacterial-specific primers and then sequenced. Based on sequence data analysis, the microorganism, designated NISOC-04, clustered most closely with the members of the genus Stenotrophomonas. Gas chromatography indicated that Stenotrophomonas sp. NISOC-04 utilizes 82% of starting 0.8 mM dibenzothiophene within a 48-h-long exponential growth phase. Growth curve analysis revealed the inability of Stenotrophomonas sp. NISOC-04 to utilize dibenzothiophene (DBT) as the exclusive carbon or carbon/sulfur source. Gibbs' assay showed no 2-hydroxy biphenyl accumulation, but HPLC confirmed the presence of 2-hydroxy biphenyl as the final product of DBT desulfurization. Under sulfur starvation, Stenotrophomonas sp. NISOC-04 produced a huge biomass with untraceable sulfur and utilized atmospheric insignificant sulfur levels. PMID:21750993

  9. Enhanced production of valienamine by Stenotrophomonas maltrophilia with fed-batch culture in a stirred tank bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya-Ping Xue; Yu-Guo Zheng; Yin-Chu Shen

    2007-01-01

    Valienamine is an important medicinal intermediate with broad use in the synthesis of some stronger ?-glucosidase inhibitors. In order to improve valienamine concentration in the fermentation broth and make the downstream treatment easy, a fed-batch process for the enhanced production of valienamine by Stenotrophomonas maltrophilia in a stirred tank bioreactor was developed. Results showed that supplementation of validamycin A in

  10. Degradative potential of Stenotrophomonas strain HPC383 having genes homologous to dmp operon.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vinita; Raju, Sajan C; Kapley, Atya; Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Kanade, Gajanan S; Daginawala, Hatim F; Purohit, Hemant J

    2011-02-01

    A strain, Stenotrophomonas HPC383 is isolated from effluent treatment plant treating wastewater from pesticide industry; degrades various aromatic compounds (cresols, phenol, catechol, 4methyl-catechol and hydroquinone) and crude oil, as determined through HPLC and GC analysis. Culture HPC383 could degrade (%) various compounds (1 mM) from a mixture: phenol - 99, p-cresol - 100, 4-methylcatechol - 96 and hydroquinone - 43 within 48 h of incubation, whereas it took 7 days to degrade 94% of 0.5% crude oil. Gene locus dmpN, to identify phenol degrading capacity was determined by PCR followed by southern analysis. The sequenced DNA fragment exhibited 99% sequence similarity to phenol hydroxylase gene from Arthrobacter sp. W1 (FJ610336). Amino acid sequence analysis of phenol hydroxylase reveals it to belong to high-Ks (affinity constant) group. Application of HPC383 in bioremediation of aquatic and terrestrial sites contaminated with petrochemical has been suggested. PMID:21123060

  11. Characterization of three antifungal calcite-forming bacteria, Arthrobacter nicotianae KNUC2100, Bacillus thuringiensis KNUC2103, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KNUC2106, derived from the Korean islands, Dokdo and their application on mortar.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Myong; Park, Sung-Jin; Ghim, Sa-Youl

    2013-09-28

    Crack remediation on the surface of cement mortar using microbiological calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation (MICP) has been investigated as a microbial sealing agent on construction materials. However, MICP research has never acknowledged the antifungal properties of calcite-forming bacteria (CFB). Since fungal colonization on concrete surfaces can trigger biodeterioration processes, fungi on concrete buildings have to be prevented. Therefore, to develop a microbial sealing agent that has antifungal properties to remediate cement cracks without deteriorative fungal colonization, we introduced an antifungal CFB isolated from oceanic islands (Dokdo islands, territory of South Korea, located at the edge of the East Sea in Korea.). The isolation of CFB was done using B4 or urea-CaCl2 media. Furthermore, antifungal assays were done using the pairing culture and disk diffusion methods. Five isolated CFB showed CaCO3 precipitation and antifungal activities against deteriorative fungal strains. Subsequently, five candidate bacteria were identified using 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Crack remediation, fungi growth inhibition, and water permeability reduction of antifungal CFB-treated cement surfaces were tested. All antifungal CFB showed crack remediation abilities, but only three strains (KNUC2100, 2103, and 2106) reduced the water permeability. Furthermore, these three strains showed fungi growth inhibition. This paper is the first application research of CFB that have antifungal activity, for an eco-friendly improvement of construction materials. PMID:23727794

  12. Study on optimal production of 3-ketovalidoxylamine A CN lyase and glucoside 3-dehydrogenase by a newly isolated Stenotrophomonas maltrophilia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Fen Zhang; Yu-Guo Zheng; Yin-Chu Shen

    2009-01-01

    3-Ketovalidoxylamine A C-N lyase and glucoside 3-dehydrogenase (G3DH), two key enzymes for valienamine synthesis, are produced by Stenotrophomonas maltrophilia. The condition of producing 3- ketovalidoxylamine A C-N lyase and G3DH was optimized. Validamycin A was showed to be suitable carbon source for C-N lyase and G3DH synthesis. Maximum C-N lyase production was achieved by adding 100 ml culture medium into

  13. Purification and characterization of the glucoside 3-dehydrogenase produced by a newly isolated Stenotrophomonas maltrophilia CCTCC M 204024

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Fen Zhang; Yu-Guo Zheng; Ya-Ping Xue; Yin-Chu Shen

    2006-01-01

    A soluble glucoside 3-dehydrogenase (G3DH) from Stenotrophomonas maltrophilia CCTCC M 204024, recently isolated from wheat soil in our laboratory, was purified to 37.4-fold with a yield of 24.7% and was estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a molecular mass of 66 kDa. 2,6-Dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) and ferricyanide were able to act as artificial electron acceptors for the enzyme. The optimal

  14. Biodegradation of toluene and xylenes under microaerophilic and denitrifying conditions by Pseudomonas maltophilia

    SciTech Connect

    Su, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Aerobic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons has been well studied. Under aerobic conditions, aerobes or facultative anaerobes can utilize aromatic hydrocarbons as sole carbon and energy sources by using oxygen as the cosubstrate of oxygenase enzymes for the initial attack of the aromatic ring and as the terminal electron acceptor for aerobic respiration. However, some facultative or obligate anaerobes can degrade these hydrocarbons by using alternate electron acceptors, such as nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, or iron for anaerobic respiration. Among the potential alternate electron acceptors available, nitrate is the most common one used by microorganisms under oxygen-limited conditions. The first objective of this project was to explore hydrocarbon utilization under anoxic or low oxygen conditions. A microorganism that can utilize the petroleum hydrocarbons, toluene and xylene, as sole carbon and energy sources under microaerophilic (2% oxygen) and denitrifying conditions was isolated and characterized. Since oxygen may repress microbial denitrification, it was of interest to monitor the effects of low oxygen levels on aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation coupled to denitrification. We isolated a Gram-negative rod, Pseudomonas maltophilia from anaerobic sewage digester sludge. The patterns of biodegradations of toluene and two isomers of xylenes, m- and p-xylene, were very similar under either microaerophilic or anaerobic conditions. Nitrate reduction was also observed during time course experiments under aerobic conditions. The final objective was to test the feasibility of an immobilized cell reactor to treat waste streams. Therefore, a bench-scale bioreactor was built to treat a waste stream contaminated with both toluene and nitrate without aeration. The utilization of toluene and nitrate was monitored periodically in a continuous system under anaerobic conditions.

  15. Simultaneous Cr(VI) reduction and phenol degradation using Stenotrophomonas sp. isolated from tannery effluent contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Gunasundari, Dharmaraj; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2013-09-01

    This study presents simultaneous hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) reduction and phenol degradation using Stenotrophomonas sp., isolated from tannery effluent contaminated soil. Phenol was used as the sole carbon and energy source for Cr(VI) reduction. The optimization of different operating parameters was done using Placket-Burman design (PBD) and Box-Behnken design (BBD). The significant operating variables identified by PBD were initial Cr(VI) and phenol concentration, pH, temperature, and reaction time. These variables were optimized by a three-level BBD and the optimum initial Cr(VI) concentration, initial phenol concentration, pH, temperature, and reaction time obtained were 16.59 mg/l, 200.05 mg/l, 7.38, 31.96 °C and 4.07 days, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, 81.27 % Cr(VI) reduction and 100 % phenol degradation were observed experimentally. The results concluded that the Stenotrophomonas sp. could be used to decontaminate the effluents containing Cr(VI) and phenol effectively. PMID:23608988

  16. Degradation of Microcystin-LR and RR by a Stenotrophomonas sp. Strain EMS Isolated from Lake Taihu, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Hu, Liang Bin; Zhou, Wei; Yan, Shao Hua; Yang, Jing Dong; Xue, Yan Feng; Shi, Zhi Qi

    2010-01-01

    A bacterial strain EMS with the capability of degrading microcystins (MCs) was isolated from Lake Taihu, China. The bacterium was tentatively identified as a Stenotrophomonas sp. The bacterium could completely consume MC-LR and MC-RR within 24 hours at a concentration of 0.7 ?g/mL and 1.7 ?g/mL, respectively. The degradation of MC-LR and MC-RR by EMS occurred preferentially in an alkaline environment. In addition, mlrA gene involved in the degradation of MC-LR and MC-RR was detected in EMS. Due to the limited literature this gene has rare homologues. Sequencing analysis of the translated protein from mlrA suggested that MlrA might be a transmembrane protein, which suggests a possible new protease family having unique function. PMID:20479990

  17. Preparation of 3-ketovalidoxylamine A C–N lyase substrate: N - p -nitrophenyl-3-ketovalidamine by Stenotrophomonas maltrophilia CCTCC M 204024

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Fen Zhang; Yu-Guo Zheng; Zhi-Qiang Liu; Yin-Chu Shen

    2007-01-01

    3-Ketovalidoxylamine A C–N lyase is one of three key enzymes in the production of valienamine, which is a potent glucosidase\\u000a inhibitor from validamycin A. N-p-Nitrophenyl-3-ketovalidamine, used as the substrate of 3-ketovalidoxylamine A C–N lyase, was prepared from N-p-nitrophenylvalidamine with free cells of Stenotrophomonas\\u000a maltrophilia CCTCC M 204024. The yield and selectivity of N-p-nitrophenyl-3-ketovalidamine from cells were improved by treatment with

  18. Preparation of 3-ketovalidoxylamine A C-N lyase substrate: N-p-nitrophenyl-3-ketovalidamine by Stenotrophomonas maltrophilia CCTCC M 204024.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Fen; Zheng, Yu-Guo; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Shen, Yin-Chu

    2007-01-01

    3-Ketovalidoxylamine A C-N lyase is one of three key enzymes in the production of valienamine, which is a potent glucosidase inhibitor from validamycin A. N-p-Nitrophenyl-3-ketovalidamine, used as the substrate of 3-ketovalidoxylamine A C-N lyase, was prepared from N-p-nitrophenylvalidamine with free cells of Stenotrophomonas maltrophilia CCTCC M 204024. The yield and selectivity of N-p-nitrophenyl-3-ketovalidamine from cells were improved by treatment with 10 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The optimal pH and temperature for N-p-nitrophenyl-3-ketovalidamine formation was pH 6.0 and 30 degrees C, respectively. N-p-Nitrophenyl-3-ketovalidamine was formed with a yield of 0.68 in the first batch. PMID:17058074

  19. ?-Dodecelactone production from safflower oil via 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid intermediate by whole cells of Candida boidinii and Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ye-Seul; An, Jung-Ung; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2014-07-16

    Candida boidinii was selected as a ?-dodecelactone producer because of the highest production of ?-dodecelactone from 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid among the 11 yeast strains tested. Under the reaction conditions of pH 5.5 and 25 °C with 5 g/L 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid and 30 g/L cells, whole C. boidinii cells produced 2.1 g/L ?-dodecelactone from 5 g/L 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid after 6 h, with a conversion yield of 64% (mol/mol) and a volumetric productivity of 350 mg/L/h. The production of ?-dodecelactone from safflower oil was performed by lipase hydrolysis reaction and two-step whole-cell biotransformation using Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens and C. boidinii. ?-Dodecelactone at 1.88 g/L was produced from 7.5 g/L safflower oil via 5 g/L 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid intermediate by these reactions after 8 h of reaction time, with a volumetric productivity of 235 mg/L/h and a conversion yield of 25% (w/w). To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the highest volumetric productivity and conversion yield reported to date for the production of ?-lactone from natural oils. PMID:24967938

  20. Evaluation of the VITEK 2 System for the Identification and Susceptibility Testing of Three Species of Nonfermenting Gram Negative Rods Frequently Isolated from Clinical Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PROVIDENCIA JOYANES; MARIA DEL CARMEN CONEJO; LUIS MARTINEZ-MARTINEZ; EVELIO J. PEREA

    2001-01-01

    VITEK 2 is a new automatic system for the identification and susceptibility testing of the most clinically important bacteria. In the present study 198 clinical isolates, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n 146), Acinetobacter baumannii (n 25), and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n 27) were evaluated. Reference susceptibility testing of cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin, tobramycin, levofloxacin (only for P. aeruginosa),

  1. Efficacy of Copper-Silver Ionization in Controlling Biofilm- and Plankton-Associated Waterborne Pathogens?

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Hsiu-Yun; Lin, Yusen E.

    2010-01-01

    The study was to determine the efficacy of copper-silver ionization against the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Acinetobacter baumannii in biofilms and planktonic phases. At concentrations below the EPA limits, ionization has potential to control the three waterborne pathogens, in addition to Legionella, in hospital water systems for nosocomial infection control. PMID:20080997

  2. Isolation of soil Streptomyces as source antibiotics active against antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ozgur Ceylan; Gulten Okmen; Aysel Ugur

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this study was the in vitro antimicrobial activities of Streptomycetes, bacteria commonly found in soil and known antibiotic-producers. Streptomycete isolates obtained from different fields in Muðla, Turkey were evaluated for their inhibitory activities on seven microorganisms including multiple antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Fifteen Streptomycete isolates which exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least two of

  3. Whole-Genome Sequences of Five Oyster-Associated Bacteria Show Potential for Crude Oil Hydrocarbon Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Green, Stefan; Pathak, Ashish; Thomas, Jesse; Venkatramanan, Raghavee

    2013-01-01

    Draft genome sequences of oyster-associated Pseudomonas stutzeri strain MF28, P. alcaligenes strain OT69, P. aeruginosa strain WC55, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain MF89, and Microbacterium maritypicum strain MF109 are reported. Genome-wide surveys of these isolates suggest that the oyster microbiome, which remains largely understudied, has a strong potential to degrade crude oil. PMID:24092793

  4. Infection control and the significance of sputum and other respiratory secretions from adult patients with cystic fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E Moore; Adrienne Shaw; Jennifer L Howard; James SG Dooley; J Stuart Elborn

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited data available on the environmental and public health impact of the microbiological hazards associated with sputa from patients with cystic fibrosis [CF]. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cenocepacia (formerly Burkholderia cepacia genomovar III), Staphylococcus aureus and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are bacterial pathogens which are commonly found in the sputum of CF patients. A study was performed to ascertain the

  5. Construction of a Microbial System for Efficient Degradation of Cellulose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Ping; Yanxin Wang; Liu Kun; Tong Lei

    2008-01-01

    Endoglucanase, exoglucanase and cellobiase activities of ten cellulose degradation isolates from piggery sludge and manure were analyzed. A composite microbial system was constructed by five of these bacteria named as LCB03, LCB12, LCB52, LCD12 and LCD51 with different cellulase activities from these isolates. These five bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas citronellolis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Flavobacterium mizutaii

  6. Anti-adherence activity and antimicrobial durability of anti-infective-coated catheters against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Raad; R. Reitzel; Y. Jiang; R. F. Chemaly; T. Dvorak; R. Hachem

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the anti-adherence and antimicrobial durability of anti-infective catheters against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus (resistant to vancomycin, rifampicin and methicillin) and MDR Gram-negative bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Acinetobacter baumannii\\/ calcoaceticus and Enterobacter agglomerans) that are often associated with catheter-related blood- stream infections (CRBSIs). Methods: Catheters impregnated with minocycline and rifampicin (M\\/R) or with silver-platinum and carbon (SPC) or with

  7. Mir space station bacteria responses to modeled reduced gravity under starvation conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Baker; Laura G. Leff

    2006-01-01

    Isolates from the Mir space station identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were subjected to clinorotation to model reduced gravity conditions in water in slow turning lateral vessels (STLVs). To examine cells in varying physiological states, bacteria were enumerated based on the Live\\/Dead BacLight kit, DAPI (4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and colony forming units (CFU). Both

  8. Mir space station bacteria responses to modeled reduced gravity under starvation conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Baker; Laura G. Leff

    2006-01-01

    Isolates from the Mir space station identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were subjected to clinorotation to model reduced gravity conditions in water in slow turning lateral vessels (STLVs). To examine cells in varying physiological states, bacteria were enumerated based on the Live\\/Dead BacLight kit, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and colony forming units (CFU). Both

  9. Application method affects the distribution and efficacy of rhizobacteria suppressive of downy brome ( Bromus tectorum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Mazzola; Phillip W. Stahlman; Jan E. Leach

    1995-01-01

    Rhizobacteria that are capable of suppressing plant growth in a species-specific manner have potential as bioherbicides. Three bacterial strains, Pseudomonas putida strain FH160, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain FH131, and Enterobacter taylorae strain FH650, have been reported to suppress the growth of downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.). These strains were evaluated in the greenhouse using various application methods for the ability to

  10. Growth promoting effects of corn ( Zea mays) bacterial isolates under greenhouse and field conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samina Mehnaz; Tom Kowalik; Bruce Reynolds; George Lazarovits

    2010-01-01

    Fertilizer costs are a major component of corn production. The use of biofertilizers may be one way of reducing production costs. In this study we present isolation and identification of three plant growth promoting bacteria that were identified as Enterobacter cloacae (CR1), Pseudomonas putida (CR7) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (CR3). All bacterial strains produced IAA in the presence of 100mgl?1 of

  11. Transcriptome profiling of heat-resistant strain Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC3962 producing Maotai flavor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun; Xu, Yan

    2012-02-29

    Although Maotai flavor liquor is exclusive due to its soy sauce flavor, knowledge of its key compound and production mechanism is still scarce until now. To gain insight into the production mechanism of soy sauce flavor, a soy sauce flavor producing strain with high efficiency and heat-resistant capability was obtained, and the metabolic mechanism of the strain was investigated with the technique of microarray profiling. Because high temperature was a key factor for soy sauce flavor production, the global gene expression of this heat-resistant strain fermented at 55 °C was analyzed. Except for the responsive increase of heat shock proteins, which maintained cell survival during heat stress, biosynthesis of cysteine was also up-regulated. In addition, some metabolites were significantly increased when cysteine was added to the fermentation medium, such as 2,3-butanediol, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, and tetramethylpyrazine, which were important flavor compounds in soy sauce flavor liquor and might be related with soy sauce flavor. The results indicated that cysteine might play an important role in the formation of soy sauce flavor compound, and it might act as an indirect precursor or stimulator of soy sauce flavor formation. This was the first use of the microarray profiling tool to investigate the fermentative strains for Chinese traditional liquor, which would allow a deeper insight into the mechanism of the formation of soy sauce flavor compound. PMID:22283589

  12. Gut-associated bacteria throughout the life cycle of the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas and Bright (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and their cellulolytic activities.

    PubMed

    Morales-Jiménez, Jesús; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Ramírez-Saad, Hugo C; Hernández-Rodríguez, César

    2012-07-01

    Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas and Bright (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is an endemic economically important insect of the Sierra Madre Occidental in Mexico. This bark beetle has an atypical behavior within the genus because just one beetle couple colonizes and kills seedlings and young trees of 11 pine species. In this work, the bacteria associated with the Dendroctonus rhizophagus gut were analyzed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences amplified directly from isolates of gut bacteria suggests that the bacterial community associated with Dendroctonus rhizophagus, like that of other Dendroctonus spp. and Ips pini, is limited in number. Nine bacterial genera of ?-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria classes were detected in the gut of Dendroctonus rhizophagus. Stenotrophomonas and Rahnella genera were the most frequently found bacteria from Dendroctonus rhizophagus gut throughout their life cycle. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ponticoccus gilvus, and Kocuria marina showed cellulolytic activity in vitro. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Rahnella aquatilis, Raoultella terrigena, Ponticoccus gilvus, and Kocuria marina associated with larvae or adults of Dendroctonus rhizophagus could be implicated in nitrogen fixation and cellulose breakdown, important roles associated to insect development and fitness, especially under the particularly difficult life conditions of this beetle. PMID:22234511

  13. 16S rRNA gene-based identification of cultured bacterial flora from host-seeking Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks, vectors of vertebrate pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, I; Mendel, J; Sikutová, S; Svec, P; Masaríková, J; Nováková, D; Bunková, L; Sedlácek, I; Hubálek, Z

    2009-09-01

    A total of 151 bacterial isolates were recovered from different developmental stages (larvae, nymphs and adults) of field-collected ticks (67 strains from Ixodes ricinus, 38 from Dermacentor reticulatus, 46 from Haemaphysalis concinna). Microorganisms were identified by means of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Almost 87 % of the strains belonged to G(+) bacteria with predominantly occurring genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus. Other G(+) strains included Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium, Frigoribacterium, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Plantibacter, Rhodococcus, Rothia, and Staphylococcus. G(-) strains occurred less frequently, comprising genera Advenella, Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Stenotrophomonas, and Xanthomonas. Several strains of medical importance were found, namely Advenella incenata, Corynebacterium aurimucosum, Microbacterium oxydans, M. schleiferi, Staphylococcus spp., and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Data on cultivable microbial diversity in Eurasian tick species D. reticulatus and H. concinna are given, along with the extension of present knowledge concerning bacterial flora of I. ricinus. PMID:19937215

  14. Antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Perez, Federico; Adachi, Javier; Bonomo, Robert A

    2014-11-15

    Patients with cancer are at high risk for infections caused by antibiotic resistant gram-negative bacteria. In this review, we summarize trends among the major pathogens and clinical syndromes associated with antibiotic resistant gram-negative bacterial infection in patients with malignancy, with special attention to carbapenem and expanded-spectrum ?-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia--all major threats to our cancer patients. Optimal therapy for these antibiotic-resistant pathogens still remains to be determined. PMID:25352627

  15. Q-PCR based bioburden assessment of drinking water throughout treatment and delivery to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcombe, David; Stuecker, Tara; La Duc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies indicated evidence of opportunistic pathogens samples obtained during missions to the International Space Station (ISS). This study utilized TaqMan quantitative PCR to determine specific gene abundance in potable and non-potable ISS waters. Probe and primer sets specific to the small subunit rRNA genes were used to elucidate overall bacterial rRNA gene numbers. while those specific for Burkholderia cepacia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were optimized and used to probe for the presence of these two opportunistic pathogens. This research builds upon previous microbial diversity studies of ISS water and demonstrates the utility of Q-PCR tool to examine water quality.

  16. Prevention of biofilm colonization by Gram-negative bacteria on minocycline-rifampin-impregnated catheters sequentially coated with chlorhexidine.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Mohamed A; Rosenblatt, Joel S; Hachem, Ray Y; Ying, Jiang; Pravinkumar, Egbert; Nates, Joseph L; Chaftari, Anne-Marie P; Raad, Issam I

    2014-01-01

    Resistant Gram-negative bacteria are increasing central-line-associated bloodstream infection threats. To better combat this, chlorhexidine (CHX) was added to minocycline-rifampin (M/R) catheters. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of CHX-M/R catheters against multidrug resistant, Gram-negative Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was tested. M/R and CHX-silver sulfadiazine (CHX/SS) catheters were used as comparators. The novel CHX-M/R catheters were significantly more effective (P < 0.0001) than CHX/SS or M/R catheters in preventing biofilm colonization and showed better antimicrobial durability. PMID:24165191

  17. Prevention of Biofilm Colonization by Gram-Negative Bacteria on Minocycline-Rifampin-Impregnated Catheters Sequentially Coated with Chlorhexidine

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Mohamed A.; Rosenblatt, Joel S.; Hachem, Ray Y.; Ying, Jiang; Pravinkumar, Egbert; Nates, Joseph L.; Chaftari, Anne-Marie P.

    2014-01-01

    Resistant Gram-negative bacteria are increasing central-line-associated bloodstream infection threats. To better combat this, chlorhexidine (CHX) was added to minocycline-rifampin (M/R) catheters. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of CHX-M/R catheters against multidrug resistant, Gram-negative Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was tested. M/R and CHX-silver sulfadiazine (CHX/SS) catheters were used as comparators. The novel CHX-M/R catheters were significantly more effective (P < 0.0001) than CHX/SS or M/R catheters in preventing biofilm colonization and showed better antimicrobial durability. PMID:24165191

  18. Isolation and characterization of alkane degrading bacteria from petroleum reservoir waste water in Iran (Kerman and Tehran provenances).

    PubMed

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Ahmadinejad, Mohammad; Tebyanian, Hamid; Kariminik, Ashraf

    2013-08-15

    Petroleum products spill and leakage have become two major environmental challenges in Iran. Sampling was performed in the petroleum reservoir waste water of Tehran and Kerman Provinces of Iran. Alkane degrading bacteria were isolated by enrichment in a Bushnel-Hass medium, with hexadecane as sole source of carbon and energy. The isolated strains were identified by amplification of 16S rDNA gene and sequencing. Specific primers were used for identification of alkane hydroxylase gene. Fifteen alkane degrading bacteria were isolated and 8 strains were selected as powerful degradative bacteria. These 8 strains relate to Rhodococcus jostii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Achromobacter piechaudii, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rhodococcus erythropolis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa genera. The optimum concentration of hexadecane that allowed high growth was 2.5%. Gas chromatography results show that all strains can degrade approximately half of hexadecane in one week of incubation. All of the strains have alkane hydroxylase gene which are important for biodegradation. As a result, this study indicates that there is a high diversity of degradative bacteria in petroleum reservoir waste water in Iran. PMID:23790464

  19. Antibacterial activity of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. ethanolic extracts.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Iris C; Vattuone, Marta A; Isla, Maria I

    2005-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of Zuccagnia punctata ethanolic extract against 47 strains of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and to identify bioactive compounds. Inhibition of bacterial growth was investigated using agar diffusion, agar macrodilution, broth microdilution and bioautographic methods. Zuccagnia punctata extract was active against all assayed bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 25 to 200 microg/mL. Minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were identical or two-fold higher than the corresponding MIC values. Contact bioautography, indicated that Zuccagnia punctata extracts possess one major antibacterial component against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and at least three components against. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Activity-guided fractionation of 1he ethanol extract on a silica gel column yielded a compound (2',4'-dihydroxychalcone), which exhibited strong antibacterial activity with MIC values between 0.10 and 1.00 microg/mL for Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. These values are lower than imipenem (0.25-16 microg/mL). Zuccagnia punctata might provide promising therapeutic agents against infections with multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:16137849

  20. Non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria in hospital tap water and water used for haemodialysis and bronchoscope flushing: prevalence and distribution of antibiotic resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, Sara; Quaranta, Gianluigi; De Meo, Concetta; Bruno, Stefania; Ficarra, Maria Giovanna; Carovillano, Serena; Ricciardi, Walter; Laurenti, Patrizia

    2014-11-15

    This study provides a detailed description of the distribution of non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria (NFGNB) collected in water sources (tap water and water used for haemodialysis and bronchoscope flushing) from different wards of a tertiary care hospital. The aim is to identify risk practices for patients or to alert clinicians to the possible contamination of environment and medical devices. The resistance profile of NFGNB environmental isolates has shown that more than half (55.56%) of the strains isolated were resistant to one or more antibiotics tested in different antimicrobial categories. In particular, 38.89% of these strains were multidrug resistant (MDR) and 16.67% were extensively drug resistant (XDR). The most prevalent bacterial species recovered in water samples were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Ralstonia pickettii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Analysis of antibiotic resistance rates has shown remarkable differences between Pseudomonadaceae (P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens) and emerging pathogens, such as S. maltophilia and R. pickettii. Multidrug resistance can be relatively common among nosocomial isolates of P. aeruginosa, which represent the large majority of clinical isolates; moreover, our findings highlight that the emergent antibiotic resistant opportunistic pathogens, such as R. pickettii and S. maltophilia, isolated from hospital environments could be potentially more dangerous than other more known waterborne pathogens, if not subjected to surveillance to direct the decontamination procedures. PMID:25173861

  1. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Fungi, and Opportunistic Pathogens in Unchlorinated Drinking Water in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van der Kooij, Dick

    2013-01-01

    The multiplication of opportunistic pathogens in drinking water supplies might pose a threat to public health. In this study, distributed unchlorinated drinking water from eight treatment plants in the Netherlands was sampled and analyzed for fungi, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), and several opportunistic pathogens by using selective quantitative PCR methods. Fungi and NTM were detected in all drinking water samples, whereas Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Aspergillus fumigatus were sporadically observed. Mycobacterium avium complex and Acanthamoeba spp. were not detected. Season had no influence on the occurrence of these organisms, except for NTM and S. maltophilia, which were present in higher numbers in the summer. Opportunistic pathogens were more often observed in premise plumbing water samples than in samples from the distribution system. The lowest number of these organisms was observed in the finished water at the plant. Thus, fungi, NTM, and some of the studied opportunistic pathogens can multiply in the distribution and premise plumbing systems. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and/or total organic carbon (TOC) had no clear effects on fungal and NTM numbers or on P. aeruginosa- and S. maltophilia-positive samples. However, L. pneumophila was detected more often in water with AOC concentrations above 10 ?g C liter?1 than in water with AOC levels below 5 ?g C liter?1. Finally, samples that contained L. pneumophila, P. aeruginosa, or S. maltophilia were more frequently positive for a second opportunistic pathogen, which shows that certain drinking water types and/or sampling locations promote the growth of multiple opportunistic pathogens. PMID:23160134

  2. Conversion of puerarin into its 7-O-glycoside derivatives by Microbacterium oxydans (CGMCC 1788) to improve its water solubility and pharmacokinetic properties.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie-rong; Yuan, Sheng; Ding, Juan-fang; Zhu, Shou-chuang; Xu, Hai-dong; Chen, Ting; Cong, Xiao-dong; Xu, Wen-ping; Ye, Hui; Dai, Yi-jun

    2008-12-01

    Microbacterium oxydans strain NJ 6 isolated from soil samples converted puerarin into two novel compounds, puerarin-7-O-glucoside and puerarin-7-O-isomaltoside, via an unreported O-glycosylation of the phenolic hydroxyl group at the 7-position of puerarin. Sucrose, maltotriose, and maltose could be used as glucosyl donors for glycosylation of puerarin, but uridine-diphosphate glucose, glucose, fructose, lactose, cyclodextrin, and starch could not. Regardless of the position of B-ring in the (iso)flavonoids core structure, the glycosylation of the phenolic hydroxyl group at the 7-position of (iso)flavonoids was governed by the presence or absence of a glucosyl residue at 8-C. The apparent solubility of puerarin-7-O-glucoside and puerarin-7-O-isomaltoside was approximately 18 and 100 times that of natural puerarin, respectively. Like parent puerarin, puerarin-7-O-glucoside maintained its physiological ability to relax the contractions of isolated rat thoracic aortic rings in vitro induced by phenylephrine. However, puerarin-7-O-glucoside was able to maintain higher plasma concentrations and have a longer mean residence time in the blood than the parent puerarin. PMID:18795283

  3. Rahnella aquatilis Sepsis in a Premature Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Kuzdan, Canan; Soysal, Ahmet; Özdemir, Hülya; Co?kun, ?enay; Akman, ?pek; Bilgen, Hülya; Özek, Eren; Bak?r, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Rahnella aquatilis is an infrequently isolated Gram-negative rod within the Enterobacteriaceae family. The organism's natural habitat is water. The organism is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and it seldom causes infection in immunocompetent individuals. Here we present a one-month-old boy who was born prematurely at 27th week of gestation by cesarean section with a birth weight of 730?g. He developed sepsis caused by Rahnella aquatilis during the treatment for ventilator associated pneumonia due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with a combination of amikacin plus meropenem. Although R. aquatilis is one of the saprophyticus organisms, it may cause life-threatening infection in newborn.

  4. An Evaluation of Microbial and Chemical Contamination Sources Related to the Deterioration of Tap Water Quality in the Household Water Supply System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoonjin

    2013-01-01

    The predominant microorganisms in samples taken from shower heads in residences in the Korean city “N” were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Acidovorax temperans, and Microbacterium lacticum. Legionella was not detected in this case. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) vinylacetate, NN-DMA, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, epichlorohydrin, and styrene were measured in five types of plastic pipes: PVC, PB, PP, PE, and cPVC. The rate of multiplication of the heterotrophic plate count (HPC) attached on the copper pipe in contact with hot tap water was higher than the rate for the copper pipe in contact with cold tap water. Biofilm accumulation on stainless steel pipes with added acetate (3 mg/L) was 2.56 times higher than the non-supplemented condition. Therefore, the growth of HPC in the pipe system was affected by the type and availability of nutrients and depended on variables such as heating during the hot water supply. PMID:24018837

  5. Rahnella aquatilis Sepsis in a Premature Newborn.

    PubMed

    Kuzdan, Canan; Soysal, Ahmet; Özdemir, Hülya; Co?kun, ?enay; Akman, ?pek; Bilgen, Hülya; Özek, Eren; Bak?r, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Rahnella aquatilis is an infrequently isolated Gram-negative rod within the Enterobacteriaceae family. The organism's natural habitat is water. The organism is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and it seldom causes infection in immunocompetent individuals. Here we present a one-month-old boy who was born prematurely at 27th week of gestation by cesarean section with a birth weight of 730?g. He developed sepsis caused by Rahnella aquatilis during the treatment for ventilator associated pneumonia due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with a combination of amikacin plus meropenem. Although R. aquatilis is one of the saprophyticus organisms, it may cause life-threatening infection in newborn. PMID:26090257

  6. Synthesis and biological activity of a novel series of 17-azapentacyclo [6.6.5.0(2.7).0(9.14).0(15,19)]nonadeca-2,4,6,9,11,13-hexaen-16,18-dione derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kuran, Bozena; Krawiecka, Mariola; Kossakowski, Jerzy; Szymanek, Ksenia; Kierzkowska, Marta; M?ynarczyk, Grazyna

    2012-01-01

    In the search for novel antimicrobial agents, a series of new derivatives - N-substituted imides were prepared. All of the compounds were characterized by 'H NMR and ESI MS spectra. These derivatives were tested for antimicrobial activity. Microorganisms used in this study included aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and obligatory anaerobes such as Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Propionibacterium acnes. Moreover, Candida albicans yeast was used. For representatives of all species the MICs of the investigated compounds were determined. Most of investigated derivatives had no antimicrobial activity (MIC > 512 mg/L) except the derivative 22 which showed slight activity against Gram-positive aerobes and anaerobes. PMID:23061286

  7. An evaluation of microbial and chemical contamination sources related to the deterioration of tap water quality in the household water supply system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonjin

    2013-09-01

    The predominant microorganisms in samples taken from shower heads in residences in the Korean city "N" were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Acidovorax temperans, and Microbacterium lacticum. Legionella was not detected in this case. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) vinylacetate, NN-DMA, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, epichlorohydrin, and styrene were measured in five types of plastic pipes: PVC, PB, PP, PE, and cPVC. The rate of multiplication of the heterotrophic plate count (HPC) attached on the copper pipe in contact with hot tap water was higher than the rate for the copper pipe in contact with cold tap water. Biofilm accumulation on stainless steel pipes with added acetate (3 mg/L) was 2.56 times higher than the non-supplemented condition. Therefore, the growth of HPC in the pipe system was affected by the type and availability of nutrients and depended on variables such as heating during the hot water supply. PMID:24018837

  8. Capillary isoelectric focusing and fluorometric detection of proteins and microorganisms dynamically modified by poly(ethylene glycol) pyrenebutanoate.

    PubMed

    Horka, Marie; Ruzicka, Filip; Horký, Jaroslav; Holá, Veronika; Slais, Karel

    2006-12-15

    The nonionogenic pyrene-based tenside, poly(ethylene glycol) pyrenebutanoate, was prepared and applied in capillary isoelectric focusing with fluorometric detection. This dye was used here as a buffer additive in capillary isoelectric focusing for a dynamic modification of the sample of proteins and microorganisms. The values of the isoelectric points of the labeled bioanalytes were calculated with use of the fluorescent pI markers and were found comparable with pI of the native compounds. The mixed cultures of proteins and microorganisms, Escherichia coli CCM 3954, Staphylococcus epidermidis CCM 4418, Proteus vulgaris, Enterococcus faecalis CCM 4224, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, the strains of the yeast cells, Candida albicans CCM 8180, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were reproducibly focused and separated by the suggested technique. Using UV excitation for the on-column fluorometric detection, the minimum detectable amount was down to 10 cells injected on the separation capillary. PMID:17165837

  9. Dynamics of Seed-Borne Rice Endophytes on Early Plant Growth Stages

    PubMed Central

    Hardoim, Pablo R.; Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; van Overbeek, Leonard S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However, still little is known on the source of established endophytes as well as on how plants select specific microbial communities to establish associations. Here, we used cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches to assess the endophytic bacterrial community of surface-sterilized rice seeds, encompassing two consecutive rice generations. We isolated members of nine bacterial genera. In particular, organisms affiliated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ochrobactrum spp. were isolated from both seed generations. PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of seed-extracted DNA revealed that approximately 45% of the bacterial community from the first seed generation was found in the second generation as well. In addition, we set up a greenhouse experiment to investigate abiotic and biotic factors influencing the endophytic bacterial community structure. PCR-DGGE profiles performed with DNA extracted from different plant parts showed that soil type is a major effector of the bacterial endophytes. Rice plants cultivated in neutral-pH soil favoured the growth of seed-borne Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Rhizobium radiobacter, whereas Enterobacter-like and Dyella ginsengisoli were dominant in plants cultivated in low-pH soil. The seed-borne Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the only conspicuous bacterial endophyte found in plants cultivated in both soils. Several members of the endophytic community originating from seeds were observed in the rhizosphere and surrounding soils. Their impact on the soil community is further discussed. PMID:22363438

  10. Emergence of unusual nonfermenting Gram-negative nosocomial pathogens in a Saudi hospital.

    PubMed

    Asaad, Ahmed Morad; Al-Ayed, Mohamed Said Zayed; Qureshi, Mohamed Ansar

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of isolation and prevalence of drug resistance in nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB) other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa and predisposing factors for the acquisition of nosocomial infections caused by these emerging pathogens in a Saudi tertiary care hospital. A total of 125 nonduplicating NFGNB nosocomial strains were isolated, of these, 68 (54.4%) were Acinetobacter baumannii, 26 (20.8%) Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 14 (11.2%) Alcaligenes faecalis, 12 (9.6%) Chryseobacterium indologenes, and 5 (4%) Ralstonia pickettii. MICs of 11 antibiotics were determined using the reference broth microdilution method. With the exception of colistin that inhibited 100% of A. baumannii isolates, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole that inhibited 100% of S. maltophilia isolates, and carbapenems that inhibited 100% of A. faecalis isolates, none of the tested antimicrobial agents inhibited 100% of the other NFGNB spp. Our results emphasize that clinicians and microbiologists should consider A. faecalis, C. indologenes, and R. pickettii as emerging nosocomial pathogens. In addition, local resistance data are essential for helping physicians in deciding an appropriate antibiotic for empirical therapy of infections with these emerging and unusual NFGNB. PMID:24270139

  11. Coexistence among Epiphytic Bacterial Populations Mediated through Nutritional Resource Partitioning

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark; Lindow, Steven E.

    1994-01-01

    The levels of coexistence between Pseudomonas syringae and various nonpathogenic epiphytic species in the phyllosphere of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were assessed by using replacement series. The epiphytic species Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pantoea agglomerans, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Methylobacterium organophilum were all capable of exhibiting higher levels of coexistence with P. syringae than was observed with a near-isogenic P. syringae strain pair. The ecological similarity of the epiphytes was estimated with niche overlap indices derived from in vitro carbon source utilization profiles. The level of coexistence of the epiphytes was inversely correlated with the ecological similarity of the strains. Hence, the level of coexistence between the epiphytes was proportional to the degree of niche differentiation, defined as the ability to utilize carbon sources not utilized by a competing strain. Comparisons of utilization profiles for groups of carbon sources (amino acids, organic acids, and carbohydrates) indicated the types of carbon sources for which the strains likely competed in the bean phyllosphere. P. fluorescens and P. syringae strains probably competed for most carbon sources. S. maltophilia and M. organophilum strains probably competed with P. syringae for most organic acids but few amino acids or carbohydrates. P. agglomerans strains probably competed with P. syringae for most amino acids and organic acids but few carbohydrates. A variable level of coexistence observed between P. agglomerans and P. syringae probably reflected the variability in abundance in the bean phyllosphere of the carbohydrates that P. agglomerans utilized exclusively. PMID:16349462

  12. Enrichment and isolation of endosulfan degrading and detoxifying bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Koel; Devi, Sivanesan Saravana; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; Kanade, Gajanan Sitaramji; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2007-06-01

    In the present study, degradation of endosulfan by a mixed culture isolated from a pesticide-contaminated soil was studied in batch experiments. After two weeks of incubation, the mixed culture was able to degrade 73% and 81% of alpha and beta endosulfan respectively. Endodiol was identified by GC/MS as degradation intermediate. The toxicity studies of endosulfan before and after degradation were carried out using micronucleus assay on human polymorphonuclear cells. The findings suggested that the metabolism of endosulfan isomers by the mixed culture was accompanied by significant reduction in the toxicity. Studies were also carried out to quantify the degradation potential of the individual species in the mixed bacterial culture. Two cultures identified by 16S rRNA as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus erythropolis were found to be responsible for majority of the degradation by the mixed culture. S. maltophilia showed better degradation efficiency compared to that by R. erythropolis. This is the first report of endosulfan degradation using the above-mentioned organisms. PMID:17289112

  13. Mir space station bacteria responses to modeled reduced gravity under starvation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Paul W.; Leff, Laura G.

    2006-01-01

    Isolates from the Mir space station identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were subjected to clinorotation to model reduced gravity conditions in water in slow turning lateral vessels (STLVs). To examine cells in varying physiological states, bacteria were enumerated based on the Live/Dead BacLight kit, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and colony forming units (CFU). Both Pseudomonas sp. and S. maltophilia showed a slight increase in abundance over time but only cells of Pseudomonas sp. were affected by modeled reduced gravity. For Pseudomonas sp. numbers of DAPI stained cells were significantly higher under modeled reduced gravity compared to normal gravity. In addition, the abundance of cells attached to stainless steel disks, on one sampling date, was greater for the Pseudomonas isolate under modeled reduced gravity than normal gravity. The isolates examined did not appear to appreciably enter into a viable, but not culturable state during the experiments. In general, differences between treatments were not great, demonstrating that responses to reduced gravity are less apparent under starvation conditions, compared to earlier studies which used more rich nutrient sources.

  14. Effects of pathology dyes on Raman bone spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Esmonde-White, Francis W. L.; Morris, Michael D.; Roessler, Blake J.

    2013-05-01

    We report an overlooked source of artifacts for clinical specimens, where unexpected and normally negligible contaminants can skew the interpretation of results. During an ongoing study of bone fragments from diabetic osteomyelitis, strong Raman signatures were found, which did not correspond with normal bone mineral or matrix. In a bone biopsy from the calcaneus of a patient affected by diabetic osteomyelitis, Raman microspectroscopic analysis revealed regions with both abnormal mineral and degraded collagen in addition to normal bone. Additional bands indicated a pathological material. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was identified in the wound culture by independent microbiologic examination. We initially assigned the unusual bands to xanthomonadin, a bacterial pigment from S. maltophilia. However, the same bands were also found more than a year later on a second specimen that had been noticeably contaminated with pathology marking dye. Drop deposition/Raman spectroscopy of commonly used pathology dyes revealed that a blue tissue-marking dye was responsible for the unusual bands in both specimens, even in the first specimen where there was no visible evidence of contamination.

  15. Microbial contamination of suction tubes attached to suction instruments and preventive methods.

    PubMed

    Yorioka, Katsuhiro; Oie, Shigeharu; Kamiya, Akira

    2010-03-01

    We investigated the microbial contamination of suction tubes attached to wall-type suction instruments. Microbial contamination of suction tubes used for endoscopy or sputum suction in hospital wards was examined before and after their disinfection. In addition, disinfection and washing methods for suction tubes were evaluated. Suction tubes (n=33) before disinfection were contaminated with 10(2)-10(8) colony-forming units (cfu)/tube. The main contaminants were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The suction tubes were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite (n=11) or hot water (n=11), or by an automatic tube cleaner (n=11). After 2-h immersion in 0.1% (1,000 ppm) sodium hypochlorite, 10(3)-10(7) cfu/tube of bacteria were detected in all 11 tubes examined. After washing in hot running water (65 degrees C), 10(3)-10(7) cfu/tube were detected in 3 of the 11 examined tubes. The bacteria detected in the suction tubes after disinfection with sodium hypochlorite or hot water were P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, and S. maltophilia. On the other hand, after washing with warm water (40 degrees C) using the automatic tube cleaner, contamination was found to be <20 cfu/tube (lower detection limit, 20 cfu/tube) in all 11 tubes examined. These results suggest the usefulness of washing with automatic tube cleaners. PMID:20332576

  16. In vitro antimicrobial activity of "last-resort" antibiotics against unusual nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Jacquier, Herve; Le Monnier, Alban; Carbonnelle, Etienne; Corvec, Stephane; Illiaquer, Marina; Bille, Emmanuelle; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Jauréguy, Françoise; Fihman, Vincent; Tankovic, Jacques; Cattoir, Vincent

    2012-08-01

    In this prospective multicentric study, we assessed the in vitro antimicrobial activity of carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem), tigecycline, and colistin against 166 unusual nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB) clinical isolates collected from nine French hospitals during a 6-month period (from December 1, 2008, to May 31, 2009). All NF-GNB isolates were included, except those phenotypically identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Acinetobacter baumannii. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents were determined by using the E-test technique. The following microorganisms were identified: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n=72), Pseudomonas spp. (n=30), Achromobacter xylosoxidans (n=25), Acinetobacter spp. (n=18), Burkholderia cepacia complex (n=9), Alcaligenes faecalis (n=7), and Delftia spp. (n=5). All isolates of Acinetobacter spp., A. faecalis, and Delftia spp. were susceptible to the three carbapenems. Imipenem exhibited the lowest MICs against Pseudomonas spp., and meropenem, as compared with imipenem and doripenem, displayed an interesting antimicrobial activity against A. xylosoxidans and B. cepacia complex isolates. Conversely, no carbapenem exhibited any activity against S. maltophilia. Except for S. maltophilia isolates, tigecycline and colistin exhibited higher MICs than carbapenems, but covered most of the microorganisms tested in this study. To our knowledge, no prior study has compared antimicrobial activity of these five antibiotics, often considered as "last-resort" treatment options for resistant Gram-negative infections, against unusual NF-GNB clinical isolates. Further studies should be carried out to assess the potential clinical use of these antibiotics for the treatment of infections due to these microorganisms. PMID:22335615

  17. Microbiology of airway disease in a cohort of patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lambiase, Antonietta; Raia, Valeria; Pezzo, Mariassunta Del; Sepe, Angela; Carnovale, Vincenzo; Rossano, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent reports document an increasing incidence of new Gram-negative pathogens such as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans isolated from patients with Cystic Fibrosis, along with an increase in common Gram-negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex. Furthermore, the increase in multidrug-resistance of such organisms makes the therapeutic management of these patients more problematic. Therefore, careful isolation and identification, and accurate studies of susceptibility to antibiotics are critical for predicting the spread of strains, improving therapeutic measures and facilitating our understanding of the epidemiology of emerging pathogens. The first aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the prevalence of colonization by Gram-negative organisms isolated from respiratory samples of Cystic Fibrosis patients in the Regional Referral Cystic Fibrosis Centre of Naples; the second was to evaluate the spectrum of multidrug-resistance of these organisms. Methods Patients (n = 300) attending the Regional Cystic Fibrosis Unit were enrolled in this study over 3 years. Sputum was processed for microscopic tests and culture. An automated system, Phoenix (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, Maryland, USA), was used for phenotypic identification of all strains; the API 20 NE identification system (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) was used when the identification with the Phoenix system was inaccurate. A PCR-RFLP method was used to characterize the organisms in the Burkholderia cepacia complex. A chemosusceptibility test on microbroth dilutions (Phoenix) was used. Primary outcomes such as FEV1 were correlate with different pathogens. Results During the period of study, 40% of patients was infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7% by Burkholderia cepacia complex, 11% by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and 7% by Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. Of the strains isolated, 460 were multidrug-resistant. Multiresistant were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex. Conclusion The results confirm previously reported data; in particular, they show an increase the isolation of non-fermentative Gram-negative bacteria in Cystic Fibrosis patients. They also demonstrate increased resistance to antibiotics. Beta-lactams are rarely effective, with exception of ceftazidime, which is the most efficacious agent against multiresistant strains. Aminoglycosides and quinolones are poorly efficacious. PMID:16405721

  18. Detection and location of OP-degrading activity: A model to integrate education and research.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Rupa; Smith, Kevin; Kudrle, Bill; Leon, Alex

    2015-06-25

    The Environmental Sampling Research Module (ESRM) is an investigative/discovery module that provides undergraduate research experiences for students as part of an interdisciplinary research-based biotechnology curriculum at the University of Houston campus. As part of the ESRM, students collect soil samples from various locations to test for the presence of organophosphorous (OP) degrading bacteria. At the end of this research project students submit a research paper on their field and laboratory activities and discuss their experimental data and observations. Students also record the date, location of collection, and the results of testing the sample for the degradation of two pesticides, methyl parathion or paraoxon, in an electronic laboratory notebook (ELN). Each collection site is recorded on a Google Maps module and the data from student research activities is made available to other undergraduate students. This data is then used to generate a microorganism database of pesticide degrading activity and promote reading, critical thinking, and analytical skills as part of the curriculum. Our sampling of agricultural sites and wastewater within and around the city of Houston has identified seven distinct genera of OP degrading organisms, including Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Exiguobacterium, Delftia, Agrobacterium, Aeromonas, and Rhizobium. Collected strains exhibit phosphotriesterase-like enzymatic activity with isolates of Pseudomonas putida and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia capable of degrading both the phosphotriester paraoxon and the phosphorothioate methyl parathion. Using this collection of OP-degrading microorganisms, undergraduate students have evaluated their potential for enhancing the removal of harmful organophosphates and their toxic metabolites from contaminated agricultural soil and adjacent bodies of water. This analytical data can potentially be utilized for environmental and industrial applications in bioremediation and ecology providing an innovative method for integrating education and research. In addition, the versatility of the ESRM itself provides for easy and rapid adaptation into varying environmental science courses with significant potential for the discovery and isolation of new and unique organisms to be used as part of ongoing research in the laboratory. PMID:25863354

  19. Characterizing Novel Thermophilic Amylase Producing Bacteria From Taptapani Hot Spring, Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Sudip Kumar; Raut, Sangeeta; Satpathy, Soumya; Rout, Prangya Ranjan; Bandyopadhyay, Bidyut; Das Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Amylases play a vital role in biotechnological studies and rank an important position in the world enzyme market (25% to 33%). Bioprocess method of amylase production is more effective than the other sources, since the technique is easy, cost effective, fast, and the enzymes of required properties can be procured. Objectives: The current study aimed to report the characteristics of novel amylase producing bacterial strains isolated from Taptapani hot spring, Odisha, India. Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains were isolated by dilution plating method from the water samples collected from Taptapani Hot Spring, Odisha and screened for amylase production through starch hydrolysis. The bacterial isolates were identified morphologically, biochemically, and finally by 16S rDNA profiling. Results: Based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics and the molecular characterization, the isolates SS1, SS2, and SS3 were identified as Bacillus barbaricus, Aeromonas veroni, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, respectively. The approximate molecular weight of enzymes from SS1, SS2, and SS3 strains were 19 kDa, 56 kDa and 49 kDa, respectively. Conclusions: The current report isolates, characterizes, and demonstrates the novel heat-adapted amylase-producing bacteria SS1, SS2 and SS3 from Taptapani hot spring, indicating its potentiality and stability under acidic conditions. PMID:25741425

  20. Preventing microbial colonisation of catheters: antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of cellobiose dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Thallinger, Barbara; Argirova, Maya; Lesseva, Magdalena; Ludwig, Roland; Sygmund, Christoph; Schlick, Angelika; Nyanhongo, Gibson S; Guebitz, Georg M

    2014-11-01

    The ability of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) to produce hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) for antimicrobial and antibiofilm functionalisation of urinary catheters was investigated. A recombinantly produced CDH from Myriococcum thermophilum was shown to completely inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus both in liquid and solid media when supplemented with either 0.8 mM or 2 mM cellobiose as substrate. Biofilm formation on silicone films was prevented by CDH when supplemented with 1mM cellobiose. The CDH/cellobiose system also successfully inhibited many common urinary catheter-colonising micro-organisms, including multidrug-resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus mirabilis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Interestingly, CDH was also able to produce H(2)O(2) during oxidation of extracellular polysaccharides (exPS) formed by micro-organisms in the absence of cellobiose. The H(2)O(2) production and consequently antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities on these exPS were enhanced by incorporation of glycoside hydrolases such as amylases. Hydrolysis of polysaccharides by these enzymes increases the number of terminal reducing sugars as substrates for CDH as well as destabilises the biofilm. Furthermore, CDH suspended in catheter lubricants killed bacteria in biofilms colonising catheters. Incorporation of the CDH/cellobiose system in the lubricant therefore makes it an easy strategy for preventing microbial colonisation of catheters. PMID:25176584

  1. Effects of the joint exposure of decabromodiphenyl ether and tetrabromobisphenol A on soil bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lei; An, Shuai; Liu, Kou; Lin, Kuangfei; Fu, Rongbing

    2015-01-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are the main contaminants at electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites (EWRSs), and their potential toxicological effects have received extensive attention. However, the impact on soil microorganism of joint exposure to the two chemicals remains almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the response of soil bacterial community structure in the joint presence of BDE209 and TBBPA for the first time. The results have demonstrated that the soil bacterial diversity generally declined with increasing BDE209 and TBBPA concentrations and moderate and high doses of both chemicals can cause inhibitory effects. PCR-DGGE analysis indicated that the correlations between Shannon-Weaver index and contaminant concentrations could be well represented by a second-order polynomial model. The combined toxicity of the two chemicals was antagonistic during the first 14 days and then synergistic. Pectobacterium carotovorum, Sinorhizobium fredii HH103, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were highly tolerant to joint exposure during the entire incubation period. Moreover, some Staphylococcus strains were enriched after 90 days exposed to TBBPA or low concentrations of BDE209, indicating that they might degrade the two chemicals effectively. The results of these observations have provided some basic understanding of potential ecological effects of joint exposure to BDE209 and TBBPA on soil microorganism at EWRSs. PMID:25106514

  2. Evaluation of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase for the identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative rods.

    PubMed

    Bombicino, Karina A; Almuzara, Marisa N; Famiglietti, Angela M R; Vay, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the activity of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase (PYR) for the differentiation and identification of nonfermenting gram negative rods (NFGNR), 293 isolates were tested. A 24 h culture of each test organism was prepared. From this a 108-109 cfu/mL suspension was added to 0.25 mL of sterile physiologic solution. A PYR disk was then added and the test was incubated for 30 minutes at 35-37 degrees C, at environmental atmosphere. Reading was done by adding 1 drop of cinnamaldehyde reagent. Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Bergeyella zoohelcum, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella hinzii, Brevundimonas diminuta, Brevundimonas vesicularis, Brucella ovis, Brucella spp., Brucella suis, Burkholderia cepacia complex, Moraxella catarrhalis, Moraxella lacunata, Moraxella nonliquefaciens, Moraxella osloensis, Oligella ureolytica, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas mendocina, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas Vb3, Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were PYR negative. On the other hand Achromobacter piechaudii, Achromobacter denitrificans, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Burkholderia gladioli, Chryseobacterium gleum-indologenes, Comamonas testosroni, Cupriavidus pauculus, Delftia acidovorans, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, Myroides spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Ralstonia pickettii, Rhizobium radiobacter, Shewanella spp., Sphingobacterium multivorum, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum, and Weeksella virosa were PYR positive. Finally, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Roseomonas spp., and Sphingomonas paucimobilis-parapaucimobilis were PYR variable. PYR testing should be considered as a useful tool to facilitate the identification of NFGNR. PMID:16822636

  3. Microbial Surveillance of Potable Water Sources of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Rebekah J.; Ott, C. Mark; Skuratov, Vladimir M.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2005-01-01

    To mitigate risk to the crew, the microbial surveillance of the quality of potable water sources of the International Space Station (ISS) has been ongoing since before the arrival of the first permanent crew. These water sources have included stored ground-supplied water, water produced by the shuttle fuel cells during flight, and ISS humidity condensate that is reclaimed and processed. Monitoring was accomplished using a self-contained filter designed to allow bacterial growth and enumeration during flight. Upon return to earth, microbial isolates were identified using 16S ribosomal gene sequencing. While the predominant isolates were common Gramnegative bacteria including Ralstonia eutropha, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, and Spingomonas paucimobilis, opportunistic pathogens such as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also isolated. Results of in-flight enumeration have indicated a fluctuation of bacterial counts above system design specifications. Additional in-flight monitoring capability for the specific detection of coliforms was added in 2004; no coliforms have been detected from any potable water source. Neither the bacterial concentrations nor the identification of the isolates recovered from these samples has suggested a threat to crew health.

  4. Nonfermenting Gram-negative Bacilli other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter Spp. Causing Respiratory Tract Infections in a Tertiary Care Center

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Kiran; Vishwanath, Shashidhar; Munim, Frenil C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli have emerged as important healthcare-associated pathogens. It is important to correctly identify all clinically significant nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli considering the intrinsic multidrug resistance exhibited by these bacteria. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken to identify the various nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. isolated from respiratory samples (n = 9363), to understand their clinical relevance and to analyze their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Results: Nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli were isolated from 830 (16.4%) samples showing significant growth. Thirty-three (4%) isolates constituted nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli other than P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (15, 45.5%) was the most common isolate followed by Burkholderia cepacia (4, 12.1%), Sphingomonas paucimobilis (3, 9.1%), and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (3, 9.1%). On the basis of clinicomicrobiological correlation, pathogenicity was observed in 69.7% (n = 23) isolates. Timely and correct treatment resulted in clinical improvement in 87.9% cases. Conclusion: Any nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli isolated from respiratory tract infection should not be ignored as mere contaminant, but correlated clinically for its pathogenic potential and identified using standard methods so as to institute appropriate and timely antibiotic coverage. PMID:24672175

  5. Bacteria from Ips sexdentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and their biocontrol potential.

    PubMed

    Sevim, Ali; Gökçe, Cihan; Erba?, Zeynep; Ozkan, Filiz

    2012-12-01

    Ips sexdentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most destructive pests of the spruce trees in Europe. In this study, we have isolated and characterized culturable bacteria from I. sexdentatus and tested their insecticidal activity against the last instar larvae of the pest as a possible biocontrol agent. A total of eight bacterial isolates was determined and four of them were identified at species level, and the others were identified at genus level. Isolates were identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Is1), Rahnella sp. (Is2), Pseudomonas sp. (Is3), Bacillus sp. (Is4), Alcaligenes faecalis (Is5), Panteoea agglomerans (Is6), Pseudomonas fluorescens (Is7) and Serratia sp. (Is8) based on their morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics. Insecticidal effects of bacterial isolates were performed on the last instar larvae of the pest. The highest insecticidal activity was obtained from P. fluorescens (Is7) with 73% mortality within 10 days after inoculation (p < 0.05). Mortality values of the other isolates ranged from 20 to 53%. This study suggests that Pseudomonas fluorescens (Is7) seems to be a good candidate as a possible biocontrol agent against I. sexdentatus, and provides suitable strains that can be modified to express insecticidal toxins and/or other detrimental substances to develop new control methods for I. sexdentatus. PMID:22581609

  6. Combination of photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor for the removal of ethyl violet from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Yen, Shao-Hsiung; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2014-12-01

    An efficient treatment system that combines a photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor (PBR) was developed and evaluated for treating ethyl violet (EV)-containing wastewater. Initial experiments demonstrated that the optimal operating parameters for the photoreactor in treating EV-containing wastewater were 2h reaction time, pH of 7, and 2 min liquid retention time. Under these conditions, the photocatalytic reaction achieved a 61% EV removal efficiency and resulted in a significant BOD/COD increase in the solution. The results displayed by the coupled photobiological system achieved a removal efficiency of 85% and EC50 of the solution increased by 19 times in a semi-continuous mode when the EV concentration was <150 mg +L(-)(1). The effect of shock loading on the EV removal was temporary but coexisting substrate (glucose and crystal violet) at specific levels would affect the EV removal efficiency of the PBR. Phylogenetic analysis in the PBR indicated that the major bacteria species were Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, Ralstonia pickettii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Comamonas sp. Furthermore, the possible degrading mechanisms of this coupled system were demethylation, deethylation, aromatic ring opening, nitrification, and carbon oxidation. The intermediates were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. These results indicated that the coupled photobiological system provides an effective method of EV removal. PMID:25259784

  7. Isolation and characterization of phenol utilizing bacteria from industrial effluent-contaminated soil and kinetic evaluation of their biodegradation potential.

    PubMed

    Pal Basak, Sreela; Sarkar, Priyabrata; Pal, Priyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Microbial degradation of phenol by pure bacterial species is a well-known approach towards alleviation of environmental pollution. In this study, five phenol-degrading bacterial species designated as CUPS-1 to CUPS-5 were isolated from the oil-effluent dumped sites of Haldia Industrial area of West Bengal, India. Detailed morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization identified CUPS-3 as a novel strain- Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (GU358076), while the others could be identified as Pseudomonas (CUPS-2, 5), Delftia (CUPS-1) and Micrococcus (CUPS-4) genera, respectively. Although all of these strains utilized phenol as their sole carbon source supporting growth, three among them, CUPS-2, CUPS-3 and CUPS-5 proved potential phenol degraders and hence used for further biodegradation studies. Degradation experiments were carried out for several initial phenol concentrations of 500 mg/L, 750 mg/L, 1000 mg/L, 1250 mg/L and 1500 mg/L. The novel strain, CUPS-3 could completely degrade 500 mg/L phenol within 48 h, with 0.0937/h substrate degradation rate and 16.34 mg/L/h substrate consumption rate. The strains degraded phenol via meta-cleavage pathway. Prediction of kinetic parameters of the biodegradation was accomplished Haldane model using the experimental data of degradation rate and phenol concentration as function of time. PMID:24117085

  8. The effect of different growth regimes on the endophytic bacterial communities of the fern, Dicksonia sellowiana hook (Dicksoniaceae)

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo Barros, Irene; Luiz Araújo, Welington; Lúcio Azevedo, João

    2010-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria associated with the fern Dicksonia sellowiana were investigated. The bacterial communities from the surface-sterilized pinnae and rachis segments of the plants from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest that grew in native field conditions were compared with the bacterial communities from plants grown in greenhouses and plants that were initially grown in greenhouses and then transferred to the forest. From 540 pinnae and 540 rachis segments, 163 (30.2%) and 346 (64.2%) were colonized by bacteria, respectively. The main bacterial genera and species that were isolated included Bacillus spp. ( B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. pumilus and B. subtilis ) , Paenibacillus sp. , Amphibacillus sp. , Gracilibacillus sp. , Micrococcus sp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. ( S. maltophilia and S. nitroreducens ). B. pumilus was the most frequently isolated bacterial species . Amphibacillus and Gracilibacillus were reported as endophytes for the first time. Other commonly found bacterial genera were not observed in D. sellowiana , which may reflect preferences of specific bacterial communities inside this fern or detection limitations due to the isolation procedures. Plants that were grown in greenhouses and plants that were reintroduced into the forest displayed more bacterial genera and species diversity than native field plants, suggesting that reintroduction shifts the bacterial diversity. Endophytic bacteria that displayed antagonistic properties against different microorganisms were detected, but no obvious correlation was found between their frequencies with plant tissues or with plants from different growth regimes. This paper reports the first isolation of endophytic bacteria from a fern. PMID:24031575

  9. The effect of different growth regimes on the endophytic bacterial communities of the fern, Dicksonia sellowiana hook (Dicksoniaceae).

    PubMed

    de Araújo Barros, Irene; Luiz Araújo, Welington; Lúcio Azevedo, João

    2010-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria associated with the fern Dicksonia sellowiana were investigated. The bacterial communities from the surface-sterilized pinnae and rachis segments of the plants from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest that grew in native field conditions were compared with the bacterial communities from plants grown in greenhouses and plants that were initially grown in greenhouses and then transferred to the forest. From 540 pinnae and 540 rachis segments, 163 (30.2%) and 346 (64.2%) were colonized by bacteria, respectively. The main bacterial genera and species that were isolated included Bacillus spp. ( B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. pumilus and B. subtilis ) , Paenibacillus sp. , Amphibacillus sp. , Gracilibacillus sp. , Micrococcus sp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. ( S. maltophilia and S. nitroreducens ). B. pumilus was the most frequently isolated bacterial species . Amphibacillus and Gracilibacillus were reported as endophytes for the first time. Other commonly found bacterial genera were not observed in D. sellowiana , which may reflect preferences of specific bacterial communities inside this fern or detection limitations due to the isolation procedures. Plants that were grown in greenhouses and plants that were reintroduced into the forest displayed more bacterial genera and species diversity than native field plants, suggesting that reintroduction shifts the bacterial diversity. Endophytic bacteria that displayed antagonistic properties against different microorganisms were detected, but no obvious correlation was found between their frequencies with plant tissues or with plants from different growth regimes. This paper reports the first isolation of endophytic bacteria from a fern. PMID:24031575

  10. Decontamination effects of low-temperature plasma generated by corona discharge. Part II: new insights.

    PubMed

    Scholtz, V; Julák, J; Kríha, V; Mosinger, J; Kopecká, S

    2007-01-01

    The second part of our paper presents the results of experiments with the decontamination of surfaces by low-temperature plasma generated by corona discharge in air at atmospheric pressure. A simple device is described and the effects of the corona discharge on model microorganisms, viz. the yeast Candida albicans, Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Neisseria sicca, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Gram-positive bacteria Deinococcus radiodurans, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus sanguinis, and vegetative and spore forms of Geobacillus stearothermophilus are discussed. A similar microbicidal effect after about one-minute exposure was observed in all vegetative forms of the microorganisms. Measurement in growth inhibition zones on a semisolid medium was used to determine the dependence of the microbicidal effect on exposure time and the distance between electrodes. Counting of colonies served to assess the microbicidal effect of the discharge on contaminated inert surfaces observable after more than 1 min exposure. Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores were found to have several times lower susceptibility to the action of the discharge and the microbicidal effect was observed only after an 8 min exposure. Reaction with the iodide reagent did not unambiguously demonstrate the difference between ozone and singlet oxygen as presumed active components of the corona. The area distribution of reactive oxygen species was determined; it was found to differ from the Wartburg law depending on exposure time. Qualitative evidence was obtained on the penetration of the reactive oxygen species into the semisolid medium. PMID:18225640

  11. Colistin administration to pediatric and neonatal patients.

    PubMed

    Iosifidis, Elias; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Ioannidou, Maria; Mitroudi, Magda; Sdougka, Maria; Drossou-Agakidou, Vassiliki; Tsivitanidou, Maria; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2010-07-01

    Emergence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative nosocomial pathogens has led to resurgence of colistin use. Safety and efficacy data regarding colistin use in pediatric patients are sparse, while optimal dosage has not been defined. We present a case series of neonates and children without cystic fibrosis treated with various doses of colistin intravenously. The records of patients who received colistin in a tertiary-care hospital from January 2007 to March 2009 were reviewed. Thirteen patients (median age 5 years, range 22 days to 14 years) received 19 courses of colistin as treatment of pneumonia, central nervous system infection, bacteremia, or complicated soft tissue infection. The isolated pathogens were Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Daily dose of colistin (colistimethate) ranged between 40,000 and 225,000 IU/kg. Duration of administration ranged from 1 to 133 days. Other antimicrobials were co-administered in 18/19 courses. Increase of serum creatinine in one patient was associated with co-administration of colistin and gentamicin. Sixteen of 19 courses had a favorable outcome, and only two of the three deaths were infection-related. Colistin intravenous administration appears well tolerated even at higher than previously recommended doses and of prolonged duration. PMID:20119725

  12. Host-defense peptides with therapeutic potential from skin secretions of frogs from the family pipidae.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael; Mechkarska, Milena

    2014-01-01

    Skin secretions from frogs belonging to the genera Xenopus, Silurana, Hymenochirus, and Pseudhymenochirus in the family Pipidae are a rich source of host-defense peptides with varying degrees of antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicities to mammalian cells. Magainin, peptide glycine-leucine-amide (PGLa), caerulein-precursor fragment (CPF), and xenopsin-precursor fragment (XPF) peptides have been isolated from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from several species of Xenopus and Silurana. Hymenochirins and pseudhymenochirins have been isolated from Hymenochirus boettgeri and Pseudhymenochirus merlini. A major obstacle to the development of these peptides as anti-infective agents is their hemolytic activities against human erythrocytes. Analogs of the magainins, CPF peptides and hymenochirin-1B with increased antimicrobial potencies and low cytotoxicities have been developed that are active (MIC < 5 ?M) against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Despite this, the therapeutic potential of frog skin peptides as anti-infective agents has not been realized so that alternative clinical applications as anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-diabetic, or immunomodulatory drugs are being explored. PMID:24434793

  13. Host-Defense Peptides with Therapeutic Potential from Skin Secretions of Frogs from the Family Pipidae

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, J. Michael; Mechkarska, Milena

    2014-01-01

    Skin secretions from frogs belonging to the genera Xenopus, Silurana, Hymenochirus, and Pseudhymenochirus in the family Pipidae are a rich source of host-defense peptides with varying degrees of antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicities to mammalian cells. Magainin, peptide glycine-leucine-amide (PGLa), caerulein-precursor fragment (CPF), and xenopsin-precursor fragment (XPF) peptides have been isolated from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from several species of Xenopus and Silurana. Hymenochirins and pseudhymenochirins have been isolated from Hymenochirus boettgeri and Pseudhymenochirus merlini. A major obstacle to the development of these peptides as anti-infective agents is their hemolytic activities against human erythrocytes. Analogs of the magainins, CPF peptides and hymenochirin-1B with increased antimicrobial potencies and low cytotoxicities have been developed that are active (MIC < 5 ?M) against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Despite this, the therapeutic potential of frog skin peptides as anti-infective agents has not been realized so that alternative clinical applications as anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-diabetic, or immunomodulatory drugs are being explored. PMID:24434793

  14. Diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of lung infiltrates in febrile neutropenic patients: Guidelines of the infectious diseases working party of the German Society of Haematology and Oncology.

    PubMed

    Maschmeyer, Georg; Beinert, Thomas; Buchheidt, Dieter; Cornely, Oliver A; Einsele, Hermann; Heinz, Werner; Heussel, Claus Peter; Kahl, Christoph; Kiehl, Michael; Lorenz, Joachim; Hof, Herbert; Mattiuzzi, Gloria

    2009-09-01

    Patients with neutropenia lasting for more than 10d, who develop fever and pulmonary infiltrates, are at risk of treatment failure under conventional broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy. Filamentous fungi are predominant causes of failure, however, multi-resistant gram-negative rods such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia may be involved. Prompt addition of mould-active systemic antifungal therapy, facilitated by early thoracic computed tomography, improves clinical outcome. Non-culture-based diagnostic procedures to detect circulating antigens such as galactomannan or 1,3-beta-d-glucan, or PCR techniques to amplify circulating fungal DNA from blood, bronchoalveolar lavage or tissue specimens, may facilitate the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. CT-guided bronchoalveolar lavage is useful in order to identify causative microorganisms such as multidrug-resistant bacteria, filamentous fungi or Pneumocystis jiroveci. For pre-emptive antifungal treatment, voriconazole or liposomal amphotericin B is preferred. In patients given broad-spectrum azoles for antifungal prophylaxis, non-azole antifungals or antifungal combinations might become first choice in this setting. Antifungal treatment should be continued for at least 14 d before non-response and treatment modification are considered. Microbial isolates from blood cultures, bronchoalveolar lavage or respiratory secretions must be critically interpreted with respect to their aetiological relevance for pulmonary infiltrates. PMID:19467584

  15. Isolation and characterization of polymeric galloyl-ester-degrading bacteria from a tannery discharge place.

    PubMed

    Franco, A R; Calheiros, C S C; Pacheco, C C; De Marco, P; Manaia, C M; Castro, P M L

    2005-11-01

    The culturable bacteria colonizing the rhizosphere of plants growing in the area of discharge of a tannery effluent were characterized. Relative proportions of aerobic, denitrifying, and sulfate-reducing bacteria were determined in the rhizosphere of Typha latifolia, Canna indica, and Phragmites australis. Aerobic bacteria were observed to be the most abundant group in the rhizosphere, and plant type did not seem to influence the abundance of the bacterial types analyzed. To isolate bacteria able to degrade polyphenols used in the tannery industry, enrichments were conducted under different conditions. Bacterial cultures were enriched with individual polyphenols (tannins Tara, Quebracho, or Mimosa) or with an undefined mixture of tannins present in the tannery effluent as carbon source. Cultures enriched with the effluent or Tara tannin were able to degrade tannic acid. Six bacterial isolates purified from these mixed cultures were able to use tannic acid as a sole carbon source in axenic culture. On the basis of 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, these isolates were closely related to organisms belonging to the taxa Serratia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Klebsiella oxytoca, Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum, and Pseudomonas putida. PMID:16341641

  16. Anti-infective properties of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a component of green tea

    PubMed Central

    Steinmann, J; Buer, J; Pietschmann, T; Steinmann, E

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) has been shown to have many physiological and pharmacological health benefits. In the past two decades several studies have reported that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main constituent of green tea, has anti-infective properties. Antiviral activities of EGCG with different modes of action have been demonstrated on diverse families of viruses, such as Retroviridae, Orthomyxoviridae and Flaviviridae and include important human pathogens like human immunodeficiency virus, influenza A virus and the hepatitis C virus. Furthermore, the molecule interferes with the replication cycle of DNA viruses like hepatitis B virus, herpes simplex virus and adenovirus. Most of these studies demonstrated antiviral properties within physiological concentrations of EGCG in vitro. In contrast, the minimum inhibitory concentrations against bacteria were 10–100-fold higher. Nevertheless, the antibacterial effects of EGCG alone and in combination with different antibiotics have been intensively analysed against a number of bacteria including multidrug-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Furthermore, the catechin EGCG has antifungal activity against human-pathogenic yeasts like Candida albicans. Although the mechanistic effects of EGCG are not fully understood, there are results indicating that EGCG binds to lipid membranes and affects the folic acid metabolism of bacteria and fungi by inhibiting the cytoplasmic enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. This review summarizes the current knowledge and future perspectives on the antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral effects of the green tea constituent EGCG. PMID:23072320

  17. Biogenic selenium and tellurium nanoparticles synthesized by environmental microbial isolates efficaciously inhibit bacterial planktonic cultures and biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Zonaro, Emanuele; Lampis, Silvia; Turner, Raymond J.; Qazi, S. Junaid S.; Vallini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The present study deals with Se0- and Te0-based nanoparticles bio-synthesized by two selenite- and tellurite-reducing bacterial strains, namely Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SeITE02 and Ochrobactrum sp. MPV1, isolated from polluted sites. We evidenced that, by regulating culture conditions and exposure time to the selenite and tellurite oxyanions, differently sized zero-valent Se and Te nanoparticles were produced. The results revealed that these Se0 and Te0 nanoparticles possess antimicrobial and biofilm eradication activity against Escherichia coli JM109, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. In particular, Se0 nanoparticles exhibited antimicrobial activity at quite low concentrations, below that of selenite. Toxic effects of both Se0 and Te0 nanoparticles can be related to the production of reactive oxygen species upon exposure of the bacterial cultures. Evidence so far achieved suggests that the antimicrobial activity seems to be strictly linked to the dimensions of the nanoparticles: indeed, the highest activity was shown by nanoparticles of smaller sizes. In particular, it is worth noting how the bacteria tested in biofilm mode responded to the treatment by Se0 and Te0 nanoparticles with a susceptibility similar to that observed in planktonic cultures. This suggests a possible exploitation of both Se0 and Te0 nanoparticles as efficacious antimicrobial agents with a remarkable biofilm eradication capacity. PMID:26136728

  18. Anti-infective properties of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a component of green tea.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, J; Buer, J; Pietschmann, T; Steinmann, E

    2013-03-01

    The consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) has been shown to have many physiological and pharmacological health benefits. In the past two decades several studies have reported that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main constituent of green tea, has anti-infective properties. Antiviral activities of EGCG with different modes of action have been demonstrated on diverse families of viruses, such as Retroviridae, Orthomyxoviridae and Flaviviridae and include important human pathogens like human immunodeficiency virus, influenza A virus and the hepatitis C virus. Furthermore, the molecule interferes with the replication cycle of DNA viruses like hepatitis B virus, herpes simplex virus and adenovirus. Most of these studies demonstrated antiviral properties within physiological concentrations of EGCG in vitro. In contrast, the minimum inhibitory concentrations against bacteria were 10-100-fold higher. Nevertheless, the antibacterial effects of EGCG alone and in combination with different antibiotics have been intensively analysed against a number of bacteria including multidrug-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Furthermore, the catechin EGCG has antifungal activity against human-pathogenic yeasts like Candida albicans. Although the mechanistic effects of EGCG are not fully understood, there are results indicating that EGCG binds to lipid membranes and affects the folic acid metabolism of bacteria and fungi by inhibiting the cytoplasmic enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. This review summarizes the current knowledge and future perspectives on the antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral effects of the green tea constituent EGCG. PMID:23072320

  19. Frequency of oral mucositis and microbiological analysis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate.

    PubMed

    Soares, Andréa Ferreira; Aquino, Ana Rafaela Luz de; Carvalho, Cyntia Helena Pereira de; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; Almeida, Dulce; Pinto, Leão Pereira

    2011-01-01

    In view of the morbidity potential of oral complications in patients with leukemia, this study evaluated the clinical and microbiological alterations that occur in the oral mucosa of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy and prophylactic administration of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate. The sample consisted of 17 children aged 2 to 12 years that underwent clinical examination of the oral mucosa for the detection of oral lesions. In addition, biological material was collected from labial and buccal mucosa for microbiological analysis. Oral mucositis was observed in only 5 (29.4%) patients. Microbiological analysis revealed a reduced number of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, such as coagulase-negative staphylococci (47%), Candida albicans (35.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (5.9%), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (5.9%), and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (5.9%). Patients with oral mucositis showed a higher frequency of coagulase-negative staphylococci (80%) when compared with patients with normal oral mucosa (33.3%). In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that the prophylactic use of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate reduces the frequency of oral mucositis and oral pathogens in children with ALL. In addition, the present findings suggest a possible relationship between coagulase-negative staphylococci and the development of oral mucositis. PMID:21861031

  20. Pyrene removal and transformation by joint application of alfalfa and exogenous microorganisms and their influence on soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jinshao; Yin, Hua; Peng, Hui; Bai, Jieqiong; Li, Yuepeng

    2014-12-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive approach for the cleanup of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-contaminated soil. The joint effect of alfalfa and microorganisms, including Arthrobacter oxydans, Staphylococcus auricularis and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, on pyrene removal was investigated. The results showed that the joint effect primarily contributed to pyrene removal, and the concentration of residual pyrene in rhizosphere soil was lower than that in non-rhizosphere soil. After joint treatment for 45d, pyrene in rhizosphere soils decreased from 11.3, 52.5 and 106.0mg/kg to 2.0-3.0, 15.0-18.7, and 41.2-44.8mg/kg, respectively. These bacteria significantly enhanced pyrene accumulation and microbial community diversity, and increased soil dehydrogenase and polyphenol oxidase activities. Pyrene was initially degraded through ring cleavage. One of the main metabolites 4-dihydroxy-phenanthrene was transformed into naphthol and 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene, which were further degraded through salicylic acid pathway and phthalic acid pathway, separately. PMID:25232990

  1. Changing epidemiology of infections in patients with neutropenia and cancer: emphasis on gram-positive and resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zinner, S H

    1999-09-01

    Over the past 3 decades, considerable changes have occurred in the types of bacteria causing infection in febrile patients with neutropenia and cancer. Twenty years ago, gram-negative bacteria caused approximately 70% of bloodstream infections. As a probable consequence of long-dwelling intravascular devices, fluoroquinolone prophylaxis, and high-dose chemotherapy-induced mucositis, there has been a shift toward gram-positive coccal bacteremia. In most centers today, approximately 70% of bacteremic isolates are gram-positive cocci. Of potential concern is that antimicrobial-resistant gram-positive organisms are becoming increasingly frequent in patients with neutropenia. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli are being isolated from several cancer centers. Several "new" organisms, such as Stomatococcus mucilaginosus, Bacillus cereus, Leuconostoc species, Corynebacterium jeikeium, Rhodococcus species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Moraxella catarrhalis, Burkholderia cepacia, and Bartonella species, now cause infections in these patients. Careful application of infection-control principles, judicious prophylaxis, appropriate evaluation of new antibiotics, and prompt effective therapy will maximize benefits for these patients. PMID:10530434

  2. Biogenic selenium and tellurium nanoparticles synthesized by environmental microbial isolates efficaciously inhibit bacterial planktonic cultures and biofilms.

    PubMed

    Zonaro, Emanuele; Lampis, Silvia; Turner, Raymond J; Qazi, S Junaid S; Vallini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The present study deals with Se(0)- and Te(0)-based nanoparticles bio-synthesized by two selenite- and tellurite-reducing bacterial strains, namely Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SeITE02 and Ochrobactrum sp. MPV1, isolated from polluted sites. We evidenced that, by regulating culture conditions and exposure time to the selenite and tellurite oxyanions, differently sized zero-valent Se and Te nanoparticles were produced. The results revealed that these Se(0) and Te(0) nanoparticles possess antimicrobial and biofilm eradication activity against Escherichia coli JM109, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. In particular, Se(0) nanoparticles exhibited antimicrobial activity at quite low concentrations, below that of selenite. Toxic effects of both Se(0) and Te(0) nanoparticles can be related to the production of reactive oxygen species upon exposure of the bacterial cultures. Evidence so far achieved suggests that the antimicrobial activity seems to be strictly linked to the dimensions of the nanoparticles: indeed, the highest activity was shown by nanoparticles of smaller sizes. In particular, it is worth noting how the bacteria tested in biofilm mode responded to the treatment by Se(0) and Te(0) nanoparticles with a susceptibility similar to that observed in planktonic cultures. This suggests a possible exploitation of both Se(0) and Te(0) nanoparticles as efficacious antimicrobial agents with a remarkable biofilm eradication capacity. PMID:26136728

  3. Clinical role of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nelson; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Kumana, Cyrus R

    2003-01-01

    The use of beta-lactamase inhibitors in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics is currently the most successful strategy to combat a specific resistance mechanism. Their broad spectrum of activity originates from the ability of respective inhibitors to inactivate a wide range of beta-lactamases produced by Gram-positive, Gram-negative, anaerobic and even acid-fast pathogens. Clinical experience confirms their effectiveness in the empirical treatment of respiratory, intra-abdominal, and skin and soft tissue infections. There is evidence to suggest that they are efficacious in treating patients with neutropenic fever and nosocomial infections, especially in combination with other agents. beta-Lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations are particularly useful against mixed infections. Their role in treating various multi-resistant pathogens such as Acinetobacter species and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are gaining importance. Although, generally, they do not constitute reliable therapy against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers, their substitution in place of cephalosporins appears to reduce emergence of the latter pathogens. Similarly, their use may also curtail the emergence of other resistant pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. beta-Lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations are generally well tolerated and their oral forms provide effective outpatient therapy against many commonly encountered infections. In certain scenarios, they could even be more cost-effective than conventional combination therapies. With the accumulation of so much clinical experience, their role in the management of infections is now becoming more clearly defined. PMID:12834367

  4. Rosmarinic acid from eelgrass shows nematicidal and antibacterial activities against pine wood nematode and its carrying bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Pan, Xueru; Han, Yi; Guo, Daosen; Guo, Qunqun; Li, Ronggui

    2012-12-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD), a destructive disease for pine trees, is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and additional bacteria. In this study, extracts of Zostera marina showed a high nematicidal activity against PWN and some of the bacteria that it carries. Light yellow crystals were obtained from extracts of Z. marina through solvent extraction, followed by chromatography on AB-8 resin and crystallization. The NMR and HPLC analysis showed that the isolated compound was rosmarinic acid (RosA). RosA showed effective nematicidal activity, of which the LC?? (50% lethal concentration) to PWN at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 1.18 mg/g, 1.05 mg/g and 0.95 mg/g, respectively. To get a high yield rate of RosA from Z. marina, single factor experiments and an L? (3?) orthogonal experiment were performed. This extraction process involved 70% ethanol for 3 h at 40 °C. The extraction dosage was 1:50 (w/v). The highest yield of RosA from Zostera was 3.13 mg/g DW (dried weight). The crude extracts of Zostera marina (10 mg/mL) and RosA (1 mg/mL) also showed inhibitory effects to some bacterial strains carried by PWN: Klebsiella sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces sp. and Pantoea agglomerans. The results of these studies provide clues for preparing pesticide to control PWD from Z. marina. PMID:23201594

  5. Rosmarinic Acid from Eelgrass Shows Nematicidal and Antibacterial Activities against Pine Wood Nematode and Its Carrying Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyu; Pan, Xueru; Han, Yi; Guo, Daosen; Guo, Qunqun; Li, Ronggui

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD), a destructive disease for pine trees, is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and additional bacteria. In this study, extracts of Zostera marina showed a high nematicidal activity against PWN and some of the bacteria that it carries. Light yellow crystals were obtained from extracts of Z. marina through solvent extraction, followed by chromatography on AB-8 resin and crystallization. The NMR and HPLC analysis showed that the isolated compound was rosmarinic acid (RosA). RosA showed effective nematicidal activity, of which the LC50 (50% lethal concentration) to PWN at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was 1.18 mg/g, 1.05 mg/g and 0.95 mg/g, respectively. To get a high yield rate of RosA from Z. marina, single factor experiments and an L9 (34) orthogonal experiment were performed. This extraction process involved 70% ethanol for 3 h at 40 °C. The extraction dosage was 1:50 (w/v). The highest yield of RosA from Zostera was 3.13 mg/g DW (dried weight). The crude extracts of Zostera marina (10 mg/mL) and RosA (1 mg/mL) also showed inhibitory effects to some bacterial strains carried by PWN: Klebsiella sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces sp. and Pantoea agglomerans. The results of these studies provide clues for preparing pesticide to control PWD from Z. marina. PMID:23201594

  6. Contribution of hot spring bacterial consortium in cadmium and lead bioremediation through quadratic programming model.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sudip Kumar; Raut, Sangeeta; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Mohapatra, Pradeep Kumar Das

    2014-01-30

    In the present investigation, a number of experiments have been conducted to isolate microbial strains from Taptapani Hot Spring Odisha, India for bioremediation of cadmium and lead. The strains Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SS1), Aeromonas veronii (SS2) and Bacillus barbaricus (SS3) have shown better adaptation to metal tolerance test, with different concentrations of cadmium and lead and hence have been selected for further studies of metal microbial interaction and optimization. The results of bioremediation process indicate that consortium of thermophilic isolates adsorbed heavy metals more effectively than the individually treated isolates. Therefore, A 24 full factorial central composite design has been employed to analyze the effect of metal ion concentration, microbial concentration and time on removal of heavy metals with consortium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows a high coefficient of determination value. The kinetic data have been fitted to pseudo-first order and second-order models. The isotherm equilibrium data have been well fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The optimum removal conditions determined for initial ion concentration was 0.3g/l; contact time 72h; microbial concentration, 3ml/l; and pH 7. At optimum adsorption conditions, the adsorption of cadmium and lead are found to be 92% and 93%, respectively, and presence of metals was confirmed through EDS analysis. PMID:24333714

  7. Capillary isoelectric focusing of proteins and microorganisms in dynamically modified fused silica with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Horká, Marie; R?zicka, Filip; Horký, Jaroslav; Holá, Veronika; Slais, Karel

    2006-09-01

    We suggest a method for the reproducible and efficient capillary isoelectric focusing of proteins and microorganisms in the pH gradient 3-10. The method involves the segmental injection of the simple ampholytes, the solution of the selected electrolytes, and the sample mixture of bioanalytes and carrier ampholytes to the fused silica capillaries dynamically modified by poly(ethylene glycol), PEG 4000, which is added to the catholyte, the anolyte and injected solutions. In order to receive the reproducible results, the capillaries were rinsed by the mixture of acetone/ethanol between analyses. For the tracing of the pH gradients the low-molecular-mass pI markers were used. The simple proteins and the mixed cultures of microorganisms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCM 8191, Escherichia coli CCM 3954, Candida albicans CCM 8180, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae CCM 6187, Enterococcus faecalis CCM 4224, Staphylococcus epidermidis CCM 4418 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, were focused and separated by the method suggested. The minimum detectable number of microbial cells was 5x10(2) to 1x10(3) with on-column UV detection at 280 nm. PMID:16765111

  8. Counterion-activated nanoactuator: reversibly switchable killing/releasing bacteria on polycation brushes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jen; Chen, Yen-Sheng; Chang, Yung

    2015-02-01

    A strategy to release attached bacteria from surface-grafted bactericidal poly((trimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate chloride) (pTMAEMA) brushes has been proposed. The pTMAEMA brushes were fabricated via the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for contact killing of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The bacteria-conditioning surfaces, afterward, were washed with electrolyte solutions containing anions with different lipophilic characteristic, charge density, polarity and adsorbility to quaternary ammonium groups in polymers. Because of the special ion-pairing interactions, the interfacial properties, including wettability and ?-potential, can be manipulated in a controlled manner. Therefore, the counterion-assisted modulation of pTMAEMA brushes facilitates the bacterial release and regeneration of antimicrobial polymer films. The physicochemical properties of polymer brushes and their interactions with counterions were characterized using an ellipsometer, contact angle goniometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and an electrokinetic analyzer. The repetitive killing and releasing actions of pTMAEMA through unlocking and locking counterions were demonstrated, showing the robust effectiveness of the pTMAEMA-based nanoactuator in controlling the physical action by the chemical stimuli. The real-world implementation of the nanoactuator was demonstrated with a surgical scalpel by repelling killed bacteria and retaining reusability. PMID:25608105

  9. Specific and Functional Diversity of Endophytic Bacteria from Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus with Different Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Qin; Yuan, Wei-Min; Tian, Xiao-Jing; Fan, Ben; Fang, Xin; Ye, Jian-Ren; Ding, Xiao-Lei

    2013-01-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the most devastating diseases of Pinus spp. The PWN was therefore listed as one of the most dangerous forest pests in China meriting quarantine. Virulence of the PWN is closely linked with the spread of PWD. However, main factors responsible for the virulence of PWNs are still unclear. Recently epiphytic bacteria carried by PWNs have drawn much attention. But little is known about the relationship between endophytic bacteria and virulence of B. xylophilus. In this research, virulence of ten strains of B. xylophilus from different geographical areas in six provinces of China and four pine species were tested with 2-year-old seedlings of Pinus thunbergii. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from PWNs with different virulence to investigate the relationship between the bacteria and PWN virulence. Meanwhile, the carbon metabolism of endophytic bacteria from highly and low virulent B. xylophilus was analyzed using Biolog plates (ECO). The results indicated that ten strains of PWNs showed a wide range of virulence. Simultaneously, endophytic bacteria were isolated from 90% of the B. xylophilus strains. The dominant endophytic bacteria in the nematodes were identified as species of Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, Ewingella, Leifsonia, Rhizobium, and Pseudomonas using molecular and biochemical methods. Moreover, S. maltophilia, and A. xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans were the predominant strains. Most of the strains (80%) from P. massoniana contained either S. maltophilia, A. xylosoxidans, or both species. There was a difference between the abilities of the endophytic bacteria to utilize carbon sources. Endophytic bacteria from highly virulent B. xylophilus had a relatively high utilization rate of carbohydrate and carboxylic acids, while bacteria from low virulent B. xylophilus made better use of amino acids. In conclusion, endophytic bacteria widely exist in B. xylophilus from different pines and areas; and B. xylophilus strains with different virulence possessed various endophytic bacteria and diverse carbon metabolism which suggested that the endophytic bacteria species and carbon metabolism might be related with the B. xylophilus virulence. PMID:23289015

  10. Identification of Burkholderia spp. in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory: Comparison of Conventional and Molecular Methods

    PubMed Central

    van Pelt, Cindy; Verduin, Cees M.; Goessens, Wil H. F.; Vos, Margreet C.; Tümmler, Burkhard; Segonds, Christine; Reubsaet, Frans; Verbrugh, Henri; van Belkum, Alex

    1999-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) predisposes patients to bacterial colonization and infection of the lower airways. Several species belonging to the genus Burkholderia are potential CF-related pathogens, but microbiological identification may be complicated. This situation is not in the least due to the poorly defined taxonomic status of these bacteria, and further validation of the available diagnostic assays is required. A total of 114 geographically diverse bacterial isolates, previously identified in reference laboratories as Burkholderia cepacia (n = 51), B. gladioli (n = 14), Ralstonia pickettii (n = 6), B. multivorans (n = 2), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 3), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 11), were collected from environmental, clinical, and reference sources. In addition, 27 clinical isolates putatively identified as Burkholderia spp. were recovered from the sputum of Dutch CF patients. All isolates were used to evaluate the accuracy of two selective growth media, four systems for biochemical identification (API 20NE, Vitek GNI, Vitek NFC, and MicroScan), and three different PCR-based assays. The PCR assays amplify different parts of the ribosomal DNA operon, either alone or in combination with cleavage by various restriction enzymes (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism [RFLP] analysis). The best system for the biochemical identification of B. cepacia appeared to be the API 20NE test. None of the biochemical assays successfully grouped the B. gladioli strains. The PCR-RFLP method appeared to be the optimal method for accurate nucleic acid-mediated identification of the different Burkholderia spp. With this method, B. gladioli was also reliably classified in a separate group. For the laboratory diagnosis of B. cepacia, we recommend parallel cultures on blood agar medium and selective agar plates. Further identification of colonies with a Burkholderia phenotype should be performed with the API 20NE test. For final confirmation of species identities, PCR amplification of the small-subunit rRNA gene followed by RFLP analysis with various enzymes is recommended. PMID:10364579

  11. Discrepancy in MALDI-TOF MS identification of uncommon Gram-negative bacteria from lower respiratory secretions in patients with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    AbdulWahab, Atqah; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Ibrahim, Emad Bashir; Talaq, Eman; Abu-Madi, Marawan; Fotedar, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Early identification of microbial organisms from respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is important to guide therapeutic decisions. The objective was to compare the accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) relative to the conventional phenotypic method in identifying common bacterial isolates, including nonfermenting Gram-negative bacteria, in a cohort of patients with CF. Methods A total of 123 isolates from 50 patients with CF representing 14 bacterial species from respiratory specimens were identified using MALDI-TOF MS in parallel with conventional phenotypic methods. Discrepancies were confirmed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing in five Gram-negative isolates. Results The MALDI-TOF MS managed to identify 122/123 (99.2%) bacterial isolates to the genus level and 118/123 (95.9%) were identified to the species level. The MALDI-TOF MS results were 100% consistent to the species level with conventional phenotypic identification for isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and other uncommon organisms such as Chryseobacterium gleum and Enterobacter cloacae. The 5/123 (4.6%) isolates misidentified were all Gram-negative bacteria. The isolation of E. cloacae and Haemophilus paraphrohaemolyticus may extend the potentially pathogenic list of organisms isolated from patients with CF. Conclusion Although the technique provides an early identification and antimicrobial therapy approach in patients with CF, limitation in the diagnosis of uncommon Gram-negative bacteria may exist. PMID:25995646

  12. Antibacterial activity of BMS-180680, a new catechol-containing monobactam.

    PubMed

    Fung-Tomc, J; Bush, K; Minassian, B; Kolek, B; Flamm, R; Gradelski, E; Bonner, D

    1997-05-01

    The in vitro activities of a new catechol-containing monobactam, BMS-180680 (SQ 84,100), were compared to those of aztreonam, ceftazidime, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. BMS-180680 was often the most active compound against many species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, with MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited (MIC90s) of < or = 0.5 microg/ml for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter diversus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia marcescens, Proteus spp., and Providencia spp. BMS-180680 had moderate activities (MIC90s of 2 to 8 microg/ml) against Citrobacter freundii, Morganella morganii, Shigella spp., and non-E. aerogenes Enterobacter spp. BMS-180680 was the only antibiotic evaluated that was active against >90% of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC90, 0.25 microg/ml), Burkholderia cepacia, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (MIC90s, 1 microg/ml) strains tested. BMS-180680 was inactive against most strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas diminuta, and Burkholderia pickettii. BMS-180680 was moderately active (MIC90s of 4 to 8 microg/ml) against Alcaligenes spp. and Acinetobacter lwoffii and less active (MIC90, 16 microg/ml) against Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumanii complex. BMS-180680 lacked activity against gram-positive bacteria and anaerobic bacteria. Both tonB and cir fiu double mutants of E. coli had greatly decreased susceptibility to BMS-180680. Of the TEM, PSE, and chromosomal-encoded beta-lactamases tested, only the K1 enzyme hydrolyzed BMS-180680 to any measurable extent. Like aztreonam, BMS-180680 bound preferentially to penicillin-binding protein 3. The MICs of BMS-180680 were not influenced by the presence of hematin or 5% sheep blood in the test medium or with incubation in an atmosphere containing 5% CO2. BMS-180680 MICs obtained under strict anaerobic conditions were significantly higher than those obtained in ambient air. PMID:9145861

  13. Microbial contamination of glaucoma eyedrops used by patients compared with ocular medications used in the hospital.

    PubMed

    Teuchner, Barbara; Wagner, Julia; Bechrakis, Nikolaos E; Orth-Höller, Dorothea; Nagl, Markus

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the percentage of contamination of multiuse eyedrops applied by glaucoma patients at home and by the medical personnel at the outpatient department, the ward, and the operating room of our Department of Ophthalmology. Eyedrops were collected over a period of 11 months. Samples were taken from the dropper tip (smear), drops, and the residual fluid inside the bottle and cultivated on blood agar. Colony forming units were counted and identified by mass spectrometry. The percentage of contamination was significantly higher in eyedrops applied by the patients (29/119; 24.4%, P?Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Staphylococcus aureus) were found only in 6 bottles (1.5%), whereas most of the detected microbes belonged to human or environmental flora. This study underlines the importance of hygienic handling of eyedrops and raises the question of whether single-use glaucoma medication might be preferred to reduce the risk of contamination. PMID:25715262

  14. Diversity of bacteria nesting the plant cover of north Sinai deserts, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Amira L.; Youssef, Hanan H.; Amer, Wafaa M.; Monib, Mohammed; Fayez, Mohammed; Hegazi, Nabil A.

    2012-01-01

    North Sinai deserts were surveyed for the predominant plant cover and for the culturable bacteria nesting their roots and shoots. Among 43 plant species reported, 13 are perennial (e.g. Fagonia spp., Pancratium spp.) and 30 annuals (e.g. Bromus spp., Erodium spp.). Eleven species possessed rhizo-sheath, e.g. Cyperus capitatus, Panicum turgidum and Trisetaria koelerioides. Microbiological analyses demonstrated: the great diversity and richness of associated culturable bacteria, in particular nitrogen-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs); the majority of bacterial residents were of true and/or putative diazotrophic nature; the bacterial populations followed an increasing density gradient towards the root surfaces; sizeable populations were able to reside inside the root (endorhizosphere) and shoot (endophyllosphere) tissues. Three hundred bacterial isolates were secured from studied spheres. The majority of nitrogen-fixing bacilli isolates belonged to Bacillus megaterium,Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus polymexa,Bacillus macerans,Bacillus circulans and Bacillus licheniformis. The family Enterobacteriaceae represented by Enterobacter agglomerans,Enterobacter sackazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia adorifera,Serratia liquefaciens and Klebsiella oxytoca. The non-Enterobacteriaceae population was rich in Pantoae spp., Agrobacterium rdiobacter, Pseudomonas vesicularis, Pseudomonas putida, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Chrysemonas luteola.Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus were reported inside root and shoot tissues of a number of tested plants. The dense bacterial populations reported speak well to the very possible significant role played by the endophytic bacterial populations in the survival, in respect of nutrition and health, of existing plants. Such groups of diazotrophs are good candidates, as bio-preparates, to support the growth of future field crops grown in deserts of north Sinai and irrigated by the water of El-Salam canal. PMID:25685397

  15. Diversity of bacteria nesting the plant cover of north Sinai deserts, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Amira L; Youssef, Hanan H; Amer, Wafaa M; Monib, Mohammed; Fayez, Mohammed; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2013-01-01

    North Sinai deserts were surveyed for the predominant plant cover and for the culturable bacteria nesting their roots and shoots. Among 43 plant species reported, 13 are perennial (e.g. Fagonia spp., Pancratium spp.) and 30 annuals (e.g. Bromus spp., Erodium spp.). Eleven species possessed rhizo-sheath, e.g. Cyperus capitatus, Panicum turgidum and Trisetaria koelerioides. Microbiological analyses demonstrated: the great diversity and richness of associated culturable bacteria, in particular nitrogen-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs); the majority of bacterial residents were of true and/or putative diazotrophic nature; the bacterial populations followed an increasing density gradient towards the root surfaces; sizeable populations were able to reside inside the root (endorhizosphere) and shoot (endophyllosphere) tissues. Three hundred bacterial isolates were secured from studied spheres. The majority of nitrogen-fixing bacilli isolates belonged to Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus polymexa, Bacillus macerans, Bacillus circulans and Bacillus licheniformis. The family Enterobacteriaceae represented by Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter sackazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia adorifera, Serratia liquefaciens and Klebsiella oxytoca. The non-Enterobacteriaceae population was rich in Pantoae spp., Agrobacterium rdiobacter, Pseudomonas vesicularis, Pseudomonas putida, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Chrysemonas luteola. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus were reported inside root and shoot tissues of a number of tested plants. The dense bacterial populations reported speak well to the very possible significant role played by the endophytic bacterial populations in the survival, in respect of nutrition and health, of existing plants. Such groups of diazotrophs are good candidates, as bio-preparates, to support the growth of future field crops grown in deserts of north Sinai and irrigated by the water of El-Salam canal. PMID:25685397

  16. Colistin therapy for microbiologically documented multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections: a retrospective cohort study of 258 patients.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Rafailidis, Petros I; Ioannidou, Elda; Alexiou, Vangelis G; Matthaiou, Dimitrios K; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E; Kapaskelis, Anastasios; Nikita, Dimitra; Michalopoulos, Argyris

    2010-02-01

    It is unclear whether the effectiveness of polymyxins depends on the site of infection, the responsible pathogen, dosage, and monotherapy vs. combination therapy. We investigated colistin therapy in a large, retrospective, single-centre, cohort study. Primary analysis outcomes were infection outcome, survival and nephrotoxicity. Over a 7-year period (October 2000 to October 2007), 258 patients received intravenous (i.v.) colistin for at least 72h for microbiologically documented multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections, comprising 170 (65.9%) Acinetobacter baumannii, 68 (26.4%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 18 (7.0%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1 (0.4%) Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and 1 (0.4%) Enterobacter cloacae. Cure of infection occurred in 79.1% of patients, nephrotoxicity in 10% and hospital survival in 65.1%. In the multivariate analysis, independent predictors of survival were colistin average daily dose [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.42] and cure of infection (aOR=9, 95% CI 3.6-23.1), whilst the proportion of creatinine change (aOR=0.21, 95% CI 0.1-0.45), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (aOR=0.89, 95% CI 0.84-0.95) and haematological disease (aOR=0.23, 95% CI 0.08-0.66) were associated with mortality. Effectiveness of colistin was not dependent on the type of pathogen. No independent predictors for nephrotoxicity were observed. The findings of the largest cohort study to date on i.v. colistin show that colistin is a valuable antibiotic with acceptable nephrotoxicity and considerable effectiveness that depends on the daily dosage and infection site. PMID:20006471

  17. Conformational analysis and cytotoxic activities of the frog skin host-defense peptide, hymenochirin-1Pa.

    PubMed

    Serra, Ilaria; Scorciapino, Mariano A; Manzo, Giorgia; Casu, Mariano; Rinaldi, Andrea C; Attoub, Samir; Mechkarska, Milena; Conlon, J Michael

    2014-11-01

    Hymenochirin-1Pa (LKLSPKTKDTLKKVLKGAIKGAIAIASMA-NH2) is a host-defense peptide first isolated from skin secretions of the frog Pseudhymenochirus merlini (Pipidae). A nuclear magnetic resonance structural investigation demonstrates that the peptide has a random coil conformation in water but, in the membrane-mimetic solvent 50% (v/v) trifluoroethanol-water adopts a well-defined conformation characterized by two ?-helical domains from residues K6 to G17 and from G21 to M28, with the N-terminal region unfolded. The presence of a GXXXG domain, the most common structural motif found at the interface between interacting trans-membrane helices, between residues 17 and 21, introduces a kink corresponding to a deviation from linearity of 93 ± 31°. Hymenochirin-1Pa shows broad spectrum anti-bacterial activity, including high potency against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The peptide also shows high cytotoxic potency against human non-small lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, and colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells but its therapeutic potential as an anti-cancer agent is limited by moderate hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes and lack of selectivity for tumor cells. Increasing cationicity of the peptide by substituting the Asp(9) residue by either L-Lys (K) or D-Lys (k) has relatively minor effects on antimicrobial and anti-tumor potencies but the [D9k] analog is non-hemolytic LC50 > 400 ?M. Thus, [D9k]hymenochirin-1Pa may serve as a template for the design of non-toxic antimicrobial agents for use against multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. PMID:25241629

  18. Anti-cancer, immunoregulatory, and antimicrobial activities of the frog skin host-defense peptides pseudhymenochirin-1Pb and pseudhymenochirin-2Pa.

    PubMed

    Mechkarska, Milena; Attoub, Samir; Sulaiman, Shahrazad; Pantic, Jelena; Lukic, Miodrag L; Conlon, J Michael

    2014-11-01

    Pseudhymenochirin-1Pb (Ps-1Pb) and pseudhymenochirin-2Pa (Ps-2Pa) are host-defense peptides, first isolated from skin secretions of the frog Pseudhymenochirus merlini (Pipidae). Ps-1Pb and Ps-2Pa are highly cytotoxic (LC50<12 ?M) against non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, and colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells but are also hemolytic against human erythrocytes (LC50=28±2 ?M for Ps-1Pb and LC50=6±1 ?M for Ps-2Pa). Ps-2Pa shows selective cytotoxicity for tumor cells (LC50 against non-neoplastic human umbilical vein (HUVEC) cells=68±2 ?M). Ps-1Pb and Ps-2Pa (5 ?g/mL) significantly inhibit production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the multifunctional cytokine IL-6 from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 mice and enhance the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-23 from both unstimulated and LPS-stimulated macrophages. Ps-1Pb potently (MIC?10 ?M) inhibits growth of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of the Gram-positive bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and the Gram-negative bacteria Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Ps-2Pa shows the same high potency (MIC?10 ?M) against the Gram-positive bacteria but is 2-4 fold less potent against the Gram-negative isolates. Ps-1Pb at 4×MIC kills 99.9% of Escherichia coli within 30 min and 99.9% of S. aureus within 180 min. In conclusion, cytotoxicity against tumor cells, cytokine-mediated immunomodulatory properties, and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity suggest that the Ps-1Pb and Ps-2Pa represent templates for design of non-hemolytic analogs for tumor therapy and for treatment of infections in cancer patients produced by multidrug-resistant pathogens. PMID:25447194

  19. Novel cyclic di-GMP effectors of the YajQ protein family control bacterial virulence.

    PubMed

    An, Shi-qi; Caly, Delphine L; McCarthy, Yvonne; Murdoch, Sarah L; Ward, Joseph; Febrer, Melanie; Dow, J Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P

    2014-10-01

    Bis-(3',5') cyclic di-guanylate (cyclic di-GMP) is a key bacterial second messenger that is implicated in the regulation of many critical processes that include motility, biofilm formation and virulence. Cyclic di-GMP influences diverse functions through interaction with a range of effectors. Our knowledge of these effectors and their different regulatory actions is far from complete, however. Here we have used an affinity pull-down assay using cyclic di-GMP-coupled magnetic beads to identify cyclic di-GMP binding proteins in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). This analysis identified XC_3703, a protein of the YajQ family, as a potential cyclic di-GMP receptor. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the purified XC_3703 protein bound cyclic di-GMP with a high affinity (K(d)?2 µM). Mutation of XC_3703 led to reduced virulence of Xcc to plants and alteration in biofilm formation. Yeast two-hybrid and far-western analyses showed that XC_3703 was able to interact with XC_2801, a transcription factor of the LysR family. Mutation of XC_2801 and XC_3703 had partially overlapping effects on the transcriptome of Xcc, and both affected virulence. Electromobility shift assays showed that XC_3703 positively affected the binding of XC_2801 to the promoters of target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by cyclic di-GMP. Genetic and functional analysis of YajQ family members from the human pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia showed that they also specifically bound cyclic di-GMP and contributed to virulence in model systems. The findings thus identify a new class of cyclic di-GMP effector that regulates bacterial virulence. PMID:25329577

  20. Bacterial resistance control on mineral surfaces of hydroxyapatite and human teeth via surface charge-driven antifouling coatings.

    PubMed

    Venault, Antoine; Yang, Hui-Shan; Chiang, Yen-Che; Lee, Bor-Shuinn; Ruaan, Ruoh-Chyu; Chang, Yung

    2014-03-12

    This works reports a set of new functionalized polyethyleneimine (PEI) polymers, including a neutral PEGylated polymer PEI-g-PEGMA, a negatively charged polymer PEI-g-SA, and a zwitterionic polymer PEI-g-SBMA, and their use as antibiofouling coating agent for human teeth protection. Polymers were synthesized by Michael addition, XPS analysis revealed that each polymer could be efficiently coated onto hydroxyapatite, ceramic material used as a model tooth. Polymers carrying a negative net charge were more efficiently adsorbed, because of the establishment of electrostatic interactions with calcium ions. Protein adsorption tests revealed that two factors were important in the reduction of protein adsorption. Both the surface charge and the surface ability to bind and entrap water molecules had to be considered. PEI-g-SBMA, which zeta potential in PBS solution was negative, was efficient to inhibit the adsorption of BSA, a negative protein. On the other hand, it also resisted the adsorption of lysozyme, a positive protein, because zwitterionic molecules can easily entrap water and provide a very hydrophilic environment. Streptococcus mutans attachment tests performed unveiled that all modified polymers were efficient to resist this type of bacteria responsible for dental carries. Best results were also obtained with PEI-g-SBMA coating. This polymer was also shown to efficiently resist the adsorption of positively charged bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia). Tests performed on real human tooth showed that PEI-g-SBMA could inhibit up to 70% of bacteria adhesion, which constitutes a major result considering that surface of teeth is very rough, therefore physically promoting the attachment of proteins and bacteria. PMID:24513459

  1. Isolation of UV-B resistant bacteria from two high altitude Andean lakes (4,400 m) with saline and non saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Flores, María R; Ordoñez, Omar F; Maldonado, Marcos J; Farías, María E

    2009-12-01

    Laguna (L.) Negra and L. Verde are high altitude Andean lakes located at the 4,400 m altitude in the Andean desert (Puna) in the Argentine northwest. Both lakes are exposed to extreme weather conditions but differ in salinity contents (salinity 6.7% for L. Negra and 0.27% for L. Verde). The aim of this work was to isolate ultraviolet B fraction (UV-B) resistant bacteria under UV-stress in order to determine, a possible connection, between resistance to UV-B and tolerance to salinity. DNA damage was determined by measuring CPDs accumulation. Connection among pigmentation production and UV resistance was also studied. Water samples were exposed to artificial UV-B radiation for 24 h. Water aliquots were plated along the exposition on different media, with different salinity and carbon source content (Lake medium (LM) done with the lake water plus agar and LB). CFU were counted and DNA damage accumulation was determined. Isolated bacteria were identified by 16S rDNA sequence. Their salinity tolerance, were measured at 1, 5 and 10% NaCl and their pigment production in both media was determined. In general it was found that UV resistance and pigment production were the optimum in Lake Medium done with lake water which maintained similar salinity. The most resistant bacteria in L. Negra were different strains of Exiguobacterium sp. and, in L. Verde, Staphylococcus sp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. These bacteria showed the production and increase of UV-Vis absorbing compounds under UV stress and in LM. Bacterial communities from both lakes were well adapted to high UV-B exposure under the experimental conditions, and in many cases UV-B even stimulated growth. The idea that resistance to UV-B could be related to adaptation to high salinity is still an open question that has to be answered with future experiments. PMID:20118609

  2. Bacterial reduction of selenium in coal mine tailings pond sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Siddique, T.; Arocena, J.M.; Thring, R.W.; Zhang, Y.Q. [University of North British Columbia, Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    Sediment from a storage facility for coal tailings solids was assessed for its capacity to reduce selenium (Se) by native bacterial community. One Se{sup 6+}-reducing bacterium Enterobacter hormaechei (Tar11) and four Se{sup 4+}-reducing bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae (Tar1), Pseudomonasfluorescens (Tar3), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Tar6), and Enterobacter amnigenus (Tar8) were isolated from the sediment. Enterobacter horinaechei removed 96% of the added Se{sup 6+} (0.92 mg L{sup -1} from the effluents when Se6+ was determined after 5 d of incubation. Analysis of the red precipitates showed that Se{sup 6+} reduction resulted in the formation of spherical particles ({lt}1.0 {mu} m) of Se 0 as observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confirmed by EDAX. Selenium speciation was performed to examine the fate of the added Se{sup 6+} in the sediment with or without addition of Enterobacter hormaechei cells. More than 99% of the added Se{sup 6+} (about 2.5 mg L{sup -1}) was transformed in the nonsterilized sediment (without Enterobacter hormaechei cells) as well as in the sterilized (heat-killed) sediment (with Enterobacter hormaechei cells). The results of this study suggest that the lagoon sediments at the mine site harbor Se{sup 6+}- and Se{sup 4+} -reducing bacteria and may be important sinks for soluble Se (Se{sup 6+} and Se{sup 4+}). Enterobacter hormaechei isolated from metal-contaminated sediment may have potential application in removing Se from industrial effluents.

  3. Microbe associated molecular patterns from rhizosphere bacteria trigger germination and Papaver somniferum metabolism under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, A; Sarria, A L F; Algar, E; Muñoz Ledesma, F J; Ramos Solano, B; Fernandes, J B; Gutierrez Mañero, F J

    2014-01-01

    Ten PGPR from different backgrounds were assayed on Papaver somniferum var. Madrigal to evaluate their potential as biotic elicitors to increase alkaloid content under the rationale that some microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) are able to trigger plant metabolism. First, the 10 strains and their culture media at two different concentrations were tested for their ability to trigger seed germination. Then, the best three strains were tested for their ability to increase seedling growth and alkaloid levels under greenhouse conditions. Only three strains and their culture media enhanced germination. Then, germination enhancing capacity of these best three strains, N5.18 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aur9 Chryseobacterium balustinum and N21.4 Pseudomonas fluorescens was evaluated in soil. Finally, the three strains were applied on seedlings at two time points, by soil drench or by foliar spray. Photosynthesis was measured, plant height was recorded, capsules were weighted and alkaloids analyzed by HPLC. Only N5.18 delivered by foliar spray significantly increased plant height coupled to an increase in total alkaloids and a significant increase in opium poppy straw dry weight; these increases were supported by a better photosynthetic efficiency. The relative contents of morphine, thebaine, codeine and oripavine were affected by this treatment causing a significant increase in morphine coupled to a decrease in thebaine, demonstrating the effectivity of MAMPs from N5.18 in this plant species. Considering the increase in capsule biomass and alkaloids together with the acceleration of germination, strain N5.18 appears as a good candidate to elicit plant metabolism and consequently, to increase productivity of Papaver somniferum. PMID:24296249

  4. Composting and vermicomposting experiences in the treatment and bioconversion of asphaltens from the Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Martín-Gil, Jesús; Navas-Gracia, Luís Manuel; Gómez-Sobrino, Ernesto; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; del Carmen Ramos-Sánchez, María

    2008-04-01

    This work illustrates the effectiveness of composting and vermicomposting in degrading fuel-in-water emulsions from oil spills (chapapote), and the isolation of potentially useful microorganisms for its biodegradation. Firstly, an alternative to the biodegradation of asphaltens from the Prestige oil spill (still present in some chapapote rafts in the Cantabrian coast) by means of the application of composting techniques to a microbial partnership acclimated to fuel-oil is offered. Our aim is that, after a relatively short period of time, the microorganisms can obtain its source of carbon and energy from asphaltens. The addition of metabolic co-substrates, like cow bed and potato peelings, allows the fragmentation of complex compounds into smaller structures, susceptible to further degradation. Afterwards, a maturation of the compost by means of a treatment with earthworms (Eisenia foetida) is necessary. Thus, through the vermicomposting it will be possible to obtain a valued product, useful in the processes of ground amendment, with little presence of asphaltens and occluded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, rich in humus, and with an important bacterial flora of Bacillus genera, so that it can be typical of co-activators and accelerating products in composting processes. Along with this article, we show some parameters that control the evolution of the compost products (evolved gases, acidity, temperature and humidity); the chemical and microbiological analytical results; and the germination assays of vermicomposting. Results reveal that by using microorganisms living in either earthworm intestines (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) or vermiculture substrates (Scedosporium apiospermium), it is possible to degrade and to eliminate the polycyclic asphaltens into CO(2) and H(2)O, helped by evaporation, dissolution and/or photo-oxidation processes. The obtained end product has contents of interesting vegetal nutrients and, mainly, it displays very high germination indices. PMID:17512195

  5. Mutations of an NAD(P)H-dependent flavoprotein monooxygenase that influence cofactor promiscuity and enantioselectivity?

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Chantel N.; Ali, Sohail T.; Allen, Michael J.; Grogan, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    The flavoprotein monooxygenase (FPMO) from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SMFMO, Uniprot: B2FLR2) catalyses the asymmetric oxidation of thioethers and is unusual amongst FPMOs in its ability to use the non-phosphorylated cofactor NADH, as well as NADPH, for the reduction of the FAD coenzyme. In order to explore the basis for cofactor promiscuity, structure-guided mutation of two residues in the cofactor binding site, Gln193 and His194, in SMFMO were performed in an attempt to imitate the cofactor binding site of the NADPH-dependent FMO from Methylophaga aminisulfidivorans sp. SK1 (mFMO), in which structurally homologous residues Arg234 and Thr235 bind the NADPH 2?-ribose phosphate. Mutation of His194 to threonine proved most significant, with a switch in specificity from NADH to NADPH [(kcat/Km NADH)/kcat/Km NADPH) from 1.5:1 to 1:3.5, mostly as a result of a reduced Km for NADPH of approximately sevenfold in the His194Thr mutant. The structure of the Gln193Arg/His194Thr mutant revealed no substantial changes in the backbone of the enzyme or orientation of side chains resulting from mutation. Mutation of Phe52, in the vicinity of FAD, and which in mFMO is an asparagine thought to be responsible for flavin hydroperoxide stabilisation, is, in SMFMO, a determinant of enantioselectivity in sulfoxidation. Mutation of Phe52 to valine resulted in a mutant that transformed para-tolyl methyl sulfide into the (S)-sulfoxide with 32% e.e., compared to 25% (R)- for the wild type. These results shed further light both on the cofactor specificity of FPMOs, and their determinants of enantioselectivity, with a view to informing engineering studies of FPMOs in the future. PMID:24251114

  6. Additional observations and notes on the natural history of the prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Shipley, Bryon K; Newquist, Kristin L; Vera, Rebecca; Flood, Aryn A

    2013-11-01

    On account of their unique anatomy, physiology, natural history, ecology, and behavior, rattlesnakes make ideal subjects for a variety of different scientific disciplines. The prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) in Colorado was selected for investigation of its relationship to colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) with regard to spatial ecology. A total of 31 snakes were anesthetized and had radiotransmitters surgically implanted. In addition, at the time of their capture, all snakes underwent the following: (1) they had bacterial culture taken from their mouths for potential isolation of pathogenic bacteria; (2) similarly, they had cloacal bacterial cultures taken to assess potentially harmful bacteria passed in the feces; and (3) they had blood samples drawn to investigate the presence of any zoonotic agents in the serum of the snakes. The results of the study and their implications are discussed here. Traditionally, a low incidence of bacterial wound infection has been reported following snakebite. Nevertheless, the oral cavity of snakes has long been known to house a wide variety of bacterial flora. In our study, 10 different bacterial species were isolated from the mouths of the rattlesnakes, 6 of which are capable of being zoonotic pathogens and inducing human disease. More studies are necessary to see why more rattlesnake bites do not become infected despite the presence of such pathogenic bacteria. The results of fecal bacteria isolated revealed 13 bacterial species, 12 of which can cause disease in humans. Of the snakes whose samples were cultured, 26% were positive for the presence of the pathogen Salmonella arizonae, one of the causative agents of reptile-related salmonellosis in humans. It has long been reported that captive reptiles have a much higher incidence than wild, free-ranging species. This study shows the incidence of Salmonella in a wild, free-ranging population of rattlesnakes. In addition, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was isolated. This bacterium is associated with wound and soft tissue infections that can lead to sepsis, endocarditis, meningitis, and peritonitis. In addition, this bacterium has been increasingly implicated as an opportunistic pathogen to humans during pregnancies, hospitalizations, malignancies and chemotherapy, chronic respiratory diseases, and presurgical endotracheal intubation. Furthermore, S. maltophilia has an intense resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics, the results of our study showed the bacterium was resistant to multiple antibiotics. Our results indicate that anyone working with snake feces, dead skin, or their carcasses must follow reasonable hygiene protocols. Rattlesnakes tested for West Nile antibodies had positive results but these were invalidated owing to possible cross-reactivity with other unknown viruses, interference with snake serum proteins, and the fact that the test was not calibrated for rattlesnake serum. Still, the interesting implication remains, should we be regularly testing these animals as sentinels against potentially zoonotic diseases. The results of this study clearly show the value of veterinarians in a multidisciplinary study of this sort and the particular skill set they can offer. Veterinarians must get involved in conservation studies if the biodiversity of the planet is to be preserved. PMID:24331557

  7. Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during processing of valerian roots on farms.

    PubMed

    Skórska, Czes?awa; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Krysi?ska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during various stages of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) roots processing by herb farmers and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 15 farms owned by valerian cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the air showed a marked variability and were within a range of 0.95-7,966.6 x 10(3) cfu/m (3). Though median was relatively low (10.75 x 10(3) cfu/m (3)), on 4 farms the concentrations exceeded the level of 10(5) cfu/m (3) and on 1 farm the level of 10(6) cfu/m (3). During the processing of valerian roots, distinct changes could be observed in the composition of airborne microflora. In the first stages of processing, the freshly dug and washed roots until shaking in the drying room, the most numerous were Gram-negative bacteria of the family Pseudomonadaceae (mostly Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas fluorescens). After drying, the dominant organisms were thermo-resistant endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and fungi, among which prevailed Aspergillus fumigatus. Altogether, 29 species or genera of bacteria and 19 species or genera of fungi were identified in the farm air during valerian processing, of these, 10 and 12 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin on the examined farms were very large and ranged from 10.0-776.7 mg/m (3), and from 0.15-24,448.2 microg/m (3), respectively (medians 198.3 mg/m (3) and 40.48 microg/m (3)). In conclusion, farmers cultivating valerian could be exposed during processing of valerian roots to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin posing a risk of work-related respiratory disease. PMID:16028876

  8. Persistence of microbial communities including Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a hospital environment: a potential health hazard

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The persistence of microbial communities and how they change in indoor environments is of immense interest to public health. Moreover, hospital acquired infections are significant contributors to morbidity and mortality. Evidence suggests that, in hospital environments agent transfer between surfaces causes healthcare associated infections in humans, and that surfaces are an important transmission route and may act as a reservoir for some of the pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity of microorganisms that persist on noncritical equipment and surfaces in a main hospital in Portugal, and are able to grow in selective media for Pseudomonas, and relate them with the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results During 2 years, a total of 290 environmental samples were analyzed, in 3 different wards. The percentage of equipment in each ward that showed low contamination level varied between 22% and 38%, and more than 50% of the equipment sampled was highly contaminated. P. aeruginosa was repeatedly isolated from sinks (10 times), from the taps’ biofilm (16 times), and from the showers and bedside tables (two times). Two ERIC clones were isolated more than once. The contamination level of the different taps analyzed showed correlation with the contamination level of the hand gels support, soaps and sinks. Ten different bacteria genera were frequently isolated in the selective media for Pseudomonas. Organisms usually associated with nosocomial infections as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Enterococcus feacalis, Serratia nematodiphila were also repeatedly isolated on the same equipment. Conclusions The environment may act as a reservoir for at least some of the pathogens implicated in nosocomial infections. The bacterial contamination level was related to the presence of humidity on the surfaces, and tap water (biofilm) was a point of dispersion of bacterial species, including potentially pathogenic organisms. The materials of the equipment sampled could not be related to the microbial contamination level. The presence of a disinfectant in the isolation medium suggests that the number of microorganism in the environment could be higher and shows the diversity of disinfectant resistant species. The statistical analysis suggests that the presence of bacteria could increase the risk of transmission by hand manipulation. PMID:24885173

  9. Application of a constructed wetland system for polluted stream remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Y. T.; Chiang, P. C.; Yang, J.; Chen, S. H.; Kao, C. M.

    2014-03-01

    In 2010, the multi-function Kaoping River Rail Bridge Constructed Wetland (KRRBW) was constructed to improve the stream water quality and rehabilitate the ecosystem of the surrounding environment of Dashu Region, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. The KRRBW consists of five wetland basins with a total water surface area of 15 ha, a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10.1 days at a averaged flow rate of 14 740 m3/day, and an averaged water depth of 1.1 m. The influent of KRRBW coming from the local drainage systems containing untreated domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastewaters. Based on the quarterly investigation results of water samples taken in 2011-2012, the overall removal efficiencies were 91% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 75% for total nitrogen (TN), 96% for total phosphorus (TP), and 99% for total coliforms (TC). The calculated first-order decay rates for BOD, TN, TP, NH3-N, and TC ranged from 0.14 (TN) to 0.42 (TC) 1/day. This indicates that the KRRBW was able to remove organics, TC, and nutrients effectively. The high ammonia/nitrate removal efficiency indicates that nitrification and denitrification processes occurred simultaneously in the wetland system, and the detected nitrite concentration confirmed the occurrence of denitrification/nitrification. Results from sediment analyses reveal that the sediment contained high concentrations of organics (sediment oxygen demand = 1.9-5.2 g O2/m2 day), nutrients (up to 15.8 g total nitrogen/kg of sediment and 1.48 g total phosphorus/kg of sediment), and metals (up to 547 mg/kg of Zn and 97 mg/kg of Cu). Appropriate wetland management strategies need to be developed to prevent the release of contaminants into the wetland system. The wetland system caused the variations in the microbial diversities and dominant microbial bacteria. Results show the dominant nitrogen utilization bacteria including Denitratisoma oestradiolicum, Nitrosospira sp., Nitrosovibrio sp., D. oestradiolicum, Alcaligenes sp., Steroidobacter denitrificans, Hydrocarboniphaga effuse were responsible for nitrogen removal, and the dominant carbon degrading bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, H. effuse, Alcaligenes sp., Pseudomonas sp., Fusibacter sp., Chlofoflexi, Guggenheimella bovis, Bacillus pumilus) were responsible for carbon reduction. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and nucleotide sequence techniques provide a guide for microbial ecology evaluation, which can be used as an indication of contaminants removal. Results from this study show that constructed wetlands have the potential to be developed into an environmentally acceptable river water quality improvement and wastewater polishment alternative for practical application.

  10. Sensitive, resistant and multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumanii at Saudi Arabia hospital eastern region.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mughis Uddin; Farooq, Reshma; Al-Hawashim, Nadia; Ahmed, Motasim; Yiannakou, Nearchos; Sayeed, Fatima; Sayed, Ali Rifat; Lutfullah, Sualiha

    2015-05-01

    Since the Physicians start use of antibiotics long ago with un-notice drug resistance. However actual problem was recognized about 85 years ago. Antibiotic resistant and Multi-drug resistant bacterial strains are at rise throughout the world. It is physicians and researchers to take scientific research based appropriate action to overcome this ever-spreading problem. This study is designed to find out sensitive (S), resistant (R) and multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumanii strain along with other isolates in the resident patients of Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is excluded from other gram-negative organisms isolated from different sites as it will be dealt separately. This study is based in was retrospective observations designed to collect data of different stains of Acinetobacter baumanii with reference to their Sensitivity (S), Resistance (R), Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR) along with other Gram negative isolated from different sites (from 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2011) at King Abdulaziz Hospital located Eastern Region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). All necessary techniques were used to culture and perform sensitivity of these isolates. There were 4532 isolates out of which 3018 (67%) were from patients. Out of Acinetobacter baumanii infected were 906 (20%) while other 3626 (80%) isolates were miscellaneous. Numbers of patients or cases were 480 (53%) out of 906 isolates and numbers of patients or cases in other organisms were 2538 (70%) out of 3626 isolates. Acinetobacter baumanii infected patients 221 (46%) were male and 259 (54%) were female and the male and female ratio of 1:1.2. In other organisms this male female ratio was almost same. There was steady rise in number of patients and the hence the isolates from 2004 to 2011. Majority of the bacterial strains were isolated as single organism but some were isolated as double or triple or quadruple or more organisms from different sites. Sensitive, Resistant and Multi-Drug Resistant Acinetobacter baumanii have been isolated from different sites. The other Gram negative isolates included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia marcescens and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. A significant rise in R and MDR but there is rise in R and MDR Acinetobacter baumanii Strains has been interceded other isolates. It is important to adopt proper and sustainable policies and guideline regarding antibiotics prescription and used. We should also check our infection control practices in our hospital or healthcare settings. We should start antibiotics stewardship in our hospital in order to reducing or overcoming antibiotics Resistant (R) and Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) strains prevalence. PMID:26004714

  11. Isolation and Characterization of a Virulent Bacteriophage AB1 of Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial pathogen worldwide with increasing prevalence of multi-drug and pan-drug resistance. A. baumannii exists widely in natural environment, especially in health care settings, and has been shown difficult to be eradicated. Bacteriophages are often considered alternative agent for controlling bacterial infection and contamination. In this study, we described the isolation and characterization of one virulent bacteriophage AB1 capable of specifically infecting A. baumannii. Results A virulent bacteriophage AB1, specific for infecting a clinical strain A. baumannii KD311, was first isolated from marine sediment sample. Restriction analysis indicated that phage AB1 was a dsDNA virus with an approximate genome size of 45.2 kb to 46.9 kb. Transmission electron microscopy showed that phage AB1 had an icosahedral head with a non-contractile tail and collar or whisker structures, and might be tentatively classified as a member of the Siphoviridae family. Proteomic pattern of phage AB1, generated by SDS-PAGE using purified phage particles, revealed five major bands and six minor bands with molecular weight ranging from 14 to 80 kilo-dalton. Also determined was the adsorption rate of phage AB1 to the host bacterium, which was significantly enhanced by addition of 10 mM CaCl2. In a single step growth test, phage AB1 was shown having a latent period of 18 minutes and a burst size of 409. Moreover, pH and thermal stability of phage AB1 were also investigated. At the optimal pH 6.0, 73.2% of phages survived after 60 min incubation at 50°C. When phage AB1 was used to infect four additional clinical isolates of A. baumannii, one clinical isolate of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lab strains PAK and PAO1, none of the tested strains was found susceptible, indicating a relatively narrow host range for phage AB1. Conclusion Phage AB1 was capable of eliciting efficient lysis of A. baumannii, revealing its potential as a non-toxic sanitizer for controlling A. baumannii infection and contamination in both hospital and other public environments. PMID:20426877

  12. Analysis of bacterial community structure in sulfurous-oil-containing soils and detection of species carrying dibenzothiophene desulfurization (dsz) genes.

    PubMed

    Duarte, G F; Rosado, A S; Seldin, L; de Araujo, W; van Elsas, J D

    2001-03-01

    The selective effects of sulfur-containing hydrocarbons, with respect to changes in bacterial community structure and selection of desulfurizing organisms and genes, were studied in soil. Samples taken from a polluted field soil (A) along a concentration gradient of sulfurous oil and from soil microcosms treated with dibenzothiophene (DBT)-containing petroleum (FSL soil) were analyzed. Analyses included plate counts of total bacteria and of DBT utilizers, molecular community profiling via soil DNA-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and detection of genes that encode enzymes involved in the desulfurization of hydrocarbons, i.e., dszA, dszB, and dszC. Data obtained from the A soil showed no discriminating effects of oil levels on the culturable bacterial numbers on either medium used. Generally, counts of DBT degraders were 10- to 100-fold lower than the total culturable counts. However, PCR-DGGE showed that the numbers of bands detected in the molecular community profiles decreased with increasing oil content of the soil. Analysis of the sequences of three prominent bands of the profiles generated with the highly polluted soil samples suggested that the underlying organisms were related to Actinomyces sp., Arthrobacter sp., and a bacterium of uncertain affiliation. dszA, dszB, and dszC genes were present in all A soil samples, whereas a range of unpolluted soils gave negative results in this analysis. Results from the study of FSL soil revealed minor effects of the petroleum-DBT treatment on culturable bacterial numbers and clear effects on the DBT-utilizing communities. The molecular community profiles were largely stable over time in the untreated soil, whereas they showed a progressive change over time following treatment with DBT-containing petroleum. Direct PCR assessment revealed the presence of dszB-related signals in the untreated FSL soil and the apparent selection of dszA- and dszC-related sequences by the petroleum-DBT treatment. PCR-DGGE applied to sequential enrichment cultures in DBT-containing sulfur-free basal salts medium prepared from the A and treated FSL soils revealed the selection of up to 10 distinct bands. Sequencing a subset of these bands provided evidence for the presence of organisms related to Pseudomonas putida, a Pseudomonas sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Rhodococcus erythropolis. Several of 52 colonies obtained from the A and FSL soils on agar plates with DBT as the sole sulfur source produced bands that matched the migration of bands selected in the enrichment cultures. Evidence for the presence of dszB in 12 strains was obtained, whereas dszA and dszC genes were found in only 7 and 6 strains, respectively. Most of the strains carrying dszA or dszC were classified as R. erythropolis related, and all revealed the capacity to desulfurize DBT. A comparison of 37 dszA sequences, obtained via PCR from the A and FSL soils, from enrichments of these soils, and from isolates, revealed the great similarity of all sequences to the canonical (R. erythropolis strain IGTS8) dszA sequence and a large degree of internal conservation. The 37 sequences recovered were grouped in three clusters. One group, consisting of 30 sequences, was minimally 98% related to the IGTS8 sequence, a second group of 2 sequences was slightly different, and a third group of 5 sequences was 95% similar. The first two groups contained sequences obtained from both soil types and enrichment cultures (including isolates), but the last consisted of sequences obtained directly from the polluted A soil. PMID:11229891

  13. Analysis of Bacterial Community Structure in Sulfurous-Oil-Containing Soils and Detection of Species Carrying Dibenzothiophene Desulfurization (dsz) Genes

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Gabriela Frois; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Seldin, Lucy; de Araujo, Welington; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2001-01-01

    The selective effects of sulfur-containing hydrocarbons, with respect to changes in bacterial community structure and selection of desulfurizing organisms and genes, were studied in soil. Samples taken from a polluted field soil (A) along a concentration gradient of sulfurous oil and from soil microcosms treated with dibenzothiophene (DBT)-containing petroleum (FSL soil) were analyzed. Analyses included plate counts of total bacteria and of DBT utilizers, molecular community profiling via soil DNA-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and detection of genes that encode enzymes involved in the desulfurization of hydrocarbons, i.e., dszA, dszB, and dszC.Data obtained from the A soil showed no discriminating effects of oil levels on the culturable bacterial numbers on either medium used. Generally, counts of DBT degraders were 10- to 100-fold lower than the total culturable counts. However, PCR-DGGE showed that the numbers of bands detected in the molecular community profiles decreased with increasing oil content of the soil. Analysis of the sequences of three prominent bands of the profiles generated with the highly polluted soil samples suggested that the underlying organisms were related to Actinomyces sp., Arthrobacter sp., and a bacterium of uncertain affiliation. dszA, dszB, and dszC genes were present in all A soil samples, whereas a range of unpolluted soils gave negative results in this analysis. Results from the study of FSL soil revealed minor effects of the petroleum-DBT treatment on culturable bacterial numbers and clear effects on the DBT-utilizing communities. The molecular community profiles were largely stable over time in the untreated soil, whereas they showed a progressive change over time following treatment with DBT-containing petroleum. Direct PCR assessment revealed the presence of dszB-related signals in the untreated FSL soil and the apparent selection of dszA- and dszC-related sequences by the petroleum-DBT treatment. PCR-DGGE applied to sequential enrichment cultures in DBT-containing sulfur-free basal salts medium prepared from the A and treated FSL soils revealed the selection of up to 10 distinct bands. Sequencing a subset of these bands provided evidence for the presence of organisms related to Pseudomonas putida, a Pseudomonas sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Rhodococcus erythropolis. Several of 52 colonies obtained from the A and FSL soils on agar plates with DBT as the sole sulfur source produced bands that matched the migration of bands selected in the enrichment cultures. Evidence for the presence of dszB in 12 strains was obtained, whereas dszA and dszC genes were found in only 7 and 6 strains, respectively. Most of the strains carrying dszA or dszC were classified as R. erythropolis related, and all revealed the capacity to desulfurize DBT. A comparison of 37 dszA sequences, obtained via PCR from the A and FSL soils, from enrichments of these soils, and from isolates, revealed the great similarity of all sequences to the canonical (R. erythropolis strain IGTS8) dszA sequence and a large degree of internal conservation. The 37 sequences recovered were grouped in three clusters. One group, consisting of 30 sequences, was minimally 98% related to the IGTS8 sequence, a second group of 2 sequences was slightly different, and a third group of 5 sequences was 95% similar. The first two groups contained sequences obtained from both soil types and enrichment cultures (including isolates), but the last consisted of sequences obtained directly from the polluted A soil. PMID:11229891

  14. Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Strain LCT-EC52, Which Acquired Changes in Antibiotic Resistance Properties after the Shenzhou-VIII Mission.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Chang, De; Zhang, Xuelin; Yu, Yi; Guo, Yinghua; Wang, Junfeng; Li, Tianzhi; Xu, Guogang; Dai, Wenkui; Liu, Changting

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the lower intestines of humans and causes several diseases, such as septicemia, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of E. coli strain LCT-EC52, which originated from E. coli strain CGMCC 1.2385 and acquired changes in antibiotic resistance following travel on the Shenzhou-VIII spacecraft. PMID:24604641

  15. Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Strain LCT-EC52, Which Acquired Changes in Antibiotic Resistance Properties after the Shenzhou-VIII Mission

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong; Chang, De; Zhang, Xuelin; Yu, Yi; Guo, Yinghua; Wang, Junfeng; Li, Tianzhi; Xu, Guogang; Dai, Wenkui

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the lower intestines of humans and causes several diseases, such as septicemia, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of E. coli strain LCT-EC52, which originated from E. coli strain CGMCC 1.2385 and acquired changes in antibiotic resistance following travel on the Shenzhou-VIII spacecraft. PMID:24604641

  16. Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium adolesentis BBMN23, a probiotic strain from healthy centenarian.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songling; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Fazheng; Sun, Erna; Zhang, Ming; Guo, Huiyuan

    2015-03-20

    Bifidobacterium adolesentis BBMN23 (CGMCC No. 2264) was a probiotic strain originated from the feces of a centenarian. It is an excellent model for the study of the adaptation of genus bifidobacteria to adult human gut, which is a key factor in bifidobacterial strains that allows them to persist in gut and become useful in the food and medical industries. In the present study the complete genome sequence of BBMN23 is presented to provide insight into this strain. PMID:25678139

  17. Planomicrobium soli sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianli; Li, Dai; Xin, Yuhua; Xin, Di; Fan, Lei

    2014-08-01

    A Gram-staining-positive bacterium, designated strain XN13(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from ALaShan National Geological Park in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China and subjected to a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. Strain XN13(T) was found to have a range of chemical and morphological properties consistent with its classification in the genus Planomicrobium. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain XN13(T) was related to members of the genus Planomicrobium. The closest phylogenetic relatives were Planomicrobium okeanokoites NBRC 12536(T), Planomicrobium koreense JG07(T), Planomicrobium mcmeekinii S23F2(T) and Planomicrobium flavidum ISL-41(T) with 98.2%, 97.8%, 97.8% and 97.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15?:?0), C(16?:?1)?7c alcohol, iso-C(14?:?0) and C(16?:?1)?11c. The predominant menaquinones were MK-8 and MK-7. The DNA G+C content was 40.3 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain XN13(T) and Planomicrobium okeanokoites KCTC 3672(T), Planomicrobium koreense KCTC 3684(T), P. mcmeekinii CGMCC 1.2724(T), Planomicrobium flavidum KCTC 13261(T), Planomicrobium chinense CGMCC 1.3454(T) and Planomicrobium glaciei CGMCC 1.6846(T) were 36%, 30%, 34%, 29%, 30% and 31%, respectively. The organism is different from recognized species of the genus Planomicrobium in several phenotypic characteristics. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic properties, strain XN13(T) represents a novel species of the genus Planomicrobium, for which the name Planomicrobium soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XN13(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.12259(T)?=?KCTC 33047(T)). PMID:24854007

  18. Microorganisms for degrading simmondsin and related cyanogenic toxins in jojoba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas P. Abbott; Lawrence K. Nakamura; Terry C. Nelsen; Helen J. Gasdorf; Glenn A. Bennett; Robert Kleiman

    1990-01-01

    Four microorganisms that metabolize simmondsin (S) and related cyanogenic toxins from jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) were isolated by enrichment: Pseudallescheria boydii, a fungus which specifically degrades simmondsin ferulate but not S; Fusarium moniliforme; “Flavobacterium aurantiacum”; and Pseudomonas maltophilia. The latter three organisms grow on S as a sole carbon and nitrogen source in culture media, but only F. moniliforme attacks S

  19. INFLUENCE OF SOLID SURFACE, ADHESIVE ABILITY, AND INOCULUM SIZE ON BACTERIAL COLONIZATION IN MICROCOSM STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microcosm studies were performed to evaluate the effect of solid surfaces, bacterial adhesive ability, and inoculum size on colonization success and persistence of P. fluorescens or X maltophilia, each with a Tn5 insertion that conferred resistance to kanamycin and streptomycin. ...

  20. Halobacterium rubrum sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2014-12-01

    Halophilic archaeal strain TGN-42-S1(T) was isolated from the Tanggu marine solar saltern, China. Cells from strain TGN-42-S1(T) were observed to be pleomorphic rods, stained Gram-negative, and formed red-pigmented colonies on solid media. Strain TGN-42-S1(T) was found to be able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 35-37 °C), at 1.7-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 3.1 M), at 0-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.1 M), and at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5). The cells lysed in distilled water, and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell-lysis was found to be 10 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, galactosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether (TGD-1), sulfated galactosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-TGD-1), sulfated galactosyl mannosyl galactofuranosyl glucosyl diether (S-TeGD), and three unidentified glycolipids which were chromatographically identical to those of the Halobacterium species. The 16S rRNA gene and rpoB' gene of strain TGN-42-S1(T) were phylogenetically related to the corresponding genes of Halobacterium jilantaiense CGMCC 1.5337(T) (98.8 and 93.5 % nucleotide identity, respectively), Halobacterium salinarum CGMCC 1.1958(T) (98.4 and 91.9 %), and Halobacterium noricense JCM 15102(T) (96.9 and 91.1 %). The DNA G + C content of strain TGN-42-S1(T) was determined to be 69.2 mol %. Strain TGN-42-S1(T) showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with Hbt. jilantaiense CGMCC 1.5337(T) and Hbt. salinarum CGMCC 1.1958(T), the most closely related members of the genus Halobacterium. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic properties suggested that strain TGN-42-S1(T) (=CGMCC 1.12575(T) =JCM 19908(T)) represents a new species of Halobacterium, for which the name Halobacterium rubrum sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:25112838

  1. Haloarchaeobius salinus sp. nov., isolated from an inland salt lake, and emended description of the genus Haloarchaeobius.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Pan-Pan; Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Han, Dong; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2015-03-01

    The halophilic archaeal strain, YC82(T), was isolated from Yuncheng salt lake in Shanxi, PR China. Cells from strain YC82(T) were Gram-stain negative, pleomorphic rods, which lysed in distilled water and formed light-red colonies on solid media. Strain YC82(T) grew at 25-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), in 1.4-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 2.0 M), in 0-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.05 M) and at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum pH 7.5). The major polar lipids of strain YC82(T) were phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate and three glycolipids, which were chromatographically identical to those of Haloarchaeobius iranensis IBRC-M 10013(T) and Haloarchaeobius litoreus CGMCC 1.10390(T). 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that strain YC82(T) had two dissimilar 16S rRNA genes and that it was phylogenetically related to Hab. iranensis IBRC-M 10013(T) (94.3-99.0?% nucleotide identity) and Hab. litoreus CGMCC 1.10390(T) (94.1-98.8?% nucleotide identity). The rpoB' gene similarities between strain YC82(T) and Hab. iranensis IBRC-M 10013(T) and Hab. litoreus CGMCC 1.10390(T) were 96.5?% and 95.7?%, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain YC82(T) was 63.7 mol%. Strain YC82(T) showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with Hab. iranensis IBRC-M 10013(T) and Hab. litoreus CGMCC 1.10390(T). The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties of strain YC82(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.12232(T)?=?JCM 18644(T)) suggest that it represents a novel species of the genus Haloarchaeobius, for which the name Haloarchaeobius salinus sp. nov. is proposed. An emended description of the genus Haloarchaeobius is also presented. PMID:25563910

  2. Analyzing the antagonistic potential of the lichen microbiome against pathogens by bridging metagenomic with culture studies

    PubMed Central

    Cernava, Tomislav; Müller, Henry; Aschenbrenner, Ines A.; Grube, Martin; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring antagonists toward pathogens play an important role to avoid pathogen outbreaks in ecosystems, and they can be applied as biocontrol agents for crops. Lichens present long-living symbiotic systems continuously exposed to pathogens. To analyze the antagonistic potential in lichens, we studied the bacterial community active against model bacteria and fungi by an integrative approach combining isolate screening, omics techniques, and high resolution mass spectrometry. The highly diverse microbiome of the lung lichen [Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.] included an abundant antagonistic community dominated by Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Burkholderia. While antagonists represent 24.5% of the isolates, they were identified with only 7% in the metagenome; which means that they were overrepresented in the culturable fraction. Isolates of the dominant antagonistic genus Stenotrophomonas produced spermidine as main bioactive component. Moreover, spermidine-related genes, especially for the transport, were identified in the metagenome. The majority of hits identified belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, while Stenotrophomonas-specific spermidine synthases were not present in the dataset. Evidence for plant growth promoting effects was found for lichen-associated strains of Stenotrophomonas. Linking of metagenomic and culture data was possible but showed partly contradictory results, which required a comparative assessment. However, we have shown that lichens are important reservoirs for antagonistic bacteria, which open broad possibilities for biotechnological applications. PMID:26157431

  3. A new method for production of valienamine with microbial degradation of acarbose.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaolong; Zheng, Yuguo; Shen, Yinchu

    2005-01-01

    A new method for the production of valienamine with the microbial degradation of acarbose is described. The microorganism was screened by our laboratory and identified as Stenotrophomonas maltrophilia. After separation, valienamine was analyzed with UV, IR, and 1H and 13C NMR. The yield was more than 60%. PMID:15932287

  4. Biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in contaminated soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilona McGhee; Richard G. Burns

    1995-01-01

    Degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) was investigated in inoculated non-contaminated and contaminated soil. In 28 days three bacterial isolates (Xanthomonas maltophilia SB5, Pseudomonas sp. SB9 and Rhodococcus globerulus SA2) degraded an average of 99% 2,4-D and 99% MCPA in a spiked noncontaminated soil in comparison with 48% of 2,4-D (SB5) and 61% of MCPA (SB5) in

  5. Effect of oxidative stress on the biosynthesis of 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-2,4-cyclopyrophosphate and isoprenoids by several bacterial strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Ostrovsky; G. Diomina; E. Lysak; E. Matveeva; O. Ogrel; S. Trutko

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the gram-negative bacteria Xanthomonas campestris, Xanthomonas maltophilia, and Pseudomonas putida, facultative parasites of plants and animals, were shown to accumulate 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-2,4-cyclopyrophosphate (MEC) in response to benzyl-viologen-induced oxidative stress. Corynebacterium ammoniagenes mutants capable of accumulating MEC in the absence of an exogenous oxidative stress inducer were obtained. Isoprenoid synthesis\\u000a and MEC synthesis in these and other bacteria were

  6. Chemical transformation of toxic metals by a Pseudomonas strain from a toxic waste site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Blake; Donna M. Choate; Smriti Bardhan; Nathaniel Revis; Larry L. Barton; Thomas G. Zocco

    1993-01-01

    Pseudomonas maltophilia strain O-2, isolated from soil at a toxic waste site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, catalyzed the transformation and precipitation of numerous toxic metal cations and oxyanions. When a viable inoculum (1%) of O-2 was introduced into nutrient broth containing Hg(II), Cr(VI), Se(IV), Pb(II), Au(III), Cd(II), Te(IV), or Ag(I), effective removal of the toxic metal was complete within 1,

  7. Gracilibacillus marinus sp. nov., isolated from the northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-qin; Wang, Ying; Yuan, Wei-dao; Xiao, Chuan; Ye, Jian-jun; Liu, Min; Zhu, Jun; Sun, Qian-guang; Bao, Shi-xiang

    2013-11-01

    Two gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria, designated HB09003(T) and HB12160, were isolated from seawater and sediment in the northern South China Sea, respectively. Cells were found to be motile by means of peritrichous flagella. The strains were found to grow with 0-15 % (w/v) NaCl, at 10-45 °C and pH 5.0-10.7, with an optimum of 3 % NaCl, 28 °C and pH 8.5, respectively. The predominant isoprenoid quinone of strain HB09003(T), selected as the representative strain, was identified as MK-7. This strain was found to possess anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and C16:0 as the major fatty acids. The G+C contents of strain HB09003(T) and HB12160 were determined to be 34.1 and 34.3 mol%, respectively. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains showed an affiliation with the genus Gracilibacillus, with Gracilibacillus kekensis CGMCC 1.10681(T) (similarity of 97.4, 98.0 %, respectively) and Gracilibacillus ureilyticus CGMCC 1.7727(T) (similarity of 97.1, 97.8 %, respectively) as their closest relatives. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain HB09003(T) and the two type strains were 42.2 and 54.1 %, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain HB09003(T) and HB12160 are proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Gracilibacillus, for which the name Gracilibacillus marinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HB09003(T) (=CGMCC 1.10343(T) = DSM 23372(T)). PMID:23942614

  8. Salinarubrum litoreum gen. nov., sp. nov.: a new member of the family Halobacteriaceae isolated from Chinese marine solar salterns.

    PubMed

    Cui, Heng-Lin; Qiu, Xing-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Three halophilic archaeal strains, XD46(T), YJ-63-S1 and ZS-1-H, were isolated from three Chinese marine solar salterns. All were observed to have pleomorphic cells that lysed in distilled water, stained Gram-negative and formed red-pigmented colonies. They were found to grow optimally at 37 °C, at pH 7.0 and in the presence of 2.6 M NaCl and 0.05 M Mg(2+). The major polar lipids were identified as those typical for members of the Halobacteriaceae but also included major glycolipids chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-DGD-1), mannosyl glucosyl diether (DGD-1) and two unidentified ones. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the three strains were 99.8-100 % identical, showing most similarity to sequences of members of the family Halobacteriaceae, and clustering together as a distinct clade in phylogenetic tree reconstructions. The rpoB' gene similarities between the three strains were 98.7-100 % and lower to the sequences of other halobacteria. Their DNA G+C contents were determined to be 65.1-65.5 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strains XD46(T) (=CGMCC 1.12237(T) = JCM 18649(T)), YJ-63-S1 (=CGMCC 1.12574) and ZS-1-H (=CGMCC 1.12544) represent a novel species in a new genus within the family Halobacteriaceae, for which the name Salinarubrum litoreum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:24158535

  9. Dyadobacter jiangsuensis sp. nov., a methyl red degrading bacterium isolated from a dye-manufacturing factory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Ling, Qi; Li, Chen-Chen; Tao, Yong; Wang, Min

    2015-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, L-1(T), which was capable of degrading methyl red was isolated from a dye-manufacturing factory in China. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses established affiliation of the isolate to the genus Dyadobacter . Cells occurred in pairs in young cultures but became chains of coccoid cells in old cultures, and produced a flexirubin-like yellow pigment. Strain L-1(T) could not hydrolyse cellulose, and had a DNA G+C content of 51.3 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15?:?0, C16?:?1?5c, iso-C17?:?0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?7c and/or C16?:?1?6c). C16?:?0, iso-C15?:?0 3-OH and C16?:?0 3-OH were the other major fatty acid components. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strainL-1(T) was most closely related to Dyadobacter fermentans DSM 18053(T) (99.2?%), Dyadobacter soli JCM 16232(T) (98.9?%) and Dyadobacter beijingensis CGMCC 1.6375(T) (98.7?%). However, the new isolate exhibited relatively low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness with respect to JCM 16232(T) (41.2±1.8?%), DSM 18053(T) (38.6±2.6?%) and CGMCC 1.6375(T) (35.0±2.1?%). Strain L-1(T) could also be differentiated from its closest phylogenetic relatives based on differences in several phenotypic characteristics. These data suggest that strain L-1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Dyadobacter , for which the name Dyadobacter jiangsuensis sp. is proposed. The type strain is L-1(T) (DSM 29057(T)?=?CGMCC 1.12969(T)). PMID:25604339

  10. Studies on the microflora associated with xenic cultures of Entamoeba gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Gannon, J T; Linke, H A

    1989-01-01

    The microflora associated with xenic stock cultures (ATCC 30927) of Entamoeba gingivalis, the major protozoan of the human oral cavity, were isolated and identified as Citrobacter diversus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Acinetobacter anitratus and Pseudomonas maltophilia. In studies to determine whether the bacterial isolates were able to utilize rice starch as a sole carbon source, Y. enterocolitica exhibited excellent growth in rice starch minimal medium and TYSGM-9 medium (with rice starch), but growth was weak in TYSGM-9 medium (without rice starch). C. diversus, A. anitratus and P. maltophilia exhibited poor growth in rice starch minimal medium, but they produced excellent growth in TYSGM-9 medium with or without rice starch. In order to determine the effect of the rice starch hydrolysis on Entamoeba growth, the filtrate from each isolate grown in rice starch minimal medium was added to an E. gingivalis culture grown in TYSGM-9 medium. The filtrate from a Y. enterocolitica culture grown in rice starch minimal medium enhanced E. gingivalis growth, but the filtrates from cultures of C. diversus, A. anitratus and P. maltophilia suppressed E. gingivalis growth. This supported the concept that Y. enterocolitica is capable of metabolizing rice starch into intermediate products, which in turn can be utilized by the amoeba. PMID:2739589

  11. Complete genome sequence of endophytic nitrogen-fixing Klebsiella variicola strain DX120E

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella variicola strain DX120E (=CGMCC 1.14935) is an endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from sugarcane crops grown in Guangxi, China and promotes sugarcane growth. Here we summarize the features of the strain DX120E and describe its complete genome sequence. The genome contains one circular chromosome and two plasmids, and contains 5,718,434 nucleotides with 57.1% GC content, 5,172 protein-coding genes, 25 rRNA genes, 87 tRNA genes, 7 ncRNA genes, 25 pseudo genes, and 2 CRISPR repeats.

  12. Naumovozyma baii sp. nov., an ascomycetous yeast species isolated from rotten wood in a tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Qiu; Han, Pei-Jie; Qiu, Jun-Zhi; Wang, Qi-Ming

    2012-12-01

    Two strains isolated from rotten wood were included in the Saccharomyces group based on morphological characteristics. However, rRNA gene sequence analyses (including the 18S rRNA gene, 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region) indicated that these two strains represent a novel species of Naumovozyma, for which the name Naumovozyma baii sp. nov. is proposed (type strain: BW 22(T) = CGMCC 2.04520(T) = CBS 12642(T)). The MycoBank number of the new species is MB800484. PMID:22863990

  13. Hydroxylation modification and free radical scavenging activity of puerarin-7- O -fructoside

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guiyou Liu; Lei Sun; Siyuan Wang; Chen Chen; Ting Guo; Yin Ji; Xuesong Li; Guodong Huang; Hua Wei; Yijun Dai; Sheng Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Puerarin-7-O-fructoside was transformed by Trichoderma harzianum CGMCC 1523 into 3?-hydroxypuerarin-7-O-fructoside; this was identified by MS and NMR. However, puerarin-7-O-glucoside was not directly hydroxylated but hydrolyzed back into puerarin, which was transformed into 3?-hydroxypuerarin\\u000a by the same fungi. Comparative analysis of free radical scavenging activity of DPPH showed that the free radical scavenging\\u000a activity of puerarin-7-O-glucoside was reduced to approximately 1\\/2

  14. Adhesion Mechanisms of Plant-Pathogenic Xanthomonadaceae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia Mhedbi-Hajri; Marie-Agnès Jacques; Ralf Koebnik

    \\u000a The family Xanthomonadaceae is a wide-spread family of bacteria belonging to the gamma subdivision of the Gram-negative proteobacteria, including the\\u000a two plant-pathogenic genera Xanthomonas and Xylella, and the related genus Stenotrophomonas. Adhesion is a widely conserved virulence mechanism among Gram-negative bacteria, no matter whether they are human, animal\\u000a or plant pathogens, since attachment to the host tissue is one of

  15. Biodegradation of Indeno (1,2,3-cd) Pyrene by a Pure Bacterial Culture of Pandoraea sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongchao Du; Junfeng Dou; Lirong Cheng; Aizhong Ding; Fuqiang Fan; Haiying Chen

    2010-01-01

    Three new isolated bacterial cultures of Pandoraea sp., Stenotrophomonas sp., and T Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana that could efficiently degraded Indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene (Inp) were reported in this paper. The biodegradation performance of Inp by Pandoraea sp was studied under different pH conditions. Under the conditions of pH=8, the removal efficiency of Inp fluctuated sharply among 8% and 40%. The optimal condition

  16. Variation of nonylphenol-degrading gene abundance and bacterial community structure in bioaugmented sediment microcosm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Yang, Yuyin; Sun, Weimin; Dai, Yu; Xie, Shuguang

    2015-02-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) can accumulate in river sediment. Bioaugmentation is an attractive option to dissipate heavy NP pollution in river sediment. In this study, two NP degraders were isolated from crude oil-polluted soil and river sediment. Microcosms were constructed to test their ability to degrade NP in river sediment. The shift in the proportion of NP-degrading genes and bacterial community structure in sediment microcosms were characterized using quantitative PCR assay and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the soil isolate belonged to genus Stenotrophomonas, while the sediment isolate was a Sphingobium species. Both of them could almost completely clean up a high level of NP in river sediment (150 mg/kg NP) in 10 or 14 days after inoculation. An increase in the proportion of alkB and sMO genes was observed in sediment microcosms inoculated with Stenotrophomonas strain Y1 and Sphingobium strain Y2, respectively. Moreover, bioaugmentation using Sphingobium strain Y2 could have a strong impact on sediment bacterial community structure, while inoculation of Stenotrophomonas strain Y1 illustrated a weak impact. This study can provide some new insights towards NP biodegradation and bioremediation. PMID:25277711

  17. Flavobacterium qiangtangensis sp. nov., isolated from Qiangtang basin in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Faqi; Zhang, Yali; Zhu, Youhai; Wang, Pingkang; Lu, Jun; Lv, Jie

    2014-09-01

    A flexirubin-type yellow-pigmented, non-gliding, non-flagellated, gram-negative bacterium strain, designated F3(T), was isolated from a drilling core sample of the Qiangtang basin, Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain F3(T) belongs to the genus Flavobacterium, with the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the Flavobacterium noncentrifugens CGMCC 1.10076(T) (94.92 %). Strain F3(T) grew optimally at temperature about 20 °C, at pH about 7.0-8.0, at NaCl concentration 0 % (w/v). The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 35.5 mol%. The major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine, predominant cellular fatty acids of the strain was iso-C15:0 (22.02 %), while the major menaquinone was menaquinone 6. Due to the phenotypic and genetic distinctiveness and several other characteristic studied in this article, we consider F3(T) as a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, and propose to name it Flavobacterium qiangtangensis sp. nov. The type strain is F3(T) (=CGMCC 1.12706(T) = JCM 19739(T)). PMID:24710649

  18. Effect of oxidative stress on the biosynthesis of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-2,4-cyclopyrophosphate and isoprenoids by several bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Ostrovsky, D; Diomina, G; Lysak, E; Matveeva, E; Ogrel, O; Trutko, S

    1998-12-01

    In this study, the gram-negative bacteria Xanthomonas campestris, Xanthomonas maltophilia, and Pseudomonas putida, facultative parasites of plants and animals, were shown to accumulate 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-2,4-cyclopyrophosphate (MEC) in response to benzyl-viologen-induced oxidative stress. Corynebacterium ammoniagenes mutants capable of accumulating MEC in the absence of an exogenous oxidative stress inducer were obtained. Isoprenoid synthesis and MEC synthesis in these and other bacteria were shown to be alternative processes, while biosynthesis of brominated polyene xanthomonadin (an antioxidant pigment of X. campestris) increased concomitantly with the accumulation of MEC. PMID:9871022

  19. Moxalactam (LY127935), a new semisynthetic 1-oxa-beta-lactam antibiotic with remarkable antimicrobial activity: in vitro comparison with cefamandole and tobramycin.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R N; Fuchs, P C; Sommers, H M; Gavan, T L; Barry, A L; Gerlach, E H

    1980-01-01

    Moxalactam (LY127935) exhibited greater in vitro activity than cefamandole and tobramycin against clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Pseudomonas maltophilia. The activities of the three drugs against other microorganisms were as follows: for staphylococci, cefamandole = tobramycin greater than moxalactam; for streptococci, cefamandole greater than moxalactam greater than tobramycin; and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, tobramycin greater than moxalactam greater than cefamandole. Moxalactam also demonstrated significant activity against the Bacteroides fragilis group and other anaerobes. Moxalactam was comparable to cefotaxime (HR756) in its inhibition of cephalothin-resistant and aminoglycoside-resistant clinical isolates. PMID:6446880

  20. Oceanobacillus aidingensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenyan; Yang, Su Sheng

    2014-05-01

    Two Gram-positive, rod-shaped moderately halophilic bacterial strains, designated AD7-25(T) and AB-11, were isolated from Aiding and Manasi salt lakes in Xinjiang of China, respectively. The strains were found to be able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0-21 % (w/v), with optimum growth occurring at 6-8 % (w/v) NaCl. The optimal temperature and pH for growth were determined to be 33-37 °C and pH 7.0-7.5. Cells of the strains are motile by means of polar flagella. Both strains can produce ellipsoidal spores. The major cellular fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C14:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C16:0. The diamino acid in the peptidoglycan and the major quinone system were determined to be meso-diaminopimelic acid (meso-DAP) and MK-7, respectively. The DNA G+C contents of stains AD7-25(T) and AB-11 were 39.8 and 40.0 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these two novel strains are closely related to the genus Oceanobacillus showing 90-99.5 % similarity with respect to type strains. These two novel strains were most closely related to Oceanobacillus oncorhynchi subsp. incaldanensis DSM 16557(T) (99.1 and 99.5 %), followed by O. oncorhynchi subsp. oncorhynchi JCM 12661(T) (99.1 and 99.4 %), Oceanobacillus neutriphilus CGMCC 1.7693(T) (97.0 and 97.5 %), Oceanobacillus sojae JCM 15792(T) (97.6 and 98.0 %) and Oceanobacillus locisalsi KCTC 13253(T) (96.5 and 96.9 %). The DNA-DNA hybridization data indicated that DNA relatedness between strains AD7-25(T) and AB-11 was 91.0 %, and the genomic homology of representative strain AD7-25(T) with O. oncorhynchi subsp. incaldanensis DSM 16557(T), O. oncorhynchi subsp. oncorhynchi JCM 12661(T), O. neutriphilus CGMCC 1.7693(T), O. sojae JCM 15792(T) and O. locisalsi KCTC 13253(T) were 41, 39, 20, 23 and 17 %, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strains AD7-25(T) and AB-11 should be assigned to the genus Oceanobacillus as a new species, for which the name Oceanobacillus aidingensis sp. nov. was proposed. The type strain is AD7-25(T) (=CGMCC 1.9106 (T) = NBRC 105904(T)). PMID:24595860

  1. Streptomyces bullii sp. nov., isolated from a hyper-arid Atacama Desert soil.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Rakesh; Rong, Xiaoying; Huang, Ying; Andrews, Barbara A; Asenjo, Juan A; Goodfellow, Michael

    2013-02-01

    A Streptomyces strain isolated from a hyper-arid Atacama Desert soil was characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain, designated C2(T), had chemical and morphological properties typical of the genus Streptomyces. The isolate formed a branch in the Streptomyces 16S rRNA gene tree together with the type strain of Streptomyces chromofuscus and was also loosely related to Streptomyces fragilis NRRL 2424(T). DNA:DNA relatedness values between the isolate and its two phylogenetic neighbours showed that it formed a distinct genomic species. The strain was readily distinguished from these organisms using a combination of morphological and phenotypic data. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic results, isolate C2(T) represents a novel species in the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces bullii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C2(T) (=CGMCC 4.7019(T) = KACC 15426(T)). PMID:23011007

  2. Streptomyces atacamensis sp. nov., isolated from an extreme hyper-arid soil of the Atacama Desert, Chile.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Rakesh; Okoro, Chinyere K; Rong, Xiaoying; Huang, Ying; Bull, Alan T; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Andrews, Barbara A; Asenjo, Juan A; Goodfellow, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The taxonomic position of a Streptomyces strain isolated from an extreme hyper-arid soil sample collected from the Atacama Desert was determined using a polyphasic approach. The strain, isolate C60(T), had chemical and morphological features typical of members of the genus Streptomyces and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Streptomyces 16S rRNA gene tree, together with the type strain of Streptomyces radiopugnans. The two strains were distinguished readily using a combination of phenotypic properties and by a DNA-DNA relatedness value of 23.17 (± 0.95)%. On the basis of these genotypic and phenotypic data, it is proposed that isolate C60(T) (=CGMCC 4.7018(T)=KACC 15492(T)) be classified in the genus Streptomyces as Streptomyces atacamensis sp. nov. PMID:22199226

  3. Streptomyces deserti sp. nov., isolated from hyper-arid Atacama Desert soil.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Rakesh; Okoro, Chinyere K; Rong, Xiaoying; Huang, Ying; Bull, Alan T; Andrews, Barbara A; Asenjo, Juan A; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Goodfellow, Michael

    2012-03-01

    The taxonomic position of a Streptomyces strain isolated from a hyper-arid desert soil was established using a polyphasic approach. The organism had chemical and morphological properties typical of the genus Streptomyces and formed a phyletic line at the periphery of the Streptomyces coeruleorubidus subcluster in the 16S rRNA gene tree. DNA:DNA relatedness values between the isolate and its nearest phylogenetic neighbours, Streptomyces lomondensis NRRL 3252(T) and Streptomyces lusitanus NRRL B-12501(T) were 42.5 (±0.48)% and 25.0 (±1.78)%, respectively. The isolate was readily distinguished from these organisms using a combination of morphological and phenotypic properties. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that isolate C63(T) (CGMCC 4.6997(T), = KACC 15425(T)) be classified as the type strain of Streptomyces deserti sp. nov. PMID:22080411

  4. Kazachstania aquatica sp. nov. and Kazachstania solicola sp. nov., novel ascomycetous yeast species.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zuo-Wei; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2005-09-01

    The unidentified strains AS 2.0706(T), preserved in the China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center (CGMCC), Academia Sinica, Beijing, China, and CBS 6904(T), preserved in the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS), Utrecht, The Netherlands, were shown to represent two novel ascomycetous yeast species of the genus Kazachstania by 18S rDNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (including 5.8S rDNA) and 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain sequence analysis and electrophoretic karyotype comparison. The names Kazachstania aquatica sp. nov. and Kazachstania solicola sp. nov. are proposed for strains AS 2.0706(T) and CBS 6904(T), respectively. Phylogenetically, the two novel species are closely related to Kazachstania aerobia, Kazachstania servazzii and Kazachstania unispora. PMID:16166736

  5. Production of nano bacterial cellulose from waste water of candied jujube-processing industry using Acetobacter xylinum.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Lifen; Hua, Jiachuan; Jia, Shiru; Zhang, Jianfei; Liu, Hao

    2015-04-20

    The work is aimed to investigate the suitability of waste water of candied jujube-processing industry for the production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Gluconacetobacter xylinum CGMCC No.2955 and to study the structure properties of bacterial cellulose membranes. After acid pretreatment, the glucose of hydrolysate was higher than that of waste water of candied jujube. The volumetric yield of bacterial cellulose in hydrolysate was 2.25 g/L, which was 1.5-folds of that in waste water of candied jujube. The structures indicated that the fiber size distribution was 3-14 nm in those media with an average diameter being around 5.9 nm. The crystallinity index of BC from pretreatment medium was lower than that of without pretreatment medium and BCs from various media had similar chemical binding. Ammonium citrate was a key factor for improving production yield and the crystallinity index of BC. PMID:25662694

  6. Nonomuraea aegyptia sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from a sand dune.

    PubMed

    Hozzein, Wael N; Goodfellow, Michael

    2007-08-01

    The taxonomic position of an unknown actinomycete isolated from a sand dune soil sample collected at Borg El-Arab in Egypt was established using a combination of genotypic and phenotypic data. Isolate S136(T) had chemotaxonomic and morphological properties consistent with its classification in the genus Nonomuraea and formed a distinct phyletic line in the Nonomuraea 16S rRNA gene tree. It was most closely related to the type strains of Nonomuraea helvata, Nonomuraea kuesteri and Nonomuraea turkmeniaca, sharing 16S rRNA gene similarities with these species of 97.1, 97.2 and 97.3%, respectively. The organism was distinguished from representatives of validly described Nonomuraea species using a range of phenotypic properties. It is apparent that the isolate belongs to a novel Nonomuraea species. The name proposed for this taxon is Nonomuraea aegyptia sp. nov., the type strain is S136(T) (=CGMCC 4.2054(T) = DSM 45082(T)). PMID:17318331

  7. Ogataea ganodermae sp. nov., a methanol-assimilating yeast species isolated from basidiocarps of Ganoderma sp.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhao-Hui; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2008-06-01

    Three methanol-utilizing yeast strains were isolated from basidiocarps of Ganoderma sp. collected from a tree trunk in Mangshan Mountain, Hunan Province, southern China. These strains formed hat-shaped ascospores in unconjugated and deliquescent asci. Sequence analysis of the large-subunit rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, electrophoretic karyotype comparison and phenotypic characterization demonstrated that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Ogataea, which is described as Ogataea ganodermae sp. nov. (type strain SHS 2.1(T) =CGMCC AS 2.3435(T) =CBS 10646(T)). Phylogenetically, the novel species was closely related to Ogataea pini and Ogataea henricii. The latter two taxa with similar D1/D2 sequences were confirmed to represent separate species by ITS sequence and electrophoretic karyotype comparisons. PMID:18523203

  8. Streptosporangium sonchi sp. nov. and Streptosporangium kronopolitis sp. nov., two novel actinobacteria isolated from a root of common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) and a millipede (Kronopolites svenhedind Verhoeff).

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhaoxu; Liu, Hui; Liu, Chongxi; He, Hairong; Zhao, Junwei; Wang, Xin; Li, Jiansong; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2015-06-01

    Two novel actinobacteria, designated strains NEAU-QS7(T) and NEAU-ML10(T), were isolated from a root of Sonchus oleraceus L. and a Kronopolites svenhedind Verhoeff specimen, respectively, collected from Wuchang, Heilongjiang Province, China. A polyphasic study was carried out to establish the taxonomic positions of these strains. The two strains were observed to form abundant aerial hyphae that differentiated into spherical spore vesicles. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains NEAU-QS7(T) and NEAU-ML10(T) showed that the two novel isolates exhibited 99.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with each other and that they are most closely related to Streptosporangium shengliense NEAU-GH7(T) (99.1, 99.0 %) and Streptosporangium longisporum DSM 43180(T) (99.1, 99.0 %). However, the DNA-DNA hybridization value between strains NEAU-QS7(T) and NEAU-ML10(T) was 46.5 %, and the values between the two strains and their closest phylogenetic relatives were also below 70 %. With reference to phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic data and DNA-DNA hybridization results, the two strains can be distinguished from each other and their closest phylogenetic relatives. Thus, strains NEAU-QS7(T) and NEAU-ML10(T) represent two novel species of the genus Streptosporangium, for which the names Streptosporangium sonchi sp. nov. and Streptosporangium kronopolitis sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains are NEAU-QS7(T) (=CGMCC 4.7142(T) =DSM 46717(T)) and NEAU-ML10(T) (=CGMCC 4.7153(T) =DSM 46720(T)), respectively. PMID:25893956

  9. Devosia psychrophila sp. nov. and Devosia glacialis sp. nov., from alpine glacier cryoconite, and an emended description of the genus Devosia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, De-Chao; Redzic, Mersiha; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Schinner, Franz; Margesin, Rosa

    2012-03-01

    Two psychrophilic strains, Cr7-05(T) and Cr4-44(T), isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite, were characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Both strains were psychrophilic, showing good growth over a temperature range of 1-20 °C. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of these isolates included the presence of C(18:1)?7c and summed feature 3 (C(16:1)?7c and/or C(16:1)?6c) as the major cellular fatty acids, Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and unknown glycolipids as major polar lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains Cr7-05(T) and Cr4-44(T) were 61.4 and 63.6 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the two isolates belong to the genus Devosia. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 98.6%, but DNA-DNA hybridization indicated 54% relatedness. Strains Cr7-05(T) and Cr4-44(T) exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 94.7-97.2 and 94.9-96.9%, respectively, to the type strains of recognized Devosia species. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data, strains Cr7-05(T) and Cr4-44(T) represent two novel species within the genus Devosia, for which the names Devosia psychrophila sp. nov. (type strain Cr7-05(T) =DSM 22950(T) =CGMCC 1.10210(T) =CIP 110130(T)) and Devosia glacialis sp. nov. (type strain Cr4-44(T) =CGMCC 1.10691(T) =LMG 26051(T)) are proposed. An emended description of the genus Devosia is also provided. PMID:21551324

  10. Halosimplex pelagicum sp. nov. and Halosimplex rubrum sp. nov., isolated from salted brown alga Laminaria, and emended description of the genus Halosimplex.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Two halophilic archaeal strains, R2(T) and R27(T), were isolated from the brown alga Laminaria produced at Dalian, Liaoning Province, China. Both had pleomorphic cells that lysed in distilled water, stained Gram-negative and formed red-pigmented colonies. They grew optimally at 42 °C, pH 7.0 and in the presence of 3.1-3.4 M NaCl and 0.03-0.5 M Mg(2+). The major polar lipids of the two strains were phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester (PGP-Me) and four major glycolipids chromatographically identical to those of Halosimplex carlsbadense JCM 11222(T). 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that each strain had two dissimilar 16S rRNA genes and both strains were phylogenetically related to Halosimplex carlsbadense JCM 11222(T) (92.7-98.8?% similarities). The rpoB' gene similarities between strains R2(T) and R27(T) and between these strains and Halosimplex carlsbadense JCM 11222(T) were 95.7?%, 96.1?% and 95.8?%, respectively. The DNA G+C contents of strains R2(T) and R27(T) were 62.5 mol% and 64.0 mol%, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strains R2(T) and R27(T) and between the two strains and Halosimplex carlsbadense JCM 11222(T) were 43?%, 52?% and 47?%, respectively. It was concluded that strain R2(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.10586(T)?=?JCM 17263(T)) and strain R27(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.10591(T)?=?JCM 17268(T)) represent two novel species of the genus Halosimplex, for which the names Halosimplex pelagicum sp. nov. and Halosimplex rubrum sp. nov. are proposed. An emended description of the genus Halosimplex is also presented. PMID:24048865

  11. Streptomyces albiflavescens sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiufang; Zheng, Jimei; Xin, Di; Xin, Yuhua; Wei, Xuexin; Zhang, Jianli

    2015-05-01

    Two actinobacterial strains, m20(T) and z8, were isolated from soil taken from rainforest areas/tropic forest region, Yunnan Province, south-west China. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and DNA-DNA relatedness values between strains m20(T) and z8 were 100 and 88.2?%, respectively, which indicated that these two strains should be classified as the same species. The taxonomic position of the strains was determined by a polyphasic approach. Morphological and chemotaxonomic features of the strains were consistent with those of the genus Streptomyces . A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains m20(T) and z8 formed an evolutionary branch within the genus Streptomyces and shared relatively high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values with other members of this genus, including 'Streptomyces siamensis' NBRC 108799 (98.95?%), Streptomyces graminilatus NBRC 108882(T) (98.25?%), Streptomyces seoulensis NBRC 16668(T) (98.11?%), Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 29050(T) (98.11?%) and Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. ossamyceticus ATCC 15420(T) (98.11?%). DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain m20(T) and the five above-mentioned strains were 56.3, 55.1, 52.8?, 50.1 and 48.4?%, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic properties, strains m20(T) and z8 could be distinguished from phylogenetically related members of the genus Streptomyces . The isolates thus merit species status within the genus Streptomyces , for which the name http://dx.doi.org/10.1601/nm.6817 Streptomyces albiflavescens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is m20(T) (?=?CGMCC 4.7111(T)?=?KCTC 29196(T)). Strain z8 (?=?CGMCC 4.7112?=?KCTC 29197) is a reference strain. PMID:25687349

  12. Nonomuraea guangzhouensis sp. nov., and Nonomuraea harbinensis sp. nov., two novel actinomycetes isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shurui; Liu, Chongxi; Zhang, Yuejing; Zhao, Junwei; Zhang, Xinhui; Yang, Lingyu; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Two novel actinomycetes, designated strains NEAU-ZJ3(T) and NEAU-yn31(T), were isolated from soils in China and their taxonomic positions determined by a polyphasic approach. Key morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of the two strains were consistent with the description of the genus Nonomuraea. The G+C contents of strains NEAU-ZJ3(T) and NEAU-yn31(T) were determined to be 67.4 and 68.0 %, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the two strains should be classified in the genus Nonomuraea. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain NEAU-ZJ3(T) showed it to be most closely related to Nonomuraea salmonea DSM 43678(T) (98.27 %), Nonomuraea endophytica YIM 65601(T) (98.23 %) and Nonomuraea candida HMC10(T) (98.08 %), and that of strain NEAU-yn31(T) to Nonomuraea ferruginea IFO 14094(T) (99.08 %) and N. candida HMC10(T) (98.01 %). Furthermore, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and some phenotypic characteristics indicated that the two strains can be distinguished from each other and their phylogenetically closest relatives. Thus, strains NEAU-ZJ3(T) and NEAU-yn31(T) represent two novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the names Nonomuraea guangzhouensis sp. nov. and Nonomuraea harbinensis sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains are NEAU-ZJ3(T) (=CGMCC 4.7101(T) = DSM 45889(T)) and NEAU-yn31(T) (=CGMCC 4.7106(T) = DSM 45887(T)), respectively. PMID:24179038

  13. Two new species of the genus Micromonospora: Micromonospora palomenae sp. nov. and Micromonospora harpali sp. nov. isolated from the insects.

    PubMed

    Fang, Baozhu; Liu, Chongxi; Guan, Xuejiao; Song, Jia; Zhao, Junwei; Liu, Hui; Li, Chuang; Ning, Wenxi; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2015-07-01

    Two novel actinobacteria, strains NEAU-CX1(T) and NEAU-JC6(T), were isolated from nymphs of stinkbug (Palomena viridissima Poda) and a beetle (Harpalus sinicus Hope), respectively, collected from Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China. A polyphasic study was carried out to establish the taxonomic positions of these strains. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain NEAU-CX1(T) showed it to be most closely related to Micromonospora coxensis JCM 13248(T) (99.3 % sequence similarity), Micromonospora purpureochromogenes DSM 43821(T) (99.1 %) and Micromonospora halophytica JCM 3125(T) (98.6 %), and that of strain NEAU-JC6(T) to Micromonospora haikouensis DSM 45626(T) (99.3 %), Micromonospora carbonacea JCM 3139(T) (99.1 %) and Micromonospora krabiensis JCM 12869(T) (99.1 %). The phylogenetic analysis based on gyrB gene sequence of strain NEAU-CX1(T) showed it to be most closely related to M. purpureochromogenes DSM 43821(T) (98.0 % sequence similarity), and that of strain NEAU-JC6(T) to M. haikouensis DSM 45626(T) (99.0 %) and M. carbonacea JCM 3139(T) (98.0 %). A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and cultural and physiological properties indicated that the two strains can be distinguished from their closest phylogenetic relatives. Thus, strains NEAU-CX1(T) and NEAU-JC6(T) represent two novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the names Micromonospora palomenae sp. nov. and Micromonospora harpali sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains are NEAU-CX1(T) (=CGMCC 4.7175(T) = JCM 30056(T)) and NEAU-JC6(T) (=CGMCC 4.7173(T) = JCM 30055(T)). PMID:25957972

  14. Bacterial diversity, organic pollutants and their metabolites in two aeration lagoons of common effluent treatment plant (CETP) during the degradation and detoxification of tannery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ram; Bharagava, Ram Naresh; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J

    2011-02-01

    In this study, PCR-RFLP and GC-MS approaches were used to characterize the bacterial diversity, organic pollutants and metabolites during the tannery wastewater treatment process at common effluent treatment plant (CETP). Results revealed that the bacterial communities growing in aeration lagoon-I were dominated with Escherichia sp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and Cronobacter sp. while that of aeration lagoon-II prevailed with Stenotrophomonas sp., and Burkholderiales bacterium, respectively. The HPLC and GC-MS analysis revealed that most of the organic pollutants detected in untreated tannery wastewater samples were diminished from bacterial treated tannery wastewater samples. Only two pollutants i.e. L-(+)-lactic acid and acetic acid could not be degraded by bacteria whereas benzene and 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-butanoic acid was produced as new metabolites during the bacterial treatment of tannery wastewater in aeration lagoon II of CETP. Further, it was observed that after bacterial treatment, the toxicity of tannery effluent was reduced significantly allowing 90% seed germination. PMID:21075615

  15. Culture-dependent and culture-independent analysis of hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms indigenous to hypersaline environments in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Mailem, Dina; Eliyas, Mohamed; Khanafer, Majeda; Radwan, Samir

    2014-05-01

    The halophilic, hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria and archaea inhabiting two hypersaline coastal areas in Kuwait, one in the north and the other in the south, were counted and characterized. Environmental parameters in both areas were similar, with the exception of the soil organic carbon content, which was in the north higher than in the south. The hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial and haloarchaeal numbers and identities as analyzed using nutrient media of various salinities were similar in soil and pond water samples from both areas. The bacterial species recorded by this culture-dependent method belonged to the genera Halomonas, Chromohalobacter, Marinobacter, Exiguobacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, Salinivibrio, and Bacillus. The haloarchaeal species belonged to the genera Haloferax and Halobacterium. When analyzed by fingerprinting of their amplified genomic DNA followed by sequencing of the electrophoresis-resolved bands, the same environmental samples revealed a different microbial composition. Bacterial phylotypes recorded by this culture-independent method were affiliated with the genera Ochrobactrum, Stenotrophomonas, Rhodococcus, and "Halomicrobium," whereas the archaeal phylotypes were affiliated with Halorussus, Halomicrobium, and Halorientalis. The observed diversity and composition similarity of the hydrocarbonocalastic microflora in both hypersaline areas suggest an effective potential for oil mineralization therein. This potential has been confirmed experimentally. PMID:24682340

  16. Analysis of the interaction between autochthonous bacteria and packaging material in PVC-bottled mineral water.

    PubMed

    Guerzoni, M E; Lanciotti, R; Sinigaglia, M; Gardini, F

    1994-06-01

    A study with about 10,000 bottles produced by a mineral water company was undertaken in order to identify the causal agent of an off-odour occurrence in the bottled water. Some physiological attributes of the dominant species over an 8-month period, as well as their interaction with packaging material, were investigated. Pseudomonas maltophilia, P. acidovorans, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. lowffi, frequently associated with bottles having an off-odour, seemed to play a decisive role in the phenomenon due to their elevated lipolytic activity, their cell hydrophobicity and adhesivity to the PVC walls. Their ability to attack the sodium polysulfide included in the ultramarine blue dye present in PVC, transforming it to H2S was investigated. PMID:7921893

  17. Pseudomonas zhaodongensis sp. nov., isolated from saline and alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Pan, Yuanyuan; Wang, Kaibiao; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Shuang; Fu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Juquan

    2015-03-01

    Strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) was isolated from saline and alkaline soils in Zhaodong City, Heilongjiang Province, China. It was aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and motile with a polar flagellum. It produced yellow-orange colonies with a smooth surface, and grew in the presence of 0-5?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0?%, w/v), at temperatures of 20-40 °C (optimum 28 °C) and at pH 7-11 (optimum pH 7). Phylogenetic analyses based on the separate 16S rRNA gene sequences and concatenated 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequences indicated that strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) belongs to the genus Pseudomonas in the class Gammaproteobacteria. The most closely related species is Pseudomonas xanthomarina, whose type strain (KMM 1447(T)) showed gene sequence similarities of 99.0?% for 16S rRNA, 81.8?% for gyrB and 85.0?% for rpoD with strain NEAU-ST5-21(T). DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) and P. xanthomarina DSM 18231(T), Pseudomonas kunmingensis CGMCC 1.12273(T), Pseudomonas stutzeri DSM 5190(T), Pseudomonas oleovorans subsp. lubricantis DSM 21016(T), Pseudomomas chengduensis CGMCC 2318(T), Pseudomonas alcaliphila DSM 17744(T) and Pseudomonas toyotomiensis DSM 26169(T) were 52±0?% to 25±2?%. The DNA G+C content of strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) was 65 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10?%) were C18?:?1?7c and/or C18?:?1?6c, C16?:?1?7c and/or C16?:?1?6c and C16?:?0, the predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 9, and polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown phospholipid, phosphatidylglycerol, one unknown aminolipid, one unknown lipid and a glycolipid. The proposed name is Pseudomonas zhaodongensis sp. nov., NEAU-ST5-21(T) (?=?ACCC 06362(T)?=?DSM 27559(T)) being the type strain. PMID:25574037

  18. Haloarchaeobius litoreus sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2014-06-01

    Two extremely halophilic archaeal strains GX1(T) and GX60 were isolated from the Gangxi marine solar saltern, China. Cells from the two strains were observed to be rod-shaped and stained Gram-negative, with red-pigmented colonies. Strains GX1(T) and GX60 were found to be able to grow at 25-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), at 1.4-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 2.6 M), at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0) and neither strain required Mg(2+) for growth. The cells lysed in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell-lysis was found to be 8 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the two strains were identified as phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate and three glycolipids chromatographically identical to those of Haloarchaeobius iranensis IBRC-M 10013(T). 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that each strain had two dissimilar 16S rRNA genes and both strains were phylogenetically related to Hab. iranensis IBRC-M 10013(T) (94.9-98.9 % nucleotide identity). The rpoB' gene similarity between strains GX1(T) and GX60, and between these strains and Hab. iranensis IBRC-M 10013(T) were found to be 99.6, 96.0 and 95.8 %, respectively. The DNA G + C content of strain GX1(T) and GX60 were determined to be 67.7 and 67.8 mol %, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization value of strains GX1(T) and GX60 was 86 % and the two strains showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with Hab. iranensis IBRC-M 10013(T) (38 and 32 %). It was concluded that strain GX1(T) (= CGMCC 1.10390(T) = JCM 17114(T)) and strain GX60 (= CGMCC 1.10389 = JCM 17120) represent a new species of Haloarchaeobius, for which the name Haloarchaeobius litoreus sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:24696305

  19. Salinibacter iranicus sp. nov. and Salinibacter luteus sp. nov., isolated from a salt lake, and emended descriptions of the genus Salinibacter and of Salinibacter ruber.

    PubMed

    Makhdoumi-Kakhki, Ali; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Ventosa, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    Two Gram-staining-negative, red- and orange-pigmented, non-motile, rod-shaped, extremely halophilic bacteria, designated strains CB7(T) and DGO(T), were isolated from Aran-Bidgol salt lake, Iran. Growth occurred at NaCl concentrations of between 2 and 5 M NaCl and the isolates grew optimally with 3 M NaCl. The optimum pH and temperature for growth of the two strains were pH 7.5 and 37 °C, and they were able to grow over pH and temperature ranges of pH 6-8 and 25-50 °C. The predominant fatty acids of the two isolates were C(18:1)?7c, iso-C(15:0) and summed feature 3 (C(16:1)?7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH). The polar lipid pattern of the two isolates consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, three unidentified lipids, one unidentified aminolipid and three unidentified glycolipids. The only quinone present was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The G+C contents of the genomic DNA of strains CB7(T) and DGO(T) were 64.8 and 65.6 mol%, respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strains CB7(T) and DGO(T) were related to Salinibacter ruber in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains CB7(T) and DGO(T) and Salinibacter ruber DSM 13855(T) were 93.2 and 93.6%, respectively. The two novel strains shared 98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments between strains CB7(T) and DGO(T) and Salinibacter ruber DSM 13855(T) indicated levels of relatedness of 44 and 52%, respectively, while the level of relatedness between the two new isolates was 53%. Chemotaxonomic data supported the placement of strains CB7(T) and DGO(T) in the genus Salinibacter. DNA-DNA hybridization studies and biochemical and physiological characterization allowed strains CB7(T) and DGO(T) to be differentiated from Salinibacter ruber and from each other. They are therefore considered to represent two novel species of the genus Salinibacter, for which the names Salinibacter iranicus sp. nov. (type strain CB7(T)=IBRC-M 10036(T)=CGMCC 1.11003(T)) and Salinibacter luteus sp. nov. (type strain DGO(T)=IBRC-M 10423(T)=CGMCC 1.11002(T)) are proposed. Emended descriptions of the genus Salinibacter and of Salinibacter ruber are also presented. PMID:21856978

  20. Halorubellus salinus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Halorubellus litoreus sp. nov., novel halophilic archaea isolated from a marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Cui, Heng-Lin; Mou, Yun-Zhuang; Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Pei-Jin

    2012-02-01

    Two extremely halophilic archaeal strains GX3(T) and GX26(T) were isolated from the Gangxi marine solar saltern near the Weihai city of Shandong Province, China. Cells from the two strains were pleomorphic and stained Gram-negative, colonies were red-pigmented. Strains GX3(T) and GX26(T) were able to grow at 25-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), at 1.4-5.1M NaCl (optimum 3.1M), at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0) and neither strain required Mg(2+) for growth. Cells lyse in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell-lysis was 8% (w/v). The major polar lipids of the two strains were PA (phosphatidic acid), PG (phosphatidylglycerol), PGP-Me (phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester) and three major glycolipids (GL1, GL2 & GL3) chromatographically identical to S-TGD-1 (sulfated galactosyl mannosy glucosyl diether), S-DGD-1 (sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether), and DGD-1 (mannosyl glucosyl diether) respectively, an unidentified lipid (GL4) was also detected in strain GX26(T). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene revealed that strain GX3(T) and strain GX26(T) formed a distinct clade with the closest relative, Haladaptatus paucihalophilus (89.9-92.4% and 90.4-92.7, respectively). The rpoB' gene similarities between strains GX3(T) and GX26(T), and between the two strains and the closest relative, Halorussus rarus TBN4(T) are 96.5%, 84.3% and 83.9%, respectively. The DNA G+C contents of strain GX3(T) and strain GX26(T) are 67.3 mol% and 67.2 mol%, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain GX3(T) and strain GX26(T) was 44%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strain GX3(T) and strain GX26(T) represent two novel species in a new genus within the family Halobacteriaceae, Halorubellus salinus gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain GX3(T)=CGMCC 1.10384(T)=JCM 17115(T)) and Halorubellus litoreus sp. nov. (type strain GX26(T)=CGMCC 1.10386(T)=JCM 17117(T)). PMID:21889861

  1. Identification and analysis of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-biodegrading bacterial strains from refinery soil of India.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; Sahay, Harmesh; Sharma, Richa; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Singh, Shashi Bala; Saxena, A K; Nain, Lata

    2015-06-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) utilizing bacteria were isolated from soils of seven sites of Mathura refinery, India. Twenty-six bacterial strains with different morphotypes were isolated. These strains were acclimatized to utilize a mixture of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e., anthracene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, each at 50 mg/L concentration as sole carbon source. Out of total isolates, 15 potent isolates were subjected to 16S rDNA sequencing and identified as a member of diverse genera, i.e., Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Alcaligenes, Lysinibacillus, Brevibacterium, Serratia, and Streptomyces. Consortium of four promising isolates (Acinetobacter, Brevibacterium, Serratia, and Streptomyces) were also investigated for bioremediation of PAH mixture. This consortium was proved to be efficient PAH degrader resulting in 40-70 % degradation of PAH within 7 days. Results of this study indicated that these genera may play an active role in bioremediation of PAHs. PMID:26026847

  2. Synthesis and structural characterization of Pd(II) complexes derived from perimidine ligand and their in vitro antimicrobial studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azam, Mohammad; Warad, Ismail; Al-Resayes, Saud I.; Alzaqri, Nabil; Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Pallepogu, Raghavaiah; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Musarrat, Javed; Shakir, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    A novel series of Pd(II) complexes derived from 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and 1,8-diaminonaphthalene has been synthesized and characterized by various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques viz., elemental analyses, IR, UV-vis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and ESI-mass spectrometry. The structure of ligand, 2-(2-thienyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-perimidine has been ascertained on the basis of single crystal X-ray diffraction. All Pd(II) complexes together with the corresponding ligand have been evaluated for their ability to suppress the in vitro growth of microbes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis and Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila and results show that Pd(II) complexes have more significant antimicrobial activity than their corresponding ligand. Fluorescence spectroscopic measurements clearly support that both of the Pd(II) complexes show significant DNA binding with calf thymus DNA.

  3. Molecular characterization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from brazilian agricultural plants at São Paulo state

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Érica. L.; Ramos, Patrícia L.; Manfio, Gilson P.; Barbosa, Heloiza R.; Pavan, Crodowaldo; Moreira-Filho, Carlos A.

    2008-01-01

    Fourteen strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from different agricultural plant species, including cassava, maize and sugarcane, using nitrogen-deprived selective isolation conditions. Ability to fix nitrogen was verified by the acetylene reduction assay. All potentially nitrogen-fixing strains tested showed positive hybridization signals with a nifH probe derived from Azospirillum brasilense. The strains were characterized by RAPD, ARDRA and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. RAPD analyses revealed 8 unique genotypes, the remaining 6 strains clustered into 3 RAPD groups, suggesting a clonal origin. ARDRA and 16S rDNA sequence analyses allowed the assignment of 13 strains to known groups of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, including organisms from the genera Azospirillum, Herbaspirillum, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae. Two strains were classified as Stenotrophomonas ssp. Molecular identification results from 16S rDNA analyses were also corroborated by morphological and biochemical data. PMID:24031239

  4. [Identification of bacterial strain ge15 and its controlling effect on ginseng diseases].

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Ding, Wan-long; Gao, Yuan; Li, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Based on previous results of 16S rDNA sequence homologuous and results of physic-biochemical indexes and morphological characteristics in the present work, bacterial strain ge15 isolated from roots of ginseng plants was identified as Stenotrophomonas rhizophila. Confronting incubation results showed that, strain ge15 inhibited the growth of Alternaria panax, Phytophthora cactorum, and Cylindrocapon destructans significantly, and the width of inhibition zone was 13.3, 24.0, 12.0 mm, respectively. Further results showed that the emergence rate and seedling survive rate of ge15 treatment was significantly higher than those of the control, and which was similar to pesticide carbendazol treatment. The ge15 strain has good application potential in ginseng diseases control without contamination. PMID:25898572

  5. Phenotypic characterization of raw milk-associated psychrotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Munsch-Alatossava, P; Alatossava, T

    2006-01-01

    Among the 68 isolates, selected from 13 raw-milk samples in Finland (that originate from farm, truck or silo tanks), 60 (88%) were psychrotrophs. All the isolates were characterized by the determination of their spoilage and phenotypic features: proteolytic and lipolytic activities, the production of lecithinases and hemolytic factors were considered. Phenotypic characterization of the isolates was mainly performed with API 20NE and BIOLOG GN2 identification systems; the results were system-dependent, although the presence of representatives of the Pseudomonas genus (for the majority of the isolates) was suggested by both systems. The results of the numerical profile analyses by API 20NE proposed that some strains might be members of Stenotrophomonas, Burkholderia and Acinetobacter genera; however, the identity of many isolates remained doubtful or controversial. PMID:16459065

  6. Endophytic bacteria in Coffea arabica L.

    PubMed

    Vega, Fernando E; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Posada, Francisco; Buyer, Jeffrey S

    2005-01-01

    Eighty-seven culturable endophytic bacterial isolates in 19 genera were obtained from coffee plants collected in Colombia (n = 67), Hawaii (n = 17), and Mexico (n = 3). Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were isolated, with a greater percentage (68%) being Gram negative. Tissues yielding bacterial endophytes included adult plant leaves, various parts of the berry (e.g., crown, pulp, peduncle and seed), and leaves, stems, and roots of seedlings. Some of the bacteria also occurred as epiphytes. The highest number of bacteria among the berry tissues sampled was isolated from the seed, and includes Bacillus , Burkholderia , Clavibacter , Curtobacterium , Escherichia , Micrococcus , Pantoea , Pseudomonas , Serratia , and Stenotrophomonas . This is the first survey of the endophytic bacteria diversity in various coffee tissues, and the first study reporting endophytic bacteria in coffee seeds. The possible role for these bacteria in the biology of the coffee plant remains unknown. PMID:16187260

  7. Characterization of Co(III) EDTA-Reducing Bacteria in Metal- and Radionuclide-Contaminated Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Weimin [Arizona State University; Gentry, Terry J [ORNL; Mehlhorn, Tonia L [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman

    2010-01-01

    The Waste Area Grouping 5 (WAG5) site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a potential to be a field site for evaluating the effectiveness of various bioremediation approaches and strategies. The site has been well studied in terms of its geological and geochemical properties over the past decade. However, despite the importance of microorganisms in bioremediation processes, the microbiological populations at the WAG5 site and their potential in bioremediation have not been similarly evaluated. In this study, we initiated research to characterize the microbial populations in WAG5 groundwater. Approximately 100 isolates from WAG5 groundwater were isolated and selected based on colony morphology. Fifty-five unique isolates were identified by BOX-PCR and subjected to further characterization. 16S rRNA sequences indicated that these isolates belong to seventeen bacterial genera including Alcaligenes (1 isolate), Aquamonas (1), Aquaspirillum (1), Bacillus (10), Brevundimonas (5), Caulobacter (7), Dechloromonas (2), Janibacter (1), Janthinobacterium (2), Lactobacillus (1), Paenibacillus (4), Pseudomonas (9), Rhodoferax (1), Sphingomonas (1), Stenotrophomonas (6), Variovorax (2), and Zoogloea (1). Metal respiration assays identified several isolates, which phylogenically belong or are close to Caulobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Pseudomonas, capable of reducing Co(III)EDTA- to Co(II)EDTA{sup 2-} using the defined M1 medium under anaerobic conditions. In addition, using WAG5 groundwater directly as the inoculants, we found that organisms associated with WAG5 groundwater can reduce both Fe(III) and Co(III) under anaerobic conditions. Further assays were then performed to determine the optimal conditions for Co(III) reduction. These assays indicated that addition of various electron donors including ethanol, lactate, methanol, pyruvate, and acetate resulted in metal reduction. These experiments will provide useful background information for future bioremediation field experiments at the WAG5 site.

  8. Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from wheat rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Afshan; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the native plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria from wheat rhizosphere and root-endosphere in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. Nine bacterial isolates were purified, screened in vitro for PGP characteristics and evaluated for their beneficial effects on the early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Among nine bacterial isolates, seven were able to produce indole-3- acetic acid in tryptophan-supplemented medium; seven were nitrogen fixer, and four were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate in vitro. Four different morphotypes were genotypically identified based on IGS-RFLP fingerprinting and representative of each morphotype was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis except Gram-positive putative Bacillus sp. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, bacterial isolates AJK-3 and AJK-9 showing multiple PGP-traits were identified as Stenotrophomonas spp. while AJK-7 showed equal homologies to Acetobacter pasteurianus and Stenotrophomonas specie. Plant inoculation studies indicated that these Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains provided a significant increase in shoot and root length, and shoot and root biomass. A significant increase in shoot N contents (up to 76%) and root N contents (up to 32%) was observed over the un-inoculated control. The study indicates the potential of these PGPR for inoculums production or biofertilizers for enhancing growth and nutrient content of wheat and other crops under field conditions. The study is the first report of wheat associated bacterial diversity in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, AJK. PMID:25852661

  9. Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from wheat rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Afshan; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the native plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria from wheat rhizosphere and root-endosphere in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. Nine bacterial isolates were purified, screened in vitro for PGP characteristics and evaluated for their beneficial effects on the early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Among nine bacterial isolates, seven were able to produce indole-3- acetic acid in tryptophan-supplemented medium; seven were nitrogen fixer, and four were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate in vitro. Four different morphotypes were genotypically identified based on IGS-RFLP fingerprinting and representative of each morphotype was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis except Gram-positive putative Bacillus sp. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, bacterial isolates AJK-3 and AJK-9 showing multiple PGP-traits were identified as Stenotrophomonas spp. while AJK-7 showed equal homologies to Acetobacter pasteurianus and Stenotrophomonas specie. Plant inoculation studies indicated that these Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains provided a significant increase in shoot and root length, and shoot and root biomass. A significant increase in shoot N contents (up to 76%) and root N contents (up to 32%) was observed over the un-inoculated control. The study indicates the potential of these PGPR for inoculums production or biofertilizers for enhancing growth and nutrient content of wheat and other crops under field conditions. The study is the first report of wheat associated bacterial diversity in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, AJK. PMID:25852661

  10. Biotransformation of 1,3-propanediol cyclic sulfate and its derivatives to diols by Rhodococcus sp.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Cai; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Yang, Zhen-Xing; Gao, Shan; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2015-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. CGMCC 4911 transformed 1,3-propanediol cyclic sulfate (1,3-PDS) and its derivatives into corresponding diols. Ethylene sulfate, glycol sulfide, 1,3-PDS, and 1,2-propanediol cyclic sulfate were effectively hydrolyzed with growing cells. (R)-1,2-Propanediol (>99 % e.e.) was obtained at 44 % yield with growing cells. Glycol sulfide, ethylene sulfate, and 1,3-PDS were converted into the corresponding diols at 94.6, 96.3, and 98.3 %, respectively. Optimal reaction conditions with lyophilized resting cells were 30 °C, pH 7.5, and cell dosage 17.9 mg cell dry wt/ml. 1,3-Propanediol was obtained from 50 mM 1,3-PDS at 97.2 % yield by lyophilized cells after 16 h. Lyophilized cells were entrapped in calcium alginate with a half-life of 263 h at 30 °C, and the total operational time of the immobilized biocatalysts could reach over 192 h with a high conversion rate. PMID:25214230

  11. Luteimonas dalianensis sp. nov., an obligate marine bacterium isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yanjuan; Cao, Xupeng; Wu, Peichun; Xue, Song

    2014-09-01

    A marine bacterial strain, designated OB44-3(T), was isolated from a crude oil-contaminated seawater sample collected near Dalian Bay, China. Cells of strain OB44-3(T) were Gramnegative, aerobic, rod-shaped, and oxidase- and catalasepositive. The major fatty acids were branched-chain saturated iso-C15:0 (27.9%) and unsaturated iso-C17:1 ?9c (14.8%). The DNA G+C content was 64.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain OB44-3(T) was a member of the genus Luteimonas (95-96% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity); its closest neighbors were the type strains of Luteimonas terricola (96% sequence similarity), Luteimonas mephitis (96%), and Luteimonas lutimaris (96%). On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain OB44-3(T) was considered to represent a novel species of the genus Luteimonas. The name Luteimonas dalianensis sp. nov. is proposed, with strain OB44-3(T) (=CGMCC 1.12191(T) =JCM 18136(T)) as the type strain. PMID:25085731

  12. [Protoplast mutagenesis for improving beta-glucosidase production of Aspergillus niger].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunli; Wu, Gaihong; Chen, Chang; Chen, Shulin

    2009-12-01

    The aims of this research were to isolate a Aspergillus niger strain with higher beta-glucosidase activity. We utilized the beta-glucosidase producing strain Aspergillus niger CGMCC 3.316 as the original strain to first obtain a mutant 3-3M through ultraviolet irradiation. Then we studied the conditions of protoplast release and regeneration for strain 3-3M. We treated the protoplasts of strain 3-3M via ultraviolet irradiation and obtained another isolated mutant 60B-3D. The strain 60B-3D showed much higher beta-glucosidase production than the original strain and 3-3M strain. The beta-glucosidase activity of strain 60B-3D was 23.4 IU/mL, with an improvement of 39% compared with the original strain, and 23% compared with strain 3-3M. We also studied the fermentation process of strain 60B-3D, and compared it with the original strain and strain 3-3M. We found the strain 60B-3D exhibited an improvement in xylanase production. The comparison results also showed that the strain 60B-3D secreted more protein. These results were beneficial for producing beta-glucosidase through this productive mutant. PMID:20352969

  13. Thermus arciformis sp. nov., a thermophilic species from a geothermal area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Qi; Ying, Yi; Ye, Ying; Xu, Xue-Wei; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2010-04-01

    Two aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-sporulating, yellow-pigmented bacteria, strains TH92(T) and TH91, were isolated from a hot spring located in Laibin, Guangxi, in the south-eastern geothermal area of China. The isolates grew at 40-77 degrees C (optimally at 70 degrees C) and at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimally at pH 7.5-8.0). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness together indicated that the new isolates represented a novel species of the genus Thermus with closest affinity to Thermus aquaticus, Thermus igniterrae and Thermus thermophilus. Compared with their closest relatives, strains TH92( T) and TH91 were able to assimilate a wider range of carbohydrates, amino acids and organic acids as sole carbon sources for growth, such as lactose and melibiose. The new isolates had lower combined levels of C(16 : 0 ) and iso-C(16 : 0) compared with their closest relatives. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic characterization, strains TH92(T) and TH91 are considered to represent a single novel species of the genus Thermus, for which the name Thermus arciformis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TH92(T) (=CGMCC 1.6992(T) =JCM 15153(T)). PMID:19661520

  14. Halomonas zincidurans sp. nov., a heavy-metal-tolerant bacterium isolated from the deep-sea environment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Xu, Xue-Wei; Meng, Fan-Xu; Huo, Ying-Yi; Oren, Aharon; Yang, Jun-Yi; Wang, Chun-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-like, motile by peritrichous flagella and moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain B6(T), was isolated a deep-sea sediment collected from the South Atlantic Ocean. The isolate grew with 0.5-15?% (w/v) NaCl, at 4-37 °C and pH 5.0-8.5 and showed a high tolerance to zinc, manganese, cobalt and copper ions. The major fatty acids were C16?:?0, C19?:?0 cyclo ?8c, C12?:?0 3-OH and C12?:?0. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-9. The genomic DNA G+C content was 61.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene comparisons indicated that strain B6(T) belonged to the genus Halomonas, and the closest relative was Halomonas xinjiangensis TRM 0175(T) (96.1?%). Based upon the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genetic data, strain B6(T) represents a novel species from the genus Halomonas, for which the name Halomonas zincidurans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B6(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.12450(T)?=?JCM 18472(T)). PMID:23811134

  15. Haloferax larsenii sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon from a solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xue-Wei; Wu, Yue-Hong; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Oren, Aharon; Zhou, Pei-Jin; Wu, Min

    2007-04-01

    Three strains of Gram-negative, aerobic, neutrophilic, extremely halophilic archaea, designated ZJ206(T), ZJ203 and ZJ204, were isolated from a solar saltern in Zhe-Jiang Province, China. Phenotypically and on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the strains were very similar. Comparative 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed 96.4-97.4 % sequence similarity to members of the genus Haloferax. The major polar lipids were C(20)C(20) derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, diglycosyl glycerol diether and sulfated diglycosyl diether. The DNA G+C content of strain ZJ206(T) was 62.2 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the isolates from closely related species. Therefore the isolates should be classified as members of a novel species, for which the name Haloferax larsenii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZJ206(T) (=CGMCC 1.5347(T)=JCM 13917(T)). PMID:17392193

  16. Nocardioides alpinus sp. nov., a psychrophilic actinomycete isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, De-Chao; Schumann, Peter; Redzic, Mersiha; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hong-Can; Schinner, Franz; Margesin, Rosa

    2012-02-01

    A gram-positive, non-motile, rod-shaped, psychrophilic actinomycete, designated strain Cr7-14(T), was isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain Cr7-14(T) was related to members of the genus Nocardioides and shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with the type strains of Nocardioides furvisabuli (98.6?%), Nocardioides ganghwensis (98.2?%), Nocardioides oleivorans (98.1?%) and Nocardioides exalbidus (97.6?%). The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain Cr7-14(T) were C(17?:?1)?8c (39.5?%) and iso-C(16?:?0) (32.4?%). The major menaquinone was MK-8(H(4)). The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was ll-2,6-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant cell-wall sugars were galactose and rhamnose. The polar lipid pattern contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, four unknown glycolipids and two unknown polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 71.9 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data, a novel species, Nocardioides alpinus sp. nov., is proposed, with Cr7-14(T) (?=?DSM 23325(T)?=?LMG 26053(T)?=?CGMCC 1.10697(T)) as the type strain. PMID:21460134

  17. Arthrobacter cryoconiti sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite.

    PubMed

    Margesin, Rosa; Schumann, Peter; Zhang, De-Chao; Redzic, Mersiha; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hong-Can; Schinner, Franz

    2012-02-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-motile, psychrophilic bacterium, designated strain Cr6-08(T), was isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite. Growth of strain Cr6-08(T) occurred at 1-25 °C. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain Cr6-08(T) is most closely related to members of the genus Arthrobacter. Strain Cr6-08(T) possessed chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the genus Arthrobacter, such as peptidoglycan type A3? (l-Lys-L-Ala(4)), MK-9(H(2)) as major menaquinone and anteiso- and iso-branched compounds (anteiso-C(15?:?0) and iso-C(15?:?0)) as major cellular fatty acids. The polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, one unknown glycolipid and three unknown polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain Cr6-08(T) was 57.3 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data, strain Cr6-08(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter cryoconiti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Cr6-08(T) (?=?DSM 23324(T) ?=?LMG 26052(T) ?=?CGMCC 1.10698(T)). PMID:21441372

  18. Actinoalloteichus nanshanensis sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of a fig tree (Ficus religiosa).

    PubMed

    Xiang, Wensheng; Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Xiangjing; Du, Jing; Xi, Lijun; Huang, Ying

    2011-05-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic actinomycete, designated strain NEAU 119(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere of a fig tree and was characterized using a polyphasic approach. The isolate formed branching, non-fragmenting vegetative hyphae and produced black pigment on yeast extract/malt extract (ISP medium 2). The G+C content of the DNA was 76.6 mol%. The organism had chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of the genus Actinoalloteichus and was closely related to the type strains of Actinoalloteichus cyanogriseus, Actinoalloteichus spitiensis and Actinoalloteichus hymeniacidonis, currently the only three recognized species of the genus Actinoalloteichus, sharing 16S rRNA gene similarities of 96.4, 96.6 and 98.1 %, respectively. However, the results of DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the novel strain showed only 46.8 % relatedness with the type strain of A. hymeniacidonis. In addition, a set of phenotypic characteristics also readily distinguished strain NEAU 119(T) from the type strains of recognized species of the genus Actinoalloteichus. According to the above data, it is proposed that strain NEAU 119(T) represents a novel species, Actinoalloteichus nanshanensis sp. nov. The type strain of Actinoalloteichus nanshanensis is NEAU 119(T) (?=?CGMCC 4.5714(T)?=?NBRC 106685(T)). PMID:20562245

  19. Streptomyces heilongjiangensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete that produces borrelidin isolated from the root surface of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Xiangjing; Yan, Yijun; Wang, Jidong; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Ji

    2013-01-01

    A borrelidin-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-W2T, was isolated from the root surface of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of streptomycetes. The G+C content of the DNA was 66.12 mol%. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain NEAU-W2T revealed that the strain formed a distinct clade within the 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic tree and showed highest similarity (99.61?%) to Streptomyces neyagawaensis ATCC 27449T. However, the DNA–DNA relatedness between strain NEAU-W2T and S. neyagawaensis ATCC 27449T was 58.51?%. Strain NEAU-W2T could also be differentiated from S. neyagawaensis ATCC 27449T and other Streptomyces species showing high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98–99?%), as well as other borrelidin-producing strains, based on morphological and physiological characteristics. On the basis of its physiological and molecular properties, it is proposed that strain NEAU-W2T represents a novel Streptomyces species, Streptomyces heilongjiangensis sp. nov. The type strain is NEAU-W2T (?=?CGMCC 4.7004T ?=?ATCC BAA-2424T ?=?DSM 42073T). PMID:22707527

  20. Nonomuraea solani sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from eggplant root (Solanum melongena L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangjing; Zhao, Junwei; Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Jidong; Shen, Yue; Jia, Feiyu; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Ji; Yu, Chao

    2013-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-Z6T, was isolated from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) root. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain NEAU-Z6T belonged to the genus Nonomuraea, with highest sequence similarity to Nonomuraea monospora PT 708T (98.83?%), Nonomuraea rosea GW 12687T (98.55?%) and Nonomuraea rhizophila YIM 67092T (98.02?%). Sequence similarities between strain NEAU-Z6T and other species of the genus Nonomuraea ranged from 97.94?% (Nonomuraea candida HMC10T) to 96.30?% (Nonomuraea wenchangensis 210417T). Key morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain NEAU-Z6T were congruent with the description of the genus Nonomuraea. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 64.51 mol%. DNA–DNA relatedness and comparative analysis of physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic data allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain NEAU-Z6T from closely related species. Thus, strain NEAU-Z6T represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea solani sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Z6T (?=?CGMCC 4.7037T?=?DSM 45729T). PMID:23203622

  1. Enhanced deacidification activity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by genome shuffling.

    PubMed

    Ding, Su; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Wei; Yang, Ying; Guan, Jingxi; Pan, Lixia; Li, Wei

    2015-02-01

    A problem frequently occurring in making some kinds of wines, particularly Vitis quinquangularis Rehd wine, is the presence of malic acid at high concentrations, which is detrimental to the quality of wines. Thus, there is a need of the ways for effectively reducing the malic acid levels in wine. This study aimed to generate shuffled fusants of Schizosaccharomyces pombe with enhanced deacidification activity for reducing the excessive malic acid content in wine. Sz. pombe CGMCC 2.1628 was used as the original strain. The starting mutant population was generated by UV treatment. The mutants with higher deacidification activity were selected and subjected to recursive protoplast fusion. The resulting fusants were screened by using the indicator of malic acid concentration of fermentation supernatants on 96-well microtitre plates, measured with bromocresol green. After three rounds of genome shuffling, the best-performing fusant, named GS3-1, was obtained. Its deacidification activity (consumed 4.78?g/l malic acid within 10?days) was increased by 225.2% as compared to that of original strain. In the Vitis quinquangularis Rehd wine fermentation test, GS3-1 consumed 4.0?g/l malic acid during the whole cycle of fermentation, providing up to 185.7% improvement in malic acid consumption compared with that of the original strain. This study shows that GS3-1 has great potential for improving the quality of Vitis quinquangularis Rehd wine. PMID:25377082

  2. Nocardiopsis fildesensis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shanshan; Yan, Lien; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Chao; Feng, Ge; Li, Jing

    2014-01-01

    A filamentous actinomycete strain, designated GW9-2(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, West Antarctica. The strain was identified using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain grew slowly on most media tested, producing small amounts of aerial mycelia and no diffusible pigments on most media tested. The strain grew in the presence of 0-12?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2-4?%), at pH 9.0-11.0 (optimum, pH 9.0) and 10-37 °C (optimum, 28 °C). The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, no diagnostic sugars and MK-9(H4) as the predominant menaquinone. The major phospholipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylmethylethanolamine. The major fatty acids were iso-C16?:?0, anteiso-C17?:?0, C18?:?1?9c, iso-C15?:?0 and iso-C17?:?0. DNA-DNA relatedness was 37.6?% with Nocardiopsis lucentensis DSM 44048(T), the nearest phylogenetic relative (97.93?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). On the basis of the results of a polyphasic study, a novel species, Nocardiopsis fildesensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is GW9-2(T) (?=?CGMCC 4.7023(T)?=?DSM 45699(T)?=?NRRL B-24873(T)). PMID:24048863

  3. Moorella stamsii sp. nov., a new anaerobic thermophilic hydrogenogenic carboxydotroph isolated from digester sludge.

    PubMed

    Alves, J I; van Gelder, A H; Alves, M M; Sousa, D Z; Plugge, C M

    2013-11-01

    A novel anaerobic, thermophilic, carbon monoxide-utilizing bacterium, strain E3-O(T), was isolated from anaerobic sludge from a municipal solid waste digester. Cells were straight rods, 0.6-1 µm in diameter and 2-3 µm in length and grew as single cells or in pairs. Cells formed round terminal endospores. The temperature range for growth was 50-70 °C, with an optimum at 65 °C. The pH range for growth was 5.7-8.0, with an optimum at 7.5. Strain E3-O(T) had the ability to ferment various sugars, such as fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, raffinose, ribose, sucrose and xylose, producing mainly H2 and acetate. In addition, the isolate was able to grow with CO as the sole carbon and energy source. CO oxidation was coupled to H2 and CO2 formation. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 54.6 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, this bacterium is most closely related to Moorella glycerini (97?% sequence identity). Based on the physiological features and phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that strain E3-O(T) should be classified in the genus Moorella as a representative of a novel species, Moorella stamsii. The type strain of Moorella stamsii is E3-O(T) (?=?DSM 26271(T)?=?CGMCC 1.5181(T)). PMID:23749275

  4. Streptomyces radiopugnans sp. nov., a radiation-resistant actinomycete isolated from radiation-polluted soil in China.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jun; Tang, Qiyong; Zhang, Zhidong; Wang, Wei; Wei, Dong; Huang, Ying; Liu, Zhiheng; Shi, Yuhu; Goodfellow, Michael

    2007-11-01

    The taxonomic position of an actinomycete isolated from radiation-polluted soil collected in Xinjiang Province, north-west China, was determined by using a polyphasic approach. The isolate, designated strain R97T, had chemical and morphological properties characteristic of streptomycetes. An almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate was generated and compared with corresponding sequences of representative streptomycetes. The 16S rRNA data not only supported the classification of the strain in the genus Streptomyces but also showed that it represented a distinct phyletic line that was most closely, albeit loosely, associated with three other thermotolerant organisms, namely Streptomyces macrosporus NBRC 14748T, Streptomyces megasporus NBRC 14749T and Streptomyces thermolineatus NBRC 14750T. Strain R97T could be distinguished from these organisms based on a range of phenotypic properties. It is proposed that R97T (=CGMCC 4.3519T=DSM 41901T) be classified as the type strain of a novel species in the genus Streptomyces, Streptomyces radiopugnans sp. nov. The organism was shown to be resistant to 60Co gamma radiation at a dose of 15 kGy. PMID:17978221

  5. Flavobacterium noncentrifugens sp. nov., a psychrotolerant bacterium isolated from glacier meltwater.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lang; Liu, Qing; Liu, Hongcan; Zhang, Jianli; Dong, Xiuzhu; Zhou, Yuguang; Xin, Yuhua

    2013-06-01

    A non-motile, Gram-stain-negative bacterium, designated R-HLS-17(T), was isolated from the meltwater of Hailuogou Glacier located in Sichuan province, south-west China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Flavobacterium, with the closest relatives being Flavobacterium antarcticum JCM 12383(T) (95.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), F. omnivorum JCM 11313(T) (95.0%) and F. fryxellicola LMG 22022(T) (95.2%). Growth occurred at 0-29 °C (optimum, 10-20 °C) and pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum, 7.0-8.0). The DNA G+C content was 46.5 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:1 G, summed feature 9 (comprising iso-C17:1?9c and/or 10-methyl C16:0), iso-C17:0 3-OH and iso-C15:0 3-OH. The predominant menaquinone was MK-6. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, we propose that strain R-HLS-17(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, Flavobacterium noncentrifugens sp. nov. The type strain is R-HLS-17(T) (=CGMCC 1.10076(T)=NBRC 108844(T)). PMID:23064352

  6. Performance of a new thermostable mannanase in breaking guar-based fracturing fluids at high temperatures with little premature degradation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ke; Li, Chun-Xiu; Pan, Jiang; Ni, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Jian-He

    2014-02-01

    A new thermostable ?-1,4-mannanase (DtManB) cloned from Dictyoglomus thermophilum CGMCC 7283 showed the maximum activity towards hydroxypropyl guar gum at 80 °C, with a half-life of 46 h. DtManB exhibited good compatibility with various additives of fracturing fluid, retaining more than 50 % activity in all the cases tested. More importantly, premature degradation could be alleviated significantly when using DtManB as breaker, because at 27 and 50 °C it displayed merely 3.7 and 18.5 % activities compared to those at 80 °C. In a static test, 0.48 mg DtManB could break 200 mL borax cross-linked fracturing fluid dramatically at 80 °C, and merely 18 mPa s of the viscosity was detected even after the broken fluid was cooled down and only 161.4 mg L(-1) of the residue was left after the enzymatic reaction. All these positive features demonstrate the great potential of this mannanase as a new enzyme breaker for application in enhanced recovery of petroleum oil. PMID:24150905

  7. Longimycelium tulufanense gen. nov., sp. nov., a filamentous actinomycete of the family Pseudonocardiaceae.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhan-Feng; Guan, Tong-Wei; Ruan, Ji-Sheng; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Li-Li

    2013-08-01

    A novel filamentous actinomycete strain, designated TRM 46004(T), was isolated from sediment of Aiding Lake in Tulufan Basin (42° 64' N 89° 26' E), north-west China. The isolate was characterized using a polyphasic approach. The isolate formed abundant aerial mycelium with few branches and vegetative mycelium, occasionally twisted and coiled; spherical sporangia containing one to several spherical spores developed at the ends of short sporangiophores on aerial mycelium. The G+C content of the DNA was 65.2 mol%. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and xylose, galactose and ribose as the major whole-cell sugars. The diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H10). The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain TRM 46004(T) formed a distinct lineage within the family Pseudonocardiaceae and showed 91.7-96.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with members of the family Pseudonocardiaceae. On the basis of the evidence from this polyphasic study, a novel genus and species, Longimycelium tulufanense gen. nov., sp. nov., are proposed. The type strain of Longimycelium tulufanense is TRM 46004(T) (= CGMCC 4.5737(T) = NBRC 107726(T)). PMID:23315412

  8. Asymmetric synthesis of duloxetine intermediate (S)-(-)-3-N-methylamino-1-(2-thienyl)-1-propanol using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae in liquid-core sodium alginate/chitosan/sodium alginate microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Zhimin, Ou; Haibing, Zhao; Lan, Tang; Wei, Zhang; Gensheng, Yang

    2014-11-01

    Duloxetine intermediate (S)-(-)-3-N-methylamino-1-(2-thienyl)-1-propanol was synthesized using ACA liquid-core immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae CGMCC No. 2230. The optimum culture time for ACA liquid-core immobilized cells was found to be 28 h. The optimum ACA liquid-core capsule formation conditions were found to be 90% chitosan deacetylation, 30,000-50,000 chitosan molecular weight, 5.0 g/L chitosan, and pH 6.0 citrate buffer solution. The highest activity was found when reduction conditions were pH 6.0, 30 °C and 180 rpm. The ACA-immobilized cells can be reused nine times and only 40% of the activity is retained after nine cycles. Product inhibition of reduction was observed in batch reduction. Continuous reduction in the membrane reactor was found to remove the product inhibition on reduction and improve production capacity. Conversion reached 100% and enantiometric excess of (S)-(-)-3-N-methylamino-1-(2-thienyl)-1-propanol exceeded 99.0% in continuous reduction of 5 g/L 3-N-methylamino-1-(2-thienyl)-1-propanone in the membrane reactor. PMID:24798376

  9. Genetic diversity of endophytic diazotrophs of the wild rice, Oryza alta and identification of the new diazotroph, Acinetobacter oryzae sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Hassan Javed; Peng, Guixiang; Hu, Mei; He, Yumei; Yang, Lijuan; Luo, Yan; Tan, Zhiyuan

    2012-05-01

    Thirty-three endophytic diazotrophs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaves, stem, and roots of wild rice Oryza alta. The SDS-PAGE profile of total protein and insertion sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (IS-PCR) fingerprinting grouped the isolates into four clusters (I-IV). The 16S rRNA gene sequence homology of the representative strains B21, B31, B1, and B23 of clusters I, II, III, and IV were assigned to Pseudomonas oleovorans (99.2% similarity), Burkholderia fungorum (99.4% similarity), Enterobacter cloacae (98.9% similarity), and Acinetobacter johnsonii (98.4% similarity), respectively. The results showed wide genetic diversity of the putative diazotrophic strains of the wild rice, O. alta, and the strains of cluster IV are the first report of nitrogen-fixing Acinetobacter species. The cell size, phenotypic characters, total protein profile, genomic DNA fingerprinting, DNA-DNA hybridization, and antibiotic resistance differentiated strain B23(T) from its closest relatives A. johnsonii LMG999(T) and Acinetobacter haemolyticus LMG996(T). The DNA-DNA hybridization also distinguished the strain B23(T) from the closely related Acinetobacter species. Based on these data, a novel species, Acinetobacter oryzae sp. nov., and strain B23(T) (=LMG25575(T)?=?CGMCC1.10689(T)) as the type strain were proposed. PMID:22105517

  10. Methanoculleus hydrogenitrophicus sp. nov., a methanogenic archaeon isolated from wetland soil.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jianqing; Wang, Yanfen; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2010-09-01

    An obligately anaerobic, methanogenic archaeon, strain HC(T), was isolated from soil of the Zoige wetland on the Tibetan plateau, China. The strain was isolated through construction of an artificial butyrate-degrading consortium in co-culture with a syntrophic bacterium, 'Syntrophomonas erecta subsp. sporosyntropha' JCM 13344. Cells of strain HC(T) were irregular coccoids, 0.8-2 mum in diameter, that occurred singly and utilized only H(2)/CO(2) for growth and methane production. Growth occurred at 18-45 degrees C (optimum around 37 degrees C). The pH for growth was 5.0-8.5 (optimal growth around pH 6.6). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60.2 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain HC(T) was affiliated to the genus Methanoculleus, with sequence similarities of 94.8-97.2 % to existing members. However, strain HC(T) was distinguished from described Methanoculleus species by not using formate for growth or methane formation and not requiring acetate as a growth factor. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic characteristics, the novel species Methanoculleus hydrogenitrophicus sp. nov. is proposed, with strain HC(T) (=CGMCC 1.5146(T) =JCM 16311(T)) as the type strain. PMID:19897615

  11. Bacterioplanes sanyensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a PHB-accumulating bacterium isolated from a pool of Spirulina platensis cultivation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanghua; Jia, Qikun; Li, Tao; Dai, Shikun; Wu, Huanlian; He, Hui; Fan, Jiewei; Xiang, Wenzhou; Li, Xiang

    2014-10-01

    A Gram-negative, poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating rod bacterium, strain GYP-2(T), was isolated from a pool of marine Spirulina platensis cultivation, Sanya, China. Growth was observed at 10-45 °C and pH 6-10 in the presence of 1-10 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the new isolate belonged to Gammaproteobacteria and displayed 93.8-95.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequences similarities to members of the genera Thalassolituus, Oleibacter, and Oceanobacter, but house-keeping gene gyrB (encode DNA gyrase beta subunit) demonstrated that the new isolate was distantly related to Thalassolituus, Oleibacter, and Oceanobacter species (only 77-83 % gene gyrB sequences similarities).The G+C content of genomic DNA was 55 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was Q-9, while that for Oceanobacter kriegii LMG 6238(T) was Q-8. Major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylethanolamine. On the basis of its physiological, chemotaxonomic, and molecular properties, strain GYP-2(T) is suggested to represent a novel species of a new genus in Gammaproteobacteria, for which the name Bacterioplanes sanyensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GYP-2(T) (=CGMCC 1.12392(T)=KCTC 32220(T)). PMID:25038945

  12. Halorientalis brevis sp. nov., Isolated from an Inland Salt Lake of China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Pan-Pan; Yin, Shuai; Han, Dong; Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2015-09-01

    Halophilic archaeal strain YC89(T) was isolated from Yuncheng salt lake in Shanxi, China. Cells from strain YC89(T) were short rods, lysed in distilled water, stained Gram-negative and formed red-pigmented colonies on agar plate. Strain YC89(T) was able to grow at 25-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), at 1.4-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 2.6-3.1 M), at 0-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.3 M) and at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum pH 7.5). The major polar lipids are phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether and two unknown glycolipids. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that strain YC89(T) was phylogenetically related to Halorientalis persicus D108(T) (95.6 % nucleotide identity) and H. regularis TNN28(T) (95.3 % nucleotide identity). The rpoB' gene similarities between strain YC89(T) and H. persicus IBRC-M 10043(T) and H. regularis TNN28(T) were 88.1 and 88.0 %, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain YC89(T) was determined to be 61.3 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggested that strain YC89(T) (=CGMCC 1.12125(T) = JCM 18366(T)) represents a new species of Halorientalis, for which the name H. brevis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:26134535

  13. Pseudomonas tuomuerensis sp. nov., isolated from a bird's nest.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yu-Hua; Zhang, De-Chao; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Hui-Ling; Zhou, Yu-Guang

    2009-01-01

    Strain 78-123T was isolated from a sample of a bird's nest situated on the bank of Qiongtailan River in the region of Tuomuer Peak of Tianshan Mountain in the Xin-jiang Uygur Autonomous Region in north-western China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that strain 78-123T was related to members of the genus Pseudomonas. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain 78-123T and Pseudomonas mendocina ATCC 25411T, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes JCM 5968T and Pseudomonas alcaliphila AL15-21T was 97.1, 97.4 and 97.5 %, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids were C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH, C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(12 : 0). The G+C content was 60.4 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data, the novel species Pseudomonas tuomuerensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain 78-123T (=CGMCC 1.1365T =JCM 14085T). PMID:19126738

  14. Nonomuraea maritima sp. nov., isolated from coastal sediment.

    PubMed

    Xi, Lijun; Zhang, Limin; Ruan, Jisheng; Huang, Ying

    2011-11-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain FXJ7.203(T), was isolated from a coastal sediment sample collected in Bohai Bay, China. In 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, strain FXJ7.203(T) always formed a unique monophyletic line within the genus Nonomuraea and was most closely related to Nonomuraea turkmeniaca (97.9 %), Nonomuraea candida (97.8 %), Nonomuraea helvata (97.7 %) and Nonomuraea rubra (97.5 %). Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics supported the allocation of the strain to the genus Nonomuraea. The polar lipid profile showed that its phospholipid type was PIV. The major fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0), C(17 : 1)?6c, iso-C(16 : 1) G, 10-methyl C(17 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0). The major menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)) with minor amounts of MK-9(H(2)), MK-9(H(0)) and MK-9(H(6)). The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed differentiation of strain FXJ7.203(T) from closely related species. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic data, strain FXJ7.203(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea maritima sp. nov. is proposed, with strain FXJ7.203(T) ( = CGMCC 4.5681(T) = NBRC 106687(T)) as the type strain. PMID:21186288

  15. Nonomuraea jiangxiensis sp. nov., isolated from acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Zhang, Limin; Ding, Yun; Gao, Yongsheng; Ruan, Jisheng; Huang, Ying

    2012-06-01

    An actinomycete, designated FXJ1.102(T), was isolated from acidic soil collected in Jiangxi Province, south-east China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain FXJ1.102(T) belonged to the genus Nonomuraea and was most closely related to Nonomuraea candida HMC10(T), Nonomuraea turkmeniaca DSM 43926(T), Nonomuraea antimicrobica YIM 61105(T) and 'Nonomuraea aegyptia' S136 (98.9, 98.3, 97.9 and 97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively). The morphological characteristics were typical of the genus Nonomuraea. The chemotaxonomic properties, such as cell-wall chemotype IIIB, phospholipid type IV, MK-9(H(4)) as the major menaquinone and iso-C(16:0) (22.2 %) as the major fatty acid, supported the assignment of the strain to the genus Nonomuraea. DNA-DNA relatedness and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain FXJ1.102(T) from its closest phylogenetic relatives. The isolate therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Nonomuraea jiangxiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FXJ1.102(T) ( = CGMCC 4.6533(T) = NBRC 106679(T)). PMID:21828009

  16. Nonomuraea wenchangensis sp. nov., isolated from mangrove rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Xu, Xiao-Xiong; Qu, Zhi; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Hai-Peng; Xie, Qing-Yi; Ruan, Ji-Sheng; Sun, Ming; Hong, Kui

    2011-06-01

    Strain 210417(T), which forms highly branched substrate and aerial mycelia, is a Gram-positive, aerobic and non-motile actinomycete isolated from mangrove rhizosphere soil. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strain should be classified in the genus Nonomuraea, being most closely related to the type strains of Nonomuraea coxensis (99.6 %) and Nonomuraea bangladeshensis (99.3 %). Chemotaxonomic properties [madurose as the major sugar in the cell wall; meso-diaminopimelic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid in the peptidoglycan; MK-9(H(4)) as the major menaquinone; iso-C(16 : 0) (24.1 %) as major fatty acid; and phospholipid pattern type IV] are consistent with the assignment of strain 210417(T) to the genus Nonomuraea. Strain 210417(T) could be differentiated from the closely related species N. coxensis and N. bangladeshensis by morphological, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization results. It is therefore proposed that strain 210417(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea wenchangensis sp. nov. is given; the type strain is 210417(T) (?=?CGMCC 4.5598(T) ?=?DSM 45477(T)). PMID:20639224

  17. Nonomuraea shaanxiensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from a soil sample.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuejing; Zhao, Junwei; Liu, Chongxi; Shen, Yue; Jia, Feiyu; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, strain NEAU-st1(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in Shaanxi province, Northwest China and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain NEAU-st1(T) belongs to the genus Nonomuraea, being most closely related to Nonomuraea rosea GW12687(T) (98.91 %), Nonomuraea solani NEAU-Z6(T) (98.44 %), Nonomuraea rhizophila YIM67092(T)(98.24 %) and Nonomuraea monospora PT708(T) (98.02 %); similarities to sequences of other type strains of the genus Nonomuraea were lower than 98 %. Both tree-making algorithms used also supported the position that strain NEAU-st1(T) formed a distinct clade with its most closely related species. Morphological and physiological characteristics confirmed that the strain belongs to the genus Nonomuraea and distinguished it from its most closely related species. DNA-DNA hybridization further differentiated strain NEAU-st1(T) from its nearest phylogenetic neighbours. These results suggested that strain NEAU-st1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea shaanxiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-st1(T) (=CGMCC 4.7096(T) = DSM 45877(T)). PMID:24126467

  18. Expression of POX2 gene and disruption of POX3 genes in the industrial Yarrowia lipolytica on the ?-decalactone production.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanqiong; Song, Huanlu; Wang, Zhaoyue; Ding, Yongzhi

    2012-04-20

    The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica growing on methyl ricinoleate can produce ?-decalactone, the worthy aroma compound, which can exhibit fruity and creamy sensorial notes, and recognized internationally as a safe food additive. Unfortunately, the yield is poor because of lactone degradation by enzyme Aox3 (POX3 gene encoded), which was responsible for continuation of oxidation after C(10) level and lactone reconsumption. In this paper, we chose the industrial Y. lipolytica (CGMCC accession number 2.1405), which is the diploid strain as the starting strain and constructed the recombinant strain Tp-12 by targeting the POX3 locus of the wild type, one copy of POX3 was deleted by CRF1+POX2 insertion. The other recombinant strain Tpp-11, which was a null mutant possessing multiple copies of POX2 and disrupted POX3 genes on two chromosomes, was constructed by inserting XPR2+hpt into the other copy of POX3 of Tp-12. The growth ability of the recombinants was changed after genetic modification in the fermentation medium. The production of ?-decalactone was increased, resulting from blocking ?-oxidation at the C(10) Aox level and POX2 overexpression. The recombinant strain Tpp-11 was stable. Because there was no reconsumption of ?-decalactone, the mutant strain could be grown in continuous fermentation of methyl ricinoleate to produce ?-decalactone. PMID:22115771

  19. Optimization of the condition for adsorption of gallic acid by Aspergillus oryzae mycelia using Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhicai; Pang, Qiaoxia; Li, Min; Zheng, Huihua; Chen, Hui; Chen, Keping

    2015-01-01

    Fresh biomass of Aspergillus oryzae (A. oryzae) CGMCC5992 can effectively remove gallic acid from aqueous solution. To improve the removal rate of gallic acid, this study first identified the important factors affecting the removal rate of gallic acid with univariate analysis, and then used four-factor and three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) with the removal rate of gallic acid as response value, to obtain the optimum conditions for the removal of gallic acid as follows: 6.95 h treatment time, pH 3.70, 7.07 g/L mycelium volume, and 120.64 mg/L initial concentration of gallic acid. Under such optimized condition, the removal rate of gallic acid approached 99.21 %. HPLC-MS analysis proved that the gallic acid in aqueous solution was completely removed by A. oryzae, rather than being metabolized into its derivatives. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the biomass morphology and surface structure of A. oryzae changed after the adsorption of gallic acid. Thus, the present study has provided an optimal condition for A. oryzae removal of gallic acid in water. PMID:25109471

  20. Sediminicoccus rosea gen. nov. sp. nov., isolated from the sediment of a eutrophic lake.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jian-Hang; Qu, Jian-Ying; He, Xiao-Bing; Li, Hai-Feng; Luo, Yu; Yin, Yan-Li; Zhai, Huan-Chen; Cai, Jing-Ping

    2013-01-01

    A polyphasic study was carried out to clarify the taxonomic position of a novel strain R-30(T) isolated from the surficial layer of sediment from Taihu Lake of China. The strain formed pink colored colonies comprising coccodial cells on R2A agar. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain R-30(T) clustered with the strains of genus Roseococcus and strain Rubritepida flocculans, with Roseococcus suduntuyensis SHET(T) as the closest relative, sharing 95.6% similarity. The major fatty acids (?5%) were 18?1?7c (66.7%), 16? 1?7c/16?1?6c (10.2%) and 16?0 (8.0%). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidyl glycerol (DPG), phosphatidyl methylethanolamine (PME), phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidyl choline (PC). The genomic DNA G+C content was 73.9 mol%. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical characteristics, we conclude that strain R-30(T) represents a novel genus and species of the family Acetobacteraceae, for which we propose the name Sediminicoccus rosea gen nov. sp. nov. with R-30(T) (= CGMCC 1.12302(T) = NBRC 109675(T)) as the type species and type strain. PMID:24492604

  1. Bacillus bingmayongensis sp. nov., isolated from the pit soil of Emperor Qin's Terra-cotta warriors in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Hu, Gui-Ping; Sengonca, Cetin; Cetin, Sengonca; Lin, Nai-Quan; Tang, Jian-Yang; Tang, Wei-Qi; Lin, Ying-Zhi

    2014-03-01

    A Bacillus-like isolate, strain FJAT-13831(T), isolated from the No. 1 pit soil of Emperor Qin's Terra-cotta Warriors in Xi'an City, China, was studied to determine its taxonomic status. Dominant fatty acids of this organism included iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0, C16:0, iso-C13:0, anteiso-C15:0, and iso-C17:1?5c. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis confirmed the affiliation of this isolate to the genus Bacillus and indicated that it was closely related to Bacillus pseudomycoides DSM 12442(T) (99.72 % similarity). A phylogenetic analysis of the gyrB gene sequence similarities exhibited independent clustering of the isolate FJAT-13831(T) and showed 93.8 % (<95 %) sequence similarity with its closest phylogenetic neighbour B. pseudomycoides DSM 12442(T). Separate standing of the strain FJAT-13831(T) was supported by a whole genome-based phylogenetic analysis with an average nucleotide identity value of 91.47 (<95 %) between isolate FJAT-13831(T) and B. pseudomycoides DSM 12442(T) and was consistent with the results of DNA-DNA hybridization (69.1 % relatedness). These findings support the conclusion that the isolate FJAT-13831(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Bacillus bingmayongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FJAT-13831(T) (= CGMCC 1.12043(T) = DSM 25427(T)). PMID:24370979

  2. An intramolecular disulfide bond is required for the thermostability of methyl parathion hydrolase, OPHC2.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiao-yu; Tian, Jian; Wu, Ning-feng; Fan, Yun-liu

    2010-09-01

    OPHC2, a methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes C2-1 (CGMCC 1150), can degrade a wide range of organophosphate pesticides. Compared with other MPHs, OPHC2 exhibits high thermostability. Its thermostability mechanism, however, remains unknown. In the present study, sequence analysis demonstrated that two cysteines (Cys110 and Cys146) exist in OPHC2, but not in other MPHs. The three-dimensional structural model of OPHC2 performed by computer-assisted homology modelling revealed a potential stacking network with residues Cys110 and Cys146, which probably formed an intramolecular disulfide bond. Furthermore, both sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and thiol-titration analyses indicated that OPHC2 contains a disulfide bond. Substitution of the disulfide bond-forming cysteines with alanine, leucine or methionine residues substantially decreased the thermostability of OPHC2, suggesting that disulfide bond formation affects conformational stability. These results, combined with three-dimensional structural modelling, demonstrated that the formation of a C110-C146 disulfide bond may stabilise the conformation of OPHC2, contributing to its thermostability. PMID:20607231

  3. Halorubrum rubrum sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon from a Chinese salt lake.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xing-Xing; Zhao, Mei-Lin; Han, Dong; Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2013-11-01

    Two halophilic archaeal strains, YC87(T) and YCA11, were isolated from Yuncheng salt lake in Shanxi, China. Cells of the two strains were observed to be pleomorphic rod-shaped, stained Gram-negative and produced red-pigmented colonies. Strain YC87(T) was able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), at 1.4-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 2.1 M NaCl), at 0.05-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.3 M MgCl2) and at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0) while strain YCA11 was able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), at 2.1-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 3.1 M NaCl), at 0.01-0.7 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.1 M MgCl2) and at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.5). The cells of both isolates were observed to lyse in distilled water. The minimum NaCl concentrations that prevented cell lysis were determined to be 8 % (w/v) for strain YC87(T) and 12 % (w/v) for strain YCA11. The major polar lipids of the two strains were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate and one major glycolipid chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether; another major glycolipid and trace amounts of several unidentified lipids were also detected. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains were 99.8 % identical, showing 93.2-98.2 % similarity to members of the genus Halorubrum of the family Halobacteriaceae. The rpoB' gene similarity between strains YC87(T) and YCA11 was 99.3 % and showed 87.5-95.2 % similarity to the closest relative members of the genus Halorubrum. The DNA G+C content of strains YC87(T) and YCA11 were determined to be 64.9 and 64.5 mol%, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain YC20(T) and strain YC77 was 87 % and the two strains showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with Halorubrum cibi JCM 15757(T) and Halorubrum aquaticum CGMCC 1.6377(T), the most related members of the genus Halorubrum. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strains YC87(T) and YCA11 represent a novel species of the genus Halorubrum, for which the name Halorubrum rubrum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC87(T) (=CGMCC 1.12124(T) = JCM 18365(T)). PMID:23949820

  4. Ornithinimicrobium pekingense sp. nov., isolated from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing-Yu; Wang, Bao-Jun; Jiang, Cheng-Ying; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial strain LW6(T) was isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater treatment bioreactor. Cells of strain LW6(T) are Gram-positive, irregular, short rods and cocci, 0.5-0.8x1.0-1.6 microm. Colonies are light-yellow, smooth, circular and 0.2-1.0 mm in diameter after 3 days incubation. Strain LW6(T) is aerobic and heterotrophic. It grows at a temperature range of 26-38 degrees C and pH range of 6-9, with optimal growth at 33-37 degrees C and pH 7.8-8.2. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain LW6(T) are iso-C(15:0) (38.9%) and iso-C(17:1)omega9c (18.8%). Strain LW6(T) has the major respiratory menaquinones MK-8(H(4)) and MK-8(H(2)) and polar lipids phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and unknown glycolipid/phospholipids. The cell wall peptidoglycan of strain LW6(T) contained the amino acids ornithine, lysine, glutamic acid, alanine, glycine and aspartic acid. Its molar DNA G+C content is 69 mol% (T(m)). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain LW6(T) was related phylogenetically to members of the genus Ornithinimicrobium, with similarities ranging from 98.3 to 98.7%. The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain LW6(T) to Ornithinimicrobium humiphilum DSM 12362(T) and Ornithinimicrobium kibberense K22-20(T) was respectively 31.5 and 15.2%. Based on these results, it is concluded that strain LW6(T) represents a novel species of the genus Ornithinimicrobium, for which the name Ornithinimicrobium pekingense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain LW6(T) (=CGMCC 1.5362(T) =JCM 14001(T)). PMID:18175694

  5. Anoxybacillus vitaminiphilus sp. nov., a strictly aerobic and moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Li; Wu, Nan; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2013-11-01

    A strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, motile and spore-forming bacterium, strain 3nP4(T), was isolated from the Puge hot spring located in the south-western geothermal area of China. Strain 3nP4(T) grew at 38-66 °C (optimum 57-60 °C), at pH 6.0-9.3 (optimum 7.0-7.5) and with 0-4?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-0.5?%). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, as well as DNA-DNA relatedness values, indicated that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Anoxybacillus, related most closely to Anoxybacillus voinovskiensis DSM 12111(T). Strain 3nP4(T) had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and one unidentified phospholipid as major polar lipids and iso-C15?:?0 and iso-C17?:?0 as major fatty acids, which are both typical chemotaxonomic characteristics of the genus Anoxybacillus. The mean DNA G+C content of strain 3nP4(T) was 39.2±0.95 mol% (HPLC). A distinctive characteristic of the novel isolate was its extreme reliance on vitamin mixture or yeast extract for growth. Based on data from this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, strain 3nP4(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Anoxybacillus, for which the name Anoxybacillus vitaminiphilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3nP4(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.8979(T)?=?JCM 16594(T)). PMID:23728374

  6. Actinomycetospora rhizophila sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from rhizosphere soil of a peace lily (Spathi phyllum Kochii).

    PubMed

    He, Hairong; Zhang, Yuejing; Ma, Zhaoxu; Li, Chuang; Liu, Chongxi; Zhou, Ying; Li, Lianjie; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2015-05-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-B-8(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a peace lily (Spathi phyllum Kochii) collected from Heilongjiang province, north-east China. Key morphological and physiological characteristics as well as chemotaxonomic features of strain NEAU-B-8(T) were congruent with the description of the genus Actinomycetospora , such as the major fatty acids, the whole-cell hydrolysates, the predominant menaquinone and the phospholipid profile. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NEAU-B-8(T) shared the highest sequence similarities with Actinomycetospora lutea JCM 17982(T) (99.3?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Actinomycetospora chlora TT07I-57(T) (98.4?%), Actinomycetospora straminea IY07-55(T) (98.3?%) and Actinomycetospora chibensis TT04-21(T) (98.2?%); similarities to type strains of other species of this genus were lower than 98?%. The phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain NEAU-B-8(T) formed a distinct branch with A. lutea JCM 17982(T) that was supported by a high bootstrap value of 97?% in the neighbour-joining tree and was also recovered with the maximum-likelihood algorithm. However, the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain NEAU-B-8(T) and A. lutea JCM 17982(T) was found to be 50.6±1.2?%. Meanwhile, strain NEAU-B-8(T) differs from other most closely related strains in phenotypic properties, such as maximum NaCl tolerance, hydrolysis of aesculin and decomposition of urea. On the basis of the morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic, phylogenetic and DNA-DNA hybridization data, we conclude that strain NEAU-B-8(T) represents a novel species of the genus Actinomycetospora , named Actinomycetospora rhizophila sp. nov. The type strain is NEAU-B-8(T). (?=?CGMCC 4.7134(T)?=?DSM 46673(T)). PMID:25701847

  7. Nitratireductor shengliensis sp. nov., isolated from an oil-polluted saline soil.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xin-Chi; Geng, Shuang; Mei, Ran; Wang, Ya-Nan; Cai, Hua; Liu, Xue-Ying; Tang, Yue-Qin; Nie, Yong; Ye, Si-Yuan; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2014-10-01

    Two Gram-negative, non-motile, short-rod-shaped bacterial isolates, designated 110399(T) and 110248, were isolated from an oil-polluted saline soil in Shengli Oilfield, Eastern China. The two strains shared 99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the DNA-DNA relatedness value being 80.0 %. They were both capable to grow at 20-40 °C, pH 7-9, and 1-9 % (w/v) NaCl with the optimum growth happened at 30 °C, pH 8, and 2-6 % (w/v) NaCl. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the two strains were members of Nitratireductor and most closely related to Nitratireductor pacificus pht-3B(T) and N. basaltis J3(T) with the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities being 97.1 and 97.0 %. The DNA-DNA relatedness between the novel strains and two type strains were below 27 ± 7 %. The strains 110399(T) and 110248 also differed from N. pacificus and N. basaltis in nitrate reduction, salt tolerance, enzyme activities, and utilization of carbon sources. The major cellular fatty acids of strain 110399(T) were C19:0?8c cyclo (10.5 %) and Summed Feature 8 (C18:1?7c and/or C18:1?6c, 41.5 %) which are typical in the genus Nitratireductor. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-10. The genome DNA G+C content of strain 110399(T) and 110248 was 61.1 and 61.7 mol%. On the basis of genetic, phenotypic, and chemotaxonomic analyses, strains 110399(T) and 110248 represent a novel species within the genus Nitratireductor, for which the name Nitratireductor shengliensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 110399(T) (=CGMCC 1.12519(T) = LMG 27405(T)). PMID:25027447

  8. Thermotunica guangxiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from mushroom residue compost.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Lian, Yunpeng; Liu, Bin; Ren, Yanling; Qin, Peisheng; Huang, Fuchang

    2014-05-01

    A novel thermophilic actinomycete, designated AG2-7T, was isolated from mushroom residue compost in Guangxi University, Nanning, China. The strain grew optimally at 45-60 °C, at pH 7.0 and with 0-3.0% (w/v) NaCl. Vegetative mycelia were branched and whitish to pale yellow without fragmentation. Aerial mycelium was abundant, whitish and differentiated into long chains of spores, with a membranous structure or tunica partially covering the surface of aerial hyphae. The non-motile spores were oval in shape with a ridged surface. Strain AG-27T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid, and the whole-cell sugars were galactose and ribose. Major fatty acids were iso-C16:0 (27.51%), iso-C17:0 (10.47%) and anteiso-C17:0 (12.01%). MK-9(H4) was the predominant menaquinone. The polar phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, ninhydrin-positive glycophospholipid, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, an unknown phospholipid and unknown glucosamine-containing phospholipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 63.6 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the organism belonged to the family Pseudonocardiaceae, suborder Pseudonocardineae and showed more than 5% divergence from other members of the family. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain AG2-7T represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Pseudonocardiaceae, for which the name Thermotunica guangxiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is AG2-7T (=ATCC BAA-2499T=CGMCC 4.7099T). PMID:24488931

  9. Altererythrobacter xiamenensis sp. nov., an algicidal bacterium isolated from red tide seawater.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xueqian; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei; Lai, Qiliang; Zhang, Huajun; Guan, Chengwei; Cai, Guanjing; Yang, Xujun; Tian, Yun; Zheng, Tianling

    2014-02-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, yellow-pigmented, aerobic bacterial strain, designated LY02(T), was isolated from red tide seawater in Xiamen, Fujian Province, China. Growth was observed at temperatures from 4 to 44 °C, at salinities from 0 to 9% and at pH from 6 to 10. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the isolate was a member of the genus Altererythrobacter, which belongs to the family Erythrobacteraceae. Strain LY02(T) was related most closely to Altererythrobacter marensis MSW-14(T) (97.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), followed by Altererythrobacter ishigakiensis JPCCMB0017(T) (97.1%), Altererythrobacter epoxidivorans JCS350(T) (97.1%) and Altererythrobacter luteolus SW-109(T) (97.0%). The dominant fatty acids were C(18 : 1)?7c, C(17 : 1)?6c and summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)?7c and/or C(16 : 1)?6c). DNA-DNA hybridization showed that strain LY02(T) possessed low DNA-DNA relatedness to A. marensis MSW-14(T), A. ishigakiensis JPCCMB0017(T), A. epoxidivorans JCS350(T) and A. luteolus SW-109(T) (mean ± SD of 33.2 ± 1.3, 32.1 ± 1.0, 26.7 ± 0.7 and 25.2 ± 1.1?%, respectively). The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 61.2 mol%. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10 (Q-10). According to its morphology, physiology, fatty acid composition and 16S rRNA gene sequence data, the novel strain most appropriately belongs to the genus Altererythrobacter, but can readily be distinguished from recognized species. The name Altererythrobacter xiamenensis sp. nov. is proposed (type strain LY02(T)?=?CGMCC 1.12494(T)?=?KCTC 32398(T)?=?NBRC 109638(T)). PMID:24158949

  10. Flavobacterium palustre sp. nov., isolated from wetland soil.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hao; Zeng, Yanhua; Huang, Yili

    2015-03-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, yellow-coloured, rod-shaped bacterium, designated S44(T), was isolated from bankside soil of Xixi wetland, located in Zhejiang province, China. Growth of strain S44(T) was observed at 6-37 °C (optimum, 28 °C) and at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, 7.0). No growth occurred in the presence of >2?% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain S44(T) represented a member of the genus Flavobacterium, showing the highest sequence similarities to the sequences from Flavobacterium succinicans DSM 4002(T) (96.9?%), Flavobacterium reichenbachii WB 3.2-61(T) (96.6?%) and Flavobacterium glycines NCBI 105008(T) (96.5?%). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 33.6 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C15?:?0, iso-C15?:?0, anteiso-C15?:?0 and summed feature 3 (comprising C16?:?1?7c and/or iso-C15?:?0 2-OH), and the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids, two unknown aminophospholipids and four unknown polar lipids. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic data, it is proposed that the isolate S44(T) be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium palustre sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S44(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.12811(T)?=?NBRC 110389(T)). PMID:25563922

  11. Novosphingobium marinum sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Huo, Ying-Yi; You, Hong; Li, Zheng-Yang; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Xu, Xue-Wei

    2015-02-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped bacterium, strain LA53(T), was isolated from a deep-sea water sample collected from the eastern Pacific Ocean. Strain LA53(T) grew in the presence of 0-7.0 % (w/v) NaCl and at 15-37 °C; optimum growth was observed with 1.0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl and at 35 °C. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed ubiquinone-10 as the predominant respiratory quinone, C18 : 1?7c and summed feature 3 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1?7c) as major fatty acids, and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and sphingoglycolipid as major polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 57.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that strain LA53(T) belongs to the genus Novosphingobium. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain LA53(T) and the type strains of species of the genus Novosphingobium with validly published names ranged from 93.1 to 96.3 %. In addition, strain LA53(T) could be differentiated from Novosphingobium pentaromativorans DSM 17173(T) and Novosphingobium indicum DSM 23608(T) as well as the type strain of the type species of the genus, Novosphingobium capsulatum DSM 30196(T), by some phenotypic characteristics, including hydrolysis of substrates, utilization of carbon sources and susceptibility to antibiotics. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain LA53(T) represents a novel species within the genus Novosphingobium, for which the name Novosphingobium marinum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LA53(T) (?= CGMCC 1.12918(T)?= JCM 30307(T)). PMID:25424486

  12. Streptomyces fildesensis sp. nov., a novel streptomycete isolated from Antarctic soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Tian, Xin-Peng; Zhu, Tian-Jiao; Yang, Ling-Ling; Li, Wen-Jun

    2011-11-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, GW25-5(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from the Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, West Antarctica. The strain was characterized by white to grey aerial mycelia, which were differentiated to straight to flexuous spore chains, with rod-shaped smooth spores. The cell wall of strain GW25-5(T) contained LL-diaminopimelic acid (A(2)pm) and traces of meso-A(2)pm. Whole-cell sugars were galactose and minor amounts of mannose and glucose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H(6)) (49%), MK-9(H(8)) (24%) and MK-9(H(4)) (12%). The phospholipids contained DPG, PE, PI, PIM and PL(s). The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(16:0) and anteiso-C(15:0). Genomic DNA G+C content of strain GW25-5(T) was 70.0 mol%. BLAST result showed that strain GW25-5 has the 16S rRNA gene sequence highest similarity of 97.5% with members of genus Streptomyces and phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to the genus Streptomyces. DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain GW25-5(T) with the closest species of Streptomyces purpureus LMG 19368(T) and Streptomyces beijiangensis YIM 6(T) were significantly lower than 70% of the threshold value for the delineation of genomic species. A polyphasic taxonomic investigation based on a judicious combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics revealed that the organism represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces. Thus, we propose strain GW25-5(T) as the type strain of this novel species, Streptomyces fildesensis (=CGMCC 4.5735(T) = YIM 93602(T) = DSM 41987(T) = NRRL B 24828(T)). PMID:21691776

  13. Marinobacter antarcticus sp. nov., a halotolerant bacterium isolated from Antarctic intertidal sandy sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Chen, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Yu, Yong; Liu, Ang; Li, Guo-Wei; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Chen, Bo; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2012-08-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, motile, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped strain, designated ZS2-30(T), was isolated from Antarctic intertidal sandy sediment. The strain grew at 4-35 °C (optimum, 25 °C) and in 0-25% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3.0-4.0%). It could reduce nitrate to nitrite and hydrolyse Tween 80. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain ZS2-30(T) were summed feature 3 (C(16:1)?7c and/or C(16:1)?6c), C(16:0), C(18:1)?9c, C(16:1)?9c, C(12:0) 3-OH and C(12:0). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified aminophospholipid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain ZS2-30(T) was 55.8 mol%. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain ZS2-30(T) was affiliated with the genus Marinobacter. It showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to the type strains of three species of the genus Marinobacter, namely Marinobacter maritimus (98.3%), Marinobacter psychrophilus (98.1%) and Marinobacter goseongensis (97.1%), but the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain ZS2-30(T) and the above three species were all lower than 45%. Moreover, strain ZS2-30(T) could be distinguished from closely related species of the genus Marinobacter by various phenotypic properties. Based on this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, strain ZS2-30(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Marinobacter, for which the name Marinobacter antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Marinobacter antarcticus is ZS2-30(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.10835(T)?=?KCTC 23684(T)). PMID:21984673

  14. Halohasta litorea gen. nov. sp. nov., and Halohasta litchfieldiae sp. nov., isolated from the Daliang aquaculture farm, China and from Deep Lake, Antarctica, respectively.

    PubMed

    Mou, Yun-Zhuang; Qiu, Xing-Xing; Zhao, Mei-Lin; Cui, Heng-Lin; Oh, Dickson; Dyall-Smith, Mike L

    2012-11-01

    Two halophilic archaeal strains, R30(T) and tADL(T), were isolated from an aquaculture farm in Dailing, China, and from Deep Lake, Antarctica, respectively. Both have rod-shaped cells that lyse in distilled water, stain Gram-negative and form red-pigmented colonies. They are neutrophilic, require >120 g/l NaCl and 48-67 g/l MgCl(2) for growth but differ in their optimum growth temperatures (30 °C, tADL(T) vs. 40 °C, R30(T)). The major polar lipids were typical for members of the Archaea but also included a major glycolipid chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-DGD-1). The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains are 97.4 % identical, show most similarity to genes of the family Halobacteriaceae, and cluster together as a distinct clade in phylogenetic tree reconstructions. The rpoB' gene similarity between strains R30(T) and tADL(T) is 92.9 % and less to other halobacteria. Their DNA G + C contents are 62.4-62.9 mol % but DNA-DNA hybridization gives a relatedness of only 44 %. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, we describe two new species of a novel genus, represented by strain R30(T) (= CGMCC 1.10593(T) = JCM 17270(T)) and strain tADL(T) (= JCM 15066(T) = DSMZ 22187(T)) for which we propose the names Halohasta litorea gen. nov., sp. nov. and Halohasta litchfieldiae sp. nov., respectively. PMID:23052830

  15. Pseudorhodobacter antarcticus sp. nov., isolated from Antarctic intertidal sandy sediment, and emended description of the genus Pseudorhodobacter Uchino et al. 2002 emend. Jung et al. 2012.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Liu, Chang; Yu, Yong; Liu, Ang; Li, Guo-Wei; Li, Hai; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Chen, Bo; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2013-03-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, pink-pigmented and rod-shaped strain, designated ZS3-33(T), was isolated from Antarctic intertidal sandy sediment. The strain grew optimally at 15 °C and with 1.0?% (w/v) NaCl. It reduced nitrate to nitrite and hydrolysed Tween 20. It could not produce bacteriochlorophyll a. The predominant cellular fatty acid was C18?:?1?7c and the predominant respiratory quinone was Q-10. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified aminophospholipids and an unidentified aminolipid. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain ZS3-33(T) belonged to the genus Pseudorhodobacter, showing 97.4?% similarity to the type strain of Pseudorhodobacter ferrugineus and 95.3?% similarity to the type strain of Pseudorhodobacter aquimaris. Levels of gyrB gene sequence similarity between strain ZS3-33(T) and the type strains of P. ferrugineus and P. aquimaris were 87.6 and 81.7?%, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain ZS3-33(T) and P. ferrugineus DSM 5888(T) was 56.6?%. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain ZS3-33(T) was 57.1 mol%. Based on data from this polyphasic study, strain ZS3-33(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudorhodobacter, for which the name Pseudorhodobacter antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZS3-33(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.10836(T)?=?KCTC 23700(T)). An emended description of the genus Pseudorhodobacter Uchino et al. 2002 emend. Jung et al. 2012 is also proposed. PMID:22611201

  16. Roseicitreum antarcticum gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic bacteriochlorophyll a-containing alphaproteobacterium isolated from Antarctic sandy intertidal sediment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; Yan, Shu-Lin; Li, Hui-Rong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2011-09-01

    A novel Gram-negative, non-motile bacterium, designated strain ZS2-28(T), was isolated from sandy intertidal sediment samples collected from the coastal regions of the Chinese Antarctic Zhongshan Station on the Larsemann Hills, Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica. Strain ZS2-28(T) was obligately heterotrophic, strictly aerobic, psychrotolerant (growth occurred at 0-33 °C) and moderately halophilic (optimal growth in 7-8?% NaCl). A single major peak at 872-874 nm in the infrared absorption spectrum indicated the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a. Poly-?-hydroxybutyrate accumulation and slime production were also detected. The predominant cellular fatty acid was C??:??7c, with C??:? 3-OH, C??:?, C??:? cyclo, C??:??8c cyclo and summed feature 3 (C??:??7c and/or iso-C??:? 2-OH) present in smaller amounts. The respiratory quinone was Q-10. The main polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and an unidentified aminolipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 63.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain ZS2-28(T) formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the clade containing members of the genera Roseibaca, Roseinatronobacter and Rhodobaca of the class Alphaproteobacteria. On the basis of its phylogenetic position, as well as its phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain ZS2-28(T) represents a novel species of a novel genus, for which the name Roseicitreum antarcticum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZS2-28(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.8894(T) ?=?LMG 24863(T)). PMID:20889763

  17. Reclassification of Leifsonia ginsengi (Qiu et al. 2007) as Herbiconiux ginsengi gen. nov., comb. nov. and description of Herbiconiux solani sp. nov., an actinobacterium associated with the phyllosphere of Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Undine; Schumann, Peter; Hamada, Moriyuki; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro; Spröer, Cathrin; Ulrich, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    In the context of studying the effects of transgenic fructan-producing potatoes on the community structure of phyllosphere bacteria, a group of strains closely related to the species Leifsonia ginsengi was isolated. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the new isolates and L. ginsengi DSM 19088(T) formed a lineage at the genus level and this finding was supported by chemotaxonomic characterization. The peptidoglycan type of the representative isolate, K134/01(T), and L. ginsengi DSM 19088(T) was B2?, with d- and l-diaminobutyric acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and glycine, alanine and threo-3-hydroxyglutamic acid. The almost-complete substitution of glutamic acid by threo-3-hydroxyglutamic acid supported the differentiation of the new strains from recognized species of the genus Leifsonia. Furthermore, the detection of substantial amounts of the fatty acid cyclohexyl-C(17 : 0) in the new isolates and L. ginsengi DSM 19088(T) was a prominent chemotaxonomic feature for a clear demarcation of these strains from all genera of the family Microbacteriaceae that display the B2? cell-wall type. Comparative phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses of the isolates and L. ginsengi DSM 19088(T) revealed the separate species status of the isolates. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that L. ginsengi should be classified as the type species of a novel genus, Herbiconiux gen. nov., with the name Herbiconiux ginsengi gen. nov., comb. nov. (type strain wged11(T)?=?CGMCC 4.3491(T)?=?JCM 13908(T)?=?DSM 19088(T)?=?NBRC 104580(T)). The phyllosphere isolates are assigned to a novel species, Herbiconiux solani sp. nov. (type strain K134/01(T)?=?DSM 19813(T)?=?LMG 24387(T)?=?NBRC 106740(T)). PMID:20511458

  18. Bacillus cihuensis sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil of a plant in the Cihu area of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Sengonca, Cetin; Schumann, Peter; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Tang, Jian-Yang; Chen, Mei-Chun

    2014-12-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halotolerant, rod-shaped, spore forming bacterium, designated strain FJAT-14515(T) was isolated from a soil sample in Cihu area, Taoyuan County, Taiwan. The strain grew at 10-35 °C (optimum at 30 °C), pH 5.7-9.0 (optimum at pH 7.0) and at salinities of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum at 1 % w/v). The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan of the isolated strain was meso-diaminopimelic acid and major respiratory isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. Major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 (40.6 %), iso-C15:0 (20.7 %) and the DNA G+C content of strain FJAT-14515(T) was 37.1 mol %. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain FJAT-14515(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus, and was most closely related to the reference strains of Bacillus muralis DSM 16288(T) (97.6 %) and Bacillus simplex DSM 1321(T) (97.5 %). Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain FJAT-14515(T) and the reference strains of B. muralis DSM 16288(T) and B. simplex DSM 1321(T) were 27.9 % ± 3.32 and 44.1 % ± 0.57, respectively. Therefore, on the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties, strain FJAT-14515(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus cihuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FJAT-14515(T) (=DSM 25969(T) = CGMCC 1.12697(T)). PMID:25256951

  19. Paenibacillus nicotianae sp. nov., isolated from a tobacco sample.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Qing; Zhou, Xing-Kui; Dang, Li-Zhi; Cheng, Juan; Hozzein, Wael N; Liu, Min-Jiao; Hu, Qun; Li, Wen-Jun; Duan, Yan-Qing

    2014-12-01

    A Gram-stain positive, facultative anaerobic endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain YIM h-19(T), was isolated from a tobacco sample. Cells were observed to be motile rods by means of peritrichous flagella and colonies were observed to be convex, yellow, circular and showed catalase-positive and oxidase-negative reactions. Strain YIM h-19(T) was able to grow at 4-45 °C, pH 6.0-8.0 and 0-3 % NaCl (w/v). The predominant respiratory quinone was identified as MK-7. Major fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and C16:0. The polar lipids were found to be phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and two unidentified polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was determined to be 54 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed the strain YIM h-19(T) was most closely related to Paenibacillus hordei RH-N24(T) and Paenibacillus hunanensis FeL05(T) with similarities of 98.30 and 94.64 % respectively. However, DNA-DNA hybridization data indicated that the isolate represented a novel genomic species with the genus Paenibacillus. All data from genotypic and phenotypic analyses support the conclusion that strain YIM h-19(T) represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus nicotianae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM h-19(T) (=CGMCC1.12819(T) = NRRL B-59112(T)). PMID:25239270

  20. Sphingomonas gimensis sp. nov., a novel Gram-negative bacterium isolated from abandoned lead-zinc ore mine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guang-Da; Yang, Song-Zhen; Wang, Yong-Hong; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Deng, Ming-Rong; Zhu, Hong-Hui

    2014-06-01

    A novel bacterial strain designated 9PNM-6(T) was isolated from an abandoned lead-zinc ore mine site in Meizhou, Guangdong Province, China. The isolate was found to be Gram-negative, rod-shaped, orange-pigmented, strictly aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive. Growth occurred at 0-4 % NaCl (w/v, optimum, 0 %), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and at 15-32 °C (optimum, 28-30 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities showed that strain 9PNM-6(T) belongs to the genus Sphingomonas, with the highest sequence similarities with Sphingomonas jejuensis NBRC 107775(T) (99.7 %), Sphingomonas koreensis KCTC 2882(T) (95.1 %) and Sphingomonas dokdonesis KCTC 12541(T) (95.1 %). The chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain 9PNM-6(T) were consistent with those of the genus Sphingomonas. The predominant respiratory quinone was identified as ubiquinone Q-10, the major polyamine as sym-homospermidine, and the major cellular fatty acids as C18:1 ?7c, C16:0, C16:1 ?7c and/or C16:1 ?6c and C14:0 2-OH. The major polar lipids are sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatideylcholine, an unidentified phospholipid and four unidentified aminolipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain 9PNM-6(T) was determined to be 69.2 ± 0.6 mol%. Based on comparative analyses of morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic data, and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness values, strain 9PNM-6(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas gimensis sp. nov. (Type strain 9PNM-6(T) = GIMCC 1.655(T) = CGMCC 1.12671(T) = DSM 27569(T)) is proposed. PMID:24718620

  1. Halomicroarcula limicola sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern, and emended description of the genus Halomicroarcula.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2014-05-01

    Halophilic archaeal strain YGHS32T was isolated from the Yinggehai marine solar saltern near Shanya city of Hainan Province, China. Cells of the strain were pleomorphic and lysed in distilled water, stained Gram-negative and formed red-pigmented colonies. Strain YGHS32T was able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), in the presence of 0.9-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 2.1 M NaCl), with 0.005-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.3 M MgCl2) and at pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.5). The minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was 5% (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate and four major glycolipids chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether, mannosyl glucosyl diether, glucosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether and a diglycosyl diether. Strain YGHS32T had two dissimilar 16S rRNA genes and both of them were phylogenetically related to those of Halomicroarcula pellucida JCM 17820T (92.9-96.3% sequence similarity). The rpoB' gene sequence similarity between strain YGHS32T and Halomicroarcula pellucida JCM 17820T was 91.3%. The DNA G+C content of strain YGHS32T was 64.0 mol%. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain YGHS32T and Halomicroarcula pellucida JCM 17820T was 45%. It was concluded that strain YGHS32T (=CGMCC 1.12129T=JCM 18640T) represents a novel species of the genus Halomicroarcula, for which the name Halomicroarcula limicola sp. nov. is proposed. An emended description of the genus Halomicroarcula is also presented. PMID:24554639

  2. Bacillus daqingensis sp. nov., a halophilic, alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from saline-sodic soil in Daqing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Sun, Lei; Wei, Dan; Zhou, Baoku; Zhang, Junzheng; Gu, Xuejia; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Ying; Li, Yidan; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Shuang; Pan, Yaqing; Wang, Yufeng

    2014-07-01

    An alkaliphilic, moderately halophilic, bacterium, designated strain X10-1(T), was isolated from saline-alkaline soil in Daqing, Heilongjiang Province, China. Strain X10-1(T) was determined to be a Gram-positive aerobe with rod-shaped cells. The isolate was catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, non-motile, and capable of growth at salinities of 0-16% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3%). The pH range for growth was 7.5-11.0 (optimum, pH 10.0). The genomic DNA G+C content was 47.7 mol%. Its major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and its cellular fatty acid profile mainly consisted of anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C15:0, C16:0, and iso-C16:0. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylglycerol. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that X10-1(T) is a member of the genus Bacillus, being most closely related to B. saliphilus DSM15402(T) (97.8% similarity) and B. agaradhaerens DSM 8721(T) (96.2%). DNA-DNA relatedness to the type strains of these species was less than 40%. On the basis of the phylogenetic, physiological, and biochemical data, strain X10-1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus daqingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is X10-1(T) (=NBRC 109404(T) = CGMCC 1.12295(T)). PMID:24879344

  3. Gracilibacillus xinjiangensis sp. nov., a new member of the genus Gracilibacillus isolated from Xinjiang region, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Ren, Biao; Dai, Huanqin; Liu, Zhiheng; Zhou, Yuguang; Song, Fuhang; Zhang, Lixin

    2013-11-01

    A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated isolate J2(T) was isolated from a soil sample from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. The isolate was observed to grow at 16-46 °C and pH 6.5-8.0. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed menaquinone-7 (MK-7) to be the major isoprenoid quinone; diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one aminophospholipid, two phosphoglycolipids and one glycolipid as the major cellular polar lipids; and anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and C16:0 as the major fatty acids. Comparative analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain J2(T) is most closely related to Gracilibacillus ureilyticus (with 98.8 % similarity), Gracilibacillus dipsosauri (97.2 %), Gracilibacillus quinghaiensis (97.1 %) and Gracilibacillus thailandensis (97.0 %). The DNA-DNA reassociation values between strain J2(T) and G. ureilyticus MF38(T), G. dipsosauri DD1(T), G. quinghaiensis YIM-C229(T) and G. thailandensis TP2-8(T) were 29.8 ± 3.7, 23.0 ± 3.5, 15.8 ± 4.9 and 15.9 ± 5.0 %, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain J2(T) was determined to be 36.5 mol%. Based on these data, strain J2(T) is considered as a novel species of the genus Gracilibacillus, for which the name Gracilibacillus xinjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type species is J2(T) (= CGMCC 1.12449(T) = JCM 18859(T)). PMID:23921649

  4. Halopelagius longus sp. nov., a member of the family Halobacteriaceae isolated from a salt mine, and emended description of the genus Halopelagius.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Wei-Yan; Shen, Ai-Hua; Huo, Ying-Yi; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2013-10-01

    A thermotolerant, extremely halophilic archaeon, BC12-B1(T), was isolated from a salt mine in Baicheng county, Xinjiang province, China. Colonies were off-white-grey. The cells stained Gram-negative, were motile and irregularly long-rod-shaped (variation in both width and length) with abundant gas vesicles. The strain was able to grow at 20-55 °C (optimum, 48 °C), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, 7.0-7.3), with 1.8-6.0 M NaCl (optimum, 3.0-3.5 M) and with 0.02-2.2 M Mg(2+) (optimum, 0.1-0.2 M). Cells lysed in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was 8?% (w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain BC12-B1(T) was most closely related to Halopelagius inordinatus RO5-2(T) (98.5?%) with less than 95?% sequence similarity to other described species. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain BC12-B1(T) was 64.0 mol%. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain BC12-B1(T) and Hpl. inordinatus RO5-2(T) was 43.6?%. The major polar lipids of strain BC12-B1(T) were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, four glycolipids and an unknown lipid. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics, strain BC12-B1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Halopelagius, for which the name Halopelagius longus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BC12-B1(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.12397(T)?=?JCM 18758(T)). An emended description of the genus Halopelagius is also provided. PMID:23584287

  5. Geobacter anodireducens sp. nov., an exoelectrogenic microbe in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dan; Wang, Aijie; Cheng, Shaoan; Yates, Matthew; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-10-01

    A previously isolated exoelectrogenic bacterium, strain SD-1(T), was further characterized and identified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Geobacter. Strain SD-1(T) was Gram-negative, aerotolerant, anaerobic, non-spore-forming, non-fermentative and non-motile. Cells were short, curved rods (0.8-1.3 µm long and 0.3 µm in diameter). Growth of strain SD-1(T) was observed at 15-42 °C and pH 6.0-8.5, with optimal growth at 30-35 °C and pH 7. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate was a member of the genus Geobacter, with the closest known relative being Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA(T) (98% similarity). Similar to other members of the genus Geobacter, strain SD-1(T) used soluble or insoluble Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor coupled with the oxidation of acetate. However, SD-1(T) could not reduce fumarate as an electron acceptor with acetate oxidization, which is an important physiological trait for G. sulfurreducens. Moreover, SD-1(T) could grow in media containing as much as 3% NaCl, while G. sulfurreducens PCA(T) can tolerate just half this concentration, and this difference in salt tolerance was even more obvious when cultivated in bioelectrochemical systems. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis of strain SD-1(T) and its closest relative, G. sulfurreducens ATCC 51573(T), showed a relatedness of 61.6%. The DNA G+C content of strain SD-1(T) was 58.9 mol%. Thus, on the basis of these characteristics, strain SD-1(T) was not assigned to G. sulfurreducens, and was instead classified in the genus Geobacter as a representative of a novel species. The name Geobacter anodireducens sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain SD-1(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12536(T) = KCTC 4672(T)). PMID:25052395

  6. Natronoarchaeum rubrum sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern, and emended description of the genus Natronoarchaeum.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xing-Xing; Zhao, Mei-Lin; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2014-03-01

    A halophilic archaeal strain, GX48(T), was isolated from the Gangxi marine solar saltern near Weihai city in Shandong Province, China. Cells of the strain were rod-shaped, stained Gram-negative and formed red-pigmented colonies. Strain GX48(T) was able to grow at 25-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), in the presence of 1.4-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 2.6 M NaCl), with 0-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.05 M MgCl2) and at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0). Cells lysed in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was 8?% (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester and two major glycolipids chromatographically identical to those of Natronoarchaeum mannanilyticum YSM-123(T) and Natronoarchaeum philippinense 294-194-5(T). 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that strain GX48(T) had two dissimilar 16S rRNA genes and both of them were phylogenetically related to those of the two current members of the genus Natronoarchaeum (96.2-98.3?% similarities). The rpoB' gene sequence similarities between strain GX48(T) and Natronoarchaeum mannanilyticum YSM-123(T) and Natronoarchaeum philippinense 294-194-5(T) were 96.0?% and 94.7?%, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain GX48(T) was 66.2 mol%. Strain GX48(T) showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with the two members of the genus Natronoarchaeum. It was concluded that strain GX48(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.10388(T)?=?JCM 17119(T)) represents a novel species of the genus Natronoarchaeum, for which the name Natronoarchaeum rubrum sp. nov. is proposed. An emended description of the genus Natronoarchaeum is also presented. PMID:24623820

  7. Yuhushiella deserti gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the suborder Pseudonocardineae.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jun; Wang, Jian; Dai, Huan-Qin; Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Tang, Qi-Yong; Ren, Biao; Yang, Na; Goodfellow, Michael; Zhang, Li-Xin; Liu, Zhi-Heng

    2011-03-01

    A thermotolerant, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, sporangium-forming actinomycete, strain RA45(T), was isolated from a desert region in Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region, north-western China. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic characterization revealed that strain RA45(T) belonged phylogenetically to the family Pseudonocardiaceae of the suborder Pseudonocardineae. Strain RA45(T) showed more than 5? % 16S rRNA gene sequence divergence from recognized species of genera in the family Pseudonocardiaceae, forming a distinct lineage within the evolutionary radiation occupied by the genera Amycolatopsis, Prauserella, Thermocrispum, Saccharomonospora, Saccharopolyspora and Sciscionella, but distinct from each of them. The affiliation to the family was supported by the presence of suborder- and family-specific 16S rRNA signature nucleotides, a DNA G+C content of 69.9 mol%, the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid, ribose, arabinose, glucose and galactose, which are characteristic components of cell-wall chemotype IV of actinomycetes, the presence of menaquinone MK-9(H?) as the major respiratory lipoquinone, a lack of mycolic acids and the presence of an N-acetylated type of muramic acid. However, strain RA45(T) differed from known genera of the family in its polar lipid composition: the major phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phospholipids of unknown structure and phospholipids of unknown structure containing glucosamine (phospholipid type IV). Based on its morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain RA45(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Pseudonocardiaceae, for which the name Yuhushiella deserti gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Yuhushiella deserti is RA45(T) (=CGMCC 4.5579(T) =JCM 16584(T)). PMID:20400669

  8. Paenibacillus typhae sp. nov., isolated from roots of Typha angustifolia L.

    PubMed

    Kong, Bi He; Liu, Qun Fang; Liu, Min; Liu, Yang; Liu, Lei; Li, Chun Li; Yu, Rong; Li, Yan Hong

    2013-03-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain xj7(T), was isolated from roots of Typha angustifolia L. growing in Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China. The isolate was identified as a member of the genus Paenibacillus based on phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic inference. The novel strain was spore-forming, motile, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Optimal growth of strain xj7(T) occurred at 28-30 °C and pH 7.0-7.5. Diphosphatidylglycerol was the most abundant polar lipid and occurred along with phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown phospholipid and three unknown aminophospholipids. The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The major fatty acid components were anteiso-C15?:?0 (56.1?%), iso-C16?:?0 (9.1?%), C16?:?0 (8.0?%), iso-C14?:?0 (6.3?%) and iso-C15?:?0 (5.1?%). The G+C content of genomic DNA was 47.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain xj7(T) fell within the evolutionary radiation encompassed by the genus Paenibacillus, its closest neighbours were Paenibacillus borealis KK19(T) (97.5?%) and Paenibacillus durus DSM 1735(T) (97.1?%). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain xj7(T) and P. borealis KK19(T) and between strain xj7(T) and P. durus DSM 1735(T), were both 35?%. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strain xj7(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus typhae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is xj7(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.11012(T)?=?DSM 25190(T)). PMID:22707528

  9. Lysinibacillus varians sp. nov., an endospore-forming bacterium with a filament-to-rod cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chunjie; Sun, Guoping; Chen, Xingjuan; Guo, Jun; Xu, Meiying

    2014-11-01

    Six Gram-stain-positive, motile, filamentous and/or rod-shaped, spherical spore-forming bacteria (strains GY32(T), L31, F01, F03, F06 and F07) showing polybrominated diphenyl ether transformation were investigated to determine their taxonomic status. After spore germination, these organisms could grow more than one hundred microns long as intact single cells and then divide into rod cells and form endospores in 33 h. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of these strains was type A4?, the predominant menaquinone was MK-7 and the major fatty acids were iso-C(16:0), iso-C(15:0) and C(16:1)?7C. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine were detected in the polar lipid profile. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these strains should be placed in the genus Lysinibacillus and they were most closely related to Lysinibacillus sphaericus DSM 28(T) (99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The gyrB sequence similarity and DNA-DNA relatedness between strain GY32(T) and L. sphaericus JCM 2502(T) were 81% and 52%, respectively. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain GY32(T) was 43.2 mol%. In addition, strain GY32(T) showed differences in nitrate reduction, starch and gelatin hydrolysis, carbon resource utilization and cell morphology. The phylogenetic distance from its closest relative measured by DNA-DNA relatedness and DNA G+C content, and its phenotypic properties demonstrated that strain GY32(T) represents a novel species of the genus Lysinibacillus, for which the name Lysinibacillus varians sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GY32(T) (?=?NBRC 109424(T)?=?CGMCC 1.12212(T)?=?CCTCC M 2011307(T)). PMID:25070216

  10. Tenacibaculum xiamenense sp. nov., an algicidal bacterium isolated from coastal seawater.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Wei, Jun; Yang, Caiyun; Lai, Qiliang; Chen, Zhangran; Li, Dong; Zhang, Huajun; Tian, Yun; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Tianling

    2013-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, elongated rod-shaped, yellow-pigmented, aerobic bacterial strain, designated WJ-1(T), was isolated from coastal seawater in Xiamen, Fujian province, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain WJ-1(T) fell within the genus Tenacibaculum and was most closely associated with Tenacibaculum aestuarii SMK-4(T) (96.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity); lower similarities were shown to other members of the genus Tenacibaculum (<96.2%). The strain formed a distinct lineage with Tenacibaculum litopenaei B-I(T) (96.0%), Tenacibaculum geojense YCS-6(T) (94.5%) and Tenacibaculum jejuense CNURIC 013(T) (95.4%). Growth was observed at temperatures from 16 to 38 °C, at salinities from 2 to 4% and at pH 6-9. The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C(16:1)?6c and/or C(16?1)?7c), iso-C(17:0) 3-OH, iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(15:0) 3-OH. The DNA G+C content of strain WJ-1(T) was 33.2 mol% and the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6 (MK-6). Differential phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness in this study distinguished strain WJ-1(T) from all other members of the genus Tenacibaculum. According to the morphology, physiology, fatty acid composition and 16S rRNA gene sequence data, strain WJ-1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum xiamenense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WJ-1(T) (?=CGMCC 1.12378(T)?=LMG 27422(T)). PMID:23543502

  11. Rhizobium tibeticum sp. nov., a symbiotic bacterium isolated from Trigonella archiducis-nicolai (Sirj.) Vassilcz.

    PubMed

    Hou, Bao Chao; Wang, En Tao; Li, Ying; Jia, Rui Zong; Chen, Wen Feng; Gao, Yu; Dong, Ren Jie; Chen, Wen Xin

    2009-12-01

    Isolated from root nodules of Trigonella archiducis-nicolai (Sirj.) Vassilcz. grown in Tibet, China, cells of the bacterial strains CCBAU 85039(T) and CCBAU 85027 were Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, non-spore-forming rods that formed colonies that were semi-translucent and opalescent on yeast extract-mannitol agar. In numerical taxonomy, SDS-PAGE analysis of whole-cell proteins and DNA-DNA hybridization, the two strains were very similar and were different from reference strains of defined Rhizobium species. In the phylogeny based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, they were most similar to Rhizobium etli CFN 42(T) (98.2 % similarity) and R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T) (97.6 %). Sequence analyses of the housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer, phenotypic characteristics and cellular fatty acid profiles strongly suggested that these two strains represented a novel species within Rhizobium. Cross-nodulation tests and sequencing of nifH and nodA genes showed that these two strains were symbiotic bacteria that nodulated Trigonella archiducis-nicolai, Medicago lupulina, Medicago sativa, Melilotus officinalis, Phaseolus vulgaris and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Based on the results, the novel species Rhizobium tibeticum sp. nov. is described to accommodate the two strains. The type strain is CCBAU 85039(T) (=LMG 24453(T) =CGMCC 1.7071(T)). The DNA G+C content of this strain is 59.7 mol% (T(m)). PMID:19643889

  12. Sphaerisporangium corydalis sp. nov., isolated from the root of Corydalis yanhusuo L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Chongxi; Cheng, Jiaxu; Zhang, Yuejing; Ma, Zhaoxu; Li, Lianjie; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2015-07-01

    Two Gram-stain positive, aerobic actinomycete strains, designated NEAU-YHS12 and NEAU-YHS15(T), were isolated from the root of Corydalis yanhusuo L. collected from Wuchang, Heilongjiang Province, northeast China. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the two strains are closely related to one another (99.8 % similarity), and had the closest relationship with Sphaerisporangium cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T) (98.7, 98.6 %), Sphaerisporangium flaviroseum YIM 48771(T) (98.6, 98.6 %), Sphaerisporangium melleum JCM 13064(T) (98.5, 98.4 %) and Sphaerisporangium dianthi NEAU-CY18(T) (98.4, 98.4 %). DNA-DNA hybridization value between strains NEAU-YHS12 and NEAU-YHS15(T) was 82 ± 1.4 %, and the values between the two strains and the closely related type strains were well below 70 %. The two strains also shared a number of phenotypic characteristics that were distinct from the closely related species. Both strains were observed to contain MK-9(H6), MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H2) as the detected menaquinones. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The phospholipid profiles were found to contain diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, phosphoglycolipid, and an unidentified phospholipid. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C16:0, C17:1 ?7c, C18:0 and iso-C15:0. On the basis of the genetic and phenotypic properties, it is proposed that strains NEAU-YHS15(T) and NEAU-YHS12 be classified as representatives of a novel species of the genus Sphaerisporangium, for which the name Sphaerisporangium corydalis sp. nov is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-YHS15(T) (CGMCC 4.7148(T) = DSM46732(T)). PMID:25963939

  13. Allosalinactinospora lopnorensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Nocardiopsaceae isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lin; Tuo, Li; Habden, Xugela; Zhang, Yuqin; Liu, Jiameng; Jiang, Zhongke; Liu, Shaowei; Dilbar, Tohty; Sun, Chenghang

    2015-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain CA15-2(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from the rhizosphere of tamarisk in the Lop Nor region, Xinjiang, China, and was characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Optimal growth occurred at 37 °C and pH 7.5-8.0 and with 5% (w/v) NaCl. Strain CA15-2(T) formed white to pale-yellow branched substrate mycelium without fragmentation and sparse aerial mycelium with wavelike curves. Whole-cell hydrolysates of the isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid of the cell wall but no diagnostic sugars. The polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified glycolipid, one unidentified phospholipid and other unidentified lipids. MK-9(H8), MK-10(H8) and MK-10(H6) were the predominant menaquinones. The major fatty acids were iso-C16:0 and C16:0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 69.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CA15-2(T) formed a distinct subclade in the family Nocardiopsaceae, with less than 95% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to all known members of the family Nocardiopsaceae. On the basis of the evidence from our polyphasic study, a novel genus, Allosalinactinospora gen. nov., is proposed, with the type species Allosalinactinospora lopnorensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Allosalinactinospora lopnorensis is strain CA15-2(T) (?=?DSM 45697(T)?=CGMCC 4.7074(T)). PMID:25332211

  14. Nonomuraea fuscirosea sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from the rhizosphere soil of rehmannia (Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinhui; Zhang, Yuejing; Zhao, Junwei; Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Shurui; Yang, Lingyu; He, Hairong; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2014-04-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-dht8(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of rehmannia (Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of the genus Nonomuraea. The G+C content of the DNA was 68.47 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies, strain NEAU-dht8(T) was most closely related to Nonomuraea maheshkhaliensis 16-5-14(T) (99.31%), Nonomuraea kuesteri GW 14-1925(T) (98.77%), Nonomuraea coxensis JCM 13931(T) (98.71%), Nonomuraea wenchangensis 210417(T) (98.44?%), Nonomuraea bangladeshensis 5-10-10(T) (98.36%) and Nonomuraea salmonea DSM 43678(T) (98.0%); similarities to other species of the genus Nonomuraea were lower than 98%. Two tree-making algorithms based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate formed a phyletic line with its closest neighbour N. maheshkhaliensis 16-5-14(T). However, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness allowed the novel isolate to be differentiated from N. maheshkhaliensis 16-5-14(T). Strain NEAU-dht8(T) could also be differentiated from other species of the genus Nonomuraea showing high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98-98.77%) by morphological and physiological characteristics. Thus, strain NEAU-dht8(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea fuscirosea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-dht8(T) (?=?CGMCC 4.7104(T)?=?DSM 45880(T)). PMID:24368692

  15. Burkholderia grimmiae sp. nov., isolated from a xerophilous moss (Grimmia montana).

    PubMed

    Tian, Yang; Kong, Bi He; Liu, Su Lin; Li, Chun Li; Yu, Rong; Liu, Lei; Li, Yan Hong

    2013-06-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium, designated strain R27(T), was isolated from the moss Grimmia montana, collected from Beijing Songshan National Nature Reserve, China, and characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The predominant fatty acids of strain R27(T) were C18:1?7c (33.6%), C16:0 (16.3%), summed feature 3 (C16:1?7c and/or C16:1?6c; 15.8%) and C17:0 cyclo (8.7%) and its major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, three uncharacterized aminolipids and an unknown phospholipid. Strain R27(T) contained Q-8 as the dominant isoprenoid quinone and the G+C content of its genomic DNA was 64.6 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison, strain R27(T) showed 99.1% similarity to the closest related type strain, Burkholderia zhejiangensis OP-1(T), and 97.6% similarity to Burkholderia glathei ATCC 29195(T). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain R27(T) and B. zhejiangensis CCTCC AB 2010354(T) and B. glathei ATCC 29195(T) was 10.2 and 14.9%, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence similarities and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, strain R27(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Burkholderia, for which the name Burkholderia grimmiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is R27(T) (=CGMCC 1.11013(T) =DSM 25160(T)). PMID:23087167

  16. Cohnella plantaginis sp. nov., a novel nitrogen-fixing species isolated from plantain rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ying; Chen, San-Feng; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hong-Can

    2012-06-01

    A novel bacterium capable of fixing nitrogen was isolated from plantain rhizosphere soil in China. The isolate, designated YN-83(T), is Gram-positive, aerobic, motile and rod-shaped (0.4-0.6 ?m × 1.9-2.6 ?m). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain YN-83(T) was a member of the genus Cohnella. High similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequence was found between YN-83(T) and Cohnella ginsengisoli DSM18997(T) (97.99%), whereas the similarity was below 96.0% between YN-83(T) and the other Cohnella species. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain YN-83(T) and C. ginsengisoli DSM18997(T) was 27.4 ± 6.2%. The DNA G+C content of strain YN-83(T) was 59.3 mol%. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) (44.3%), iso-C(15:0) (11.3%), iso-C(16:0) (18.6%) and C(16:0) (7.7%). The polar lipids of strain YN-83(T) consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, lyso- phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, 16S rRNA gene sequence, G+C content and DNA-DNA hybridization, strain YN-83(T) represents a novel species of the genus Cohnella, for which the name Cohnella plantaginis sp. nov. (type strain YN-83(T) = DSM 25424(T) = CGMCC 1.12047(T)) is proposed. PMID:22543748

  17. Actinoallomurus bryophytorum sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from moss (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Li, Chuang; Wang, Haiyan; Jin, Pinjiao; Zheng, Weijia; Chu, Liyang; Liu, Chongxi; Li, Jiansong; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2015-08-01

    A novel endophytic actinomycete, strain NEAU-TX1-15(T), was isolated from moss, collected from Wuchang, Heilongjiang province, north China. A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out to establish the status of strain NEAU-TX1-15(T). Morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of strain NEAU-TX1-15(T) are consistent with the description of the genus Actinoallomurus. Strain NEAU-TX1-15(T) was observed to form short spiral or looped spore chains on aerial hyphae. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to contain lysine and meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The only phospholipid identified was phosphatidylglycerol. The major fatty acid was identified as iso-C16:0. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence supports the assignment of the novel strain to the genus Actinoallomurus, as it exhibits 99.2 % gene sequence similarity to that of Actinoallomurus yoronensis NBRC 103686(T). However, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness allowed the strain to be differentiated from its close relative. Moreover, strain NEAU-TX1-15(T) could also be differentiated from A. yoronensis NBRC 103686(T) and other Actinoallomurus species showing high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (>98.0 %) by cultural and physiological characteristics. Therefore, the combination of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, and the DNA-DNA hybridization value, indicated that strain NEAU-TX1-15(T) represents a novel species of the genus Actinoallomurus for which the name Actinoallomurus bryophytorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-TX1-15(T) (=CGMCC 4.7200(T) = JCM 30340(T)). PMID:26033369

  18. Bacillus salitolerans sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from a salt mine in Xinjiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Yan; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2015-08-01

    A novel aerobic bacterium, KC1(T), was isolated from a salt mine in Kuche county, Xinjiang province, China. Cells were observed to be Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and motile with flagella. Strain KC1(T) was found to grow at 25-45 °C (optimum 37 °C), pH 6.5-9.0 (optimum 8.0) and NaCl 0-10 % (v/v) (optimum 4 %). The major fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) was found to be the predominant isoprenoid quinone. The cell-wall diamino acid was found to be meso-diaminopimelic acid. Polar lipid analysis revealed the presence of phosphatidylglycerol and a glycolipid. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KC1(T) showed low similarity (<96 %) to other validly named species. The phylogenetic trees showed that strain KC1(T) is closely related to Bacillus azotoformans DSM 1046(T) and Bacillus methanolicus DSM 16454(T). Both these type strains showed 95.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to strain KC1(T). The DNA G+C content of strain KC1(T) was determined to be 39.0 mol%. On the basis of its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics, strain KC1(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus salitolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KC1(T) (=JCM 19760(T) = CGMCC 1.12810(T)). PMID:26076748

  19. Nocardia rhizosphaerae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from the coastal rhizosphere of Artemisia Linn., China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Wei; Feng, Wei-Wei; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Bai, Juan-Luan; Yuan, Bo; Ju, Xiu-Yun; Cao, Cheng-Liang; Huang, Ying; Jiang, Ji-Hong; Lv, Ai-Jun; Qin, Sheng

    2015-07-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain KLBMP S0043(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Artemisia Linn. collected from the coastal region of Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, in east China and was studied in detail for its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain KLBMP S0043(T) is a member of the genus Nocardia. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity indicated that strain KLBMP S0043(T) is closely related to Nocardia asteroides NBRC 15531(T) (97.61 %) and Nocardia neocaledoniensis SBHR OA6(T) (97.38 %); similarity to other type strains of the genus Nocardia was found to be less than 97.2 %. The organism has chemical and morphological features consistent with its classification in the genus Nocardia such as meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell wall peptidoglycan and arabinose and galactose as the diagnostic sugars. The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-8(H4?-cycl). Mycolic acids were detected. The diagnostic phospholipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides. The predominant cellular fatty acids were identified as C16:0, C18:0, C18:1?9c, 10-methyl C18:0 [tuberculostearic acid (TBSA)] and summed feature 3 (C16:1?7c/C16:1?6c). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 71.4 mol%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strain from its most closely related strains. Based on morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain KLBMP S0043(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia rhizosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KLBMP S0043(T) (=CGMCC 4.7204 (T) = KCTC 29678(T)). PMID:25896308

  20. Dactylosporangium cerinum sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chongxi; Guan, Xuejiao; Jin, Pinjiao; Li, Jinmeng; Li, Yao; Li, Lianjie; Zhou, Ying; Shen, Yue; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2015-07-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated strain NEAU-TPG4(T) was isolated from rhizosphere soil of Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. collected from Luobei, Heilongjiang Province, north China, and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of strain NEAU-TPG4(T) were consistent with the description of the genus Dactylosporangium. The strain formed finger-shaped sporangia on short sporangiophores that emerged directly from substrate hyphae. The cell-wall peptidoglycan consisted of meso- and 3-hydroxy-diaminopimelic acids; arabinose, xylose and glucose were found as whole-cell sugars. The phospholipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). The predominant cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C16:0, anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and C18:0. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences also indicated that the strain should be classified in the genus Dactylosporangium and showed that the closest relatives were Dactylosporangium maewongense Japan Collection of Microorganism (JCM) 15933(T) (99.6 %), Dactylosporangium siamense NBRC 106093(T) (99.6 %), Dactylosporangium aurantiacum JCM 3083(T) (99.5 %) and Dactylosporangium luteum JCM 17685(T) (99.5 %). However, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness and several cultural and physiological characteristics allowed the strain to be distinguished from its closest relatives. Thus, it is proposed that strain NEAU-TPG4(T) represents a novel Dactylosporangium species. Dactylosporangium cerinum sp. nov. The type strain of D. cerinum is NEAU-TPG4(T) (=CGMCC 4.7152(T) = DSM 46712(T)). PMID:25987396

  1. Hafnia psychrotolerans sp. nov., isolated from lake water.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhengquan; Liu, Yongqin; Shen, Liang; Liu, Xiaobo; Xiao, Na; Jiao, Nianzhi; Liu, Hongcan; Zhou, Yuguang; Zhang, Shuhong

    2015-03-01

    A psychrotolerant, Gram-stain-negative, motile, aerobic, peritrichous bacterium, strain DJC1-1(T), was isolated from Lake Dajiaco, Tibetan Plateau, China. The strain was negative for citrate utilization, lipase activity and ?-glucosidase, but positive for the Voges-Proskauer reaction and N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that Hafnia paralvei ATCC 29927(T), Hafnia alvei ATCC 13337(T), Serratia grimesii DSM 30063(T) and Serratia plymuthica DSM 4540(T) were the closest relatives of strain DJC1-1(T), with similarities of 97.76, 96.80, 97.71 and 97.58?%, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain DJC1-1(T) was 53.9 mol%. The predominant fatty acids were C16?:?0 and C17?:?0 cyclo. Based on these characteristics, strain DJC1-1(T) can be assigned to the genus Hafnia. In DNA-DNA hybridization tests, strain DJC1-1(T) shared 50.6, 35.1, 36.5 and 18.1?% DNA-DNA relatedness with the type strains of H. paralvei, H. alvei, S. grimesii and S. plymuthica, respectively. The growth temperature ranged from 0 to 40 °C, with optimum growth at 15 °C. Physiological and biochemical tests differentiated strain DJC1-1(T) from the type strains of recognized species of the genus Hafnia. Therefore, strain DJC1-1(T) is identified as representing a novel species of the genus Hafnia, for which the name Hafnia psychrotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DJC1-1(T) (?=?JCM 30077(T)?=?CGMCC1.12806(T)). PMID:25563917

  2. Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from ovine fleece washings by PCR amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Kingsford, N M; Raadsma, H W

    1995-11-01

    Two oligonucleotides were selected from the variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene of P. aeruginosa and used as PCR primers for the detection of P. aeruginosa. The specificity of the primers was tested against the following bacterial species; Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas cepacia, Xanthamonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas mendocina, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas diminuta. These primers had a sensitivity of detection of 1 pg of chromosomal DNA or 1 x 10(5) cfu/microliters and were species-specific. The sensitivity of detection was increased to 1 fg or less than 10 cfu/microliters using a non-radioactively labelled probe. Using these PCR primers it was possible to detect the presence of P. aeruginosa from fleece washings collected from a flock of 100 sheep. Correlation between single PCR and bacteriological isolation showed agreement in 89% of fleece samples tested, 2% of the samples contained organic PCR inhibitors in the fleece washings, 3% were below the level of sensitivity of the test and the remaining 6% were culture negative for P. aeruginosa but PCR positive. Use of nested PCR did not increase the sensitivity of detection over single round PCR combined with the use of non-radioactively labelled probe. PMID:8604555

  3. Treatment and prevention of relapses of CAPD Pseudomonas peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Pasadakis, P; Thodis, E; Eftimimiadou, A; Panagoutsos, S; Papazoglou, D; Kaliengidou, M; Kartali, S; Vargemezis, V

    1993-01-01

    Pseudomonas peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) can be difficult to eradicate, because it is frequently resistant to common antibiotics, inducing the loss of the peritoneal cavity in some cases. A total of 14 episodes of Pseudomonas peritonitis in 12 patients (6 male, 6 female) were treated with intraperitoneal (IP) administration of a combination of ceftazidime and tobramycin. All patients were hospitalized. The loading doses were 1000 mg/2 L of ceftazidime and 1.7 mg/kg of tobramycin, and the maintenance IP doses were 250 mg/2 L of ceftazidime and 16 mg/2 L of tobramycin. The therapy duration was 14 days. In 7 episodes (group A) no other antibiotic regimen was provided, while in the remaining 7 episodes (group B) therapy was continued with 500 mg b.i.d. of oral ciprofloxacin for the next 14 days. Pseudomonas species isolated in group A were P. alcaligenis (1), P. putida (1), P. maltophilia (1), R. cepacia (1), and unidentified (3). In group B the following Pseudomonas species were isolated: P. aeruginosa (4), P. diminuta (1), P. stutszeri (1), and unidentified (1). Recurrence of peritonitis was seen in 4 episodes of group A with 2 catheter removals, while all episodes were cured in group B. These results suggest that IP ceftazidime and tobramycin with the additional use of oral ciprofloxacin is successful in the treatment and prevention of relapses of Pseudomonas peritonitis. PMID:8105925

  4. The bioactivity of plant extracts against representative bacterial pathogens of the lower respiratory tract

    PubMed Central

    Bocanegra-García, Virgilio; del Rayo Camacho-Corona, María; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica; Rivera, Gildardo; Garza-González, Elvira

    2009-01-01

    Background Lower respiratory tract infections are a major cause of illness and death. Such infections are common in intensive care units (ICU) and their lethality persists despite advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. In Mexico, some plants are used in traditional medicine to treat respiratory diseases or ailments such as cough, bronchitis, tuberculosis and other infections. Medical knowledge derived from traditional societies has motivated searches for new bioactive molecules derived from plants that show potent activity against bacterial pathogens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hexanic, chloroformic (CLO), methanolic (MET) and aqueous extracts from various plants used in Mexican traditional medicine on various microorganisms associated with respiratory disease. Methods thirty-five extracts prepared from nine plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of respiratory infections were evaluated against 15 control bacterial species and clinical isolates. Results Both chloroformic (CLO) and methanolic (MET) extracts of Larrea tridentata were active against Methicillin-resistant S. aureus, B. subtilis and L. monocytogenes. A MET extract of L. tridentata was also active against S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, S. maltophilia, E. faecalis and H. influenzae and the CLO extract was active against A. baumannii. An Aqueous extract of M. acumitata and a MET extract of N. officinale were active against S. pneumoniae. CLO and MET extracts of L. tridentata were active against clinical isolates of S. aureus, S. pneumoniae and E. faecalis. Conclusion Overall, our results support the potential use of L. tridentata as a source of antibacterial compounds. PMID:19486533

  5. Use of ribotyping in epidemiological surveillance of nosocomial outbreaks.

    PubMed Central

    Bingen, E H; Denamur, E; Elion, J

    1994-01-01

    Over the past few years, genotypic methods based on the study of bacterial DNA polymorphism have shown high discriminatory power for strain differentiation and superiority over most phenotypic methods commonly available in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Some of the methods used, however, required either a high level of technology and sophisticated equipment (e.g., pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) or species-specific reagents of restricted availability (randomly cloned DNA probes or gene-specific probes). Because ribotyping uses a universal probe (rRNA) and is a rather simple technology, particularly since the advent of nonradioactive labelling systems, it has been widely used for strain differentiation of most bacterial species involved in nosocomial outbreaks. In vitro and in vivo stability of the markers studied has been demonstrated. Although there may be limitation to this approach, ribotyping was found to be highly discriminative, particularly for typing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Xanthomonas maltophilia. In many cases, it has improved the understanding of the mechanism of nosocomial acquisition of organisms by allowing a distinction between endogenous and exogenous infections. Among exogenous infections, it has distinguished between individual and epidemic strains, thus differentiating cross-infection from independent acquisition. Images PMID:7923052

  6. Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against alkaline phosphatase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Husson, M O; Mielcarek, C; Gavini, F; Caron, C; Izard, D; Leclerc, H

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against the alkaline phosphatase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were produced from spleen cells of BALB/c mice primed with purified alkaline phosphatase of P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145 and SP20/Ag-14 myeloma cells. The eight stable clones established produced antibodies that reacted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and indirect immunofluorescence assays with all bacterial strains of P. aeruginosa, including the 17 serotypes and two nontypable strains. Three of the clones cross-reacted only with some Pseudomonas species of the rRNA homology group I defined by N. J. Palleroni (in N. R. Krieg and J. G. Holt, ed., Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 8th ed., p. 140-218, 1984). The other clones also interacted with other species, including Pseudomonas acidovorans and Xanthomonas maltophilia. Because other species of the genera Aeromonas and Acinetobacter and species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were not detected by these monoclonal antibodies, the antibodies could be used as reagents for routine detection of P. aeruginosa in clinical specimens. Interactions of the antibodies with other Pseudomonas species such as P. fluorescens and P. stutzeri are not important, since these species are susceptible to the same antipseudomonal agents. Images PMID:2501343

  7. Inoculation with microorganisms of Lolium perenne L.: evaluation of plant growth parameters and endophytic colonization of roots.

    PubMed

    Gaggìa, Francesca; Baffoni, Loredana; Di Gioia, Diana; Accorsi, Mattia; Bosi, Sara; Marotti, Ilaria; Biavati, Bruno; Dinelli, Giovanni

    2013-09-25

    Turfgrasses are not only designed for recreation activities, but they also provide beneficial environmental effects and positively influence the human wellness. Their major problems are predisposition to tearing out and microbial diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the inoculation of microorganisms can be effective to improve plant growth and root development of perennial ryegrass, to evaluate new sustainable practice for green preservation. A microorganism-based commercial product was used to amend hydroponically grown Lolium perenne L. and results compared with the use of the same filtered product, a phytohormone solution and an untreated control. Plants were grown for five weeks, shoots cut and measured at one-week interval and, at the end, roots were measured for length and weight. Shoot resistance to tearing out was also tested. Moreover, the main microbial groups present in the product were characterized and the microbial profile of sand and root samples was investigated by PCR-DGGE. The plants treated with the product showed an increased resistance to tearing out with respect to other treatments and roots were longer with respect to the control. Microbial analyses of the product evidenced bacterial and yeast species with plant growth promoting activity, such as Stenothrophomonas maltophilia, Candida utilis and several Lactobacillus species. Some Lactobacillus strains were also found to be able to colonize plant roots. In conclusion, the treatment with microorganisms has a great potential for the maintenance and increased performance of turfgrass surfaces. PMID:23632388

  8. Complex conductivity response to microbial growth and biofilm formation on phenanthrene spiked medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Remy; Gourry, Jean Christophe; Simonnot, Marie-Odile; Leyval, Corinne

    2011-11-01

    Several laboratory studies have recently demonstrated the utility of geophysical methods for the investigation of microbial-induced changes over contaminated sites. However, it remains difficult to distinguish the effects due to the new physical properties imparted by microbial processes, to bacterial growth, or to the development of bacterial biofilm. We chose to study the influence of biofilm formation on geophysical response using complex conductivity measurements (0.1-1000 Hz) in phenanthrene-contaminated media. Biotic assays were conducted with two phenanthrene (PHE) degrading bacterial strains: Burkholderia sp (NAH1), which produced biofilm and Stenophomonas maltophilia (MATE10), which did not, and an abiotic control. Results showed that bacterial densities for NAH1 and MATE10 strains continuously increased at the same rate during the experiment. However, the complex conductivity signature showed noticeable differences between the two bacteria, with a phase shift of 50 mrad at 4 Hz for NAH1, which produced biofilm. Biofilm volume was quantified by Scanning Confocal Laser Microscopy (SCLM). Significant correlations were established between phase shift decrease and biofilm volume for NAH1 assays. Results suggest that complex conductivity measurements, specifically phase shift, can be a useful indicator of biofilm formation inside the overall signal of microbial activity on contaminated sites.

  9. "Chemical nose" for the visual identification of emerging ocular pathogens using gold nanostars.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mohit S; Chen, Paul Z; Jones, Lyndon; Gu, Frank X

    2014-11-15

    Ocular pathogens can cause serious damages in the eye leading to severe vision loss and even blindness if left untreated. Identification of pathogens is crucial for administering the appropriate antibiotics in order to gain effective control over ocular infection. Herein, we report a gold nanostar based "chemical nose" for visually identifying ocular pathogens. Using a spectrophotometer and nanostars of different sizes and degrees of branching, we show that the "chemical nose" is capable of identifying the following clinically relevant ocular pathogens with an accuracy of 99%: S. aureus, A. xylosoxidans, D. acidovorans and S. maltophilia. The differential colorimetric response is due to electrostatic aggregation of cationic gold nanostars around bacteria without the use of biomolecule ligands such as aptamers or antibodies. Transmission electron microscopy confirms that the number of gold nanostars aggregated around each bacterium correlates closely with the colorimetric response. Thus, gold nanostars serve as a promising platform for rapid visual identification of ocular pathogens with application in point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:24912040

  10. [Susceptibilities of clinical isolates to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Susceptibility of clinical isolates from patients with complex and refractory infections].

    PubMed

    Deguchi, K

    1982-08-01

    Four hundred strains (13 species, 8 genera) were obtained from patients with complicated and intractable infections. The antibiotic sensitivities of these isolates were determined in relation to aminoglycoside (AGs) (GM, DKB, AMK, HBK), beta-lactam (SBPC, PIPC, CMZ), and FOM. 1. The frequency of clinical isolates that were resistant to GM and DKB in this study was high level in the case of S. aureus, Enterobacter spp., S. marcescens, Proteus spp. (indole positive) and P. aeruginosa. And some of them were also resistant to AMK and HBK. However HBK had potent antibacterial activity to S. aureus. The inactivating enzyme contributing to AGs resistance was AAC for almost Gram-negative bacillis and APH + AAC for S. aureus. But AGs was not permeable only to P. maltophilia. 2. Almost similar resistant patterns were seen to SBPC and PIPC. However, the frequency of resistant strains of S. aureus to SBPC was less than one of PIPC, while that of Citrobacter spp. to PIPC was less than SBPC. Among of other bacteria, P. aeruginosa and Proteus spp. (indole positive) had moderate sensitivity to SBPC and PIPC. 3. CMZ had poor antibacterial activity to Enterobacter spp. and S. marcescens and no activity to P. aeruginosa. It had moderate activity to Citrobacter spp. and potent activity to S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and Proteus spp. (indole positive). 4. FOM had antibacterial activity to all the bacteria tested. Almost FOM-sensitive bacteria had moderate MICs (6.25-25 micrograms/ml). PMID:7154245

  11. In vitro antibacterial activity and interactions with beta-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins of the new monocarbam antibiotic U-78608.

    PubMed Central

    Zurenko, G E; Truesdell, S E; Yagi, B H; Mourey, R J; Laborde, A L

    1990-01-01

    U-78608, a new monocarbam antibiotic, was evaluated for in vitro activity against 312 clinical isolates of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and subjected to several in vitro biochemical tests characterizing its interactions with beta-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). The antibacterial activity of the compound was compared directly with those of SQ 83,360 (pirazmonam) and aztreonam. U-78608, SQ 83,360, and aztreonam had generally poor activity against gram-positive aerobic bacteria and anaerobic bacteria. U-78608 demonstrated activity primarily against gram-negative aerobic bacteria, with potency generally comparable to that of SQ 83,360. U-78608 and SQ 83,360 were less active than aztreonam for some gram-negative species; however, both compounds were 8- to 64-fold more active than aztreonam against Acinetobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas maltophilia. All three compounds resisted inactivation by several different beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Neither U-78608 nor SQ 83,360 exhibited significant inhibition of these enzymes, while aztreonam inhibited beta-lactamases from P. aeurginosa and Klebsiella oxytoca. All three compounds exhibited strong affinity to PBP 3 of Escherichia coli and moderate to negligible affinity to the other E. coli PBPs; quantitative measurements indicated that U-78608 had greater PBP 3 affinity than either SQ 83,360 or aztreonam. Images PMID:2193625

  12. 16S Ribosomal DNA-Based Analysis of Bacterial Diversity in Purified Water Used in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Processes by PCR and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Mako; Matsutera, Eiichi; Kanda, Hisashi; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Tani, Katsuji; Nasu, Masao

    2002-01-01

    The bacterial community in partially purified water, which is prepared by ion exchange from tap water and is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing processes, was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). 16S ribosomal DNA fragments, including V6, -7, and -8 regions, were amplified with universal primers and analyzed by DGGE. The bacterial diversity in purified water determined by PCR-DGGE banding patterns was significantly lower than that of other aquatic environments. The bacterial populations with esterase activity sorted by flow cytometry and isolated on soybean casein digest (SCD) and R2A media were also analyzed by DGGE. The dominant bacterium in purified water possessed esterase activity but could not be detected on SCD or R2A media. DNA sequence analysis of the main bands on the DGGE gel revealed that culturable bacteria on these media were Bradyrhizobium sp., Xanthomonas sp., and Stenotrophomonas sp., while the dominant bacterium was not closely related to previously characterized bacteria. These data suggest the importance of culture-independent methods of quality control for pharmaceutical water. PMID:11823209

  13. Microflora investigation experiment.

    PubMed

    Harada, K

    2001-10-01

    Many microorganisms were isolated from condensed water, wiping and scratching of cabin wall and air sampler in Russian space station Mir by Russian astronauts Lazutkin et al. in February 1997 as part of NASDA "First MIR Utilization Space Experiment (JMIR)". For example, there were about 2 x 10(6) cells/ml in condensed water sample No. 1 isolated from the transfer-docking compartment of Crystal module. We tried the colony isolation, pure culturing and identification from these sampled microorganisms. After the bacteria separated from filamentous fungi and yeasts were observed using the phase contrast optical microscopy and gram stain method, twenty-one kinds of biochemical characters, e.g., oxidase test, activity of beta-galactosidase and fermentation of glucose etc., were investigated on the isolated bacteria. Then, we found Serratia liquefaciens and Yersinia enterocolitica and the chemoheterotroph Pseudomonadaceae, Stenotrophomonas maltophila. Furthermore, using ultraviolet (UV) lamp we tried the isolation of radioresistant bacteria, we found the radioresistant Sphingomonas paucimobilis (90.8% identification) by comparing with radioresistant Escherichia coli B/r strain. Considering Mir environment under cosmic radiation, this radioresistant S. paucimobilis might be the mutant from radiosensitive one. Following papers were published [see text]. PMID:11799257

  14. Identification of Antimony- and Arsenic-Oxidizing Bacteria Associated with Antimony Mine Tailing

    PubMed Central

    Hamamura, Natsuko; Fukushima, Koh; Itai, Takaaki

    2013-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a naturally occurring toxic element commonly associated with arsenic (As) in the environment and both elements have similar chemistry and toxicity. Increasing numbers of studies have focused on microbial As transformations, while microbial Sb interactions are still not well understood. To gain insight into microbial roles in the geochemical cycling of Sb and As, soils from Sb mine tailing were examined for the presence of Sb- and As-oxidizing bacteria. After aerobic enrichment culturing with AsIII (10 mM) or SbIII (100 ?M), pure cultures of Pseudomonas- and Stenotrophomonas-related isolates with SbIII oxidation activities and a Sinorhizobium-related isolate capable of AsIII oxidation were obtained. The AsIII-oxidizing Sinorhizobium isolate possessed the aerobic arsenite oxidase gene (aioA), the expression of which was induced in the presence of AsIII or SbIII. However, no SbIII oxidation activity was detected from the Sinorhizobium-related isolate, suggesting the involvement of different mechanisms for Sb and As oxidation. These results demonstrate that indigenous microorganisms associated with Sb mine soils are capable of Sb and As oxidation, and potentially contribute to the speciation and mobility of Sb and As in situ. PMID:23666539

  15. Characterization of two-step deglycosylation via oxidation by glycoside oxidoreductase and defining their subfamily.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Seo, Joo-Hyun; Baek, Kiheon; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report a two-step deglycosylation mediated by the oxidation of glycoside which is different from traditional glycoside hydrolase (GH) mechanism. Previously, we reported a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent glycoside oxidoreductase (FAD-GO) having deglycosylation activity. Various features of the reaction of FAD-GO such as including mechanism and catalytic residue and substrate specificity were studied. In addition, classification of novel FAD-GO subfamily was attempted. Deglycosylation of glycoside was performed spontaneously via oxidation of 3-OH of glycone moiety by FAD-GO mediated oxidation reaction. His493 residue was identified as a catalytic residue for the oxidation step. Interestingly, this enzyme has broad glycone and aglycon specificities. For the classification of FAD-GO enzyme subfamily, putative FAD-GOs were screened based on the FAD-GO from Rhizobium sp. GIN611 (gi 365822256) using BLAST search. The homologs of R. sp. GIN611 included the putative FAD-GOs from Stenotrophomonas strains, Sphingobacterium strains, Agrobacterium tumefaciens str. C58, and etc. All the cloned FAD-GOs from the three strains catalyzed the deglycosylation via enzymatic oxidation. Based on their substrate specificities, deglycosylation and oxidation activities to various ginsenosides, the FAD-GO subfamily members can be utilized as novel biocatalysts for the production of various aglycones. PMID:26057169

  16. Acceleration of nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol degradation in sediment by Phragmites australis and associated rhizosphere bacteria.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Tadashi; Murashita, Manabu; Kobayashi, Kazutaka; Kikuchi, Shintaro; Sei, Kazunari; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Ike, Michihiko; Mori, Kazuhiro

    2011-08-01

    We investigated biodegradation of technical nonylphenol (tNP) in Phragmites australis rhizosphere sediment by conducting degradation experiments using sediments spiked with tNP. Accelerated tNP removal was observed in P. australis rhizosphere sediment, whereas tNP persisted in unvegetated sediment without plants and in autoclaved sediment with sterile plants, suggesting that the accelerated tNP removal resulted largely from tNP biodegradation by rhizosphere bacteria. Three bacterial strains, Stenotrophomonas sp. strain IT-1 and Sphingobium spp. strains IT-4 and IT-5, isolated from the rhizosphere were capable of utilizing tNP and 4-tert-octylphenol as a sole carbon source via type II ipso-substitution. Oxygen from P. australis roots, by creating highly oxygenated conditions in the sediment, stimulated cell growth and the tNP-degrading activity of the three strains. Moreover, organic compounds from P. australis roots functioned as carbon and energy sources for two strains, IT-4 and IT-5, supporting cell growth and tNP-degrading activity. Thus, P. australis roots elevated the cell growth and tNP-degrading activity of the three bacterial strains, leading to accelerated tNP removal. These results demonstrate that rhizoremediation of tNP-contaminated sediments using P. australis can be an effective strategy. PMID:21736332

  17. Isolation of oxalotrophic bacteria able to disperse on fungal mycelium.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Daniel; Cailleau, Guillaume; Bindschedler, Saskia; Simon, Anaele; Job, Daniel; Verrecchia, Eric; Junier, Pilar

    2013-11-01

    A technique based on an inverted Petri dish system was developed for the growth and isolation of soil oxalotrophic bacteria able to disperse on fungal mycelia. The method is related to the 'fungal highways' dispersion theory in which mycelial fungal networks allow active movement of bacteria in soil. Quantification of this phenomenon showed that bacterial dispersal occurs preferentially in upper soil horizons. Eight bacteria and one fungal strain were isolated by this method. The oxalotrophic activity of the isolated bacteria was confirmed through calcium oxalate dissolution in solid selective medium. After separation of the bacteria-fungus couple, partial sequencing of the 16S and the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences of the ribosomal RNA genes were used for the identification of bacteria and the associated fungus. The isolated oxalotrophic bacteria included strains related to Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, Cohnella, and Variovorax. The recovered fungus corresponded to Trichoderma sp. A test carried out to verify bacterial transport in an unsaturated medium showed that all the isolated bacteria were able to migrate on Trichoderma hyphae or glass fibers to re-colonize an oxalate-rich medium. The results highlight the importance of fungus-driven bacterial dispersal to understand the functional role of oxalotrophic bacteria and fungi in soils. PMID:24106816

  18. NeutroPhase(®) in chronic non-healing wounds.

    PubMed

    Crew, John; Varilla, Randell; Rocas, Thomas Allandale; Debabov, Dmitri; Wang, Lu; Najafi, Azar; Rani, Suriani Abdul; Najafi, Ramin Ron; Anderson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Chronic non-healing wounds, such as venous stasis ulcers, diabetic ulcers, and pressure ulcers are serious unmet medical needs that affect a patient's morbidity and mortality. Common pathogens observed in chronic non-healing wounds are Staphylococcus including MRSA, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Stenotrophomonas, and Serratia spp. Topical and systemically administered antibiotics do not adequately decrease the level of bacteria or the associated biofilm in chronic granulating wounds and the use of sub-lethal concentrations of antibiotics can lead to resistant phenotypes. Furthermore, topical antiseptics may not be fully effective and can actually impede wound healing. We show 5 representative examples from our more than 30 clinical case studies using NeutroPhase(®) as an irrigation solution with chronic non-healing wounds with and without the technique of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). NeutroPhase(®) is pure 0.01% hypochlorous acid (i.e. >97% relative molar distribution of active chlorine species as HOCl) in a 0.9% saline solution at pH 4-5 and is stored in glass containers. NovaBay has three FDA cleared 510(k)s. Patients showed a profound improvement and marked accelerated rates of wound healing using NeutroPhase(®) with and without NPWT. NeutroPhase(®) was non-toxic to living tissues. PMID:23272294

  19. Pyrosequencing Reveals the Influence of Organic and Conventional Farming Systems on Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ru; Khafipour, Ehsan; Krause, Denis O.; Entz, Martin H.; de Kievit, Teresa R.; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha

    2012-01-01

    It has been debated how different farming systems influence the composition of soil bacterial communities, which are crucial for maintaining soil health. In this research, we applied high-throughput pyrosequencing of V1 to V3 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to gain further insight into how organic and conventional farming systems and crop rotation influence bulk soil bacterial communities. A 2×2 factorial experiment consisted of two agriculture management systems (organic versus conventional) and two crop rotations (flax-oat-fababean-wheat versus flax-alfalfa-alfalfa-wheat) was conducted at the Glenlea Long-Term Crop Rotation and Management Station, which is Canada’s oldest organic-conventional management study field. Results revealed that there is a significant difference in the composition of bacterial genera between organic and conventional management systems but crop rotation was not a discriminator factor. Organic farming was associated with higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria, while Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi were more abundant in conventional farming. The dominant genera including Blastococcus, Microlunatus, Pseudonocardia, Solirubrobacter, Brevundimonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas exhibited significant variation between the organic and conventional farming systems. The relative abundance of bacterial communities at the phylum and class level was correlated to soil pH rather than other edaphic properties. In addition, it was found that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were more sensitive to pH variation. PMID:23284808

  20. Bacterial Endophytic Communities in the Grapevine Depend on Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Campisano, Andrea; Antonielli, Livio; Pancher, Michael; Yousaf, Sohail; Pindo, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Microbial plant endophytes are receiving ever-increasing attention as a result of compelling evidence regarding functional interaction with the host plant. Microbial communities in plants were recently reported to be influenced by numerous environmental and anthropogenic factors, including soil and pest management. In this study we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA to assess the effect of organic production and integrated pest management (IPM) on bacterial endophytic communities in two widespread grapevines cultivars (Merlot and Chardonnay). High levels of the dominant Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera were detected in all the samples We found differences in the composition of endophytic communities in grapevines cultivated using organic production and IPM. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Mesorhizobium, Caulobacter and Staphylococcus genera were relatively more abundant in plants from organic vineyards, while Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas were more abundant in grapevines from IPM vineyards. Minor differences in bacterial endophytic communities were also found in the grapevines of the two cultivars. PMID:25387008

  1. Phylogenetic distribution of symbiotic bacteria from Panamanian amphibians that inhibit growth of the lethal fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Matthew H; Walke, Jenifer B; Murrill, Lindsey; Woodhams, Douglas C; Reinert, Laura K; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Burzynski, Elizabeth A; Umile, Thomas P; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Belden, Lisa K

    2015-04-01

    The introduction of next-generation sequencing has allowed for greater understanding of community composition of symbiotic microbial communities. However, determining the function of individual members of these microbial communities still largely relies on culture-based methods. Here, we present results on the phylogenetic distribution of a defensive functional trait of cultured symbiotic bacteria associated with amphibians. Amphibians are host to a diverse community of cutaneous bacteria and some of these bacteria protect their host from the lethal fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) by secreting antifungal metabolites. We cultured over 450 bacterial isolates from the skins of Panamanian amphibian species and tested their interactions with Bd using an in vitro challenge assay. For a subset of isolates, we also completed coculture experiments and found that culturing isolates with Bd had no effect on inhibitory properties of the bacteria, but it significantly decreased metabolite secretion. In challenge assays, approximately 75% of the bacterial isolates inhibited Bd to some extent and these inhibitory isolates were widely distributed among all bacterial phyla. Although there was no clear phylogenetic signal of inhibition, three genera, Stenotrophomonas, Aeromonas and Pseudomonas, had a high proportion of inhibitory isolates (100%, 77% and 73%, respectively). Overall, our results demonstrate that antifungal properties are phylogenetically widespread in symbiotic microbial communities of Panamanian amphibians and that some functional redundancy for fungal inhibition occurs in these communities. We hope that these findings contribute to the discovery and development of probiotics for amphibians that can mitigate the threat of chytridiomycosis. PMID:25737297

  2. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D.; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F.; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S.; Felton, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant–insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

  3. Eliminating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil for rice cultivation using plant growth promoting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Radziah, Othman; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Razi, Ismail Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum toxicity is widely considered as the most important limiting factor for plants growing in acid sulfate soils. A study was conducted in laboratory and in field to ameliorate Al toxicity using plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), ground magnesium limestone (GML) and ground basalt. Five-day-old rice seedlings were inoculated by Bacillus sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophila, Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia seminalis and grown for 21 days in Hoagland solution (pH 4.0) at various Al concentrations (0, 50 and 100 ?M). Toxicity symptoms in root and leaf were studied using scanning electron microscope. In the field, biofertilizer (PGPB), GML and basalt were applied (4 t·ha-1 each). Results showed that Al severely affected the growth of rice. At high concentrations, the root surface was ruptured, leading to cell collapse; however, no damages were observed in the PGPB inoculated seedlings. After 21 days of inoculation, solution pH increased to >6.0, while the control treatment remained same. Field study showed that the highest rice growth and yield were obtained in the bio-fertilizer and GML treatments. This study showed that Al toxicity was reduced by PGPB via production of organic acids that were able to chelate the Al and the production of polysaccharides that increased solution pH. The release of phytohormones further enhanced rice growth that resulted in yield increase. PMID:25710843

  4. Calcite Biomineralization by Bacterial Isolates from the Recently Discovered Pristine Karstic Herrenberg Cave

    PubMed Central

    Rusznyák, Anna; Akob, Denise M.; Nietzsche, Sándor; Eusterhues, Karin; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Neu, Thomas R.; Frosch, Torsten; Popp, Jürgen; Keiner, Robert; Geletneky, Jörn; Katzschmann, Lutz; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Karstic caves represent one of the most important subterranean carbon storages on Earth and provide windows into the subsurface. The recent discovery of the Herrenberg Cave, Germany, gave us the opportunity to investigate the diversity and potential role of bacteria in carbonate mineral formation. Calcite was the only mineral observed by Raman spectroscopy to precipitate as stalactites from seepage water. Bacterial cells were found on the surface and interior of stalactites by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Proteobacteria dominated the microbial communities inhabiting stalactites, representing more than 70% of total 16S rRNA gene clones. Proteobacteria formed 22 to 34% of the detected communities in fluvial sediments, and a large fraction of these bacteria were also metabolically active. A total of 9 isolates, belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Serratia, and Stenotrophomonas, grew on alkaline carbonate-precipitating medium. Two cultures with the most intense precipitate formation, Arthrobacter sulfonivorans and Rhodococcus globerulus, grew as aggregates, produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and formed mixtures of calcite, vaterite, and monohydrocalcite. R. globerulus formed idiomorphous crystals with rhombohedral morphology, whereas A. sulfonivorans formed xenomorphous globular crystals, evidence for taxon-specific crystal morphologies. The results of this study highlighted the importance of combining various techniques in order to understand the geomicrobiology of karstic caves, but further studies are needed to determine whether the mineralogical biosignatures found in nutrient-rich media can also be found in oligotrophic caves. PMID:22179248

  5. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2013-09-24

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant-insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

  6. The impact of bacteria of circulating water on apatite-nepheline ore flotation.

    PubMed

    Evdokimova, G A; Gershenkop, A Sh; Fokina, N V

    2012-01-01

    A new phenomenon has been identified and studied-the impact of bacteria on the benefication process of non-sulphide ores using circulating water supply-a case study of apatite-nepheline ore. It is shown that bacteria deteriorate the floatability of apatite due to their interaction with active centres of calcium-containing minerals and intense flocculation, resulting in a decrease of the flotation process selectivity thus deteriorating the quality of concentrate. Based on the comparative analysis of primary sequences of 16S rRNA genes, there have been identified dominating bacteria species, recovered from the circulating water used at apatite-nepheline concentrating mills, and their phylogenetic position has been determined. All the bacteria were related to ?-Proteobacteria, including the Acinetobacter species, Pseudomonas alcaliphila, Ps. plecoglossicida, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila. A method of non-sulphide ores flotation has been developed with consideration of the bacterial factor. It consists in use of small concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, which inhibits the development of bacteria in the flotation of apatite-nepheline ores. PMID:22320692

  7. Adhesion mechanisms of plant-pathogenic Xanthomonadaceae.

    PubMed

    Mhedbi-Hajri, Nadia; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Koebnik, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The family Xanthomonadaceae is a wide-spread family of bacteria belonging to the gamma subdivision of the Gram-negative proteobacteria, including the two plant-pathogenic genera Xanthomonas and Xylella, and the related genus Stenotrophomonas. Adhesion is a widely conserved virulence mechanism among Gram-negative bacteria, no matter whether they are human, animal or plant pathogens, since attachment to the host tissue is one of the key early steps of the bacterial infection process. Bacterial attachment to surfaces is mediated by surface structures that are anchored in the bacterial outer membrane and cover a broad group of fimbrial and non-fimbrial structures, commonly known as adhesins. In this chapter, we discuss recent findings on candidate adhesins of plant-pathogenic Xanthomonadaceae, including polysaccharidic (lipopolysaccharides, exopolysaccharides) and proteineous structures (chaperone/usher pili, type IV pili, autotransporters, two-partner-secreted and other outer membrane adhesins), their involvement in the formation of biofilms and their mode of regulation via quorum sensing. We then compare the arsenals of adhesins among different Xanthomonas strains and evaluate their mode of selection. Finally, we summarize the sparse knowledge on specific adhesin receptors in plants and the possible role of RGD motifs in binding to integrin-like plant molecules. PMID:21557058

  8. Bioremediation of heavy metal-contaminated effluent using optimized activated sludge bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestawy, Ebtesam El.; Helmy, Shacker; Hussien, Hany; Fahmy, Mohamed; Amer, Ranya

    2013-03-01

    Removal of heavy metals from contaminated domestic-industrial effluent using eight resistant indigenous bacteria isolated from acclimatized activated sludge was investigated. Molecular identification using 16S rDNA amplification revealed that all strains were Gram-negative among which two were resistant to each of copper, cadmium and cobalt while one was resistant to each of chromium and the heavy metal mixture. They were identified as Enterobacter sp. (Cu1), Enterobacter sp. (Cu2), Stenotrophomonas sp. (Cd1), Providencia sp. (Cd2), Chryseobacterium sp. (Co1), Comamonas sp. (Co2), Ochrobactrum sp. (Cr) and Delftia sp. (M1) according to their resistance pattern. Strains Cu1, Cd1, Co2 and Cr were able to resist 275 mg Cu/l, 320 mg Cd/l, 140 mg Co/l and 29 mg Cr/l respectively. The four resistant strains were used as a mixture to remove heavy metals (elevated concentrations) and reduce the organic load of wastewater effluent. Results revealed that using the proposed activated sludge with the resistant bacterial mixture was more efficient for heavy metal removal compared to the activated sludge alone. It is therefore recommended that the proposed activated sludge system augmented with the acclimatized strains is the best choice to ensure high treatment efficiency and performance under metal stresses especially when industrial effluents are involved.

  9. Characterization of the pigment xanthomonadin in the bacterial genus Xanthomonas using micro- and resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paret, Mathews L.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Acosta, Tayro; deSilva, Asoka S.; Vowell, Tomie; Alvarez, Anne M.

    2012-06-01

    We used micro- and resonance Raman spectroscopy with 785 nm and 514.5 nm laser excitation, respectively, to characterize a plant pathogenic bacteria, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae D150. The bacterial genus Xathomonas is closely related to bacterial genus Stenotrophomonas that causes an infection in humans. This study has identified for the first time the unique Raman spectra of the carotenoid-like pigment xanthomonadin of the Xanthomonas strain. Xanthomonadin is a brominated aryl-polyene pigment molecule similar to carotenoids. Further studies were conducted using resonance Raman spectroscopy with 514.5 nm laser excitation on several strains of the bacterial genus Xanthomonas isolated from numerous plants from various geographical locations. The current study revealed that the Raman bands representing the vibrations (v1, v2, v3) of the polyene chain of xanthomonadin are 1003-1005 (v3), 1135-1138 (v2), and 1530 (v1). Overtone bands representing xanthomonadin were identified as 2264-2275 (2v2), and combinational bands at 2653-2662 (v1+ v2). The findings from this study validate our previous finding that the Raman fingerprints of xanthomonadin are unique for the genus Xanthomonas. This facilitates rapid identification (~5 minutes) of Xanthomonas spp. from bacterial culture plates. The xanthomonadin marker is different from Raman markers of many other bacterial genus including Agrobacterium, Bacillus, Clavibacter, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, and Ralstonia. This study also identified Xanthomonas spp. from bacterial strains isolated from a diseased wheat sample on a culture plate.

  10. NeutroPhase® in chronic non-healing wounds

    PubMed Central

    Crew, John; Varilla, Randell; Rocas, Thomas Allandale; Debabov, Dmitri; Wang, Lu; Najafi, Azar; Rani, Suriani Abdul; Najafi, Ramin (Ron); Anderson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Chronic non-healing wounds, such as venous stasis ulcers, diabetic ulcers, and pressure ulcers are serious unmet medical needs that affect a patient’s morbidity and mortality. Common pathogens observed in chronic non-healing wounds are Staphylococcus including MRSA, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Stenotrophomonas, and Serratia spp. Topical and systemically administered antibiotics do not adequately decrease the level of bacteria or the associated biofilm in chronic granulating wounds and the use of sub-lethal concentrations of antibiotics can lead to resistant phenotypes. Furthermore, topical antiseptics may not be fully effective and can actually impede wound healing. We show 5 representative examples from our more than 30 clinical case studies using NeutroPhase® as an irrigation solution with chronic non-healing wounds with and without the technique of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). NeutroPhase® is pure 0.01% hypochlorous acid (i.e. >97% relative molar distribution of active chlorine species as HOCl) in a 0.9% saline solution at pH 4-5 and is stored in glass containers. NovaBay has three FDA cleared 510(k)s. Patients showed a profound improvement and marked accelerated rates of wound healing using NeutroPhase® with and without NPWT. NeutroPhase® was non-toxic to living tissues. PMID:23272294

  11. Community shifts in the surface microbiomes of the coral Porites astreoides with unusual lesions.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Julie L; Paul, Valerie J; Teplitski, Max

    2014-01-01

    Apical lesions on Porites astreoides were characterized by the appearance of a thin yellow band, which was preceded by bleaching of the coral tissues and followed by a completely denuded coral skeleton, which often harbored secondary macroalgal colonizers. These characteristics have not been previously described in Porites and do not match common Caribbean coral diseases. The lesions were observed only in warmer months and at shallow depths on the fore reef in Belize. Analysis of the microbial community composition based on the V4 hypervariable region of 16S ribosomal RNA genes revealed that the surface microbiomes associated with nonsymptomatic corals were dominated by the members of the genus Endozoicomonas, consistent with other studies. Comparison of the microbiomes of nonsymptomatic and lesioned coral colonies sampled in July and September revealed two distinct groups, inconsistently related to the disease state of the coral, but showing some temporal signal. The loss of Endozoicomonas was characteristic of lesioned corals, which also harbored potential opportunistic pathogens such as Alternaria, Stenotrophomonas, and Achromobacter. The presence of lesions in P. astreoides coincided with a decrease in the relative abundance of Endozoicomonas, rather than the appearance of specific pathogenic taxa. PMID:24937478

  12. Cadmium-tolerant bacteria induce metal stress tolerance in cereals.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Naveed, Muhammad; Mitter, Birgit; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-09-01

    Cadmium usually hampers plant growth, but bacterial inoculation may improve stress tolerance in plants to Cd by involving various mechanisms. The objective was to characterize and identify bacteria that improve plant growth under Cd stress and reduce Cd uptake. Cadmium-tolerant bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere soil, which was irrigated with tannery effluent, and six strains were selected as highly tolerant to Cd, showing minimum inhibitory concentration as 500 mg L(-1) or 4.45 mmol L(-1). These strains were identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis and functional analysis in regard to plant growth promotion characteristics. To determine their effect on cereal growth under Cd stress, seeds were inoculated with these strains individually and grown in soil contaminated with three Cd levels (0, 40 and 80 mg kg(-1)). Biomass production, relative water content (RWC), electrolyte leakage (ELL) and tissue Cd concentration were measured. Biomass of both cereals was inhibited strongly when exposed to Cd; however, bacterial inoculation significantly reduced the suppressive effect of Cd on cereal growth and physiology. The bacterial isolates belonged to the genera Klebsiella, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus and Serratia. Maize was more sensitive than wheat to Cd. Klebsiella sp. strain CIK-502 had the most pronounced effects in promoting maize and wheat growth and lowering Cd uptake under Cd stress. PMID:24849374

  13. Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria Isolated from the Internal Organs of Edible Snow Crabs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Misoon; Kwon, Tae-Hyung; Jung, Su-Mi; Cho, Seung-Hak; Jin, Seon Yeong; Park, Nyun-Ho; Kim, Choong-Gon; Kim, Jong-Shik

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance and microbiota within edible snow crabs are important for the Chionoecetes (snow crab) fishing industry. We investigated these parameters using culture methods and antibiotic susceptibility tests with six internal organs from three species of Chionoecetes. Each sample revealed many unexpected microbial species within Chionoecetes internal organs. On the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 381 isolates, the most abundant genera identified in Chionoecetes opilio were Acinetobacter spp. (24%), Bacillus spp. (4%), Pseudomonas spp. (34%), Stenotrophomonas spp. (28%), and Agreia spp. (11%). In Chionoecetes sp. crabs, Acinetobacter spp. (23%), Bacillus spp. (12%), and Psychrobacter spp. (20%) were most prevalent, while Agreia spp. (11%), Bacillus spp. (31%), Microbacterium spp. (10%), Rhodococcus spp. (12%), and Agrococcus spp. (6%) were most abundant in C. japonicus. Our antibiotic resistance test found resistance to all nine antibiotics tested in 19, 14, and two of the isolates from C. opilio, Chionoecetes sp., and, C. japonicus respectively. Our results are the first to show that microbes with antibiotic resistance are widely distributed throughout the internal organs of natural snow crabs. PMID:23990916

  14. Defluorination of Sodium Fluoroacetate by Bacteria from Soil and Plants in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Camboim, Expedito K. A.; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Z.; de Souza, Emanuel M.; Pedrosa, Fabio de O.; Andrade, Paulo P.; McSweeney, Chris S.; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Melo, Marcia A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to isolate and identify bacteria able to degrade sodium fluoroacetate from soil and plant samples collected in areas where the fluoroacetate-containing plants Mascagnia rigida and Palicourea aenofusca are found. The samples were cultivated in mineral medium added with 20?mmol?L?1 sodium fluoroacetate. Seven isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Paenibacillus sp. (ECPB01), Burkholderia sp. (ECPB02), Cupriavidus sp. (ECPB03), Staphylococcus sp. (ECPB04), Ancylobacter sp. (ECPB05), Ralstonia sp. (ECPB06), and Stenotrophomonas sp. (ECPB07). All seven isolates degraded sodium-fluoroacetate-containing in the medium, reaching defluorination rate of fluoride ion of 20?mmol?L?1. Six of them are reported for the first time as able to degrade sodium fluoroacetate (SF). In the future, some of these microorganisms can be used to establish in the rumen an engineered bacterial population able to degrade sodium fluoroacetate and protect ruminants from the poisoning by this compound. PMID:22619595

  15. Lung microbiota across age and disease stage in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Coburn, Bryan; Wang, Pauline W.; Diaz Caballero, Julio; Clark, Shawn T.; Brahma, Vijaya; Donaldson, Sylva; Zhang, Yu; Surendra, Anu; Gong, Yunchen; Elizabeth Tullis, D.; Yau, Yvonne C. W.; Waters, Valerie J.; Hwang, David M.; Guttman, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the significance of bacterial species that colonize and persist in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways requires a detailed examination of bacterial community structure across a broad range of age and disease stage. We used 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to characterize the lung microbiota in 269 CF patients spanning a 60 year age range, including 76 pediatric samples from patients of age 4–17, and a broad cross-section of disease status to identify features of bacterial community structure and their relationship to disease stage and age. The CF lung microbiota shows significant inter-individual variability in community structure, composition and diversity. The core microbiota consists of five genera - Streptococcus, Prevotella, Rothia, Veillonella and Actinomyces. CF-associated pathogens such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas and Achromobacter are less prevalent than core genera, but have a strong tendency to dominate the bacterial community when present. Community diversity and lung function are greatest in patients less than 10 years of age and lower in older age groups, plateauing at approximately age 25. Lower community diversity correlates with worse lung function in a multivariate regression model. Infection by Pseudomonas correlates with age-associated trends in community diversity and lung function. PMID:25974282

  16. Fluctuation of bacteria isolated from elm tissues during different seasons and from different plant organs.

    PubMed

    Mocali, Stefano; Bertelli, Emanuela; Di Cello, Francescopaolo; Mengoni, Alessio; Sfalanga, Alessandra; Viliani, Francesca; Caciotti, Anna; Tegli, Stefania; Surico, Giuseppe; Fani, Renato

    2003-03-01

    In this work we isolated a culturable endophytic aerobic heterotrophic bacterial community from the stem and root tissues of elm trees (Ulmus spp.) and analyzed its fluctuations. A total of 724 bacterial isolates were collected at different times (April, June, September and December) from two elm trees, one infected with Elm Yellows phytoplasmas, and one which was healthy-looking. The isolates were grouped into 82 haplotypes, identified by means of amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) using the restriction enzyme AluI, suggesting that the genetic diversity of the bacterial community was very high. The taxonomic position of the isolates belonging to the twelve main haplotypes, representing more than 72% of the total population, was determined by 16S rDNA sequencing. The main genera were Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Sphingomonas, Enterobacter, and Staphylococcus. The fluctuations in the bacterial community, determined by different parameters (seasonal changes, plant organ, presence of phytoplasmas) were studied, revealing that they were influenced both by variations in temperature (warm or cold according to the season) and by the organ examined (roots or stems). The role of the phytopathogenic status in these fluctuations was also discussed. PMID:12648725

  17. Changes in bacterial flora of Japanese cabbage during growth and potential source of flora.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hidemi; Sera, Kaori

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial flora of cabbage were identified and enumerated during various stages of growth, and the potential sources of contamination in the field were determined. Bacterial counts increased from below the level of detection (2.4 log CFU/g) on seeds to 2.5 to 5.7 log CFU/g on seedlings. After transplanting, the counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria on leaves decreased and then increased to 5.7 log CFU/g on outer leaves, 5.0 log CFU/g on middle leaves, and 3.0 log CFU/g on inner leaves at the harvesting stage. Counts of coliforms were below the level of detection during the growing period of the leaves. Bacteria isolated from cabbage seeds, seedlings, and leaves were soilborne organisms such as Bacillus, Curtobacterium, and Delftia and phytopathogenic organisms such as Pseudomonas, Pantoea, and Stenotrophomonas. These bacteria were found frequently in seeding machines, potting soil mix, soil, agricultural water, pesticide solutions mixed with the agricultural water, liquid fertilizers, and chemical fertilizers. Contamination from these environmental sites occurred throughout the cabbage growing period rather than only at the harvesting stage. These results indicate that use of clean water for irrigation and for mixing with pesticides and amendments from seeding to the harvesting stage is an important part of a good agricultural practices program for cabbage in Japan. PMID:21477482

  18. Bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent using man-made biofilms: effects of some variables.

    PubMed

    Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S

    2014-11-01

    Biofilm samples were established on glass slides by submerging them in oil-free and oil-containing sewage effluent for a month. In batch cultures, such biofilms were effective in removing crude oil, pure n-hexadecane, and pure phenanthrene contaminating sewage effluent. The amounts of the removed hydrocarbons increased with increasing biofilm surface area exposed to the effluent. On the other hand, addition of the reducing agent thioglycollate dramatically inhibited the hydrocarbon bioremediation potential of the biofilms. The same biofilm samples removed contaminating hydrocarbons effectively in three successive batch bioremediation cycles but started to become less effective in the cycles thereafter, apparently due to mechanical biofilm loss during successive transfers. As major hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, the biofilms harbored species belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Microvirga, Zavarzinia, Mycobacterium, Microbacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Gordonia, Bosea, Sphingobium, Brachybacterium, and others. The nitrogen fixer Azospirillum brasilense and the microalga Ochromonas distigma were also present; they seemed to enrich the biofilms, with nitrogenous compounds and molecular oxygen, respectively, which are known to enhance microbiological hydrocarbon degradation. It was concluded that man-made biofilms based upon sewage microflora are promising tools for bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent. PMID:25146193

  19. Hydrocarbonoclastic biofilms based on sewage microorganisms and their application in hydrocarbon removal in liquid wastes.

    PubMed

    Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S

    2014-07-01

    Attempts to establish hydrocarbonoclastic biofilms that could be applied in waste-hydrocarbon removal are still very rare. In this work, biofilms containing hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were successfully established on glass slides by submerging them in oil-free and oil-containing sewage effluent for 1 month. Culture-dependent analysis of hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial communities in the biofilms revealed the occurrence of the genera Pseudomonas, Microvirga, Stenotrophomonas, Mycobacterium, Bosea, and Ancylobacter. Biofilms established in oil-containing effluent contained more hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria than those established in oil-free effluent, and both biofilms had dramatically different bacterial composition. Culture-independent analysis of the bacterial flora revealed a bacterial community structure totally different from that determined by the culture-dependent method. In microcosm experiments, these biofilms, when used as inocula, removed between 20% and 65% crude oil, n-hexadecane, and phenanthrene from the surrounding effluent in 2 weeks, depending on the biofilm type, the hydrocarbon identity, and the culture conditions. More of the hydrocarbons were removed by biofilms established in oil-containing effluent than by those established in oil-free effluent, and by cultures incubated in the light than by those incubated in the dark. Meanwhile, the bacterial numbers and diversities were enhanced in the biofilms that had been previously used in hydrocarbon bioremediation. These novel findings pave a new way for biofilm-based hydrocarbon bioremediation, both in sewage effluent and in other liquid wastes. PMID:25011928

  20. Antibiofilm Activity of the Brown Alga Halidrys siliquosa against Clinically Relevant Human Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Busetti, Alessandro; Thompson, Thomas P.; Tegazzini, Diana; Megaw, Julianne; Maggs, Christine A.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2015-01-01

    The marine brown alga Halidrys siliquosa is known to produce compounds with antifouling activity against several marine bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of organic extracts obtained from the marine brown alga H. siliquosa against a focused panel of clinically relevant human pathogens commonly associated with biofilm-related infections. The partially fractionated methanolic extract obtained from H. siliquosa collected along the shores of Co. Donegal; Ireland; displayed antimicrobial activity against bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus; Streptococcus; Enterococcus; Pseudomonas; Stenotrophomonas; and Chromobacterium with MIC and MBC values ranging from 0.0391 to 5 mg/mL. Biofilms of S. aureus MRSA were found to be susceptible to the algal methanolic extract with MBEC values ranging from 1.25 mg/mL to 5 mg/mL respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy using LIVE/DEAD staining confirmed the antimicrobial nature of the antibiofilm activity observed using the MBEC assay. A bioassay-guided fractionation method was developed yielding 10 active fractions from which to perform purification and structural elucidation of clinically-relevant antibiofilm compounds. PMID:26058011

  1. Isolation of cellulolytic bacteria from the intestine of Diatraea saccharalis larvae and evaluation of their capacity to degrade sugarcane biomass.

    PubMed

    Dantur, Karina I; Enrique, Ramón; Welin, Björn; Castagnaro, Atilio P

    2015-01-01

    As a strategy to find efficient lignocellulose degrading enzymes/microorganisms for sugarcane biomass pretreatment purposes, 118 culturable bacterial strains were isolated from intestines of sugarcane-fed larvae of the moth Diatraea saccharalis. All strains were tested for cellulolytic activity using soluble carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) degrading assays or by growing bacteria on sugarcane biomass as sole carbon sources. Out of the 118 strains isolated thirty eight were found to possess cellulose degrading activity and phylogenetic studies of the 16S rDNA sequence revealed that all cellulolytic strains belonged to the phyla ?-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Within the three phyla, species belonging to five different genera were identified (Klebsiella, Stenotrophomonas, Microbacterium, Bacillus and Enterococcus). Bacterial growth on sugarcane biomass as well as extracellular endo-glucanase activity induced on soluble cellulose was found to be highest in species belonging to genera Bacillus and Klebsiella. Good cellulolytic activity correlated with high extracellular protein concentrations. In addition, scanning microscopy studies revealed attachment of cellulolytic strains to different sugarcane substrates. The results of this study indicate the possibility to find efficient cellulose degrading enzymes and microorganisms from intestines of insect larvae feeding on sugarcane and their possible application in industrial processing of sugarcane biomass such as second generation biofuel production. PMID:25852992

  2. Isolation and initial characterization of a novel type of Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase activity from a marine microorganism

    PubMed Central

    Willetts, Andrew; Joint, Ian; Gilbert, Jack A.; Trimble, William; Mühling, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Summary A novel type of Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) has been found in a marine strain of Stenotrophomonas maltophila strain PML168 that was isolated from a temperate intertidal zone. The enzyme is able to use NADH as the source of reducing power necessary to accept the atom of diatomic oxygen not incorporated into the oxyfunctionalized substrate. Growth studies have establish that the enzyme is inducible, appears to serve a catabolic role, and is specifically induced by one or more unidentified components of seawater as well as various anthropogenic xenobiotic compounds. A blast search of the primary sequence of the enzyme, recovered from the genomic sequence of the isolate, has placed this atypical BVMO in the context of the several hundred known members of the flavoprotein monooxygenase superfamily. A particular feature of this BVMO lies in its truncated C?terminal domain, which results in a relatively small protein (357 amino acids; 38.4?kDa). In addition, metagenomic screening has been conducted on DNA recovered from an extensive range of marine environmental samples to gauge the relative abundance and distribution of similar enzymes within the global marine microbial community. Although low, abundance was detected in samples from many marine provinces, confirming the potential for biodiscovery in marine microorganisms. PMID:22414193

  3. Agroforestry leads to shifts within the gammaproteobacterial microbiome of banana plants cultivated in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Dita, Miguel; Martinuz, Alfonso; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Bananas (Musa spp.) belong to the most important global food commodities, and their cultivation represents the world's largest monoculture. Although the plant-associated microbiome has substantial influence on plant growth and health, there is a lack of knowledge of the banana microbiome and its influencing factors. We studied the impact of (i) biogeography, and (ii) agroforestry on the banana-associated gammaproteobacterial microbiome analyzing plants grown in smallholder farms in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Profiles of 16S rRNA genes revealed high abundances of Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and Legionellales. An extraordinary high diversity of the gammaproteobacterial microbiota was observed within the endophytic microenvironments (endorhiza and pseudostem), which was similar in both countries. Enterobacteria were identified as dominant group of above-ground plant parts (pseudostem and leaves). Neither biogeography nor agroforestry showed a statistically significant impact on the gammaproteobacterial banana microbiome in general. However, indicator species for each microenvironment and country, as well as for plants grown in Coffea intercropping systems with and without agri-silvicultural production of different Fabaceae trees (Inga spp. in Nicaragua and Erythrina poeppigiana in Costa Rica) could be identified. For example, banana plants grown in agroforestry systems were characterized by an increase of potential plant-beneficial bacteria, like Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, and on the other side by a decrease of Erwinia. Hence, this study could show that as a result of legume-based agroforestry the indigenous banana-associated gammaproteobacterial community noticeably shifted. PMID:25717322

  4. Impact of biotic and a-biotic parameters on structure and function of microbial communities living on sclerotia of the soil-borne pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani

    PubMed Central

    Zachow, Christin; Grosch, Rita; Berg, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    The plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is very difficult to control due to its persistent, long-living sclerotial structures in soil. Sclerotia are the main source of infection for Rhizoctonia diseases, which cause high yield losses on a broad host range world-wide. Little is known about micro-organisms associated with sclerotia in soil. Therefore, microbial communities of greenhouse and field incubated Rhizoctonia sclerotia were analysed by a multiphasic approach. Using microbial fingerprints performed by PCR-SSCP, sclerotia-associated bacterial communities showed a high diversity, whereas only a few fungi could be detected. Statistical analysis of fingerprints revealed the influence of soil types, incubation conditions (greenhouse, field), and incubation time (5 and 12 weeks) on the bacterial as well as fungal community. No significant differences were found for the microbial community associated with different Rhizoctonia anastomosis sub-groups (AG 1-IB and AG 1-IC). Rhizoctonia sclerotia are an interesting bio-resource: high proportions of fungal cell-wall degrading isolates as well as those with antagonistic activity towards R. solani were found. While a fraction of 28.4% of sclerotia-associated bacteria (=40 isolates) with antagonistic properties was determined, only 4.4% (=6 isolates) of the fungal isolates were antagonistic. We identified strong antagonists of the genera Bacillus, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas, which can be used as biological control agents incorporated in soil or applied to Rhizoctonia host plants.

  5. Isolation and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Gut of Holotrichia parallela Larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shengwei; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 207 strains of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from the gut of Holotrichia parallela larvae. These bacterial isolates were assigned to 21 genotypes by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). A partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis and standard biochemical and physiological tests were used for the assignment of the 21 representative isolates. Our results show that the cellulolytic bacterial community is dominated by the Proteobacteria (70.05%), followed by the Actinobacteria (24.15%), the Firmicutes (4.35%), and the Bacteroidetes (1.45%). At the genus level, Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum, Rhizobium, Cellulosimicrobium, and Microbacterium were the predominant groups, but members of Bacillus, Dyadobacter, Siphonobacter, Paracoccus, Kaistia, Devosia, Labrys, Ensifer, Variovorax, Shinella, Citrobacter, and Stenotrophomonas were also found. Furthermore, our results suggest that a significant amount of bacterial diversity exists among the cellulolytic bacteria, and that Siphonobacter aquaeclarae, Cellulosimicrobium funkei, Paracoccus sulfuroxidans, Ochrobactrum cytisi, Ochrobactrum haematophilum, Kaistia adipata, Devosia riboflavina, Labrys neptuniae, Ensifer adhaerens, Shinella zoogloeoides, Citrobacter freundii, and Pseudomonas nitroreducens are reported to be cellulolytic for the first time in this study. Our results indicate that the scarab gut is an attractive source for the study of novel cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes useful for cellulose degradation. PMID:22489111

  6. [Phytase activity in some groups of bacteria. Search for and cloning of genes for bacterial phytases].

    PubMed

    Shedova, E N; Berezina, O V; Khmel', I A; Lipasova, V A; Borriss, R; Velikodvorskaia, G A

    2004-01-01

    A search for phytase genes in 9 Bacillus strains from the collection of IMGAN was implemented. The growth optimum of strains IX-22, IX-12B, K17-2, K18, IMG I, IMG II, M4 and M8 was 50-60 degrees C; the optimal growth temperature for Bacillus sp. 790 was 45-47 degrees C. According to the sequence data of 16S RNA genes, Bacillus sp. 790 belongs to the B. subtilis/amyloliquefaciens group. The other 8 strains were identified as B. licheniformis. Selection of Bacillus strains, potentially containing the phytase genes, was performed via PCR with primers designed on the basis of the conserved sequence regions of the phyA gene from B. amyloliquefaciens FZB45 with chromosomal DNA being used as the template. The nucleotide sequences of all PCR fragments showed a high level of homology to the known Bacillus phytase genes. The gene libraries of B. licheniformis M8 and B. amyloliquefaciens 790 in E. coli were constructed and phytase-containing clones were selected from them. Twenty-four Pseudomonas strains of different species, 5 Xanthomonas maltophilia strains and 1 Xanthomonas malvacearum (all from the mentioned collection) were tested for phytase activity. Such activity was found in 13 Pseudomonas strains and in 6 Xanthomonas strains. The accumulation of phytase in Pseudomonas was shown to take place at later (over 2 days') growth stages. The optimum pH for phytase from 3 Pseudomonas strains were established. The enzymes were found to be most active at pH 5.5. PMID:15024999

  7. Purification and properties of a serine protease from Pseudomonas matophilia.

    PubMed Central

    Boethling, R S

    1975-01-01

    The extracellular protease of Pseudomonas maltophilia was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatography on Sephadex G-75 and Bio-rex 70. Gel electrophoresis revealed minor impurities. The enzyme exhibited the following properties: (i) molecular weight, 35,000; (ii) A see article; 10.8; (iii) isoelectric point, 9.3; (iv) pH optimum, 10.0; (v)s20, w equal 3.47. The enzyme was rapidly inactivated by ethylenediaminetetracetate, but activity could be partially restored with divalent cations. Of those tested, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+ were all effective. Both phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride and diisopropylfluorophosphate were powerful inhibitors of protease activity, but L-1-tosylamide-2-phenylethylchloromethyl ketone, iodoacetic acid, and iodoacetamide were without effect. The enzyme hydrolyzed the esters N-acetyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester and alpha-N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (BAEE) with Km values of 10.4 and 3.4 mM, respectively. The hydrolysis of BAEE was also inhibited by phenylarsonic acids. The kinetics of inhibition by m-nitrophenylarsonate were of the mixed type, and the K1 was 1.8 mM. The data followed a theoretical curve for a 1:1 enzyme-inhibitor complex with a dissociation constant of 1.8 mM. Inhibition by m-nitrophenylarsonate was pH dependent and followed a theoretical curve for the titration of a protonated group with a pKa of 7.0. Images PMID:234950

  8. Alterations of lung microbiota in a mouse model of LPS-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Poroyko, Valeriy; Meng, Fanyong; Meliton, Angelo; Afonyushkin, Taras; Ulanov, Alexander; Semenyuk, Ekaterina; Latif, Omar; Tesic, Vera; Birukova, Anna A; Birukov, Konstantin G

    2015-07-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and the more severe acute respiratory distress syndrome are common responses to a variety of infectious and noninfectious insults. We used a mouse model of ALI induced by intratracheal administration of sterile bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to investigate the changes in innate lung microbiota and study microbial community reaction to lung inflammation and barrier dysfunction induced by endotoxin insult. One group of C57BL/6J mice received LPS via intratracheal injection (n = 6), and another received sterile water (n = 7). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed at 72 h after treatment. Bacterial DNA was extracted and used for qPCR and 16S rRNA gene-tag (V3-V4) sequencing (Illumina). The bacterial load in BAL from ALI mice was increased fivefold (P = 0.03). The community complexity remained unchanged (Simpson index, P = 0.7); the Shannon diversity index indicated the increase of community evenness in response to ALI (P = 0.07). Principal coordinate analysis and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) test (P = 0.005) revealed a significant difference between microbiota of control and ALI groups. Bacteria from families Xanthomonadaceae and Brucellaceae increased their abundance in the ALI group as determined by Metastats test (P < 0.02). In concordance with the 16s-tag data, Stenotrohomonas maltophilia (Xanthomonadaceae) and Ochrobactrum anthropi (Brucellaceae) were isolated from lungs of mice from both groups. Metabolic profiling of BAL detected the presence of bacterial substrates suitable for both isolates. Additionally, microbiota from LPS-treated mice intensified IL-6-induced lung inflammation in naive mice. We conclude that the morbid transformation of ALI microbiota was attributed to the set of inborn opportunistic pathogens thriving in the environment of inflamed lung, rather than the external infectious agents. PMID:25957290

  9. In vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of GR69153, a new long-acting cephalosporin.

    PubMed Central

    Chin, N X; Gu, J W; Fang, W; Neu, H C

    1991-01-01

    GR69153, a new parenteral cephalosporin, inhibited 90% of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter diversus, shigellae, and salmonellae at less than 0.25 micrograms/ml (MIC90). It had activity comparable to those of ceftazidime, cefpirome, cefepime, and E-1040. Against cephalosporinase-producing Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens, MICs ranged from 0.12 to greater than 32 micrograms/ml, and cefpirome and cefepime were the most active agents against these species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly susceptible to GR69153, and for this organism the MIC90 was less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml, which was similar to the E-1040 MIC90, but most Pseudomonas cepacia and Xanthomonas maltophilia isolates were resistant. GR69153 inhibited Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella branhamella at less than or equal to 0.5 micrograms/ml. For Staphylococcus aureus GR69153 MICs were similar to those of ceftazidime and E-1040. Enterococci and listeriae were resistant to GR69153, but Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae were inhibited by 0.5 micrograms/ml. The activity of GR69153 was not affected by serum. GR69153 was not inactivated by the beta-lactamases of Staphylococcus aureus, TEM-1, TEM-2, SHV-1, and BRO-1, but it was hydrolyzed by TEM-3, TEM-9, and morganellae. GR69153 had overall activity comparable to those of commercially available parenteral cephalosporins or those found in clinical investigations. It is more active against bacteroides than most available aminothiazolyl parenteral cephalosporins are. GR69153 is hydrolyzed by the new plasmid beta-lactamases, and thus, its primary value may be related to its pharmacological properties. PMID:2024959

  10. Influence of antibiotics on intestinal tract survival and translocation of environmental Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed Central

    George, S E; Kohan, M J; Whitehouse, D A; Creason, J P; Claxton, L D

    1990-01-01

    The environmental release of microorganisms has prompted the investigation of potential health effects associated with their release. In this study, survival and translocation to the spleen and liver of several environmental Pseudomonas spp. were investigated in antibiotic-treated mice. Pseudomonas aeruginosa BC16 and P. maltophilia BC6, isolated from a commercial product for polychlorinated biphenyl degradation; P. aeruginosa AC869, a 3,5-dichlorobenzoate degrader; and P. cepacia AC1100, an organism that metabolizes 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid were examined for their survival capabilities in the intestines of mice dosed with clindamycin, kanamycin, rifampin, or spectinomycin. A mouse intestinal isolate, strain PAMG, was included in the study. Following antibiotic pretreatment (1 mg twice daily for 3 days), mice were dosed by gavage with 10(9) CFU of each Pseudomonas strain. At the end of the 5-day test period, strains AC869 and PAMG survived in kanamycin-, rifampin-, spectinomycin-, and clindamycin-treated animals. A statistically significant (P less than 0.05) increase in survival of strain PAMG was observed in clindamycin-, kanamycin-, and spectinomycin-treated mice for the test period. Treatment with clindamycin or rifampin increased (P less than 0.05) survival of strain BC6, an organism resistant to both antibiotics. However, strain BC6 was detected only in rifampin-treated mice at the end of the 5-day test period. Strain BC16, a clindamycin-resistant strain, was detected in clindamycin-treated mice and the untreated control animals. Rifampin had a negative effect (P less than 0.05) on strain AC869 and PAMG survival. Translocation to the spleen was observed in spectinomycin- and clindamycin-treated mice but was not detected in kanamycin- or rifampin-treated animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2116756

  11. Purification and properties of a serine protease from Pseudomonas matophilia.

    PubMed

    Boethling, R S

    1975-03-01

    The extracellular protease of Pseudomonas maltophilia was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatography on Sephadex G-75 and Bio-rex 70. Gel electrophoresis revealed minor impurities. The enzyme exhibited the following properties: (i) molecular weight, 35,000; (ii) A see article; 10.8; (iii) isoelectric point, 9.3; (iv) pH optimum, 10.0; (v)s20, w equal 3.47. The enzyme was rapidly inactivated by ethylenediaminetetracetate, but activity could be partially restored with divalent cations. Of those tested, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+ were all effective. Both phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride and diisopropylfluorophosphate were powerful inhibitors of protease activity, but L-1-tosylamide-2-phenylethylchloromethyl ketone, iodoacetic acid, and iodoacetamide were without effect. The enzyme hydrolyzed the esters N-acetyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester and alpha-N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (BAEE) with Km values of 10.4 and 3.4 mM, respectively. The hydrolysis of BAEE was also inhibited by phenylarsonic acids. The kinetics of inhibition by m-nitrophenylarsonate were of the mixed type, and the K1 was 1.8 mM. The data followed a theoretical curve for a 1:1 enzyme-inhibitor complex with a dissociation constant of 1.8 mM. Inhibition by m-nitrophenylarsonate was pH dependent and followed a theoretical curve for the titration of a protonated group with a pKa of 7.0. PMID:234950

  12. Chryseobacterium profundimaris sp. nov., a new member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from deep-sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Huo, Ying-Yi; Li, Zheng-Yang; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Oren, Aharon; Xu, Xue-Wei

    2015-04-01

    A Gram-stain negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, designated strain DY46(T), was isolated from Atlantic Ocean sediment. The isolate was found to grow in medium containing 0-3.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimally at 0-1.0 %), at 4-37 °C and pH 5.0-8.0. Chemotaxonomic analysis detected MK-6 as the sole isoprenoid quinone. The major fatty acids were identified iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH, iso-C17:1 ?9c and summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15:0 2-OH and/or C16:1 ?7c). The DNA G + C content was determined to be 40.7 mol %. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain DY46(T) falls within the cluster comprising Chryseobacterium species. The levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain DY46(T) and the type strains of the Chryseobacterium species with validly published names ranged from 92.4 to 99.1 %, the high values (>97 %) being with Chryseobacterium takakiae A1-2(T) (99.1 %), C. taiwanense BCRC 17412(T) (98.0 %), C. taeanense PHA3-4(T) (97.3 %), C. hispalense DSM 25574(T) (97.3 %), C. camelliae THG C4-1(T) (97.2 %), C. gregarium DSM 19109(T) (97.1 %) and C. wanjuense R2A10-2(T) (97.0 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain DY46(T) and the type strains of the above closely related species were 47, 57, 24, 34, 6, 40 and 21 %, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, strain DY46(T) represents a novel member within the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name Chryseobacterium profundimaris is proposed. The type strain is DY46(T) (=CGMCC 1.12663(T) = JCM 19801(T)). PMID:25616910

  13. Muricauda antarctica sp. nov., a marine member of the Flavobacteriaceae isolated from Antarctic seawater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue-Hong; Yu, Pei-Song; Zhou, Ya-Dong; Xu, Lin; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Wu, Min; Oren, Aharon; Xu, Xue-Wei

    2013-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium with appendages, designated Ar-22(T), was isolated from a seawater sample collected from the western part of Prydz Bay, near Cape Darnley, Antarctica. Strain Ar-22(T) grew optimally at 35 °C, at pH 7.5 and in the presence of 1-3% (w/v) NaCl. The isolate was positive for casein, gelatin and Tween 20 decomposition and negative for H2S production and indole formation. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that MK-6 was the major isoprenoid quinone and phosphatidylethanolamine was the major polar lipid. The major fatty acids were iso-C(17:0) 3-OH, iso-C(15:1) G, iso-C(15:0) and C(16:1)?7c/iso-C(15:0) 2OH. The genomic DNA G+C content was 44.8 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain Ar-22(T) is closely related to members of the genus Muricauda, sharing 94.2-97.3% sequence similarity with the type strains of species of the genus Muricauda and being most closely related to the Muricauda aquimarina. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison confirmed that strain Ar-22(T) formed a deep lineage with Muricauda flavescens. Sequence similarity between strain Ar-22(T) and Muricauda ruestringensis DSM 13258(T), the type species of the genus Muricauda, was 96.9%. Strain Ar-22(T) exhibited mean DNA-DNA relatedness values of 40.1%, 49.4% and 25.7% to M. aquimarina JCM 11811(T), M. flavescens JCM 11812(T) and Muricauda lutimaris KCTC 22173(T), respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain Ar-22(T) represents a novel species of the genus Muricauda, for which the name Muricauda antarctica sp. nov. (type strain Ar-22(T)?=CGMCC 1.12174(T)?=?JCM 18450(T)) is proposed. PMID:23543499

  14. Halomonas zhaodongensis sp. nov., a slightly halophilic bacterium isolated from saline-alkaline soils in Zhaodong, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Juquan; Pan, Yuanyuan; Meng, Lin; Hu, Shaoxin; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Hu, Baozhong; Meng, Jing; Li, Cheng; Huang, Haipeng; Wang, Kaibiao; Su, Tingting

    2013-11-01

    A slightly halophilic bacterium (strain NEAU-ST10-25(T)) was isolated from saline-alkaline soils in Zhaodong City, Heilongjiang Province, China. The strain is a Gram-negative, aerobic motile rod. It accumulates poly-?-hydroxyalkanoate and produces exopolysaccharide. It produces beige-yellow colonies. Growth occurs at NaCl concentrations (w/v) of 0-15 % (optimum 3 %), at temperatures of 4-60 °C (optimum 35 °C) and at pH 6-12 (optimum pH 9). Its G+C content is 53.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on the separate 16S rRNA gene and concatenation of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD genes indicate that it belongs to the genus Halomonas in the class Gammaproteobacteria. The most phylogenetically related species is Halomonas alkaliphila DSM 16354(T), with which strain NEAU-ST10-25(T) showed 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequence similarities of 99.2, 82.3 and 88.2 %, respectively. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization assays showed 60.47 ± 0.69 % DNA relatedness between strain NEAU-ST10-25(T) and H. alkaliphila DSM 16354(T), 42.43 ± 0.37 % between strain NEAU-ST10-25(T) and Halomonas venusta DSM 4743(T) and 30.62 ± 0.43 % between strain NEAU-ST10-25(T) and Halomonas hydrothermalis DSM 15725(T). The major fatty acids are C18:1 ?7c (62.3 %), C16:0 (17.6 %), C16:1 ?7c/C16:1 ?6c (7.7 %), C14:0 (2.9 %), C12:0 3-OH (2.8 %), C10:0 (2.1 %) and C18:1 ?9c (1.6 %) and the predominant respiratory quinone is ubiquinone 9 (Q-9). The proposed name is Halomonas zhaodongensis, NEAU-ST10-25(T) (=CGMCC 1.12286(T) = DSM 25869(T)) being the type strain. PMID:23877893

  15. Haloplanus salinus sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon from a Chinese marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xing-Xing; Zhao, Mei-Lin; Han, Dong; Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2013-12-01

    Halophilic archaeal strain YGH66(T) was isolated from the Yinggehai marine solar saltern near the Sanya city of Hainan Province, China. Cells were pleomorphic, flat, stained Gram-negative, and produced pink-pigmented colonies. Strain YGH66(T) was able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), at 0.9-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 3.1 M NaCl), at 0.005-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.05 M MgCl2), and at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0). The cells of strain YGH66(T) were lysed in distilled water, and the minimum NaCl concentration that prevented cell lysis was 5 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, one major glycolipid (GL1) chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether and a minor unidentified lipid (GL2), respectively. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YGH66(T) was closely related to Haloplanus natans JCM 14081(T), Haloplanus aerogenes TBN37(T), and Haloplanus vescus RO5-8(T) with the similarities of 98.0, 97.6, and 96.9 %, respectively. The rpoB' gene similarity between strain YGH66(T) and the current three members of Haloplanus were 90.4-92.8 %. The DNA G+C content of strain YGH66(T) was 67.2 mol %. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain YGH66(T) and three members of Haloplanus, H. natans JCM 14081(T), H. aerogenes TBN37(T), H. vescus RO5-8(T) were 50, 46 and 39 %, respectively. It was concluded that strain YGH66(T) represents a novel species of the genus Haloplanus, for which the name Haloplanus salinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YGH66(T) (=CGMCC 1.12127(T) = JCM 18368(T)). PMID:24129619

  16. Metallosphaera cuprina sp. nov., an acidothermophilic, metal-mobilizing archaeon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Jun; You, Xiao-Yan; Guo, Xu; Liu, Shuang-Jiang; Jiang, Cheng-Ying

    2011-10-01

    A novel acidothermophilic archaeon, strain Ar-4(T), was isolated from a sulfuric hot spring in Tengchong, Yunnan, China. Cells of strain Ar-4(T) were Gram-staining-negative, irregular cocci and motile by means of flagella. Strain Ar-4(T) grew over a temperature range of 55-75 °C (optimum, 65 °C), a pH range of 2.5-5.5 (optimum, pH 3.5) and a NaCl concentration range of 0-1?% (w/v). The novel strain was aerobic and facultatively chemolithoautotrophic. The strain could extract metal ions from sulfidic ore. It was also able to oxidize reduced sulfur compounds. In addition, it was able to use heterogeneous organic materials for organotrophic growth. The main cellular lipids were calditoglycerocaldarchaeol (CGTE) and caldarchaeol (DGTE). The DNA G+C content of the strain was 40.2 mol%. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain Ar-4(T) was phylogenetically related to members of the genus Metallosphaera and had sequence similarities of 97.7?%, 97.0?% and 96.8?% with Metallosphaera hakonensis DSM 7519(T), Metallosphaera sedula DSM 5348(T) and Metallosphaera prunae DSM 10039(T), respectively. Strain Ar-4(T) showed DNA-DNA relatedness values of 47.5?%, 30.8?% and 29.1?% with M. hakonensis DSM 7519(T), M. sedula DSM 5348(T) and M. prunae DSM 10039(T), respectively. The differences in cell motility, the temperature and pH ranges for growth, the ability to utilize carbon sources, the DNA G+C content, and the low DNA-DNA relatedness values distinguished strain Ar-4(T) from recognized species of the genus Metallosphaera. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that strain Ar-4(T) represents a novel species of the genus Metallosphaera, for which the name Metallosphaera cuprina is proposed. The type strain is Ar-4(T) (?=?JCM 15769(T)?=?CGMCC 1.7082(T)). PMID:21057050

  17. Halosimplex litoreum sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Pan-Pan; Xu, Jia-Qi; Xu, Wen-Mei; Wang, Zhao; Yin, Shuai; Han, Dong; Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2015-08-01

    A halophilic archaeal strain, YGH94(T), was isolated from the Yinggehai marine solar saltern near the Shanya city of Hainan Province, China. Cells of the strain were observed to be short rods, stain Gram-negative and to form red-pigmented colonies on solid media. Strain YGH94(T) was found to grow at 25-50 °C (optimum 40 °C), at 0.9-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 3.1 M), at 0-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.05 M) and at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.5). The cells were found to lyse in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell-lysis was determined to be 5 % (w/v). The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester and four major glycolipids (disulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether, sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether and two unidentified glycolipids chromatographically identical to glycolipids in Halosimplex carlsbadense JCM 11222(T)). Strain YGH94(T) was found to possess two heterogeneous 16S rRNA genes (rrnA and rrnB) and both are related to those of Hsx. carlsbadense JCM 11222(T) (92.7-98.6 % similarities), Halosimplex pelagicum R2(T) (94.6-99.2 % similarities) and Halosimplex rubrum R27(T) (92.9-98.8 % similarities). The rpoB' gene similarity between strain YGH94(T) and Hsx. carlsbadense JCM 11222(T), Hsx. pelagicum R2(T) and Hsx. rubrum R27(T) are 95.4, 94.9 and 95.1 %, respectively. The DNA G+C content of strain YGH94(T) was determined to be 64.0 mol%. Strain YGH94(T) showed low DNA-DNA relatedness (35-39 %) with the current three members of the genus Halosimplex. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strain YGH94(T) (=CGMCC 1.12235(T) = JCM 18647(T)) represents a new species of the genus Halosimplex, for which the name Halosimplex litoreum sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:26059862

  18. Halomonas heilongjiangensis sp. nov., a novel moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from saline and alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Dou, Guiming; He, Wei; Liu, Hongcan; Ma, Yuchao

    2015-08-01

    A moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain 9-2(T), was isolated from saline and alkaline soil collected in Lindian county, Heilongjiang province, China. The strain was observed to be strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive and motile. It was found to require NaCl for growth and to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0.5-14 % (w/v) (optimum, 7-10 %, w/v), at temperatures of 10-45 °C (optimum 25-30 °C) and at pH 5.0-10.0 (optimum pH 8.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain 9-2(T) is a member of the genus Halomonas and is closely related to Halomonas desiderata DSM 9502(T) (96.68 %), Halomonas campaniensis DSM 1293(T) (96.46 %), Halomonas ventosae DSM 15911(T) (96.27 %) and Halomonas kenyensis DSM 17331(T) (96.27 %). The DNA-DNA hybridization value was 38.9 ± 0.66 % between the novel isolate 9-2(T) and H. desiderata DSM 9502(T). The predominant ubiquinones were identified as Q9 (75.1 %) and Q8 (24.9 %). The major fatty acids were identified as C16:0 (22.0 %), Summed feature 8 (C18:1 ?6c/C18:1 ?7c, 19.6 %), Summed feature 3 (C16:1 ?6c/C16:1 ?7c, 12.6 %), C12:0 3-OH (12.0 %) and C10:0 (11.7 %). The DNA G+C content was determined to be 69.7 mol%. On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, strain 9-2(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Halomonas, for which the name Halomonas heilongjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 9-2(T) (=DSM 26881(T) = CGMCC 1.12467(T)). PMID:26036672

  19. Deciphering the Bacterial Microbiome of Citrus Plants in Response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’-Infection and Antibiotic Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Muqing; Powell, Charles A.; Benyon, Lesley S.; Zhou, Hui; Duan, Yongping

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial microbiomes of citrus plants were characterized in response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las)-infection and treatments with ampicillin (Amp) and gentamicin (Gm) by Phylochip-based metagenomics. The results revealed that 7,407 of over 50,000 known Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) in 53 phyla were detected in citrus leaf midribs using the PhyloChip™ G3 array, of which five phyla were dominant, Proteobacteria (38.7%), Firmicutes (29.0%), Actinobacteria (16.1%), Bacteroidetes (6.2%) and Cyanobacteria (2.3%). The OTU62806, representing ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’, was present with a high titer in the plants graft-inoculated with Las-infected scions treated with Gm at 100 mg/L and in the water-treated control (CK1). However, the Las bacterium was not detected in the plants graft-inoculated with Las-infected scions treated with Amp at 1.0 g/L or in plants graft-inoculated with Las-free scions (CK2). The PhyloChip array demonstrated that more OTUs, at a higher abundance, were detected in the Gm-treated plants than in the other treatment and the controls. Pairwise comparisons indicated that 23 OTUs from the Achromobacter spp. and 12 OTUs from the Methylobacterium spp. were more abundant in CK2 and CK1, respectively. Ten abundant OTUs from the Stenotrophomonas spp. were detected only in the Amp-treatment. These results provide new insights into microbial communities that may be associated with the progression of citrus huanglongbing (HLB) and the potential effects of antibiotics on the disease and microbial ecology. PMID:24250784

  20. Huanglongbing, a Systemic Disease, Restructures the Bacterial Community Associated with Citrus Roots?

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Pankaj; Duan, Yongping; Wang, Nian

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effect of pathogens on the diversity and structure of plant-associated bacterial communities, we carried out a molecular analysis using citrus and huanglongbing as a host-disease model. 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis of citrus roots revealed shifts in microbial diversity in response to pathogen infection. The clone library of the uninfected root samples has a majority of phylotypes showing similarity to well-known plant growth-promoting bacteria, including Caulobacter, Burkholderia, Lysobacter, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Paenibacillus. Infection by “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” restructured the native microbial community associated with citrus roots and led to the loss of detection of most phylotypes while promoting the growth of bacteria such as Methylobacterium and Sphingobacterium. In pairwise comparisons, the clone library from uninfected roots contained significantly higher 16S rRNA gene diversity, as reflected in the higher Chao 1 richness estimation (P ? 0.01) of 237.13 versus 42.14 for the uninfected and infected clone libraries, respectively. Similarly, the Shannon index of the uninfected clone library (4.46) was significantly higher than that of the infected clone library (2.61). Comparison of the uninfected clone library with the infected clone library using LIBSHUFF statistics showed a significant difference (P ? 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the bacterial community changes not only qualitatively but also quantitatively. The relative proportions of different groups of bacteria changed significantly after infection with the pathogen. These data indicate that infection of citrus by “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” has a profound effect on the structure and composition of the bacterial community associated with citrus roots. PMID:20382817

  1. Isotopic analysis of N and O in nitrite and nitrate by sequential selective bacterial reduction to N2O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.; Smith, R.L.; Hannon, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrite is an important intermediate species in the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen, but its role in natural aquatic systems is poorly understood. Isotopic data can be used to study the sources and transformations of NO 2- in the environment, but methods for independent isotopic analyses of NO2- in the presence of other N species are still new and evolving. This study demonstrates that isotopic analyses of N and O in NO2- can be done by treating whole freshwater or saltwater samples with the denitrifying bacterium Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens, which selectively reduces NO2- to N 2O for isotope ratio mass spectrometry. When calibrated with solutions containing NO2- with known isotopic compositions determined independently, reproducible ??15N and ??18O values were obtained at both natural-abundance levels (??0.2-0.5??? for ??15N and ?? 0.4-1.0%o for ??18O) and moderately enriched 15N tracer levels (??20-50%o for ??15N near 5000???) for 5-20 nmol of NO2- (1-20 ??mol/L in 1-5 mL aliquots). This method is highly selective for NO2- and was used for mixed samples containing both NO2- and NO3- with little or no measurable cross-contamination. In addition, mixed samples that were analyzed with S. nitritireducens were treated subsequently with Pseudomonas aureofaciens to reduce the NO3- in the absence of NO 2-, providing isotopic analyses of NO2- and NO3- separately in the same aliquot. Sequential bacterial reduction methods like this one should be useful for a variety of isotopic studies aimed at understanding nitrogen cycling in aquatic environments. A test of these methods in an agricultural watershed in Indiana provides isotopic evidence for both nitrification and denitrification as sources of NO2- in a small stream.

  2. Microbiome of affected and unaffected skin of patients with atopic dermatitis before and after emollient treatment.

    PubMed

    Seite, Sophie; Flores, Gilberto E; Henley, Jessica B; Martin, Richard; Zelenkova, Hana; Aguilar, Luc; Fierer, Noah

    2014-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that results in areas of dry, itchy skin. Several cultivation-dependent and -independent studies have identified changes in the composition of microbial communities in these affected areas over time and when compared to healthy control individuals. However, how these communities vary on affected and unaffected skin of the same individual, and how these communities respond to emollient treatment, remains poorly understood. Here we characterized the microbial communities associated with affected and unaffected skin of 49 patients with AD before and after emollient treatment using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found that microbial diversity and community composition was different between affected and unaffected skin of AD patients prior to treatment. Differences were driven primarily by the overabundance of Staphylococcus species on affected skin and a corresponding decrease in bacterial diversity. After 84-days of emollient treatment, the clinical symptoms of AD improved in 72% of the study population. Microbial communities associated with affected skin of these treatment responders more closely resembled unaffected skin after treatment as indicated by increased overall diversity and a decrease in the abundance of Staphylococcus species. Interestingly, Stenotrophomonas species were significantly more abundant in the communities of 'responders', suggesting a possible role in restoration of the skin microbiome in patients with AD. We demonstrated that the comparison of affected and unaffected skin from the same individual provides deeper insight into the bacterial communities involved in the skin dysbiosis associated with AD. These data support the importance of emollients in the management of AD although future studies should explore how emollients and other treatments help to restore skin dysbioses. PMID:25607704

  3. Rapid Detection of Emerging Pathogens and Loss of Microbial Diversity Associated with Severe Lung Disease in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Flight, William G; Smith, Ann; Paisey, Christopher; Marchesi, Julian R; Bull, Matthew J; Norville, Phillip J; Mutton, Ken J; Webb, A Kevin; Bright-Thomas, Rowland J; Jones, Andrew M; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2015-07-01

    Respiratory infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) is polymicrobial, but standard sputum microbiology does not account for the lung microbiome or detect changes in microbial diversity associated with disease. As a clinically applicable CF microbiome surveillance scheme, total sputum nucleic acids isolated by a standard high-throughput robotic method for accredited viral diagnosis were profiled for bacterial diversity using ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) PCR. Conventional culture and RISA were performed on 200 paired sputum samples from 93 CF adults; pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was applied to 59 patients to systematically determine bacterial diversity. Compared to the microbiology data, RISA profiles clustered into two groups: the emerging nonfermenting Gram-negative organisms (eNFGN) and Pseudomonas groups. Patients who were culture positive for Burkholderia, Achromobacter, Stenotrophomonas, and Ralstonia clustered within the eNFGN group. Pseudomonas group RISA profiles were associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa culture-positive patients. Sequence analysis confirmed the abundance of eNFGN genera and Pseudomonas within these respective groups. Low bacterial diversity was associated with severe lung disease (P < 0.001) and the presence of Burkholderia (P < 0.001). An absence of Streptococcus (P < 0.05) occurred in individuals with lung function in the lowest quartile. In summary, nucleic acids isolated from CF sputum can serve as a single template for both molecular virology and bacteriology, with a RISA PCR rapidly detecting the presence of dominant eNFGN pathogens or P. aeruginosa missed by culture (11% of cases). We provide guidance for how this straightforward CF microbiota profiling scheme may be adopted by clinical laboratories. PMID:25878338

  4. Reversible oxygen-tolerant hydrogenase carried by free-living N2-fixing bacteria isolated from the rhizospheres of rice, maize, and wheat.

    PubMed

    Roumagnac, Philippe; Richaud, Pierre; Barakat, Mohamed; Ortet, Philippe; Roncato, Marie-Anne; Heulin, Thierry; Peltier, Gilles; Achouak, Wafa; Cournac, Laurent

    2012-12-01

    Hydrogen production by microorganisms is often described as a promising sustainable and clean energy source, but still faces several obstacles, which prevent practical application. Among them, oxygen sensitivity of hydrogenases represents one of the major limitations hampering the biotechnological implementation of photobiological production processes. Here, we describe a hierarchical biodiversity-based approach, including a chemochromic screening of hydrogenase activity of hundreds of bacterial strains collected from several ecosystems, followed by mass spectrometry measurements of hydrogenase activity of a selection of the H(2)-oxidizing bacterial strains identified during the screen. In all, 131 of 1266 strains, isolated from cereal rhizospheres and basins containing irradiating waste, were scored as H(2)-oxidizing bacteria, including Pseudomonas sp., Serratia sp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Enterobacter sp., Rahnella sp., Burkholderia sp., and Ralstonia sp. isolates. Four free-living N(2)-fixing bacteria harbored a high and oxygen-tolerant hydrogenase activity, which was not fully inhibited within entire cells up to 150-250 ?mol/L O(2) concentration or within soluble protein extracts up to 25-30 ?mol/L. The only hydrogenase-related genes that we could reveal in these strains were of the hyc type (subunits of formate hydrogenlyase complex). The four free-living N(2)-fixing bacteria were closely related to Enterobacter radicincitans based on the sequences of four genes (16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp60, and hycE genes). These results should bring interesting prospects for microbial biohydrogen production and might have ecophysiological significance for bacterial adaptation to the oxic-anoxic interfaces in the rhizosphere. PMID:23233392

  5. Genetic and phenotypic diversity of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from sugarcane plants growing in pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mehnaz, Samina; Baig, Deeba Noreen; Lazarovits, George

    2010-12-01

    Bacteria were isolated from roots of sugarcane varieties grown in the fields of Punjab. They were identified by using API20E/NE bacterial identification kits and from sequences of 16S rRNA and amplicons of the cpn60 gene. The majority of bacteria were found to belong to the genera of Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella, but members of genera Azospirillum, Rhizobium, Rahnella, Delftia, Caulobacter, Pannonibacter, Xanthomonas, and Stenotrophomonas were also found. The community, however, was dominated by members of the Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, as representatives of these genera were found in samples from every variety and location examined. All isolates were tested for the presence of five enzymes and seven factors known to be associated with plant growth promotion. Ten isolates showed lipase activity and eight were positive for protease activity. Cellulase, chitinase, and pectinase were not detected in any strain. Nine strains showed nitrogen fixing ability (acetylene reduction assay) and 26 were capable of solubilizing phosphate. In the presence of 100 mg/l tryptophan, all strains except one produced indole acetic acid in the growth medium. All isolates were positive for ACC deaminase activity. Six strains produced homoserine lactones and three produced HCN and hexamate type siderophores. One isolate was capable of inhibiting the growth of 24 pathogenic fungal strains of Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Pythium, and Rhizoctonia spp. In tests of their abilities to grow under a range of temperature, pH, and NaCl concentrations, all isolates grew well on plates with 3% NaCl and most of them grew well at 4 to 41degrees C and at pH 11. PMID:21193815

  6. Pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial diversity in dental unit waterlines.

    PubMed

    Costa, Damien; Mercier, Anne; Gravouil, Kevin; Lesobre, Jérôme; Delafont, Vincent; Bousseau, Anne; Verdon, Julien; Imbert, Christine

    2015-09-15

    Some infections cases due to exposure to output water from dental unit waterlines (DUWL) have been reported in the literature. However, this type of healthcare-associated risk has remained unclear and up until now the overall bacterial composition of DUWL has been poorly documented. In this study, 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing was used to investigate the bacterial community in seven dental offices (N = 7) and to identify potential bacterial pathogenic sequences. Dental unit waters (DUW) were collected from the tap water supplying units (Incoming Water; IW) to the output exposure point of the turbine handpiece (Output water; OW) following a stagnation period (OWS), and immediately after the last patient of the sampling day (OWA). A high bacterial diversity was revealed in DUW with 394 operational taxonomic units detected at the genus level. In addition to the inter-unit variability observed, results showed increased total bacterial cell concentration and shifts in bacterial community composition and abundance at the genus level, mainly within the Gamma- and Alpha-Proteobacteria class, as water circulated in the dental unit (DU). Results showed that 96.7%, 96.8% and 97.4% of the total sequences from IW, OWS and OWA respectively were common to the 3 defined water groups, thereby highlighting a common core microbiome. Results also suggested that stagnation and DU maintenance practices were critical to composition of the bacterial community. The presence of potentially pathogenic genera was detected, including Pseudomonas and Legionella spp. Emerging and opportunistic pathogenic genera such as Mycobacterium, Propionibacterium and Stenotrophomonas were likewise recovered in DUW. For the first time, an exhaustive evaluation of the bacterial communities present in DUW was performed taking into account the circulation of water within the DU. This study highlights an ignored diversity of the DUWL bacterial community. Our findings also contribute to a better appreciation of the potential infectious risk associated with dental care and suggest the importance of better managing microbial quality in DUW. PMID:26072020

  7. 16S rRNA gene phylogeny and tfdA gene analysis of 2,4-D-degrading bacteria isolated in China.

    PubMed

    Han, Lizhen; Liu, Yanbo; He, Aigong; Zhao, Degang

    2014-10-01

    Twenty-two 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-degrading bacterial isolates were collected from agricultural soils at three sites in China. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA genes indicated that the isolates were phylogenetically grouped into four categories: Ochrobactrum anthropi, in the Alpha- class of the phylum Proteobacteria (3 out of 22 isolates), Cupriavidus sp., of the Betaproteobacteria (3 out of 22), Pseudomonas sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp., which are Gammaproteobacteria (7 out of 22), and Bacillus sp., of the phylum Firmicutes (9 out of 22). Primers were designed to amplify the conserved domain of tfdA, which is known to be involved in the degradation of 2,4-D. Results showed that the tfdA genes of all 22 strains were most similar to that of Cupriavidus necator JMP134, which belongs to the 2,4-D/?-ketoglutarate dioxygenase TfdA protein family, indicating that the JMP134-type tfdA gene is likely to be almost universal among the 2,4-D-degrading bacteria isolated from China. Degradation abilities of these 22 strains were investigated in assays using 2,4-D as the sole source of carbon and energy. Thirteen strains degraded >60 % of the available 2,4-D (500 mg l(-1)) over a 1-week incubation period, while a further nine Bacillus sp. strains degraded 50-81 % of the available 2,4-D. None of these nine strains degraded other selected herbicides, such as mecoprop, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, quizalofop, and fluroxypyr. This is the first report of 2,4-D-degradation by Bacilli. PMID:24898178

  8. Manila clams from Hg polluted sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons (Italy) harbor detoxifying Hg resistant bacteria in soft tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Baldi, Franco, E-mail: baldi@unive.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Cà Foscari University of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Cà Foscari University of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Cà Foscari University of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Cà Foscari University of Venice, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Faleri, Claudia [Department of Environmental Science ‘G. Sarfatti’, University of Siena, 53100 Siena (Italy)] [Department of Environmental Science ‘G. Sarfatti’, University of Siena, 53100 Siena (Italy); Maida, Isabel; Fani, Renato [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Via Romana, 17, University of Florence, 50125 Florence (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Via Romana, 17, University of Florence, 50125 Florence (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    A mechanism of mercury detoxification has been suggested by a previous study on Hg bioaccumulation in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in the polluted Marano and Grado lagoons and in this study we demonstrate that this event could be partly related to the detoxifying activities of Hg-resistant bacteria (MRB) harbored in clam soft tissues. Therefore, natural clams were collected in six stations during two different periods (winter and spring) from Marano and Grado Lagoons. Siphons, gills and hepatopancreas from acclimatized clams were sterile dissected to isolate MRB. These anatomical parts were glass homogenized or used for whole, and they were lying on a solid medium containing 5 mg l{sup ?1} HgCl{sub 2} and incubated at 30 °C. A total of fourteen bacterial strains were isolated and were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis, revealing that strains were representative of eight bacterial genera, four of which were Gram-positive (Enterococcus, Bacillus, Jeotgalicoccus and Staphylococcus) and other four were Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas, Vibrio, Raoultella and Enterobacter). Plasmids and merA genes were found and their sequences determined. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique shows the presence of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria by using different molecular probes in siphon and gills. Bacterial clumps inside clam flesh were observed and even a Gram-negative endosymbiont was disclosed by transmission electronic microscope inside clam cells. Bacteria harbored in cavities of soft tissue have mercury detoxifying activity. This feature was confirmed by the determination of mercuric reductase in glass-homogenized siphons and gills. -- Highlights: ? We isolated Gram-positive and Gram-negative Hg resistant strains from soft tissues of Ruditapes philippinarum. ? We identify 14 mercury resistant strains by 16S rRNA gene sequences. ? Bacteria in siphon and gill tissues of clams were observed by TEM and identified with different FISH probes. ? Hg-reductase (MerA) activity in glass homogenized clam tissues was also determined.

  9. Culturable diversity and functional annotation of psychrotrophic bacteria from cold desert of Leh Ladakh (India).

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Tyagi, Satya Prakash; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil K

    2015-01-01

    To study culturable bacterial diversity under subzero temperature conditions and their possible functional annotation, soil and water samples from Leh Ladakh region were analysed. Ten different nutrient combinations were used to isolate the maximum possible culturable morphotypes. A total of 325 bacterial isolates were characterized employing 16S rDNA-Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis with three restriction endonucleases AluI, MspI and HaeIII, which led to formation of 23-40 groups for the different sites at 75 % similarity index, adding up to 175 groups. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing led to the identification of 175 bacteria, grouped in four phyla, Firmicutes (54 %), Proteobacteria (28 %), Actinobacteria (16 %) and Bacteroidetes (3 %), and included 29 different genera with 57 distinct species. Overall 39 % of the total morphotypes belonged to the Bacillus and Bacillus derived genera (BBDG) followed by Pseudomonas (14 %), Arthrobacter (9 %), Exiguobacterium (8 %), Alishewanella (4 %), Brachybacterium, Providencia, Planococcus (3 %), Janthinobacterium, Sphingobacterium, Kocuria (2 %) and Aurantimonas, Citricoccus, Cellulosimicrobium, Brevundimonas, Desemzia, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Paracoccus, Psychrobacter, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus, Sinobaca, Stenotrophomonas, Sanguibacter, Vibrio (1 %). The representative isolates from each cluster were screened for their plant growth promoting characteristics at low temperature (5-15 °C). Variations were observed among strains for production of ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore, solubilisation of phosphate, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity and biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Cold adapted microbes may have application as inoculants and biocontrol agents in crops growing at high altitudes under cold climate condition. PMID:25371316

  10. Biodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in a packed-bed biofilm reactor equipped with an internal net draft tube riser for aeration and liquid circulation.

    PubMed

    Jesús, A Gómez-De; Romano-Baez, F J; Leyva-Amezcua, L; Juárez-Ramírez, C; Ruiz-Ordaz, N; Galíndez-Mayer, J

    2009-01-30

    For the aerobic biodegradation of the fungicide and defoliant 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a bench-scale packed-bed bioreactor equipped with a net draft tube riser for liquid circulation and oxygenation (PB-ALR) was constructed. To obtain a high packed-bed volume relative to the whole bioreactor volume, a high A(D)/A(R) ratio was used. Reactor's downcomer was packed with a porous support of volcanic stone fragments. PB-ALR hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer behavior was evaluated and compared to the observed behavior of the unpacked reactor operating as an internal airlift reactor (ALR). Overall gas holdup values epsilon(G), and zonal oxygen mass transfer coefficients determined at various airflow rates in the PB-ALR, were higher than those obtained with the ALR. When comparing mixing time values obtained in both cases, a slight increment in mixing time was observed when reactor was operated as a PB-ALR. By using a mixed microbial community, the biofilm reactor was used to evaluate the aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP. Three bacterial strains identified as Burkholderia sp., Burkholderia kururiensis and Stenotrophomonas sp. constituted the microbial consortium able to cometabolically degrade the 2,4,6-TCP, using phenol as primary substrate. This consortium removed 100% of phenol and near 99% of 2,4,6-TCP. Mineralization and dehalogenation of 2,4,6-TCP was evidenced by high COD removal efficiencies ( approximately 95%), and by the stoichiometric release of chloride ions from the halogenated compound ( approximately 80%). Finally, it was observed that the microbial consortium was also capable to metabolize 2,4,6-TCP without phenol as primary substrate, with high removal efficiencies (near 100% for 2,4,6-TCP, 92% for COD and 88% for chloride ions). PMID:18539387

  11. Could petroleum biodegradation be a joint achievement of aerobic and anaerobic microrganisms in deep sea reservoirs?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Several studies suggest that petroleum biodegradation can be achieved by either aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms, depending on oxygen input or other electron acceptors and appropriate nutrients. Evidence from in vitro experiments with samples of petroleum formation water and oils from Pampo Field indicate that petroleum biodegradation is more likely to be a joint achievement of both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial consortium, refining our previous observations of aerobic degradation. The aerobic consortium depleted, in decreasing order, hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes while the anaerobic consortium depleted hydrocarbons > steranes > hopanes > tricyclic terpanes. The oxygen content of the mixed consortia was measured from time to time revealing alternating periods of microaerobicity (O2 ~0.8 mg.L-1) and of aerobicity (O2~6.0 mg.L-1). In this experiment, the petroleum biodegradation changed from time to time, alternating periods of biodegradation similar to the aerobic process and periods of biodegradation similar to the anaerobic process. The consortia showed preferences for metabolizing hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes during a 90-day period, after which this trend changed and steranes were more biodegraded than hopanes. The analysis of aerobic oil degrading microbiota by the 16S rRNA gene clone library detected the presence of Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Mesorhizobium and Achromobacter, and the analysis of the anaerobic oil degrading microbiota using the same technique detected the presence of Bacillus and Acinetobacter (facultative strains). In the mixed consortia Stenotrophomonas, Brevibacterium, Bacillus, Rhizobium, Achromobacter and 5% uncultured bacteria were detected. This is certainly a new contribution to the study of reservoir biodegradation processes, combining two of the more important accepted hypotheses. PMID:22196374

  12. Carbapenemase Producing Bacteria in the Food Supply Escaping Detection

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Beverly J.; Rubin, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenem antimicrobials are critically important to human health and they are often the only remaining effective antibiotics for treating serious infections. Resistance to these drugs mediated by acquired carbapenemase enzymes is increasingly encountered in gram-negative bacteria and is considered a public health emergency. Animal origin food products are recognized as a potential source of resistant organisms, although carbapenem resistance has only recently been reported. In western countries there are active resistance surveillance programs targeting food animals and retail meat products. These programs primarily target beef, pork and poultry and focus exclusively on E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter spp. and Enterococcus spp. This global surveillance strategy does not capture the diversity of foods available nor does it address the presence of resistance gene-bearing mobile genetic elements in non-pathogenic bacterial taxa. To address this gap, a total of 121 seafood products originating in Asia purchased from retail groceries in Canada were tested. Samples were processed using a taxa-independent method for the selective isolation of carbapenem resistant organisms. Isolates were characterized by phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR and DNA sequencing. Carbapenemase producing bacteria, all blaOXA-48, were isolated from 4 (3.3%) of the samples tested. Positive samples originated from China (n=2) and Korea (n=2) and included squid, sea squirt, clams and seafood medley. Carbapenemase producing organisms found include Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Myroides species. These findings suggest that non-pathogenic bacteria, excluded from resistance surveillance programs, in niche market meats may serve as a reservoir of carbapenemase genes in the food supply. PMID:25966303

  13. Selective pressure of antibiotics on ARGs and bacterial communities in manure-polluted freshwater-sediment microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Wenguang; Sun, Yongxue; Ding, Xueyao; Wang, Mianzhi; Zeng, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate selective pressure of antibiotics on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and bacterial communities in manure-polluted aquatic environment. Three treatment groups were set up in freshwater-sediment microcosms: tetracyclines group, sulfonamides group and fluoroquinolones group. Sediment and water samples were collected on day 14 after treatment. Antibiotic concentrations, ARGs abundances and bacterial community composition were analyzed. Antibiotic concentrations were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. ARGs abundances were quantified by real time quantitative PCR. Bacterial community composition was analyzed based on amplicon sequencing. Of the three classes of antibiotics analyzed in the treatment groups, accumulation amounts were tetracyclines> fluoroquinolone> sulfonamides in the sediment samples, while they were sulfonamides> fluoroquinolone> tetracyclines in the water samples. In the treatment groups, the relative abundances of some tet resistance genes [tet(W) and tet(X)] and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes [oqx(B) and aac(6?)-Ib] in sediment samples were significantly higher than those in the paired water samples. Tetracyclines significantly selected the bacterial classes including Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and the genera including Salmonella, Escherichia/Shigella, Clostridium, Stenotrophomonas in sediment samples. The significant selection on bacterial communities posed by sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones was also observed. The results indicated that sediment may supply an ideal setting for maintenance and persistence of tet resistance genes [tet(W) and tet(X)] and PMQR genes [oqx(B) and aac(6?)-Ib] under antibiotic pollution. The results also highlighted that antibiotics significantly selected specific bacterial communities including the taxa associated with opportunistic pathogens. PMID:25814986

  14. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from the leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Costa, Leonardo Emanuel; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; de Moraes, Celia Alencar; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The common bean is one of the most important legumes in the human diet, but little is known about the endophytic bacteria associated with the leaves of this plant. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic bacteria of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves from three different cultivars (Vermelhinho, Talismã, and Ouro Negro) grown under the same field conditions. The density of endophytic populations varied from 4.5 x 102 to 2.8 x 103 CFU g-1 of fresh weight. Of the 158 total isolates, 36.7% belonged to the Proteobacteria, 32.9% to Firmicutes, 29.7% to Actinobacteria, and 0.6% to Bacteroidetes. The three P. vulgaris cultivars showed class distribution differences among Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacilli. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, 23 different genera were isolated comprising bacteria commonly associated with soil and plants. The genera Bacillus, Delftia, Methylobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas were isolated from all three cultivars. To access and compare the community structure, diversity indices were calculated. The isolates from the Talismã cultivar were less diverse than the isolates derived from the other two cultivars. The results of this work indicate that the cultivar of the plant may contribute to the structure of the endophytic community associated with the common bean. This is the first report of endophytic bacteria from the leaves of P. vulgaris cultivars. Future studies will determine the potential application of these isolates in biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production for biotechnology. PMID:24031988

  15. Molecular and lipid biomarker analysis of a gypsum-hosted endoevaporitic microbial community.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, L L; Turk-Kubo, K A; N Parenteau, M; Green, S J; Kubo, M D Y; Vogel, M; Summons, R E; Des Marais, D J

    2014-01-01

    Modern evaporitic microbial ecosystems are important analogs for understanding the record of earliest life on Earth. Although mineral-depositing shallow-marine environments were prevalent during the Precambrian, few such environments are now available today for study. We investigated the molecular and lipid biomarker composition of an endoevaporitic gypsarenite microbial mat community in Guerrero Negro, Mexico. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based phylogenetic analyses of this mat corroborate prior observations indicating that characteristic layered microbial communities colonize gypsum deposits world-wide despite considerable textural and morphological variability. Membrane fatty acid analysis of the surface tan/orange and lower green mat crust layers indicated cell densities of 1.6 × 10(9) and 4.2 × 10(9)  cells cm(-3) , respectively. Several biomarker fatty acids, ?7,10-hexadecadienoic, iso-heptadecenoic, 10-methylhexadecanoic, and a ?12-methyloctadecenoic, correlated well with distributions of Euhalothece, Stenotrophomonas, Desulfohalobium, and Rhodobacterales, respectively, revealed by the phylogenetic analyses. Chlorophyll (Chl) a and cyanobacterial phylotypes were present at all depths in the mat. Bacteriochlorophyl (Bchl) a and Bchl c were first detected in the oxic-anoxic transition zone and increased with depth. A series of monomethylalkanes (MMA), 8-methylhexadecane, 8-methylheptadecane, and 9-methyloctadecane were present in the surface crust but increased in abundance in the lower anoxic layers. The MMA structures are similar to those identified previously in cultures of the marine Chloroflexus-like organism 'Candidatus Chlorothrix halophila' gen. nov., sp. nov., and may represent the Bchl c community. Novel 3-methylhopanoids were identified in cultures of marine purple non-sulfur bacteria and serve as a probable biomarker for this group in the lower anoxic purple and olive-black layers. Together microbial culture and environmental analyses support novel sources for lipid biomarkers in gypsum crust mats. PMID:24325308

  16. Phylogenetic diversity of alkaline protease-producing psychrotrophic bacteria from glacier and cold environments of Lahaul and Spiti, India.

    PubMed

    Salwan, Richa; Gulati, Arvind; Kasana, Ramesh Chand

    2010-04-01

    The diversity of proteolytic bacteria associated with a glacier and cold environment soils from three different locations in Lahaul and Spiti, India was investigated. Two hundred seventeen bacterial strains were isolated in pure culture. Subsequently these strains were screened for protease-production and one hundred nine showed protease production. From these protease producing psychrotrophic bacteria twenty showing high enzyme production at low temperature and alkaline pH were characterized and identified. The 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis revealed that none of the strains showed 100% identity with the validly published species of various genera. Isolates belonged to three classes i.e. Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, and were affiliated with the genera Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Mycoplana, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Serratia and Stenotrophomonas. The optimal growth temperature ranged from 10 to 28 degrees C and interestingly, high levels of enzyme productions were measured at growth temperatures between 15 and 25 degrees C, for most of the isolates in plate assay. Most of the isolates were found to produce at least two other hydrolytic enzymes along with protease. The crude protease from one strain was active over broad range of temperature and pH with optima at 30 degrees C and 7.5, respectively. The protease activity was enhanced by Ca(2+), dithiothreitol and beta-mercaptoethanol. While Na(+), Hg(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid did not showed much effect on protease activity. The results enrich our knowledge on the psychrotrophic bacterial diversity and biogeographic distribution of enzyme producing bacteria in western Himalaya. PMID:20082368

  17. Characterization of the bacterial biodiversity in Pico cheese (an artisanal Azorean food).

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Cristina; Câmara, Sandra; Dapkevicius, Maria de Lurdes N Enes; Vinuesa, Pablo; da Silva, Célia Costa Gomes; Malcata, F Xavier; Rego, Oldemiro A

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the first study on the bacterial communities in Pico cheese, a traditional cheese of the Azores (Portugal), made from raw cow's milk. Pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rDNA and Operational Taxonomic Unit-based (OTU-based) analysis were applied to obtain an overall idea of the microbiota in Pico cheese and to elucidate possible differences between cheese-makers (A, B and C) and maturation times. Pyrosequencing revealed a high bacterial diversity in Pico cheese. Four phyla (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes) and 54 genera were identified. The predominant genus was Lactococcus (77% of the sequences). Sequences belonging to major cheese-borne pathogens were not found. Staphylococcus accounted for 0.5% of the sequences. Significant differences in bacterial community composition were observed between cheese-maker B and the other two units that participated in the study. However, OTU analysis identified a set of taxa (Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Acinetobacter, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, Rothia, Pantoea and unclassified genera belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family) that would represent the core components of artisanal Pico cheese microbiota. A diverse bacterial community was present at early maturation, with an increase in the number of phylotypes up to 2 weeks, followed by a decrease at the end of ripening. The most remarkable trend in abundance patterns throughout ripening was an increase in the number of sequences belonging to the Lactobacillus genus, with a concomitant decrease in Acinetobacter, and Stenotrophomonas. Microbial rank abundance curves showed that Pico cheese's bacterial communities are characterized by a few dominant taxa and many low-abundance, highly diverse taxa that integrate the so-called "rare biosphere". PMID:25440551

  18. Carbapenemase producing bacteria in the food supply escaping detection.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Beverly J; Rubin, Joseph E

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenem antimicrobials are critically important to human health and they are often the only remaining effective antibiotics for treating serious infections. Resistance to these drugs mediated by acquired carbapenemase enzymes is increasingly encountered in gram-negative bacteria and is considered a public health emergency. Animal origin food products are recognized as a potential source of resistant organisms, although carbapenem resistance has only recently been reported. In western countries there are active resistance surveillance programs targeting food animals and retail meat products. These programs primarily target beef, pork and poultry and focus exclusively on E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter spp. and Enterococcus spp. This global surveillance strategy does not capture the diversity of foods available nor does it address the presence of resistance gene-bearing mobile genetic elements in non-pathogenic bacterial taxa. To address this gap, a total of 121 seafood products originating in Asia purchased from retail groceries in Canada were tested. Samples were processed using a taxa-independent method for the selective isolation of carbapenem resistant organisms. Isolates were characterized by phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR and DNA sequencing. Carbapenemase producing bacteria, all blaOXA-48, were isolated from 4 (3.3%) of the samples tested. Positive samples originated from China (n=2) and Korea (n=2) and included squid, sea squirt, clams and seafood medley. Carbapenemase producing organisms found include Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Myroides species. These findings suggest that non-pathogenic bacteria, excluded from resistance surveillance programs, in niche market meats may serve as a reservoir of carbapenemase genes in the food supply. PMID:25966303

  19. Denitrification of industrial wastewater: Influence of glycerol addition on metabolic activity and community shifts in a microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Cyplik, Pawe?; Juzwa, Wojciech; Marecik, Roman; Powierska-Czarny, Jolanta; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Czarny, Jakub; Dro?d?y?ska, Agnieszka; Chrzanowski, Lukasz

    2013-11-01

    The wastewater originating from explosives manufacturing plants are characterized by a high concentration of nitrates (3200mgNL(-1)), sulfates (1470mgL(-1)) and low pH (1.5) as well as the presence of organic compounds, such as nitroglycerin (1.9mgL(-1)) and nitroglycol (4.8mgL(-1)). The application of glycerol (C/N=3) at such a high concentration enabled complete removal of nitrates and did not cause the anaerobic glycerol metabolic pathway of the DNC4 consortium to activate, as confirmed by the low concentrations of 1,3-propanediol (0.16gL(-1)) and acetic acid (0.11gL(-1)) in the wastewater. Increasing the glycerol content (C/N=5) contributed to a notable increase in the concentration of both compounds: 1.12gL(-1) for acetic acid and 1.82 for 1,3-PD (1,3-propanediol). The nitrate reduction rate was at 44mgNg(-1) biomass d(-1). In order to assess the metabolic activity of the microorganisms, a method to determine the redox potential was employed. It was established, that the microorganisms can be divided into four groups, based on the determined denitrification efficiency and zero-order nitrate removal constants. The first group, involving Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas stutzeri, accounts for microorganisms capable of the most rapid denitrification, the second involves rapid denitrifying microbes (Citrobacter freundi and Pseudomonas alcaligenes), the third group are microorganisms exhibiting moderate denitrification ability: Achrobactrum xylosoxidans, Ochrobactrum intermedium and Stenotrophomonas maltophila, while the last group consists of slow denitrifying bacteria: Rodococcus rubber and Sphignobacterium multivorum. PMID:24161581

  20. Pulmonary clearance and inflammatory response in C3H/HeJ mice after intranasal exposure to Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed

    George, S E; Kohan, M J; Gilmour, M I; Taylor, M S; Brooks, H G; Creason, J P; Claxton, L D

    1993-11-01

    The environmental release of engineered microorganisms has caused health and environmental concerns. In this study, an animal model was used to examine health effects following pulmonary exposure to environmental and clinical isolates. In order to rule out the possibility that an adverse response was caused by endotoxin, 50% lethal doses (LD50) were determined, when possible, with endotoxin-sensitive (C3HeB/FeJ) and endotoxin-resistant (C3H/HeJ) mice by using both environmental isolates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa BC16, BC17, BC18, and AC869 and Pseudomonas maltophilia BC6) and clinical isolates (P. aeruginosa PAO1 and DG1). The LD50 of strains AC869, DG1, and PAO1 are 1.05 x 10(7), 6.56 x 10(6), and 1.02 x 10(7) CFU, respectively, in C3HeB/FeJ mice and 1.05 x 10(7), 1.00 x 10(7), and 2.75 x 10(6) CFU, respectively, in C3H/HeJ mice. Strains BC17 and BC18 were not lethal to the animals. On the basis of the LD50 data, an appropriate sublethal dose (approximately 10(6) CFU) was selected. Animals were challenged intranasally with microorganisms, and clearance from the lungs and nasal cavity was determined. Strains BC17, BC18, and AC869 were not detected in lungs or nasal washes 14 days following treatment. Strains BC6, BC16, and DG1 were recovered from the nasal cavities at the end of the experiment. Only strain PAO1 was detected in lungs and in nasal cavities 14 days after treatment. At selected intervals following treatment, the percentages of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage samples were determined. P. aeruginosa AC869, PAO1, and DG1 elicited a relatively strong inflammatory response which was indirectly related to lung clearance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8285667

  1. Pulmonary clearance and inflammatory response in C3H/HeJ mice after intranasal exposure to Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed Central

    George, S E; Kohan, M J; Gilmour, M I; Taylor, M S; Brooks, H G; Creason, J P; Claxton, L D

    1993-01-01

    The environmental release of engineered microorganisms has caused health and environmental concerns. In this study, an animal model was used to examine health effects following pulmonary exposure to environmental and clinical isolates. In order to rule out the possibility that an adverse response was caused by endotoxin, 50% lethal doses (LD50) were determined, when possible, with endotoxin-sensitive (C3HeB/FeJ) and endotoxin-resistant (C3H/HeJ) mice by using both environmental isolates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa BC16, BC17, BC18, and AC869 and Pseudomonas maltophilia BC6) and clinical isolates (P. aeruginosa PAO1 and DG1). The LD50 of strains AC869, DG1, and PAO1 are 1.05 x 10(7), 6.56 x 10(6), and 1.02 x 10(7) CFU, respectively, in C3HeB/FeJ mice and 1.05 x 10(7), 1.00 x 10(7), and 2.75 x 10(6) CFU, respectively, in C3H/HeJ mice. Strains BC17 and BC18 were not lethal to the animals. On the basis of the LD50 data, an appropriate sublethal dose (approximately 10(6) CFU) was selected. Animals were challenged intranasally with microorganisms, and clearance from the lungs and nasal cavity was determined. Strains BC17, BC18, and AC869 were not detected in lungs or nasal washes 14 days following treatment. Strains BC6, BC16, and DG1 were recovered from the nasal cavities at the end of the experiment. Only strain PAO1 was detected in lungs and in nasal cavities 14 days after treatment. At selected intervals following treatment, the percentages of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage samples were determined. P. aeruginosa AC869, PAO1, and DG1 elicited a relatively strong inflammatory response which was indirectly related to lung clearance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8285667

  2. Biochemical properties of a carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase from Enterobacter cloacae and cloning of the gene into Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Nordmann, P; Mariotte, S; Naas, T; Labia, R; Nicolas, M H

    1993-01-01

    A clinical isolate of Enterobacter cloacae, strain NOR-1, exhibited resistance to imipenem and remained susceptible to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. Clavulanic acid partially restored the susceptibility of the strain to imipenem. Two beta-lactamases with isoelectric points (pI) of 6.9 and > 9.2 were detected in strain E. cloacae NOR-1; the higher pI corresponded to AmpC cephalosporinase. Plasmid DNA was not detected in E. cloacae NOR-1 and imipenem resistance could not be transferred into Escherichia coli JM109. The carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase gene was cloned into plasmid pACYC184. One recombinant plasmid, pPTN1, harbored a 5.3-kb Sau3A fragment from E. cloacae NOR-1 expressing the carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase. This enzyme (pI 6.9) hydrolyzed ampicillin, cephalothin, and imipenem more rapidly than it did meropenem and aztreonam, but it hydrolyzed extended-spectrum cephalosporins only weakly and did not hydrolyze cefoxitin. Hydrolytic activity was partially inhibited by clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam, was nonsusceptible to chelating agents such as EDTA and 1,10-o-phenanthroline, and was independent of the presence of ZnCl2. Its relative molecular mass was 30,000 Da. Induction experiments concluded that the carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase biosynthesis was inducible by cefoxitin and imipenem. Subcloning experiments with HindIII partial digests of pPTN1 resulted in a recombinant plasmid, designated pPTN2, which contained a 1.3-kb insert from pPTN1 and which conferred resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Hybridization studies performed with a 1.2-kb HindIII fragment from pPtN2 failed to determine any homology with ampC of E. cloacae, with other known beta-lactamase genes commonly found in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (bla(TEM-1)) and bla(SHV-3) derivatives), and with previously described carbapenemase genes such as those from Xanthomonas maltophilia, Bacillus cereus, Bacteroides fragilis (cfiA), and Aeromonas hydrophila (cphA). This work describing the biochemical properties of a novel chromosome-encoded beta-lactamase from E. cloacae indicates that this enzyme differs from all the previously described carbapenemases. This is the first reported cloning of a carbapenem-hydrolyzing gene from a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Images PMID:8517720

  3. Isolation and characterization of novel bacterial taxa from extreme alkali-saline soil.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Takano, Tetsuo; Liu, Shenkui

    2012-05-01

    In northeast China there are large areas of nearly bare soda saline-alkali soil, in which plant survival is exteremely difficult because the land has a pH greater than 10.5. In order to obtain resistant microbial resources able to grow in such conditions, we analyzed environmental microbial samples from this extreme saline-alkali soil region. Through selective culture conditions, 8 bacterial strains were isolated from medium with no less than 1.5 M NaCl, 12 were isolated in the medium with a pH value of no less than 11.0, and 8 were isolated in the medium with of no less than 200 mM Na(2)CO(3). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis 20 novel strains of bacteria were identified and classified into four groups: 8 group I strains belong to the genus Bacillus; three group II belong to genus Nesterenkonia (2 strains) and genus Zhihengliuella (1 strain); eight group III strains belong to the genera Halomonas (6), Stenotrophomonas (1) and Alkalimonas (1); one group IV strain belongs to genus Litoribacter. These four groups belong to the phylum Firmicutes, phylum Actinobacteria, phylum Gamma-Proteobacteria and phylum Bacteroidetes, respectively. The sequence homology of 16S rRNA in strains ANESC-S, H.sp.C4 and H.sp.C6 with that of known strains was 93.2, 96.5 and 96.5%, respectively. Based on the 97.0% identity cutoff commonly used to discriminate bacterial species, our data suggest that H. sp.C4 and H.sp.C6 may be new species, and ANESC-S may be belong to a new genus of classified into order Cytophagales. The morphological characteristics by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that, in addition to the coccal N.sp.N3, the majority (19) of the isolates are bacilli of various lengths. In culture the colonies appeared red, orange, yellow, light yellow, and milk-white, with milk-white being predominant. Based on the resistance to NaCl and pH, the 20 novel strains were classified into obligate alkaliphilic and halophilic bacteria, obligate alkaliphilic halotolerant bacteria, and facultative alkalophilic salt-tolerant bacteria. This is the first study reporting the isolation and characterization of bacterial resources from extreme saline-alkali soils from northeast China. PMID:22806037

  4. The Microbial Colonization Profile of Respiratory Devices and the Significance of the Role of Disinfection: A Blinded Study

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Savita; Sahasrabudhe, Tushar; Kalley, Vipul; Gandham, Nageswari

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Approximately 10-40% of all the nosocomial infections are pulmonary, which lead to grave complications. Elderly, debilitated, or critically ill patients are at a high risk. The respiratory care equipments which include ventilators, humidifiers, nebulizers may have been identified as the potential vehicles which cause major nosocomial infections if they are colonized by fungi or bacteria. Aim: To determine the rate of colonization by bacteria and fungi of the oxygen humidifier chambers of the portable cylinders and central lines at our hospital. The Hudson's chambers of nebulizers were also studied for the same. Methods: Swab samples were obtained from the equipments by using sterile cotton swabs on a tuesday, as these chambers were usually cleaned on every Saturday. Spot samples were taken from the ICUs, wards, the casualty and OPDs on a single day. Air samples were also obtained on the same day to determine whether the fungal spore load in the inhaled room air was normal or high. We performed a disinfection with 70% ethanol after cleaning these devices. Results: 53/70 (75.71%) samples showed fungal growth; out of which, 23/33 (69.70%) were from the ICU, 24/30(80%) were from the wards and 6/7 (85.71%) were from the OPDs. 23/30 (76.66%) swabs from the central line humidifiers, 18/23(78.26%) swabs from the O2 cylinder humidifiers and 8/17 (47.5%) swabs from the nebulizers grew bacteria. Of the total 61(87.14%) bacterial isolates, 42(68.85%) were gram negative bacteria and 19(31.14%) were gram positive cocci. Out of the 42 gram negative bacteria, 17 were multi-drug resistant like ESBL producers ie. Pseudomonas spp. (6) Acinetobacter spp.(4), Klebseilla pneumoniae (4), E.coli (2) and Stenotrophomonas maltophila (1). Our findings (before disinfection) showed that the colonization rate for fungi was 75% and that for bacteria, it was 87%. After the 70% ethanol disinfection and strict compliance with the hand hygiene, the colonization rates reduced significantly. The fungal colonization rate was reduced and only 15% fungi grew after the disinfection, while only 12% bacterial colonization rate was found. Conclusion: This study indicates a potential in-hospital source of allergens and infections. The oxygen and nebulizer chambers need to be cleaned more frequently with disinfectants, to control the possible nosocomial infections. PMID:23905094

  5. Bacterial communities and enzyme activities of PAHs polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, V; Cavalca, L; Rao, M A; Nocerino, G; Bernasconi, S; Dell'Amico, E; Colombo, M; Gianfreda, L

    2004-11-01

    Three soils (i.e. a Belgian soil, B-BT, a German soil, G, and an Italian agricultural soil, I-BT) with different properties and hydrocarbon-pollution history with regard to their potential to degrade phenanthrene were investigated. A chemical and microbiological evaluation of soils was done using measurements of routine chemical properties, bacterial counts and several enzyme activities. The three soils showed different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), being their contamination strictly associated to their pollution history. High values of enzyme activities and culturable heterotrophic bacteria were detected in the soil with no or negligible presence of organic pollutants. Genetic diversity of soil samples and enrichment cultures was measured as bands on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified 16S rDNA sequences from the soil and enrichment community DNAs. When analysed by Shannon index (H'), the highest genetic biodiversity (H'=2.87) was found in the Belgian soil B-BT with a medium-term exposition to PAHs and the poorest biodiversity (H'=0.85) in the German soil with a long-term exposition to alkanes and PAHs and where absence, or lower levels of enzyme activities were measured. For the Italian agricultural soil I-BT, containing negligible amounts of organic pollutants but the highest Cu content, a Shannon index=2.13 was found. The enrichment of four mixed cultures capable of degrading solid phenanthrene in batch liquid systems was also studied. Phenanthrene degradation rates in batch systems were culture-dependent, and simple (one-slope) and complex (two-slope) kinetic behaviours were observed. The presence of common bands of microbial species in the cultures and in the native soil DNA indicated that those strains could be potential in situ phenanthrene degraders. Consistent with this assumption are the decrease of PAH and phenanthrene contents of Belgian soil B-BT and the isolation of phenanthrene-degrading bacteria. From the fastest phenanthrene-degrading culture C(B-BT), representative strains were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans (100%), Methylobacterium sp. (99%), Rhizobium galegae (99%), Rhodococcus aetherovorans (100%), Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila (100%), Alcaligenes sp. (99%) and Aquamicrobium defluvium (100%). DGGE-profiles of culture C(B-BT) showed bands attributable to Rhodococcus, Achromobacter, Methylobacterium rhizobium, Alcaligenes and Aquamicrobium. The isolation of Rhodococcus aetherovorans and Methylobacterium sp. can be consistent with the hypothesis that different phenanthrene-degrading strategies, cell surface properties, or the presence of xenobiotic-specific membrane carriers could play a role in the uptake/degradation of solid phenanthrene. PMID:15331267

  6. Delving into the Deep Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, S. L.; Sogin, M. L.; Boetius, A.; Briggs, B. R.; Brazelton, W. J.; D'Hondt, S. L.; Edwards, K. J.; Fisk, M. R.; Gaidos, E.; Gralnick, J.; Hinrichs, K.; Lazar, C.; Lavalleur, H.; Lever, M. A.; Marteinsson, V.; Moser, D. P.; Orcutt, B.; Pedersen, K.; Popa, R.; Ramette, A.; Schrenk, M. O.; Sylvan, J. B.; Smith, A. R.; Teske, A.; Walsh, E. A.; Colwell, F. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Census of Deep Life organized an international survey of microbial community diversity in terrestrial and marine deep subsurface environments. Habitats included subsurface continental fractured rock aquifers, volcanic and metamorphic subseafloor sedimentary units from the open ocean, subsurface oxic and anoxic sediments and underlying basaltic oceanic crust, and their overlying water columns. Our survey employed high-throughput pyrosequencing of the hypervariable V4-V6 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and archaea. We detected 1292 bacterial genera representing 40 phyla, and 99 archaeal genera from 30 phyla. Of these, a core group of thirteen bacterial genera occurred in every environment. A genus of the South African Goldmine Group (Euryarchaeota) was always present whenever archaea were detected. Members of the rare biosphere in one system often represented highly abundant taxa in other environments. Dispersal could account for this observation but mechanisms of transport remain elusive. Ralstonia (Betaproteobacteria) represented highly abundant taxa in marine communities and terrestrial rock, but generally low abundance organisms in groundwater. Some of these taxa could represent sample contamination, and their extensive distribution in several systems requires further assessment. An unknown Sphingobacteriales (Bacteroidetes) genus, Stenotrophomonas (Gammaproteobacteria), Acidovorax and Aquabacterium (both Betaproteobacteria), a Chlorobiales genus, and a TM7 genus were in the core group as well but more prevalent in terrestrial environments. Similarly, Bacillus (Firmicutes), a new cyanobacterial genus, Bradyrhizobium and Sphingomonas (both Alphaproteobacteria), a novel Acidobacteriaceae genus, and Variovorax (Betaproteobacteria) frequently occurred in marine systems but represented low abundance taxa in other environments. Communities tended to cluster by biome and material, and many genera were unique to systems. For example, certain Rhizobiales (Alphaproteobacteria) only occurred in groundwater, and select Firmicutes and actinobacterial taxa were specific to rock environments. We continue to investigate the ecological and physiological context of these organisms. By combining deep sequencing of microbial communities and geochemical and physical evaluations of their environments, we bring to light the diversity and scope of the deep biosphere and insight into the factors that determine the nature of these communities.

  7. High-throughput sequencing analysis of the bacteria in the dust storm which passed over Canberra, Australia on 22-23 September 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munday, Chris; De Deckker, Patrick; Tapper, Nigel; Allison, Gwen

    2014-05-01

    Following a prolonged drought in Australia in the first decade of the 21st century, several dust storms affected the heavily populated East coast of Australia. The largest such storm occurred on 22-23 September 2009 and had a front of an estimated 3000km. A 24hr average PM10 concentration of over 2,000?g/m3 was recorded in several locations and an hourly peak of over 15,000?g/m3 was recorded (Leys et al. 2011). Over two time periods duplicate aerosol samples were collected on 47mm diameter cellulose nitrate membranes at a location removed from anthropogenic influences. One set of samples was collected in the afternoon the dust event started and another was collected overnight. Additionally, overnight rainfall was collected in a sterile bottle.DNA was directly extracted one membrane from each time point for molecular cloning and high throughput sequencing, while the other was cultivated on Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA). High throughput sequencing was performed using the 454 Titanium platform. From the three samples, 19,945 curated sequences were obtained representing 942 OTUS, with the three samples approximately equal in number. Unclassified Rhizobiales and Stenotrophomonas were the most abundant groups which could be attributed names. A total of 942 OTUs were identified (cutoff = 0.03), and despite the temporal relation of the samples, only eleven were found in all three samples, indicating that the dust storm evolved in composition as it passed over the region. Approximately 800 and 500 CFU/m3 were found in the two cultivated samples, tenfold more than was collected from previous dust events (Lim et al, 2011). Identification of cultivars revealed a dominance of the gram positive Firmicutes phylum, while the clone library showed a more even distribution of taxa, with Actinobacteria the most common and Firmicutes comprising less than 10% of sequences. Collectively, the analyses indicate that the concentration of cultivable organisms during the dust storm dramatically relative to calm conditions. A diverse and variable population of microorganisms were present reflecting the vast source and dynamic nature of the storm.

  8. Seasonal mercury transformation and surficial sediment detoxification by bacteria of Marano and Grado lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide; Fani, Renato; Maida, Isabel; Horvat, Milena; Fajon, Vesna; Zizek, Suzana; Hines, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Marano and Grado lagoons are polluted by mercury from the Isonzo River and a chlor-alkali plant, yet despite this contamination, clam cultivation is one of the main activities in the region. Four stations (MA, MB, MC and GD) were chosen for clam seeding and surficial sediments were monitored in autumn, winter and summer to determine the Hg detoxifying role of bacteria. Biotransformation of Hg species in surficial sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons was investigated while taking into consideration the speciation of organic matter in the biochemical classes of PRT (proteins), CHO (carbohydrates) and LIP (lipids), water-washed cations and anions, bacterial biomass, Hg-resistant bacteria, some specific microbial activities such as sulfate reduction rates, Hg methylation rates, Hg-demethylation rates, and enzymatic ionic Hg reduction. MeHg in sediments was well correlated with PRT content, whereas total Hg in sediments correlated with numbers of Hg-resistant bacteria. Correlations of the latter with Hg-demethylation rates in autumn and winter suggested a direct role Hg-resistant bacteria in Hg detoxification by producing elemental Hg (Hg0) from ionic Hg and probably also from MeHg. MeHg-demethylation rates were ˜10 times higher than Hg methylation rates, were highest in summer and correlated with high sulfate reduction rates indicating that MeHg was probably degraded in summer by sulfate-reducing bacteria via an oxidative pathway. During the summer period, aerobic heterotrophic Hg-resistant bacteria decreased to <2% compared to 53% in winter. Four Hg-resistant bacterial strains were isolated, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus and Bacillus) and two Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas). Two were able to produce Hg0, but just one contained a merA gene; while other two strains did not produce Hg0 even though they were able to grow at 5 ?g ml of HgCl2. Lagoon sediments support a strong sulfur cycle in summer that controls Hg methylation and demethylation. However, during winter, Hg-resistant bacteria that are capable of degrading MeHg via the mer-catalyzed reductive pathway increase in importance.