These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

N-demethylation of neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid by bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia CGMCC 1.1788  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous study found that Stenotrophomonas maltophilia CGMCC 1.1788 could hydroxylate imidacloprid (IMI) to 5-hydroxy IMI. Here we first report that S. maltophilia CGMCC 1.1788 can demethylate acetamiprid (AAP) to form IM 2-1 that was characterized by HPLC-MS\\/MS and NMR. IM 2-1 retained\\u000a only 10.5% contact activity and 13.1% oral activity of AAP against horsebean aphid. Time course of biotransformation

Ting Chen; Yi-Jun Dai; Juan-Fang Ding; Sheng Yuan; Jue-Ping Ni

2008-01-01

2

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in Lower Respiratory Tract Infections  

PubMed Central

Background: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection is gaining importance as an important cause of nosocomial pneumonia due to its characteristic inherent resistance to many broad- spectrum antibiotics. In this study we evaluated the demographic, clinical and microbiological profile of patients with lower respiratory tract infection due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 33 patients diagnosed with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia lower respiratory tract infections during a period of two years from 2012 - 2013 was done. Results: The predominant predisposing factor observed was mechanical ventilation in 17(51.5%) cases. Fluoroquinolones were the most effective antibiotic (26;78.8%) followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (24;72.7%). Among the 19 patients treated with proper antibiotic, 13(68.4%) showed clinical improvement. Among the 14 patients who did not receive appropriate antibiotic for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection, 8(57.1%) showed improvement. Two (6%) had blood culture positive for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Mortality rate was 21.2%. Conclusion: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is emerging as an important nosocomial pathogen with increased risk in patients on mechanical ventilation in ICU. Empiric therapy should include agents active against S.maltophilia such as newer flouroquinolones and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PMID:25653948

Vishwanath, Shashidhar; Gupta, Ashu

2014-01-01

3

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: an Emerging Global Opportunistic Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Summary: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging multidrug-resistant global opportunistic pathogen. The increasing incidence of nosocomial and community-acquired S. maltophilia infections is of particular concern for immunocompromised individuals, as this bacterial pathogen is associated with a significant fatality/case ratio. S. maltophilia is an environmental bacterium found in aqueous habitats, including plant rhizospheres, animals, foods, and water sources. Infections of S. maltophilia can occur in a range of organs and tissues; the organism is commonly found in respiratory tract infections. This review summarizes the current literature and presents S. maltophilia as an organism with various molecular mechanisms used for colonization and infection. S. maltophilia can be recovered from polymicrobial infections, most notably from the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis patients, as a cocolonizer with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Recent evidence of cell-cell communication between these pathogens has implications for the development of novel pharmacological therapies. Animal models of S. maltophilia infection have provided useful information about the type of host immune response induced by this opportunistic pathogen. Current and emerging treatments for patients infected with S. maltophilia are discussed. PMID:22232370

2012-01-01

4

A new selective differential medium for isolation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new selective differential medium for the isolation ofStenotrophomonas (formerlyXanthomonas) maltophilia was developed. The medium, VIA agar, contained vancomycin, imipenem, and amphotericin B as selective agents and incorporated a mannitol\\/bromothymol blue indicator system. Compared withXanthomonas maltophilia Selective Medium (XMSM), VIA agar was less inhibitory toStenotrophomonas maltophilia and was more selective than XMSM in preventing the growth of unwanted bacteria from

K. G. Kerr; M. Denton; N. Todd; C. M. Corps; P. Kumari; P. M. Hawkey

1996-01-01

5

Antimicrobial therapy for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections.  

PubMed

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen capable of causing respiratory, bloodstream, and urinary infections. The treatment of nosocomial infections by S. maltophilia is difficult, as this pathogen shows high levels of intrinsic or acquired resistance to different antimicrobial agents, drastically reducing the antibiotic options available for treatment. Intrinsic resistance may be due to reduced outer membrane permeability or to the multidrug efflux pumps. However, specific mechanisms of resistance such as aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes or the heterogeneous production of metallo-beta-lactamase have contributed to the multidrug-resistant phenotype displayed by this pathogen. Moreover, the lack of standardized susceptibility tests and their interpretative criteria hinder the choice of an adequate antibiotic treatment. Recommendations for the treatment of infections by S. maltophilia are based on in vitro studies, certain nonrandomized clinical trials, and anecdotal experience. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole remains the drug of choice, although in vitro studies indicate that ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, minocycline, some of the new fluoroquinolones, and tigecycline may be useful agents. This review describes the main resistance mechanisms, the in vitro susceptibility profile, and treatment options for S. maltophilia infections. PMID:17334747

Nicodemo, A C; Paez, J I Garcia

2007-04-01

6

Community-acquired Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a pathogen that causes infections mainly in immunocompromised patients. However, community-acquired S. maltophilia infections have been occasionally reported. The objective of this paper was to collect and evaluate the available published\\u000a data referring to community-acquired S. maltophilia infections. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Scopus for articles providing data for patients with community-acquired\\u000a S. maltophilia infections.

M. E. Falagas; A. C. Kastoris; E. K. Vouloumanou; G. Dimopoulos

2009-01-01

7

A specific polymerase chain reaction method to identify Stenotrophomonas maltophilia  

PubMed Central

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen that is difficult to identify unequivocally using current methods. Accordingly, because the presence of this microorganism in a patient may directly determine the antimicrobial treatment, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR assays targeting 23S rRNA were developed for the specific identification of S. maltophilia. The PCR protocol showed high specificity when tested against other species of Stenotrophomonas, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli and 100 clinical isolates of S. maltophilia previously identified using the Vitek system. PMID:23778655

Gallo, Stephanie Wagner; Ramos, Patrícia Locosque; Ferreira, Carlos Alexandre Sanchez; de Oliveira, Sílvia Dias

2013-01-01

8

Structure of Aminodeoxychorismate Synthase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia  

PubMed Central

PabB, aminodeoxychorismate synthase, is the chorismic acid binding component of the heterodimeric PabAB complex that converts chorismic acid to 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate, a precursor of p-aminobenzoate and folic acid in microorganisms. The second component, a glutamine amidotransferase subunit, PabA, generates ammonia that is channeled to the PabB active site where it attacks the C4 carbon of a chorismate derived intermediate that is covalently bound, through C2, to an active site lysine residue. The presence of a PIKGT motif was, until recently, believed to be discriminate PabB enzymes from the closely related enzyme anthranilate synthase, which typically contains a PIAGT active site motif and does not form a covalent enzyme-substrate intermediate with chorismate. A subclass of PabB enzymes that employ an alternative mechanism requiring two equivalents of ammonia from glutamine and that feature a noncovalently bound 2-amino-2-deoxyisochorismate intermediate was recently identified. Here we report the 2.25 Å crystal structure of PabB from the emerging pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. It is the first reported structure of a PabB that features the PIAGT motif. Surprisingly, no dedicated pabA is evident in the genome of S. maltophilia suggesting that another cellular amidotransferase is able to fulfill the role of PabA in this organism. Evaluation of the ammonia-dependent aminodeoxychorismate synthase activity of S. maltophilia PabB alone revealed that it is virtually inactive. However, in the presence of a heterologous PabA surrogate, typical levels of activity were observed using either glutamine or ammonia as the nitrogen source. Additionally, the structure suggests that a key segment of the polypeptide can remodel itself to interact with a nonspecialized or shared amidotransferase partner in vivo. The structure and mass spectral analysis further suggest that S. maltophilia PabB, like Escherichia coli PabB, binds tryptophan in a vestigial regulatory site. The observation that the binding site is unoccupied in the crystal structure, however, suggests the affinity may be low relative to E. coli PabB. PMID:23230967

Bera, Asim K.; Atanasova, Vesna; Dhanda, Anjali; Ladner, Jane E.; Parsons, James F.

2012-01-01

9

Immunostimulatory Properties of the Emerging Pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a multiple-antibiotic-resistant opportunistic pathogen that is being isolated with increasing frequency from patients with health-care-associated infections and especially from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). While clinicians feel compelled to treat infections involving this organism, its potential for virulence is not well established. We evaluated the immunostimulatory properties and overall virulence of clinical isolates of S. maltophilia using

Valerie J. Waters; Marisa I. Gomez; Grace Soong; Sunil Amin; Robert K. Ernst; Alice Prince

2007-01-01

10

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: emerging disease patterns and challenges for treatment.  

PubMed

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a ubiquitous organism associated with opportunistic infections. In the immunocompromised host, increasing prevalence and severity of illness is observed, particularly opportunistic bloodstream infections and pneumonia syndromes. In this article, the classification and microbiology are outlined, together with clinical presentation, outcomes and management of infections due to S. maltophilia. Although virulence mechanisms and the genetic basis of antibiotic resistance have been identified, a role for standardized and uniform reporting of antibiotic sensitivity is not defined. Infections due to S. maltophilia have traditionally been treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, or fluoroquinolone agents. The use of combination therapies, newer fluoroquinolone agents and tetracycline derivatives is discussed. Finally, measures to prevent transmission of S. maltophilia within healthcare facilities are reported, especially in at-risk patient populations. PMID:21504403

Abbott, Iain J; Slavin, Monica A; Turnidge, John D; Thursky, Karin A; Worth, Leon J

2011-04-01

11

Microbiological and Clinical Aspects of Infection Associated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia  

PubMed Central

The gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is increasingly recognized as an important cause of nosocomial infection. Infection occurs principally, but not exclusively, in debilitated and immunosuppressed individuals. Management of S. maltophilia-associated infection is problematic because many strains of the bacterium manifest resistance to multiple antibiotics. These difficulties are compounded by methodological problems in in vitro susceptibility testing for which there are, as yet, no formal guidelines. Despite its acknowledged importance as a nosocomial pathogen, little is known of the epidemiology of S. maltophilia, and although it is considered an environmental bacterium, its sources and reservoirs are often not readily apparent. Molecular typing systems may contribute to our knowledge of the epidemiology of S. maltophilia infection, thus allowing the development of strategies to interrupt the transmission of the bacterium in the hospital setting. Even less is known of pathogenic mechanisms and putative virulence factors involved in the natural history of S. maltophilia infection and this, coupled with difficulties in distinguishing colonization from true infection, has fostered the view that the bacterium is essentially nonpathogenic. This article aims to review the current taxonomic status of S. maltophilia, and it discusses the laboratory identification of the bacterium. The epidemiology of the organism is considered with particular reference to nosocomial outbreaks, several of which have been investigated by molecular typing techniques. Risk factors for acquisition of the bacterium are also reviewed, and the ever-expanding spectrum of clinical syndromes associated with S. maltophilia is surveyed. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, pitfalls in in vitro susceptibility testing, and therapy of S. maltophilia infections are also discussed. PMID:9457429

Denton, Miles; Kerr, Kevin G.

1998-01-01

12

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia endogenous endophthalmitis: clinical presentation, antibiotic susceptibility, and outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe clinical presentation, antibiotic susceptibility, and outcomes in patients with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia endogenous endophthalmitis. Design Retrospective case series. Participants Four eyes of four patients with S. maltophilia endogenous endophthalmitis. Methods Retrospective chart review of culture-positive S. maltophilia endogenous endophthalmitis treated at L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India, between January 2007 and December 2012, was done. Collected information included demographic, clinical, and microbiology data. Results These four patients with S. maltophilia endogenous endophthalmitis cases accounted for 0.47% (4/836) of total bacterial endophthalmitis cases treated in this period. All patients were from a rural setting and younger than 40 years. Two of the four patients had a history of immune compromise or hospitalization. The visual acuity at presentation was less than 20/320 in all patients. Common presenting features were severe anterior and posterior segment inflammation and hypopyon. All patients underwent vitrectomy with injection of intravitreal antibiotics and dexamethasone. Direct microscopy of the vitreous sample was positive in all cases. All isolates were sensitive to fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol; sensitivity to aminoglycosides and third-generation cephalosporins was highly variable. The final visual acuity was 20/80 or more in three patients. The time to presentation did not seem to influence the visual or anatomical outcome. Conclusion S. maltophilia is a rare cause of endogenous endophthalmitis and usually occurs in young and apparently healthy individuals. Clinical presentation is moderate to severe, and recovery is variable. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol were the most sensitive antibiotics against S. maltophilia in this series of patients. PMID:25170244

Chhablani, Jay; Sudhalkar, Aditya; Jindal, Animesh; Das, Taraprasad; Motukupally, Swapna R; Sharma, Savitri; Pathengay, Avinash; Flynn, Harry W

2014-01-01

13

Polymorphic Mutation Frequencies of Clinical and Environmental Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Populations?  

PubMed Central

Mutation frequencies were studied in 174 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates from clinical and nonclinical environments by detecting spontaneous rifampin-resistant mutants in otherwise-susceptible populations. The distribution of mutation frequencies followed a pattern similar to that found for other bacterial species, with a modal value of 1 × 10?8. Nevertheless, the proportion of isolates showing mutation frequencies below the modal value (hypomutators) was significantly higher for S. maltophilia than those so far reported in other organisms. Low mutation frequencies were particularly frequent among environmental S. maltophilia strains (58.3%), whereas strong mutators were found only among isolates with a clinical origin. These results indicate that clinical environments might select bacterial populations with high mutation frequencies, likely by second-order selection processes. In several of the strong-mutator isolates, functional-complementation assays with a wild-type allele of the mutS gene demonstrated that the mutator phenotype was due to the impairment of MutS activity. In silico analysis of the amino acid changes present in the MutS proteins of these hypermutator strains in comparison with the normomutator isolates suggests that the cause of the defect in MutS might be a H683P amino acid change. PMID:20097818

Turrientes, María Carmen; Baquero, María Rosario; Sánchez, María Blanca; Valdezate, Sylvia; Escudero, Esther; Berg, Gabrielle; Cantón, Rafael; Baquero, Fernando; Galán, Juan Carlos; Martínez, José Luis

2010-01-01

14

Complete Genome Sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Type Strain 810-2 (ATCC 13637)  

PubMed Central

An emerging nosocomial pathogen, Stenotrophomonas maltophila has a high mortality rate in those it infects. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 810-2 (ATCC 13637), the type strain of the species. The 5-Mb (66.1% G+C content) genome has been deposited in NCBI under accession number CP008838. PMID:25258273

Davenport, K. W.; Daligault, H. E.; Minogue, T. D.; Broomall, S. M.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Coyne, S. R.; Gibbons, H. S.; Jaissle, J.; Li, P.-E.; Rosenzweig, C. N.; Scholz, M. B.

2014-01-01

15

Chitinase A from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia shows transglycosylation and antifungal activities.  

PubMed

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia chitinase (StmChiA and StmChiB) genes were cloned and expressed as soluble proteins of 70.5 and 41.6 kDa in Escherichia coli. Ni-NTA affinity purified StmChiA and StmChiB were optimally active at pH 5.0 and 7.0, respectively and exhibited broad range pH activity. StmChiA and StmChiB had an optimum temperature of 40°C and are stable up to 50 and 40°C, respectively. Hydrolytic activity on chitooligosaccharides indicated that StmChiA was an endo-acting enzyme releasing chitobiose and StmChiB was both exo/endo-acting enzyme with the release of GlcNAc as the final product. StmChiA showed higher preference to ?-chitin and exhibited transglycosylation on even chain length tetra- and hexameric substrates. StmChiA, and not StmChiB, was active on chitinous polymers and showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum. PMID:23428818

Suma, Katta; Podile, Appa Rao

2013-04-01

16

Nosocomial pneumonia likely caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in two patients with polymyositis.  

PubMed

We report two cases of polymyositis (PM) complicated with nosocomial pneumonia probably caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, which was resistant to multiple antimicrobials. In the first case, the chest CT findings and high serum endotoxin level as well as sputum culture results were helpful for the proper diagnosis and the therapy was successful. However the second patient died of a lung abscess in spite of the intensive antibiotic therapy. When PM patients develop pneumonia unresponsive to various antibiotics, a multi-drug-resistant bacteria such as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia should be considered as the pathogen. PMID:10563756

Amano, K; Maruyama, H; Takeuchi, T

1999-11-01

17

Distinct groups and antimicrobial resistance of clinical Stenotrophomonas maltophilia complex isolates from Korea.  

PubMed

One hundred and twenty-one isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia complex were collected from seven Korean hospitals. Species and groups were identified using partial gyrB gene sequences and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using a broth microdilution method. Based on partial gyrB gene sequences, 118 isolates were identified as belonging to S. maltophilia complex, including S. maltophilia, S. pavanii, Pseudomonas beteli, P. geniculata and P. hibisciola. The S. maltophilia isolates were further divided into three groups, I to III. S. maltophilia groups II and III were clustered into clade A with S. pavanii and P. beteli; S. maltophilia group I was clustered into clade B with P. geniculata and P. hibisciola. For all S. maltophilia complex isolates, the resistance rate to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) was very high (30.5%). Antimicrobial resistance rates varied among species or groups of S. maltophilia complex. Isolates of clade A showed significantly lower antimicrobial resistance rates than those of clade B; while 25% of clade A isolates were multidrug resistant, 46% of clade B isolates were multidrug resistant (P=0.001). The finding of high antimicrobial resistance rates, particularly to TMP/SMX, among S. maltophilia complex isolates from Korea, and the existence of distinct groups among the isolates, with differences in antimicrobial resistance rates, suggests consideration of alternative agents to TMP/SMX to treat S. maltophilia infections and indicates the importance of accurate identification for appropriate selection of treatment options. PMID:23429694

Rhee, Ji-Young; Choi, Ji Young; Choi, Myung-Jin; Song, Jae-Hoon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Ko, Kwan Soo

2013-05-01

18

Rapid identification of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to develop a novel peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia identification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The probe was evaluated using 33 human and veterinary clinical S. maltophilia isolates and 45 reference strains representing common bacterial species in the respiratory tract. The probe displayed 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity on pure cultures and allowed detection in sputum from cystic fibrosis patients. The detection limit was 104 CFU/mL in spiked tracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage from healthy horses. Altogether the study shows that this species-specific PNA FISH probe facilitates rapid detection of S. maltophilia in biological specimens. PMID:25356348

Hansen, N; Rasmussen, A K I; Fiandaca, M J; Kragh, K N; Bjarnsholt, T; Høiby, N; Stender, H; Guardabassi, L

2014-01-01

19

A Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Inferring Population Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic, highly resistant, and ubiquitous pathogen. Strains have been assigned to genogroups using amplified fragment length polymorphism. Hence, isolates of environmental and clinical origin predominate in different groups. A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was developed using a highly diverse selection of 70 strains of various ecological origins from seven countries on all continents including strains

Sabine Kaiser; Klaus Biehler; Daniel Jonas

2009-01-01

20

Functional Characterization of the RNA Chaperone Hfq in the Opportunistic Human Pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia  

PubMed Central

Hfq is an RNA-binding protein known to regulate a variety of cellular processes by interacting with small RNAs (sRNAs) and mRNAs in prokaryotes. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important opportunistic pathogen affecting primarily hospitalized and immunocompromised hosts. We constructed an hfq deletion mutant (?hfq) of S. maltophilia and compared the behaviors of wild-type and ?hfq S. maltophilia cells in a variety of assays. This revealed that S. maltophilia Hfq plays a role in biofilm formation and cell motility, as well as susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Moreover, Hfq is crucial for adhesion to bronchial epithelial cells and is required for the replication of S. maltophilia in macrophages. Differential RNA sequencing analysis (dRNA-seq) of RNA isolated from S. maltophilia wild-type and ?hfq strains showed that Hfq regulates the expression of genes encoding flagellar and fimbrial components, transmembrane proteins, and enzymes involved in different metabolic pathways. Moreover, we analyzed the expression of several sRNAs identified by dRNA-seq in wild-type and ?hfq S. maltophilia cells grown in different conditions on Northern blots. The accumulation of two sRNAs was strongly reduced in the absence of Hfq. Furthermore, based on our dRNA-seq analysis we provide a genome-wide map of transcriptional start sites in S. maltophilia. PMID:22923593

Roscetto, Emanuela; Angrisano, Tiziana; Costa, Valerio; Casalino, Mariassunta; Förstner, Konrad U.; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Di Nocera, Pier Paolo

2012-01-01

21

Susceptibility of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia clinical strains in China to antimicrobial combinations.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate the activity levels of several combinations of antimicrobials against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. maltophilia clinical isolates was determined, and the synergistic activity of three pairs of antimicrobial combinations was evaluated by the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). The antimicrobial susceptibility in vitro against 83 S. maltophilia strains was greater for minocycline (80·7%) than for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (51·8%), and levofloxacin (50·6%). The rate of resistance was highest for ticarcillin-clavulanate and ceftazidime (63·8%) and resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was 48·2%. All three combinations were tested against susceptible isolates. Two of the combinations, TMP-SMX+ceftazidime and levofloxacin+ceftazidime were more effective than the combination of TMP-SMX+levofloxacin. We recommend acquiring more clinical data in order to explore combination therapy, which is a promising treatment of S. maltophilia infections. PMID:24588423

Hu, Li-Fen; Gao, Li-Ping; Ye, Ying; Chen, Xi; Zhou, Xiang-Tian; Yang, Hai-Fei; Liiu, Yan-Yan; Mei, Qing; Li, Jia-Bin

2014-10-01

22

Highly efficient transformation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia S21, an environmental isolate from soil, by electroporation.  

PubMed

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging opportunistic pathogen, which also exhibits potential of wide applications in industry, environment and agriculture. An efficient transformation method for S. maltophilia would be convenient to its genetic studies. In this report, we focused on developing an efficient transformation protocol for S. maltophilia. Gene transfer by three different methods (chemical transformation, conjugation and electroporation) indicated that electroporation was the most efficient method to transform S. maltophilia S21. Then, the entire electroporation process from competent-cell preparation to post-pulse incubation was optimized to get higher efficiencies. Utilizing competent cells prepared at optical density (600 nm) of 1.0, the maximal transformation efficiency of S. maltophilia S21 reached 1.53 × 10(8) transformants/?g of pBBR1MCS DNA at a field strength of 18 kV/cm, a time constant of 4.8 ms (200 ?), a DNA amount of 100 ng and a cell concentration of 2.4 × 10(8) CFU/ml after 3 h incubation. Moreover, we successfully transformed the other four isolates of S. maltophilia using this protocol. To date, this is the first report about electroporation of S. maltophilia and it will facilitate the further study of this species. PMID:25300664

Ye, Xing; Dong, Hongling; Huang, Yu-Ping

2014-12-01

23

Draft Genome Sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SeITE02, a Gammaproteobacterium Isolated from Selenite-Contaminated Mining Soil  

PubMed Central

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain SeITE02 was isolated from the rhizosphere of the selenium-hyperaccumulating legume Astragalus bisculcatus. In this report, we provide the 4.56-Mb draft genome sequence of S. maltophilia SeITE02, a gammaproteobacterium that can withstand high concentrations of selenite and reduce these to elemental selenium. PMID:24812214

Bertolini, Cristina; van Aerle, Ronny; Lampis, Silvia; Moore, Karen A.; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Butler, Clive S.

2014-01-01

24

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Vermamoeba vermiformis relationships: Bacterial multiplication and protection in amoebal-derived structures.  

PubMed

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, a bacteria involved in healthcare-associated infections, can be found in hospital water systems. Other microorganisms, such as Free Living amoebae (FLA), are also at times recovered in the same environment. Amongst these protozoa, many authors have reported the presence of Vermamoeba vermiformis. We show here that this amoeba enhances S. maltophilia growth and harbors the bacteria in amoebal-derived structures after 28 days in harsh conditions. These results highlight the fact that particular attention should be paid to the presence of FLA in hospital water systems, because of their potential implication in survival and growth of pathogenic bacterial species. PMID:25463386

Cateau, Estelle; Maisonneuve, Elodie; Peguilhan, Samuel; Quellard, Nathalie; Hechard, Yann; Rodier, Marie-Helene

2014-12-01

25

Non healing leg ulcer infected with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: first reported case from India.  

PubMed

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a recently described organism which was mainly reported either in nosocomial setup, or in immunosuppresed individuals. This was rarely reported as cutaneous pathogenic organism causing cellulitis-like lesion, paronychia, mucocutaneous ulcers and ecthyma gangrenosum in immunocompromised individuals. Here we describe a case of leg ulcer caused by S. maltophilia in an immuno-competent patient. The infection was possibly community acquired as the patient had no exposure to hospital environment. The bacillus was sensitive to cotrimoxazole and levofloxacin, and the patient was successfully treated with cotrimoxazole. Our case is unique not only because it is probably the first ever case of leg ulcer caused by S. maltophilia, but also because of its unusual occurrence in immunocompetent patient. PMID:22289105

Nag, Falguni; De, Abhishek; Banerjee, Kokila; Chatterjee, Gobinda

2013-06-01

26

Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Endophthalmitis Caused by Surgical Equipment Contamination: an Emerging Nosocomial Infection  

PubMed Central

Purpose: We report three cases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia endophthalmitis after uneventful extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation-related to surgical equipment contamination. Case report: All patients developed acute, culture-positive endophthalmitis in a period ranging from 2 to 13 days. Cultures from vitreous tap, as well as those obtained from the hand-piece of the irrigation-aspiration system, revealed S. maltophilia as the causing infectious agent. All patients received intravitreal antibiotic treatment as initial therapy, nevertheless, visual disturbance continued to be present, hence pars plana vitrectomy was required. Conclusion: Contamination of surgical-reusable equipment should be considered in addition to the well-known risk factors associated with development of endophthalmitis by S. maltophilia.

Williams, Maria A.; Gramajo, Ana L.; Colombres, Gustavo A.; Caeiro, Juan P.; Juárez, Claudio P.; Luna, José D.

2014-01-01

27

[Characteristic and ion exchanges during Cu2+ and Cd2+ biosorption by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia].  

PubMed

The characteristics of Cu2+ and Cd2+ biosorption by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) under different biomass, metal concentration and glutaraldehyde content were studied and the correlations among metal biosorption, NO3- removal and ion release were analyzed. The mechanism was explored through ion biosorption, exchange, conversion and release. The experimental results demonstrated that S. maltophilia was an efficient strain to remove Cu2+ and Cd2+. The biosorption efficiencies of Cu2+ and Cd2+ achieved 96.3% and 83.9%, respectively after dealing with 0.05 mmol x L(-1) aqueous solutions for 120 min with dry biosorbent dosage of 0.2 g x L(-1). Cu2+ and Cd2+ biosorption by S. maltophilia included surface adsorption, transmembrane active transportation, bioaccumulation of NO3- and reduction of NO3- to NO2-. The intracellular transfer and reduction of NO3- to NO2- during biosorption by S. maltophilia were energy-consuming biological processes. It could also promote the release of Cl-, PO4(3-), SO-4(2-), Na+, NH4+, K+ and Ca2+. From FTIR investigation, involvement of various functional groups like acetylamino, hydroxyl and carboxyl in the binding of Cu2+ and Cd2+ was evident. Moreover, XPS results proved that the valence state of Cu2+ and Cd2+ did not changed by biosorption. PMID:23487942

Bai, Jie-Qiong; Yin, Hua; Ye, Jin-Shao; Peng, Hui; Tang, Li-Tao; He, Bao-Yan; Li, Yue-Peng

2013-01-01

28

Monotherapy with fluoroquinolone or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections.  

PubMed

The treatment of choice for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). Fluoroquinolones (FQs) have in vitro activity against S. maltophilia; however, there is limited published information on their effectiveness. The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of FQs and SXT for the treatment of S. maltophilia. A retrospective review of 98 patients with S. maltophilia infections who received SXT or FQ monotherapy was conducted. Patients ?18 years old with a positive culture for S. maltophilia and clinical signs of infection who received treatment for ?48 h were included. Microbiological cure and clinical response were evaluated at the end of therapy (EOT). In-hospital mortality and isolation of nonsusceptible isolates were also evaluated. Thirty-five patients received SXT, and 63 patients received FQ; 48 patients received levofloxacin, and 15 patients received ciprofloxacin. The most common infection was pulmonary. The overall microbiological cure rate at EOT was 63%. Thirteen of 20 patients (65%) who received SXT and 23 of 37 patients (62%) who received FQ had microbiological cure at EOT (P = 0.832). The overall clinical success rate was 55%, 52% for those who received FQ and 61% for those who received SXT (P = 0.451). In-hospital mortality was 24%, with similar rates in the two groups (25% for FQ versus 22% for SXT; P = 0.546). Development of resistance on repeat culture was 30% for FQ and 20% for SXT (P = 0.426). Fluoroquinolone and SXT monotherapies may be equally effective for the treatment of S. maltophilia infections. Resistance was documented in subsequent isolates of S. maltophilia in both groups. PMID:24145530

Wang, Yu Lin; Scipione, Marco R; Dubrovskaya, Yanina; Papadopoulos, John

2014-01-01

29

Specific detection of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains in albacore tuna ( Thunnus alalunga) by reverse dot-blot hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reverse dot-blot DNA\\/DNA hybridization method coupled with a non-radioactive nucleic acid detection system was evaluated for the direct detection of the emerging pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in albacore tuna, a fish species of high commercial value in Europe and the US. Probes consisting of total genomic DNA of S. maltophilia, when used in dot-blot hybridization assays, differed in a sufficient

Begoña Ben-Gigirey; Juan M. Vieites; Shin H. Kim; Haejung An; Tomás G. Villa; Jorge Barros-Velázquez

2002-01-01

30

Activity of colistin in combination with tigecycline or rifampicin against multidrug-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections is complicated by intrinsic multidrug resistance and a lack of reliable susceptibility data. We assessed the activity of colistin (COL), rifampicin (RIF) and tigecycline (TGC) alone and in combination using a range of in vitro susceptibility testing methodologies and a simple invertebrate model of S. maltophilia infection (Galleria mellonella). Synergy [fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) ?0.5] between COL and either RIF or TGC was observed against 92 % and 88 % of 25 S. maltophilia isolates, respectively, despite resistance to one or another of the single agents alone. In time-kill assays, COL combined with either RIF or TGC was superior to single agents, but only the COL/RIF regimen was reliably bactericidal. The in vitro findings correlated with treatment outcomes in G. mellonella, with heightened survival observed for larvae treated with COL/RIF or COL/TGC compared with COL, RIF or TGC alone. COL combined with RIF was the most effective combination overall in both in vitro and in vivo (p?maltophilia infections, regimens consisting of COL combined with RIF or TGC could be considered for clinical use. PMID:24781003

Betts, J W; Phee, L M; Woodford, N; Wareham, D W

2014-09-01

31

Facile biosynthesis of phosphate capped gold nanoparticles by a bacterial isolate Stenotrophomonas maltophilia  

SciTech Connect

We report intracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) by a strain Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (AuRed02) isolated from the soil samples of Singhbhum gold mines, India. An aqueous solution of gold chloride was reduced to metallic gold in a suspension of disrupted cell mass of AuRed02, which progressively turns into cherry red within 8 h of incubation at 25 deg. C. The optical spectrum showed the plasmon resonance at 530 nm and analysis by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering confirmed the formation of around 40 nm GNPs. Zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared measurements confirmed GNPs are capped by negatively charged phosphate groups of NADP.

Nangia, Yogesh; Wangoo, Nishima; Raman Suri, C. [Institute of Microbial Technology (CSIR), Sector 39-A, Chandigarh 160036 (India); Sharma, Saurabh; Wu, J.-S.; Dravid, Vinayak; Shekhawat, G. S. [Department of Material Science and Engineering and International Institute for Nanotechnology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2009-06-08

32

The DSF Quorum Sensing System Controls the Positive Influence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia on Plants  

PubMed Central

The interaction of the Gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with eukaryotes can improve overall plant growth and health, but can also cause opportunistic infections in humans. While the quorum sensing molecule DSF (diffusible signal factor) is responsible for the regulation of phenotypes in pathogenic Stenotrophomonas, up until now, no beneficial effects were reported to be controlled by it. Our objective was to study the function of DSF in the plant growth promoting model strain S. maltophilia R551-3 using functional and transcriptomic analyses. For this purpose, we compared the wild-type strain with a mutant deficient in the rpfF (regulation of pathogenicity factors) gene that is essential for the synthesis of DSF. Oilseed rape seeds treated with the wild-type strain showed a statistically significant increase in germination rate compared with those treated with the rpfF mutant. Similarly, the wild-type strain exhibited better plant growth promotion and a greater efficiency in colonizing oilseed rape compared to the mutant strain. Moreover, only the wild-type was capable of forming structured cell aggregates both in vitro and in the rhizosphere, a characteristic mediated by DSF. Gene transcription analyses showed that numerous genes known to play a role in plant colonization (e.g. chemotaxis, cell motility, biofilm formation, multidrug efflux pumps) are controlled by the rpf/DSF system in S. maltophilia. In addition, we detected new potential functions of spermidine, primarily for both growth promotion and stress protection. Overall, our results showed a correspondence between the regulation of DSF and the positive interaction effect with the plant host. PMID:23874407

Alavi, Peyman; Müller, Henry; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Zachow, Christin; Sánchez, María B.; Martínez, José Luis; Berg, Gabriele

2013-01-01

33

Colistin susceptibility testing: evaluation of reliability for cystic fibrosis isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Antibiotic susceptibility methods that are commonly used to test bacterial isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis are of uncertain reliability for the polymyxins. To assess the reliability of four standard testing methods, this pilot study used a challenge set that included polymyxin-resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Methods Twenty-five P. aeruginosa and 12 S. maltophilia isolates were tested for susceptibility to colistin (polymyxin E). Repeatability (concordance of replicates performed concurrently), reproducibility (concordance of replicates performed over time) and comparability (concordance of different methods) of agar dilution, broth microdilution, Etest and disc diffusion were assessed through the use of descriptive statistics and scatterplot analyses. Results All four methods displayed excellent repeatability (overall concordance rate of 99%). However, analysis of reproducibility revealed substantially lower rates of concordance (74% for agar dilution, 84% for broth microdilution and Etest, and 91% for disc diffusion). In addition, comparability to agar dilution of the three other methods was generally poor, with overall rates of very major error ranging from 12% for broth microdilution to 18% for Etest and disc diffusion. Conclusions Compared with agar dilution, other susceptibility testing methods give high rates of apparent false polymyxin susceptibility for cystic fibrosis isolates of P. aeruginosa and S. maltophilia. Prospective study of the correlation between in vitro susceptibility and clinical response is needed to clarify whether these discrepancies reflect oversensitivity of the agar dilution method or insensitivity of the other methods. PMID:20430789

Moskowitz, Samuel M.; Garber, Elizabeth; Chen, Yunhua; Clock, Sarah A.; Tabibi, Setareh; Miller, Amanda K.; Doctor, Michael; Saiman, Lisa

2010-01-01

34

A Highly Thermostable Xylanase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: Purification and Partial Characterization  

PubMed Central

Seven xylanolytic bacterial strains were isolated from saw-dust dump soil. The bacterial strain X6 was selected on the basis of the highest xylanase activity with no cellulase contamination. It was identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach. Xylanase production studies by S. maltophilia on different commercial xylans and agro-industrial residues suggested that wheat bran was the best carbon source for xylanase production (26.4 ± 0.6?IU/mL). The studies with inorganic and organic nitrogen sources suggested yeast extract as the best support for xylanase production (25 ± 0.6?IU/mL). Maximum xylanase production was observed at initial medium pH = 8.0 (23.8 ± 0.4?IU/mL) with production at pH = 7.0 and pH = 9.0 being almost comparable. Xylanase produced by S. maltophilia was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatography. The final purification was 5.43-fold with recovery of 19.18%. The molecular weight of the purified xylanase protein was ~142?kDa. Both crude and purified xylanase had good stability at pH = 9.0 and 80°C with activity retention greater than 90% after 30?min incubation. The enzyme stability at high temperature and alkaline pH make it potentially effective for industrial applications. PMID:24416589

Kumar, Sharad; Singh, Sudheer Kumar

2013-01-01

35

The Contribution of Class 1 Integron to Antimicrobial Resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.  

PubMed

Two hundred clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were examined for the presence of class 1 integron and for the susceptibility to 12 different antimicrobials and detergents. The prevalence of class 1 integron in S. maltophilia isolates was 11%. The class 1 integron-positive isolates exhibited a higher resistance to kanamycin, tobramycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) than the class 1 integron-negative ones. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), amplifying the variable region of the class 1 integron, showed the existence of six different amplicon sizes, indicating that there are at least six different class 1 integrons distributed in the 23 class 1 integron-positive isolates. Sequence analysis of six representative PCR amplicons revealed that qacK, aac(6')-Ib', qacK-aac(6')-Ib, qacK-aac(6')-Ib-aac(6')-Ib, and qacL-aadB-cmlA-aadA2 were identified in the 550-, 800-, 1,200-, 1,800, and 3,600-bp amplicons, respectively. The sequence analysis of the 150-bp PCR amplicon demonstrated no additional resistance-associated genes except the basic genetic elements of class 1 integron. The impact of class 1 integron acquisition on the antimicrobials susceptibility was assayed by isogenic integron deletion mutant construction and the susceptibility test. The most significant contribution of the class 1 integron acquisition to S. maltophilia is the increased resistance to SXT. PMID:25243757

Huang, Yi-Wei; Hu, Rouh-Mei; Lin, Yi-Tsung; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Yang, Tsuey-Ching

2014-09-22

36

Infections Caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in Recipients of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.  

PubMed

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) is a globally emerging Gram-negative bacillus that is widely spread in environment and hospital equipment. Recently, the incidence of infections caused by this organism has increased, particularly in patients with hematological malignancy and in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) having neutropenia, mucositis, diarrhea, central venous catheters or graft versus host disease and receiving intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy, immunosuppressive therapy, or broad-spectrum antibiotics. The spectrum of infections in HSCT recipients includes pneumonia, urinary tract and surgical site infection, peritonitis, bacteremia, septic shock, and infection of indwelling medical devices. The organism exhibits intrinsic resistance to many classes of antibiotics including carbapenems, aminoglycosides, most of the third-generation cephalosporins, and other ?-lactams. Despite the increasingly reported drug resistance, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is still the drug of choice. However, the organism is still susceptible to ticarcillin-clavulanic acid, tigecycline, fluoroquinolones, polymyxin-B, and rifampicin. Genetic factors play a significant role not only in evolution of drug resistance but also in virulence of the organism. The outcome of patients having S. maltophilia infections can be improved by: using various combinations of novel therapeutic agents and aerosolized aminoglycosides or colistin, prompt administration of in vitro active antibiotics, removal of possible sources of infection such as infected indwelling intravascular catheters, and application of strict infection control measures. PMID:25202682

Al-Anazi, Khalid Ahmed; Al-Jasser, Asma M

2014-01-01

37

Draft Genome Sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain B418, a Promising Agent for Biocontrol of Plant Pathogens and Root-Knot Nematode  

PubMed Central

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain B418 was isolated from a barley rhizosphere in China. This bacterium exhibits broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against plant pathogens and root-knot nematode along with growth-promoting effects. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of S. maltophilia B418.

Wu, Yuanzheng; Wang, Yilian; Li, Jishun; Hu, Jindong; Chen, Kai; Wei, Yanli; Bazhanov, Dmitry P.; Bazhanova, Alesia A.

2015-01-01

38

In Vitro Efficacy of High-Dose Tobramycin against Burkholderia cepacia Complex and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Isolates from Cystic Fibrosis Patients.  

PubMed

Burkholderia cepacia complex and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections are associated with poor clinical outcomes in persons with cystic fibrosis (CF). The MIC50 based on planktonic growth and the biofilm concentration at which 50% of the isolates tested are inhibited (BIC50) of tobramycin were measured for 180 B. cepacia complex and 101 S. maltophilia CF isolates and were 100 ?g/ml for both species. New inhalation devices that deliver high tobramycin levels to the lung may be able to exceed these MICs. PMID:25348526

Ratjen, Anina; Yau, Yvonne; Wettlaufer, Jillian; Matukas, Larissa; Zlosnik, James E A; Speert, David P; LiPuma, John J; Tullis, Elizabeth; Waters, Valerie

2015-01-01

39

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains isolated from a university hospital in Japan: genomic variability and antibiotic resistance.  

PubMed

The diversity within the genetic and antibiotic resistance profiles and the production of virulence-associated enzymic activities of 66 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains collected from a university hospital in Japan in 2005 were studied. PFGE analysis of the collection indicated that a variety of profiles were present. MLST analysis of nine selected strains showed that four of the six sequence types identified were novel. These results indicated that there was a high degree of genetic diversity between the strains and that S. maltophilia strains isolated in Japan might be genetically divergent from those in Europe. The majority of strains were resistant to piperacillin (93.9 %), ceftazidime (84.8 %), imipenem (100 %), aztreonam (98.5 %), gentamicin (81.8 %), amikacin (87.9 %), ciprofloxacin (84.8 %), tetracycline (97.0 %) and chloramphenicol (78.8 %), although levofloxacin was effective against 77.3 % of the strains. Most of the strains showed multidrug resistance and carried the class 1 integron, but no strain showed transmission of antibiotic resistance by conjugation. Although haemolytic activity was not detected in any of the strains, protease and lipase activities were detected in 86.4 % and 31.8 % of the strains, respectively. PMID:23264453

Tanimoto, Koichi

2013-04-01

40

Effects of Green Tea Compound Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Infection and Biofilm  

PubMed Central

We investigated the in vitro and in vivo activities of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg), a green tea component, against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Sm) isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. In vitro effects of EGCg and the antibiotic colistin (COL) on growth inhibition, survival, and also against young and mature biofilms of S. maltophilia were determined. Qualitative and quantitative changes on the biofilms were assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Further, in vivo effects of nebulized EGCg in C57BL/6 and Cftr mutant mice during acute Sm lung infection were evaluated. Subinhibitory concentrations of EGCg significantly reduced not only biofilm formation, but also the quantity of viable cells in young and mature biofilms. CLSM showed that EGCg-exposed biofilms exhibited either a change in total biofilm biovolume or an increase of the fraction of dead cells contained within the biofilm in a dose depended manner. Sm infected wild-type and Cftr mutant mice treated with 1,024 mg/L EGCg by inhalation exhibited significantly lower bacterial counts than those undergoing no treatment or treated with COL. EGCg displayed promising inhibitory and anti-biofilm properties against CF Sm isolates in vitro and significantly reduced Sm bacterial counts in an acute infection model with wild type and CF mice. This natural compound may represent a novel therapeutic agent against Sm infection in CF. PMID:24690894

Vidigal, Pedrina G.; Müsken, Mathias; Becker, Katrin A.; Häussler, Susanne; Wingender, Jost; Steinmann, Eike; Kehrmann, Jan; Gulbins, Erich; Buer, Jan; Rath, Peter Michael; Steinmann, Jörg

2014-01-01

41

A Polysaccharide Lyase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with a Unique, pH-regulated Substrate Specificity*  

PubMed Central

Polysaccharide lyases (PLs) catalyze the depolymerization of anionic polysaccharides via a ?-elimination mechanism. PLs also play important roles in microbial pathogenesis, participating in bacterial invasion and toxin spread into the host tissue via degradation of the host extracellular matrix, or in microbial biofilm formation often associated with enhanced drug resistance. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative bacterium that is among the emerging multidrug-resistant organisms associated with chronic lung infections as well as with cystic fibrosis patients. A putative alginate lyase (Smlt1473) from S. maltophilia was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified in a one-step fashion via affinity chromatography, and activity as well as specificity determined for a range of polysaccharides. Interestingly, Smlt1473 catalyzed the degradation of not only alginate, but poly-?-d-glucuronic acid and hyaluronic acid as well. Furthermore, the pH optimum for enzymatic activity is substrate-dependent, with optimal hyaluronic acid degradation at pH 5, poly-?-d-glucuronic acid degradation at pH 7, and alginate degradation at pH 9. Analysis of the degradation products revealed that each substrate was cleaved endolytically into oligomers comprised predominantly of even numbers of sugar groups, with lower accumulation of trimers and pentamers. Collectively, these results imply that Smlt1473 is a multifunctional PL that exhibits broad substrate specificity, but utilizes pH as a mechanism to achieve selectivity. PMID:24257754

MacDonald, Logan C.; Berger, Bryan W.

2014-01-01

42

Aflatoxin B(1) degradation by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and other microbes selected using coumarin medium.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is one of the most harmful mycotoxins in animal production and food industry. A safe, effective and environmentally sound detoxification method is needed for controlling this toxin. In this study, 65 samples were screened from various sources with vast microbial populations using a newly developed medium containing coumarin as the sole carbon source. Twenty five single-colony bacterial isolates showing AFB(1) reduction activity in a liquid culture medium were selected from the screen. Isolate 35-3, obtained from tapir feces and identified to be Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, reduced AFB(1) by 82.5% after incubation in the liquid medium at 37 degrees C for 72 h. The culture supernatant of isolate 35-3 was able to degrade AFB(1) effectively, whereas the viable cells and cell extracts were far less effective. Factors influencing AFB(1) degradation by the culture supernatant were investigated. Activity was reduced to 60.8% and 63.5% at 20 degrees C and 30 degrees C, respectively, from 78.7% at 37 degrees C. The highest degradation rate was 84.8% at pH 8 and the lowest was only 14.3% at pH 4.0. Ions Mg(2+) and Cu(2+) were activators for AFB(1) degradation, however ion Zn(2+) was a strong inhibitor. Treatments with proteinase K, proteinase K plus SDS and heating significantly reduced or eradicated the degradation activity of the culture supernatant. The results indicated that the degradation of AFB(1) by S. maltophilia 35-3 was enzymatic and could have a great potential in industrial applications. PMID:19325817

Guan, Shu; Ji, Cheng; Zhou, Ting; Li, Junxia; Ma, Qiugang; Niu, Tiangui

2008-08-01

43

A Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Inferring Population Structure? †  

PubMed Central

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic, highly resistant, and ubiquitous pathogen. Strains have been assigned to genogroups using amplified fragment length polymorphism. Hence, isolates of environmental and clinical origin predominate in different groups. A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was developed using a highly diverse selection of 70 strains of various ecological origins from seven countries on all continents including strains of the 10 previously defined genogroups. Sequence data were assigned to 54 sequence types (ST) based on seven loci. Indices of association for all isolates and clinical isolates of 2.498 and 2.562 indicated a significant linkage disequilibrium, as well as high congruence of tree topologies from different loci. Potential recombination events were detected in one-sixth of all ST. Calculation of the mean divergence between and within predicted clusters confirmed previously defined groups and revealed five additional groups. Consideration of the different ecological origins showed that 18 out of 31 respiratory tract isolates, including 12 out of 19 isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, belonged to genogroup 6. In contrast, 16 invasive strains isolated from blood cultures were distributed among nine different genogroups. Three genogroups contained isolates of strictly environmental origin that also featured high sequence distances to other genogroups, including the S. maltophilia type strain. On the basis of this MLST scheme, isolates can be assigned to the genogroups of this species in order to further scrutinize the population structure of this species and to unravel the uneven distribution of environmental and clinical isolates obtained from infected, colonized, or CF patients. PMID:19251858

Kaiser, Sabine; Biehler, Klaus; Jonas, Daniel

2009-01-01

44

The Impact of spgM, rpfF, rmlA Gene Distribution on Biofilm Formation in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia  

PubMed Central

Background Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is emerging as one of the most frequently found bacteria in chronic pulmonary infection. Biofilm is increasingly recognized as a contributing factor to disease pathogenesis. In the present study, a total of 37 isolates of S. maltophilia obtained from chronic pulmonary infection patients were evaluated to the relationship between biofilm production and the relative genes expression. Methods The clonal relatedness of isolates was determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis. Biofilm formation assays were performed by crystal violet assay, and confirmed by Electron microscopy analysis and CLSM analysis. PCR was employed to learn gene distribution and expression. Results Twenty-four pulsotypes were designated for 37 S. maltophilia isolates, and these 24 pulsotypes exhibited various levels of biofilm production, 8 strong biofilm-producing S. maltophilia strains with OD492 value above 0.6, 14 middle biofilm-producing strains with OD492 average value of 0.4 and 2 weak biofilm-producing strains with OD492 average value of 0.19. CLSM analysis showed that the isolates from the early stage of chronic infection enable to form more highly structured and multilayered biofim than those in the late stage. The prevalence of spgM, rmlA, and rpfF genes was 83.3%, 87.5%, and 50.0% in 24 S. maltophilia strains, respectively, and the presence of rmlA, spgM or rpfF had a close relationship with biofilm formation but did not significantly affect the mean amount of biofilm. Significant mutations of spgM and rmlA were found in both strong and weak biofilm-producing strains. Conclusion Mutations in spgM and rmlA may be relevant to biofilm formation in the clinical isolates of S. maltophilia. PMID:25285537

Zhuo, Chao; Zhao, Qian-yu; Xiao, Shu-nian

2014-01-01

45

The complete genome, comparative and functional analysis of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia reveals an organism heavily shielded by drug resistance determinants  

PubMed Central

Background Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a nosocomial opportunistic pathogen of the Xanthomonadaceae. The organism has been isolated from both clinical and soil environments in addition to the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients and the immunocompromised. Whilst relatively distant phylogenetically, the closest sequenced relatives of S. maltophilia are the plant pathogenic xanthomonads. Results The genome of the bacteremia-associated isolate S. maltophilia K279a is 4,851,126 bp and of high G+C content. The sequence reveals an organism with a remarkable capacity for drug and heavy metal resistance. In addition to a number of genes conferring resistance to antimicrobial drugs of different classes via alternative mechanisms, nine resistance-nodulation-division (RND)-type putative antimicrobial efflux systems are present. Functional genomic analysis confirms a role in drug resistance for several of the novel RND efflux pumps. S. maltophilia possesses potentially mobile regions of DNA and encodes a number of pili and fimbriae likely to be involved in adhesion and biofilm formation that may also contribute to increased antimicrobial drug resistance. Conclusion The panoply of antimicrobial drug resistance genes and mobile genetic elements found suggests that the organism can act as a reservoir of antimicrobial drug resistance determinants in a clinical environment, which is an issue of considerable concern. PMID:18419807

Crossman, Lisa C; Gould, Virginia C; Dow, J Maxwell; Vernikos, Georgios S; Okazaki, Aki; Sebaihia, Mohammed; Saunders, David; Arrowsmith, Claire; Carver, Tim; Peters, Nicholas; Adlem, Ellen; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Lord, Angela; Murphy, Lee; Seeger, Katharine; Squares, Robert; Rutter, Simon; Quail, Michael A; Rajandream, Mari-Adele; Harris, David; Churcher, Carol; Bentley, Stephen D; Parkhill, Julian; Thomson, Nicholas R; Avison, Matthew B

2008-01-01

46

Enhancement of antibiotic susceptibility of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia using a polyclonal antibody developed against an ABC multidrug efflux pump.  

PubMed

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging nosocomial pathogen capable of causing healthcare-associated infections, including pneumonia and bacteremia. Intrinsic resistance in S. maltophilia is exhibited towards many broad-spectrum antibiotics, and treatment recommendations are controversial. One of the major causes of antimicrobial resistance is attributed to a robust array of efflux pumps that extrude drug compounds from the cell. Using checkerboard and growth kinetic assays, we evaluated the in vitro activity of a polyclonal antibody raised against an ATP-binding cassette efflux protein in S. maltophilia. Six clinical strains of S. maltophilia and one type strain were challenged with co-trimoxazole, ticarcillin-clavulanate, and ciprofloxacin, alone and in combination with antibody. One clinical strain was tested by growth curve experiments for each antibiotic-antibody combination. The use of antibody resulted in significantly increased susceptibility in 71.4% (15/21) of treatments tested, with 33.3% displaying synergy and 38.1% an additive effect. In growth kinetic studies, synergy was obtained for each antibiotic-antibody combination. Thus, the use of antibody raised against multidrug efflux pumps for the treatment of multidrug-resistant organisms warrants further investigation. Antibody targeting substrate recognition sites, or other functionally important epitopes, may lead to inhibition of multiple efflux pumps that share the same substrate and is an attractive area that should be explored. PMID:21942332

Al-Hamad, Arif; Burnie, James; Upton, Mathew

2011-10-01

47

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Virulence and Specific Variations in Trace Elements during Acute Lung Infection: Implications in Cystic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Metal ions are necessary for the proper functioning of the immune system, and, therefore, they might have a significant influence on the interaction between bacteria and host. Ionic dyshomeostasis has been recently observed also in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, whose respiratory tract is frequently colonized by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. For the first time, here we used an inductively mass spectrometry method to perform a spatial and temporal analysis of the pattern of changes in a broad range of major trace elements in response to pulmonary infection by S. maltophilia. To this, DBA/2 mouse lungs were comparatively infected by a CF strain and by an environmental one. Our results showed that pulmonary ionomic profile was significantly affected during infection. Infected mice showed increased lung levels of Mg, P, S, K, Zn, Se, and Rb. To the contrary, Mn, Fe, Co, and Cu levels resulted significantly decreased. Changes of element concentrations were correlated with pulmonary bacterial load and markers of inflammation, and occurred mostly on day 3 post-exposure, when severity of infection culminated. Interestingly, CF strain – significantly more virulent than the environmental one in our murine model - provoked a more significant impact in perturbing pulmonary metal homeostasis. Particularly, exposure to CF strain exclusively increased P and K levels, while decreased Fe and Mn ones. Overall, our data clearly indicate that S. maltophilia modulates pulmonary metal balance in a concerted and virulence-dependent manner highlighting the potential role of the element dyshomeostasis during the progression of S. maltophilia infection, probably exacerbating the harmful effects of the loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator function. Further investigations are required to understand the biological significance of these alterations and to confirm they are specifically caused by S. maltophilia. PMID:24586389

Crocetta, Valentina; Consalvo, Ada; Zappacosta, Roberta; Di Ilio, Carmine; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni

2014-01-01

48

Prevalence and detection of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia carrying metallo-?-lactamase blaL1 in Beijing, China  

PubMed Central

Intrinsic ?-lactam resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is caused by blaL1 and/or blaL2, a kind of metallo-?-lactamase with a broad substrate spectrum including carbapenems. A rapid and sensitive molecular method for the detection of blaL1 in clinical samples is needed to guide therapeutic treatment. In present study, we first described a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid detection of blaL1 in clinical samples by using two methods including a chromogenic method using calcein/Mn2+ complex and the real-time turbidity monitoring to assess the reaction. Then dissemination of L1-producing S. maltophilia was investigated from ICU patients in three top hospital in Beijing, China. The results showed that both methods detected the target DNA within 60 min under isothermal conditions (65°C). The detection limit of LAMP was 3.79 pg/?l DNA, and its sensitivity 100-fold greater than that of conventional PCR. All 21 test strains except for S. maltophilia were negative for blaL1, indicative of the high-specificity of the primers for the blaL1. A total of 22 L1-positive isolates were identified for LAMP-based surveillance of blaL1 from 105 ICU patients with clinically suspected multi-resistant infections. The sequences of these blaL1 genes were conservative with only a few sites mutated, and the strains had highly resistant to ?-lactam antibiotics. The MLST recovered that 22 strains belonged to seven different S. maltophilia sequence types (STs). Furthermore, co-occurrence of blaL1 and blaL2 genes were detected in all of isolates. Strikingly, S. maltophilia DCPS-01 was recovered to contain blaL1, blaL2, and blaNDM-1 genes, possessing an ability to hydrolyse all ?-lactams antibiotics. Our data showed the diversity types of S. maltophilia carrying blaL1 and co-occurrence of many resistant genes in the clinical strains signal an ongoing and fast evolution of S. maltophilia resulting from their wide spread in the respiratory infections, and therefore will be difficult to control.

Yang, Zhan; Liu, Wei; Cui, Qian; Niu, Wenkai; Li, Huan; Zhao, Xiangna; Wei, Xiao; Wang, Xuesong; Huang, Simo; Dong, Derong; Lu, Sijing; Bai, Changqing; Li, Yan; Huang, Liuyu; Yuan, Jing

2014-01-01

49

Honeydew honey as a potent antibacterial agent in eradication of multi-drug resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates from cancer patients.  

PubMed

Multi-drug resistance in nosocomial pathogens is a continually evolving and alarming problem in health care units. Since ancient times, honey has been used successfully for the treatment of a broad spectrum of infections with no risk of resistance development. This study investigated the antibacterial activity of two natural honeys, namely honeydew and manuka, against 20 nosocomial multi-drug resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) isolates from cancer patients. An antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out using the disk diffusion method with 20 antibiotic disks. The antibacterial activity of honey was determined using a broth dilution method. The concentration of honey used in the study was within the range of 3.75% to 25% (w/v). All 20 clinical isolates were multi-drug resistant against 11 to 19 antibiotics. The MICs for honeydew honey ranged from 6.25% to 17.5%, while those for active manuka honey ranged from 7.5% to 22.5%. Honeydew honey had lower MICs than manuka honey against 16 of the tested isolates. This study showed that Slovak honeydew honey has exceptional antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant S. maltophilia isolates and was more efficient than manuka honey (UMF 15+). Honeydew honey with strong antibacterial activity could be used as a potential agent to eradicate multi-drug resistant clinical isolates. PMID:20882522

Majtan, Juraj; Majtanova, Lubica; Bohova, Jana; Majtan, Viktor

2011-04-01

50

A Function of SmeDEF, the Major Quinolone Resistance Determinant of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Is the Colonization of Plant Roots  

PubMed Central

Quinolones are synthetic antibiotics, and the main cause of resistance to these antimicrobials is mutation of the genes encoding their targets. However, in contrast to the case for other organisms, such mutations have not been found in quinolone-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates, in which overproduction of the SmeDEF efflux pump is a major cause of quinolone resistance. SmeDEF is chromosomally encoded and highly conserved in all studied S. maltophilia strains; it is an ancient element that evolved over millions of years in this species. It thus seems unlikely that its main function would be resistance to quinolones, a family of synthetic antibiotics not present in natural environments until the last few decades. Expression of SmeDEF is tightly controlled by the transcriptional repressor SmeT. Our work shows that plant-produced flavonoids can bind to SmeT, releasing it from smeDEF and smeT operators. Antibiotics extruded by SmeDEF do not impede the binding of SmeT to DNA. The fact that plant-produced flavonoids specifically induce smeDEF expression indicates that they are bona fide effectors regulating expression of this resistance determinant. Expression of efflux pumps is usually downregulated unless their activity is needed. Since smeDEF expression is triggered by plant-produced flavonoids, we reasoned that this efflux pump may have a role in the colonization of plants by S. maltophilia. Our results showed that, indeed, deletion of smeE impairs S. maltophilia colonization of plant roots. Altogether, our results indicate that quinolone resistance is a recent function of SmeDEF and that colonization of plant roots is likely one original function of this efflux pump. PMID:24837376

García-León, Guillermo; Hernández, Alvaro; Hernando-Amado, Sara; Alavi, Peyman; Berg, Gabriele

2014-01-01

51

Molecular Epidemiology of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Isolated from Clinical Specimens from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis and Associated Environmental Samples  

PubMed Central

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was isolated from the respiratory tracts of 41 (25%) of 163 children attending our pediatric cystic fibrosis unit between September 1993 and December 1995. The extents of S. maltophilia contamination of environmental sites frequented by these patients were investigated with a selective medium incorporating vancomycin, imipenem, and amphotericin B. Eighty-two isolates of S. maltophilia were cultured from 67 different environmental sites sampled between January and July 1996. The organism was widespread in the home environment, with 20 (36%) and 25 (42%) of sampled sites positive in the homes of colonized and noncolonized patients, respectively. In the nosocomial setting, it was isolated from 18 (32%) sites in the hospital ward and from 4 (17%) sites in the outpatient clinic area. The most common sites of contamination were sink drains, faucets, and other items frequently in contact with water. All environmental and clinical isolates were genotyped with enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences as primers. A total of 33 of the 41 patients were colonized with unique strains, and four pairs of patients shared strains. Further characterization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after digestion with XbaI found that there was no evidence of patient-to-patient transmission; however, there was some evidence that a small number of patients may have acquired the organism from the hospital environment. Resampling of environmental sites in the hospital ward in January 1997 revealed evidence of genetic drift, complicating the accurate determination of environmental sources for clinical strains. The source of the majority of S. maltophilia strains colonizing the respiratory tracts of these patients with cystic fibrosis remained uncertain but may have represented multiple, independent acquisitions from a variety of environmental sites both within and outside the hospital. PMID:9650943

Denton, Miles; Todd, Neil J.; Kerr, Kevin G.; Hawkey, Peter M.; Littlewood, James M.

1998-01-01

52

Involvement of mutation in ampD I, mrcA, and at least one additional gene in ?-lactamase hyperproduction in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.  

PubMed

It has been reported that targeted disruption of ampD I or mrcA causes ?-lactamase hyperproduction in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. We show here that ?-lactamase-hyperproducing laboratory selected mutants and clinical isolates can have wild-type ampD I and mrcA genes, implicating mutation of at least one additional gene in this phenotype. The involvement of mutations at multiple loci in the activation of ?-lactamase production in S. maltophilia reveals that there are significant deviations from the enterobacterial paradigm of AmpR-mediated control of ?-lactamase induction. We do show, however, that S. maltophilia ampD I can complement a mutation in Escherichia coli ampD. This suggests that an anhydromuropeptide degradation product of peptidoglycan is used to activate AmpR in S. maltophilia, as is also the case in enteric bacteria. PMID:23979761

Talfan, Asmaa; Mounsey, Oliver; Charman, Matthew; Townsend, Eleanor; Avison, Matthew B

2013-11-01

53

Degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1.  

PubMed Central

A mixed microbial culture capable of metabolizing the explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was obtained from soil enrichments under aerobic and nitrogen-limiting conditions. A bacterium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PB1, isolated from the culture used RDX as a sole source of nitrogen for growth. Three moles of nitrogen was used per mole of RDX, yielding a metabolite identified by mass spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis as methylene-N-(hydroxymethyl)-hydroxylamine-N'-(hydroxymethyl)nitroamin e. The bacterium also used s-triazine as a sole source of nitrogen but not the structurally similar compounds octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, cyanuric acid, and melamine. An inducible RDX-degrading activity was present in crude cell extracts. PMID:7747953

Binks, P R; Nicklin, S; Bruce, N C

1995-01-01

54

Introducing a salt bridge into the lipase of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia results in a very large increase in thermal stability.  

PubMed

High thermostability of enzymes is a prerequisite for their biotechnological applications. An organic solvent-tolerant and cold-active lipase, from the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, was unstable above 40 °C in previous studies. To increase the enzyme stability, possible hydrogen-bond networks were simulated by the introduction of a salt bridge in a highly flexible region of the protein. Compared with the wild-type lipase, a mutant lipase (G165D and F73R) showed a >900-fold improvement in half-life at 50 °C, with the optimal activity-temperature increasing from 35 to 90 °C. Therefore, the hydrogen-bond strategy is a powerful approach for improving enzyme stability through the introduction of a salt bridge. PMID:25257598

Wu, Jian-Ping; Li, Mu; Zhou, Yong; Yang, Li-Rong; Xu, Gang

2015-02-01

55

Purification and characterization of novel organic solvent tolerant 98kDa alkaline protease from isolated Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain SK.  

PubMed

Ability of microorganisms to grow at alkaline pH makes them an attractive target for several industrial applications. Thus, search for new extremozyme producing microorganisms must be a continuous exercise. Hence, we isolated a potent alkaline protease producing bacteria from slaughter house soil. The morphological, biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequencing studies revealed that the isolated bacteria is Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain SK. Alkaline protease from S. maltophilia strain SK was purified by using ammonium sulphate precipitation and DEAE-cellulose ion exchange column chromatography. The purified enzyme was optimally active at pH 9.0 and temperature 40°C with broad substrate specificity. It was observed that the metal ions such as Ca(++), Mg(++) and Fe(+++) completely repressed the enzyme activity. The enzyme was stable in presence of various water miscible solvents like ethanol, methanol, isopropanol at 25% (v/v) concentration and less stable at 37.5% (v/v) concentration. These robust properties of enzyme might be applicable for various applications in detergent and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25462807

Waghmare, Shailesh R; Gurav, Aparna A; Mali, Sonal A; Nadaf, Naiem H; Jadhav, Deepak B; Sonawane, Kailas D

2015-03-01

56

Acanthamoeba and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia keratitis with fungal keratitis in the contralateral eye  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study is to describe the diagnosis, course, and outcome of a case of Acanthamoeba and Stenotrophomonas keratitis with a fungal keratitis in the contralateral eye. Methods A case of Acanthamoeba and Stenotrophomonas keratitis was diagnosed with confocal microscopy and cultures with confocal diagnosis of fungal keratitis in the fellow eye. Results During the initial treatment of the Acanthamoeba and Stenotrophomonas keratitis, the contralateral eye developed a keratitis that demonstrated hyphae in the corneal stroma with confocal microscopy consistent with fungal keratitis. Conclusions Bilateral chronic keratitis cannot be assumed to be caused by the same organism and independent cultures, and confocal microscopy needs to be performed to direct appropriate therapy. PMID:21060673

Mauger, Thomas F; Kuennen, Rebecca Ann; Smith, Reynell Harder; Sawyer, William

2010-01-01

57

Identification and Characterization of a Serious Multidrug Resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain in China  

PubMed Central

An S. maltophilia strain named WJ66 was isolated from a patient; WJ66 showed resistance to more antibiotics than the other S. maltophilia strains. This bacteraemia is resistant to sulphonamides, or fluoroquinolones, while the representative strain of S. maltophilia, K279a, is sensitive to both. To explore drug resistance determinants of this strain, the draft genome sequence of WJ66 was determined and compared to other S. maltophilia sequences. Genome sequencing and genome-wide evolutionary analysis revealed that WJ66 was highly homologous with the strain K279a, but strain WJ66 contained additional antibiotic resistance genes. Further analysis confirmed that strain WJ66 contained an amino acid substitution (Q83L) in fluoroquinolone target GyrA and carried a class 1 integron, with an aadA2 gene in the resistance gene cassette. Homology analysis from the pathogen-host interaction database showed that strain WJ66 lacks raxST and raxA, which is consistent with K279a. Comparative genomic analyses revealed that subtle nucleotide differences contribute to various significant phenotypes in close genetic relationship strains. PMID:25654114

Zhao, Yan; Niu, Wenkai; Sun, Yanxia; Hao, Huaijie; Yu, Dong; Xu, Guangyang; Shang, Xueyi; Tang, Xueping; Lu, Sijing; Li, Yan

2015-01-01

58

Susceptibility of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Clinical Isolates to Antibiotics and Contact Lens Multipurpose Disinfecting Solutions.  

PubMed

Purpose:To determine the susceptibility of S. maltophilia to various antibiotics and contact lens multipurpose disinfecting solutions. Methods:Forty S. maltophilia strains from contact lens cases, contact lenses, or eye swabs of contact lens wearers including from 27 asymptomatic wearers and 13 keratitis patients were examined for their susceptibility to different antibiotics using a disc diffusion assay, and to multipurpose disinfecting solutions using a broth microdilution method. Results: Certain strains were resistant to aztreonum (15%), imipenem (93%), chroramphenicol (13%) and cefepime (8%). Two of those strains were multi-drug resistant. All strains were sensitive to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, ceftazidime, and fluoroquinolones. Overall the MIC for all strains was significantly higher (p<0.05) for AQuify® (50% dilution) and OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH® (25%) than all other MPDS (3-14%; except RepleniSH vs. Menicare™ Soft (14%)). AQuify®, OPTI-FREE® RepleniSH® Menicare™ Soft had significantly higher minimum bactericidal concentrations (undiluted MPDS) than other disinfecting solutions (p <0.05). Conclusions: The Australian ocular isolates of S. maltophilia remain susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethozole, tigecycline, and most of fluoroquinolones. However, the isolates showed resistance to certain multipurpose disinfecting solutions. PMID:25468893

Watanabe, Keizo; Zhu, Hua; Willcox, Mark Dp

2014-12-01

59

A Linkage between SmeIJK Efflux Pump, Cell Envelope Integrity, and ?E-Mediated Envelope Stress Response in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia  

PubMed Central

Resistance nodulation division (RND) efflux pumps, such as the SmeIJK pump of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, are known to contribute to the multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. However, some RND pumps are constitutively expressed even though no antimicrobial stresses occur, implying that there should be some physical implications for these RND pumps. In this study, the role of SmeIJK in antimicrobials resistance, envelope integrity, and ?E-mediated envelope stress response (ESR) of S. maltophilia was assessed. SmeIJK was involved in the intrinsic resistance of S. maltophilia KJ to aminoglycosides and leucomycin. Compared with the wild-type KJ, the smeIJK deletion mutant exhibited growth retardation in the MH medium, an increased sensitivity to membrane-damaging agents (MDAs), as well as activation of an ?E-mediated ESR. Moreover, the expression of smeIJK was further induced by sub-lethal concentrations of MDAs or surfactants in an ?E-dependent manner. These data collectively suggested an alternative physiological role of smeIJK in cell envelope integrity maintenance and ?E-mediated ESR beyond the efflux of antibiotics. Because of the necessity of the physiological role of SmeIJK in protecting S. maltophilia from the envelope stress, smeIJK is constitutively expressed, which, in turn, contributes the intrinsic resistance to aminoglycoside and leucomycin. This is the first demonstration of the linkage among RND-type efflux pump, cell envelope integrity, and ?E-mediated ESR in S. maltophilia. PMID:25390933

Huang, Yi-Wei; Liou, Rung-Shiuan; Lin, Yi-Tsung; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Yang, Tsuey-Ching

2014-01-01

60

Persistent Organic Pollutants Induced Protein Expression and Immunocrossreactivity by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PM102: A Prospective Bioremediating Candidate  

PubMed Central

A novel bacterium capable of growth on trichloroethylene as the sole carbon source was identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PM102 by 16S rDNA sequencing (accession number of NCBI GenBank: JQ797560). In this paper, we report the growth pattern, TCE degradation, and total proteome of this bacterium in presence of various other carbon sources: toluene, phenol, glucose, chloroform, and benzene. TCE degradation was comparatively enhanced in presence of benzene. Densitometric analysis of the intracellular protein profile revealed four proteins of 78.6, 35.14, 26.2, and 20.47?kDa while the extracellular protein profile revealed two distinct bands at 14?kDa and 11?kDa that were induced by TCE, benzene, toluene, and chloroform but absent in the glucose lane. A rabbit was immunised with the total protein extracted from the bacteria grown in 0.2% TCE + 0.2% peptone. Antibody preadsorbed on proteins from peptone grown PM102 cells reacted with a single protein of 35.14?kDa (analysed by MALDI-TOF-mass-spectrometry) from TCE, benzene, toluene, or chloroform grown cells. No reaction was seen for proteins of PM102 grown with glucose. The PM102 strain was immobilised in calcium alginate beads, and TCE degradation by immobilised cells was almost double of that by free cells. The beads could be reused 8 times. PMID:23878815

Mukherjee, Piyali; Roy, Pranab

2013-01-01

61

Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Efficacy of Extracellular Silver Nanoparticles Biofabricated from Chromium Reducing Novel OS4 Strain of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia  

PubMed Central

Biofabricated metal nanoparticles are generally biocompatible, inexpensive, and ecofriendly, therefore, are used preferably in industries, medical and material science research. Considering the importance of biofabricated materials, we isolated, characterized and identified a novel bacterial strain OS4 of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (GenBank: JN247637.1). At neutral pH, this Gram negative bacterial strain significantly reduced hexavalent chromium, an important heavy metal contaminant found in the tannery effluents and minings. Subsequently, even at room temperature the supernatant of log phase grown culture of strain OS4 also reduced silver nitrate (AgNO3) to generate nanoparticles (AgNPs). These AgNPs were further characterized by UV–visible, Nanophox particle size analyzer, XRD, SEM and FTIR. As evident from the FTIR data, plausibly the protein components of supernatant caused the reduction of AgNO3. The cuboid and homogenous AgNPs showed a characteristic UV-visible peak at 428 nm with average size of ?93 nm. The XRD spectra exhibited the characteristic Bragg peaks of 111, 200, 220 and 311 facets of the face centred cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. From the nanoparticle release kinetics data, the rapid release of AgNPs was correlated with the particle size and increasing surface area of the nanoparticles. A highly significant antimicrobial activity against medically important bacteria by the biofabricated AgNPs was also revealed as decline in growth of Staphylococcus aureus (91%), Escherichia coli (69%) and Serratia marcescens (66%) substantially. Additionally, different cytotoxic assays showed no toxicity of AgNPs to liver function, RBCs, splenocytes and HeLa cells, hence these particles were safe to use. Therefore, this novel bacterial strain OS4 is likely to provide broad spectrum benefits for curing chromium polluted sites, for biofabrication of AgNPs and ultimately in the nanoparticle based drug formulation for the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:23555625

Oves, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Zaidi, Almas; Ahmed, Arham S.; Ahmed, Faheem; Ahmad, Ejaz; Sherwani, Asif; Owais, Mohammad; Azam, Ameer

2013-01-01

62

Risk Factors and Outcomes of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Bacteraemia: A Comparison with Bacteraemia Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter Species  

PubMed Central

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SM) is an important nosocomial pathogen that exhibits intrinsic resistance to various antimicrobial agents. However, the risk factors for SM bacteraemia have not been sufficiently evaluated. From January 2005 to September 2012, we retrospectively compared the clinical backgrounds and outcomes of SM bacteraemic patients (SM group) with those of bacteraemic patients due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA group) or Acinetobacter species (AC group). DNA genotyping of the SM isolates using the Diversilab system was performed to investigate the genetic relationships among the isolates. The SM, PA, and AC groups included 54, 167, and 69 patients, respectively. Nine of 17 patients in the SM group receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis developed SM bacteraemia. Independent risk factors for SM bacteraemia were the use of carbapenems and antipseudomonal cephalosporins and SM isolation within 30 days prior to the onset of bacteraemia. Earlier SM isolation was observed in 32 of 48 patients (66.7%) with SM bacteraemia who underwent clinical microbiological examinations. Of these 32 patients, 15 patients (46.9%) had the same focus of bacteraemia as was found in the previous isolation site. The 30-day all-cause mortality rate among the SM group (33.3%) was higher than that of the PA group (21.5%, p?=?0.080) and the AC group (17.3%, p?=?0.041). The independent factor that was associated with 30-day mortality was the SOFA score. DNA genotyping of SM isolates and epidemiological data suggested that no outbreak had occurred. SM bacteraemia was associated with high mortality and should be considered in patients with recent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics or in patients with recent isolation of the organism. PMID:25375244

Hotta, Go; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Kato, Karin; Nakano, Satoshi; Yunoki, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nagao, Miki; Ito, Yutaka; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

2014-01-01

63

[Risk factors and clinical charasteristics of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteremia: a comparison with bacteremia due to other glucose-non fermenters].  

PubMed

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SM) is an important nosocomial pathogen. Due to its intrinsic resistance to various therapeutic drugs, the optimal antimicrobial therapy is often delayed. From January 2005 to September 2012, we retrospectively compared drug susceptibilities, clinical backgrounds, and outcome of SM bacteremic patients (SM group) with these of other non fermentative gram negative bacilli bacteremic patients (non-SM group), at a tertiary-care hospital in Kyoto, Japan. Among the SM group, risk factors of 30-day mortality were evaluated. The SM group and non-SM group included 54 and 237 cases, respectively. Among the non-SM group, bacteremic patients due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter species, and other non-fermentative gram negative bacilli included 156, 68, and 13 patients, respectively. SM isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and minocycline (82.0% and 100%, respectively). Non-SM isolates were susceptible to meropenem (88.6%), ceftazidime (88.6%), cefepime (85.2%), and amikacin (97.0%). Both SM and non-SM isolates were susceptible to levofloxacin (87.5% and 82.0%, respectively). The use of carbapenems, antipseudomonal cephalosporins, and isolation of SM within 30 days represented an independent risk factor for SM bacteremia. The 30 day mortality rate among the SM group was significantly higher compared with the non-SM group (35% vs 18%, odds ratio: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-4.3 p = 0.012). Among the SM group, an independent factor which was associated with 30-day mortality was the SOFA score. SM bacteremia showed a worse outcome compared with bacteremia due to non-SM. For the patients who present risk factors for SM bacteremia, empirical antimicrobial therapy including trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, minocycline or levofloxacin should be considered. PMID:24195169

Hotta, Gou; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Kato, Karin; Nakano, Satoshi; Yunoki, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nagao, Miki; Ito, Yutaka; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

2013-09-01

64

A novel bacterial isolate Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as living factory for synthesis of gold nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Background The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has received considerable attention with their potential applications in various life sciences related applications. Recently, there has been tremendous excitement in the study of nanoparticles synthesis by using some natural biological system, which has led to the development of various biomimetic approaches for the growth of advanced nanomaterials. In the present study, we have demonstrated the synthesis of gold nanoparticles by a novel bacterial strain isolated from a site near the famous gold mines in India. A promising mechanism for the biosynthesis of GNPs by this strain and their stabilization via charge capping was investigated. Results A bacterial isolate capable of gold nanoparticle synthesis was isolated and identified as a novel strain of Stenotrophomonas malophilia (AuRed02) based on its morphology and an analysis of its 16S rDNA gene sequence. After 8 hrs of incubation, monodisperse preparation of gold nanoparticles was obtained. Gold nanoparticles were characterized and found to be of ~40 nm size. Electrophoresis, Zeta potential and FTIR measurements confirmed that the particles are capped with negatively charged phosphate groups from NADP rendering them stable in aqueous medium. Conclusion The process of synthesis of well-dispersed nanoparticles using a novel microorganism isolated from the gold enriched soil sample has been reported in this study, leading to the development of an easy bioprocess for synthesis of GNPs. This is the first study in which an extensive characterization of the indigenous bacterium isolated from the actual gold enriched soil was conducted. Promising mechanism for the biosynthesis of GNPs by the strain and their stabilization via charge capping is suggested, which involves an NADPH-dependent reductase enzyme that reduces Au3+ to Au0 through electron shuttle enzymatic metal reduction process. PMID:19619318

Nangia, Yogesh; Wangoo, Nishima; Goyal, Nisha; Shekhawat, G; Suri, C Raman

2009-01-01

65

In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Chlorogenic Acid against Clinical Isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia including the Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Resistant Strain  

PubMed Central

The in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of chlorogenic acid against clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was investigated through disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), time-kill and biofilm assays. A total of 9 clinical S. maltophilia isolates including one isolate resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) were tested. The inhibition zone sizes for the isolates ranged from 17 to 29?mm, while the MIC and MBC values ranged from 8 to 16??g mL?1 and 16 to 32??g mL?1. Chlorogenic acid appeared to be strongly bactericidal at 4x MIC, with a 2-log reduction in viable bacteria at 10?h. In vitro antibiofilm testing showed a 4-fold reduction in biofilm viability at 4x MIC compared to 1x MIC values (0.085 < 0.397 A 490?nm) of chlorogenic acid. The data from this study support the notion that the chlorogenic acid has promising in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against S. maltophilia. PMID:23509719

Karunanidhi, Arunkumar; Thomas, Renjan; van Belkum, Alex; Neela, Vasanthakumari

2013-01-01

66

Modification of surface and enzymatic properties of Achromobacter denitrificans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in association with diesel oil biodegradation enhanced with alkyl polyglucosides.  

PubMed

The article concerns the influence of selected alkyl polyglucosides on biodegradation, cell surface and enzymatic properties of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter denitrificans. The biodegradation of diesel oil depends on several factors including type and the amount of surfactant as well as bacterial genera used in the process. Nevertheless, a careful selection of these variables must be made as some bacterial strains prefer to use surfactants as their carbon source. This leads to the lowered biodegradation of diesel oil as can be observed for the tested S. maltophilia strain. Alkyl polyglucosides influenced the cell surface properties of both of the tested strains in slightly different ways. Especially for A. denitrificans, for which the hydrophobicity increased with concentration of both--Lutensol GD 70 and Glucopon 215 in diesel oil-surfactant systems. Moreover, judging by the efficiency of biodegradation, the most effective process was observed in the presence of Lutensol GD 70 (240 and 360 mg L(-1)) with biodegradation rising from 32% (without surfactant) to 68%. No such relation was observed for S. maltophilia. PMID:23777790

Sa?ek, Karina; Zgo?a-Grze?kowiak, Agnieszka; Kaczorek, Ewa

2013-11-01

67

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole mediated by acquisition of sul and dfrA genes in a plasmid-mediated class 1 integron.  

PubMed

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is becoming a more and more common cause of infections. In this study, the minimal inhibitory concentrations of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT), ceftazidime, minocycline, levofloxacin, chloramphenicol and ticarcillin/clavulanic acid were determined and the distribution of integrons and sul1, sul2 and dfrA genes was investigated in 102 S. maltophilia isolates collected from patients treated in 31 hospitals in Anhui, China, in the month of September in 2006-2008. The rate of resistance to SXT was up to 30.4%, and 64.7% of isolates were class 1 integron-positive. Sequencing data revealed the following novel gene cassettes embedded in class 1 integrons: dfrA17-aadA5; dfrA12-aadA2; aacA4-catB8-aadA1; aadB-aac(6')-II-bla(CARB-8); and arr-3-aacA4. This is the first report of the gene cassettes dfrA17-aadA5 and dfrA12-aadA2 and of sul2 genes in SXT-resistant S. maltophilia isolates in China. None of the SXT-susceptible S. maltophilia isolates were positive for sul2 or dfrA gene products by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), but PCR products for sul1 were detected in 27 SXT-susceptible and 25 SXT-resistant isolates. The findings from this study indicate that the sul1 gene, in combination with dfrA17 and dfrA12 gene cassettes and sul2 genes located within a 7.3kb plasmid, lead to a high rate of SXT resistance and also confirm the need for ongoing resistance surveillance. PMID:21296557

Hu, Li-Fen; Chang, Xiao; Ye, Ying; Wang, Zhong-Xin; Shao, Yi-Bo; Shi, Wei; Li, Xu; Li, Jia-Bin

2011-03-01

68

Rapid genotyping of Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates using melting curve analysis of RAPD-generated DNA fragments (McRAPD).  

PubMed

Typing of bacteria is important for monitoring newly emerging pathogens and for examining local outbreaks. We evaluated the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA technique in combination with melting curve analysis (McRAPD) of the amplified DNA fragments to genotype isolates from five Gram-negative species, i.e. Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. By determining the melting temperature peaks of the amplified DNA fragments, we were able to distinguish the different genotypes of isolates, as they had been assessed by other genotyping techniques, i.e. agarose gel electrophoresis of RAPD fragments, multilocus sequence typing and/or AFLP™. According to our results, McRAPD may offer the possibility of genotyping a limited number of bacterial isolates, e.g. in case of suspicion of hospital outbreak, via a less costly, more rapid, less laborious and more user-friendly technique than RAPD followed by electrophoresis. PMID:21320595

Deschaght, Pieter; Van Simaey, Leen; Decat, Ellen; Van Mechelen, Els; Brisse, Sylvain; Vaneechoutte, Mario

2011-05-01

69

Potential novel therapeutic strategies in cystic fibrosis: antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity of natural and designed ?-helical peptides against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment of cystic fibrosis-associated lung infections is hampered by the presence of multi-drug resistant pathogens, many of which are also strong biofilm producers. Antimicrobial peptides, essential components of innate immunity in humans and animals, exhibit relevant in vitro antimicrobial activity although they tend not to select for resistant strains. Results Three ?-helical antimicrobial peptides, BMAP-27 and BMAP-28 of bovine origin, and the artificial P19(9/B) peptide were tested, comparatively to Tobramycin, for their in vitro antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity against 15 Staphylococcus aureus, 25 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 27 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains from cystic fibrosis patients. All assays were carried out in physical-chemical experimental conditions simulating a cystic fibrosis lung. All peptides showed a potent and rapid bactericidal activity against most P. aeruginosa, S. maltophilia and S. aureus strains tested, at levels generally higher than those exhibited by Tobramycin and significantly reduced biofilm formation of all the bacterial species tested, although less effectively than Tobramycin did. On the contrary, the viability-reducing activity of antimicrobial peptides against preformed P. aeruginosa biofilms was comparable to and, in some cases, higher than that showed by Tobramycin. Conclusions The activity shown by ?-helical peptides against planktonic and biofilm cells makes them promising “lead compounds” for future development of novel drugs for therapeutic treatment of cystic fibrosis lung disease. PMID:22823964

2012-01-01

70

Two Different rpf Clusters Distributed among a Population of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Clinical Strains Display Differential Diffusible Signal Factor Production and Virulence Regulation  

PubMed Central

The quorum-sensing (QS) system present in the emerging nosocomial pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is based on the signaling molecule diffusible signal factor (DSF). Production and detection of DSF are governed by the rpf cluster, which encodes the synthase RpfF and the sensor RpfC, among other components. Despite a well-studied system, little is known about its implication in virulence regulation in S. maltophilia. Here, we have analyzed the rpfF gene from 82 S. maltophilia clinical isolates. Although rpfF was found to be present in all of the strains, it showed substantial variation, with two populations (rpfF-1 and rpfF-2) clearly distinguishable by the N-terminal region of the protein. Analysis of rpfC in seven complete genome sequences revealed a corresponding variability in the N-terminal transmembrane domain of its product, suggesting that each RpfF variant has an associated RpfC variant. We show that only RpfC–RpfF-1 variant strains display detectable DSF production. Heterologous rpfF complementation of ?rpfF mutants of a representative strain of each variant suggests that RpfF-2 is, however, functional and that the observed DSF-deficient phenotype of RpfC–RpfF-2 variant strains is due to permanent repression of RpfF-2 by RpfC-2. This is corroborated by the ?rpfC mutant of the RpfC–RpfF-2 representative strain. In line with this observations, deletion of rpfF from the RpfC–RpfF-1 strain leads to an increase in biofilm formation, a decrease in swarming motility, and relative attenuation in the Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish infection models, whereas deletion of the same gene from the representative RpfC–RpfF-2 strain has no significant effect on these virulence-related phenotypes. PMID:24769700

Huedo, Pol; Yero, Daniel; Martínez-Servat, Sònia; Estibariz, Iratxe; Planell, Raquel; Martínez, Paula; Ruyra, Àngels; Roher, Nerea; Roca, Ignasi; Vila, Jordi

2014-01-01

71

Delineation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates from cystic fibrosis patients by fatty acid methyl ester profiles and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra using hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis.  

PubMed

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunist multidrug-resistant pathogen that causes a wide range of nosocomial infections. Various cystic fibrosis (CF) centres have reported an increasing prevalence of S. maltophilia colonization/infection among patients with this disease. The purpose of this study was to assess specific fingerprints of S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients (n?=?71) by investigating fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) through gas chromatography (GC) and highly abundant proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and to compare them with isolates obtained from intensive care unit (ICU) patients (n?=?20) and the environment (n?=?11). Principal component analysis (PCA) of GC-FAME patterns did not reveal a clustering corresponding to distinct CF, ICU or environmental types. Based on the peak area index, it was observed that S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients produced significantly higher amounts of fatty acids in comparison with ICU patients and the environmental isolates. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) based on the MALDI-TOF MS peak profiles of S. maltophilia revealed the presence of five large clusters, suggesting a high phenotypic diversity. Although HCA of MALDI-TOF mass spectra did not result in distinct clusters predominantly composed of CF isolates, PCA revealed the presence of a distinct cluster composed of S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients. Our data suggest that S. maltophilia colonizing CF patients tend to modify not only their fatty acid patterns but also their protein patterns as a response to adaptation in the unfavourable environment of the CF lung. PMID:25266870

Vidigal, Pedrina Gonçalves; Mosel, Frank; Koehling, Hedda Luise; Mueller, Karl Dieter; Buer, Jan; Rath, Peter Michael; Steinmann, Joerg

2014-12-01

72

Biodegradation of wool waste and keratinase production in scale-up fermenter with different strategies by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia BBE11-1.  

PubMed

A keratin-degrading strain Stenotrophomonas maltophilia BBE11-1 was grown in a 3-L batch fermenter containing wool waste as the main medium and cell growth rate was determined as the key factor to affect keratinase yield. Three strategies of temperature-shift procedure, two-stage DO control and fed-batch process were used to change growth rate. And a 62.2% improvement of keratinase yield was achieved. With the glucose fed-batch procedure in 30-L fermenter, keratinase production was significantly improved up to 117.7% (1728 U/ml) as compared with initial data (793.8 U/ml) in a 3-L fermenter and with much shortened fermentation time within 18 h. Significant structure changes and high levels of free amino acids from wool decomposition indicated the possible applications for wool waste management and fertilizer industry. The remarkable digestion of wool cuticle also suggested its potential utilization in textile industry. PMID:23708787

Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Juan; Liu, Baihong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

2013-07-01

73

Stenotrophomonas, Mycobacterium, and Streptomyces in home dust and air: associations with moldiness and other home/family characteristics  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Aims: (1) To investigate the dustborne and airborne bacterial concentrations of three emerging moisture-related bacteria: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Streptomyces, and Mycobacterium. (2) To study the association between these bacteria concentrations and Environmenta...

74

The versatility and adaptation of bacteria from the genus Stenotrophomonas  

SciTech Connect

The genus Stenotrophomonas comprises at least eight species. These bacteria are found throughout the environment, particularly in close association with plants. Strains of the most predominant species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, have an extraordinary range of activities that include beneficial effects for plant growth and health, the breakdown of natural and man-made pollutants that are central to bioremediation and phytoremediation strategies and the production of biomolecules of economic value, as well as detrimental effects, such as multidrug resistance, in human pathogenic strains. Here, we discuss the versatility of the bacteria in the genus Stenotrophomonas and the insight that comparative genomic analysis of clinical and endophytic isolates of S. maltophilia has brought to our understanding of the adaptation of this genus to various niches.

Ryan, R.P.; van der Lelie, D.; Monchy, S.; Cardinale, M.; Taghavi, S.; Crossman, L.; Avison, M. B.; Berg, G.; Dow, J. M.

2009-07-01

75

Reductive degradation of pyrazine-2-carboxylate by a newly isolated Stenotrophomonas sp. HCU1.  

PubMed

A bacterium growing on pyrazine-2-carboxylate broth was isolated, purified and identified as a strain of Stenotrophomonas sp. based on polyphasic taxonomic analyses and designated as strain HCU1. 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain HCU1 showed 98.7% sequence similarity with the type strain of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia belonging to Gammaproteobacteria. Growth of strain HCU1 was demonstrated when pyrazine-2-carboxylate was used as a sole source of nitrogen. Ring reduction of pyrazine-2-carboxylate was shown as increase in absorbance at 268 nm and the reduced product was confirmed as 1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyrazine-2-carboxylate, while a ring opened product, 2-amino-2-hydroxy-3-(methylamino) propanoic acid (with a loss in carbon atom), indicated a reductive degradation of pyrazine-2-carboxylate by strain HCU1. PMID:20217461

Rajini, K S; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

2010-09-01

76

Heavy Metal Tolerance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Delphine Pages1,2,3  

E-print Network

-sized electron-dense Se0 granules and Te0 crystals. Moreover, this bacterium can withstand up to 2 mM CdCl2 metals showed eightfold increase of the intracellular pool of cysteine only in response to cadmium. Measurements by Cd K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy indicated the formation of Cd-S clusters in strain Sm777. Cysteine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

77

Stenotrophomonas, achromobacter, and nonmelioid burkholderia species: antimicrobial resistance and therapeutic strategies.  

PubMed

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and nonmelioid Burkholderia species, namely, Burkholderia cepacia complex, collectively are a group of troublesome nonfermenters. Although not inherently virulent organisms, these environmental Gram negatives can complicate treatment in those who are immunocompromised, critically ill in the intensive care unit and those patients with suppurative lung disease, such as cystic fibrosis. Through a range of intrinsic antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, virulence factors, and the ability to survive in biofilms, these opportunistic pathogens are well suited to persist, both in the environment and the host. Treatment recommendations are hindered by the difficulties in laboratory identification, the lack of reproducibility of antimicrobial susceptibility testing, the lack of clinical breakpoints, and the absence of clinical outcome data. Despite trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole often being the mainstay of treatment, resistance is widely encountered, and alternative regimens, including combination therapy, are often used. This review will highlight the important aspects and unique challenges that these three nonfermenters pose, and, in the absence of clinical outcome data, our therapeutic recommendations will be based on reported antimicrobial susceptibility and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profiles. PMID:25643274

Abbott, Iain J; Peleg, Anton Y

2015-02-01

78

De-novo synthesis of 2-phenylethanol by Enterobacter sp. CGMCC 5087  

PubMed Central

Background 2-phenylethanl (2-PE) and its derivatives are important chemicals, which are widely used in food materials and fine chemical industries and polymers and it’s also a potentially valuable alcohol for next-generation biofuel. However, the biosynthesis of 2-PE are mainly biotransformed from phenylalanine, the price of which barred the production. Therefore, it is necessary to seek more sustainable technologies for 2-PE production. Results A new strain which produces 2-PE through the phenylpyruvate pathway was isolated and identified as Enterobacter sp. CGMCC 5087. The strain is able to use renewable monosaccharide as the carbon source and NH4Cl as the nitrogen source to produce 2-PE. Two genes of rate-limiting enzymes, chorismate mutase p-prephenate dehydratase (PheA) and 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonic acid 7-phosphate synthase (DAHP), were cloned from Escherichia coli and overexpressed in E. sp. CGMCC 5087. The engineered E. sp. CGMCC 5087 produces 334.9 mg L-1 2-PE in 12 h, which is 3.26 times as high as the wild strain. Conclusions The phenylpyruvate pathway and the substrate specificity of 2-keto-acid decarboxylase towards phenylpyruvate were found in E. sp. CGMCC 5087. Combined with the low-cost monosaccharide as the substrate, the finding provides a novel and potential way for 2-PE production. PMID:24766677

2014-01-01

79

Selective medium for isolation of Xanthomonas maltophilia from soil and rhizosphere environments.  

PubMed Central

A selective medium (XMSM) was developed for isolation of Xanthomonas maltophilia from bulk soil and plant rhizosphere environments. The XMSM basal medium contained maltose, tryptone, bromthymol blue, and agar. Antibiotics added to select for X. maltophilia were cycloheximide, nystatin, cephalexin, bacitracin, penicillin G, novobiocin, neomycin sulfate, and tobramycin. A comparison was made between XMSM and 1/10-strength tryptic soy broth agar for recovery of X. maltophilia from sterile and nonsterile soil infested with known X. maltophilia isolates. A recovery rate of 97% or greater for XMSM was demonstrated. XMSM was used to isolate X. maltophilia from a variety of soil and rhizosphere environments. PMID:2930173

Juhnke, M E; des Jardin, E

1989-01-01

80

Effect of temperature on antimicrobial susceptibilities of Pseudomonas maltophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a case of peritonitis caused by Pseudomonas maltophilia had occurred 20 strains of the organism were investigated and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of a variety of antibiotics determined at 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C. There was a significant difference in susceptibility between 30 degrees C (most resistant) and 37 degrees C (most susceptible) for aminoglycosides and polymyxin

P F Wheat; T G Winstanley; R C Spencer

1985-01-01

81

Efficient Production of Lactic Acid from Sweet Sorghum Juice by a Newly Isolated Lactobacillus salivarius CGMCC 7.75.  

PubMed

Sweet sorghum juice was a cheap and renewable resource, and also a potential carbon source for the fermentation production of lactic acid (LA) by a lactic acid bacterium. One newly isolated strain Lactobacillus salivarius CGMCC 7.75 showed the ability to produce the highest yield and optical purity of LA from sweet sorghum juice. Studies of feeding different concentrations of sweet sorghum juice and nitrogen source suggested the optimal concentrations of fermentation were 325 ml l(-1) and 20 g l(-1), respectively. This combination produced 142.49 g l(-1) LA with a productivity level of 0.90 g of LA per gram of sugars consumed. The results indicated the high LA concentration achieved using L. salivarius CGMCC 7.75 not only gives cheap industrial product, but also broaden the application of sweet sorghum. PMID:24426133

Liu, Quanlan; Wang, Shanglong; Zhi, Jian-Fei; Ming, Henglei; Teng, Dawei

2013-09-01

82

Surface and biological activity of sophorolipid molecules produced by Wickerhamiella domercqiae var. sophorolipid CGMCC 1576.  

PubMed

This work investigated the surface and biological activity of lactonic and acidic sophorolipid (SL) molecules differing in the acetylation degree of sophorose, carbon chain length and unsaturation degree of the fatty acid moiety. Six different SL molecules were prepared from crude SLs produced by Wickerhamiella domercqiae var. sophorolipid CGMCC 1576. The structures of the selected SL molecules were elucidated by MS and GC/MS. The surface properties of SLs including critical micelle concentration (CMC), minimum surface tension (Min. S.T.) and emulsification capacity to hydrocarbon and vegetable oils were studied, and the results demonstrated that SL molecules with different structures exhibited quite different surface properties. Cytotoxicities of different SL molecules to Chang liver cells determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) method showed the effect of chemical structure of the SLs on their biological activities. Biodegradability of these SL molecules was tested using the river-water die-away method. The differences of surface and biological activity in different SL molecules will be of benefit for the applications of these SLs in specific fields such as the detergent, petroleum, pharmaceutical and environment industries. PMID:22459028

Ma, Xiaojing; Li, Hui; Song, Xin

2012-06-15

83

Screening, identification and culture optimization of a newly isolated aromatic nitrilase-producing bacterium--Pseudomonas putida CGMCC3830.  

PubMed

Microbial nitrilases have attracted increasing attention in nitrile hydrolysis for carboxylic acid production in recent years. A bacterium with nitrilase activity was isolated and identified as Pseudomonas putida CGMCC3830 based on its morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics, as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence. The nitrilase production was optimized by varying culture conditions using the one-factor-at-a-time method and response surface methodology. Glycerol 13.54 g/L, tryptone 11.59 g/L, yeast extract 5.21 g/L, KH2PO4 1 g/L, NaCl 1 g/L, urea 1 g/L, initial pH 6.0 and culture temperature 30 degrees C were proved to be the optimal culture conditions. It resulted in the maximal nitrilase production of 36.12 U/mL from 2.02 U/mL. Investigations on substrate specificity demonstrate P. putida nitrilase preferentially hydrolyze aromatic nitriles. When applied in nicotinic acid synthesis, 2 mg/mL P. putida cells completely hydrolyzed 20.8 g/L 3-cyanopyridine into nicotinic acid in 90 min. The results indicated P. putida CGMCC3830 displayed potential for industrial production of nicotinic acid. PMID:25007577

Zhu, Xiaoyan; Gong, Jinsong; Li, Heng; Lu, Zhenming; Zhou, Zhemin; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong

2014-03-01

84

Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the OleC protein from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia involved in head-to-head hydrocarbon biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

OleC, a biosynthetic enzyme involved in microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis, has been crystallized. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 3.4?Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P3121 or P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 98.8, c = 141.0?Å. PMID:20823539

Frias, Janice A.; Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

2010-01-01

85

Degradation Potential of Protocatechuate 3,4-Dioxygenase from Crude Extract of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain KB2 Immobilized in Calcium Alginate Hydrogels and on Glyoxyl Agarose  

PubMed Central

Microbial intradiol dioxygenases have been shown to have a great potential for bioremediation; however, their structure is sensitive to various environmental and chemical agents. Immobilization techniques allow for the improvement of enzyme properties. This is the first report on use of glyoxyl agarose and calcium alginate as matrixes for the immobilization of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase. Multipoint attachment of the enzyme to the carrier caused maintenance of its initial activity during the 21 days. Immobilization of dioxygenase in calcium alginate or on glyoxyl agarose resulted in decrease in the optimum temperature by 5°C and 10°C, respectively. Entrapment of the enzyme in alginate gel shifted its optimum pH towards high-alkaline pH while immobilization of the enzyme on glyoxyl agarose did not influence pH profile of the enzyme. Protocatechuate 3,4-dioygenase immobilized in calcium alginate showed increased activity towards 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate, caffeic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate. Slightly lower activity of the enzyme was observed after its immobilization on glyoxyl agarose. Entrapment of the enzyme in alginate gel protected it against chelators and aliphatic alcohols while its immobilization on glyoxyl agarose enhanced enzyme resistance to inactivation by metal ions. PMID:24693536

Krysiak, Marta

2014-01-01

86

Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the impact of a Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 (LPR) supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women over 24 weeks. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial, each subject consumed two capsules per d of either a placebo or a LPR formulation (1.6 × 10(8) colony-forming units of LPR/capsule with oligofructose and inulin). Each group was submitted to moderate energy restriction for the first 12 weeks followed by 12 weeks of weight maintenance. Body weight and composition were measured at baseline, at week 12 and at week 24. The intention-to-treat analysis showed that after the first 12 weeks and after 24 weeks, mean weight loss was not significantly different between the LPR and placebo groups when all the subjects were considered. However, a significant treatment × sex interaction was observed. The mean weight loss in women in the LPR group was significantly higher than that in women in the placebo group (P = 0.02) after the first 12 weeks, whereas it was similar in men in the two groups (P= 0.53). Women in the LPR group continued to lose body weight and fat mass during the weight-maintenance period, whereas opposite changes were observed in the placebo group. Changes in body weight and fat mass during the weight-maintenance period were similar in men in both the groups. LPR-induced weight loss in women was associated not only with significant reductions in fat mass and circulating leptin concentrations but also with the relative abundance of bacteria of the Lachnospiraceae family in faeces. The present study shows that the Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 formulation helps obese women to achieve sustainable weight loss. PMID:24299712

Sanchez, Marina; Darimont, Christian; Drapeau, Vicky; Emady-Azar, Shahram; Lepage, Melissa; Rezzonico, Enea; Ngom-Bru, Catherine; Berger, Bernard; Philippe, Lionel; Ammon-Zuffrey, Corinne; Leone, Patricia; Chevrier, Genevieve; St-Amand, Emmanuelle; Marette, André; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo

2014-04-28

87

Immunoelectron microscopic demonstration of an esterase on the outer membrane of Xanthomonas maltophilia.  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas maltophilia (later synonym of Pseudomonas maltophilia), an ubiquitous species, is known to show proteolytic and lipolytic activities. A cell-bound esterase which hydrolyzes beta-naphthyl acetate during growth has been extracted from a strain isolated from soil. Because of its strongly hydrophobic character, the enzyme could be efficiently solubilized only by Triton X-100. This nonionic detergent must be added in polyacrylamide gels to permit migration. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against the Triton-soluble esterase complex were used to localize the enzyme at the ultrastructural level. Electron microscopy of cell sections of this organism and immunogold labeling demonstrated that the enzyme was located on the outer membrane. Such an envelope-bound esterase may produce assimilable substrates for X. maltophilia which can grow in various environments. Images PMID:2495761

Debette, J; Prensier, G

1989-01-01

88

Sophorolipid production from delignined corncob residue by Wickerhamiella domercqiae var. sophorolipid CGMCC 1576 and Cryptococcus curvatus ATCC 96219.  

PubMed

Delignined corncob residue hydrolysate (DCCRH) and detoxified DCCRH were used for single cell oil (SCO) and single cell protein (SCP) production of Cryptococcus curvatus ATCC 96219 and for sophorolipid (SL) production of Wickerhamiella domercqiae var. sophorolipid CGMCC 1576. Both C. curvatus and W. domercqiae could utilize glucose in DCCRH to grow and accumulate lipids or particle-shaped SLs. DCCRH detoxification by activated carbon adsorption not only improved cell growth and lipid accumulation of C. curvatus but also increased SL production and proportion of lactonic SL in total SL. A total biomass of 17.36 g/l with a lipid content of 44.36 % could be achieved after cultivation of C. curvatus on the detoxified DCCRH. The predominant fatty acids of the produced SCO were oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids (27.2, 20.5, and 15.7 %, respectively). When W. domercqiae cells were cultivated on DCCRH and SCO, total SL production of 39.08 g/l (DCCRH?+?SCO) and 42.06 g/l (detoxified DCCRH?+?SCO) were obtained. Furthermore, when cell lysate of C. curvatus, oleic acid, and DCCRH/detoxified DCCRH was used as nitrogen and carbon sources, total SL production reached 37.19 g/l and 48.97 g/l, respectively. These results demonstrated that renewable DCCRH can be utilized for the production of high-value SCO and SLs. PMID:23532513

Ma, Xiao-jing; Li, Hui; Wang, Dong-xue; Song, Xin

2014-01-01

89

Enhancement of sophorolipid production of Wickerhamiella domercqiae var. sophorolipid CGMCC 1576 by low-energy ion beam implantation.  

PubMed

To meet the increasing demands of sophorolipids as biosurfactants and bioactive compounds, it is necessary to obtain higher and more specific sophorolipid-producing strains. One sophorolipid-producing strain, Wickerhamiella domercqiae var. sophorolipid CGMCC 1576 (Y(2A)), was mutated by low-energy nitrogen ion beam implantation. Eighteen mutants produced 20 % more sophorolipids than the wild strain, and one mutant, N3-18, produced the highest yield of sophorolipids, 104 g/l, in a shaking flask, which increased by 84.71 % than the wild strain, and further elevated to 135 g/l in a 5-l bioreactor. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the composition of every sophorolipid mixture from different strains was similar, while the contents of most components from mutants were higher than that from the wild strain. Two mutants, N1-32 and N3-18, produced more acidic sophorolipid components; three lactonic sophorolipid molecules with good anticancer activities were greatly enhanced in several mutants, especially monoacetylated lactonic sophorolipid with a C18 monounsaturated fatty acid, which were enhanced by 153 and 211 % in strains N1-32 and N3-18. Low-energy nitrogen ion beam implantation was efficient for obtaining a variety of high and specific sophorolipid-producing mutants to be applied in food, cosmetic, environmental, and pharmaceutical sectors. PMID:22562550

Li, Hui; Ma, Xiaojing; Shao, Lingjian; Shen, Jing; Song, Xin

2012-06-01

90

A novel phytase appA from Citrobacter amalonaticus CGMCC 1696: gene cloning and overexpression in Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

A novel phytase gene appA, with upstream and downstream sequences from Citrobacter amalonaticus CGMCC 1696, was cloned by degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL) PCR and was overexpressed in Pichia pastoris. Sequence analysis revealed one open reading frame that consisted of 1311 bp encoding a 436-amino-acid protein, which had a deduced molecular mass of 46.3 kDa. The phytase appA belongs to the histidine acid phosphatase family and exhibits the highest identity (70.1%) with C. braakii phytase. The gene was overexpressed in P. pastoris. The secretion yield of recombinant appA protein was accumulated to approximately 4.2 mg.mL(-1), and the enzyme activity level reached 15,000 U x mL(-1), which is higher than any previous reports. r-appA was glycosylated, as shown by Endo H treatment. r-appA was purified and characterized. The specific activity of r-appA for sodium phytate was 3548 U.mg(-1). The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were 4.5 and 55 degrees C, respectively. r-appA was highly resistant to pepsin or trypsin treatment. This enzyme could be an economic and efficient alternative to the phytases currently used in the feed industry. PMID:17657539

Luo, Huiying; Huang, Huoqing; Yang, Peilong; Wang, Yaru; Yuan, Tiezheng; Wu, Ningfeng; Yao, Bin; Fan, Yunliu

2007-09-01

91

Production of bacterial cellulose by Gluconacetobacter hansenii CGMCC 3917 using only waste beer yeast as nutrient source.  

PubMed

In order to improve the use of waste beer yeast (WBY) for bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter hansenii CGMCC 3917, a two-step pre-treatment was designed. First WBY was treated by 4 methods: 0.1M NaOH treatment, high speed homogenizer, ultrasonication and microwave treatment followed by hydrolysis (121°C, 20 min) under mild acid condition (pH 2). The optimal pre-treatment conditions were evaluated by the reducing sugar yield after hydrolysis. 15% WBY treated by ultrasonication for 40 min had the highest reducing sugar yield (29.19%), followed by NaOH treatment (28.98%), high speed homogenizer (13.33%) and microwaves (13.01%). Treated WBY hydrolysates were directly supplied as only nutrient source for BC production. A sugar concentration of 3% WBY hydrolysates treated by ultrasonication gave the highest BC yield (7.02 g/L), almost 6 times as that from untreated WBY (1.21 g/L). Furthermore, the properties of the BC were as good as those obtained from the conventional chemical media. PMID:24212131

Lin, Dehui; Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia; Li, Rui; Li, Zhixi

2014-01-01

92

Revealing Differences in Metabolic Flux Distributions between a Mutant Strain and Its Parent Strain Gluconacetobacter xylinus CGMCC 2955  

PubMed Central

A better understanding of metabolic fluxes is important for manipulating microbial metabolism toward desired end products, or away from undesirable by-products. A mutant strain, Gluconacetobacter xylinus AX2-16, was obtained by combined chemical mutation of the parent strain (G. xylinus CGMCC 2955) using DEC (diethyl sulfate) and LiCl. The highest bacterial cellulose production for this mutant was obtained at about 11.75 g/L, which was an increase of 62% compared with that by the parent strain. In contrast, gluconic acid (the main byproduct) concentration was only 5.71 g/L for mutant strain, which was 55.7% lower than that of parent strain. Metabolic flux analysis indicated that 40.1% of the carbon source was transformed to bacterial cellulose in mutant strain, compared with 24.2% for parent strain. Only 32.7% and 4.0% of the carbon source were converted into gluconic acid and acetic acid in mutant strain, compared with 58.5% and 9.5% of that in parent strain. In addition, a higher flux of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was obtained in mutant strain (57.0%) compared with parent strain (17.0%). It was also indicated from the flux analysis that more ATP was produced in mutant strain from pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and TCA cycle. The enzymatic activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), which is one of the key enzymes in TCA cycle, was 1.65-fold higher in mutant strain than that in parent strain at the end of culture. It was further validated by the measurement of ATPase that 3.53–6.41 fold higher enzymatic activity was obtained from mutant strain compared with parent strain. PMID:24901455

Liu, Miao; Yang, Xiao-Ning; Zhu, Hui-Xia; Jia, Yuan-Yuan; Jia, Shi-Ru; Piergiovanni, Luciano

2014-01-01

93

Degradation of the neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid via the N-carbamoylimine derivate (IM-1-2) mediated by the nitrile hydratase of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Ensifer meliloti CGMCC 7333.  

PubMed

The metabolism of the widely used neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid (ACE) has been extensively studied in plants, animals, soils, and microbes. However, hydration of the N-cyanoimine group in ACE to the N-carbamoylimine derivate (IM-1-2) by purified microbes, the enzyme responsible for this biotransformation, and further degradation of IM-1-2 have not been studied. The present study used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine that the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Ensifer meliloti CGMCC 7333 transforms ACE to IM-1-2. CGMCC 7333 cells degraded 65.1% of ACE in 96 h, with a half-life of 2.6 days. Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) overexpressing the nitrile hydratase (NHase) from CGMCC 7333 and purified NHase converted ACE to IM-1-2 with degradation ratios of 97.1% in 100 min and 93.9% in 120 min, respectively. Interestingly, IM-1-2 was not further degraded by CGMCC 7333, whereas it was spontaneously hydrolyzed at the N-carbamoylimine group to the derivate ACE-NH, which was further converted to the derivative ACE-NH2. Then, ACE-NH2 was cleaved to the major metabolite IM-1-4. IM-1-2 showed significantly lower insecticidal activity than ACE against the aphid Aphis craccivora Koch. The present findings will improve the understanding of the environmental fate of ACE and the corresponding enzymatic mechanisms of degradation. PMID:25285354

Zhou, Ling-Yan; Zhang, Long-Jiang; Sun, Shi-Lei; Ge, Feng; Mao, Shi-Yun; Ma, Yuan; Liu, Zhong-Hua; Dai, Yi-Jun; Yuan, Sheng

2014-10-15

94

Engineering chlorpyrifos-degrading Stenotrophomonas sp. YC-1 for heavy metal accumulation and enhanced chlorpyrifos degradation.  

PubMed

Many ecosystems are currently co-contaminated with pesticides and heavy metals, such as chlorpyrifos and cadmium. A promising strategy to remediate mixed chlorpyrifos-cadmium-contaminated sites is the use of chlorpyrifos-degrading bacteria endowed with cadmium removal capabilities. In this work, a gene coding for synthetic phytochelatins (EC20) with high cadmium-binding capacity was introduced into a chlorpyrifos-degrading bacterium, Stenotrophomonas sp. YC-1, resulting in an engineered strain with both cadmium accumulation and chlorpyrifos degradation capabilities. To improve the cadmium-binding efficiency of whole cells, EC20 was displayed on the cell surface of Stenotrophomonas sp. YC-1 using the truncated ice nucleation protein (INPNC) anchor. The surface localization of the INPNC-EC20 fusion protein was demonstrated by cell fractionation, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence microscopy. Expression of EC20 on the cell surface not only improved cadmium binding, but also alleviated the cellular toxicity of cadmium. As expected, the chlorpyrifos degradation rate was reduced in the presence of cadmium for cells without EC20 expression. However, expression of EC20 (higher cadmium accumulation) completely restored the level of chlorpyrifos degradation. These results demonstrated that EC20 expression not only enhanced cadmium accumulation, but also reduced the toxic effect of cadmium on chlorpyrifos degradation. PMID:25151179

Liu, Ruihua; Jiang, Hong; Xu, Ping; Qiao, Chuanling; Zhou, Qixing; Yang, Chao

2014-11-01

95

7alpha-OH epimerisation of bile acids via oxido-reduction with Xanthomonas maltophilia.  

PubMed

The microbial 7alpha-OH epimerisation of cholic, chenodeoxycholic, and 12-ketochenodeoxycholic acids (7alpha-OH bile acids) with Xanthomonas maltophilia CBS 827.97 to corresponding 7beta-OH derivatives with scarcity of oxygen is described. With normal pressure of oxygen the 7-OH oxidation products are obtained. No biotransformations are achieved in anaerobic conditions. The microbial 7alpha-OH epimerisation is achieved by oxidation of 7-OH function and subsequent reduction. Partial purification, in fact, of the enzymatic fraction revealed the presence of two hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDH) alpha- and beta-stereospecific together with a glycocholate hydrolase. On the basis of these results a further application is the microbial reduction of 6alpha-fluoro and 6beta-fluoro-3alpha-hydroxy-7-oxo-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid methyl esters to the corresponding 7alpha-OH and 7beta-OH derivatives. PMID:11728521

Medici, Alessandro; Pedrini, Paola; Bianchini, Ercolina; Fantin, Giancarlo; Guerrini, Alessandra; Natalini, Benedetto; Pellicciari, Roberto

2002-01-01

96

Characterization of three antifungal calcite-forming bacteria, Arthrobacter nicotianae KNUC2100, Bacillus thuringiensis KNUC2103, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KNUC2106, derived from the Korean islands, Dokdo and their application on mortar.  

PubMed

Crack remediation on the surface of cement mortar using microbiological calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation (MICP) has been investigated as a microbial sealing agent on construction materials. However, MICP research has never acknowledged the antifungal properties of calcite-forming bacteria (CFB). Since fungal colonization on concrete surfaces can trigger biodeterioration processes, fungi on concrete buildings have to be prevented. Therefore, to develop a microbial sealing agent that has antifungal properties to remediate cement cracks without deteriorative fungal colonization, we introduced an antifungal CFB isolated from oceanic islands (Dokdo islands, territory of South Korea, located at the edge of the East Sea in Korea.). The isolation of CFB was done using B4 or urea-CaCl2 media. Furthermore, antifungal assays were done using the pairing culture and disk diffusion methods. Five isolated CFB showed CaCO3 precipitation and antifungal activities against deteriorative fungal strains. Subsequently, five candidate bacteria were identified using 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Crack remediation, fungi growth inhibition, and water permeability reduction of antifungal CFB-treated cement surfaces were tested. All antifungal CFB showed crack remediation abilities, but only three strains (KNUC2100, 2103, and 2106) reduced the water permeability. Furthermore, these three strains showed fungi growth inhibition. This paper is the first application research of CFB that have antifungal activity, for an eco-friendly improvement of construction materials. PMID:23727794

Park, Jong-Myong; Park, Sung-Jin; Ghim, Sa-Youl

2013-09-28

97

Improvement of poly(gamma-glutamic acid) biosynthesis and redistribution of metabolic flux with the presence of different additives in Bacillus subtilis CGMCC 0833.  

PubMed

Tween-80, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and glycerol could be used as novel materials to regulate the central carbon metabolic pathway and improve gamma-PGA biosynthesis by Bacillus subtilis CGMCC 0833. With glycerol in the medium, the activity of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex at the key node of 2-oxoglutarate was depressed, more carbon flux distribution was directed to synthesize glutamate, the substrate of gamma-PGA, which led to overproducing of gamma-PGA, reached 31.7 g/l, compared to the original value of 26.7 g/l. When Tween-80 or DMSO was in the medium, the activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase was stimulated, the branch flux from 2-oxoglutarate to glutamate was also enhanced due to the increasing of total flux from iso-citrate to 2-oxoglutarate, then a large amount of glutamate was produced, and formation of gamma-PGA was also improved, which was a different process compared with that of glycerol. Moreover, with the addition of Tween-80 or DMSO, cell membrane permeability was increased, which facilitated the uptake of extracellular substrates and the secretion of gamma-PGA by this strain; therefore, gamma-PGA production was further stimulated, and 34.4 and 32.7 g/l gamma-PGA were obtained, respectively. This work firstly employed additives to improve the biosynthesis of gamma-PGA and would be helpful in understanding the biosynthesis mechanism of gamma-PGA by Bacillus species deeply. PMID:18443783

Wu, Qun; Xu, Hong; Shi, Ningning; Yao, Jun; Li, Sha; Ouyang, Pingkai

2008-06-01

98

Biodegradation of toluene and xylenes under microaerophilic and denitrifying conditions by Pseudomonas maltophilia  

SciTech Connect

Aerobic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons has been well studied. Under aerobic conditions, aerobes or facultative anaerobes can utilize aromatic hydrocarbons as sole carbon and energy sources by using oxygen as the cosubstrate of oxygenase enzymes for the initial attack of the aromatic ring and as the terminal electron acceptor for aerobic respiration. However, some facultative or obligate anaerobes can degrade these hydrocarbons by using alternate electron acceptors, such as nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, or iron for anaerobic respiration. Among the potential alternate electron acceptors available, nitrate is the most common one used by microorganisms under oxygen-limited conditions. The first objective of this project was to explore hydrocarbon utilization under anoxic or low oxygen conditions. A microorganism that can utilize the petroleum hydrocarbons, toluene and xylene, as sole carbon and energy sources under microaerophilic (2% oxygen) and denitrifying conditions was isolated and characterized. Since oxygen may repress microbial denitrification, it was of interest to monitor the effects of low oxygen levels on aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation coupled to denitrification. We isolated a Gram-negative rod, Pseudomonas maltophilia from anaerobic sewage digester sludge. The patterns of biodegradations of toluene and two isomers of xylenes, m- and p-xylene, were very similar under either microaerophilic or anaerobic conditions. Nitrate reduction was also observed during time course experiments under aerobic conditions. The final objective was to test the feasibility of an immobilized cell reactor to treat waste streams. Therefore, a bench-scale bioreactor was built to treat a waste stream contaminated with both toluene and nitrate without aeration. The utilization of toluene and nitrate was monitored periodically in a continuous system under anaerobic conditions.

Su, J.J.

1994-01-01

99

Root-microbe systems: the effect and mode of interaction of Stress Protecting Agent (SPA) Stenotrophomonas rhizophila DSM14405T  

PubMed Central

Stenotrophomonas rhizophila has great potential for applications in biotechnology and biological control due to its ability to both promote plant growth and protect roots against biotic and a-biotic stresses, yet little is known about the mode of interactions in the root-environment system. We studied mechanisms associated with osmotic stress using transcriptomic and microscopic approaches. In response to salt or root extracts, the transcriptome of S. rhizophila DSM14405T changed drastically. We found a notably similar response for several functional gene groups responsible for general stress protection, energy production, and cell motility. However, unique changes in the transcriptome were also observed: the negative regulation of flagella-coding genes together with the up-regulation of the genes responsible for biofilm formation and alginate biosynthesis were identified as a single mechanism of S. rhizophila DSM14405T against salt shock. However, production and excretion of glucosylglycerol (GG) were found as a remarkable mechanism for the stress protection of this Stenotrophomonas strain. For S. rhizophila treated with root exudates, the shift from the planktonic lifestyle to a sessile one was measured as expressed in the down-regulation of flagellar-driven motility. These findings fit well with the observed positive regulation of host colonization genes and microscopic images that show different colonization patterns of oilseed rape roots. Spermidine, described as a plant growth regulator, was also newly identified as a protector against stress. Overall, we identified mechanisms of Stenotrophomonas to protect roots against osmotic stress in the environment. In addition to both the changes in life style and energy metabolism, phytohormons, and osmoprotectants were also found to play a key role in stress protection. PMID:23717321

Alavi, Peyman; Starcher, Margaret R.; Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Berg, Gabriele

2013-01-01

100

Arsenic bioremediation potential of a new arsenite-oxidizing bacterium Stenotrophomonas sp. MM-7 isolated from soil.  

PubMed

A new arsenite-oxidizing bacterium was isolated from a low arsenic-containing (8.8 mg kg(-1)) soil. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the strain was closely related to Stenotrophomonas panacihumi. Batch experiment results showed that the strain completely oxidized 500 ?M of arsenite to arsenate within 12 h of incubation in a minimal salts medium. The optimum initial pH range for arsenite oxidation was 5-7. The strain was found to tolerate as high as 60 mM arsenite in culture media. The arsenite oxidase gene was amplified by PCR with degenerate primers. The deduced amino acid sequence showed the highest identity (69.1 %) with the molybdenum containing large subunit of arsenite oxidase derived from Bosea sp. Furthermore the amino acids involved in binding the substrate arsenite, were conserved with the arsenite oxidases of other arsenite oxidizing bacteria such as Alcaligenes feacalis and Herminnimonas arsenicoxydans. To our knowledge, this study constitutes the first report on arsenite oxidation using Stenotrophomonas sp. and the strain has great potential for application in arsenic remediation of contaminated water. PMID:22760225

Bahar, Md Mezbaul; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

2012-11-01

101

Degradation of Microcystin-LR and RR by a Stenotrophomonas sp. Strain EMS Isolated from Lake Taihu, China  

PubMed Central

A bacterial strain EMS with the capability of degrading microcystins (MCs) was isolated from Lake Taihu, China. The bacterium was tentatively identified as a Stenotrophomonas sp. The bacterium could completely consume MC-LR and MC-RR within 24 hours at a concentration of 0.7 ?g/mL and 1.7 ?g/mL, respectively. The degradation of MC-LR and MC-RR by EMS occurred preferentially in an alkaline environment. In addition, mlrA gene involved in the degradation of MC-LR and MC-RR was detected in EMS. Due to the limited literature this gene has rare homologues. Sequencing analysis of the translated protein from mlrA suggested that MlrA might be a transmembrane protein, which suggests a possible new protease family having unique function. PMID:20479990

Chen, Jian; Hu, Liang Bin; Zhou, Wei; Yan, Shao Hua; Yang, Jing Dong; Xue, Yan Feng; Shi, Zhi Qi

2010-01-01

102

Feeding strategies for the enhanced production of ?-arbutin in the fed-batch fermentation of Xanthomonas maltophilia BT-112.  

PubMed

To develop a cost-effective method for the enhanced production of ?-arbutin using Xanthomonas maltophilia BT-112 as a biocatalyst, different fed-batch strategies such as constant feed rate fed-batch, constant hydroquinone (HQ) concentration fed-batch, exponential fed-batch and DO-control pulse fed-batch (DPFB) on ?-arbutin production were investigated. The research results indicated that DPFB was an effective method for ?-arbutin production. When fermentation with DO-control pulse feeding strategy to feed HQ and yeast extract was applied, the maximum concentrations of ?-arbutin and cell dry weight were 61.7 and 4.21 g/L, respectively. The ?-arbutin production was 394% higher than that of the control (batch culture) and the molar conversion yield of ?-arbutin reached 94.5% based on the amount of HQ supplied (240 mM). Therefore, the results in this work provide an efficient and easily controlled method for industrial-scale production of ?-arbutin. PMID:23722821

Liu, Chunqiao; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Shurong; Xu, Tao; Wang, Fang; Deng, Li

2014-02-01

103

Whole-genome sequence assembly of Pediococcus pentosaceus LI05 (CGMCC 7049) from the human gastrointestinal tract and comparative analysis with representative sequences from three food-borne strains  

PubMed Central

Background Strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus from food and the human gastrointestinal tract have been widely identified, and some have been reported to reduce inflammation, encephalopathy, obesity and fatty liver in animals. In this study, we sequenced the whole genome of P. pentosaceus LI05 (CGMCC 7049), which was isolated from the fecal samples of healthy volunteers, and determined its ability to reduce acute liver injury. No other genomic information for gut-borne P. pentosaceus is currently available in the public domain. Results We obtained the draft genome of P. pentosaceus LI05, which was 1,751,578 bp in size and possessed a mean G?+?C content of 37.3%. This genome encoded an abundance of proteins that were protective against acids, bile salts, heat, oxidative stresses, enterocin A, arsenate and universal stresses. Important adhesion proteins were also encoded by the genome. Additionally, P. pentosaceus LI05 genes encoded proteins associated with the biosynthesis of not only three antimicrobials, including prebacteriocin, lysin and colicin V, but also vitamins and functional amino acids, such as riboflavin, folate, biotin, thiamine and gamma-aminobutyrate. A comparison of P. pentosaceus LI05 with all known genomes of food-borne P. pentosaceus strains (ATCC 25745, SL4 and IE-3) revealed that it possessed four novel exopolysaccharide biosynthesis proteins, additional putative environmental stress tolerance proteins and phage-related proteins. Conclusions This work demonstrated the probiotic properties of P. pentosaceus LI05 from the gut and the three other food-borne P. pentosaceus strains through genomic analyses. We have revealed the major genomic differences between these strains, providing a framework for understanding the probiotic effects of strain LI05, which exhibits unique physiological and metabolic properties. PMID:25349631

2014-01-01

104

Xanthomonas maltophilia CBS 897.97 as a source of new 7beta- and 7alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and cholylglycine hydrolase: improved biotransformations of bile acids.  

PubMed

The paper reports the partial purification and characterization of the 7beta- and 7alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDH) and cholylglycine hydrolase (CGH), isolated from Xanthomonas maltophilia CBS 897.97. The activity of 7beta-HSDH and 7alpha-HSDH in the reduction of the 7-keto bile acids is determined. The affinity of 7beta-HSDH for bile acids is confirmed by the reduction, on analytical scale, to the corresponding 7beta-OH derivatives. A crude mixture of 7alpha- and 7beta-HSDH, in soluble or immobilized form, is employed in the synthesis, on preparative scale, of ursocholic and ursodeoxycholic acids starting from the corresponding 7alpha-derivatives. On the other hand, a partially purified 7beta-HSDH in a double enzyme system, where the couple formate/formate dehydrogenase allows the cofactor recycle, affords 6alpha-fluoro-3alpha, 7beta-dihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid (6-FUDCA) by reduction of the corresponding 7-keto derivative. This compound is not obtainable by microbiological route. The efficient and mild hydrolysis of glycinates and taurinates of bile acids with CGH is also reported. Very promising results are also obtained with bile acid containing raw materials. PMID:16307764

Pedrini, Paola; Andreotti, Elisa; Guerrini, Alessandra; Dean, Mariangela; Fantin, Giancarlo; Giovannini, Pier Paolo

2006-03-01

105

?-Dodecelactone production from safflower oil via 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid intermediate by whole cells of Candida boidinii and Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens.  

PubMed

Candida boidinii was selected as a ?-dodecelactone producer because of the highest production of ?-dodecelactone from 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid among the 11 yeast strains tested. Under the reaction conditions of pH 5.5 and 25 °C with 5 g/L 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid and 30 g/L cells, whole C. boidinii cells produced 2.1 g/L ?-dodecelactone from 5 g/L 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid after 6 h, with a conversion yield of 64% (mol/mol) and a volumetric productivity of 350 mg/L/h. The production of ?-dodecelactone from safflower oil was performed by lipase hydrolysis reaction and two-step whole-cell biotransformation using Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens and C. boidinii. ?-Dodecelactone at 1.88 g/L was produced from 7.5 g/L safflower oil via 5 g/L 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid intermediate by these reactions after 8 h of reaction time, with a volumetric productivity of 235 mg/L/h and a conversion yield of 25% (w/w). To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the highest volumetric productivity and conversion yield reported to date for the production of ?-lactone from natural oils. PMID:24967938

Jo, Ye-Seul; An, Jung-Ung; Oh, Deok-Kun

2014-07-16

106

Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts

SUDARAT BOONCHAN; MARGARET L. BRITZ

2000-01-01

107

Application method affects the distribution and efficacy of rhizobacteria suppressive of downy brome ( Bromus tectorum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizobacteria that are capable of suppressing plant growth in a species-specific manner have potential as bioherbicides. Three bacterial strains, Pseudomonas putida strain FH160, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain FH131, and Enterobacter taylorae strain FH650, have been reported to suppress the growth of downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.). These strains were evaluated in the greenhouse using various application methods for the ability to

Mark Mazzola; Phillip W. Stahlman; Jan E. Leach

1995-01-01

108

Growth promoting effects of corn ( Zea mays) bacterial isolates under greenhouse and field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertilizer costs are a major component of corn production. The use of biofertilizers may be one way of reducing production costs. In this study we present isolation and identification of three plant growth promoting bacteria that were identified as Enterobacter cloacae (CR1), Pseudomonas putida (CR7) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (CR3). All bacterial strains produced IAA in the presence of 100mgl?1 of

Samina Mehnaz; Tom Kowalik; Bruce Reynolds; George Lazarovits

2010-01-01

109

Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Caused by Potentially Drug-resistant Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by potentially drug-resis- tant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Acineto- bacter baumannii , and\\/or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , 135 consecutive episodes of VAP observed in a single ICU over a 25-mo period were prospectively studied. For all patients, VAP was diagnosed based on results of bronchoscopic protected

JEAN-LOUIS TROUILLET; JEAN CHASTRE; ALBERT VUAGNAT; MARIE-LAURE JOLY-GUILLOU; DANIÈLE COMBAUX; MARIE-CHRISTINE DOMBRET; CLAUDE GIBERT

1998-01-01

110

Gut-associated bacteria throughout the life cycle of the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas and Bright (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and their cellulolytic activities.  

PubMed

Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas and Bright (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is an endemic economically important insect of the Sierra Madre Occidental in Mexico. This bark beetle has an atypical behavior within the genus because just one beetle couple colonizes and kills seedlings and young trees of 11 pine species. In this work, the bacteria associated with the Dendroctonus rhizophagus gut were analyzed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences amplified directly from isolates of gut bacteria suggests that the bacterial community associated with Dendroctonus rhizophagus, like that of other Dendroctonus spp. and Ips pini, is limited in number. Nine bacterial genera of ?-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria classes were detected in the gut of Dendroctonus rhizophagus. Stenotrophomonas and Rahnella genera were the most frequently found bacteria from Dendroctonus rhizophagus gut throughout their life cycle. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ponticoccus gilvus, and Kocuria marina showed cellulolytic activity in vitro. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Rahnella aquatilis, Raoultella terrigena, Ponticoccus gilvus, and Kocuria marina associated with larvae or adults of Dendroctonus rhizophagus could be implicated in nitrogen fixation and cellulose breakdown, important roles associated to insect development and fitness, especially under the particularly difficult life conditions of this beetle. PMID:22234511

Morales-Jiménez, Jesús; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Ramírez-Saad, Hugo C; Hernández-Rodríguez, César

2012-07-01

111

16S rRNA gene-based identification of cultured bacterial flora from host-seeking Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks, vectors of vertebrate pathogens.  

PubMed

A total of 151 bacterial isolates were recovered from different developmental stages (larvae, nymphs and adults) of field-collected ticks (67 strains from Ixodes ricinus, 38 from Dermacentor reticulatus, 46 from Haemaphysalis concinna). Microorganisms were identified by means of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Almost 87 % of the strains belonged to G(+) bacteria with predominantly occurring genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus. Other G(+) strains included Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium, Frigoribacterium, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Plantibacter, Rhodococcus, Rothia, and Staphylococcus. G(-) strains occurred less frequently, comprising genera Advenella, Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Stenotrophomonas, and Xanthomonas. Several strains of medical importance were found, namely Advenella incenata, Corynebacterium aurimucosum, Microbacterium oxydans, M. schleiferi, Staphylococcus spp., and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Data on cultivable microbial diversity in Eurasian tick species D. reticulatus and H. concinna are given, along with the extension of present knowledge concerning bacterial flora of I. ricinus. PMID:19937215

Rudolf, I; Mendel, J; Sikutová, S; Svec, P; Masaríková, J; Nováková, D; Bunková, L; Sedlácek, I; Hubálek, Z

2009-09-01

112

Antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections in patients with cancer.  

PubMed

Patients with cancer are at high risk for infections caused by antibiotic resistant gram-negative bacteria. In this review, we summarize trends among the major pathogens and clinical syndromes associated with antibiotic resistant gram-negative bacterial infection in patients with malignancy, with special attention to carbapenem and expanded-spectrum ?-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia--all major threats to our cancer patients. Optimal therapy for these antibiotic-resistant pathogens still remains to be determined. PMID:25352627

Perez, Federico; Adachi, Javier; Bonomo, Robert A

2014-11-15

113

Prevention of biofilm colonization by Gram-negative bacteria on minocycline-rifampin-impregnated catheters sequentially coated with chlorhexidine.  

PubMed

Resistant Gram-negative bacteria are increasing central-line-associated bloodstream infection threats. To better combat this, chlorhexidine (CHX) was added to minocycline-rifampin (M/R) catheters. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of CHX-M/R catheters against multidrug resistant, Gram-negative Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was tested. M/R and CHX-silver sulfadiazine (CHX/SS) catheters were used as comparators. The novel CHX-M/R catheters were significantly more effective (P < 0.0001) than CHX/SS or M/R catheters in preventing biofilm colonization and showed better antimicrobial durability. PMID:24165191

Jamal, Mohamed A; Rosenblatt, Joel S; Hachem, Ray Y; Ying, Jiang; Pravinkumar, Egbert; Nates, Joseph L; Chaftari, Anne-Marie P; Raad, Issam I

2014-01-01

114

Prevention of Biofilm Colonization by Gram-Negative Bacteria on Minocycline-Rifampin-Impregnated Catheters Sequentially Coated with Chlorhexidine  

PubMed Central

Resistant Gram-negative bacteria are increasing central-line-associated bloodstream infection threats. To better combat this, chlorhexidine (CHX) was added to minocycline-rifampin (M/R) catheters. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of CHX-M/R catheters against multidrug resistant, Gram-negative Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was tested. M/R and CHX-silver sulfadiazine (CHX/SS) catheters were used as comparators. The novel CHX-M/R catheters were significantly more effective (P < 0.0001) than CHX/SS or M/R catheters in preventing biofilm colonization and showed better antimicrobial durability. PMID:24165191

Jamal, Mohamed A.; Rosenblatt, Joel S.; Hachem, Ray Y.; Ying, Jiang; Pravinkumar, Egbert; Nates, Joseph L.; Chaftari, Anne-Marie P.

2014-01-01

115

Q-PCR based bioburden assessment of drinking water throughout treatment and delivery to the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous studies indicated evidence of opportunistic pathogens samples obtained during missions to the International Space Station (ISS). This study utilized TaqMan quantitative PCR to determine specific gene abundance in potable and non-potable ISS waters. Probe and primer sets specific to the small subunit rRNA genes were used to elucidate overall bacterial rRNA gene numbers. while those specific for Burkholderia cepacia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were optimized and used to probe for the presence of these two opportunistic pathogens. This research builds upon previous microbial diversity studies of ISS water and demonstrates the utility of Q-PCR tool to examine water quality.

Newcombe, David; Stuecker, Tara; La Duc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2005-01-01

116

Gram-negative bacteria from the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii (Ixodidae) and the chicken tick Argas persicus (Argasidae) and their antibiotic sensitivities.  

PubMed

A total of nine species of gram-negative bacteria were isolated from organs and haemolymph of the hard tick Hyalomma (Hyalomma) dromedarii and the soft tick Argas (Persicargas) persicus. Four species namely Serratia liquefaciens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Klebsiella ornithinolytica and Aeromonas hydrophila were isolated from H. dromedarii and five species namely Rahnella aquatilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter cloacae, Chryseomonas luteola and Chryseobacterium meningosepticum were isolated from A. persicus. Isolated bacteria were identified using the analytical profile index 20E. Disk diffusion test was carried out on all isolated bacteria to determine antibiotic sensitivity of chloramphenicol, amoxillin/clavulanic acid, neomycin, streptomycin, triplesulphur tetracycline and nitrofurantion. The results were discussed. PMID:15880998

Montasser, Ashraf A

2005-04-01

117

Activities of the Glycylcycline Tigecycline (GAR-936) against 1,924 Recent European Clinical Bacterial Isolates  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activities of tigecycline against 1,924 clinical isolates were examined. The new glycylcycline exhibited excellent activity against all gram-positive cocci (MICs at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited [MIC90s], ?1 ?g/ml). In addition, it was also very potent against most members of the Enterobacteriaceae, with most MIC90s being ?2 ?g/ml. Among the nonfermenters, Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are included in the in vitro spectrum of tigecycline activity. PMID:12499224

Milatovic, D.; Schmitz, F.-J.; Verhoef, J.; Fluit, A. C.

2003-01-01

118

Isolation and characterization of alkane degrading bacteria from petroleum reservoir waste water in Iran (Kerman and Tehran provenances).  

PubMed

Petroleum products spill and leakage have become two major environmental challenges in Iran. Sampling was performed in the petroleum reservoir waste water of Tehran and Kerman Provinces of Iran. Alkane degrading bacteria were isolated by enrichment in a Bushnel-Hass medium, with hexadecane as sole source of carbon and energy. The isolated strains were identified by amplification of 16S rDNA gene and sequencing. Specific primers were used for identification of alkane hydroxylase gene. Fifteen alkane degrading bacteria were isolated and 8 strains were selected as powerful degradative bacteria. These 8 strains relate to Rhodococcus jostii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Achromobacter piechaudii, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rhodococcus erythropolis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa genera. The optimum concentration of hexadecane that allowed high growth was 2.5%. Gas chromatography results show that all strains can degrade approximately half of hexadecane in one week of incubation. All of the strains have alkane hydroxylase gene which are important for biodegradation. As a result, this study indicates that there is a high diversity of degradative bacteria in petroleum reservoir waste water in Iran. PMID:23790464

Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Ahmadinejad, Mohammad; Tebyanian, Hamid; Kariminik, Ashraf

2013-08-15

119

Comparison of axenic and monoxenic media for isolation of Acanthamoeba.  

PubMed Central

Acanthamoeba is a genus of ubiquitous, free-living amebae that can be difficult to isolate by standard microbiologic techniques. We retrospectively reviewed the laboratory records of patients with ocular acanthamoebic infection for the period from January 1973 to June 1996 and found that Acanthamoeba isolates were recovered from 73, 71, and 70% of clinical specimens inoculated onto buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar (BCYE), nonnutrient agar with live or dead Escherichia coli, and tryptic soy agar (TSA) with horse or sheep blood, respectively. We then prospectively compared the recovery of a corneal isolate of Acanthamoeba on commercial media from Remel and BBL (TSA with 5% sheep blood, TSA with 5% horse blood, TSA with 5% rabbit blood, V agar, chocolate agar, BCYE, and selective BCYE with polymyxin B, anisomycin, and vancomycin) and on axenic and monoxenic media prepared with live or dead bacteria (Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia). Good recovery of trophozoites was obtained on BCYE, TSA with rabbit blood, TSA with horse blood, and Remel TSA with sheep blood. BBL TSA with horse blood or rabbit blood provided good recovery of cysts. All species of live or dead bacteria yielded good recovery of trophozoites; however, only nonnutrient agar with live P. aeruginosa, live E. aerogenes, or live S. maltophilia gave good recovery of cysts. TSA with either rabbit blood or horse blood, BCYE, and nonnutrient agar prepared with live P. aeruginosa, E. aerogenes, or S. maltophilia offer optimal recovery of Acanthamoeba. PMID:9157153

Penland, R L; Wilhelmus, K R

1997-01-01

120

Evaluation of colistin susceptibility in multidrug-resistant clinical isolates from cystic fibrosis, France.  

PubMed

The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has led to the use of colistin drug and the emergence of colistin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to compare the disk diffusion and Etest methods for colistin susceptibility testing on MDR bacteria associated with CF from Marseille, France. Forty-nine MDR clinical isolates (27 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 22 Achromobacter xylosoxidans) were used in this study. Disk diffusion and Etest assays were used to assess the reliability of these two techniques. For S. maltophilia, 25 out of 27 isolates had low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs, 0.125-0.75 mg/L), whereas two isolates displayed high MICs (32 mg/L). Similarly, 19 out of 22 A. xylosoxidans isolates had low MICs (0.75-3.0 mg/L), whereas three isolates had high MICs (32-256 mg/L). The diameters of zone inhibition with a 50-?g colistin disk displayed a good correlation with the MICs obtained by the Etest. Susceptible and resistant strains were eventually separated using a disk diffusion assay at a cut-off of ? 12 mm for a 50-?g disk. Colistin displayed excellent activity against S. maltophilia and A. xylosoxidans and the disk diffusion assay could be confidently used to determine the susceptibility to colistin for MDR Gram-negative bacteria in the context of CF. PMID:23719852

Biswas, S; Dubus, J-C; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Stremler, N; Rolain, J-M

2013-11-01

121

Potency and Spectrum of Activity of AN3365, a Novel Boron-Containing Protein Synthesis Inhibitor, Tested against Clinical Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Nonfermentative Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

AN3365 (MIC50/90, 0.5/1 ?g/ml) was active against Enterobacteriaceae, including a subset of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae strains (MIC50/90, 1/2 ?g/ml). AN3365 inhibited 98.0 and 92.2% of wild-type (MIC50/90, 2/8 ?g/ml) and carbapenem-resistant (MIC50/90, 4/8 ?g/ml) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, respectively, at ?8 ?g/ml. AN3365 also demonstrated activity against wild-type Acinetobacter baumannii (MIC50/90, 2/8 ?g/ml) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (MIC50/90, 2/4 ?g/ml), while it was less active against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MIC50/90, 8/16 ?g/ml) and Burkholderia cepacia (MIC50/90, 8/32 ?g/ml). PMID:23507283

Alley, M. R. K.; Sader, Helio S.; Biedenbach, Douglas J.; Jones, Ronald N.

2013-01-01

122

An Evaluation of Microbial and Chemical Contamination Sources Related to the Deterioration of Tap Water Quality in the Household Water Supply System  

PubMed Central

The predominant microorganisms in samples taken from shower heads in residences in the Korean city “N” were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Acidovorax temperans, and Microbacterium lacticum. Legionella was not detected in this case. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) vinylacetate, NN-DMA, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, epichlorohydrin, and styrene were measured in five types of plastic pipes: PVC, PB, PP, PE, and cPVC. The rate of multiplication of the heterotrophic plate count (HPC) attached on the copper pipe in contact with hot tap water was higher than the rate for the copper pipe in contact with cold tap water. Biofilm accumulation on stainless steel pipes with added acetate (3 mg/L) was 2.56 times higher than the non-supplemented condition. Therefore, the growth of HPC in the pipe system was affected by the type and availability of nutrients and depended on variables such as heating during the hot water supply. PMID:24018837

Lee, Yoonjin

2013-01-01

123

An evaluation of microbial and chemical contamination sources related to the deterioration of tap water quality in the household water supply system.  

PubMed

The predominant microorganisms in samples taken from shower heads in residences in the Korean city "N" were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Acidovorax temperans, and Microbacterium lacticum. Legionella was not detected in this case. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) vinylacetate, NN-DMA, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, epichlorohydrin, and styrene were measured in five types of plastic pipes: PVC, PB, PP, PE, and cPVC. The rate of multiplication of the heterotrophic plate count (HPC) attached on the copper pipe in contact with hot tap water was higher than the rate for the copper pipe in contact with cold tap water. Biofilm accumulation on stainless steel pipes with added acetate (3 mg/L) was 2.56 times higher than the non-supplemented condition. Therefore, the growth of HPC in the pipe system was affected by the type and availability of nutrients and depended on variables such as heating during the hot water supply. PMID:24018837

Lee, Yoonjin

2013-09-01

124

Combination therapy for Gram-negative bacteria: what is the evidence?  

PubMed

The treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is challenging given the limited options for effective therapy. Combination therapy has garnered great interest recently, with the goals of ensuring appropriate therapy with at least one active agent, and achieving synergistic activity among the anti-microbials used. In this review, we evaluate the data supporting the use of combination therapy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter species and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Various regimens have been tried with promising results; however, the data are mostly derived from in vitro synergy studies. While these reports suggest an advantage of combination therapy over monotherapy, clinical data are scarce, and are comprised of retrospective and a few prospective observational studies. Well-designed randomized trials are needed to better elucidate the efficacy of the various combination regimens. Until then, this review offers a critical appraisal of the published literature and provides recommendations based on the available evidence. PMID:24168069

Kmeid, Joumana G; Youssef, Mona M; Kanafani, Zeina A; Kanj, Souha S

2013-12-01

125

Dynamics of Seed-Borne Rice Endophytes on Early Plant Growth Stages  

PubMed Central

Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However, still little is known on the source of established endophytes as well as on how plants select specific microbial communities to establish associations. Here, we used cultivation-dependent and -independent approaches to assess the endophytic bacterrial community of surface-sterilized rice seeds, encompassing two consecutive rice generations. We isolated members of nine bacterial genera. In particular, organisms affiliated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ochrobactrum spp. were isolated from both seed generations. PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of seed-extracted DNA revealed that approximately 45% of the bacterial community from the first seed generation was found in the second generation as well. In addition, we set up a greenhouse experiment to investigate abiotic and biotic factors influencing the endophytic bacterial community structure. PCR-DGGE profiles performed with DNA extracted from different plant parts showed that soil type is a major effector of the bacterial endophytes. Rice plants cultivated in neutral-pH soil favoured the growth of seed-borne Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and Rhizobium radiobacter, whereas Enterobacter-like and Dyella ginsengisoli were dominant in plants cultivated in low-pH soil. The seed-borne Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the only conspicuous bacterial endophyte found in plants cultivated in both soils. Several members of the endophytic community originating from seeds were observed in the rhizosphere and surrounding soils. Their impact on the soil community is further discussed. PMID:22363438

Hardoim, Pablo R.; Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; van Overbeek, Leonard S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

2012-01-01

126

Complementary treatment of contact lens-induced corneal ulcer using honey: A case report.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to report the complementary use of honey for treatment of a contact lens-induced corneal ulcer. A 23-year-old contact lens user presented with a corneal ulcer in her left eye. She had visual acuity reduced to hand movement. There was a history of wearing contact lenses while swimming in a lake seven days before presentation. The cultures from corneal scrapings and contact lenses were positive for Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas spp. The treatment with topical levofloxacin and 25% (w/v) ?-irradiated honeydew honey solution was effective and the patient achieved final best corrected visual acuity of affected eye. In addition to positive clinical outcome, honeydew honey was shown to be highly effective in vitro against ocular isolates, in particular S. maltophilia. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for honeydew honey ranged from 5% to 10%. These results demonstrate that honey is a promising antibacterial agent in management of corneal ulcers. Moreover, honey exhibits anti-biofilm and anti-inflammatory properties, and thus becomes an interesting ophthalmologic agent. PMID:25278429

Majtanova, Nora; Vodrazkova, Erika; Kurilova, Veronika; Horniackova, Miroslava; Cernak, Martin; Cernak, Andrej; Majtan, Juraj

2014-09-29

127

Effects of pathology dyes on Raman bone spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an overlooked source of artifacts for clinical specimens, where unexpected and normally negligible contaminants can skew the interpretation of results. During an ongoing study of bone fragments from diabetic osteomyelitis, strong Raman signatures were found, which did not correspond with normal bone mineral or matrix. In a bone biopsy from the calcaneus of a patient affected by diabetic osteomyelitis, Raman microspectroscopic analysis revealed regions with both abnormal mineral and degraded collagen in addition to normal bone. Additional bands indicated a pathological material. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was identified in the wound culture by independent microbiologic examination. We initially assigned the unusual bands to xanthomonadin, a bacterial pigment from S. maltophilia. However, the same bands were also found more than a year later on a second specimen that had been noticeably contaminated with pathology marking dye. Drop deposition/Raman spectroscopy of commonly used pathology dyes revealed that a blue tissue-marking dye was responsible for the unusual bands in both specimens, even in the first specimen where there was no visible evidence of contamination.

Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Esmonde-White, Francis W. L.; Morris, Michael D.; Roessler, Blake J.

2013-05-01

128

Identification and susceptibility to multipurpose disinfectant solutions of bacteria isolated from contact lens storage cases of patients with corneal infiltrative events.  

PubMed

Corneal infiltrative events (CIEs) are being reported with increasing frequency in lens wearers and may be related to specific multipurpose disinfecting solution (MPDS), contact lens type or bacterial bio-burden. Here, the efficacy of MPDS's against bacteria from contact lens storage cases (CLSC) of patients with CIEs was investigated. Eighteen CLSC from patients with CIEs were cultured. All reported using the same MPDS based on PQ-1+Aldox+nonanoyl-EDTA prior to experiencing CIEs. Bacteria were identified and tested for sensitivity to MPDS-1 and three other MPSDs. 16/18 CLSC (89%) contained bacterial counts of ?10(4)-10(8)/mL. Achromobacter spp. was most frequently identified and was found in 11/18 cases (61%). This was followed by 4/18 (22%) Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 3/18 (17%) Serratia marcescens, 3/18 (17%) Delftia spp., 2/18 (11%) Elizabethkingia spp., 2/18 (11%) Chryseobacterium indologenes and 1/18 Sphingobacterium spiritivorum. Acanthamoeba was not isolated. All of the Achromobacter strains were resistant to MPDS-1 with <1log10 kill up to 14 days exposure and the solution also showed reduced efficacy against the other isolates at the manufacturer's recommended disinfection time of 6h. Two strains of S. maltophilia and Delftia spp. grew in the solution over 14 days. Factors responsible for causing adverse events such as CIEs in contact lens wearers remain unclear. However, the presence of significant bio-burden in the contact lens storage case and lens may initiate an immunological response resulting in CIEs either directly or through the release of endotoxins (e.g. lipopolysaccharides) from the bacterial outer cell membrane. PMID:23466175

Kilvington, Simon; Shovlin, Joseph; Nikolic, Marina

2013-12-01

129

A flavoprotein monooxygenase that catalyses a Baeyer-Villiger reaction and thioether oxidation using NADH as the nicotinamide cofactor.  

PubMed

A gene from the marine bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia encodes a 38.6 kDa FAD-containing flavoprotein (Uniprot B2FLR2) named S. maltophilia flavin-containing monooxygenase (SMFMO), which catalyses the oxidation of thioethers and also the regioselective Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of the model substrate bicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-en-6-one. The enzyme was unusual in its ability to employ either NADH or NADPH as nicotinamide cofactor. The K(M) and k(cat) values for NADH were 23.7±9.1 ?M and 0.029 s(-1) and 27.3±5.3 ?M and 0.022 s(-1) for NADPH. However, k(cat) /K(M) value for the ketone substrate in the presence of 100 ?M cofactor was 17 times greater for NADH than for NADPH. SMFMO catalysed the quantitative conversion of 5 mM ketone in the presence of substoichiometric concentrations of NADH with the formate dehydrogenase cofactor recycling system, to give the 2-oxa and 3-oxa lactone products of Baeyer-Villiger reaction in a ratio of 5:1, albeit with poor enantioselectivity. The conversion with NADPH was 15?%. SMFMO also catalysed the NADH-dependent transformation of prochiral aromatic thioethers, giving in the best case, 80?% ee for the transformation of p-chlorophenyl methyl sulfide to its R enantiomer. The structure of SMFMO reveals that the relaxation in cofactor specificity appears to be accomplished by the substitution of an arginine residue, responsible for recognition of the 2'-phosphate on the NADPH ribose in related NADPH-dependent FMOs, with a glutamine residue in SMFMO. SMFMO is thus representative of a separate class of single-component, flavoprotein monooxygenases that catalyse NADH-dependent oxidations from which possible sequences and strategies for developing NADH-dependent biocatalysts for asymmetric oxygenation reactions might be identified. PMID:22416037

Jensen, Chantel N; Cartwright, Jared; Ward, Jonathan; Hart, Sam; Turkenburg, Johan P; Ali, Sohail T; Allen, Michael J; Grogan, Gideon

2012-04-16

130

Emergence of Imipenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in Intestinal Flora of Intensive Care Patients  

PubMed Central

Intestinal flora contains a reservoir of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to cephalosporins, which are potentially pathogenic for intensive care unit (ICU) patients; this has led to increasing use of carbapenems. The emergence of carbapenem resistance is a major concern for ICUs. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to assess the intestinal carriage of imipenem-resistant GNB (IR-GNB) in intensive care patients. For 6 months, 523 consecutive ICU patients were screened for rectal IR-GNB colonization upon admission and weekly thereafter. The phenotypes and genotypes of all isolates were determined, and a case control study was performed to identify risk factors for colonization. The IR-GNB colonization rate increased regularly from 5.6% after 1 week to 58.6% after 6 weeks in the ICU. In all, 56 IR-GNB strains were collected from 50 patients: 36 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, 12 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains, 6 Enterobacteriaceae strains, and 2 Acinetobacter baumannii strains. In P. aeruginosa, imipenem resistance was due to chromosomally encoded resistance (32 strains) or carbapenemase production (4 strains). In the Enterobacteriaceae strains, resistance was due to AmpC cephalosporinase and/or extended-spectrum ?-lactamase production with porin loss. Genomic comparison showed that the strains were highly diverse, with 8 exceptions (4 VIM-2 carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa strains, 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, and 2 S. maltophilia strains). The main risk factor for IR-GNB colonization was prior imipenem exposure. The odds ratio for colonization was already as high as 5.9 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.5 to 25.7) after 1 to 3 days of exposure and increased to 7.8 (95% CI, 2.4 to 29.8) thereafter. In conclusion, even brief exposure to imipenem is a major risk factor for IR-GNB carriage. PMID:23318796

Angebault, Cécile; Barbier, François; Hamelet, Emilie; Defrance, Gilles; Ruppé, Etienne; Bronchard, Régis; Lepeule, Raphaël; Lucet, Jean-Christophe; El Mniai, Assiya; Wolff, Michel; Montravers, Philippe; Plésiat, Patrick; Andremont, Antoine

2013-01-01

131

Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts medium (BSM) and mineralized significant amounts of benzo[a]pyrene cometabolically when pyrene was also present in BSM. P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 could not utilize any high-molecular-weight PAH as sole carbon and energy source but could partially degrade these if cultured in a nutrient broth. Although small amounts of chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were degraded by axenic cultures of these isolates in BSM containing a single PAH, such conditions did not support significant microbial growth or PAH mineralization. However, significant degradation of, and microbial growth on, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, each as a single PAH in BSM, occurred when P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 and either bacterial consortium VUN 10,009 or S. maltophilia VUN 10,010 were combined in the one culture, i.e., fungal-bacterial cocultures: 25% of the benzo[a]pyrene was mineralized to CO{sub 2} by these cocultures over 49 days, accompanied by transient accumulation and disappearance of intermediates detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Inoculation of fungal-bacterial cocultures into PAH-contaminated soil resulted in significantly improved degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene mineralization, and reduction in the mutagenicity of organic soil extracts, compared with the indigenous microbes and soil amended with only axenic inocula.

Boonchan, S.; Britz, M.L.; Stanley, G.A.

2000-03-01

132

DGGE with genomic DNA: suitable for detection of numerically important organisms but not for identification of the most abundant organisms.  

PubMed

Identification of all important community members as well as of the numerically dominant members of a community are key aspects of microbial community analysis of bioreactor samples. A systematic study was conducted with artificial consortia to test whether denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is a reliable technique to obtain such community data under conditions where results would not be affected by differences in DNA extraction efficiency from cells. A total of 27 consortia were established by mixing DNA extracted from Escherichia coli K12, Burkholderia cepacia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in different proportions. Concentrations of DNA of single organisms in the consortia were either 0.04, 0.4 or 4ng/microl. DGGE-PCR of genomic DNA with primer sets targeted at the V3 and V6-V8 regions of the 16S rDNA failed to detect the three community members in only 7% of consortia, but provided incorrect information about dominance or co-dominance for 85% and 89% of consortia with the primer sets for the V6-V8 and V3 regions, respectively. The high failure rate in detection of dominant B. cepacia with the primers for the V6-V8 region was attributable to a single nucleotide primer mismatch in the target sequences of both, the forward and reverse primer. Amplification bias in PCR of E. coli and S. maltophilia for the V6-V8 region and for all three organisms for the V3 region occurred due to interference of genomic DNA in PCR-DGGE, since a nested PCR approach, where PCR-DGGE was started from mixtures of 16S rRNA genes of the organisms, provided correct information about the relative abundance of original DNA in the sample. Multiple bands were not observed in pure culture amplicons produced with the V6-V8 primer pair, but pure culture V3 DGGE profiles of E. coli, S. maltophilia and B. cepacia contained 5, 3 and 3 bands, respectively. These results demonstrate DGGE was suitable for identification of all important community members in the three-membered artificial consortium, but not for identification of the dominant organisms in this small community. Multiple DGGE bands obtained for single organisms with the V3 primer pair could greatly confound interpretation of DGGE profiles. PMID:18929384

de Araújo, Juliana Calábria; Schneider, René Peter

2008-12-01

133

Effects of a sulfonylurea herbicide on the soil bacterial community.  

PubMed

Sulfonylurea herbicides are widely used on a wide range of crops to control weeds. Chevalier® OnePass herbicide is a sulfonylurea herbicide intensively used on cereal crops in Algeria. No information is yet available about the biodegradation of this herbicide or about its effect on the bacterial community of the soil. In this study, we collected an untreated soil sample, and another sample was collected 1 month after treatment with the herbicide. Using a high-resolution melting DNA technique, we have shown that treatment with Chevalier® OnePass herbicide only slightly changed the composition of the whole bacterial community. Two hundred fifty-nine macroscopically different clones were isolated from the untreated and treated soil under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions. The strains were identified by sequencing a conserved fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. The phylogenetic trees constructed using the sequencing results confirmed that the bacterial populations were similar in the two soil samples. Species belonging to the Lysinibacillus, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Paenibacillus genera were the most abundant species found. Surprisingly, we found that among ten strains isolated from the treated soil, only six were resistant to the herbicide. Furthermore, bacterial overlay experiments showed that only one resistant strain (related to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) allowed all the sensitive strains tested to grow in the presence of the herbicide. The other resistant strains allowed only certain sensitive strains to grow. On the basis of these results, we propose that there must be several biodegradation pathways for this sulfonylurea herbicide. PMID:24420563

Arabet, Dallel; Tempel, Sébastien; Fons, Michel; Denis, Yann; Jourlin-Castelli, Cécile; Armitano, Joshua; Redelberger, David; Iobbi-Nivol, Chantal; Boulahrouf, Abderrahmane; Méjean, Vincent

2014-04-01

134

Xenopus laevis oocytes infected with multi-drug–resistant bacteria: implications for electrical recordings  

PubMed Central

The Xenopus laevis oocyte has been the workhorse for the investigation of ion transport proteins. These large cells have spawned a multitude of novel techniques that are unfathomable in mammalian cells, yet the fickleness of the oocyte has driven many researchers to use other membrane protein expression systems. Here, we show that some colonies of Xenopus laevis are infected with three multi-drug–resistant bacteria: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Oocytes extracted from infected frogs quickly (3–4 d) develop multiple black foci on the animal pole, similar to microinjection scars, which render the extracted eggs useless for electrical recordings. Although multi-drug resistant, the bacteria were susceptible to amikacin and ciprofloxacin in growth assays. Supplementing the oocyte storage media with these two antibiotics prevented the appearance of the black foci and afforded oocytes suitable for whole-cell recordings. Given that P. fluorescens associated with X. laevis has become rapidly drug resistant, it is imperative that researchers store the extracted oocytes in the antibiotic cocktail and not treat the animals harboring the multi-drug–resistant bacteria. PMID:21788613

O'Connell, Denice; Mruk, Karen; Rocheleau, Jessica M.

2011-01-01

135

Counterion-activated nanoactuator: reversibly switchable killing/releasing bacteria on polycation brushes.  

PubMed

A strategy to release attached bacteria from surface-grafted bactericidal poly((trimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate chloride) (pTMAEMA) brushes has been proposed. The pTMAEMA brushes were fabricated via the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for contact killing of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The bacteria-conditioning surfaces, afterward, were washed with electrolyte solutions containing anions with different lipophilic characteristic, charge density, polarity and adsorbility to quaternary ammonium groups in polymers. Because of the special ion-pairing interactions, the interfacial properties, including wettability and ?-potential, can be manipulated in a controlled manner. Therefore, the counterion-assisted modulation of pTMAEMA brushes facilitates the bacterial release and regeneration of antimicrobial polymer films. The physicochemical properties of polymer brushes and their interactions with counterions were characterized using an ellipsometer, contact angle goniometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and an electrokinetic analyzer. The repetitive killing and releasing actions of pTMAEMA through unlocking and locking counterions were demonstrated, showing the robust effectiveness of the pTMAEMA-based nanoactuator in controlling the physical action by the chemical stimuli. The real-world implementation of the nanoactuator was demonstrated with a surgical scalpel by repelling killed bacteria and retaining reusability. PMID:25608105

Huang, Chun-Jen; Chen, Yen-Sheng; Chang, Yung

2015-02-01

136

Characterization of copper-resistant rhizosphere bacteria from Avena sativa and Plantago lanceolata for copper bioreduction and biosorption.  

PubMed

Copper is a toxic heavy metal widely used to microbial control especially in agriculture. Consequently, high concentrations of copper residues remain in soils selecting copper-resistant organisms. In vineyards, copper is routinely used for fungi control. This work was undertaken to study copper resistance by rhizosphere microorganisms from two plants (Avena sativa L. and Plantago lanceolata L.) common in vineyard soils. Eleven rhizosphere microorganisms were isolated, and four displayed high resistance to copper. The isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Pseudomonas putida (A1), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (A2) and Acinetobacter sp. (A6), isolated from Avena sativa rhizosphere, and Acinetobacter sp. (T5), isolated from Plantago lanceolata rhizosphere. The isolates displayed high copper resistance in the temperature range from 25°C to 35°C and pH in the range from 5.0 to 9.0. Pseudomonas putida A1 resisted as much as 1,000 mg L(-1) of copper. The isolates showed similar behavior on copper removal from liquid medium, with a bioremoval rate of 30% at 500 mg L(-1) after 24 h of growth. Speciation of copper revealed high copper biotransformation, reducing Cu(II) to Cu(I), capacity. Results indicate that our isolates are potential agents for copper bioremoval and bacterial stimulation of copper biosorption by Avena sativa and Plantago lanceolata. PMID:22002857

Andreazza, Robson; Okeke, Benedict C; Pieniz, Simone; Camargo, Flávio A O

2012-04-01

137

The Disinfecting Potential of Contact Lens Soutions used by Sultan Qaboos University Students  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the disinfecting potential of some contact lens solutions used by some university students in Oman. Methods: This work was carried out from January to June 2010 in the Department of Microbiology & Immunology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman. Fifty disinfecting solutions, in which contact lenses were disinfected according to the manufacturers’ instructions, were collected from the students and plated on various microbiological culture media. Bacterial isolates were identified by API-20E, API-20NE and Phoenix automated systems while fungi were identified by their cultural characteristics and biochemistry. Results: From 98 isolates, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 23.5%; Penicillium, 13%; Candida species, 9.2%; coagulase negative staphylococci, 9.2%; Serratia marcescens, 6.1%; Bacillus, 5.1%; Aspergillus flavus, 5.1%; Serratia liquefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Aspergillus niger, 4.1% each; Chryseomonas luteola and Chryseomonas indologenes, 3.1% each; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Serratia odorifera, 2.0% each; Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1% each. Most isolates (65%) came from polyhexanide containing solutions. Conclusion: Contact lens disinfecting solutions with the same formulations, but manufactured by different companies, possessed different disinfecting potentials. PMID:21969898

Nzeako, B. C.; Al-Sumri, Sara H.

2011-01-01

138

Comparative studies on toluene removal and pressure drop in biofilters using different packing materials.  

PubMed

To select the best available packing material for malodorous organic gases such as toluene and benzene, biofilter performance was compared in biofilters employed different packing materials including porous ceramic (celite), Jeju scoria (lava), a mixture of granular activated carbon (GAC) and celite (GAC/celite), and cubic polyurethane foam (PU). A toluene-degrading bacterium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia T3-c, was used as the inoculum. The maximum elimination capacities in the celite, lava, and GAC/celite biofilters were 100, 130, and 110 gm(-3) hr(-1), respectively. The elimination capacity for the PU biofilter was approximately 350 g m(-3) hr(-1) at an inlet loading of approximately 430 g m(-3) hr(-1), which was 2 to 3.5 times higher than for the other biofilters. The pressure drop gradually increased in the GAC/ celite, celite and lava biofilters after 23 day due to bacterial over-growth, and the toluene removal efficiency remarkably decreased with increasing pressure drop. Backwashing method was not effective for the control of biomass in these biofilters. In the PU biofilter however, backwashing allowed maintenance of a pressure drop of 1 to 3 mm H2O m(-1) and a removal efficiency of > 80%, indicating that the PU was the best packing material for toluene removal among the packing materials tested. PMID:21047004

Ryu, Hee Wook; Kim, So Jung; Cho, Kyung Suk

2010-05-01

139

Diversity and Antimicrobial Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Rhizosphere of Olive Trees and Desert Truffles of Tunisia  

PubMed Central

A total of 119 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated, by culture-dependant method, from rhizosphere samples of olive trees and desert truffles and evaluated for different biotechnological properties. Using the variability of the intergenic spacer 16S-23S and 16S rRNA gene sequences, the isolates were identified as the genera Lactococcus, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Weissella, and Enterococcus. All the strains showed proteolytic activity with variable rates 42% were EPS producers, while only 10% showed the ability to grow in 9% NaCl. In addition, a low rate of antibiotic resistance was detected among rhizospheric enterococci. Furthermore, a strong antibacterial activity against plant and/or pathogenic bacteria of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas savastanoi, the food-borne Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes was recorded. Antifungal activity evaluation showed that Botrytis cinerea was the most inhibited fungus followed by Penicillium expansum, Verticillium dahliae, and Aspergillus niger. Most of the active strains belonged to the genera Enterococcus and Weissella. This study led to suggest that environmental-derived LAB strains could be selected for technological application to control pathogenic bacteria and to protect food safety from postharvest deleterious microbiota. PMID:24151598

Najjari, Afef; Turki, Yousra; Jaballah, Sana; Boudabous, Abdelatif; Ouzari, Hadda

2013-01-01

140

Genome Survey and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria Exhibiting a Beneficial Effect on Growth and Development of Poplar Trees ? †  

PubMed Central

The association of endophytic bacteria with their plant hosts has a beneficial effect for many different plant species. Our goal is to identify endophytic bacteria that improve the biomass production and the carbon sequestration potential of poplar trees (Populus spp.) when grown in marginal soil and to gain an insight in the mechanisms underlying plant growth promotion. Members of the Gammaproteobacteria dominated a collection of 78 bacterial endophytes isolated from poplar and willow trees. As representatives for the dominant genera of endophytic gammaproteobacteria, we selected Enterobacter sp. strain 638, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia R551-3, Pseudomonas putida W619, and Serratia proteamaculans 568 for genome sequencing and analysis of their plant growth-promoting effects, including root development. Derivatives of these endophytes, labeled with gfp, were also used to study the colonization of their poplar hosts. In greenhouse studies, poplar cuttings (Populus deltoides × Populus nigra DN-34) inoculated with Enterobacter sp. strain 638 repeatedly showed the highest increase in biomass production compared to cuttings of noninoculated control plants. Sequence data combined with the analysis of their metabolic properties resulted in the identification of many putative mechanisms, including carbon source utilization, that help these endophytes to thrive within a plant environment and to potentially affect the growth and development of their plant hosts. Understanding the interactions between endophytic bacteria and their host plants should ultimately result in the design of strategies for improved poplar biomass production on marginal soils as a feedstock for biofuels. PMID:19060168

Taghavi, Safiyh; Garafola, Craig; Monchy, Sébastien; Newman, Lee; Hoffman, Adam; Weyens, Nele; Barac, Tanja; Vangronsveld, Jaco; van der Lelie, Daniel

2009-01-01

141

[Study on the structure and function of a stable methane-oxidizing mixed microbial consortium].  

PubMed

From an agricultural sample taken in Chongqing, a stable methane-oxidizing mixed microbial consortium was established by enrichment culture with methane as a sole source of carbon and energy. The mixed consortium showed high capability of phenol degradation and 1,2-epoxypropane production from propene. More than 99% of phenol at an initial concentration of 600mg/L could be degraded by the mixed microbial consortium after 11 h of cultivation. The productivity of 1, 2-epoxypropane could be increased with the decrease of phosphate concentration. The concentration of 1, 2-epoxypropane produced could reach to 5.0mmol/L. The bacterial structure of the methane-oxidizing mixed microbial consortium was analyzed by pure culture isolation combining with 16S rRNA and PCR of the related MMO functional genes. The results showed that the methane-oxidizing mixed microbial consortium was composed of a type 1U methanotroph identified as Methylosinus trichosporium and at least 4 kinds of heterotrophs ( Comamonas testosteroni, Cupriavidus metallidurans, Acinetobacter junii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ). M. trichosporium Y9, isolated from the mixed consortium, harbored both sMMO and pMMO genes. PMID:17436634

Luo, Ming-fang; Wu, Hao; Wang, Lei; Xing, Xin-hui

2007-02-01

142

Stent hypersensitivity and infection in sinus cavities  

PubMed Central

Persistent mucosal inflammation, granulation tissue formation, hypersensitivity, and multifactorial infection are newly described complications of retained drug-eluting stents from endoscopic sinus surgery for refractory rhinosinusitis. In an important report published in Allergy and Rhinology, a 45-year-old male patient suffering from recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery and was found, for the first time, to have steroid-eluting catheters that were inadvertently left in the ethmoid and frontal sinuses. The retained catheters had caused persistent mucosal inflammation and formation of granulation tissue denoting hypersensitivity reaction. These consequences had induced perpetuation of symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis. Meticulous removal of the retained stents with the nitinol wings from inflamed tissues of the frontal, ethmoidal, and sphenoethmoidal recesses in which they were completely imbedded was successfully performed without polypoid regrowth. Cultures of specimens taken from both left and right stents showed heavy growth of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and moderate growth of Klebsiella oxytoca, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, and beta-hemolytic Streptococcus anginosus. Fungal infection was not detected. The current knowledge and experience regarding stent hypersensitivity and infection in relation with the use of stents in sinus cavities is reviewed. PMID:24498522

Soufras, George D.; Hahalis, George

2013-01-01

143

Bacteria from Ips sexdentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and their biocontrol potential.  

PubMed

Ips sexdentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most destructive pests of the spruce trees in Europe. In this study, we have isolated and characterized culturable bacteria from I. sexdentatus and tested their insecticidal activity against the last instar larvae of the pest as a possible biocontrol agent. A total of eight bacterial isolates was determined and four of them were identified at species level, and the others were identified at genus level. Isolates were identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Is1), Rahnella sp. (Is2), Pseudomonas sp. (Is3), Bacillus sp. (Is4), Alcaligenes faecalis (Is5), Panteoea agglomerans (Is6), Pseudomonas fluorescens (Is7) and Serratia sp. (Is8) based on their morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics. Insecticidal effects of bacterial isolates were performed on the last instar larvae of the pest. The highest insecticidal activity was obtained from P. fluorescens (Is7) with 73% mortality within 10 days after inoculation (p < 0.05). Mortality values of the other isolates ranged from 20 to 53%. This study suggests that Pseudomonas fluorescens (Is7) seems to be a good candidate as a possible biocontrol agent against I. sexdentatus, and provides suitable strains that can be modified to express insecticidal toxins and/or other detrimental substances to develop new control methods for I. sexdentatus. PMID:22581609

Sevim, Ali; Gökçe, Cihan; Erba?, Zeynep; Ozkan, Filiz

2012-12-01

144

Host-defense peptides with therapeutic potential from skin secretions of frogs from the family pipidae.  

PubMed

Skin secretions from frogs belonging to the genera Xenopus, Silurana, Hymenochirus, and Pseudhymenochirus in the family Pipidae are a rich source of host-defense peptides with varying degrees of antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicities to mammalian cells. Magainin, peptide glycine-leucine-amide (PGLa), caerulein-precursor fragment (CPF), and xenopsin-precursor fragment (XPF) peptides have been isolated from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from several species of Xenopus and Silurana. Hymenochirins and pseudhymenochirins have been isolated from Hymenochirus boettgeri and Pseudhymenochirus merlini. A major obstacle to the development of these peptides as anti-infective agents is their hemolytic activities against human erythrocytes. Analogs of the magainins, CPF peptides and hymenochirin-1B with increased antimicrobial potencies and low cytotoxicities have been developed that are active (MIC < 5 ?M) against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Despite this, the therapeutic potential of frog skin peptides as anti-infective agents has not been realized so that alternative clinical applications as anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-diabetic, or immunomodulatory drugs are being explored. PMID:24434793

Conlon, J Michael; Mechkarska, Milena

2014-01-01

145

Host-Defense Peptides with Therapeutic Potential from Skin Secretions of Frogs from the Family Pipidae  

PubMed Central

Skin secretions from frogs belonging to the genera Xenopus, Silurana, Hymenochirus, and Pseudhymenochirus in the family Pipidae are a rich source of host-defense peptides with varying degrees of antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicities to mammalian cells. Magainin, peptide glycine-leucine-amide (PGLa), caerulein-precursor fragment (CPF), and xenopsin-precursor fragment (XPF) peptides have been isolated from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from several species of Xenopus and Silurana. Hymenochirins and pseudhymenochirins have been isolated from Hymenochirus boettgeri and Pseudhymenochirus merlini. A major obstacle to the development of these peptides as anti-infective agents is their hemolytic activities against human erythrocytes. Analogs of the magainins, CPF peptides and hymenochirin-1B with increased antimicrobial potencies and low cytotoxicities have been developed that are active (MIC < 5 ?M) against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Despite this, the therapeutic potential of frog skin peptides as anti-infective agents has not been realized so that alternative clinical applications as anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-diabetic, or immunomodulatory drugs are being explored. PMID:24434793

Conlon, J. Michael; Mechkarska, Milena

2014-01-01

146

Effect of bacterial interference on biofilm development by Legionella pneumophila.  

PubMed

In the ecology of Legionella pneumophila a crucial role may be played by its relationship with the natural flora; thus we investigated the interactions between Legionella and other aquatic bacteria, particularly within biofilms. Among 80 aquatic bacteria screened for the production of bacteriocin-like substances (BLSs), 66.2% of them were active against L. pneumophila. The possible effect of some of these aquatic bacteria on the development and stability of L. pneumophila biofilms was studied. Pseudomonas fluorescens, the best BLS producer, showed the greatest negative effect on biofilm formation and strongly enhanced the detachment of Legionella. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas putida, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, although producing BLSs at different levels, were less active in the biofilm experiments. Acinetobacter lwoffii did not produce any antagonistic compound and was the only one able to strongly enhance L. pneumophila biofilm. Our results highlight that BLS production may contribute to determining the fate of L. pneumophila within ecological niches. The interactions observed in this study are important features of L. pneumophila ecology, which knowledge may lead to more effective measures to control the persistence of the germ in the environment. PMID:18769851

Guerrieri, Elisa; Bondi, Moreno; Sabia, Carla; de Niederhäusern, Simona; Borella, Paola; Messi, Patrizia

2008-12-01

147

Evaluation of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase for the identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative rods.  

PubMed

To evaluate the activity of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase (PYR) for the differentiation and identification of nonfermenting gram negative rods (NFGNR), 293 isolates were tested. A 24 h culture of each test organism was prepared. From this a 108-109 cfu/mL suspension was added to 0.25 mL of sterile physiologic solution. A PYR disk was then added and the test was incubated for 30 minutes at 35-37 degrees C, at environmental atmosphere. Reading was done by adding 1 drop of cinnamaldehyde reagent. Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Bergeyella zoohelcum, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella hinzii, Brevundimonas diminuta, Brevundimonas vesicularis, Brucella ovis, Brucella spp., Brucella suis, Burkholderia cepacia complex, Moraxella catarrhalis, Moraxella lacunata, Moraxella nonliquefaciens, Moraxella osloensis, Oligella ureolytica, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas mendocina, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas Vb3, Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were PYR negative. On the other hand Achromobacter piechaudii, Achromobacter denitrificans, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Burkholderia gladioli, Chryseobacterium gleum-indologenes, Comamonas testosroni, Cupriavidus pauculus, Delftia acidovorans, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, Myroides spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Ralstonia pickettii, Rhizobium radiobacter, Shewanella spp., Sphingobacterium multivorum, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum, and Weeksella virosa were PYR positive. Finally, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Roseomonas spp., and Sphingomonas paucimobilis-parapaucimobilis were PYR variable. PYR testing should be considered as a useful tool to facilitate the identification of NFGNR. PMID:16822636

Bombicino, Karina A; Almuzara, Marisa N; Famiglietti, Angela M R; Vay, Carlos

2007-01-01

148

Diaryl-substituted azolylthioacetamides: Inhibitor discovery of New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase-1 (NDM-1).  

PubMed

The emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens is a global public health problem. Metallo-?-lactamases (M?Ls) such as New Delhi M?L-1 (NDM-1) are principle contributors to the emergence of resistance because of their ability to hydrolyze almost all known ?-lactam antibiotics including penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. A clinical inhibitor of MBLs has not yet been found. In this study we developed eighteen new diaryl-substituted azolylthioacetamides and found all of them to be inhibitors of the M?L L1 from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Ki < 2 ?M), thirteen to be mixed inhibitors of NDM-1 (Ki < 7 ?M), and four to be broad-spectrum inhibitors of all four tested M?Ls CcrA from Bacteroides fragilis, NDM-1 and ImiS from Aeromonas veronii, and L1 (Ki < 52 ?M), which are representative of the B1a, B1b, B2, and B3 subclasses, respectively. Docking studies revealed that the azolylthioacetamides, which have the broadest inhibitory activity, coordinate to the Zn(II) ion(s) preferentially via the triazole moiety, while other moieties interact mostly with the conserved active site residues Lys224 (CcrA, NDM-1, and ImiS) or Ser221 (L1). PMID:25048031

Zhang, Yi-Lin; Yang, Ke-Wu; Zhou, Ya-Jun; LaCuran, Alecander E; Oelschlaeger, Peter; Crowder, Michael W

2014-11-01

149

Development and application of the active surveillance of pathogens microarray to monitor bacterial gene flux  

PubMed Central

Background Human and animal health is constantly under threat by emerging pathogens that have recently acquired genetic determinants that enhance their survival, transmissibility and virulence. We describe the construction and development of an Active Surveillance of Pathogens (ASP) oligonucleotide microarray, designed to 'actively survey' the genome of a given bacterial pathogen for virulence-associated genes. Results The microarray consists of 4958 reporters from 151 bacterial species and include genes for the identification of individual bacterial species as well as mobile genetic elements (transposons, plasmid and phage), virulence genes and antibiotic resistance genes. The ASP microarray was validated with nineteen bacterial pathogens species, including Francisella tularensis, Clostridium difficile, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The ASP microarray identified these bacteria, and provided information on potential antibiotic resistance (eg sufamethoxazole resistance and sulfonamide resistance) and virulence determinants including genes likely to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer (e.g. an alpha-haemolysin). Conclusion The ASP microarray has potential in the clinic as a diagnostic tool, as a research tool for both known and emerging pathogens, and as an early warning system for pathogenic bacteria that have been recently modified either naturally or deliberately. PMID:18844996

Stabler, Richard A; Dawson, Lisa F; Oyston, Petra CF; Titball, Richard W; Wade, Jim; Hinds, Jason; Witney, Adam A; Wren, Brendan W

2008-01-01

150

ISCR Elements: Novel Gene-Capturing Systems of the 21st Century?  

PubMed Central

“Common regions” (CRs), such as Orf513, are being increasingly linked to mega-antibiotic-resistant regions. While their overall nucleotide sequences show little identity to other mobile elements, amino acid alignments indicate that they possess the key motifs of IS91-like elements, which have been linked to the mobility ent plasmids in pathogenic Escherichia coli. Further inspection reveals that they possess an IS91-like origin of replication and termination sites (terIS), and therefore CRs probably transpose via a rolling-circle replication mechanism. Accordingly, in this review we have renamed CRs as ISCRs to give a more accurate reflection of their functional properties. The genetic context surrounding ISCRs indicates that they can procure 5? sequences via misreading of the cognate terIS, i.e., “unchecked transposition.” Clinically, the most worrying aspect of ISCRs is that they are increasingly being linked with more potent examples of resistance, i.e., metallo-?-lactamases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and co-trimoxazole resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Furthermore, if ISCR elements do move via “unchecked RC transposition,” as has been speculated for ISCR1, then this mechanism provides antibiotic resistance genes with a highly mobile genetic vehicle that could greatly exceed the effects of previously reported mobile genetic mechanisms. It has been hypothesized that bacteria will surprise us by extending their “genetic construction kit” to procure and evince additional DNA and, therefore, antibiotic resistance genes. It appears that ISCR elements have now firmly established themselves within that regimen. PMID:16760305

Toleman, Mark A.; Bennett, Peter M.; Walsh, Timothy R.

2006-01-01

151

Evaluation of the VITEK 2 cards for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of non-glucose-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli.  

PubMed

We evaluated VITEK 2 cards (NGNC and AST-GN10) for the accuracy of identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of non-glucose-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NGF-GNB). In a total of 201 strains, 190 strains (94.5%) were correctly identified, seven strains (3.5%)showed low discrimination, four strains (2.0%) had discrepancies, and no strain remained unidentified.Reference AST of amikacin, aztreonam, cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem,levofloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was performed by the agar dilution method. Approximately 82.5% of ID and 72.9% of AST were completed within 7 and 14 h,respectively. For NGF-GNB, other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and the Burkholderia cepacia group, essential agreements (EAs) were 93.6-100.0%. Severe disagreements (resistant by the reference method to susceptible by AST-GN10) were observed for amikacin(0.9%), cefepime (1.8%), cefotaxime (1.8%), imipenem (0.9%), and piperacillin-tazobactam (0.9%).One major disagreement (susceptible to resistant) was observed for ceftazidime (0.1%). For P. aeruginosa,EAs were 85.7-100%, with severe disagreements observed for cefepime (4.8%) and piperacillin-tazobactam(4.8%). For Acinetobacter spp., EAs were 86.4-100% without disagreements. The VITEK 2 cards appear to be promising for rapid ID and reliable AST for most species of NGF-GNB. PMID:19343822

Hsieh, Wen-Shyang; Sung, Ling-Ling; Tsai, Kun-Chou; Ho, Hsin-Tsung

2009-04-01

152

Mimicking disinfection and drying of biofilms in contaminated endoscopes.  

PubMed

The effects of peracetic acid-based (PAA) disinfectant with, and without, additional drying on Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, isolated from contaminated flexible endoscopes, in single- and dual-species biofilms were studied. Biofilms were prepared in sterile tissue culture polystyrene 96-well microtitre plates and were quantified using the tetrazolium salt (MTT) reduction assay and by counting colony-forming yeasts and bacteria from 10-fold serial biofilm dilutions on agar plates. An in vitro biofilm model was applied to mimic the biofilm formation inside the endoscope channels and to imitate the disinfection and drying procedures used for reprocessing of flexible endoscopes. The PAA-based disinfectant was effective against bacteria and yeasts in the planktonic and biofilm states directly after treatment, but allowed regrowth of all biofilms if the drying procedure was skipped. No biofilm regrowth occurred in wells after a drying procedure in all single- and dual-species biofilms. Routine cleaning procedures do not remove biofilm reliably from endoscope channels if the accurate drying procedure is not applied. This may explain the failure of decontamination during endoscope reprocessing. PMID:20951470

Kovaleva, J; Degener, J E; van der Mei, H C

2010-12-01

153

Screening and identification of a novel esterase EstPE from a metagenomic DNA library.  

PubMed

Esterases represent a large family of hydrolases with broad substrate specificity and functional sequence space. Although many attempts to screen new esterases have been conducted, there have been few reports conducted to discriminate unique enzymes from typical ones based on novel structure and function. In this study, we discovered an esterase and a novel family through a successive assay of whole cells and crude lysates (oxidative open condition). The screened putative esterases from the metagenomic DNA of salted shrimp consisted of 753 bp encoding 27 kDa of polypeptide, namely PE esterase. Sequence analyses revealed that an identical gene was reported from whole genome sequencing of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia K279a. However, its biochemical and phylogenetic characteristics have not yet been evaluated. PE esterase was overexpressed only by the MBP fusion state in E. coli and was easily purified using an affinity column. This enzyme showed a typical spectrum of substrate specificity and possessed the consensus motifs, Ser-Asp-His and GXSXG, which are essential for most esterase/lipase superfamilies. Interestingly, the entire organization of the ORF and consensus sequence around the active site were distinct from the related enzymes, and its structure could be affected by a reducing agent, DTT. PMID:21369973

Park, So-Youn; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Kim, Geun-Joong

2011-02-01

154

The effect of different growth regimes on the endophytic bacterial communities of the fern, Dicksonia sellowiana hook (Dicksoniaceae).  

PubMed

Endophytic bacteria associated with the fern Dicksonia sellowiana were investigated. The bacterial communities from the surface-sterilized pinnae and rachis segments of the plants from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest that grew in native field conditions were compared with the bacterial communities from plants grown in greenhouses and plants that were initially grown in greenhouses and then transferred to the forest. From 540 pinnae and 540 rachis segments, 163 (30.2%) and 346 (64.2%) were colonized by bacteria, respectively. The main bacterial genera and species that were isolated included Bacillus spp. ( B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. pumilus and B. subtilis ) , Paenibacillus sp. , Amphibacillus sp. , Gracilibacillus sp. , Micrococcus sp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. ( S. maltophilia and S. nitroreducens ). B. pumilus was the most frequently isolated bacterial species . Amphibacillus and Gracilibacillus were reported as endophytes for the first time. Other commonly found bacterial genera were not observed in D. sellowiana , which may reflect preferences of specific bacterial communities inside this fern or detection limitations due to the isolation procedures. Plants that were grown in greenhouses and plants that were reintroduced into the forest displayed more bacterial genera and species diversity than native field plants, suggesting that reintroduction shifts the bacterial diversity. Endophytic bacteria that displayed antagonistic properties against different microorganisms were detected, but no obvious correlation was found between their frequencies with plant tissues or with plants from different growth regimes. This paper reports the first isolation of endophytic bacteria from a fern. PMID:24031575

de Araújo Barros, Irene; Luiz Araújo, Welington; Lúcio Azevedo, João

2010-10-01

155

Safety and use of sputum induction in children with cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

We assessed the safety and use of induced sputum (IS) in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Forty-eight children (19 males) with CF, mean age 12.6 (range, 7.3-17.0) years and median forced expired volume in 1 sec (FEV(1)) 48% (range, 14-77%) predicted were recruited. Patients spontaneously expectorated sputum and then performed sputum induction by inhalation of nebulized 7% hypertonic saline. Samples were sent for bacteriological culture, and for measurement of the following inflammatory mediators: interleukin-8, myeloperoxidase, eosinophil cationic protein, and neutrophil elastase activity. FEV(1) was performed before and after inhalation of hypertonic saline. There was no increase in mediator levels in IS compared to expectorated sputum (ES) samples. Only 3 patients demonstrated significant bronchoconstriction following inhalation of hypertonic saline, by the method used. From the ES samples, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated in 13 patients, Staphylococcus aureus in 7 patients, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in 1 patient, and both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in 5 patients. All these organisms were found in the IS samples. However, in 2 patients whose ES grew no organisms, one patient's IS grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the other patient's IS grew Staphylococcus aureus. In our study, sputum induction was safe, with no proinflammatory effect. PMID:12629630

Suri, Ranjan; Marshall, Lindsay J; Wallis, Colin; Metcalfe, Christopher; Shute, Janis K; Bush, Andrew

2003-04-01

156

Effects of the joint exposure of decabromodiphenyl ether and tetrabromobisphenol A on soil bacterial community structure.  

PubMed

Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) are the main contaminants at electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites (EWRSs), and their potential toxicological effects have received extensive attention. However, the impact on soil microorganism of joint exposure to the two chemicals remains almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the response of soil bacterial community structure in the joint presence of BDE209 and TBBPA for the first time. The results have demonstrated that the soil bacterial diversity generally declined with increasing BDE209 and TBBPA concentrations and moderate and high doses of both chemicals can cause inhibitory effects. PCR-DGGE analysis indicated that the correlations between Shannon-Weaver index and contaminant concentrations could be well represented by a second-order polynomial model. The combined toxicity of the two chemicals was antagonistic during the first 14 days and then synergistic. Pectobacterium carotovorum, Sinorhizobium fredii HH103, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were highly tolerant to joint exposure during the entire incubation period. Moreover, some Staphylococcus strains were enriched after 90 days exposed to TBBPA or low concentrations of BDE209, indicating that they might degrade the two chemicals effectively. The results of these observations have provided some basic understanding of potential ecological effects of joint exposure to BDE209 and TBBPA on soil microorganism at EWRSs. PMID:25106514

Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lei; An, Shuai; Liu, Kou; Lin, Kuangfei; Fu, Rongbing

2015-01-01

157

The effect of different growth regimes on the endophytic bacterial communities of the fern, Dicksonia sellowiana hook (Dicksoniaceae)  

PubMed Central

Endophytic bacteria associated with the fern Dicksonia sellowiana were investigated. The bacterial communities from the surface-sterilized pinnae and rachis segments of the plants from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest that grew in native field conditions were compared with the bacterial communities from plants grown in greenhouses and plants that were initially grown in greenhouses and then transferred to the forest. From 540 pinnae and 540 rachis segments, 163 (30.2%) and 346 (64.2%) were colonized by bacteria, respectively. The main bacterial genera and species that were isolated included Bacillus spp. ( B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. pumilus and B. subtilis ) , Paenibacillus sp. , Amphibacillus sp. , Gracilibacillus sp. , Micrococcus sp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. ( S. maltophilia and S. nitroreducens ). B. pumilus was the most frequently isolated bacterial species . Amphibacillus and Gracilibacillus were reported as endophytes for the first time. Other commonly found bacterial genera were not observed in D. sellowiana , which may reflect preferences of specific bacterial communities inside this fern or detection limitations due to the isolation procedures. Plants that were grown in greenhouses and plants that were reintroduced into the forest displayed more bacterial genera and species diversity than native field plants, suggesting that reintroduction shifts the bacterial diversity. Endophytic bacteria that displayed antagonistic properties against different microorganisms were detected, but no obvious correlation was found between their frequencies with plant tissues or with plants from different growth regimes. This paper reports the first isolation of endophytic bacteria from a fern. PMID:24031575

de Araújo Barros, Irene; Luiz Araújo, Welington; Lúcio Azevedo, João

2010-01-01

158

Diversity and antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from rhizosphere of olive trees and desert truffles of Tunisia.  

PubMed

A total of 119 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated, by culture-dependant method, from rhizosphere samples of olive trees and desert truffles and evaluated for different biotechnological properties. Using the variability of the intergenic spacer 16S-23S and 16S rRNA gene sequences, the isolates were identified as the genera Lactococcus, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Weissella, and Enterococcus. All the strains showed proteolytic activity with variable rates 42% were EPS producers, while only 10% showed the ability to grow in 9% NaCl. In addition, a low rate of antibiotic resistance was detected among rhizospheric enterococci. Furthermore, a strong antibacterial activity against plant and/or pathogenic bacteria of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas savastanoi, the food-borne Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes was recorded. Antifungal activity evaluation showed that Botrytis cinerea was the most inhibited fungus followed by Penicillium expansum, Verticillium dahliae, and Aspergillus niger. Most of the active strains belonged to the genera Enterococcus and Weissella. This study led to suggest that environmental-derived LAB strains could be selected for technological application to control pathogenic bacteria and to protect food safety from postharvest deleterious microbiota. PMID:24151598

Fhoula, Imene; Najjari, Afef; Turki, Yousra; Jaballah, Sana; Boudabous, Abdelatif; Ouzari, Hadda

2013-01-01

159

Anti-infective properties of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a component of green tea  

PubMed Central

The consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) has been shown to have many physiological and pharmacological health benefits. In the past two decades several studies have reported that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main constituent of green tea, has anti-infective properties. Antiviral activities of EGCG with different modes of action have been demonstrated on diverse families of viruses, such as Retroviridae, Orthomyxoviridae and Flaviviridae and include important human pathogens like human immunodeficiency virus, influenza A virus and the hepatitis C virus. Furthermore, the molecule interferes with the replication cycle of DNA viruses like hepatitis B virus, herpes simplex virus and adenovirus. Most of these studies demonstrated antiviral properties within physiological concentrations of EGCG in vitro. In contrast, the minimum inhibitory concentrations against bacteria were 10–100-fold higher. Nevertheless, the antibacterial effects of EGCG alone and in combination with different antibiotics have been intensively analysed against a number of bacteria including multidrug-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Furthermore, the catechin EGCG has antifungal activity against human-pathogenic yeasts like Candida albicans. Although the mechanistic effects of EGCG are not fully understood, there are results indicating that EGCG binds to lipid membranes and affects the folic acid metabolism of bacteria and fungi by inhibiting the cytoplasmic enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. This review summarizes the current knowledge and future perspectives on the antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral effects of the green tea constituent EGCG. PMID:23072320

Steinmann, J; Buer, J; Pietschmann, T; Steinmann, E

2013-01-01

160

Preventing microbial colonisation of catheters: Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of cellobiose dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

The ability of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for antimicrobial and antibiofilm functionalisation of urinary catheters was investigated. A recombinantly produced CDH from Myriococcum thermophilum was shown to completely inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus both in liquid and solid media when supplemented with either 0.8mM or 2mM cellobiose as substrate. Biofilm formation on silicone films was prevented by CDH when supplemented with 1mM cellobiose. The CDH/cellobiose system also successfully inhibited many common urinary catheter-colonising micro-organisms, including multidrug-resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus mirabilis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Interestingly, CDH was also able to produce H2O2 during oxidation of extracellular polysaccharides (exPS) formed by micro-organisms in the absence of cellobiose. The H2O2 production and consequently antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities on these exPS were enhanced by incorporation of glycoside hydrolases such as amylases. Hydrolysis of polysaccharides by these enzymes increases the number of terminal reducing sugars as substrates for CDH as well as destabilises the biofilm. Furthermore, CDH suspended in catheter lubricants killed bacteria in biofilms colonising catheters. Incorporation of the CDH/cellobiose system in the lubricant therefore makes it an easy strategy for preventing microbial colonisation of catheters. PMID:25176584

Thallinger, Barbara; Argirova, Maya; Lesseva, Magdalena; Ludwig, Roland; Sygmund, Christoph; Schlick, Angelika; Nyanhongo, Gibson S; Guebitz, Georg M

2014-11-01

161

Specific and Functional Diversity of Endophytic Bacteria from Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus with Different Virulence  

PubMed Central

Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the most devastating diseases of Pinus spp. The PWN was therefore listed as one of the most dangerous forest pests in China meriting quarantine. Virulence of the PWN is closely linked with the spread of PWD. However, main factors responsible for the virulence of PWNs are still unclear. Recently epiphytic bacteria carried by PWNs have drawn much attention. But little is known about the relationship between endophytic bacteria and virulence of B. xylophilus. In this research, virulence of ten strains of B. xylophilus from different geographical areas in six provinces of China and four pine species were tested with 2-year-old seedlings of Pinus thunbergii. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from PWNs with different virulence to investigate the relationship between the bacteria and PWN virulence. Meanwhile, the carbon metabolism of endophytic bacteria from highly and low virulent B. xylophilus was analyzed using Biolog plates (ECO). The results indicated that ten strains of PWNs showed a wide range of virulence. Simultaneously, endophytic bacteria were isolated from 90% of the B. xylophilus strains. The dominant endophytic bacteria in the nematodes were identified as species of Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, Ewingella, Leifsonia, Rhizobium, and Pseudomonas using molecular and biochemical methods. Moreover, S. maltophilia, and A. xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans were the predominant strains. Most of the strains (80%) from P. massoniana contained either S. maltophilia, A. xylosoxidans, or both species. There was a difference between the abilities of the endophytic bacteria to utilize carbon sources. Endophytic bacteria from highly virulent B. xylophilus had a relatively high utilization rate of carbohydrate and carboxylic acids, while bacteria from low virulent B. xylophilus made better use of amino acids. In conclusion, endophytic bacteria widely exist in B. xylophilus from different pines and areas; and B. xylophilus strains with different virulence possessed various endophytic bacteria and diverse carbon metabolism which suggested that the endophytic bacteria species and carbon metabolism might be related with the B. xylophilus virulence. PMID:23289015

Wu, Xiao-Qin; Yuan, Wei-Min; Tian, Xiao-Jing; Fan, Ben; Fang, Xin; Ye, Jian-Ren; Ding, Xiao-Lei

2013-01-01

162

The antibacterial properties of Malaysian tualang honey against wound and enteric microorganisms in comparison to manuka honey  

PubMed Central

Background Antibiotic resistance of bacteria is on the rise, thus the discovery of alternative therapeutic agents is urgently needed. Honey possesses therapeutic potential, including wound healing properties and antimicrobial activity. Although the antimicrobial activity of honey has been effectively established against an extensive spectrum of microorganisms, it differs depending on the type of honey. To date, no extensive studies of the antibacterial properties of tualang (Koompassia excelsa) honey on wound and enteric microorganisms have been conducted. The objectives of this study were to conduct such studies and to compare the antibacterial activity of tualang honey with that of manuka honey. Methods Using a broth dilution method, the antibacterial activity of tualang honey against 13 wound and enteric microorganisms was determined; manuka honey was used as the control. Different concentrations of honey [6.25-25% (w/v)] were tested against each type of microorganism. Briefly, two-fold dilutions of honey solutions were tested to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against each type of microorganism, followed by more assays within a narrower dilution range to obtain more precise MIC values. MICs were determined by both visual inspection and spectrophotometric assay at 620 nm. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) also was determined by culturing on blood agar plates. Results By visual inspection, the MICs of tualang honey ranged from 8.75% to 25% compared to manuka honey (8.75-20%). Spectrophotometric readings of at least 95% inhibition yielded MIC values ranging between 10% and 25% for both types of honey. The lowest MBC for tualang honey was 20%, whereas that for manuka honey was 11.25% for the microorganisms tested. The lowest MIC value (8.75%) for both types of honey was against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Tualang honey had a lower MIC (11.25%) against Acinetobacter baumannii compared to manuka honey (12.5%). Conclusion Tualang honey exhibited variable activities against different microorganisms, but they were within the same range as those for manuka honey. This result suggests that tualang honey could potentially be used as an alternative therapeutic agent against certain microorganisms, particularly A. baumannii and S. maltophilia. PMID:19754926

Tan, Hern Tze; Rahman, Rosliza Abdul; Gan, Siew Hua; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Hassan, Siti Asma'; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; BS, Kirnpal-Kaur

2009-01-01

163

Weeds as a source of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in agricultural soils.  

PubMed

The influence of plant growth promoting (PGP) activity of bacterial communities recovered from each of six weed species (barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusfalli (L.) Beauv.), corn spurrey (Spergula arvensis L.), goldenrod (Sonchus sp.), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.), lamb's-quarters (Chenopodium album L.), and quack grass (Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.)) was examined in relation to the effect it had on the growth of the potato cultivar Russet Burbank. Bacterial species composition and community structure were compared, species-abundance relationships were determined, and those members conferring positive benefits for potato growth and development were identified. Of the genera identified, Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were the most common, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the most frequent species recovered across all sources. Significantly higher population densities were found in the root zones of quack grass, compared with Italian ryegrass and lamb's-quarters. There were no significant differences in species richness among the root zones; however, evenness indices (species distribution) were significantly lower in corn spurrey (P = 0.05). Significantly higher diversity indices (Hill-1 and Hill-2 numbers) (P = 0.05) were found in the root zone soil communities of potato and goldenrod, indicating a decrease in the proportional abundance of common and very abundant species, respectively, while in barnyard grass, corn spurrey, and Italian ryegrass the reverse was the case. In both years of the study, Italian ryegrass and corn spurrey were consistently better sources of PGP rhizobacteria for potatoes, significantly (P < 0.001) increasing the mean wet weight of shoots and roots in in vitro bacterization studies. Barnyard grass was a consistently poor source of such isolates. Species-abundance measures of root zone bacterial biodiversity were not found, in this instance, to be a particularly good predictor of the presence or absence of PGP rhizobacteria. We consider that the study of complementary crops and soil-conditioning treatments should not preclude the examination of weed species as possible beneficials, as alterations in rhizobacterial biodiversity and functional versatility can influence the numbers and types of PGP bacterial strains, and consequently may serve to improve soil quality. PMID:11766050

Sturz, A V; Matheson, B G; Arsenault, W; Kimpinski, J; Christie, B R

2001-11-01

164

Identification of a Series of Tricyclic Natural Products as Potent Broad-Spectrum Inhibitors of Metallo-?-Lactamases  

PubMed Central

This work describes the discovery and characterization of a novel series of tricyclic natural product-derived metallo-?-lactamase inhibitors. Natural product screening of the Bacillus cereus II enzyme identified an extract from a strain of Chaetomium funicola with inhibitory activity against metallo-?-lactamases. SB236050, SB238569, and SB236049 were successfully extracted and purified from this extract. The most active of these compounds was SB238569, which possessed Ki values of 79, 17, and 3.4 ?M for the Bacillus cereus II, Pseudomonas aeruginosa IMP-1, and Bacteroides fragilis CfiA metallo-?-lactamases, respectively, yet none of the compounds exhibited any inhibitory activity against the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia L-1 metallo-?-lactamase (50% inhibitory concentration > 1,000 ?M). The lack of activity against angiotensin-converting enzyme and serine ?-lactamases demonstrated the selective nature of these compounds. The crystal structure of SB236050 complexed in the active site of CfiA has been obtained to a resolution of 2.5 Å. SB236050 exhibits key polar interactions with Lys184, Asn193, and His162 and a stacking interaction with the indole ring of Trp49 in the flap, which is in the closed conformation over the active site groove. SB236050 and SB238569 also demonstrate good antibacterial synergy with meropenem. Eight micrograms of SB236050 per ml gave rise to an eightfold drop in the MIC of meropenem for two clinical isolates of B. fragilis producing CfiA, making these strains sensitive to meropenem (MIC ? 4 ?g/ml). Consequently, this series of metallo-?-lactamase inhibitors exhibit the most promising antibacterial synergy activity so far observed against organisms producing metallo-?-lactamases. PMID:12019104

Payne, David J.; Hueso-Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Boyd, Helen; Concha, Néstor O.; Janson, Cheryl A.; Gilpin, Martin; Bateson, John H.; Cheever, Christy; Niconovich, Nancy L.; Pearson, Stewart; Rittenhouse, Stephen; Tew, David; Díez, Emilio; Pérez, Paloma; de la Fuente, Jesus; Rees, Michael; Rivera-Sagredo, Alfonso

2002-01-01

165

Detection of extended spectrum ?-lactamase in Pseudomonas spp. isolated from two tertiary care hospitals in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Extended spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) represent a major group of lactamases responsible for resistance, mostly produced by gram-negative bacteria, to newer generations of ß-lactam drugs currently being identified in large numbers worldwide. The present study was undertaken to see the frequency of ESBL producing Pseudomonas spp. isolated from six hundred clinical specimens (wound, pus, aural, urine, sputum, throat and other swabs) collected over a period of three years from two tertiary care hospitals in Bangladesh. Findings Aerobic bacterial culture was performed on aseptically collected swabs and only growth of Pseudomonas was considered for further species identification and ESBL production along with serotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the Kirby-Bauer agar diffusion method and ESBL production was detected on Mueller Hinton agar by double-disk synergy technique using Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid with Ceftazidime, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone and Aztreonam. Culture yielded 120 Pseudomonas spp. and 82 of them were biochemically characterized for species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be the predominant (90.2%) species. Of 82 isolates tested for ESBL, 31 (37.8%) were ESBL positive with 29 (93.5%) as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the remaining 2 (6.5%) were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ralstonia pickettii. Antibiogram revealed Imipenem as the most effective drug (93.3%) among all antimicrobials used against Pseudomonas spp. followed by Aminoglycosides (63.7%). Conclusion ESBL producing Pseudomonas spp. was found to be a frequent isolate from two tertiary care hospitals in Bangladesh, showing limited susceptibility to antimicrobials and decreased susceptibility to Imipenem in particular, which is a matter of great concern. PMID:23289861

2013-01-01

166

Evaluation of Microorganisms Cultured from Injured and Repressed Tissue Regeneration Sites in Endangered Giant Aquatic Ozark Hellbender Salamanders  

PubMed Central

Investigation into the causes underlying the rapid, global amphibian decline provides critical insight into the effects of changing ecosystems. Hypothesized and confirmed links between amphibian declines, disease, and environmental changes are increasingly represented in published literature. However, there are few long-term amphibian studies that include data on population size, abnormality/injury rates, disease, and habitat variables to adequately assess changes through time. We cultured and identified microorganisms isolated from abnormal/injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites of the endangered Ozark Hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi, to discover potential causative agents responsible for their significant decline in health and population. This organism and our study site were chosen because the population and habitat of C. a. bishopi have been intensively studied from 1969–2009, and the abnormality/injury rate and apparent lack of regeneration were established. Although many bacterial and fungal isolates recovered were common environmental organisms, several opportunistic pathogens were identified in association with only the injured tissues of C.a. bishopi. Bacterial isolates included Aeromonas hydrophila, a known amphibian pathogen, Granulicetella adiacens, Gordonai terrae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aerococcus viridans, Streptococcus pneumoniae and a variety of Pseudomonads, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. stutzeri, and P. alcaligenes. Fungal isolates included species in the genera Penicillium, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Streptomycetes, and the Class Hyphomycetes. Many of the opportunistic pathogens identified are known to form biofilms. Lack of isolation of the same organism from all wounds suggests that the etiological agent responsible for the damage to C. a. bishopi may not be a single organism. To our knowledge, this is the first study to profile the external microbial consortia cultured from a Cryptobranchid salamander. The incidence of abnormalities/injury and retarded regeneration in C. a. bishopi may have many contributing factors including disease and habitat degradation. Results from this study may provide insight into other amphibian population declines. PMID:22205979

Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Ott, C. Mark; Castro, Sarah L.; Garcia, Veronica M.; Molina, Thomas C.; Briggler, Jeffrey T.; Pitt, Amber L.; Tavano, Joseph J.; Byram, J. Kelly; Barrila, Jennifer; Nickerson, Max A.

2011-01-01

167

Granulation, control of bacterial contamination, and enhanced lipid accumulation by driving nutrient starvation in coupled wastewater treatment and Chlorella regularis cultivation.  

PubMed

Bacterial contamination and biomass harvesting are still challenges associated with coupling of microalgae and wastewater treatment technology. This study investigated aggregation, bacterial growth, lipid production, and pollutant removal during bacteria contaminated Chlorella regularis cultivation under nutrient starvation stress, by supposing the C/N/P ratios of the medium to 14/1.4/1 (MB2.5) and 44/1.4/1 (MB4.0), respectively. Granules of 500-650 ?m were formed in the bacteria contaminated inoculum; however, purified C. regularis were generally suspended freely in the medium, indicating that bacterial presence was a prerequisite for granulation. Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) analysis showed that polysaccharides were dominant in granules, while protein mainly distributed in the outer layer. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) results revealed Sphingobacteriales bacterium and Sphingobacterium sp. are vital organisms involved in the flocculation of microalgae, and nitrifiers (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) could co-exist in the granular. Both EPS and DGGE results further supported that bacteria played key roles in granulation. C. regularis was always dominant and determined the total biomass concentration during co-cultivation, but bacterial growth was limited owing to nutrient deficiency. Starvation strategy also contributed to enhancement of lipid accumulation, as lipid content in MB4.0 with a greater C/N/P led to the greatest increase in the starvation period, and the maximum lipid productivity reached 0.057 g/(L·day). Chemical oxygen demand and nitrogen removal in MB4.0 reached 92 and 96 %, respectively, after 3 days of cultivation. Thus, cultivation of microalgae in high C/N/P wastewater enabled simultaneous realization of biomass granulation, bacterial overgrowth limitation, enhanced lipid accumulation, and wastewater purification. PMID:25520170

Zhou, Dandan; Li, Yunbao; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Chaofan; Wang, Di

2015-02-01

168

Chlor-alkali plant contamination of Aussa River sediments induced a large Hg-resistant bacterial community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A closed chlor-alkali plant (CAP) discharged Hg for decades into the Aussa River, which flows into Marano Lagoon, resulting in the large-scale pollution of the lagoon. In order to get information on the role of bacteria as mercury detoxifying agents, analyses of anions in the superficial part (0-1 cm) of sediments were conducted at four stations in the Aussa River. In addition, measurements of biopolymeric carbon (BPC) as a sum of the carbon equivalent of proteins (PRT), lipids (LIP), and carbohydrates (CHO) were performed to correlate with bacterial biomass such as the number of aerobic heterotrophic cultivable bacteria and their percentage of Hg-resistant bacteria. All these parameters were used to assess the bioavailable Hg fraction in sediments and the potential detoxification activity of bacteria. In addition, fifteen isolates were characterized by a combination of molecular techniques, which permitted their assignment into six different genera. Four out of fifteen were Gram negative with two strains of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, one Enterobacter sp., and one strain of Brevibacterium frigoritolerans. The remaining strains (11) were Gram positive belonging to the genera Bacillus and Staphylococcus. We found merA genes in only a few isolates. Mercury volatilization from added HgCl2 and the presence of plasmids with the merA gene were also used to confirm Hg reductase activity. We found the highest number of aerobic heterotrophic Hg-resistant bacteria (one order magnitude higher) and the highest number of Hg-resistant species (11 species out of 15) at the confluence of the River Aussa and Banduzzi's channel, which transport Hg from the CAP, suggesting that Hg is strongly detoxified [reduced to Hg(0)] at this location.

Baldi, Franco; Marchetto, Davide; Gallo, Michele; Fani, Renato; Maida, Isabel; Covelli, Stefano; Fajon, Vesna; Zizek, Suzana; Hines, Mark; Horvat, Milena

2012-11-01

169

Persistence of Nosocomial Pathogens on Various Fabrics  

PubMed Central

Objective: Fabrics can become contaminated with high numbers of microorganisms that may be pathogenic to patients in a hospital setting and can play an important role in the chain of infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of several clinical bacterial and fungal isolates on several fabrics commonly used in hospitals. Materials and Methods: Bacterial and fungal survival was tested on the following materials, each of which are commonly used in our hospital: 100% smooth cotton, 60% cotton-40% polyester, 100% wool and 100% silk. One isolate each of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Geotrichum candidum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) positive Escherichia coli, inducible beta-lactamase (IBL) positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa, IBL-positive Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were used to contaminate fabrics. The survival of these microorganisms was studied by testing the fabric swatches for microbial growth. Results: The median survival times for all the tested bacteria and fungi were as follows: 26 days on cotton, 26.5 days on cotton-polyester, 28 days on silk, and 30 days on wool. Among the bacterial species tested, E. faecium had the longest survival time on cotton-polyester fabrics. For the fungal isolates, it was observed that C. tropicalis and C. krusei survived for the shortest amount of time on cotton fabrics in the present study. Conclusion: This survival data indicate that pathogenic microorganisms can survive from days to months on commonly used hospital fabrics. These findings indicate that current recommendations for the proper disinfection or sterilization of fabrics used in hospitals should be followed to minimize cross-contamination and prevent nosocomial infections.

Koca, Ozlem; Altoparlak, Ulku; Ayyildiz, Ahmet; Kaynar, Hasan

2012-01-01

170

Anti-cancer, immunoregulatory, and antimicrobial activities of the frog skin host-defense peptides pseudhymenochirin-1Pb and pseudhymenochirin-2Pa.  

PubMed

Pseudhymenochirin-1Pb (Ps-1Pb) and pseudhymenochirin-2Pa (Ps-2Pa) are host-defense peptides, first isolated from skin secretions of the frog Pseudhymenochirus merlini (Pipidae). Ps-1Pb and Ps-2Pa are highly cytotoxic (LC50<12?M) against non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, and colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells but are also hemolytic against human erythrocytes (LC50=28±2?M for Ps-1Pb and LC50=6±1?M for Ps-2Pa). Ps-2Pa shows selective cytotoxicity for tumor cells (LC50 against non-neoplastic human umbilical vein (HUVEC) cells=68±2?M). Ps-1Pb and Ps-2Pa (5?g/mL) significantly inhibit production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the multifunctional cytokine IL-6 from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 mice and enhance the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-23 from both unstimulated and LPS-stimulated macrophages. Ps-1Pb potently (MIC?10?M) inhibits growth of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of the Gram-positive bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and the Gram-negative bacteria Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Ps-2Pa shows the same high potency (MIC?10?M) against the Gram-positive bacteria but is 2-4 fold less potent against the Gram-negative isolates. Ps-1Pb at 4×MIC kills 99.9% of Escherichia coli within 30min and 99.9% of S. aureus within 180min. In conclusion, cytotoxicity against tumor cells, cytokine-mediated immunomodulatory properties, and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity suggest that the Ps-1Pb and Ps-2Pa represent templates for design of non-hemolytic analogs for tumor therapy and for treatment of infections in cancer patients produced by multidrug-resistant pathogens. PMID:25447194

Mechkarska, Milena; Attoub, Samir; Sulaiman, Shahrazad; Pantic, Jelena; Lukic, Miodrag L; Michael Conlon, J

2014-11-01

171

Prevalent bacterial species and novel phylotypes in advanced noma lesions.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the bacterial diversity in advanced noma lesions using culture-independent molecular methods. 16S ribosomal DNA bacterial genes from DNA isolated from advanced noma lesions of four Nigerian children were PCR amplified with universally conserved primers and spirochetal selective primers and cloned into Escherichia coli. Partial 16S rRNA sequences of approximately 500 bases from 212 cloned inserts were used initially to determine species identity or closest relatives by comparison with sequences of known species or phylotypes. Nearly complete sequences of approximately 1,500 bases were obtained for most of the potentially novel species. A total of 67 bacterial species or phylotypes were detected, 25 of which have not yet been grown in vitro. Nineteen of the species or phylotypes, including Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus spp., and the opportunistic pathogens Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ochrobactrum anthropi were detected in more than one subject. Other known species that were detected included Achromobacter spp., Afipia spp., Brevundimonas diminuta, Capnocytophaga spp., Cardiobacterium sp., Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium spp., Gemella haemoylsans, and Neisseria spp. Phylotypes that were unique to noma infections included those in the genera Eubacterium, Flavobacterium, Kocuria, Microbacterium, and Porphyromonas and the related Streptococcus salivarius and genera Sphingomonas and TREPONEMA: Since advanced noma lesions are infections open to the environment, it was not surprising to detect species not commonly associated with the oral cavity, e.g., from soil. Several species previously implicated as putative pathogens of noma, such as spirochetes and Fusobacterium spp., were detected in at least one subject. However, due to the limited number of available noma subjects, it was not possible at this time to associate specific species with the disease. PMID:12037085

Paster, B J; Falkler Jr, W A; Enwonwu, C O; Idigbe, E O; Savage, K O; Levanos, V A; Tamer, M A; Ericson, R L; Lau, C N; Dewhirst, F E

2002-06-01

172

Exploring nicotinamide cofactor promiscuity in NAD(P)H-dependent flavin containing monooxygenases (FMOs) using natural variation within the phosphate binding loop. Structure and activity of FMOs from Cellvibrio sp. BR and Pseudomonas stutzeri NF13  

PubMed Central

Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) catalyse asymmetric oxidation reactions that have potential for preparative organic synthesis, but most use the more expensive, phosphorylated nicotinamide cofactor NADPH to reduce FAD to FADH2 prior to formation of the (hydro)peroxy intermediate required for substrate oxygenation. A comparison of the structures of NADPH-dependent FMO from Methylophaga aminisulfidivorans (mFMO) and SMFMO from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, which is able to use both NADPH and NADH, suggested that the promiscuity of the latter enzyme may be due in part to the substitution of an Arg–Thr couple in the NADPH phosphate recognition site in mFMO, for a Gln–His couple in SMFMO (Jensen et al., 2012, Chembiochem, 13, 872–878). Natural variation within the phosphate binding region, and its influence on nicotinamide cofactor promiscuity, was explored through the cloning, expression, characterisation and structural studies of FMOs from Cellvibrio sp. BR (CFMO) and Pseudomonas stutzeri NF13 (PSFMO), which possess Thr–Ser and Gln–Glu in the putative phosphate recognition positions, respectively. CFMO and PSFMO displayed 5- and 1.5-fold greater activity, respectively, than SMFMO for the reduction of FAD with NADH, and were also cofactor promiscuous, displaying a ratio of activity with NADH:NADPH of 1.7:1 and 1:1.3, respectively. The structures of CFMO and PSFMO revealed the context of the phosphate binding loop in each case, and also clarified the structure of the mobile helix–loop–helix motif that appears to shield the FAD-binding pocket from bulk solvent in this class of FMOs, a feature that was absent from the structure of SMFMO. PMID:25383040

Jensen, Chantel N.; Ali, Sohail T.; Allen, Michael J.; Grogan, Gideon

2014-01-01

173

Air-dust-borne associations of phototrophic and hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms: promising consortia in volatile hydrocarbon bioremediation.  

PubMed

Aquatic and terrestrial associations of phototrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms active in hydrocarbon bioremediation have been described earlier. The question arises: do similar consortia also occur in the atmosphere? Dust samples at the height of 15 m were collected from Kuwait City air, and analyzed microbiologically for phototrophic and heterotrophic hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms, which were subsequently characterized according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The hydrocarbon utilization potential of the heterotrophs alone, and in association with the phototrophic partners, was measured quantitatively. The chlorophyte Gloeotila sp. and the two cyanobacteria Nostoc commune and Leptolyngbya thermalis were found associated with dust, and (for comparison) the cynobacteria Leptolyngbya sp. and Acaryochloris sp. were isolated from coastal water. All phototrophic cultures harbored oil vapor-utilizing bacteria in the magnitude of 10(5) g(-1). Each phototrophic culture had its unique oil-utilizing bacteria; however, the bacterial composition in Leptolyngbya cultures from air and water was similar. The hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria were affiliated with Acinetobacter sp., Aeromonas caviae, Alcanivorax jadensis, Bacillus asahii, Bacillus pumilus, Marinobacter aquaeolei, Paenibacillus sp., and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The nonaxenic cultures, when used as inocula in batch cultures, attenuated crude oil in light and dark, and in the presence of antibiotics and absence of nitrogenous compounds. Aqueous and diethyl ether extracts from the phototrophic cultures enhanced the growth of the pertinent oil-utilizing bacteria in batch cultures, with oil vapor as a sole carbon source. It was concluded that the airborne microbial associations may be effective in bioremediating atmospheric hydrocarbon pollutants in situ. Like the aquatic and terrestrial habitats, the atmosphere contains dust-borne associations of phototrophic and heterotrophic hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria that are active in hydrocarbon attenuation. PMID:22529000

Al-Bader, Dhia; Eliyas, Mohamed; Rayan, Rihab; Radwan, Samir

2012-11-01

174

Microbe associated molecular patterns from rhizosphere bacteria trigger germination and Papaver somniferum metabolism under greenhouse conditions.  

PubMed

Ten PGPR from different backgrounds were assayed on Papaver somniferum var. Madrigal to evaluate their potential as biotic elicitors to increase alkaloid content under the rationale that some microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) are able to trigger plant metabolism. First, the 10 strains and their culture media at two different concentrations were tested for their ability to trigger seed germination. Then, the best three strains were tested for their ability to increase seedling growth and alkaloid levels under greenhouse conditions. Only three strains and their culture media enhanced germination. Then, germination enhancing capacity of these best three strains, N5.18 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aur9 Chryseobacterium balustinum and N21.4 Pseudomonas fluorescens was evaluated in soil. Finally, the three strains were applied on seedlings at two time points, by soil drench or by foliar spray. Photosynthesis was measured, plant height was recorded, capsules were weighted and alkaloids analyzed by HPLC. Only N5.18 delivered by foliar spray significantly increased plant height coupled to an increase in total alkaloids and a significant increase in opium poppy straw dry weight; these increases were supported by a better photosynthetic efficiency. The relative contents of morphine, thebaine, codeine and oripavine were affected by this treatment causing a significant increase in morphine coupled to a decrease in thebaine, demonstrating the effectivity of MAMPs from N5.18 in this plant species. Considering the increase in capsule biomass and alkaloids together with the acceleration of germination, strain N5.18 appears as a good candidate to elicit plant metabolism and consequently, to increase productivity of Papaver somniferum. PMID:24296249

Bonilla, A; Sarria, A L F; Algar, E; Muñoz Ledesma, F J; Ramos Solano, B; Fernandes, J B; Gutierrez Mañero, F J

2014-01-01

175

Biosynthesis and structural characterization of silver nanoparticles from bacterial isolates  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: In this study five bacterial isolates belong to different genera were found to be able to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles. Biosynthesis and spectral characterization are reported here. Highlights: {yields} About 300 bacterial isolates were screened for their ability to produce nanosilvers {yields} Five of them were potential candidates for synthesis of silver nanoparticles {yields} Production of silver nanoparticles was examined using UV-Vis, XRD, SEM and EDS. {yields} The presence of nanoparticles with all five bacterial isolates was confirmed. -- Abstract: This study aimed to develop a green process for biosynthesis of silver nanomaterials by some Egyptian bacterial isolates. This target was achieved by screening an in-house culture collection consists of 300 bacterial isolates for silver nanoparticle formation. Through screening process, it was observed that strains belonging to Escherichia coli (S30, S78), Bacillus megaterium (S52), Acinetobacter sp. (S7) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S54) were potential candidates for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The extracellular production of silver nanoparticles by positive isolates was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results demonstrated that UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver ion showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy micrograph showed formation of silver nanoparticles in the range of 15-50 nm. XRD-spectrum of the silver nanoparticles exhibited 2{theta} values corresponding to the silver nanocrystal that produce in hexagonal and cubic crystal configurations with different plane of orientation. In addition, the signals of the silver atoms were observed by EDS-spectrum analysis that confirms the presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in all positive bacterial isolates.

Zaki, Sahar, E-mail: saharzaki@yahoo.com [Environmental Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, 21934 New Burgelarab City (Egypt)] [Environmental Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, 21934 New Burgelarab City (Egypt); El Kady, M.F. [Fabrication Technology Department, Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute (ATNMRI), Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria (Egypt)] [Fabrication Technology Department, Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute (ATNMRI), Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria (Egypt); Abd-El-Haleem, Desouky [Environmental Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, 21934 New Burgelarab City (Egypt)] [Environmental Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Alexandria, 21934 New Burgelarab City (Egypt)

2011-10-15

176

An analog of the host-defense peptide hymenochirin-1B with potent broad-spectrum activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria and immunomodulatory properties.  

PubMed

Hymenochirin-1B (IKLSPETKDN(10)LKKVLKGAIK(20)GAIAVAKMV.NH2) is a cationic, amphipathic, ?-helical, host-defense peptide, first isolated from skin secretions of the Congo clawed frog Hymenochirus boettgeri (Pipidae). Structure-activity relationships were investigated by synthesizing analogs in which the Pro(5), Glu(6) and Asp(9) on the hydrophilic face of the ?-helix are substituted by one or more l-lysine or d-lysine residues. Although replacement with l-lysine generates analogs with increased antimicrobial potency against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (up to 8-fold), the peptides are more hemolytic. Increasing the cationicity of hymenochirin-1B while reducing the helicity by substitutions with d-lysine generates analogs that are between 2 and 8 fold more potent than the native peptide and are equally or less hemolytic. [E6k,D9k]hymenochirin-1B represents a candidate for drug development as it shows high potency against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and a range of Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (MIC in the range 0.8-3.1 ?M) and NDM-1 carbapenemase-producing clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii (MIC in the range 3.1-6.25 ?M), and low hemolytic activity (LC50=302 ?M). [E6k,D9k]hymenochirin-1B, at a concentration of 2.5 ?M, significantly (P<0.05) stimulates the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells but is without significant effect on production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-17. PMID:24172540

Mechkarska, Milena; Prajeep, Manju; Radosavljevic, Gordana D; Jovanovic, Ivan P; Al Baloushi, Amna; Sonnevend, Agnes; Lukic, Miodrag L; Conlon, J Michael

2013-12-01

177

Diversity of bacteria nesting the plant cover of north Sinai deserts, Egypt  

PubMed Central

North Sinai deserts were surveyed for the predominant plant cover and for the culturable bacteria nesting their roots and shoots. Among 43 plant species reported, 13 are perennial (e.g. Fagonia spp., Pancratium spp.) and 30 annuals (e.g. Bromus spp., Erodium spp.). Eleven species possessed rhizo-sheath, e.g. Cyperus capitatus, Panicum turgidum and Trisetaria koelerioides. Microbiological analyses demonstrated: the great diversity and richness of associated culturable bacteria, in particular nitrogen-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs); the majority of bacterial residents were of true and/or putative diazotrophic nature; the bacterial populations followed an increasing density gradient towards the root surfaces; sizeable populations were able to reside inside the root (endorhizosphere) and shoot (endophyllosphere) tissues. Three hundred bacterial isolates were secured from studied spheres. The majority of nitrogen-fixing bacilli isolates belonged to Bacillus megaterium,Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus polymexa,Bacillus macerans,Bacillus circulans and Bacillus licheniformis. The family Enterobacteriaceae represented by Enterobacter agglomerans,Enterobacter sackazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia adorifera,Serratia liquefaciens and Klebsiella oxytoca. The non-Enterobacteriaceae population was rich in Pantoae spp., Agrobacterium rdiobacter, Pseudomonas vesicularis, Pseudomonas putida, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Chrysemonas luteola.Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus were reported inside root and shoot tissues of a number of tested plants. The dense bacterial populations reported speak well to the very possible significant role played by the endophytic bacterial populations in the survival, in respect of nutrition and health, of existing plants. Such groups of diazotrophs are good candidates, as bio-preparates, to support the growth of future field crops grown in deserts of north Sinai and irrigated by the water of El-Salam canal.

Hanna, Amira L.; Youssef, Hanan H.; Amer, Wafaa M.; Monib, Mohammed; Fayez, Mohammed; Hegazi, Nabil A.

2012-01-01

178

Relationships between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial infections from 1991-2003 at a university hospital in Taiwan.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use in a university hospital in Taiwan. Disk susceptibility data of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and other non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli causing nosocomial infections were evaluated. Data on annual patient-days and annual consumption (defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 patient-days) of extended-spectrum cephalosporins (cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, flumoxef, cefepime and cefpirome), beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (ticarcillin/clavulanic acid and piperacillin/tazobactam), carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem), aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin), fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin (oral and injectable) and oral levofloxacin and moxifloxacin) from 1991 to 2003 were analysed. Increasing trends of incidences of several of these bacteria causing all nosocomial infections or nosocomial bloodstream infections were noted from 1991 to 2003. The annual patient-days of the hospital significantly increased, from 360210 in 1991 to 672676 in 2002 (linear regression analysis, P < 0.05), but slightly decreased in 2003 (629168) owing to the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in Taiwan. The rise in cefotaxime-resistant or ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli and meropenem-resistant P. aeruginosa was significantly correlated with increased consumption of extended-spectrum cephalosporins, beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides (for ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli and meropenem-resistant P. aeruginosa only) in the hospital (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r > 0.72 (or < -0.72) and P-value < 0.05). Increased ciprofloxacin-resistant K. pneumoniae and meropenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. was significantly associated with the increased usage of extended-spectrum cephalosporins but not with the other four classes of antibiotics. This 13-year study in a hospital demonstrated significant changes in antimicrobial use, which may have affected antimicrobial resistance in certain Gram-negative bacteria at the hospital. PMID:16280243

Hsueh, Po-Ren; Chen, Wen-Hwei; Luh, Kwen-Tay

2005-12-01

179

Count, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria recovered from dental solid waste in Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, few studies on microbial content of dental solid waste and its antibiotic susceptibility are available. An effort has been made through this study to evaluate the hazardous status of dental solid waste, keeping in mind its possible role in cross-infection chain. Six samples of solid waste were collected at different times and seasons from three dental health services. The microbial content was evaluated in different culture media and atmospheric conditions, and the isolates were submitted to antibiotic susceptibility testing. A total of 766 bacterial strains were isolated and identified during the study period. Gram-positive cocci were the most frequent morphotype isolated (48.0%), followed by Gram-negative rods (46.2%), Gram-positive rods (5.0%), Gram-negative-cocci (0.4%), and Gram-positive coccobacillus (0.1%). Only two anaerobic bacteria were isolated (0.3%). The most frequently isolated species was Staphylococcus epidermidis (29.9%), followed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (8.2%), and Enterococcus faecalis (6.7%). High resistance rate to ampicillin was observed among Gram-negative rods (59.4%) and Gram-positive cocci (44.4%). For Gram-negative rods, high resistance was also noted to aztreonam (47.7%), cefotaxime (47.4%), ceftriaxone and cefazolin (43.7%), and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (38.2%). Against Gram-positive cocci penicillin exhibit a higher resistance rate (45.0%), followed by ampicillin, erythromycin (27.2%), and tetracycline (22.0%). The present study demonstrated that several pathogenic bacteria are present in dental solid waste and can survive after 48 h from the waste generation time and harbor resistance profiles against several clinical recommended antibiotics. PMID:21288707

Vieira, Cristina Dutra; de Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Cussiol, Noil Amorim de Menezes; Alvarez-Leite, Maria Eugênia; dos Santos, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Renata Maria da Fonseca; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Farias, Luiz de Macêdo

2011-06-01

180

In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of CS-834, a novel oral carbapenem.  

PubMed Central

CS-834 is a novel oral carbapenem antibiotic. This compound is an ester-type prodrug of the active metabolite R-95867. The antibacterial activity of R-95867 was tested against 1,323 clinical isolates of 35 species and was compared with those of oral cephems, i.e., cefteram, cefpodoxime, cefdinir, and cefditoren, and that of a parenteral carbapenem, imipenem. R-95867 exhibited a broad spectrum of activity covering both gram-positive and -negative aerobes and anaerobes. Its activity was superior to those of the other compounds tested against most of the bacterial species tested. R-95867 showed potent antibacterial activity against clinically significant pathogens: methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus including ofloxacin-resistant strains, Streptococcus pneumoniae including penicillin-resistant strains, Clostridium perfringens, Neisseria spp., Moraxella catarrhalis, most members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited, < or =0.006 to 0.78 microg/ml). R-95867 was quite stable to hydrolysis by most of the beta-lactamases tested except the metallo-beta-lactamases from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Bacteroides fragilis. R-95867 showed potent bactericidal activity against S. aureus and Escherichia coli. Penicillin-binding proteins 1 and 4 of S. aureus and 1Bs, 2, 3, and 4 of E. coli had high affinities for R-95867. The in vivo efficacy of CS-834 was evaluated in murine systemic infections caused by 16 strains of gram-positive and -negative pathogens. The efficacy of CS-834 was in many cases superior to those of cefteram pivoxil, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefdinir, and cefditoren pivoxil, especially against infections caused by S. aureus, penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, E. coli, Citrobacter freundii, and Proteus vulgaris. Among the drugs tested, CS-834 showed the highest efficacy against experimental pneumonia in mice caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae. PMID:9420035

Fukuoka, T; Ohya, S; Utsui, Y; Domon, H; Takenouchi, T; Koga, T; Masuda, N; Kawada, H; Kakuta, M; Kubota, M; Ishii, C; Ishii, C; Sakagawa, E; Harasaki, T; Hirasawa, A; Abe, T; Yasuda, H; Iwata, M; Kuwahara, S

1997-01-01

181

Acquisition and Evolution of Plant Pathogenesis–Associated Gene Clusters and Candidate Determinants of Tissue-Specificity in Xanthomonas  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthomonas is a large genus of plant-associated and plant-pathogenic bacteria. Collectively, members cause diseases on over 392 plant species. Individually, they exhibit marked host- and tissue-specificity. The determinants of this specificity are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess potential contributions to host- and tissue-specificity, pathogenesis-associated gene clusters were compared across genomes of eight Xanthomonas strains representing vascular or non-vascular pathogens of rice, brassicas, pepper and tomato, and citrus. The gum cluster for extracellular polysaccharide is conserved except for gumN and sequences downstream. The xcs and xps clusters for type II secretion are conserved, except in the rice pathogens, in which xcs is missing. In the otherwise conserved hrp cluster, sequences flanking the core genes for type III secretion vary with respect to insertion sequence element and putative effector gene content. Variation at the rpf (regulation of pathogenicity factors) cluster is more pronounced, though genes with established functional relevance are conserved. A cluster for synthesis of lipopolysaccharide varies highly, suggesting multiple horizontal gene transfers and reassortments, but this variation does not correlate with host- or tissue-specificity. Phylogenetic trees based on amino acid alignments of gum, xps, xcs, hrp, and rpf cluster products generally reflect strain phylogeny. However, amino acid residues at four positions correlate with tissue specificity, revealing hpaA and xpsD as candidate determinants. Examination of genome sequences of xanthomonads Xylella fastidiosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia revealed that the hrp, gum, and xcs clusters are recent acquisitions in the Xanthomonas lineage. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide insight into the ancestral Xanthomonas genome and indicate that differentiation with respect to host- and tissue-specificity involved not major modifications or wholesale exchange of clusters, but subtle changes in a small number of genes or in non-coding sequences, and/or differences outside the clusters, potentially among regulatory targets or secretory substrates. PMID:19043590

Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; White, Frank F.; Ryan, Robert P.; Dow, J. Maxwell; Rabinowicz, Pablo; Salzberg, Steven L.; Leach, Jan E.; Sonti, Ramesh; Brendel, Volker; Bogdanove, Adam J.

2008-01-01

182

Assessment of the Phoenix™ automated system and EUCAST breakpoints for antimicrobial susceptibility testing against isolates expressing clinically relevant resistance mechanisms.  

PubMed

EUCAST breakpoint criteria are being adopted by automatic antimicrobial susceptibility testing systems. The accuracy of the Phoenix Automated System in combination with 2012 EUCAST breakpoints against recent clinical isolates was evaluated. A total of 697 isolates (349 Enterobacteriaceae, 113 Pseudomonas spp., 25 Acinetobacter baumannii, 11 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 95 Staphylococcus aureus, 6 coagulase negative staphylococci, 77 enterococci and 21 Streptococcus pneumoniae) with defined resistance phenotypes and well-characterized resistance mechanisms recovered in Spain (n?=?343) and Italy (n?=?354) were tested. Comparator antimicrobial susceptibility testing data were obtained following CLSI guidelines. Experimental agreement (EA), defined as MIC agreement?±1 log(2) dilution, category agreement (CA) and relative discrepancies (minor (mD), major (MD) and very major discrepancies (VMD)) were determined. The overall EA and CA for all organism-antimicrobial agent combinations (n?=?6.294) were 97.3% and 95.2%, respectively. mD, MD and VMD were 4.7%, 1.3% and 2.7%, all of them in agreement with the ISO (ISO20776-2:2007) acceptance criteria for assessment of susceptibility testing devices. VMD were mainly observed in amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefuroxime in Enterobacteriaceae and gentamicin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, whereas MD were mainly observed in amoxicillin-clavulante in Enterobacteriaceae. mD were mainly observed in Enterobacteriaceae but distributed in different antimicrobials. For S. aureus and enterococci relative discrepancies were low. The Phoenix system showed accuracy assessment in accordance with the ISO standards when using EUCAST breakpoints. Inclusion of EUCAST criteria in automatic antimicrobial susceptibility testing systems will facilitate the implementation of EUCAST breakpoints in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:22909279

Giani, T; Morosini, M I; D'Andrea, M M; García-Castillo, M; Rossolini, G M; Cantón, R

2012-11-01

183

Prevalent Bacterial Species and Novel Phylotypes in Advanced Noma Lesions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the bacterial diversity in advanced noma lesions using culture-independent molecular methods. 16S ribosomal DNA bacterial genes from DNA isolated from advanced noma lesions of four Nigerian children were PCR amplified with universally conserved primers and spirochetal selective primers and cloned into Escherichia coli. Partial 16S rRNA sequences of approximately 500 bases from 212 cloned inserts were used initially to determine species identity or closest relatives by comparison with sequences of known species or phylotypes. Nearly complete sequences of approximately 1,500 bases were obtained for most of the potentially novel species. A total of 67 bacterial species or phylotypes were detected, 25 of which have not yet been grown in vitro. Nineteen of the species or phylotypes, including Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus spp., and the opportunistic pathogens Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ochrobactrum anthropi were detected in more than one subject. Other known species that were detected included Achromobacter spp., Afipia spp., Brevundimonas diminuta, Capnocytophaga spp., Cardiobacterium sp., Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium spp., Gemella haemoylsans, and Neisseria spp. Phylotypes that were unique to noma infections included those in the genera Eubacterium, Flavobacterium, Kocuria, Microbacterium, and Porphyromonas and the related Streptococcus salivarius and genera Sphingomonas and Treponema. Since advanced noma lesions are infections open to the environment, it was not surprising to detect species not commonly associated with the oral cavity, e.g., from soil. Several species previously implicated as putative pathogens of noma, such as spirochetes and Fusobacterium spp., were detected in at least one subject. However, due to the limited number of available noma subjects, it was not possible at this time to associate specific species with the disease. PMID:12037085

Paster, B. J.; Falkler, Jr., W. A.; Enwonwu, C. O.; Idigbe, E. O.; Savage, K. O.; Levanos, V. A.; Tamer, M. A.; Ericson, R. L.; Lau, C. N.; Dewhirst, F. E.

2002-01-01

184

Microbial biofilms on the sandstone monuments of the Angkor Wat Complex, Cambodia.  

PubMed

Discoloring biofilms from Cambodian temples Angkor Wat, Preah Khan, and the Bayon and West Prasat in Angkor Thom contained a microbial community dominated by coccoid cyanobacteria. Molecular analysis identified Chroococcidiopsis as major colonizer, but low similarity values (<95%) suggested a similar genus or species not present in the databases. In only two of the six sites sampled were filamentous cyanobacteria, Microcoleus, Leptolyngbya, and Scytonema, found; the first two detected by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene library clones from samples of a moist green biofilm on internal walls in Preah Khan, where Lyngbya (possibly synonymous with Microcoleus) was seen by direct microscopy as major colonizer. Scytonema was detected also by microscopy on an internal wall in the Bayon. This suggests that filamentous cyanobacteria are more prevalent in internal (high moisture) areas. Heterotrophic bacteria were found in all samples. DNA sequencing of bands from DGGE gels identified Proteobacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Methylobacterium radiotolerans) and Firmicutes (Bacillus sp., Bacillus niacini, Bacillus sporothermodurans, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Paenibacillus sp., Paenibacillus panacisoli, and Paenibacillus zanthoxyli). Some of these bacteria produce organic acids, potentially degrading stone. Actinobacteria, mainly streptomycetes, were present in most samples; algae and fungi were rare. A dark-pigmented filamentous fungus was detected in internal and external Preah Khan samples, while the alga Trentepohlia was found only in samples taken from external, pink-stained stone at Preah Khan. Results show that these microbial biofilms are mature communities whose major constituents are resistant to dehydration and high levels of irradiation and can be involved in deterioration of sandstone. Such analyses are important prerequisites to the application of control strategies. PMID:22006074

Gaylarde, Christine C; Rodríguez, César Hernández; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Ortega-Morales, B Otto

2012-02-01

185

Nosocomial and ventilator-associated pneumonia in a community hospital intensive care unit: a retrospective review and analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Nosocomial and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are causes of significant morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. We analyzed a) the incidence and the outcome of pneumonias caused by different pathogens in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a medium-sized twenty-four bed community hospital and b) the incidence of complications of such pneumonias requiring surgical intervention such as thoracotomy and decortication. Results We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients diagnosed with nosocomial and ventilator-associated pneumonia in our ICU. Their bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and sputum cultures, antibiograms, and other clinical characteristics, including complications and need for tracheostomy, thoracotomy and decortication were studied. In a span of one year (2011–12), 43 patients were diagnosed with nosocomial pneumonia in our ICU. The median simplified acute physiology score (SAPS II) was 39. One or more gram negative organisms as the causative agents were present in 85% of microbiologic samples. The three most prevalent gram negatives were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (34%), Pseudomonas aeurginosa (40%), and Acinetobacter baumannii (32%). Twenty eight percent of bronchoalveolar samples contained Staphylococcus aureus. Eight three percent of patients required mechanical ventilation postoperatively and 37% underwent tracheostony. Thirty five percent underwent thoracotomy and decortication because of further complications such as empyema and non-resolving parapneumonic effusions. A. baumannii, Klebsiella pneumonia extended spectrum beta lactam (ESBL) and P. aeurginosa had the highest prevalence of multi drug resistance (MDR). Fifteen patients required surgical intervention. Mortality from pneumonia was 37% and from surgery was 2%. Conclusion Nosocomial pneumonias, in particular the ones that were caused by gram negative drug resistant organisms and their ensuing complications which required thoracotomy and decortication, were the cause of significant morbidity in our intensive care unit. Preventative and more intensive and novel infection control interventions in reducing the incidence of nosocomial pneumonias are strongly emphasized. PMID:24725655

2014-01-01

186

Bacterial reduction of selenium in coal mine tailings pond sediment  

SciTech Connect

Sediment from a storage facility for coal tailings solids was assessed for its capacity to reduce selenium (Se) by native bacterial community. One Se{sup 6+}-reducing bacterium Enterobacter hormaechei (Tar11) and four Se{sup 4+}-reducing bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae (Tar1), Pseudomonasfluorescens (Tar3), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Tar6), and Enterobacter amnigenus (Tar8) were isolated from the sediment. Enterobacter horinaechei removed 96% of the added Se{sup 6+} (0.92 mg L{sup -1} from the effluents when Se6+ was determined after 5 d of incubation. Analysis of the red precipitates showed that Se{sup 6+} reduction resulted in the formation of spherical particles ({lt}1.0 {mu} m) of Se 0 as observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confirmed by EDAX. Selenium speciation was performed to examine the fate of the added Se{sup 6+} in the sediment with or without addition of Enterobacter hormaechei cells. More than 99% of the added Se{sup 6+} (about 2.5 mg L{sup -1}) was transformed in the nonsterilized sediment (without Enterobacter hormaechei cells) as well as in the sterilized (heat-killed) sediment (with Enterobacter hormaechei cells). The results of this study suggest that the lagoon sediments at the mine site harbor Se{sup 6+}- and Se{sup 4+} -reducing bacteria and may be important sinks for soluble Se (Se{sup 6+} and Se{sup 4+}). Enterobacter hormaechei isolated from metal-contaminated sediment may have potential application in removing Se from industrial effluents.

Siddique, T.; Arocena, J.M.; Thring, R.W.; Zhang, Y.Q. [University of North British Columbia, Prince George, BC (Canada)

2007-05-15

187

Additional observations and notes on the natural history of the prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) in Colorado.  

PubMed

On account of their unique anatomy, physiology, natural history, ecology, and behavior, rattlesnakes make ideal subjects for a variety of different scientific disciplines. The prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) in Colorado was selected for investigation of its relationship to colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) with regard to spatial ecology. A total of 31 snakes were anesthetized and had radiotransmitters surgically implanted. In addition, at the time of their capture, all snakes underwent the following: (1) they had bacterial culture taken from their mouths for potential isolation of pathogenic bacteria; (2) similarly, they had cloacal bacterial cultures taken to assess potentially harmful bacteria passed in the feces; and (3) they had blood samples drawn to investigate the presence of any zoonotic agents in the serum of the snakes. The results of the study and their implications are discussed here. Traditionally, a low incidence of bacterial wound infection has been reported following snakebite. Nevertheless, the oral cavity of snakes has long been known to house a wide variety of bacterial flora. In our study, 10 different bacterial species were isolated from the mouths of the rattlesnakes, 6 of which are capable of being zoonotic pathogens and inducing human disease. More studies are necessary to see why more rattlesnake bites do not become infected despite the presence of such pathogenic bacteria. The results of fecal bacteria isolated revealed 13 bacterial species, 12 of which can cause disease in humans. Of the snakes whose samples were cultured, 26% were positive for the presence of the pathogen Salmonella arizonae, one of the causative agents of reptile-related salmonellosis in humans. It has long been reported that captive reptiles have a much higher incidence than wild, free-ranging species. This study shows the incidence of Salmonella in a wild, free-ranging population of rattlesnakes. In addition, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was isolated. This bacterium is associated with wound and soft tissue infections that can lead to sepsis, endocarditis, meningitis, and peritonitis. In addition, this bacterium has been increasingly implicated as an opportunistic pathogen to humans during pregnancies, hospitalizations, malignancies and chemotherapy, chronic respiratory diseases, and presurgical endotracheal intubation. Furthermore, S. maltophilia has an intense resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics, the results of our study showed the bacterium was resistant to multiple antibiotics. Our results indicate that anyone working with snake feces, dead skin, or their carcasses must follow reasonable hygiene protocols. Rattlesnakes tested for West Nile antibodies had positive results but these were invalidated owing to possible cross-reactivity with other unknown viruses, interference with snake serum proteins, and the fact that the test was not calibrated for rattlesnake serum. Still, the interesting implication remains, should we be regularly testing these animals as sentinels against potentially zoonotic diseases. The results of this study clearly show the value of veterinarians in a multidisciplinary study of this sort and the particular skill set they can offer. Veterinarians must get involved in conservation studies if the biodiversity of the planet is to be preserved. PMID:24331557

Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Shipley, Bryon K; Newquist, Kristin L; Vera, Rebecca; Flood, Aryn A

2013-11-01

188

Broad-range PCR, cloning and sequencing of the full 16S rRNA gene for detection of bacterial DNA in synovial fluid samples of Tunisian patients with reactive and undifferentiated arthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Broad-range rDNA PCR provides an alternative, cultivation-independent approach for identifying bacterial DNA in reactive and other form of arthritis. The aim of this study was to use broad-range rDNA PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene in patients with reactive and other forms of arthritis and to screen for the presence of DNA from any given bacterial species in synovial fluid (SF) samples. Methods We examined the SF samples from a total of 27 patients consisting of patients with reactive arthritis (ReA) (n = 5), undifferentiated arthritis (UA) (n = 9), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 7), and osteoarthritis (n = 6) of which the latter two were used as controls. Using broad-range bacterial PCR amplifying a 1400 bp fragment from the 16S rRNA gene, we identified and sequenced at least 24 clones from each SF sample. To identify the corresponding bacteria, DNA sequences were compared to the EMBL (European Molecular Biology Laboratory) database. Results Bacterial DNA was identified in 20 of the 27 SF samples (74, 10%). Analysis of a large number of sequences revealed the presence of DNA from more than one single bacterial species in the SF of all patients studied. The nearly complete sequences of the 1400 bp were obtained for most of the detected species. DNA of bacterial species including Shigella species, Escherichia species, and other coli-form bacteria as well as opportunistic pathogens such as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter xylosoxidans were shared in all arthritis patients. Among pathogens described to trigger ReA, DNA from Shigella sonnei was found in ReA and UA patients. We also detected DNA from rarely occurring human pathogens such as Aranicola species and Pantoea ananatis. We also found DNA from bacteria so far not described in human infections such as Bacillus niacini, Paenibacillus humicus, Diaphorobacter species and uncultured bacterium genera incertae sedis OP10. Conclusions Broad-range PCR followed by cloning and sequencing the entire 16S rDNA, allowed the identification of the bacterial DNA environment in the SF samples of arthritic patients. We found a wide spectrum of bacteria including those known to be involved in ReA and others not previously associated with arthritis. PMID:19570210

Siala, Mariam; Gdoura, Radhouane; Fourati, Hela; Rihl, Markus; Jaulhac, Benoit; Younes, Mohamed; Sibilia, Jean; Baklouti, Sofien; Bargaoui, Naceur; Sellami, Slaheddine; Sghir, Abdelghani; Hammami, Adnane

2009-01-01

189

Bacterial constituents of indoor air in a high throughput building in the tropics.  

PubMed

Airborne bacteria are significant biotic constituents of bioaerosol. Bacteria at high concentrations in the air can compromise indoor air quality (IAQ) and result in many diseases. In tropical environments like Malaysia that extensively utilize air-conditioning systems, this is particularly significant due to continuous recirculation of indoor air and the potential implications for human health. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of airborne bacteria on IAQ in Malaysia. This study was prompted by a need for reliable baseline data on airborne bacteria in the indoor environment of tropical equatorial Malaysia, that may be used as a reference for further investigations on the potential role played by airborne bacteria as an agent of disease in this region. It was further necessitated due to the threat of bioterrorism with the potentiality of release of exotic pathogenic microorganisms into indoor or outdoor air. Before scientists can detect the latter, a gauge of the common microorganisms in indoor (as well as outdoor) air needs to be ascertained, hence the expediency of this study. Bacterial counts from the broad-based and targeted study were generally in the order of 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU) per m(3) of air. The most prevalent airborne bacteria found in the broad-based study that encompassed all five levels of the building were Gram-positive cocci (67.73%), followed by Gram-positive rods (24.26%) and Gram-negative rods (7.10%). Gram-negative cocci were rarely detected (0.71%). Amongst the genera identified, Kytococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Leifsonia sp., Bacillus sp. and Corynebacterium sp. predominated in indoor air. The most dominant bacterial species were Kytococcus sedentarius, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus. The opportunistic and nosocomial pathogen, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was also discovered at a high percentage in the cafeteria. The bacteria isolated in this study have been increasingly documented to cause opportunistic infections in immuno-compromised patients, sometimes with fatal outcomes. Furthermore, some of them are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics. Hence, we propose that indoor reservoirs of these bacteria and their associated clinical and more subtle health effects, if any, be investigated further. PMID:25382482

Li, Tee Chin; Ambu, Stephen; Mohandas, Kavitha; Wah, Mak Joon; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim; Murgaiyah, Malathi

2014-09-01

190

Application of a constructed wetland system for polluted stream remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2010, the multi-function Kaoping River Rail Bridge Constructed Wetland (KRRBW) was constructed to improve the stream water quality and rehabilitate the ecosystem of the surrounding environment of Dashu Region, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. The KRRBW consists of five wetland basins with a total water surface area of 15 ha, a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10.1 days at a averaged flow rate of 14 740 m3/day, and an averaged water depth of 1.1 m. The influent of KRRBW coming from the local drainage systems containing untreated domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastewaters. Based on the quarterly investigation results of water samples taken in 2011-2012, the overall removal efficiencies were 91% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 75% for total nitrogen (TN), 96% for total phosphorus (TP), and 99% for total coliforms (TC). The calculated first-order decay rates for BOD, TN, TP, NH3-N, and TC ranged from 0.14 (TN) to 0.42 (TC) 1/day. This indicates that the KRRBW was able to remove organics, TC, and nutrients effectively. The high ammonia/nitrate removal efficiency indicates that nitrification and denitrification processes occurred simultaneously in the wetland system, and the detected nitrite concentration confirmed the occurrence of denitrification/nitrification. Results from sediment analyses reveal that the sediment contained high concentrations of organics (sediment oxygen demand = 1.9-5.2 g O2/m2 day), nutrients (up to 15.8 g total nitrogen/kg of sediment and 1.48 g total phosphorus/kg of sediment), and metals (up to 547 mg/kg of Zn and 97 mg/kg of Cu). Appropriate wetland management strategies need to be developed to prevent the release of contaminants into the wetland system. The wetland system caused the variations in the microbial diversities and dominant microbial bacteria. Results show the dominant nitrogen utilization bacteria including Denitratisoma oestradiolicum, Nitrosospira sp., Nitrosovibrio sp., D. oestradiolicum, Alcaligenes sp., Steroidobacter denitrificans, Hydrocarboniphaga effuse were responsible for nitrogen removal, and the dominant carbon degrading bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, H. effuse, Alcaligenes sp., Pseudomonas sp., Fusibacter sp., Chlofoflexi, Guggenheimella bovis, Bacillus pumilus) were responsible for carbon reduction. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and nucleotide sequence techniques provide a guide for microbial ecology evaluation, which can be used as an indication of contaminants removal. Results from this study show that constructed wetlands have the potential to be developed into an environmentally acceptable river water quality improvement and wastewater polishment alternative for practical application.

Tu, Y. T.; Chiang, P. C.; Yang, J.; Chen, S. H.; Kao, C. M.

2014-03-01

191

BSAC standardized disc susceptibility testing method (version 8).  

PubMed

There have been considerable changes to the format of the recommendations since the previous version (version 7). The majority of the footnotes to the tables have been removed and the notations added to the end column; it is hoped that this change will avoid confusion in interpretation. Antibiotics have been separated into groups, e.g. beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, etc. Recommendations for urinary tract infections (UTIs) have been removed for most agents except for those that are administered solely for the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs or where there are limited recommendations for specific organisms, e.g. trimethoprim. For agents that previously had dual recommendations, systemic recommendations remain and the intermediate category can be used for interpretation for UTIs because intermediate susceptibility infers that the infection may respond as the agent is concentrated at the site of infection. This change will also avoid errors in interpretation when an organism is isolated from multiple sites, e.g. blood and urine. The changes that have been made to version 7 are as follows: MIC and zone diameter breakpoints (BPs) for trimethoprim, fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin for UTIs (Table 7); MIC and zone diameter breakpoints (BPs) for doripenem (Tables 7-9); colistin MIC BPs for Pseudomonas spp. (Table 9), co-trimoxazole MIC BPs for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Table 10); staphylococci MIC and zone diameter BPs for clarithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, trimethoprim UTI, nitrofurantoin UTI and rifampicin (Table 11); Streptococcus pneumoniae MIC and zone diameter BPs for azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, co-trimoxazole, linezolid, rifampicin and telithromycin (Table 12); addition of streptomycin recommendations for enterococci (Table 13); enterococcal MIC and zone diameter BPs for quinupristin/dalfopristin, nitrofurantoin UTI and trimethoprim UTI (Table 13); beta-haemolytic streptococci MIC and zone diameter BPs for azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin and telithromycin (Table 15); clarithromycin and erythromycin MIC and zone diameter BPs for Moraxella catarrhalis (Table 16); azithromycin MIC BPs for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Table 17); chloramphenicol and rifampicin MIC BPs for Neisseria meningitidis (Table 18); azithromycin MIC BPs for Haemophilus influenzae (Table 19); MIC BPs for metronidazole for Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Clostridium perfringens (Tables 23-25, respectively); susceptibility testing of Listeria spp. (Appendix 3); the acceptable range for ATCC 25923 to a 10 microg tobramycin disc (Table 26). PMID:19587067

Andrews, J M

2009-09-01

192

Ceftobiprole Activity against over 60,000 Clinical Bacterial Pathogens Isolated in Europe, Turkey, and Israel from 2005 to 2010  

PubMed Central

Ceftobiprole medocaril is a newly approved drug in Europe for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) (excluding patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia but including ventilated HAP patients) and community-acquired pneumonia in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ceftobiprole against prevalent Gram-positive and -negative pathogens isolated in Europe, Turkey, and Israel during 2005 through 2010. A total of 60,084 consecutive, nonduplicate isolates from a wide variety of infections were collected from 33 medical centers. Species identification was confirmed, and all isolates were susceptibility tested using reference broth microdilution methods. Ceftobiprole had high activity against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (100.0% susceptible), methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), beta-hemolytic streptococci, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (99.3% susceptible), with MIC90 values of 0.25, 0.12, ?0.06, and 0.5 ?g/ml, respectively. Ceftobiprole was active against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (98.3% susceptible) and methicillin-resistant CoNS, having a MIC90 of 2 ?g/ml. Ceftobiprole was active against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC50/90, 0.5/4 ?g/ml) but not against most Enterococcus faecium isolates. Ceftobiprole was very potent against the majority of Enterobacteriaceae (87.3% susceptible), with >80% inhibited at ?0.12 ?g/ml. The potency of ceftobiprole against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC50/90, 2/>8 ?g/ml; 64.6% at MIC values of ?4 ?g/ml) was similar to that of ceftazidime (MIC50/90, 2/>16 ?g/ml; 75.4% susceptible), but limited activity was observed against Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. High activity was also observed against all Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90, ?0.06 ?g/ml) and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC50/90, ?0.06/0.25 ?g/ml) isolates. Ceftobiprole demonstrated a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against this very large longitudinal sample of contemporary pathogens. PMID:24777091

Flamm, Robert K.; Sader, Helio S.; Jones, Ronald N.

2014-01-01

193

Isolation and characterization of novel iron-oxidizing bacteria that grow at circumneutral pH.  

PubMed

A gel-stabilized gradient method that employed opposing gradients of Fe2+ and O2 was used to isolate and characterize two new Fe-oxidizing bacteria from a neutral pH, Fe(2+)-containing groundwater in Michigan. Two separate enrichment cultures were obtained, and in each the cells grew in a distinct, rust-colored band in the gel at the oxic-anoxic interface. The cells were tightly associated with the ferric hydroxides. Repeated serial dilutions of both enrichments resulted in the isolation of two axenic strains, ES-1 and ES-2. The cultures were judged pure based on (i) growth from single colonies in tubes at dilutions of 10(-7) (ES-2) (ES-2) and 10(-8) (ES-1); (ii) uniform cell morphologies, i.e., ES-1 was a motile long thin, bent, or S-shaped rod and ES-2 was a shorter curved rod; and (iii) no growth on a heterotrophic medium. Strain ES-1 grew to a density of 10(8) cells/ml on FeS with a doubling time of 8 h. Strain ES-2 grew to a density of 5 x 10(7) cells/ml with a doubling time of 12.5 h. Both strains also grew on FeCO3. Neither strain grew without Fe2+, nor did they grow with glucose, pyruvate, acetate, Mn, or H2S as an electron donor. Studies with an oxygen microelectrode revealed that both strains grew at the oxic-anoxic interface of the gradients and tracked the O2 minima when subjected to higher O2 concentrations, suggesting they are microaerobes. Phylogenetically the two strains formed a novel lineage within the gamma Proteobacteria. They were very closely related to each other and were equally closely related to PVB OTU 1, a phylotype obtained from an iron-rich hydrothermal vent system at the Loihi Seamount in the Pacific Ocean, and SPB OTU 1, a phylotype obtained from permafrost soil in Siberia. Their closest cultivated relative was Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. In total, this evidence suggests ES-1 and ES-2 are members of a previously untapped group of putatively lithotrophic, unicellular iron-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:9406396

Emerson, D; Moyer, C

1997-12-01

194

Combination of Chromogenic Differential Medium and estA-Specific PCR for Isolation and Detection of Phytopathogenic Xanthomonas spp.?  

PubMed Central

A xanthomonad differential medium (designated Xan-D medium) was developed, on which streaks and colonies of xanthomonads, including 13 species of the genus Xanthomonas, turned wet-shining yellow-green and were surrounded with a smaller milky zone and a bigger clear zone in 3 to 4 days. The characteristics could easily be differentiated from those of yellow nonxanthomonads and other bacteria. The mechanism of color change and formation of a milky zone on the medium are mainly due to the Tween 80 hydrolytic capacity of xanthomonads. The gene, estA, responsible for Tween 80 hydrolysis was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, which acquired a capacity to hydrolyze Tween 80 and could turn green and form a milky zone on the Xan-D medium. The nucleotide sequence of estA is highly conserved in the xanthomonads, and the sequence was used to design a specific PCR primer set. The PCR amplification using the primer set amplified a 777-bp specific DNA fragment for all xanthomonad strains tested. The Xan-D medium was used to isolate and differentiate Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris from naturally infected cabbages with black rot symptoms for a rapid diagnosis. All isolated X. campestris pv. campestris strains developed characteristic colonies and were positive in the PCR with the estA primer set. The Xan-D medium was further amended with antibiotics and successfully used for the detection of viable X. campestris pv. campestris cells from plant seeds. Although some yellow nonxanthomonads and other saprophytic bacteria from plant seeds could still grow on the medium, they did not interfere with the color development of X. campestris pv. campestris. However, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, which is closely related to xanthomonads, existing in a seed lot could also develop yellow-green color but had different colony morphology and was negative in the PCR with the estA primer set. Accordingly, the combination of the Xan-D medium with the estA-specific PCR is a useful and reliable method for the isolation and detection of viable xanthomonad cells from plant materials. PMID:19749062

Lee, Yung-An; Sung, Ai-Ning; Liu, Tzu-Fen; Lee, Yung-Shan

2009-01-01

195

Ceftolozane/tazobactam activity tested against Gram-negative bacterial isolates from hospitalised patients with pneumonia in US and European medical centres (2012).  

PubMed

During 2012, a total of 2968 isolates were consecutively collected from 59 medical centres in the USA and 15 European countries from hospitalised patients with pneumonia. Ceftolozane/tazobactam (tazobactam at a fixed concentration of 4mg/L) and comparator agents were tested by reference methods, and MIC endpoints were interpreted by CLSI (2013) and EUCAST (2013) breakpoint criteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common isolated pathogen (1019 strains; 34.3%), and ceftolozane/tazobactam was the most active ?-lactam tested against P. aeruginosa (MIC50/90, 0.5/4 mg/L; 94.1% inhibited at ? 8 mg/L). P. aeruginosa exhibited moderate susceptibility to meropenem (MIC50/90, 0.5/>8 mg/L; 73.7% susceptible), ceftazidime (MIC50/90, 2/>32 mg/L; 73.6% susceptible), cefepime (MIC50/90, 4/>16 mg/L; 76.5% susceptible), piperacillin/tazobactam (MIC50/90, 8/>64 mg/L; 69.5% susceptible), levofloxacin [MIC50/90, 0.5/>4 mg/L; 69.9/61.0% susceptible (CLSI/EUCAST criteria)] and gentamicin (MIC50/90, 2/>8 mg/L; 80.7% susceptible). Ceftolozane/tazobactam exhibited activity against many ceftazidime-non-susceptible, meropenem-non-susceptible and piperacillin/tazobactam-non-susceptible, multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) P. aeruginosa isolates. Ceftolozane/tazobactam was active (MIC50/90, 0.25/4mg/L; 94.6% inhibited at ? 8 mg/L) against 1530 Enterobacteriaceae, including activity against many MDR and XDR strains. MDR and XDR prevalence varied widely between countries both for P. aeruginosa (24.1% MDR and 17.1% XDR overall) and Enterobacteriaceae (15.4% MDR and 2.7% XDR overall). All ?-lactams had limited activity against Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Ceftolozane/tazobactam demonstrated greater in vitro activity than currently available cephalosporins, carbapenems and piperacillin/tazobactam when tested against P. aeruginosa. In addition, ceftolozane/tazobactam demonstrated greater activity than contemporary cephalosporins and piperacillin/tazobactam when tested against most Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:24856078

Farrell, David J; Sader, Helio S; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N

2014-06-01

196

Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of Carbapenemase and ESBLs Producing Gram-negative Bacteria (GNB) Isolated from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) in Tehran Hospitals  

PubMed Central

Background: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder in white populations caused by mutation in a gene that encodes Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein. Since frequent respiratory tract infections are the major problem in patients with CF, obligation to identify the causative bacteria and determining their antibiotic resistance pattern is crucial. The purpose of this project was to detect Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) isolated from sputa of CF patients and to determine their antibiotic resistance pattern. Materials and Methods: The sputum of 52 CF patients, treated as inpatients at hospitals in Tehran, was obtained between November 2011 and June 2012. Samples cultured in selective and non-selective media and GNB recognized by biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and carbapenems was performed by disk diffusion method and MICs of them were measured. For phenotypic detection of carbapenemase and ESBLs production, the Modified Hodge test, double disk synergy test and the combined disk methods were performed. Subsequently, the genes encoding the extended spectrum beta-lactamases (blaPER, blaCTX-M) and carbapenemases (blaIMP-1, blaGES, blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM-1, blaVIM-2, blaSPM, blaSIM) in Gram negative bacteria were targeted among the resistant isolates by using PCR. PFGE was used to determine any genetic relationship among the Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from these patients. Results: Fifty five GNB were isolated from 52 sputum samples including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella ozaenae, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Achromobacter denitrificans, Klebsiella pneumonia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The rates of resistance to different antibiotic were as follows: cefixime (%80), ceftriaxone (%43), ceftazidime (%45) and meropenem (%7). The prevalence of genes encoding the ESBLs and Carbapenemases among the the phenotypically positive strains were as follows: blaCTX-M (19), blaIMP-1 (2), blaVIM-1 (2) and blaVIM-2 (3) genes respectively. No other genes were detected. PFGE analysis revealed 8 genotypes. Six isolates had mutually 3 similar patterns. Conclusion: This study showed the existence of important ESBLs and carbapenemases genes among the GNB isolated from patients with CF. Continuous surveillance of ESBLs and Carbapenemases, also identification of their types, in bacteria isolated from these patients have an important clinical impact, since, it can often provide valuable information for effective infection control measures and for the choice of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. PMID:24596716

Vali, Parisa; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Seyfipour, Maryam; Zamani, Maryam Alsadat; Allahyar, Mohammad Reza; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi

2014-01-01

197

MIXED-SPECIES COLONIZATION OF SOLID SURFACES IN LABORATORY BIOFILMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Colonization of glass substrata by populations of three or four bacterial species over periods of four weeks or more was investigated using recirculating, model laboratory systems. umbers of coryneform, Aeromonas hydrophile, Pseudomonas fluoresces, and Xanthomonas maltophilia on ...

198

Streptomyces ferrugineus sp. nov., isolated from mangrove soil in Thailand.  

PubMed

Bacterial strain HV38(T) was isolated from mangrove soil, which was collected from Thailand. Chemotaxonomic and morphological characteristics were found to be typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. The strain was found to form a distinct phyletic line in the Streptomyces 16S rRNA gene tree and to be closely associated with the type strains of Streptomyces coeruleofuscus CGMCC 4.1667(T) (98.84 % sequence similarity), Streptomyces chromofuscus CGMCC 4.1451(T) (98.63 %) and Streptomyces albidoflavus CGMCC 4.1291(T) (98.56 %). The major menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H10). Its major cellular fatty acids were found to be iso-C14:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:1?8c, C16:0, anteiso-C16:1?8c, iso-C16:0 and anteiso-C16:0. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain HV38(T) with S. coeruleofuscus CGMCC 4.1667(T), S. chromofuscus CGMCC 4.1451(T) and S. albidoflavus CGMCC 4.1291(T) were 32.7 ± 0.9, 21.8 ± 0.3 and 19.9 ± 0.9 %, respectively, which clearly supported the conclusion that they belong to separate genomic species. Cumulatively, the data indicated that strain HV38(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces ferrugineus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HV38(T) (=CCTCC AA2014009(T )= DSM 42152(T)). PMID:25331336

Ruan, Chang-Ying; Zhang, Li; Ye, Wan-Wan; Xie, Xiu-Chao; Srivibool, Rattanaporn; Duangmal, Kannika; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Deng, Zi-Xin; Hong, Kui

2015-01-01

199

INFLUENCE OF SOLID SURFACE, ADHESIVE ABILITY, AND INOCULUM SIZE ON BACTERIAL COLONIZATION IN MICROCOSM STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Microcosm studies were performed to evaluate the effect of solid surfaces, bacterial adhesive ability, and inoculum size on colonization success and persistence of P. fluorescens or X maltophilia, each with a Tn5 insertion that conferred resistance to kanamycin and streptomycin. ...

200

Comparison of aroma-active volatiles and their sensory characteristics of mangosteen wines prepared by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with GC-olfactometry and principal component analysis.  

PubMed

Mangosteen fruit is fermented with five different strains (i.e. GRE (Y1), Lalvin RC212 (Y2), Lalvin D254 (Y3), CGMCC2.23 (Y4) and CGMCC2.4 (Y5)) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to make mangosteen wines. A total of 36 volatile compounds of the mangosteen wines were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detection. A total of 35 odour-active compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis and by the detection frequency (DF) method. The compounds with high DF values included ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate and 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol. Principal component analysis was used to characterise the differences of the flavour profiles of those mangosteen wines. The result demonstrated that the samples could be divided into three groups that were associated closely with aroma-active compounds. PMID:25428208

Xiao, Zuo Bing; Liu, Jun Hua; Chen, Feng; Wang, Ling Ying; Niu, Yun Wei; Feng, Tao; Zhu, Jian Cai

2014-11-27

201

Effects of different osmolarities on bacterial biofilm formation  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation depends on several factors. The influence of different osmolarities on bacterial biofilm formation was studied. Two strains (Enterobacter sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp.) exhibited the most remarkable alterations. Biofilm formation is an important trait and its use has been associated to the protection of organisms against environmental stresses. PMID:25242950

Kavamura, Vanessa Nessner; de Melo, Itamar Soares

2014-01-01

202

Planomicrobium soli sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

A Gram-staining-positive bacterium, designated strain XN13(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from ALaShan National Geological Park in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China and subjected to a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. Strain XN13(T) was found to have a range of chemical and morphological properties consistent with its classification in the genus Planomicrobium. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain XN13(T) was related to members of the genus Planomicrobium. The closest phylogenetic relatives were Planomicrobium okeanokoites NBRC 12536(T), Planomicrobium koreense JG07(T), Planomicrobium mcmeekinii S23F2(T) and Planomicrobium flavidum ISL-41(T) with 98.2%, 97.8%, 97.8% and 97.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15?:?0), C(16?:?1)?7c alcohol, iso-C(14?:?0) and C(16?:?1)?11c. The predominant menaquinones were MK-8 and MK-7. The DNA G+C content was 40.3 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain XN13(T) and Planomicrobium okeanokoites KCTC 3672(T), Planomicrobium koreense KCTC 3684(T), P. mcmeekinii CGMCC 1.2724(T), Planomicrobium flavidum KCTC 13261(T), Planomicrobium chinense CGMCC 1.3454(T) and Planomicrobium glaciei CGMCC 1.6846(T) were 36%, 30%, 34%, 29%, 30% and 31%, respectively. The organism is different from recognized species of the genus Planomicrobium in several phenotypic characteristics. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic properties, strain XN13(T) represents a novel species of the genus Planomicrobium, for which the name Planomicrobium soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XN13(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.12259(T)?=?KCTC 33047(T)). PMID:24854007

Luo, Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianli; Li, Dai; Xin, Yuhua; Xin, Di; Fan, Lei

2014-08-01

203

Genome sequence of Serratia nematodiphila DSM 21420(T), a symbiotic bacterium from entomopathogenic nematode.  

PubMed

Serratia nematodiphila DSM 21420(T) (=CGMCC 1.6853(T), DZ0503SBS1(T)), isolated from the intestine of Heterorhabditidoides chongmingensis, has been known to have symbiotic-pathogenic life cycle, on the multilateral relationships with entomopathogenic nematode and insect pest. In order to better understanding of this rare feature in Serratia species, we present here the genome sequence of S. nematodiphila DSM 21420(T) with the significance of first genome sequence in this species. PMID:25444874

Kwak, Yunyoung; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Shin, Jae-Ho

2015-01-10

204

Halobacterium rubrum sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern.  

PubMed

Halophilic archaeal strain TGN-42-S1(T) was isolated from the Tanggu marine solar saltern, China. Cells from strain TGN-42-S1(T) were observed to be pleomorphic rods, stained Gram-negative, and formed red-pigmented colonies on solid media. Strain TGN-42-S1(T) was found to be able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 35-37 °C), at 1.7-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 3.1 M), at 0-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.1 M), and at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5). The cells lysed in distilled water, and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell-lysis was found to be 10 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, galactosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether (TGD-1), sulfated galactosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-TGD-1), sulfated galactosyl mannosyl galactofuranosyl glucosyl diether (S-TeGD), and three unidentified glycolipids which were chromatographically identical to those of the Halobacterium species. The 16S rRNA gene and rpoB' gene of strain TGN-42-S1(T) were phylogenetically related to the corresponding genes of Halobacterium jilantaiense CGMCC 1.5337(T) (98.8 and 93.5 % nucleotide identity, respectively), Halobacterium salinarum CGMCC 1.1958(T) (98.4 and 91.9 %), and Halobacterium noricense JCM 15102(T) (96.9 and 91.1 %). The DNA G + C content of strain TGN-42-S1(T) was determined to be 69.2 mol %. Strain TGN-42-S1(T) showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with Hbt. jilantaiense CGMCC 1.5337(T) and Hbt. salinarum CGMCC 1.1958(T), the most closely related members of the genus Halobacterium. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic properties suggested that strain TGN-42-S1(T) (=CGMCC 1.12575(T) =JCM 19908(T)) represents a new species of Halobacterium, for which the name Halobacterium rubrum sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:25112838

Han, Dong; Cui, Heng-Lin

2014-12-01

205

Symbiosis with bacteria enhances the use of chitin by the springtail, Folsomia candida (Collembola)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The relationship between Folsomia candida and chitin-degrading microorganisms was studied. On chitin agar, 1010 bacteria were isolated per g faeces, and 3.8×1011 bacteria per g gut contents, 1\\/3 of them showing a clear (chitin-free) zone around the colony. The most abundant chitin-degrading\\u000a bacteria were Xanthomonas maltophilia and Curtobacterium sp. To determine the bacterial contribution in the use of chitin by

H. Borkott; H. Insam

1990-01-01

206

Degradation of BTEX compounds in liquid media and in peat biofilters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixed culture, enriched from Sphagnum peat moss, contaminated with gasoline vapours, degraded individual and mixed components of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene). Complete degradation of radiolabelled toluene by the mixed culture was observed in mineralisation studies. Individual isolates from a mixed culture containingPseudomonas maltophilia, P. testosteroni andP. putida biotype A exhibited contrasting BTEX degradation patterns. WhileP. putida biotype A

A Mallakin; O P Ward

1996-01-01

207

Effect of oxidative stress on the biosynthesis of 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-2,4-cyclopyrophosphate and isoprenoids by several bacterial strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the gram-negative bacteria Xanthomonas campestris, Xanthomonas maltophilia, and Pseudomonas putida, facultative parasites of plants and animals, were shown to accumulate 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-2,4-cyclopyrophosphate (MEC) in response to benzyl-viologen-induced oxidative stress. Corynebacterium ammoniagenes mutants capable of accumulating MEC in the absence of an exogenous oxidative stress inducer were obtained. Isoprenoid synthesis\\u000a and MEC synthesis in these and other bacteria were

D. Ostrovsky; G. Diomina; E. Lysak; E. Matveeva; O. Ogrel; S. Trutko

1998-01-01

208

Efficacy of bacterial consortium-AIE2 for contemporaneous Cr(VI) and azo dye bioremediation in batch and continuous bioreactor systems, monitoring steady-state bacterial dynamics using qPCR assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial consortium-AIE2 with a capability of contemporaneous Cr(VI) reduction and azo dye RV5 decolourization was developed\\u000a from industrial wastewaters by enrichment culture technique. The 16S rRNA gene based molecular analyses revealed that the\\u000a consortium bacterial community structure consisted of four bacterial strains namely, Alcaligenes sp. DMA, Bacillus sp. DMB, Stenotrophomonas sp. DMS and Enterococcus sp. DME. Cumulative mechanism of Cr(VI)

Chirayu Desai; Kunal Jain; Bharat Patel; Datta Madamwar

2009-01-01

209

Cloning of mpd gene from a chlorpyrifos-degrading bacterium and use of this strain in bioremediation of contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective chlorpyrifos-degrading bacterium (named strain YC-1) was isolated from the sludge of the wastewater treating system of an organophosphorus pesticides manufacturer. Based on the results of phenotypic features, phylogenetic similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequences and BIOLOG test, strain YC-1 was identified as the genus Stenotrophomonas. The isolate utilized chlorpyrifos as the sole source of carbon and phosphorus for

Chao Yang; Na Liu; Xinmin Guo; Chuanling Qiao

210

Biodegradation of Indeno (1,2,3-cd) Pyrene by a Pure Bacterial Culture of Pandoraea sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new isolated bacterial cultures of Pandoraea sp., Stenotrophomonas sp., and T Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana that could efficiently degraded Indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene (Inp) were reported in this paper. The biodegradation performance of Inp by Pandoraea sp was studied under different pH conditions. Under the conditions of pH=8, the removal efficiency of Inp fluctuated sharply among 8% and 40%. The optimal condition

Yongchao Du; Junfeng Dou; Lirong Cheng; Aizhong Ding; Fuqiang Fan; Haiying Chen

2010-01-01

211

Succession and growth strategy of a spring microbial community from kezhou sinter in china  

PubMed Central

The succession and growth strategy of a spring microbial community under earthquake action were investigated. The majority of pre-earthquake isolates belonged to the Gammaproteobacteria, including two numerically dominant Stenotrophomonas sp. RB25 and Acinetobacter sp. RB11 (r-strategists). The predominant post-earthquake isolates were Alphaproteobacteria, with Rhizobium sp. RA42 (K-strategists) being dominant among these organisms. PMID:24031602

Yang, Hongmei; Lou, Kai

2011-01-01

212

Variation of nonylphenol-degrading gene abundance and bacterial community structure in bioaugmented sediment microcosm.  

PubMed

Nonylphenol (NP) can accumulate in river sediment. Bioaugmentation is an attractive option to dissipate heavy NP pollution in river sediment. In this study, two NP degraders were isolated from crude oil-polluted soil and river sediment. Microcosms were constructed to test their ability to degrade NP in river sediment. The shift in the proportion of NP-degrading genes and bacterial community structure in sediment microcosms were characterized using quantitative PCR assay and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the soil isolate belonged to genus Stenotrophomonas, while the sediment isolate was a Sphingobium species. Both of them could almost completely clean up a high level of NP in river sediment (150 mg/kg NP) in 10 or 14 days after inoculation. An increase in the proportion of alkB and sMO genes was observed in sediment microcosms inoculated with Stenotrophomonas strain Y1 and Sphingobium strain Y2, respectively. Moreover, bioaugmentation using Sphingobium strain Y2 could have a strong impact on sediment bacterial community structure, while inoculation of Stenotrophomonas strain Y1 illustrated a weak impact. This study can provide some new insights towards NP biodegradation and bioremediation. PMID:25277711

Wang, Zhao; Yang, Yuyin; Sun, Weimin; Dai, Yu; Xie, Shuguang

2015-02-01

213

Community dynamics of a mixed-bacterial culture growing on petroleum hydrocarbons in batch culture.  

PubMed

The effects of various hydrocarbon substrates, and a chemical surfactant capable of enhancing crude-oil biodegradation, on the community structure of a mixed-bacterial inoculum were examined in batch culture. Of 1000 TSA-culturable isolates, 68.6% were identified at the genus level or better by phospholipid fatty acid analysis over 7-day time course experiments. Cultures were exposed to 20 g/L Bow River crude oil with and without 0.625 g/L Igepal CO-630 (a nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactant), 5 g/L saturates, 5 g/L aromatics, or 125 g/L refinery sludge. A group of six genera dominated the cultures: Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas/Flavimonas, Stenotrophomonas, and Yersinia. Species from four of the genera were shown to be capable of hydrocarbon degradation, and counts of hydrocarbon degrading and total heterotrophic bacteria over time were nearly identical. Pseudomonas/Flavimonas and Stenotrophomonas normally dominated during the early portions of cultures, although the lag phase of Stenotrophomonas appears to have been increased by surfactant addition. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus was the most frequently isolated microorganism during exposure to the saturate fraction of crude oil. Regardless of substrate, the culture medium supported a greater variety of organisms during the latter portions of cultures. Understanding the community structure and dynamics of mixed bacterial cultures involved in treatment of heterogeneous waste substrates may assist in process development and optimization studies. PMID:10872080

Van Hamme, J D; Odumeru, J A; Ward, O P

2000-05-01

214

Genetic and biochemical characterization of the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) synthase in Haloferax mediterranei.  

PubMed

The haloarchaeon Haloferax mediterranei has shown promise for the economical production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), a desirable bioplastic. However, little is known at present about the genes involved in PHBV synthesis in the domain Archaea. In this study, we cloned the gene cluster (phaEC(Hme)) encoding a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase in H. mediterranei CGMCC 1.2087 via thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. Western blotting revealed that the phaE(Hme) and phaC(Hme) genes were constitutively expressed, and both the PhaE(Hme) and PhaC(Hme) proteins were strongly bound to the PHBV granules. Interestingly, CGMCC 1.2087 could synthesize PHBV in either nutrient-limited medium (supplemented with 1% starch) or nutrient-rich medium, up to 24 or 18% (wt/wt) in shaking flasks. Knockout of the phaEC(Hme) genes in CGMCC 1.2087 led to a complete loss of PHBV synthesis, and only complementation with the phaEC(Hme) genes together (but not either one alone) could restore to this mutant the capability for PHBV accumulation. The known haloarchaeal PhaC subunits are much longer at their C termini than their bacterial counterparts, and the C-terminal extension of PhaC(Hme) was proven to be indispensable for its function in vivo. Moreover, the mixture of purified PhaE(Hme)/PhaC(Hme) (1:1) showed significant activity of PHA synthase in vitro. Taken together, our results indicated that a novel member of the class III PHA synthases, composed of PhaC(Hme) and PhaE(Hme), accounted for the PHBV synthesis in H. mediterranei. PMID:18408025

Lu, Qiuhe; Han, Jing; Zhou, Ligang; Zhou, Jian; Xiang, Hua

2008-06-01

215

Salinicoccus qingdaonensis sp. nov., isolated from coastal seawater during a bloom of green algae.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-stain-positive, white-pigmented, non-motile, non-sporulating, catalase- and oxidase-positive, strictly aerobic coccus, designated strain ZXM223(T), was isolated from a seawater sample collected from the coast of Qingdao, PR China, during a green algal bloom. It grew at pH 6.0-10.5 and 0-25.0% (w/v) NaCl, with optimum growth at pH 8.5 and 3.0% (w/v) NaCl. Growth occurred at 16-42 °C (optimum at 28 °C). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) and iso-C(15:0). Menaquinone 6 (MK-6) was the major respiratory quinone. The polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids and two unknown glycolipids. The peptidoglycan type was L-Lys-Gly(5-6.) The genomic DNA G+C content was 43.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain ZXM223(T) within the genus Salinicoccus, with sequence similarity of 92.2-97.1% between ZXM223(T) and the type strains of this genus. The closest relatives were Salinicoccus kunmingensis YIM Y15(T), 'S. salitudinis' YIM-C678 and S. alkaliphilus T8(T). The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain ZXM223(T) and S. kunmingensis CGMCC 1.6302(T) and 'S. salitudinis' CGMCC 1.6299 (=YIM-C678) was 37±3 and 30±2%, respectively. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics and low DNA-DNA relatedness support the proposal of a novel species of the genus Salinicoccus, Salinicoccus qingdaonensis sp. nov., with the type strain ZXM223(T) (=LMG 24855(T) =CGMCC 1.8895(T)). PMID:21498663

Qu, Zhe; Li, Zhao; Zhang, Xiuming; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

2012-03-01

216

Halorussus ruber sp. nov., isolated from an inland salt lake of China.  

PubMed

Halophilic archaeal strain YC25(T) was isolated from Yuncheng salt lake in Shanxi, China. Cells of strain YC25(T) were observed to be pleomorphic rods, stained Gram-negative, and formed red-pigmented colonies on solid media. Strain YC25(T) was found to be able to grow at 25-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), at 1.4-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 1.7 M), at 0-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.01 M), and at pH 5.5-9.0 (optimum pH 6.5). The cells lysed in distilled water, and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was found to be 8 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester (PGP-Me), phosphatidylglycerol sulfate (PGS), sulfated galactosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-TGD-1), sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-DGD-1), galactosyl mannosyl glucosyl diether (TGD-1), mannosyl glucosyl diether (DGD-1), and an unknown diglycosyl diether (DGD-2) chromatographically identical to those of Halorussus rarus CGMCC 1.10122(T). The 16S rRNA gene and rpoB' gene of strain YC25(T) were phylogenetically related to the corresponding genes of Halorussus rarus CGMCC 1.10122(T) (94.3-95.4 and 91.5 % nucleotide identity, respectively). The DNA G+C content of strain YC25(T) was determined to be 63.3 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic properties suggested that strain YC25(T) (=CGMCC 1.12122(T) = JCM 18363(T)) represents a new species of Halorussus, for which the name Halorussus ruber sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:25381138

Xu, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Han, Dong; Cui, Heng-Lin; Yang, Kun

2015-01-01

217

2H-pyran-2-one and 2H-furan-2-one derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici.  

PubMed

Two new ?-pyrones (=2H-pyran-2-ones), ficipyrones A and B (1 and 2, resp.), and two new ?-furanones (=2H-furan-2-ones), ficifuranones A and B (3 and 4, resp.), together with three known metabolites, antibiotic F 0368 (5), hydroxyseiridin (6), and hydroxyisoseiridin (7), were isolated from solid cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici. Their structures were elucidated primarily by NMR spectroscopy, and the absolute configuration of 1 was deduced from the circular-dichroism (CD) data. Compound 1 showed antifungal activity against the plant pathogen Gibberella zeae (CGMCC 3.2873) with an IC50 value of 15.9 ?M. PMID:24243609

Liu, Shuchun; Liu, Xiangyu; Guo, Liangdong; Che, Yongsheng; Liu, Ling

2013-11-01

218

Mutation-Screening of Pleurotus Ferulae with High Temperature Tolerance by Nitrogen Ion Implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to obtain Pleurotus ferulae with high temperature tolerance, conidiophores of wild type strain ACK were implanted with nitrogen ions in energy of 5 ~15 keV and dose of 1.5 × 1015 ~ 1.5 × 1016 cm-2, and a mutant CGMCC1763 was isolated subsequently through thermotolerant screening method. It was found that during riper period the surface layer mycelium of the mutant in mushroom bag wasn't aging neither grew tegument even above 30° C. The mycelium endurable temperature of the mutant was increased by 5°C compared to that of the wild type strain. The fruiting bodies growth temperature of the mutant was 18 ~22°C in daytime and 8~14°C at night. The highest growth temperature of fruiting bodies of the mutant was increased about 7°C w.r.t. that of original strain. Through three generations investigations, it was found that the mutant CGMCC1763 was stable with high temperature tolerance.

Chen, Henglei; Wan, Honggui; Zhang, Jun; Zeng, Xianxian

2008-08-01

219

Transcriptional Characteristics Associated with Lichenysin Biosynthesis in Bacillus licheniformis from Chinese Maotai-Flavor Liquor Making.  

PubMed

This work investigated the biosynthetic mechanism of lichenysin, the newly identified nonvolatile matrix component in Chinese liquors. Transcriptomes were analyzed in three producers, Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC 3961, 3962, and 3963, which were isolated from Maotai-flavor liquor-making process and produced 386.3, 553.5, and 795.2 ?g/L lichenysin in a simulative liquor fermentation process. Lichenysin synthetase genes lchAA-AD in these three producers were expressed much more highly than those of the nonproducer B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 (>18.4-fold). In addition, ABC transporters were the most significant responsive metabolic pathway, and the expression levels of peptide transporter genes dppABCDE all increased more than 19.2-fold. When B. licheniformis CGMCC 3963 was cultured in synthetic medium, the expression of dppABCDE and lichenysin both increased with the addition of casein hydrolysate (containing various peptides). This indicated that peptide would act as a substrate for lichenysin synthesis. This work sheds new light on the mechanism for lichenysin biosynthesis. PMID:25561250

Wu, Qun; Zhang, Rong; Peng, Suqin; Xu, Yan

2015-01-28

220

Taxonomic study of the genera Halogeometricum and Halosarcina: transfer of Halosarcina limi and Halosarcina pallida to the genus Halogeometricum as Halogeometricum limi comb. nov. and Halogeometricum pallidum comb. nov., respectively  

PubMed Central

Members of the haloarchaeal genera Halosarcina and Halogeometricum (family Halobacteriaceae) are closely related to each other and show 96.6–98?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. This is higher than the accepted threshold value (95?%) to separate two genera, and a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach of all four members of the two genera was conducted to clarify their relationships. Polar lipid profiles indicated that Halogeometricum rufum RO1-4T, Halosarcina pallida BZ256T and Halosarcina limi RO1-6T are related more to each other than to Halogeometricum borinquense CGMCC 1.6168T. Phylogenetic analyses using the sequences of three different genes (16S rRNA gene, rpoB? and EF-2) strongly supported the monophyly of these four species, showing that they formed a distinct clade, separate from the related genera Halopelagius, Halobellus, Haloquadratum, Haloferax and Halogranum. The results indicate that the four species should be assigned to the same genus, and it is proposed that Halosarcina pallida and Halosarcina limi be transferred to the genus Halogeometricum as Halogeometricum pallidum comb. nov. (type strain, BZ256T?=?KCTC 4017T?=?JCM 14848T) and Halogeometricum limi comb. nov. (type strain, RO1-6T?=?CGMCC 1.8711T?=?JCM 16054T). PMID:24097833

Qiu, Xing-Xing; Zhao, Mei-Lin; Han, Dong; Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Dyall-Smith, Mike L.

2013-01-01

221

Headspace analysis of volatile metabolites of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and related species by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed Central

Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of headspace volatiles was performed on cultures of 11 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 1 strain each of Pseudomonas cepacia, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas maltophilia. All strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced a distinctive series of odd-carbon methyl ketones, particularly 2-nonanone and 2-undecanone, and 2-aminoacetophenone. The other strains failed to produce 2-aminoacetophenone. Two sulfur compounds, dimethyldisulfide and dimethyltrisulfide, were present in strains of P. aeruginosa and in variable amounts in other species. Butanol, 2-butanone, 1-undecene, and isopentanol were also detected in P. aeruginosa cultures. PMID:6775012

Labows, J N; McGinley, K J; Webster, G F; Leyden, J J

1980-01-01

222

Inhibition of Microbial Growth by Ajoene, a Sulfur-Containing Compound Derived from Garlic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ajoene, a garlic-derived sulfur-containing compound that prevents platelet aggregation, exhibited broad- spectrum antimicrobial activity. Growth of gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacteriumsmegmatis,andStreptomycesgriseus,wasinhibitedat5 mgofajoeneperml.Staphylococcusaureus andLactobacillus plantarumalso were inhibited below 20 mg of ajoene per ml. For gram-negative bacteria, such asEscherichia coli,Klebsiella pneumoniae, andXanthomonas maltophilia, MICs were between 100 and 160 mg\\/ml. Ajoene also inhibited yeast growth at concentrations

RIE NAGANAWA; NAMI IWATA; KEIKO ISHIKAWA; HIROYUKI FUKUDA; TSUCHIYOSHI FUJINO; ANDATSUSHI SUZUKI

1996-01-01

223

Qualitative and quantitative microbiological analysis of sputa of 102 patients with cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A microbiological analysis of 102 patients suffering from cystic fibrosis was conducted over a 22 month period. 20 microbial species with the following incidence were identified:Pseudomonas aeruginosa: 83.4%;Candida albicans: 29.4%;Staphylococcus aureus: 24.5%;Staphylococcus epidermidis: 11.8%;Haemophilus influenzae: 11.8%;Streptococcus pneumoniae: 6.9%;Pseudomonas maltophilia: 6.8%;Aspergillus fumigatus: 5.9%. Other species were present in less than 5% of the patients. In the majority of specimens withP.

A. Bauernfeind; G. Hörl; R. Jungwirth; C. Petermüller; B. Przyklenk; C. Weisslein-Pfister; R. M. Bertele; K. Harms

1987-01-01

224

Effect of oxidative stress on the biosynthesis of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-2,4-cyclopyrophosphate and isoprenoids by several bacterial strains.  

PubMed

In this study, the gram-negative bacteria Xanthomonas campestris, Xanthomonas maltophilia, and Pseudomonas putida, facultative parasites of plants and animals, were shown to accumulate 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-2,4-cyclopyrophosphate (MEC) in response to benzyl-viologen-induced oxidative stress. Corynebacterium ammoniagenes mutants capable of accumulating MEC in the absence of an exogenous oxidative stress inducer were obtained. Isoprenoid synthesis and MEC synthesis in these and other bacteria were shown to be alternative processes, while biosynthesis of brominated polyene xanthomonadin (an antioxidant pigment of X. campestris) increased concomitantly with the accumulation of MEC. PMID:9871022

Ostrovsky, D; Diomina, G; Lysak, E; Matveeva, E; Ogrel, O; Trutko, S

1998-12-01

225

Characterization of copper-resistant bacteria and bacterial communities from copper-polluted agricultural soils of central Chile  

PubMed Central

Background Copper mining has led to Cu pollution in agricultural soils. In this report, the effects of Cu pollution on bacterial communities of agricultural soils from Valparaiso region, central Chile, were studied. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 16S rRNA genes was used for the characterization of bacterial communities from Cu-polluted and non-polluted soils. Cu-resistant bacterial strains were isolated from Cu-polluted soils and characterized. Results DGGE showed a similar high number of bands and banding pattern of the bacterial communities from Cu-polluted and non-polluted soils. The presence of copA genes encoding the multi-copper oxidase that confers Cu-resistance in bacteria was detected by PCR in metagenomic DNA from the three Cu-polluted soils, but not in the non-polluted soil. The number of Cu-tolerant heterotrophic cultivable bacteria was significantly higher in Cu-polluted soils than in the non-polluted soil. Ninety two Cu-resistant bacterial strains were isolated from three Cu-polluted agricultural soils. Five isolated strains showed high resistance to copper (MIC ranged from 3.1 to 4.7 mM) and also resistance to other heavy metals. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicate that these isolates belong to the genera Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Arthrobacter. The Sphingomonas sp. strains O12, A32 and A55 and Stenotrophomonas sp. C21 possess plasmids containing the Cu-resistance copA genes. Arthrobacter sp. O4 possesses the copA gene, but plasmids were not detected in this strain. The amino acid sequences of CopA from Sphingomonas isolates (O12, A32 and A55), Stenotrophomonas strain (C21) and Arthrobacter strain (O4) are closely related to CopA from Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Arthrobacter strains, respectively. Conclusions This study suggests that bacterial communities of agricultural soils from central Chile exposed to long-term Cu-pollution have been adapted by acquiring Cu genetic determinants. Five bacterial isolates showed high copper resistance and additional resistance to other heavy metals. Detection of copA gene in plasmids of four Cu-resistant isolates indicates that mobile genetic elements are involved in the spreading of Cu genetic determinants in polluted environments. PMID:22950448

2012-01-01

226

Pseudomonas guangdongensis sp. nov., isolated from an electroactive biofilm, and emended description of the genus Pseudomonas Migula 1894.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, straight to slightly curved rod-shaped bacterium, motile with peritrichous flagella, designated SgZ-6(T), was isolated from an electroactive biofilm and was characterized by means of a polyphasic approach. Growth occurred with 0-5.0?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1?%), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and at 10-42 °C (optimum 30 °C) in trypticase soya broth. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes identified the isolate as a member of a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain SgZ-6(T) exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to 'Pseudomonas linyingensis' CGMCC 1.10701 (97.5?%), followed by Pseudomonas sagittaria JCM 18195(T) (97.4?%), P. oleovorans subsp. lubricantis DSM 21016(T) (96.6?%), P. tuomuerensis JCM 14085(T) (96.5?%) and P. alcaliphila JCM 10630(T) (96.4?%). Strain SgZ-6(T) showed the highest gyrB gene sequence similarity of 93.7?% to 'P. linyingensis' CGMCC 1.10701 among all type strains of genus Pseudomonas. DNA-DNA pairing studies showed that strain SgZ-6(T) displayed 47.1 and 40.3?% relatedness to 'P. linyingensis' CGMCC 1.10701 and P. sagittaria JCM 18195(T), respectively. The major isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone 9 (Q-9). The whole-cell fatty acids consisted mainly of summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?6c and/or C16?:?1?7c), C16?:?0 and summed feature 8 (C18?:?1?6c and/or C18?:?1?7c). The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.1 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain SgZ-6(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas guangdongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SgZ-6(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2012022(T)?=?KACC 16606(T)). An emended description of the genus Pseudomonas is also proposed. PMID:23918787

Yang, Guiqin; Han, Luchao; Wen, Junlin; Zhou, Shungui

2013-12-01

227

Complete genome sequence of Kosakonia sacchari type strain SP1T  

PubMed Central

Kosakonia sacchari sp. nov. is a new species within the new genus Kosakonia, which was included in the genus Enterobacter. K sacchari is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium named for its association with sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). K sacchari bacteria are Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, motile rods. Strain SP1T (=CGMCC1.12102T=LMG 26783T) is the type strain of the K sacchari sp. nov and is able to colonize and fix N2 in association with sugarcane plants, thus promoting plant growth. Here we summarize the features of strain SP1T and describe its complete genome sequence. The genome contains a single chromosome and no plasmids, 4,902,024 nucleotides with 53.7% GC content, 4,460 protein-coding genes and 105 RNA genes including 22 rRNA genes, 82 tRNA genes, and 1 ncRNA gene. PMID:25197499

Chen, Mingyue; Zhu, Bo; Lin, Li; Yang, Litao; Li, Yangrui; An, Qianli

2014-01-01

228

Production of nano bacterial cellulose from waste water of candied jujube-processing industry using Acetobacter xylinum.  

PubMed

The work is aimed to investigate the suitability of waste water of candied jujube-processing industry for the production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Gluconacetobacter xylinum CGMCC No.2955 and to study the structure properties of bacterial cellulose membranes. After acid pretreatment, the glucose of hydrolysate was higher than that of waste water of candied jujube. The volumetric yield of bacterial cellulose in hydrolysate was 2.25g/L, which was 1.5-folds of that in waste water of candied jujube. The structures indicated that the fiber size distribution was 3-14nm in those media with an average diameter being around 5.9nm. The crystallinity index of BC from pretreatment medium was lower than that of without pretreatment medium and BCs from various media had similar chemical binding. Ammonium citrate was a key factor for improving production yield and the crystallinity index of BC. PMID:25662694

Li, Zheng; Wang, Lifen; Hua, Jiachuan; Jia, Shiru; Zhang, Jianfei; Liu, Hao

2015-04-20

229

Genome Mining-Directed Activation of a Silent Angucycline Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Streptomyces chattanoogensis.  

PubMed

Genomic sequencing of actinomycetes has revealed the presence of numerous gene clusters seemingly capable of natural product biosynthesis, yet most clusters are cryptic under laboratory conditions. Bioinformatics analysis of the completely sequenced genome of Streptomyces chattanoogensis L10 (CGMCC 2644) revealed a silent angucycline biosynthetic gene cluster. The overexpression of a pathway-specific activator gene under the constitutive ermE* promoter successfully triggered the expression of the angucycline biosynthetic genes. Two novel members of the angucycline antibiotic family, chattamycins A and B, were further isolated and elucidated. Biological activity assays demonstrated that chattamycin B possesses good antitumor activities against human cancer cell lines and moderate antibacterial activities. The results presented here provide a feasible method to activate silent angucycline biosynthetic gene clusters to discover potential new drug leads. PMID:25511454

Zhou, Zhenxing; Xu, Qingqing; Bu, Qingting; Guo, Yuanyang; Liu, Shuiping; Liu, Yu; Du, Yiling; Li, Yongquan

2015-02-01

230

Evaluation of the formation of volatiles and sensory characteristics of persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f.) fruit wines using different commercial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of five strains (IFFI 1346, IFFI 1363, CICC 31482, D254 and CGMCC2.346) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the aromatic profiles of fermented persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f.) musts. A total of 50 and 60 compounds were identified in persimmon wine by stir bar sorptive extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. According to odour activity values (OAVs), 26 detected compounds showed an OAV above 1. Principal component analysis explained the distribution of these persimmon wines on the basis of volatile compounds with OAV>1. The volatile compounds with high OAV included ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, methyl decanoate, linalool and geraniol. Quantitative descriptive analysis was employed. The result showed that persimmon wines fermented with strains IFFI 1363 and D254 were strongly correlated with persimmon, aroma harmony, fruity, fusel and taste balanced, fullness, hedonic scale. Therefore, the two yeast strains could be used as starter culture for persimmon wine production. PMID:25186058

Zhu, Jian Cai; Niu, Yun Wei; Feng, Tao; Liu, Sheng Jiang; Cheng, He Xing; Xu, Na; Yu, Hai Yan; Xiao, Zuo Bing

2014-01-01

231

Restricted streptomycin use in apple orchards did not adversely alter the soil bacteria communities  

PubMed Central

Streptomycin has been authorized for restricted use in the prevention of the fire blight disease of pome fruit orchards in the EU and Switzerland. This study addresses the important topic of the influence of the use of streptomycin in agriculture on the total bacteria community within the soil ecosystem. Soil samples were taken from soils under apple trees, prior to streptomycin application and 2 weeks post streptomycin application or water application (untreated control). High throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to generate datasets from the soils under apple trees in apple orchards from three different locations in Switzerland. We hypothesized that the use of streptomycin would reduce the bacterial diversity within the soil samples and enhance a reduction in the variety of taxa present. Bacterial species such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics and as such it is of interest to investigate if the use of streptomycin provided a selective advantage for these bacteria in the soil ecosystem. The application of streptomycin did not influence the abundance and diversities of major bacteria taxa of the soils or the Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas species. We also discovered that apple orchards under the same management practices, did not harbor the same bacterial communities. The restricted application of streptomycin in the protection of apple orchards from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora under the guidelines in Switzerland did not alter either the bacterial diversity or abundance within these soil ecosystems. PMID:24550889

Walsh, Fiona; Smith, Daniel P.; Owens, Sarah M.; Duffy, Brion; Frey, Jürg E.

2014-01-01

232

Substrate utilization of stress tolerant methylotrophs isolated from revegetated heavy metal polluted coalmine spoil.  

PubMed

We analyzed methylotrophs in Bina natural vegetation (BNV), and revegetated overburden dump of four (ROBD4) and 12 years (ROBD12), at Bina coal mine in Sonbhadra district. The cultured strains identified as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas and Cellvibrio (?-Proteobacteria), Methylophilus, Ralstonia, Burkholderia (?-Proteobacteria) Methylobacterium and Inquilinus (?-Proteobacteria), Bacillus (Firmicutes) and Flexibacter (Sphingobacteria) in their 16s rRNA gene sequence similarity. The strains differed in citrate, lactose, formate, urea and xylose utilization. Methanol utilization by Stenotrophomonas, Inquilinus, Cellvibrio and Flexibacter is for first time. The preferred N- sources were proline, glutamate and nitrate for most of the strains. All strains tolerated (2.5 % NaCl) and SDS (0.2 %); 16 strains survived in crystal violet (0.01 %) and nine strains in sodium azide (0.02 %. Methylotrophic population trend was BNV > ROBD12 > ROBD4. The presence of majority of strain of BNV at ROBD12 and ROBD4 indicated restoration of soil methylotrophic functional diversity in revegetated dumps. PMID:23184579

Giri, D D; Shukla, P N; Ritu, Singh; Kumar, Ajay; Pandey, K D

2013-04-01

233

Salinimicrobium sediminis sp. nov., isolated from a deep-sea sediment.  

PubMed

Strain JC207(T) was isolated from a deep (265 m) sea sediment, and appeared as dark yellow colonies on agar plates with cells staining Gram-negative. Catalase, oxidase and caseinase were positive, while chitinase, gelatinase and amylase were negative. Major (>5?%) fatty acids were iso-C15?:?0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C17?:?1?9c, iso-C16?:?0, iso-C15?:?0 3-OH, iso-C17?:?0 3-OH, iso-C14?:?0 and iso-C15:1G. Strain JC207(T) contained phosphatidylethanolamine as the major polar lipid, with minor amounts of five unidentified lipids. A bacterial hopane derivative, diplopterol and adenosylhopane were the major hopanoids. Genomic DNA G+C content was 47.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons indicated that strain JC207(T) represented a member of the genus Salinimicrobium within the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes. Strain JC207(T) had sequence similarity with Salinimicrobium terrae YIM-C338(T) (98%), Salinimicrobium xinjiangense BH206(T) (97.6?%) and other members of the genus Salinimicrobium (<96.8?%). However, strain JC207(T) showed an average of 23.6 ± 4 and 37 ± 4 relatedness (based on DNA-DNA hybridization) with Salinimicrobium terrae CGMCC 1.6308(T) (?=?YIM-C338(T)) and Salinimicrobium xinjiangense KCTC 12883(T) (?=?BH206(T)), respectively. Morphological, physiological and genotypic differences from the previously described taxa support the classification of strain JC207(T) as a representative of a novel species in the genus Salinimicrobium, for which the name Salinimicrobium sediminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC207(T) (?=?KCTC 32444(T)?=?CGMCC 1.12641(T)). PMID:24425818

Subhash, Y; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

2014-03-01

234

ESTIMATING BACTERIAL DIVERSITY IN SCIRTOTHRIPS DORSALIS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) VIA NEXT GENERATION SEQUENCING  

PubMed Central

The last 2 decades have produced a better understanding of insect-microbial associations and yielded some important opportunities for insect control. However, most of our knowledge comes from model systems. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) have been understudied despite their global importance as invasive species, plant pests and disease vectors. Using a culture and primer independent next-generation sequencing and metagenomics pipeline, we surveyed the bacteria of the globally important pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood. The most abundant bacterial phyla identified were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and the most abundant genera were Propionibacterium, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudomonas. A total of 189 genera of bacteria were identified. The absence of any vertically transferred symbiont taxa commonly found in insects is consistent with other studies suggesting that thrips primarilly acquire resident microbes from their environment. This does not preclude a possible beneficial/intimate association between S. dorsalis and the dominant taxa identified and future work should determine the nature of these associations. PMID:25382863

Dickey, Aaron M.; Trease, Andrew J.; Jara-Cavieres, Antonella; Kumar, Vivek; Christenson, Matthew K.; Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; Morgan, J. Kent; Shatters, Robert G.; Mckenzie, Cindy L.; Davis, Paul H.; Osborne, Lance S.

2014-01-01

235

Community structure analysis of reverse osmosis membrane biofilms and the significance of Rhizobiales bacteria in biofouling.  

PubMed

The biofilm community structure of a biofouled reverse osmosis (RO) membrane was examined using a polyphasic approach, and the dominant phylotypes retrieved were related to the order Rhizobiales, a group of bacteria that is hitherto not implicated in membrane biofouling. A comparison with two other membrane biofilms using T-RFLP fingerprinting also revealed the dominance of Rhizobiales organisms. When pure culture RO biofilm isolates were cultivated aerobically in BIOLOG microplates, most Rhizobiales were metabolically versatile in their choice of carbon substrates. Nitrate reduction was observed in five RO isolates related to Castellaniella, Ochrobactrum, Stenotrophomonas, and Xanthobacter. Many of the key Rhizobiales genera including Bosea, Ochrobactrum, Shinella, and Rhodopseudomonas were detected by PCR to contain the nirK gene responsible for nitrite reductase activity. These findings suggest that Rhizobiales organisms are ecologically significant in membrane biofilm communities under both aerobic and anoxic conditions and may be responsible for biofouling in membrane separation systems. PMID:17695921

Pang, Chee Meng; Liu, Wen-Tso

2007-07-01

236

Characterization of IS1389, a new member of the IS3 family of insertion sequences isolated from Xanthomonas campestris pv. amaranthicola.  

PubMed

IS1389, a new insertion sequence belonging to the IS3 family, has been identified in Xanthomonas campestris pv. amaranthicola. The genome of this bacterium contains at least 11 copies of the element, whereas no hybridizing sequences were detected in other Xanthomonas species [X. axonopodis, X. fragaridae, X. phaseoli, and X. (Stenotrophomonas) maltophila]. Two nearly identical copies of the element (IS1389-A and IS1389-B) were characterized. According to analysis of sequence alignments and similar structural features, IS1389 belongs to the IS407 subgroup of the IS3 family, which duplicates 4 bp of target DNA upon insertion. IS1389-A was found in the proximity of the modification gene of the XamI restriction-modification system. PMID:10398747

Gómez, P; Ribas-Aparicio, R M; Pélaez, A I; Rodicio, M R

1999-07-01

237

Best conditions for biodegradation of diesel oil by chemometric tools  

PubMed Central

Diesel oil biodegradation by different bacteria-yeast-rhamnolipids consortia was tested. Chromatographic analysis of post-biodegradation residue was completed with chemometric tools (ANOVA, and a novel ranking procedure based on the sum of ranking differences). These tools were used in the selection of the most effective systems. The best results of aliphatic fractions of diesel oil biodegradation were observed for a yeast consortia with Aeromonas hydrophila KR4. For these systems the positive effect of rhamnolipids on hydrocarbon biodegradation was observed. However, rhamnolipids addition did not always have a positive influence on the biodegradation process (e.g. in case of yeast consortia with Stenotrophomonas maltophila KR7). Moreover, particular differences in the degradation pattern were observed for lower and higher alkanes than in the case with C22. Normally, the best conditions for “lower” alkanes are Aeromonas hydrophila KR4 + emulsifier independently from yeasts and e.g. Pseudomonas stutzeri KR7 for C24 alkane. PMID:24948922

Kaczorek, Ewa; Bielicka-Daszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Héberger, Károly; Kemény, Sándor; Olszanowski, Andrzej; Voelkel, Adam

2014-01-01

238

Biodegradation and decolourization of anaerobically treated distillery spent wash by a novel bacterial consortium.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to isolate microorganisms capable of decolourizing and degrading anaerobically treated distillery spent wash. A bacterial consortium DMC comprising of three bacterial cultures was selected on the basis of rapid effluent decolourization and degradation, which exhibited 67 +/- 2% decolourization within 24 h and 51 +/- 2% chemical oxygen demand reduction within 72 h when incubated at 37 degrees C under static condition in effluent supplemented with 0.5% glucose, 0.1% KH(2)PO(4), 0.05% KCl and 0.05% MgSO(4) x 7H(2)O. Addition of organic or inorganic nitrogen sources did not support decolourization. The cultures were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Stenotrophomonas maltophila and Proteus mirabilis by the 16S rDNA analysis. PMID:16473005

Mohana, Sarayu; Desai, Chirayu; Madamwar, Datta

2007-01-01

239

The effects of Mary Rose conservation treatment on iron oxidation processes and microbial communities contributing to acid production in marine archaeological timbers.  

PubMed

The Tudor warship the Mary Rose has reached an important transition point in her conservation. The 19 year long process of spraying with polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been completed (April 29(th) 2013) and the hull is air drying under tightly controlled conditions. Acidophilic bacteria capable of oxidising iron and sulfur have been previously identified and enriched from unpreserved timbers of the Mary Rose, demonstrating that biological pathways of iron and sulfur oxidization existed potentially in this wood, before preservation with PEG. This study was designed to establish if the recycled PEG spray system was a reservoir of microorganisms capable of iron and sulfur oxidization during preservation of the Mary Rose. Microbial enrichments derived from PEG impregnated biofilm collected from underneath the Mary Rose hull, were examined to better understand the processes of cycling of iron. X-ray absorption spectroscopy was utilised to demonstrate the biological contribution to production of sulfuric acid in the wood. Using molecular microbiological techniques to examine these enrichment cultures, PEG was found to mediate a shift in the microbial community from a co-culture of Stenotrophomonas and Brevunidimonas sp, to a co-culture of Stenotrophomonas and the iron oxidising Alicyclobacillus sp. Evidence is presented that PEG is not an inert substance in relation to the redox cycling of iron. This is the first demonstration that solutions of PEG used in the conservation of the Mary Rose are promoting the oxidation of ferrous iron in acidic solutions, in which spontaneous abiotic oxidation does not occur in water. Critically, these results suggest PEG mediated redox cycling of iron between valence states in solutions of 75% PEG 200 and 50% PEG 2000 (v/v) at pH 3.0, with serious implications for the future use of PEG as a conservation material of iron rich wooden archaeological artefacts. PMID:24586230

Preston, Joanne; Smith, Andrew D; Schofield, Eleanor J; Chadwick, Alan V; Jones, Mark A; Watts, Joy E M

2014-01-01

240

The Effects of Mary Rose Conservation Treatment on Iron Oxidation Processes and Microbial Communities Contributing to Acid Production in Marine Archaeological Timbers  

PubMed Central

The Tudor warship the Mary Rose has reached an important transition point in her conservation. The 19 year long process of spraying with polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been completed (April 29th 2013) and the hull is air drying under tightly controlled conditions. Acidophilic bacteria capable of oxidising iron and sulfur have been previously identified and enriched from unpreserved timbers of the Mary Rose, demonstrating that biological pathways of iron and sulfur oxidization existed potentially in this wood, before preservation with PEG. This study was designed to establish if the recycled PEG spray system was a reservoir of microorganisms capable of iron and sulfur oxidization during preservation of the Mary Rose. Microbial enrichments derived from PEG impregnated biofilm collected from underneath the Mary Rose hull, were examined to better understand the processes of cycling of iron. X-ray absorption spectroscopy was utilised to demonstrate the biological contribution to production of sulfuric acid in the wood. Using molecular microbiological techniques to examine these enrichment cultures, PEG was found to mediate a shift in the microbial community from a co-culture of Stenotrophomonas and Brevunidimonas sp, to a co-culture of Stenotrophomonas and the iron oxidising Alicyclobacillus sp. Evidence is presented that PEG is not an inert substance in relation to the redox cycling of iron. This is the first demonstration that solutions of PEG used in the conservation of the Mary Rose are promoting the oxidation of ferrous iron in acidic solutions, in which spontaneous abiotic oxidation does not occur in water. Critically, these results suggest PEG mediated redox cycling of iron between valence states in solutions of 75% PEG 200 and 50% PEG 2000 (v/v) at pH 3.0, with serious implications for the future use of PEG as a conservation material of iron rich wooden archaeological artefacts. PMID:24586230

Preston, Joanne; Smith, Andrew D.; Schofield, Eleanor J.; Chadwick, Alan V.; Jones, Mark A.; Watts, Joy E. M.

2014-01-01

241

Characterization of Co(III) EDTA-Reducing Bacteria in Metal- and Radionuclide-Contaminated Groundwater  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Area Grouping 5 (WAG5) site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a potential to be a field site for evaluating the effectiveness of various bioremediation approaches and strategies. The site has been well studied in terms of its geological and geochemical properties over the past decade. However, despite the importance of microorganisms in bioremediation processes, the microbiological populations at the WAG5 site and their potential in bioremediation have not been similarly evaluated. In this study, we initiated research to characterize the microbial populations in WAG5 groundwater. Approximately 100 isolates from WAG5 groundwater were isolated and selected based on colony morphology. Fifty-five unique isolates were identified by BOX-PCR and subjected to further characterization. 16S rRNA sequences indicated that these isolates belong to seventeen bacterial genera including Alcaligenes (1 isolate), Aquamonas (1), Aquaspirillum (1), Bacillus (10), Brevundimonas (5), Caulobacter (7), Dechloromonas (2), Janibacter (1), Janthinobacterium (2), Lactobacillus (1), Paenibacillus (4), Pseudomonas (9), Rhodoferax (1), Sphingomonas (1), Stenotrophomonas (6), Variovorax (2), and Zoogloea (1). Metal respiration assays identified several isolates, which phylogenically belong or are close to Caulobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Pseudomonas, capable of reducing Co(III)EDTA- to Co(II)EDTA{sup 2-} using the defined M1 medium under anaerobic conditions. In addition, using WAG5 groundwater directly as the inoculants, we found that organisms associated with WAG5 groundwater can reduce both Fe(III) and Co(III) under anaerobic conditions. Further assays were then performed to determine the optimal conditions for Co(III) reduction. These assays indicated that addition of various electron donors including ethanol, lactate, methanol, pyruvate, and acetate resulted in metal reduction. These experiments will provide useful background information for future bioremediation field experiments at the WAG5 site.

Gao, Weimin [Arizona State University; Gentry, Terry J [ORNL; Mehlhorn, Tonia L [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman

2010-01-01

242

Halomonas songnenensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from saline and alkaline soils.  

PubMed

A moderately halophilic bacterium (strain NEAU-ST10-39T) was isolated from saline and alkaline soils in the oilfield of Daqing City, Heilongjiang Province, China. The strain was strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and motile by peritrichous flagella. Its colonies were yellow. It grew at NaCl concentrations of 0.2-15% (w/v) (optimum 4%, w/v), at temperatures of 4-40 °C (optimum 35 °C) and at pH 5-10 (optimum pH 7). It did not produce acids from sugars or alcohols. Its DNA G+C content was 57.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and concatenated 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequences indicated that it belonged to the genus Halomonas in the class Gammaproteobacteria. The most phylogenetically related species were Halomonas axialensis, Halomonas meridiana and Halomonas aquamarina, whose types shared 98.3% (16S rRNA), 82.7% (gyrB) and 83.9-84.5% (rpoD) sequence similarity with strain NEAU-ST10-39T. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization assays showed 20±2%-50±1?% relatedness between strain NEAU-ST10-39T and the most closely related species including Halomonas axialensis DSM 15723T, Halomonas meridiana DSM 5425T, Halomonas aquamarina DSM 30161(T), Halomonas johnsoniae DSM 21197T, Halomonas stevensii DSM 21198T, Halomonas nanhaiensis CCTCC AB 2012911(T), Halomonas hamiltonii DSM 21196T and Halomonas arcis CGMCC 1.6494T. The major fatty acids were C18?:?1?7c (47.2%), C16:1?7c and/or C16:1?6c (18.9%) and C16:0 (16.3%), the only respiratory quinone detected was ubiquinone 9 and polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, two unknown phospholipids and three unknown lipids. The new isolate is proposed to represent a novel species with the name Halomonas songnenensis sp. nov., NEAU-ST10-39T (=CGMCC 1.12152T=DSM 25870T) being the type strain. PMID:24510978

Jiang, Juquan; Pan, Yuanyuan; Hu, Shaoxin; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Hu, Baozhong; Huang, Haipeng; Hong, Shan; Meng, Jing; Li, Cheng; Wang, Kaibiao

2014-05-01

243

Halorubrum laminariae sp. nov., isolated from the brine of salted brown alga Laminaria.  

PubMed

Two halophilic archaeal strains, R60(T) and R61, were isolated from the brine of salted brown alga Laminaria. Cells of the two strains were observed to be rod-shaped, stain Gram-negative and to lyse in distilled water. Strain R60(T) was found to contain gas vacuoles and to produce pink-pigmented colonies, while strain R61 lacked gas vacuoles and produces red-pigmented colonies. Both strains were found to be able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 30 °C), at 1.7-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 2.6-3.1 M NaCl), at 0-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.005-0.1 M MgCl2) and at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0). The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate and one major glycolipid chromatographically identical to a sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether produced by Halorubrum members of the Halobacteriaceae. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains were 99.9 % identical, showing 94.6-98.0 % similarity to those of members of the genus Halorubrum. The EF-2 gene similarity between strains R60(T) and R60 was 100 % and showed 84.6-94.5 % similarity to those of members of the genus Halorubrum. The DNA G+C contents of the two strains were determined to be 63.0 mol %. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain R60(T) and strain R61 was 92 % and the two strains showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with the most related members of Halorubrum. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strain R60(T) (= CGMCC 1.12689(T) = JCM 30040(T)) and strain R61 (= CGMCC 1.12696) represent a novel species of the genus Halorubrum, for which the name Halorubrum laminariae sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:25367341

Han, Dong; Cui, Heng-Lin

2015-01-01

244

Oceanicola antarcticus sp. nov. and Oceanicola flagellatus sp. nov., moderately halophilic bacteria isolated from seawater.  

PubMed

Two Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, moderately halophilic, rod-shaped bacteria (strains Ar-45(T) and DY470(T)) were isolated from seawater collected from the Southern Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, respectively. Growth of strain Ar-45(T) was observed with between 0.5 and 10.0?% (w/v) NaCl (optimally with 0.5-3.0?%) and between pH 5.5 and 9.5. Strain DY470(T) grew in the presence of 0.5-7.5?% (w/v) NaCl (optimally with 2.0?%) and at pH 5.5-8.5. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed Q-10 as the respiratory quinone for both strains. The major fatty acids (>5?%) of strain Ar-45(T) were C16?:?0, C19?:?0 cyclo ?8c and C18?:?1?7c, while those of strain DY470(T) were C18?:?1?7c, C16?:?0 and 11-methyl C18?:?1?7c. The DNA G+C contents of the two strains were 62.0 and 61.8 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains Ar-45(T) and DY470(T) were related most closely to the genus Oceanicola, with sequence similarities of 97.4-94.0 and 97.7-94.7?%, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain Ar-45(T) and Oceanicola marinus LMG 23705(T) was 22.0?%. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain DY470(T) and Oceanicola nitratireducens LMG 24663(T) and Oceanicola batsensis DSM 15984(T) were 32.5 and 26.1?%, respectively. Based on phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, strains Ar-45(T) and DY470(T) are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Oceanicola, for which the names Oceanicola antarcticus (type strain Ar-45(T)?=?CGMCC 1.12662(T)?=?LMG 27868(T)) and Oceanicola flagellatus (type strain DY470(T)?=?CGMCC 1.12664(T)?=?LMG 27871(T)) are proposed. PMID:24899659

Huo, Ying-Yi; Li, Zheng-Yang; You, Hong; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Post, Anton F; Oren, Aharon; Xu, Xue-Wei

2014-09-01

245

Paludibacter jiangxiensis sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic, propionate-producing bacterium isolated from rice paddy field.  

PubMed

A mesophilic, obligately anaerobic, propionate-producing fermentative bacterium, designated strain NM7(T), was isolated from rural rice paddy field. Cells of strain NM7(T) are Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, short rods, and negative for catalase. The strain grew optimally at 37 °C (the range for growth 15-40 °C) and pH 7.0 (pH 5.0-7.5). The strain could grow fermentatively on various sugars, including arabinose, xylose, fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, cellobiose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, pectin and starch. The main end products of glucose fermentation were acetate and propionate. Yeast extract was not required but stimulated the growth. Nitrate, sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, and Fe(III) nitrilotriacetate were not used as terminal electron acceptors. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 42.8 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, and C17:0. The most abundant polar lipid of strain NM7(T) was phosphatidylethanolamine. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that it belongs to the family Porphyromonadaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes. The closest recognized species was Paludibacter propionicigenes (91.4 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence). A novel species, Paludibacter jiangxiensis sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate strain NM7(T) (=JCM 17480(T) = CGMCC 1.5150(T) = KCTC 5844(T)). PMID:24419224

Qiu, Yan-Ling; Kuang, Xiao-Zhu; Shi, Xiao-Shuang; Yuan, Xian-Zheng; Guo, Rong-Bo

2014-03-01

246

Compostibacillus humi gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Bacillaceae , isolated from sludge compost.  

PubMed

Two novel Gram-staining-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, and moderately thermophilic bacteria, designated strain DX-3T and GIESS002, respectively were isolated from sludge composts from Guangdong Province, China. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates were closely related to each other with extremely high similarity (99.6%), and were members of the family Bacillaceae. However, these two isolates formed a novel phylogenetic branch within this family. Their closest relatives were the members of the genera Ornithinibacillus, Oceanobacillus and Virgibacillus. Cells of both strains were facultatively anaerobic and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A1? (meso-DAP direct). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acid was iso-C15:0. The DNA G+C content was 43.2-43.7 mol%. The polyphasic taxonomic results indicated that strains DX-3T and GIESS002 represent a novel species in a new genus in the family Bacillaceae, order Bacillales for which the name Compostibacillus humi gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DX-3T (=KCTC 33104T =CGMCC 1.12360T). PMID:25358510

Yu, Zhen; Wen, Junlin; Yang, Guiqin; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Shungui

2014-10-30

247

Leifsonia ginsengi sp. nov., isolated from ginseng root.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, designated strain wged11T, was isolated from the root of ginseng, and its taxonomic position was established using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this organism formed a robust clade with recognized species of the genus Leifsonia. Strain wged11T was characterized by a high content of omega-cyclohexylundecanoic and anteiso- and iso-branched saturated fatty acids, MK-11 as the major menaquinone and DL-2,4-diaminobutyric acid in its cell-wall peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C content of strain wged11T was 66.4 mol%. Levels of similarity between the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain wged11(T) and those of the type strains of other members of the genus Leifsonia ranged from 94.7 to 97.6 %. The mean level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain wged11T and Leifsonia poae DSM 15202T, its nearest phylogenetic neighbour, was 35.3 %. Based on these findings, strain wged11T (=CGMCC 4.3491T=JCM 13908T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Leifsonia, Leifsonia ginsengi sp. nov. PMID:17267987

Qiu, Fubin; Huang, Ying; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Zhiheng; Song, Wei

2007-02-01

248

Fulvimarina manganoxydans sp. nov., isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal plume in the south-west Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

An aerobic, Mn(II)-oxidizing, Gram-negative bacterium, strain 8047(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent plume in the south-west Indian Ocean. The strain was rod-shaped and motile with a terminal flagellum, and formed yellowish colonies. It produced catalase and oxidase, hydrolysed gelatin and reduced nitrate. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 8047(T) belonged to the order Rhizobiales of the class Alphaproteobacteria, and was phylogenetically most closely related to the genus Fulvimarina, sharing 94.4% sequence identity with the type strain of the type species. The taxonomic affiliation of strain 8047(T) was supported by phylogenetic analysis of four additional housekeeping genes, gyrB, recA, rpoC and rpoB. The predominant respiratory lipoquinone of strain 8047(T) was Q-10, the major fatty acid was C(18?:?1)?7c and the DNA G+C content was 61.7 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics determined in this study, strain 8047(T) represents a novel species within the genus Fulvimarina, for which the name Fulvimarina manganoxydans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain 8047(T) (?=?CGMCC1.10972(T)?=?JCM 18890(T)). PMID:24854008

Ren, Fei; Zhang, Limin; Song, Lei; Xu, Shiyao; Xi, Lijun; Huang, Li; Huang, Ying; Dai, Xin

2014-08-01

249

Janibacter indicus sp. nov., isolated from hydrothermal sediment of the Indian Ocean.  

PubMed

A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic and non-motile strain, 0704P10-1(T), was isolated from hydrothermal sediment of the Indian Ocean. Phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data for the organism supported that it belonged to the genus Janibacter. Strain 0704P10-1(T) showed 97.2-98.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to the type strains of recognized members of the genus Janibacter. It contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell wall. MK-8(H4) was the only menaquinone detected. The major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, C17 : 1?8c and 10-methyl C17 : 0. Meanwhile, the results of DNA-DNA hybridization studies and other physiological and biochemical tests allowed the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain 0704P10-1(T) from closely related species. Thus, strain 0704P10-1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Janibacter, for which the name Janibacter indicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 0704P10-1(T) (?= LMG 27493(T)?= CGMCC 1.12511(T)). PMID:24744020

Zhang, Gaiyun; Ren, Huihui; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Xiu; Yang, Yanliu; Zhang, Yubian; Jiang, Yi

2014-07-01

250

Nonomuraea solani sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from eggplant root (Solanum melongena L.).  

PubMed

A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-Z6(T), was isolated from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) root. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain NEAU-Z6(T) belonged to the genus Nonomuraea, with highest sequence similarity to Nonomuraea monospora PT 708(T) (98.83 %), Nonomuraea rosea GW 12687(T) (98.55 %) and Nonomuraea rhizophila YIM 67092(T) (98.02 %). Sequence similarities between strain NEAU-Z6(T) and other species of the genus Nonomuraea ranged from 97.94 % (Nonomuraea candida HMC10(T)) to 96.30 % (Nonomuraea wenchangensis 210417(T)). Key morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain NEAU-Z6(T) were congruent with the description of the genus Nonomuraea. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 64.51 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness and comparative analysis of physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic data allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain NEAU-Z6(T) from closely related species. Thus, strain NEAU-Z6(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea solani sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Z6(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7037(T) = DSM 45729(T)). PMID:23203622

Wang, Xiangjing; Zhao, Junwei; Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Jidong; Shen, Yue; Jia, Feiyu; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Ji; Yu, Chao; Xiang, Wensheng

2013-07-01

251

Genomic sequencing identifies novel Bacillus thuringiensis Vip1/Vip2 binary and Cry8 toxins that have high toxicity to Scarabaeoidea larvae.  

PubMed

The Bacillus thuringiensis strain HBF-18 (CGMCC 2070), which has previously been shown to encode the cry8Ga toxin gene, is active against both Holotrichia oblita and Holotrichia parallela. Recombinant Cry8Ga however is only weakly toxic to these insect pests suggesting the involvement of additional toxins in the native strain. We report that through the use of Illumina sequencing three additional, and novel, genes, namely vip1Ad1, vip2Ag1, and cry8-like, were identified in this strain. Although no protein corresponding to these genes could be identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the HBF-18 proteome, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that all three genes were transcribed in the native strain. The two vip genes were cloned and expressed and, as with other Vip1/2 toxins, appeared to function as a binary toxin and showed strong activity against H. oblita, H. parallela and Anomala corpulenta. This is the first report to demonstrate that the Vip1/Vip2 binary toxin is active against these Scarabaeoidea larvae. The cry8-like gene appeared to be a C-terminally truncated form of a typical cry8 gene and was not expressed in our usual recombinant Bt expression system. When however the missing C-terminal region was replaced with the corresponding sequence from cry8Ea, the resulting hybrid expressed well and the toxin was active against the three test insects. PMID:25081556

Bi, Yang; Zhang, Yanrui; Shu, Changlong; Crickmore, Neil; Wang, Qinglei; Du, Lixin; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie

2015-01-01

252

Streptomyces polyrhachii sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from an edible Chinese black ant (Polyrhachis vicina Roger).  

PubMed

A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-ycm1(T), was isolated from an edible Chinese black ant (Polyrhachis vicina Roger) and characterized with a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of streptomycetes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequence show that the novel isolate belongs to the genus Streptomyces and forms a separate subclade. The closest phylogenetic relatives were identified as the type strains of Streptomyces intermedius NBRC 13049(T) (97.74 %), Streptomyces aureoverticillatus NRRL B-3326(T) (97.69 %), Streptomyces rutgersensis NBRC 12819(T) (97.68 %), Streptomyces gougerotii NBRC 3198(T) (97.68 %) and Streptomyces diastaticus subsp. diastaticus NBRC 3714(T) (97.68 %). Similarities to other type strains of the genus Streptomyces were lower than 97.55 %. A comparison between strain NEAU-ycm1(T) and the closest related Streptomyces type strains revealed that it is different from them in morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Therefore, it is proposed that NEAU-ycm1(T) (=CGMCC 4.7094(T) = DSM 42102(T)) represents a novel species of the genus of Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces polyrhachii sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:24002610

Yu, Chao; Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Xiangjing; Zhao, Junwei; Yang, Lingyu; Gao, Ruixia; Zhang, Yuejing; Xiang, Wensheng

2013-12-01

253

Micromonospora polyrhachis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from edible Chinese black ant (Polyrhachis vicina Roger).  

PubMed

A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-ycm2(T), was isolated from edible Chinese black ants (Polyrhachis vicina Roger) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of the genus Micromonospora. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain NEAU-ycm2(T) showed highest similarity to those of Micromonospora sonneratiae 274745(T) (99.12%), Micromonospora pattaloongensis TJ2-2(T) (98.85%), Micromonospora pisi GUI 15(T) (98.76%), Polymorphospora rubra TT 97-42(T) (98.42%) and Micromonospora eburnea LK2-10(T) (98.21%). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene demonstrated that strain NEAU-ycm2(T) is a member of the genus Micromonospora and supported the close phylogenetic relationship to M. sonneratiae 274745(T), M. pattaloongensis JCM 12833(T) and M. pisi GUI 15(T). Furthermore, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization and some physiological and biochemical properties indicated that the novel strain could be readily distinguished from its closest phylogenetic relatives. Therefore, it is proposed that NEAU-ycm2(T) represents a novel species of the genus of Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora polyrhachis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-ycm2(T) (?=?CGMCC 4.7100(T)?=?DSM 45886(T)). PMID:24108323

Xiang, Wensheng; Yu, Chao; Liu, Chongxi; Zhao, Junwei; Yang, Lingyu; Xie, Binjiao; Li, Lei; Hong, Kui; Wang, Xiangjing

2014-02-01

254

Flavobacterium anhuiense sp. nov., isolated from field soil.  

PubMed

A novel strain, D3T, isolated from a field-soil sample obtained from Anhui Province, PR China, was characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic approach. The cells were Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented rods devoid of flagella, but showing gliding motility. The organism was able to grow at 5-37 degrees C and at pH 4.0-10.0. A comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain D3T is a member of the genus Flavobacterium, sharing highest sequence similarity with the type strain of Flavobacterium defluvii (96.7 %). The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-6 and the predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 omega 7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) and C16 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 31.4 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic data, strain D3T represents a novel species within the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium anhuiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is D3T (=KCTC 22128T = CGMCC 1.6859T). PMID:18398165

Liu, Huan; Liu, Rui; Yang, Shou-Yun; Gao, Wei-Kai; Zhang, Chong-Xing; Zhang, Ke-Yun; Lai, Ren

2008-04-01

255

Sphingobacterium paludis sp. nov., isolated from wetland soil.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-stain-negative bacteria, designated S37(T), was isolated from soil of the Xixi wetland, Zhejiang province, China. Cells of strain S37(T) were aerobic, non-motile rods. Growth occurred at 10-37 °C (optimum, 25 °C), pH 5.0-9.7 (optimum, pH 7.5) and with 0-6% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0.5%). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain S37(T) was found to be a member of the genus Sphingobacterium and shared highest similarity with Sphingobacterium composti 4M24(T) (95.78%). The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (iso-C15:0 2-OH and/or C16:1?7c), iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0 3-OH, and the DNA G+C content was 43.8 mol%. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. Based on its phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and phylogenetic data, strain S37(T) represents a novel species of the genus Sphingobacterium, for which the name Sphingobacterium paludis sp. nov. (type strain S37(T) = CGMCC 1.12801(T) = NBRC 110386(T)) is proposed. PMID:25048213

Feng, Hao; Zeng, Yanhua; Huang, Yili

2014-10-01

256

Lactobacillus nasuensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from silage, and emended description of the genus Lactobacillus.  

PubMed

Two strains of lactic acid bacteria, designated SU 18(T) and SU 83, were isolated from silage prepared with Sudan grass [Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.]. The isolates were Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods that did not produce gas from glucose. The isolates exhibited ?93.5?% DNA-DNA relatedness to each other and shared the same phenotypic characteristics, which indicated that they belonged to a single species. The DNA G+C content was 58.5-59.2 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were placed in the genus Lactobacillus. Their closest phylogenetic neighbours were Lactobacillus manihotivorans JCM 12514(T) and Lactobacillus camelliae JCM 13995(T) (95.9 and 96.8?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively, with strain SU 18(T)). Ribotyping revealed that strain SU 18(T) was well separated from L. manihotivorans JCM 12514(T) and L. camelliae JCM 13995(T). Strain SU 18(T) exhibited ?23.7?% DNA-DNA relatedness with its closest phylogenetic neighbours. The isolates represent a novel species in the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus nasuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SU 18(T) (?=?JCM 17158(T) ?=?CGMCC 1.10801(T)). The description of the genus Lactobacillus is also amended. PMID:21724957

Cai, Yimin; Pang, Huili; Kitahara, Maki; Ohkuma, Moriya

2012-05-01

257

Streptacidiphilus oryzae sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from rice-field soil in Thailand.  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of ten acidophilic actinomycetes isolated from an acidic rice-field soil was established using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequences determined for the isolates were aligned with corresponding sequences of representatives of the genera Kitasatospora, Streptacidiphilus and Streptomyces and phylogenetic trees were inferred using four tree-making algorithms. The isolates had identical sequences and formed a distinct branch at the periphery of the Streptacidiphilus 16S rRNA gene tree. The chemotaxonomic and morphological properties of representative isolates were consistent with their assignment to the genus Streptacidiphilus. The isolates shared nearly identical phenotypic profiles that readily distinguished them from representatives of the established species of Streptacidiphilus. It is evident from the genotypic and phenotypic data that the isolates form a homogeneous group that corresponds to a novel species in the genus Streptacidiphilus. The name proposed for this new taxon is Streptacidiphilus oryzae sp. nov.; the type strain is strain TH49(T) (=CGMCC 4.2012(T) = JCM 13271(T)). PMID:16738101

Wang, Liming; Huang, Ying; Liu, Zhiheng; Goodfellow, Michael; Rodríguez, Carlos

2006-06-01

258

Acinetobacter harbinensis sp. nov., isolated from river water.  

PubMed

A bacterial strain, HITLi 7T, with nitrifying ability was isolated from the surface water of the Songhua River in China. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, oxidase-negative, non-motile coccobacilli, capable of growth in mineral media with acetate as the sole carbon source and ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. The cells did not grow at 37 °C, but did grow at 2 °C. The DNA G+C content was 45.5 mol%. Results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated a close relationship between this isolate and Acinetobacter lwoffii (98.4% similarity for strain DSM 2403T). rpoB and gyrB gene sequences did not show significant similarity with those from other species of the genus Acinetobacter. Predominant cellular fatty acids were 9-octadecenoic acid (C18?:?1?9c) and summed feature 4 (iso-C15:0 2-OH and/or C16:1?7c). Acid was not produced from d-glucose, and gelatin was not hydrolysed by the isolate. Genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data from this study indicate that the isolate should be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Acinetobacter. The name Acinetobacter harbinensis sp. nov. is proposed for the novel species, with HITLi 7T (=CGMCC 1.12528T=KCTC 32411T) as the type strain. PMID:24478215

Li, Weiguang; Zhang, Duoying; Huang, Xiaofei; Qin, Wen

2014-05-01

259

Enhanced deacidification activity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by genome shuffling.  

PubMed

A problem frequently occurring in making some kinds of wines, particularly Vitis quinquangularis Rehd wine, is the presence of malic acid at high concentrations, which is detrimental to the quality of wines. Thus, there is a need of the ways for effectively reducing the malic acid levels in wine. This study aimed to generate shuffled fusants of Schizosaccharomyces pombe with enhanced deacidification activity for reducing the excessive malic acid content in wine. Sz. pombe CGMCC 2.1628 was used as the original strain. The starting mutant population was generated by UV treatment. The mutants with higher deacidification activity were selected and subjected to recursive protoplast fusion. The resulting fusants were screened by using the indicator of malic acid concentration of fermentation supernatants on 96-well microtitre plates, measured with bromocresol green. After three rounds of genome shuffling, the best-performing fusant, named GS3-1, was obtained. Its deacidification activity (consumed 4.78?g/l malic acid within 10?days) was increased by 225.2% as compared to that of original strain. In the Vitis quinquangularis Rehd wine fermentation test, GS3-1 consumed 4.0?g/l malic acid during the whole cycle of fermentation, providing up to 185.7% improvement in malic acid consumption compared with that of the original strain. This study shows that GS3-1 has great potential for improving the quality of Vitis quinquangularis Rehd wine. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25377082

Ding, Su; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Wei; Yang, Ying; Guan, Jingxi; Pan, Lixia; Li, Wei

2014-11-01

260

Marinobacter segnicrescens sp. nov., a moderate halophile isolated from benthic sediment of the South China Sea.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, motile, non-spore-forming and moderately halophilic ellipsoid-shaped marine coccobacillus, designated strain SS011B1-4(T), was isolated from benthic sediment of the South China Sea. Optimum growth occurred at 30-37 degrees C, pH 7.5-8.0 and 4-8 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain SS011B1-4(T) utilized a variety of organic substrates as sole carbon sources, but did not utilize toluene, n-tetradecane or crude oil. Strain SS011B1-4(T) had ubiquinone-9 as the major respiratory quinone and C(18 : 1)omega9c, C(16 : 0) and C(12 : 0) 3-OH as the predominant fatty acids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 62.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SS011B1-4(T) belonged to the genus Marinobacter of the Gammaproteobacteria. The results of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and genomic analyses revealed that strain SS011B1-4(T) represents a novel species of the genus Marinobacter. The name Marinobacter segnicrescens sp. nov. is therefore proposed, with strain SS011B1-4(T) (=LMG 23928(T)=CGMCC 1.6489(T)) as the type strain. PMID:17766857

Guo, Bin; Gu, Jun; Ye, Yu-Guang; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji; Wu, Xiao-Lei

2007-09-01

261

Understanding of how Propionibacterium acidipropionici respond to propionic acid stress at the level of proteomics  

PubMed Central

Propionic acid (PA) is an important platform chemical in the food, agriculture, and pharmaceutical industries and is mainly biosynthesized by propionibacteria. Acid tolerance in PA-producing strains is crucial. In previous work, we investigated the acid tolerance mechanism of Propionibacterium acidipropionici at microenvironmental levels by analyzing physiological changes in the parental strain and three PA-tolerant mutants obtained by genome shuffling. However, the molecular mechanism of PA tolerance in P. acidipropionici remained unclear. Here, we performed a comparative proteomics study of P. acidipropionici CGMCC 1.2230 and the acid-tolerant mutant P. acidipropionici WSH1105; MALDI-TOF/MS identified 24 proteins that significantly differed between the parental and shuffled strains. The differentially expressed proteins were mainly categorized as key components of crucial biological processes and the acid stress response. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to confirm differential expression of nine key proteins. Overexpression of the secretory protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ATP synthase subunit ? in Escherichia coli BL21 improved PA and acetic acid tolerance; overexpression of NADH dehydrogenase and methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase improved PA tolerance. These results provide new insights into the acid tolerance of P. acidipropionici and will facilitate the development of PA production through fermentation by propionibacteria. PMID:25377721

Guan, Ningzi; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

2014-01-01

262

Caldicellulosiruptor changbaiensis sp. nov., a cellulolytic and hydrogen-producing bacterium from a hot spring.  

PubMed

A novel thermophilic bacterial strain, CBS-Z(T), was isolated from a terrestrial hot spring in the Changbai Mountains, PR China. Cells of strain CBS-Z(T) were short straight rods without flagella and had Gram-positive cell walls. Growth was observed at 40-90 °C (optimum 75 °C) and at pH 5.6-8.6 (optimum pH 7.8). The primary end-products from the fermentation of filter paper by strain CBS-Z(T) were acetate, lactate, H2, and CO2. The main cellular fatty acids were iso-C17?:?0, iso-C14?:?0 3-OH and C16?:?0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.08 mol%. Multiple sequence alignment of the 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that strain CBS-Z(T) belongs to the genus Caldicellulosiruptor and the most similar micro-organism was Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus DSM 8903(T) (96.36?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity); the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain CBS-Z(T) to other species was below 95?%. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics, strain CBS-Z(T) represents a novel species of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor, for which the name Caldicellulosiruptor changbaiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CBS-Z(T) (?=?DSM 26941(T)?=?CGMCC 1.5180(T)). PMID:25342112

Bing, Wei; Wang, Honglei; Zheng, Baisong; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Guangshan; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Zuoming

2015-01-01

263

Coralslurrinella hongkonensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel bacterium in the family Psychromonadaceae, isolated from the coral Platygyra carnosus.  

PubMed

A novel bacterial strain, JLT2006T, was isolated from the scleractinian coral Platygyra carnosus, located in Hong Kong, China. Cells of this strain were Gram-negative, rod-shaped or oval-shaped and motile by the means of polar flagella. They formed faint-yellow, round colonies on marine agar medium. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain JLT2006T belonged to the class Gammaproteobacteria and was most closely related to Alteromonas-like bacteria of the genera Psychromonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Moritella, Shewanella and Ferrimonas, with less than 93 % sequence similarity. The predominant fatty acids were identified as C18:1x7c/C18:1x6c (23.0 %), C16:1x7c/C16:1x6c (18.2 %) and C16:0 (16.4 %). The quinone was menaquinone-7 (100 %). The polar lipids were determined to be phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipid, glycolipid and lipid. The genomic DNA G?C content was 40.3 mol%. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence as well as the physiological and biochemical features that separate the strain JLT2006T from other recognized bacteria, a novel species of a new genus with the name Coralslurrinella hongkonensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JLT2006T (=JCM 18796T = CGMCC 1.10992T). PMID:24022396

Li, Yanxia; Chan, Yuki; Fu, Yingnan; Zhang, Rui; Chiu, Jill M Y

2013-12-01

264

An efficient blue-white screening based gene inactivation system for Streptomyces.  

PubMed

Streptomyces is studied intensively for its outstanding ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites and for its complicated morphological differentiation process. A classical genetic manipulation system for Streptomyces has been developed and widely used in the community for a long time, using antibiotic resistance markers to select for double-crossover mutants. The screening process is always laborious and time-consuming. However, the lack of a suitable chromogenic reporter for Streptomyces has limited the use of color-based screening system to simplify the selection process for double-crossover mutants. In this study, a blue reporter system for Streptomyces has been established by mining an indigoidine synthetase gene (idgS) from Streptomyces lavendulae CGMCC 4.1386, leading to the development of a time-saving gene inactivation system for Streptomyces by simple blue-white screening. A series of Streptomyces suicide and temperature-sensitive plasmids containing the idgS reporter cassette were constructed and used successfully to inactivate genes in Streptomyces, allowing a simple and efficient screening method to differentiate the colonies for double-crossover (white) and single-crossover (blue) mutants. Inactivation of the putative ?-butyrolactone synthase gene afsA-y via the idgS-based blue-white screening method revealed that the paulomycin production is negatively controlled by afsA-y in Streptomyces sp. YN86. PMID:25666782

Li, Pengwei; Li, Jine; Guo, Zhengyan; Tang, Wei; Han, Jianshan; Meng, Xiangxi; Hao, Tingting; Zhu, Yaxin; Zhang, Lixin; Chen, Yihua

2015-02-01

265

Gryllotalpicola reticulitermitis sp. nov., isolated from a termite gut.  

PubMed

Strain TS-56(T) was isolated from the gut of a wood-feeding termite, Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain represented a member of the genus Gryllotalpicola of the family Microbacteriaceae, with sequence similarities to other species of the genus ranging from 96.6?% to 97.8?%. The isolate was Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, with light yellow colonies and irregular short rod-shaped cells (0.4-0.6 µm in diameter, 0.6-1.0 µm in length). Growth of TS-56(T) occurred at 20-35 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and at pH 4.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 5.0). The peptidoglycan of TS-56(T) contained ornithine, glutamic acid, alanine, homoserine and glycine. The acyl type was acetyl. The most abundant cellular fatty acid of TS-56(T) was cyclohexyl-C17?:?0 (88.79?%). The respiratory menaquinone was MK-11. The polar lipid profile contained disphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and two unknown glycolipids. DNA of the type strain had a G+C content of 67.4 mol%. On the basis of the phylogenetic properties and phenotypic distinctiveness, TS-56(T) represents a novel species of the genus Gryllotalpicola, for which the name Gryllotalpicola reticulitermitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TS-56(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.10363(T)?=?NBRC 109838(T)). PMID:25281726

Fang, Hao; Lv, Wanyu; Huang, Zhou; Liu, Shuang-Jiang; Yang, Hong

2015-01-01

266

Saccharothrix carnea sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from soil.  

PubMed

A novel actinobacterium, designated strain NEAU-yn17(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected at the wastewater discharge site of a pesticide factory in Harbin, northern China, and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Morphological and chemotaxonomic properties of strain NEAU-yn17(T) were consistent with the description of the genus Saccharothrix, such as the spore arrangement, the diamino acid of the peptidoglycan, the whole-cell hydrolysates, the predominant menaquinone and the phospholipid profile. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that strain NEAU-yn17(T) should also be classified in the genus Saccharothrix, with Saccharothrix saharensis DSM 45456(T) (99.52?% sequence similarity) and Saccharothrix xinjiangensis JCM 12329(T) (99.04?%) as the nearest phylogenetic relatives. A combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and some phenotypic characteristics indicated that strain NEAU-yn17(T) can be distinguished from its closest relatives. Therefore, strain NEAU-yn17(T) represents a novel species of the genus Saccharothrix, for which the name Saccharothrix carnea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-yn17(T) (?=?CGMCC 4.7097(T)?=?DSM 45878(T)). PMID:25256705

Liu, Chongxi; Guan, Xuejiao; Wang, Shurui; Zhao, Junwei; Wang, Haiyan; He, Hairong; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

2014-12-01

267

Paenibacillus shenyangensis sp. nov., a bioflocculant-producing species isolated from soil under a peach tree.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, endospore-forming bacterium, strain A9(T), was isolated in 1996 from a soil sample collected under a peach tree in Qingnian Park in Shenyang, PR China, and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Paenibacillus, and was most closely related to the type strain of Paenibacillus hunanensis with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 96.7?% and a DNA-DNA relatedness value of 51.6?%. The major polar lipids of strain A9(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 and the major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15?:?0, C16?:?0 and iso-C15?:?0. The DNA G+C content was 51.9 mol%. Based on these results, it is concluded that strain A9(T) represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus shenyangensis sp. nov. is proposed, with A9(T) (?=?JCM 19307(T)?=?CGMCC 2040(T)) as the type strain. PMID:25323595

Jiang, Binhui; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Jinliang; Fu, Lili; Yang, Chengcheng; Hu, Xiaomin

2015-01-01

268

Hymenobacter qilianensis sp. nov., isolated from a subsurface sandstone sediment in the permafrost region of Qilian Mountains, China and emended description of the genus Hymenobacter.  

PubMed

A red-pink, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterium, designated strain DK6-37 was isolated from the permafrost region of Qilian Mountains in northwest of China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that this isolate represents a novel member of the genus Hymenobacter, with low sequence similarities (<97 %) to recognized Hymenobacter species. Optimum growth was observed at 28 °C, pH 7.0 and 0 % NaCl. The strain was found to contain MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolanmine, two unknown aminophospholipids, one unknown aminolipid and three unknown polar lipids. The major fatty acids were identified as summed feature 3 (C16:1 ?7c/C16:1 ?6c as defined by MIDI), summed feature 4 (anteiso-C17:1 B/iso-C17:1 I), C16:1 ?5c, iso-C17:0 3-OH, iso-C15:0 and C18:0. The DNA G + C content was determined to be 67.4 mol %. On the basis of the polyphasic evidence presented, it is proposed that strain DK6-37 represents a novel species of the genus Hymenobacter, for which the name Hymenobacter qilianensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DK6-37(T) (= CGMCC 1.12720(T) = JCM 19763(T)). PMID:24677143

Han, Lu; Wu, Shu-Jiao; Qin, Chun-Yan; Zhu, You-Hai; Lu, Zhen-Quan; Xie, Bing; Lv, Jie

2014-05-01

269

Streptomyces heilongjiangensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete that produces borrelidin isolated from the root surface of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr  

PubMed Central

A borrelidin-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-W2T, was isolated from the root surface of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The organism was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of streptomycetes. The G+C content of the DNA was 66.12 mol%. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain NEAU-W2T revealed that the strain formed a distinct clade within the 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic tree and showed highest similarity (99.61?%) to Streptomyces neyagawaensis ATCC 27449T. However, the DNA–DNA relatedness between strain NEAU-W2T and S. neyagawaensis ATCC 27449T was 58.51?%. Strain NEAU-W2T could also be differentiated from S. neyagawaensis ATCC 27449T and other Streptomyces species showing high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98–99?%), as well as other borrelidin-producing strains, based on morphological and physiological characteristics. On the basis of its physiological and molecular properties, it is proposed that strain NEAU-W2T represents a novel Streptomyces species, Streptomyces heilongjiangensis sp. nov. The type strain is NEAU-W2T (?=?CGMCC 4.7004T ?=?ATCC BAA-2424T ?=?DSM 42073T). PMID:22707527

Liu, Chongxi; Wang, Xiangjing; Yan, Yijun; Wang, Jidong; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Ji

2013-01-01

270

Epilithonimonas xixisoli sp. nov., isolated from wetland bank-side soil.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-staining-negative, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain containing flexirubin-type pigments, designated S31(T), was isolated from bank-side soil of the Xixi wetland in Zhejiang province, China. Growth occurred at 10-37 °C (optimum, 32 °C), pH 6-8 (optimum, pH 7) and with 0-2?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1?%). Strain S31(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Epilithonimonas lactis H1(T) (96.2?%) and Chryseobacterium molle DW3(T) (96.4?%). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that strain S31(T) was a member of the genus Epilithonimonas. The dominant respiratory quinone was MK-6 and the DNA G+C content was 33.3 mol%. The major fatty acids were iso-C15?:?0, summed feature 3 (iso-C15?:?0 2-OH and/or C16?:?1?7c) and anteiso-C15?:?0. The major polar lipids of strain S31(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminolipids and four unidentified polar lipids. Based on its phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and phylogenetic data, strain S31(T) represents a novel species of the genus Epilithonimonas, for which the name Epilithonimonas xixisoli sp. nov. (type strain S31(T)?=?CGMCC 1.12802(T)?=?NBRC 110387(T)) is proposed. PMID:25256707

Feng, Hao; Zeng, Yanhua; Huang, Yili

2014-12-01

271

Asymmetric synthesis of duloxetine intermediate (S)-(-)-3-N-methylamino-1-(2-thienyl)-1-propanol using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae in liquid-core sodium alginate/chitosan/sodium alginate microcapsules.  

PubMed

Duloxetine intermediate (S)-(-)-3-N-methylamino-1-(2-thienyl)-1-propanol was synthesized using ACA liquid-core immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae CGMCC No. 2230. The optimum culture time for ACA liquid-core immobilized cells was found to be 28 h. The optimum ACA liquid-core capsule formation conditions were found to be 90% chitosan deacetylation, 30,000-50,000 chitosan molecular weight, 5.0 g/L chitosan, and pH 6.0 citrate buffer solution. The highest activity was found when reduction conditions were pH 6.0, 30 °C and 180 rpm. The ACA-immobilized cells can be reused nine times and only 40% of the activity is retained after nine cycles. Product inhibition of reduction was observed in batch reduction. Continuous reduction in the membrane reactor was found to remove the product inhibition on reduction and improve production capacity. Conversion reached 100% and enantiometric excess of (S)-(-)-3-N-methylamino-1-(2-thienyl)-1-propanol exceeded 99.0% in continuous reduction of 5 g/L 3-N-methylamino-1-(2-thienyl)-1-propanone in the membrane reactor. PMID:24798376

Zhimin, Ou; Haibing, Zhao; Lan, Tang; Wei, Zhang; Gensheng, Yang

2014-11-01

272

Pseudomonas kunmingensis sp. nov., an exopolysaccharide-producing bacterium isolated from a phosphate mine.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, exopolysaccharide-producing, strictly aerobic bacterium with a single polar flagellum, designated strain HL22-2(T), was isolated from a phosphate mine situated in a suburb of Kunmming in Yunnan province in south-western China. The taxonomic status of this strain was evaluated by using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain HL22-2(T) was related to members of the genus Pseudomonas. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain HL22-2(T) and Pseudomonas xanthomarina KMM 1447(T), Pseudomonas alcaliphila AL15-21(T) and Pseudomonas stutzeri ATCC 17588(T) were 98.9, 98.10% and 98.06%, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids were C(18 : 1)?7c, C(16 : 0) and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)?7c and/or C(16 : 1)?6c). The DNA G+C content was 60.3 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness values, strain HL22-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas kunmingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HL22-2(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.12273(T)?=?DSM 25974(T)). PMID:24225026

Xie, Fuhong; Ma, Huan; Quan, Shujing; Liu, Dehai; Chen, Guocan; Chao, Yapeng; Qian, Shijun

2014-02-01

273

Pseudomonas tuomuerensis sp. nov., isolated from a bird's nest.  

PubMed

Strain 78-123T was isolated from a sample of a bird's nest situated on the bank of Qiongtailan River in the region of Tuomuer Peak of Tianshan Mountain in the Xin-jiang Uygur Autonomous Region in north-western China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that strain 78-123T was related to members of the genus Pseudomonas. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain 78-123T and Pseudomonas mendocina ATCC 25411T, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes JCM 5968T and Pseudomonas alcaliphila AL15-21T was 97.1, 97.4 and 97.5 %, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids were C(16 : 0), C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH, C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(12 : 0). The G+C content was 60.4 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness data, the novel species Pseudomonas tuomuerensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain 78-123T (=CGMCC 1.1365T =JCM 14085T). PMID:19126738

Xin, Yu-Hua; Zhang, De-Chao; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Hui-Ling; Zhou, Yu-Guang

2009-01-01

274

Streptomyces xiaopingdaonensis sp. nov., a novel marine actinomycete isolated from the sediment of Xiaopingdao in Dalian, China.  

PubMed

A novel streptomycete, designated as strain DUT 180(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from a sea cucumber farm in Dalian, northeast China. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DUT 180(T) is phylogenetically affiliated to the genus Streptomyces where it formed a distinct phyletic line with recognized Streptomyces species. Morphological and chemotaxonomic data also supported the affiliation of this isolate to the genus Streptomyces. Strain DUT 180(T) was found to exhibit highest sequence similarities of 99.52 and 99.36 % to Streptomyces halophytocola KLBMP 1284(T) and Streptomyces sulphureus NRRL B-1627(T), respectively. However, strain DUT 180(T) could be distinguished from these two closest neighbours by a range of phenotypic properties. The DNA-DNA hybridization analyses between strain DUT 180(T) and the type strains of the phylogenetic neighbours revealed 54.8 ± 1.4 and 52.4 ± 2.8 % relatedness. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic evidence, we suggest that the isolate DUT 180(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces xiaopingdaonensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain DUT 180(T) (= KCTC 29679(T) = CGMCC 4.7208(T)). PMID:25488288

Chen, Chao; Feng, Wei-Wei; Qin, Sheng; Zhao, Xin-Qing

2014-12-01

275

Methanospirillum psychrodurum sp. nov., isolated from wetland soil.  

PubMed

A psychrotolerant methanogenic strain, X-18(T), was isolated from the soil of the Madoi wetland at Qinghai, Tibetan plateau, China. Cells were wavy rods (11-62 µm long) with blunt tapered ends and Gram-stain-negative. Strain X-18(T) grew strictly anaerobically and produced methane exclusively from H2/CO2. Growth occurred in the temperature range of 4-32 °C and optimally at 25 °C. Growth pH ranged from 6.5 to 8.0 and the optimum was 7.0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain X-18(T) was 44.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the alpha subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase indicated that strain X-18(T) was affiliated to the genus Methanospirillum and was most closely related to Methanospirillum lacunae Ki8-1(T), with 96.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. However, strain X-18(T) could be distinguished from the existing species of the genus Methanospirillum by its lower growth temperature and obligate hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis, strain X-18(T) represents a novel species of the genus Methanospirillum, for which the name Methanospirillum psychrodurum sp. nov. is proposed and strain X-18(T) is assigned as the type strain (?=?CGMCC 1.5186(T)?=?JCM 19216(T)). PMID:24158951

Zhou, Liguang; Liu, Xiaoli; Dong, Xiuzhu

2014-02-01

276

Mycetocola miduiensis sp. nov., a psychrotolerant bacterium isolated from Midui glacier.  

PubMed

An aerobic, asporous, flagellated, Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped bacterium MD-T1-10-2(T) was isolated from the topsoil of Midui Glacier, Tibet Province, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed the strain in a clade containing Mycetocola manganoxydans CCTCC AB 209002(T), Mycetocola reblochoni DSM 18580(T), Mycetocola tolaasinivorans JCM 11656(T), Mycetocola lacteus JCM 11654(T) and Mycetocola saprophilus JCM 11655(T), with the sequence similarities of 99.2, 98.1, 96.7, 96.6 and 96.4 %, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis indicated that strain MD-T1-10-2(T) represented a new member of this genus. The optimal ranges of temperature and pH for growth were 20-25 °C and 7.0-9.0, respectively; the strain could even grow at 0 °C. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The predominant menaquinones were MK-10 and MK-11. The cell wall amino acids were lysine, alanine, glycine and glutamic acids. The DNA G+C content was 65.9 mol%. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic data, strain MD-T1-10-2(T) for which the name Mycetocola miduiensis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is MD-T1-10-2(T) ( = CGMCC 1.11101(T) = NBRC 107877(T)). PMID:23291895

Zhu, Lang; Liu, Qing; Liu, Hongcan; Zhou, Yuguang; Xin, Yuhua; Dong, Xiuzhu

2013-07-01

277

Flavobacterium noncentrifugens sp. nov., a psychrotolerant bacterium isolated from glacier meltwater.  

PubMed

A non-motile, Gram-stain-negative bacterium, designated R-HLS-17(T), was isolated from the meltwater of Hailuogou Glacier located in Sichuan province, south-west China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Flavobacterium, with the closest relatives being Flavobacterium antarcticum JCM 12383(T) (95.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), F. omnivorum JCM 11313(T) (95.0%) and F. fryxellicola LMG 22022(T) (95.2%). Growth occurred at 0-29 °C (optimum, 10-20 °C) and pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum, 7.0-8.0). The DNA G+C content was 46.5 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:1 G, summed feature 9 (comprising iso-C17:1?9c and/or 10-methyl C16:0), iso-C17:0 3-OH and iso-C15:0 3-OH. The predominant menaquinone was MK-6. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, we propose that strain R-HLS-17(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, Flavobacterium noncentrifugens sp. nov. The type strain is R-HLS-17(T) (=CGMCC 1.10076(T)=NBRC 108844(T)). PMID:23064352

Zhu, Lang; Liu, Qing; Liu, Hongcan; Zhang, Jianli; Dong, Xiuzhu; Zhou, Yuguang; Xin, Yuhua

2013-06-01

278

Paenibacillus telluris sp. nov., a novel phosphate-solubilizing bacterium isolated from soil.  

PubMed

A phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strain designated PS38(T) was isolated from farm soil. The isolate was a Gram-positive, motile, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium. It grew optimally at 37°C and pH 7.5. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(17:0), and iso-C(16:0). The DNA G+C content was 49.5 mol% and the predominant menaquinone was MK-7. Phylogenese analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain PS38(T) belonged to the genus Paenibacillus and was most closely related to Paenibacillus chibensis JCM 9905(T), P. barengoltzii SAFN-016(T), P. timonensis 2301032(T), and P. motobuensis MC10(T) with 96.3%, 96.0%, 95.9%, and 95.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. On the basis of morphological, chemotaxonomic, physiological, and phylogenetic properties, strain PS38(T) represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus telluris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PS38(T) (=KCTC 13946(T) =CGMCC 1.10695(T)). PMID:21887645

Lee, Jae-Chan; Kim, Chang-Jin; Yoon, Ki-Hong

2011-08-01

279

Halomonas zincidurans sp. nov., a heavy-metal-tolerant bacterium isolated from the deep-sea environment.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-like, motile by peritrichous flagella and moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain B6(T), was isolated a deep-sea sediment collected from the South Atlantic Ocean. The isolate grew with 0.5-15?% (w/v) NaCl, at 4-37 °C and pH 5.0-8.5 and showed a high tolerance to zinc, manganese, cobalt and copper ions. The major fatty acids were C16?:?0, C19?:?0 cyclo ?8c, C12?:?0 3-OH and C12?:?0. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-9. The genomic DNA G+C content was 61.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene comparisons indicated that strain B6(T) belonged to the genus Halomonas, and the closest relative was Halomonas xinjiangensis TRM 0175(T) (96.1?%). Based upon the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genetic data, strain B6(T) represents a novel species from the genus Halomonas, for which the name Halomonas zincidurans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B6(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.12450(T)?=?JCM 18472(T)). PMID:23811134

Xu, Lin; Xu, Xue-Wei; Meng, Fan-Xu; Huo, Ying-Yi; Oren, Aharon; Yang, Jun-Yi; Wang, Chun-Sheng

2013-11-01

280

Arcticibacter pallidicorallinus sp. nov. isolated from glacier ice.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium (strain Hh36(T)) was isolated from the No. 1 glacier in Xinjiang, north-west China. Colonies of strain Hh36(T) were pink, convex and round on PYG medium plates. Strain Hh36(T) was able to grow at 4-30 °C and pH 6.0-8.0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain Hh36(T) was related to members of the genus Arcticibacter. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strain were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1?6c and/or C16 : 1?7c) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 44.0 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis, strain Hh36(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Arcticibacter, for which the name Arcticibacter pallidicorallinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Hh36(T) (?= CGMCC 1.9313(T) ?= KCTC 32542(T)). PMID:24711590

Liu, Qing; Kim, Song-gun; Liu, Hong-can; Xin, Yu-hua; Zhou, Yu-guang

2014-07-01

281

Performance of a new thermostable mannanase in breaking guar-based fracturing fluids at high temperatures with little premature degradation.  

PubMed

A new thermostable ?-1,4-mannanase (DtManB) cloned from Dictyoglomus thermophilum CGMCC 7283 showed the maximum activity towards hydroxypropyl guar gum at 80 °C, with a half-life of 46 h. DtManB exhibited good compatibility with various additives of fracturing fluid, retaining more than 50 % activity in all the cases tested. More importantly, premature degradation could be alleviated significantly when using DtManB as breaker, because at 27 and 50 °C it displayed merely 3.7 and 18.5 % activities compared to those at 80 °C. In a static test, 0.48 mg DtManB could break 200 mL borax cross-linked fracturing fluid dramatically at 80 °C, and merely 18 mPa s of the viscosity was detected even after the broken fluid was cooled down and only 161.4 mg L(-1) of the residue was left after the enzymatic reaction. All these positive features demonstrate the great potential of this mannanase as a new enzyme breaker for application in enhanced recovery of petroleum oil. PMID:24150905

Hu, Ke; Li, Chun-Xiu; Pan, Jiang; Ni, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Jian-He

2014-02-01

282

Sinomicrobium pectinilyticum sp. nov., a pectinase-producing bacterium isolated from alkaline and saline soil, and emended description of the genus Sinomicrobium.  

PubMed

A Gram-reaction-negative, non-spore-forming strain, designated 5DNS001(T), was isolated from soil of an ancient salt-extracting facility in China. Analysis of the almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of the bacterium suggested that it belongs to the genus Sinomicrobium in the family Flavobacteriaceae. It exhibited highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Sinomicrobium oceani SCSIO 03483(T) (96.3?%), but less than 93?% sequence similarity with members of the genera Imtechella, Zhouia and Joostella and other recognized members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. The strain was able to hydrolyse pectin and starch by producing pectinase and ?-amylase. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 42.6 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6. The major polar lipid detected in the strain was phosphatidylethanolamine. The dominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15?:?0, iso-C17?:?0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?6c/C16?:?1?7c). Based on phenotypic, genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, a novel species, Sinomicrobium pectinilyticum, is proposed. The type strain is 5DNS001(T) (?=?CGMCC1.11000(T)?=?KCTC23776(T)). PMID:24912822

Cheng, Bin; Li, Chunfang; Lai, Qiliang; Du, Miaofen; Shao, Zongze; Xu, Ping; Yang, Chunyu

2014-09-01

283

Seohaeicola westpacificensis sp. nov., a novel member of genera Seohaeicola isolated from deep West Pacific Sea water.  

PubMed

Strain JL2247(T), an aerobic, Gram-negative, gliding motile bacterium, was isolated from the western Pacific at the depth of 2,000 m. The cell was spindle-shaped with two narrow poles, and flagella were not observed. The colony was circular, translucent, and milky. This strain showed catalase-positive and oxidase-negative reactions. Its optimal growth conditions were at 32 °C, pH 7.3, and 3 % NaCl. The predominant polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine. The major fatty acids were summed feature 8 (18:1 w7c and/or 18:1 w6c) and Cyclo C19:0 ?8c and the major respiratory quinone was Q-10. The DNA G+C content of strain JL2247(T) was 72.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JL2247(T) fell into the genus Seohaeicola, family Rhodobacteraceae, order Rhodobacterales, class Alphaproteobacteria, sharing the highest similarity with the only species Seohaeicola saemankumensis SD-15(T) (96.4 % similarity). From the phenotypic, genotypic, and chemotaxonomic data, strain JL2247(T) represents a novel species of the genus Seohaeicola and the name is proposed as Seohaeicola westpacificensis sp. nov. The type strain is JL2247(T) (=CGMCC 1.12198(T) = JCM18883). PMID:24585075

Xian, Shuhui; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Jia; Chen, Yi; Deng, Wenchao; Li, Shuhui; Jiao, Nianzhi

2014-07-01

284

Nonfermentative bacilli: evaluation of three systems for identification.  

PubMed Central

Three systems for the identification of nonfermentative bacilli were evaluated for their rapidity and accuracy of identification of 217 strains. Two of the systems, API 20E (API) and Oxi/Ferm tube (OxiF), are available as kits; the oxidative attack (OA) system is not commerically available. The overall accuracies of the OA, API, and OxiF systems were 91, 69, and 50%, respectively. Identification within 48 h was achieved for 98% of the strains by OA, for 50% by API, and for 18% by OxiF. Most of the organisms that were either misidentified or not identified by API and OxiF were those nonfermentative bacilli which are relatively more fastidious or rarely encountered or both. All three systems accurately identified nonfermentative bacilli commonly isolated at Olive View Medical Center, namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter anitratus, Pseudomonas maltophilia, Acinetobacter lwoffi, saccharolytic flavobacteria (CDC IIb), moraxellae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas putida. The OA system identified 100% of the above organisms correctly, API identified 99.4%, and OxiF identified 99.3%. Since these organisms comprise 92% of the total number of nonfermentative bacilli isolated at Olive View Medical Center, we conclude that both API and OxiF may be useful alternatives to conventional methods, based on accuracy of identification alone. These two systems were considered substantially inferior to the OA system when both accuracy and rapidity of identification were taken into account. PMID:389945

Otto, L A; Blachman, U

1979-01-01

285

60Co-irradiation as an alternate method for sterilization of penicillin G, neomycin, novobiocin, and dihydrostreptomycin  

SciTech Connect

The effects of the use of 60Co-irradiation to sterilize antibiotics were evaluated. The antibiotic powders were only occasionally contaminated with microorganisms. The D-values of the products and environmental isolates were 0.028, 0.027, 0.015, 0.046, 0.15, 0.018, and 0.19 Mrads for Aspergillus species (UC 7297, 7298), A. fumigatus (UC 7299), Rhodotorula species (UC 7300), Penicillium oxalicum (UC 7269), Pseudomonas maltophilia (UC 6855), and a biological indicator microorganism, Bacillus pumilus spores (ATCC 27142). An irradiation dose of 1.14 Mrads, therefore, was sufficient to achieve a six-log cycle destruction of B. pumilus spores. Based on the bioburden data, a minimum irradiation dose of 1.05 Mrads was calculated to be sufficient to obtain a 10(-6) probability of sterilizing the most radioresistant isolate, Pen. oxalicum. To determine the radiolytic degradation scheme and the stability of the antibiotics following irradiation, high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods were developed. The resulting rates of degradation for the antibiotics were 0.6, 1.2, 2.3, and 0.95%/Mrad for penicillin G, neomycin, novobiocin, and dihydrostreptomycin, respectively. Furthermore, radiolytic degradation pathways for the antibiotics were identified and found to be similar to those commonly encountered when antibiotics are subjected to acidic, basic, hydrolytic, or oxidative treatments. No radiolytic compounds unique to 60Co-irradiation were found.

Tsuji, K.; Rahn, P.D.; Steindler, K.A.

1983-01-01

286

Inhibition of microbial growth by ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound derived from garlic.  

PubMed

Ajoene, a garlic-derived sulfur-containing compound that prevents platelet aggregation, exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Growth of gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Streptomyces griseus, was inhibited at 5 micrograms of ajoene per ml. Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus plantarum also were inhibited below 20 micrograms of ajoene per ml. For gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Xanthomonas maltophilia, MICs were between 100 and 160 micrograms/ml. Ajoene also inhibited yeast growth at concentrations below 20 micrograms/ml. The microbicidal effect of ajoene on growing cells was observed at slightly higher concentrations than the corresponding MICs. B. cereus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were killed at 30 micrograms of ajoene per ml after 24 h of cultivation when cultivation was started at 10(5) cells per ml. However, the minimal microbicidal concentrations for resting cells were at 10 to 100 times higher concentrations than the corresponding MICs. The disulfide bond in ajoene appears to be necessary for the antimicrobial activity of ajoene, since reduction by cysteine, which reacts with disulfide bonds, abolished its antimicrobial activity. PMID:8900018

Naganawa, R; Iwata, N; Ishikawa, K; Fukuda, H; Fujino, T; Suzuki, A

1996-11-01

287

Antibacterial activities of a new stabilized thienamycin, N-formimidoyl thienamycin, in comparison with other antibiotics.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of a new crystalline derivative of thienamycin, N-formimidoyl thienamycin (MK0787), was tested against 46 laboratory reference strains and 2,158 clinical isolates of gram-positive and -negative bacteria, including anaerobes, and compared with cefoxitin, cefaxolin, carbenicillin, and amikacin. MK0787 was significantly more active than the reference antibiotics against most bacteria tests. MK0787 was 16- to 500-fold more active than the other antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and group A and group B streptococci, inhibiting most isolates at concentrations less than 0.031 micrograms/ml. The inhibition concentration against over 90% of 156 strains of Streptococcus faecalis was 1 micrograms/ml. MK0787 had slightly less activity than carbenicillin against Haemophilus influenzae. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of MK0787 against strains of Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Serratia marcescems. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Clostridium difficile that are resistant to currently available antibiotics were less than or equal to 4 micrograms/ml. The only species found resistant to MK0787 was Pseudomonas maltophilia, which was equally nonsusceptible to the other reference antibiotics. PMID:6931548

Kesado, T; Hashizume, T; Asahi, Y

1980-01-01

288

"Chemical nose" for the visual identification of emerging ocular pathogens using gold nanostars.  

PubMed

Ocular pathogens can cause serious damages in the eye leading to severe vision loss and even blindness if left untreated. Identification of pathogens is crucial for administering the appropriate antibiotics in order to gain effective control over ocular infection. Herein, we report a gold nanostar based "chemical nose" for visually identifying ocular pathogens. Using a spectrophotometer and nanostars of different sizes and degrees of branching, we show that the "chemical nose" is capable of identifying the following clinically relevant ocular pathogens with an accuracy of 99%: S. aureus, A. xylosoxidans, D. acidovorans and S. maltophilia. The differential colorimetric response is due to electrostatic aggregation of cationic gold nanostars around bacteria without the use of biomolecule ligands such as aptamers or antibodies. Transmission electron microscopy confirms that the number of gold nanostars aggregated around each bacterium correlates closely with the colorimetric response. Thus, gold nanostars serve as a promising platform for rapid visual identification of ocular pathogens with application in point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:24912040

Verma, Mohit S; Chen, Paul Z; Jones, Lyndon; Gu, Frank X

2014-11-15

289

Inoculation with microorganisms of Lolium perenne L.: evaluation of plant growth parameters and endophytic colonization of roots.  

PubMed

Turfgrasses are not only designed for recreation activities, but they also provide beneficial environmental effects and positively influence the human wellness. Their major problems are predisposition to tearing out and microbial diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the inoculation of microorganisms can be effective to improve plant growth and root development of perennial ryegrass, to evaluate new sustainable practice for green preservation. A microorganism-based commercial product was used to amend hydroponically grown Lolium perenne L. and results compared with the use of the same filtered product, a phytohormone solution and an untreated control. Plants were grown for five weeks, shoots cut and measured at one-week interval and, at the end, roots were measured for length and weight. Shoot resistance to tearing out was also tested. Moreover, the main microbial groups present in the product were characterized and the microbial profile of sand and root samples was investigated by PCR-DGGE. The plants treated with the product showed an increased resistance to tearing out with respect to other treatments and roots were longer with respect to the control. Microbial analyses of the product evidenced bacterial and yeast species with plant growth promoting activity, such as Stenothrophomonas maltophilia, Candida utilis and several Lactobacillus species. Some Lactobacillus strains were also found to be able to colonize plant roots. In conclusion, the treatment with microorganisms has a great potential for the maintenance and increased performance of turfgrass surfaces. PMID:23632388

Gaggìa, Francesca; Baffoni, Loredana; Di Gioia, Diana; Accorsi, Mattia; Bosi, Sara; Marotti, Ilaria; Biavati, Bruno; Dinelli, Giovanni

2013-09-25

290

Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid: determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations against bacterial strains isolated from patients in intensive care units. Comparison with other agents.  

PubMed

A total of 303 bacterial strains isolated from bronchoaspirates of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients, collected through June and December 1993, were tested for susceptibility to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, imipenem, amikacin, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each antibiotic was determined according to the NCCLS, by means of serial dilution on microplates. The isolates, 80.8% of which were beta-lactamase producing strains, belonged to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (79 strains), Pseudomonas fluorescens (8 strains), Xanthomonas maltophila (25 strains), Escherichia coli (16 strains), Klebsiella-Enterobacter-Serratia (KES) (62 strains), Proteus spp. (15 strains), Acinetobacter spp. (22 strains), Moraxella spp. (15 strains), Bacteroides catarrhalis (8 strains), Haemophilus spp. (11 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (32 strains), Enterococcus faecalis (10 strains). The highest rate of susceptibility to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid (100%) was detected among E. faecalis (MIC 2-16 micrograms/ml), B. catarrhalis (MIC 1-4 micrograms/ml) and Haemophilus spp. (MIC 1-4 micrograms/ml). Among the non-fermenting microorganisms ticarcillin/-clavulanic acid showed good activity toward P. aeruginosa and P. fluorescens (86% and 75% respectively). It was also very active against X. maltophilia with a susceptibility of 96%. Susceptibility to the other antibiotics tested was within the range of 16% and 28%. PMID:8708742

Pasargiklian, I; Lusco, G; Paizis, G; Mascheroni, E

1996-04-01

291

Use of ribotyping in epidemiological surveillance of nosocomial outbreaks.  

PubMed Central

Over the past few years, genotypic methods based on the study of bacterial DNA polymorphism have shown high discriminatory power for strain differentiation and superiority over most phenotypic methods commonly available in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Some of the methods used, however, required either a high level of technology and sophisticated equipment (e.g., pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) or species-specific reagents of restricted availability (randomly cloned DNA probes or gene-specific probes). Because ribotyping uses a universal probe (rRNA) and is a rather simple technology, particularly since the advent of nonradioactive labelling systems, it has been widely used for strain differentiation of most bacterial species involved in nosocomial outbreaks. In vitro and in vivo stability of the markers studied has been demonstrated. Although there may be limitation to this approach, ribotyping was found to be highly discriminative, particularly for typing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Xanthomonas maltophilia. In many cases, it has improved the understanding of the mechanism of nosocomial acquisition of organisms by allowing a distinction between endogenous and exogenous infections. Among exogenous infections, it has distinguished between individual and epidemic strains, thus differentiating cross-infection from independent acquisition. Images PMID:7923052

Bingen, E H; Denamur, E; Elion, J

1994-01-01

292

Halobellus limi sp. nov. and Halobellus salinus sp. nov., isolated from two marine solar salterns.  

PubMed

Two halophilic archaea, strains TBN53(T) and CSW2.24.4(T), were characterized to elucidate their taxonomic status. Strain TBN53(T) was isolated from the Taibei marine solar saltern near Lianyungang city, Jiangsu province, China, whereas strain CSW2.24.4(T) was isolated from a saltern crystallizer in Victoria, Australia. Cells of the two strains were pleomorphic, stained Gram-negative and produced red-pigmented colonies. Strain TBN53(T) was able to grow at 25-55 °C (optimum 45 °C), with 1.4-5.1 M NaCl (optimum 2.6-3.9 M NaCl), with 0-1.0 M MgCl(2) (optimum 0-0.1 M MgCl(2)) and at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0), whereas strain CSW2.24.4(T) was able to grow at 25-45 °C (optimum 37 °C), with 2.6-5.1 M NaCl (optimum 3.4 M NaCl), with 0.01-0.7 M MgCl(2) (optimum 0.05 M MgCl(2)) and at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5). Cells of the two isolates lysed in distilled water. The minimum NaCl concentrations that prevented cell lysis were 8 % (w/v) for strain TBN53(T) and 12 % (w/v) for strain CSW2.24.4(T). The major polar lipids of the two strains were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester and phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, with two glycolipids chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether and mannosyl glucosyl diether, respectively. Trace amounts of other unidentified lipids were also detected. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strains TBN53(T) and CSW2.24.4(T) showed 94.1 % similarity to each other and were closely related to Halobellus clavatus TNN18(T) (95.0 and 94.7 % similarity, respectively). Levels of rpoB' gene sequence similarity between strains TBN53(T) and CSW2.24.4(T), and between these strains and Halobellus clavatus TNN18(T) were 88.5, 88.5 and 88.1 %, respectively. The DNA G+C contents of strains TBN53(T) and CSW2.24.4(T) were 69.2 and 67.0 mol%, respectively. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain TBN53(T) and strain CSW2.24.4(T) was 25 %, and these two strains showed low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness with Halobellus clavatus TNN18(T) (30 and 29 % relatedness, respectively). Based on these phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, two novel species of the genus Halobellus are proposed to accommodate these two strains, Halobellus limi sp. nov. (type strain TBN53(T) = CGMCC 1.10331(T) = JCM 16811(T)) and Halobellus salinus sp. nov. (type strain CSW2.24.4(T) = DSM 18730(T) = CGMCC 1.10710(T) = JCM 14359(T)). PMID:22661071

Cui, Heng-Lin; Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hong-Can; Zhou, Pei-Jin; Dyall-Smith, Mike L

2012-06-01

293

Community shifts in the surface microbiomes of the coral Porites astreoides with unusual lesions.  

PubMed

Apical lesions on Porites astreoides were characterized by the appearance of a thin yellow band, which was preceded by bleaching of the coral tissues and followed by a completely denuded coral skeleton, which often harbored secondary macroalgal colonizers. These characteristics have not been previously described in Porites and do not match common Caribbean coral diseases. The lesions were observed only in warmer months and at shallow depths on the fore reef in Belize. Analysis of the microbial community composition based on the V4 hypervariable region of 16S ribosomal RNA genes revealed that the surface microbiomes associated with nonsymptomatic corals were dominated by the members of the genus Endozoicomonas, consistent with other studies. Comparison of the microbiomes of nonsymptomatic and lesioned coral colonies sampled in July and September revealed two distinct groups, inconsistently related to the disease state of the coral, but showing some temporal signal. The loss of Endozoicomonas was characteristic of lesioned corals, which also harbored potential opportunistic pathogens such as Alternaria, Stenotrophomonas, and Achromobacter. The presence of lesions in P. astreoides coincided with a decrease in the relative abundance of Endozoicomonas, rather than the appearance of specific pathogenic taxa. PMID:24937478

Meyer, Julie L; Paul, Valerie J; Teplitski, Max

2014-01-01

294

Analysis of Bacteria Contaminating Ultrapure Water in Industrial Systems  

PubMed Central

Bacterial populations inhabiting ultrapure water (UPW) systems were investigated. The analyzed UPW systems included pilot scale, bench scale, and full size UPW plants employed in the semiconductor and other industries. Bacteria present in the polishing loop of the UPW systems were enumerated by both plate counts and epifluorescence microscopy. Assessment of bacterial presence in UPW by epifluorescence microscopy (cyanotolyl tetrazolium chloride [CTC] and DAPI [4?,6?-diamidino-2-phenylindole] staining) showed significantly higher numbers (10 to 100 times more bacterial cells were detected) than that determined by plate counts. A considerable proportion of the bacteria present in UPW (50 to 90%) were cells that did not give a positive signal with CTC stain. Bacteria isolated from the UPW systems were mostly gram negative, and several groups seem to be indigenous for all of the UPW production systems studied. These included Ralstonia pickettii, Bradyrhizobium sp., Pseudomonas saccharophilia, and Stenotrophomonas strains. These bacteria constituted a significant part of the total number of isolated strains (?20%). Two sets of primers specific to R. pickettii and Bradyrhizobium sp. were designed and successfully used for the detection of the corresponding bacteria in the concentrated UPW samples. Unexpectedly, nifH gene sequences were found in Bradyrhizobium sp. and some P. saccharophilia strains isolated from UPW. The widespread use of nitrogen gas in UPW plants may be associated with the presence of nitrogen-fixing genes in these bacteria. PMID:11916667

Kulakov, Leonid A.; McAlister, Morven B.; Ogden, Kimberly L.; Larkin, Michael J.; O'Hanlon, John F.

2002-01-01

295

Effects of bacterial inoculants on the indigenous microbiome and secondary metabolites of chamomile plants  

PubMed Central

Plant-associated bacteria fulfill important functions for plant growth and health. However, our knowledge about the impact of bacterial treatments on the host's microbiome and physiology is limited. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of bacterial inoculants on the microbiome of chamomile plants Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert grown in a field under organic management in Egypt. Chamomile seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous Gram-positive strains (Streptomyces subrutilus Wbn2-11, Bacillus subtilis Co1-6, Paenibacillus polymyxa Mc5Re-14) from Egypt and three European Gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas fluorescens L13-6-12, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila P69, Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18) already known for their beneficial plant-microbe interaction. Molecular fingerprints of 16S rRNA gene as well as real-time PCR analyses did not show statistically significant differences for all applied bacterial antagonists compared to the control. In contrast, a pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed significant differences in the community structure of bacteria between the treatments. These differences could be clearly shown by a shift within the community structure and corresponding beta-diversity indices. Moreover, B. subtilis Co1-6 and P. polymyxa Mc5Re-14 showed an enhancement of the bioactive secondary metabolite apigenin-7-O-glucoside. This indicates a possible new function of bacterial inoculants: to interact with the plant microbiome as well as to influence the plant metabolome. PMID:24600444

Schmidt, Ruth; Köberl, Martina; Mostafa, Amr; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; Monschein, Marlene; Jensen, Kenneth B.; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

2014-01-01

296

Analysis of bacteria contaminating ultrapure water in industrial systems.  

PubMed

Bacterial populations inhabiting ultrapure water (UPW) systems were investigated. The analyzed UPW systems included pilot scale, bench scale, and full size UPW plants employed in the semiconductor and other industries. Bacteria present in the polishing loop of the UPW systems were enumerated by both plate counts and epifluorescence microscopy. Assessment of bacterial presence in UPW by epifluorescence microscopy (cyanotolyl tetrazolium chloride [CTC] and DAPI [4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole] staining) showed significantly higher numbers (10 to 100 times more bacterial cells were detected) than that determined by plate counts. A considerable proportion of the bacteria present in UPW (50 to 90%) were cells that did not give a positive signal with CTC stain. Bacteria isolated from the UPW systems were mostly gram negative, and several groups seem to be indigenous for all of the UPW production systems studied. These included Ralstonia pickettii, Bradyrhizobium sp., Pseudomonas saccharophilia, and Stenotrophomonas strains. These bacteria constituted a significant part of the total number of isolated strains (>or=20%). Two sets of primers specific to R. pickettii and Bradyrhizobium sp. were designed and successfully used for the detection of the corresponding bacteria in the concentrated UPW samples. Unexpectedly, nifH gene sequences were found in Bradyrhizobium sp. and some P. saccharophilia strains isolated from UPW. The widespread use of nitrogen gas in UPW plants may be associated with the presence of nitrogen-fixing genes in these bacteria. PMID:11916667

Kulakov, Leonid A; McAlister, Morven B; Ogden, Kimberly L; Larkin, Michael J; O'Hanlon, John F

2002-04-01

297

Specific ribosomal DNA sequences from diverse environmental settings correlate with experimental contaminants.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clones obtained by PCR from uncultured bacteria inhabiting a wide range of environments has increased our knowledge of bacterial diversity. One possible problem in the assessment of bacterial diversity based on sequence information is that PCR is exquisitely sensitive to contaminating 16S rDNA. This raises the possibility that some putative environmental rRNA sequences in fact correspond to contaminant sequences. To document potential contaminants, we cloned and sequenced PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments obtained at low levels in the absence of added template DNA. 16S rDNA sequences closely related to the genera Duganella (formerly Zoogloea), Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Escherichia, Leptothrix, and Herbaspirillum were identified in contaminant libraries and in clone libraries from diverse, generally low-biomass habitats. The rRNA sequences detected possibly are common contaminants in reagents used to prepare genomic DNA. Consequently, their detection in processed environmental samples may not reflect environmentally relevant organisms. PMID:9687486

Tanner, M A; Goebel, B M; Dojka, M A; Pace, N R

1998-08-01

298

Empirical Treatment of Highly Suspected Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections Following Aesthetic Procedures  

PubMed Central

Background Infection caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing. Awareness of this infection is crucial yet problematic. Delayed management may lead to destructive results. We empirically treated a series of patients with clinical suspicion of NTM infection prior to the identification of the pathogen. Methods A total of 12 patients who developed surgical site infections between January 2011 and February 2014 were reviewed. Patients with a skin and subcutaneous infection resistant to standard management over two weeks, and previous history of aesthetic procedures within three months were regarded as highly suspected of having an NTM infection. A variety of diagnostic modalities were examined simultaneously, along with starting empirical treatment including a combination of clarithromycin and moxifloxacin, and surgical debridement. Results All wounds healed completely within 4 weeks. The mean follow-up duration was 7.2 months, and none of the patients developed relapse. Specific NTM pathogens were identified in six patients. Eight patients showed caseating granuloma implying an NTM infection. One patient showed an uncommon Stenotrophomonas infection, which was successfully treated. Three patients had no evidence of a pathogen despite repeated microbial tests. Complications such as scarring, pigmentation, and disfigurement were common in all the patients. Conclusions NTM should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an unusual skin and soft-tissue infection. We propose an empirical regimen of clarithromycin and moxifloxacin as an efficient treatment option for an NTM infection. PMID:25396192

Kim, Hyung Rok; Kim, Deok Woo; Hwang, Na Hyun; Shon, Yoo Seok; Lee, Byung Il; Park, Seung-Ha

2014-01-01

299

Bioremediation of heavy metal-contaminated effluent using optimized activated sludge bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of heavy metals from contaminated domestic-industrial effluent using eight resistant indigenous bacteria isolated from acclimatized activated sludge was investigated. Molecular identification using 16S rDNA amplification revealed that all strains were Gram-negative among which two were resistant to each of copper, cadmium and cobalt while one was resistant to each of chromium and the heavy metal mixture. They were identified as Enterobacter sp. (Cu1), Enterobacter sp. (Cu2), Stenotrophomonas sp. (Cd1), Providencia sp. (Cd2), Chryseobacterium sp. (Co1), Comamonas sp. (Co2), Ochrobactrum sp. (Cr) and Delftia sp. (M1) according to their resistance pattern. Strains Cu1, Cd1, Co2 and Cr were able to resist 275 mg Cu/l, 320 mg Cd/l, 140 mg Co/l and 29 mg Cr/l respectively. The four resistant strains were used as a mixture to remove heavy metals (elevated concentrations) and reduce the organic load of wastewater effluent. Results revealed that using the proposed activated sludge with the resistant bacterial mixture was more efficient for heavy metal removal compared to the activated sludge alone. It is therefore recommended that the proposed activated sludge system augmented with the acclimatized strains is the best choice to ensure high treatment efficiency and performance under metal stresses especially when industrial effluents are involved.

Bestawy, Ebtesam El.; Helmy, Shacker; Hussien, Hany; Fahmy, Mohamed; Amer, Ranya

2013-03-01

300

Characterization of the pigment xanthomonadin in the bacterial genus Xanthomonas using micro- and resonance Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used micro- and resonance Raman spectroscopy with 785 nm and 514.5 nm laser excitation, respectively, to characterize a plant pathogenic bacteria, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae D150. The bacterial genus Xathomonas is closely related to bacterial genus Stenotrophomonas that causes an infection in humans. This study has identified for the first time the unique Raman spectra of the carotenoid-like pigment xanthomonadin of the Xanthomonas strain. Xanthomonadin is a brominated aryl-polyene pigment molecule similar to carotenoids. Further studies were conducted using resonance Raman spectroscopy with 514.5 nm laser excitation on several strains of the bacterial genus Xanthomonas isolated from numerous plants from various geographical locations. The current study revealed that the Raman bands representing the vibrations (v1, v2, v3) of the polyene chain of xanthomonadin are 1003-1005 (v3), 1135-1138 (v2), and 1530 (v1). Overtone bands representing xanthomonadin were identified as 2264-2275 (2v2), and combinational bands at 2653-2662 (v1+ v2). The findings from this study validate our previous finding that the Raman fingerprints of xanthomonadin are unique for the genus Xanthomonas. This facilitates rapid identification (~5 minutes) of Xanthomonas spp. from bacterial culture plates. The xanthomonadin marker is different from Raman markers of many other bacterial genus including Agrobacterium, Bacillus, Clavibacter, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, and Ralstonia. This study also identified Xanthomonas spp. from bacterial strains isolated from a diseased wheat sample on a culture plate.

Paret, Mathews L.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Acosta, Tayro; deSilva, Asoka S.; Vowell, Tomie; Alvarez, Anne M.

2012-06-01

301

Isolation, characterization and community diversity of indigenous putative toluene-degrading bacterial populations with catechol-2,3-dioxygenase genes in contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Indigenous bacterial assemblages with putative hydrocarbon-degrading capabilities were isolated, characterized and screened for the presence of the catechol-2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) gene after exposure to toluene in two different (i.e., pristine and conditioned) soil communities. The indigenous bacterial populations were exposed to the hydrocarbon substrate by the addition of toluene concentrations, ranging from 0.5 % to 10 % V/W in 10 g of each soil and incubated at 30 °C for upwards of 12 days. In total, 25 isolates (11 in pristine soil and 14 in conditioned soil) were phenotypically characterized according to standard microbiological methods and also screened for the 238-bp C23O gene fragment. Additionally, 16S rRNA analysis of the isolates identified some of them as belonging to the genera Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas. Furthermore, the two clone libraries that were constructed from these toluene-contaminated soils also revealed somewhat disparate phylotypes (i.e., 70 % Actinobacteria and Firmicutes to 30 % Proteobacteria in conditioned soil, whereas in pristine soil: 66 % Actinobacteria and Firmicutes; 21 % Proteobacteria and 13 % Bacteroidetes). The differences observed in bacterial phylotypes between these two soil communities may probably be associated with previous exposure to hydrocarbon sources by indigenous populations in the conditioned soil as compared to the pristine soil. PMID:25052383

Olapade, Ola A; Ronk, Adam J

2015-01-01

302

Isolation and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Gut of Holotrichia parallela Larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)  

PubMed Central

In this study, 207 strains of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from the gut of Holotrichia parallela larvae. These bacterial isolates were assigned to 21 genotypes by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). A partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis and standard biochemical and physiological tests were used for the assignment of the 21 representative isolates. Our results show that the cellulolytic bacterial community is dominated by the Proteobacteria (70.05%), followed by the Actinobacteria (24.15%), the Firmicutes (4.35%), and the Bacteroidetes (1.45%). At the genus level, Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum, Rhizobium, Cellulosimicrobium, and Microbacterium were the predominant groups, but members of Bacillus, Dyadobacter, Siphonobacter, Paracoccus, Kaistia, Devosia, Labrys, Ensifer, Variovorax, Shinella, Citrobacter, and Stenotrophomonas were also found. Furthermore, our results suggest that a significant amount of bacterial diversity exists among the cellulolytic bacteria, and that Siphonobacter aquaeclarae, Cellulosimicrobium funkei, Paracoccus sulfuroxidans, Ochrobactrum cytisi, Ochrobactrum haematophilum, Kaistia adipata, Devosia riboflavina, Labrys neptuniae, Ensifer adhaerens, Shinella zoogloeoides, Citrobacter freundii, and Pseudomonas nitroreducens are reported to be cellulolytic for the first time in this study. Our results indicate that the scarab gut is an attractive source for the study of novel cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes useful for cellulose degradation. PMID:22489111

Huang, Shengwei; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Hongyu

2012-01-01

303

Specific Ribosomal DNA Sequences from Diverse Environmental Settings Correlate with Experimental Contaminants  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clones obtained by PCR from uncultured bacteria inhabiting a wide range of environments has increased our knowledge of bacterial diversity. One possible problem in the assessment of bacterial diversity based on sequence information is that PCR is exquisitely sensitive to contaminating 16S rDNA. This raises the possibility that some putative environmental rRNA sequences in fact correspond to contaminant sequences. To document potential contaminants, we cloned and sequenced PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments obtained at low levels in the absence of added template DNA. 16S rDNA sequences closely related to the genera Duganella (formerly Zoogloea), Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Escherichia, Leptothrix, and Herbaspirillum were identified in contaminant libraries and in clone libraries from diverse, generally low-biomass habitats. The rRNA sequences detected possibly are common contaminants in reagents used to prepare genomic DNA. Consequently, their detection in processed environmental samples may not reflect environmentally relevant organisms. PMID:9687486

Tanner, Michael A.; Goebel, Brett M.; Dojka, Michael A.; Pace, Norman R.

1998-01-01

304

Bacterial Endophytic Communities in the Grapevine Depend on Pest Management  

PubMed Central

Microbial plant endophytes are receiving ever-increasing attention as a result of compelling evidence regarding functional interaction with the host plant. Microbial communities in plants were recently reported to be influenced by numerous environmental and anthropogenic factors, including soil and pest management. In this study we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA to assess the effect of organic production and integrated pest management (IPM) on bacterial endophytic communities in two widespread grapevines cultivars (Merlot and Chardonnay). High levels of the dominant Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera were detected in all the samples We found differences in the composition of endophytic communities in grapevines cultivated using organic production and IPM. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Mesorhizobium, Caulobacter and Staphylococcus genera were relatively more abundant in plants from organic vineyards, while Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas were more abundant in grapevines from IPM vineyards. Minor differences in bacterial endophytic communities were also found in the grapevines of the two cultivars. PMID:25387008

Campisano, Andrea; Antonielli, Livio; Pancher, Michael; Yousaf, Sohail; Pindo, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

2014-01-01

305

Identification of diazotrophs in the culturable bacterial community associated with roots of Lasiurus sindicus, a perennial grass of Thar Desert, India.  

PubMed

Lasiurus sindicus is a highly nutritive, drought-tolerant, perennial grass that is endemic to the Thar Desert of Rajasthan, India. Analysis of 16S rRNA coding genes of the bacterial isolates enriched in nitrogen-free semisolid medium, from the surface-sterilized roots of L. sindicus, showed predominance of Gram-negative over Gram-positive bacteria. According to comparative sequence analysis of 16S rDNA sequence data, Gram-positive bacteria with low GC content (Staphylococcus warneri and Bacillus sp.) and high GC content (Micrococcus luteus, Microbacterium sp.) were identified. Gram-negative bacteria included Azospirillum sp., Rhizobium sp., Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and Inquilinus limosus (alpha-proteobacteria); Ralstonia sp., Variovorax paradoxus, and Bordetella petrii (beta-proteobacteria); and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Stenotrophomonas sp. (gamma-proteobacteria). The occurrence of nifH sequences in Azospirillum sp., Rhizobium sp., and P. pseudoalcaligenes showed the possibility of supplying biologically fixed nitrogen by the root-associated diazotrophs to the host plant. PMID:17264993

Chowdhury, Soumitra Paul; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Tripathi, Anil Kumar

2007-07-01

306

Calcite Biomineralization by Bacterial Isolates from the Recently Discovered Pristine Karstic Herrenberg Cave  

PubMed Central

Karstic caves represent one of the most important subterranean carbon storages on Earth and provide windows into the subsurface. The recent discovery of the Herrenberg Cave, Germany, gave us the opportunity to investigate the diversity and potential role of bacteria in carbonate mineral formation. Calcite was the only mineral observed by Raman spectroscopy to precipitate as stalactites from seepage water. Bacterial cells were found on the surface and interior of stalactites by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Proteobacteria dominated the microbial communities inhabiting stalactites, representing more than 70% of total 16S rRNA gene clones. Proteobacteria formed 22 to 34% of the detected communities in fluvial sediments, and a large fraction of these bacteria were also metabolically active. A total of 9 isolates, belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Serratia, and Stenotrophomonas, grew on alkaline carbonate-precipitating medium. Two cultures with the most intense precipitate formation, Arthrobacter sulfonivorans and Rhodococcus globerulus, grew as aggregates, produced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and formed mixtures of calcite, vaterite, and monohydrocalcite. R. globerulus formed idiomorphous crystals with rhombohedral morphology, whereas A. sulfonivorans formed xenomorphous globular crystals, evidence for taxon-specific crystal morphologies. The results of this study highlighted the importance of combining various techniques in order to understand the geomicrobiology of karstic caves, but further studies are needed to determine whether the mineralogical biosignatures found in nutrient-rich media can also be found in oligotrophic caves. PMID:22179248

Rusznyák, Anna; Akob, Denise M.; Nietzsche, Sándor; Eusterhues, Karin; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Neu, Thomas R.; Frosch, Torsten; Popp, Jürgen; Keiner, Robert; Geletneky, Jörn; Katzschmann, Lutz; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

2012-01-01

307

Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses  

PubMed Central

Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant–insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D.; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F.; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S.; Felton, Gary W.

2013-01-01

308

Hessian fly-associated bacteria: transmission, essentiality, and composition.  

PubMed

Plant-feeding insects have been recently found to use microbes to manipulate host plant physiology and morphology. Gall midges are one of the largest groups of insects that manipulate host plants extensively. Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor) is an important pest of wheat and a model system for studying gall midges. To examine the role of bacteria in parasitism, a systematic analysis of bacteria associated with HF was performed for the first time. Diverse bacteria were found in different developmental HF stages. Fluorescent in situ hybridization detected a bacteriocyte-like structure in developing eggs. Bacterial DNA was also detected in eggs by PCR using primers targeted to different bacterial groups. These results indicated that HF hosted different types of bacteria that were maternally transmitted to the next generation. Eliminating bacteria from the insect with antibiotics resulted in high mortality of HF larvae, indicating that symbiotic bacteria are essential for the insect to survive on wheat seedlings. A preliminary survey identified various types of bacteria associated with different HF stages, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Ochrobactrum, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Nitrosomonas, Arcanobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, and Klebsiella. Similar bacteria were also found specifically in HF-infested susceptible wheat, suggesting that HF larvae had either transmitted bacteria into plant tissue or brought secondary infection of bacteria to the wheat host. The bacteria associated with wheat seedlings may play an essential role in the wheat-HF interaction. PMID:21858016

Bansal, Raman; Hulbert, Scot; Schemerhorn, Brandi; Reese, John C; Whitworth, R Jeff; Stuart, Jeffrey J; Chen, Ming-Shun

2011-01-01

309

Characterization of Phragmites cummunis rhizosphere bacterial communities and metabolic products during the two stage sequential treatment of post methanated distillery effluent by bacteria and wetland plants.  

PubMed

This study deals with the characterization of rhizosphere bacterial communities and metabolic products produced during the two stage sequential treatment of post methanated distillery effluent by bacteria and constructed wetland plants. Results showed that bacterial treatment followed by wetland plants (Phragmites cummunis) resulted 94.5% and 96.0% reduction in BOD and COD values, respectively. The PCR-RFLP analysis showed the presence of Stenotrophomonas, Enterobacter, Pantoea, Acinetobacter and Klebsiella sp., as dominant rhizosphere bacterial communities which play an important role in degradation and decolorization of PMDE in wetland treatment system. Further, the LC-MS-MS and other spectrophotometric analysis have shown that most of the pollutants detected in untreated PMDE were diminished from bacteria and wetland plant treated PMDE indicating that bacteria and wetland plant rhizosphere microbes utilized them as carbon, nitrogen and energy source. While, methylbenzene, furfuryl alcohol, and 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol were detected as metabolites in bacteria and hexadecanol in wetland plant rhizosphere treated PMDE. PMID:22047662

Chandra, Ram; Bharagava, Ram Naresh; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J

2012-01-01

310

Hydrocarbonoclastic biofilms based on sewage microorganisms and their application in hydrocarbon removal in liquid wastes.  

PubMed

Attempts to establish hydrocarbonoclastic biofilms that could be applied in waste-hydrocarbon removal are still very rare. In this work, biofilms containing hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were successfully established on glass slides by submerging them in oil-free and oil-containing sewage effluent for 1 month. Culture-dependent analysis of hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial communities in the biofilms revealed the occurrence of the genera Pseudomonas, Microvirga, Stenotrophomonas, Mycobacterium, Bosea, and Ancylobacter. Biofilms established in oil-containing effluent contained more hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria than those established in oil-free effluent, and both biofilms had dramatically different bacterial composition. Culture-independent analysis of the bacterial flora revealed a bacterial community structure totally different from that determined by the culture-dependent method. In microcosm experiments, these biofilms, when used as inocula, removed between 20% and 65% crude oil, n-hexadecane, and phenanthrene from the surrounding effluent in 2 weeks, depending on the biofilm type, the hydrocarbon identity, and the culture conditions. More of the hydrocarbons were removed by biofilms established in oil-containing effluent than by those established in oil-free effluent, and by cultures incubated in the light than by those incubated in the dark. Meanwhile, the bacterial numbers and diversities were enhanced in the biofilms that had been previously used in hydrocarbon bioremediation. These novel findings pave a new way for biofilm-based hydrocarbon bioremediation, both in sewage effluent and in other liquid wastes. PMID:25011928

Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S

2014-07-01

311

Bacterial diversity in soil from geophagic mining sites in the Qwa-Qwa region of South Africa.  

PubMed

Geophagia is practised in many parts of the world and can be associated with medicinal treatments, ceremonial events and spiritual behaviours/practices. This is the first report on a systematic investigation and description of the bacterial diversity in soil regularly ingested by geophagic individuals using a culture-independent method. Diversity in 17 different mining sites was investigated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Genetic material from Pantoea, Stenotrophomonas, Listeria, Rhodococcus and Sphingomonads was present in most of the soil samples. Species from these genera are recognised, potential or immerging human pathogens, and are of special interest in immune-compromised individuals. Other genera able to produce a variety of bacteriocins and antimicrobial/antifungal substances inhibitory towards food borne pathogens (Dactylosporangium and Bacillus) and able to degrade a range of environmental pollutants and toxins (Duganella and Massilia) were also present. These essential insights provide the platform for adjusting culturing strategies to isolate specific bacteria, further phylogenetic studies and microbial mining prospect for bacterial species of possible economic importance. PMID:24852929

de Smidt, Olga; Smit, Nellie Jacoba; Botes, Elsabe

2015-04-01

312

Intraspecific differences in bacterial responses to modelled reduced gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AIMS: Bacteria are important residents of water systems, including those of space stations which feature specific environmental conditions, such as lowered effects of gravity. The purpose of this study was to compare responses with modelled reduced gravity of space station, water system bacterial isolates with other isolates of the same species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial isolates, Stenotrophomonas paucimobilis and Acinetobacter radioresistens, originally recovered from the water supply aboard the International Space Station (ISS) were grown in nutrient broth under modelled reduced gravity. Their growth was compared with type strains S. paucimobilis ATCC 10829 and A. radioresistens ATCC 49000. Acinetobacter radioresistens ATCC 49000 and the two ISS isolates showed similar growth profiles under modelled reduced gravity compared with normal gravity, whereas S. paucimobilis ATCC 10829 was negatively affected by modelled reduced gravity. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that microgravity might have selected for bacteria that were able to thrive under this unusual condition. These responses, coupled with impacts of other features (such as radiation resistance and ability to persist under very oligotrophic conditions), may contribute to the success of these water system bacteria. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Water quality is a significant factor in many environments including the ISS. Efforts to remove microbial contaminants are likely to be complicated by the features of these bacteria which allow them to persist under the extreme conditions of the systems.

Baker, P. W.; Leff, L. G.

2005-01-01

313

Ecobiotechnological strategy to enhance efficiency of bioconversion of wastes into hydrogen and methane.  

PubMed

Vegetable wastes (VW) and food wastes (FW) are generated in large quantities by municipal markets, restaurants and hotels. Waste slurries (250 ml) in 300 ml BOD bottles, containing 3, 5 and 7 % total solids (TS) were hydrolyzed with bacterial mixtures composed of: Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Exiguobacterium, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Sphingobacterium species. Each of these bacteria had high activities for the hydrolytic enzymes: amylase, protease and lipase. Hydrolysate of biowaste slurries were subjected to defined mixture of H2 producers and culture enriched for methanogens. The impact of hydrolysis of VW and FW was observed as 2.6- and 2.8-fold enhancement in H2 yield, respectively. Direct biomethanation of hydrolysates of VW and FW resulted in 3.0- and 1.15-fold improvement in CH4 yield, respectively. A positive effect of hydrolysis was also observed with biomethanation of effluent of H2 production stage, to the extent of 1.2- and 3.5-fold with FW and VW, respectively. The effective H2 yields were 17 and 85 l/kg TS fed, whereas effective CH4 yields were 61.7 and 63.3 l/kg TS fed, from VW and FW, respectively. This ecobiotechnological strategy can help to improve the conversion efficiency of biowastes to biofuels. PMID:24891732

Kumar, Prasun; Pant, Dinesh Chander; Mehariya, Sanjeet; Sharma, Rishi; Kansal, Arun; Kalia, Vipin C

2014-09-01

314

Pyrosequencing Reveals the Influence of Organic and Conventional Farming Systems on Bacterial Communities  

PubMed Central

It has been debated how different farming systems influence the composition of soil bacterial communities, which are crucial for maintaining soil health. In this research, we applied high-throughput pyrosequencing of V1 to V3 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to gain further insight into how organic and conventional farming systems and crop rotation influence bulk soil bacterial communities. A 2×2 factorial experiment consisted of two agriculture management systems (organic versus conventional) and two crop rotations (flax-oat-fababean-wheat versus flax-alfalfa-alfalfa-wheat) was conducted at the Glenlea Long-Term Crop Rotation and Management Station, which is Canada’s oldest organic-conventional management study field. Results revealed that there is a significant difference in the composition of bacterial genera between organic and conventional management systems but crop rotation was not a discriminator factor. Organic farming was associated with higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria, while Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi were more abundant in conventional farming. The dominant genera including Blastococcus, Microlunatus, Pseudonocardia, Solirubrobacter, Brevundimonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas exhibited significant variation between the organic and conventional farming systems. The relative abundance of bacterial communities at the phylum and class level was correlated to soil pH rather than other edaphic properties. In addition, it was found that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were more sensitive to pH variation. PMID:23284808

Li, Ru; Khafipour, Ehsan; Krause, Denis O.; Entz, Martin H.; de Kievit, Teresa R.; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha

2012-01-01

315

Arsenic-resistant bacteria solubilized arsenic in the growth media and increased growth of arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L.  

PubMed

The role of arsenic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in arsenic solubilization from growth media and growth enhancement of arsenic-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. was examined. Seven ARB (tolerant to 10 mM arsenate) were isolated from the P. vittata rhizosphere and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Pseudomonas sp., Comamonas sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. During 7-d hydroponic experiments, these bacteria effectively solubilized arsenic from the growth media spiked with insoluble FeAsO? and AlAsO? minerals (from < 5 ?g L?¹ to 5.04-7.37 mg L?¹ As) and enhanced plant arsenic uptake (from 18.1-21.9 to 35.3-236 mg kg?¹ As in the fronds). Production of (1) pyochelin-type siderophores by ARB (fluorescent under ultraviolet illumination and characterized with thin layer chromatography) and (2) root exudate (dissolved organic C) by P. vittata may be responsible for As solubilization. Increase in P. vittata root biomass from 1.5-2.2 to 3.4-4.2 g/plant dw by ARB and by arsenic was associated with arsenic-induced plant P uptake. Arsenic resistant bacteria may have potential to enhance phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated soils by P. vittata. PMID:21840210

Ghosh, Piyasa; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q

2011-10-01

316

The impact of bacteria of circulating water on apatite-nepheline ore flotation.  

PubMed

A new phenomenon has been identified and studied-the impact of bacteria on the benefication process of non-sulphide ores using circulating water supply-a case study of apatite-nepheline ore. It is shown that bacteria deteriorate the floatability of apatite due to their interaction with active centres of calcium-containing minerals and intense flocculation, resulting in a decrease of the flotation process selectivity thus deteriorating the quality of concentrate. Based on the comparative analysis of primary sequences of 16S rRNA genes, there have been identified dominating bacteria species, recovered from the circulating water used at apatite-nepheline concentrating mills, and their phylogenetic position has been determined. All the bacteria were related to ?-Proteobacteria, including the Acinetobacter species, Pseudomonas alcaliphila, Ps. plecoglossicida, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila. A method of non-sulphide ores flotation has been developed with consideration of the bacterial factor. It consists in use of small concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, which inhibits the development of bacteria in the flotation of apatite-nepheline ores. PMID:22320692

Evdokimova, G A; Gershenkop, A Sh; Fokina, N V

2012-01-01

317

Identification of Antimony- and Arsenic-Oxidizing Bacteria Associated with Antimony Mine Tailing  

PubMed Central

Antimony (Sb) is a naturally occurring toxic element commonly associated with arsenic (As) in the environment and both elements have similar chemistry and toxicity. Increasing numbers of studies have focused on microbial As transformations, while microbial Sb interactions are still not well understood. To gain insight into microbial roles in the geochemical cycling of Sb and As, soils from Sb mine tailing were examined for the presence of Sb- and As-oxidizing bacteria. After aerobic enrichment culturing with AsIII (10 mM) or SbIII (100 ?M), pure cultures of Pseudomonas- and Stenotrophomonas-related isolates with SbIII oxidation activities and a Sinorhizobium-related isolate capable of AsIII oxidation were obtained. The AsIII-oxidizing Sinorhizobium isolate possessed the aerobic arsenite oxidase gene (aioA), the expression of which was induced in the presence of AsIII or SbIII. However, no SbIII oxidation activity was detected from the Sinorhizobium-related isolate, suggesting the involvement of different mechanisms for Sb and As oxidation. These results demonstrate that indigenous microorganisms associated with Sb mine soils are capable of Sb and As oxidation, and potentially contribute to the speciation and mobility of Sb and As in situ. PMID:23666539

Hamamura, Natsuko; Fukushima, Koh; Itai, Takaaki

2013-01-01

318

Effects of pipe materials on chlorine-resistant biofilm formation under long-term high chlorine level.  

PubMed

Drinking water distribution systems are composed of various pipe materials and may harbor biofilms even in the continuous presence of disinfectants. Biofilms formation on five pipe materials (copper (Cu), polyethylene (PE), stainless steel (STS), cast iron (CI), and concrete-coated polycarbonate (CP)) within drinking water containing 1.20 mg/L free chlorine, was investigated by flow cytometry, heterotrophic plate counts, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. Results showed that the biofilms formation varied in pipe materials. The biofilm formed on CP initially emerged the highest biomass in 12 days, but CI presented the significantly highest biomass after 28 days, and Cu showed the lowest bacterial numbers before 120 days, while STS expressed the lowest bacterial numbers after 159 days. In the biofilm community structure, Moraxella osloensis and Sphingomonas sp. were observed in all the pipe materials while Bacillus sp. was detected except in the CP pipe and Stenotrophomonas maltophila was found from three pipe materials (Cu, PE, and STS). Other bacteria were only found from one or two pipe materials. It is noteworthy that there are 11 opportunistic pathogens in the 17 classified bacterial strains. This research has afforded crucial information regarding the influence of pipe materials on chlorine-resistant biofilm formation. PMID:24828580

Zhu, Zebing; Wu, Chenguang; Zhong, Dan; Yuan, Yixing; Shan, Lili; Zhang, Jie

2014-07-01

319

Isolation and Identification of Cellulolytic Bacteria from the Gut of Holotrichia parallela Larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).  

PubMed

In this study, 207 strains of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from the gut of Holotrichia parallela larvae. These bacterial isolates were assigned to 21 genotypes by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). A partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis and standard biochemical and physiological tests were used for the assignment of the 21 representative isolates. Our results show that the cellulolytic bacterial community is dominated by the Proteobacteria (70.05%), followed by the Actinobacteria (24.15%), the Firmicutes (4.35%), and the Bacteroidetes (1.45%). At the genus level, Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum, Rhizobium, Cellulosimicrobium, and Microbacterium were the predominant groups, but members of Bacillus, Dyadobacter, Siphonobacter, Paracoccus, Kaistia, Devosia, Labrys, Ensifer, Variovorax, Shinella, Citrobacter, and Stenotrophomonas were also found. Furthermore, our results suggest that a significant amount of bacterial diversity exists among the cellulolytic bacteria, and that Siphonobacter aquaeclarae, Cellulosimicrobium funkei, Paracoccus sulfuroxidans, Ochrobactrum cytisi, Ochrobactrum haematophilum, Kaistia adipata, Devosia riboflavina, Labrys neptuniae, Ensifer adhaerens, Shinella zoogloeoides, Citrobacter freundii, and Pseudomonas nitroreducens are reported to be cellulolytic for the first time in this study. Our results indicate that the scarab gut is an attractive source for the study of novel cellulolytic microorganisms and enzymes useful for cellulose degradation. PMID:22489111

Huang, Shengwei; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Hongyu

2012-01-01

320

16S rDNA sequence analysis of Xylella fastidiosa strains.  

PubMed

The 16S rDNA encoding the small subunit ribosomal RNA were amplified by PCR, cloned, and sequenced from 16 strains of Xylella fastidiosa originating from nine different hosts. In pair-wise comparisons, X. fastidiosa strains showed a maximum variation of 1.0% or 14 nucleotide positions. When all 16 sequences were considered as a set, 54 variable positions were found. Analysis of the sequence data indicated that the X. fastdiosa strains formed three rDNA groups. Group one includes Pierce's disease and mulberry leaf scorch strains; Group two, periwinkle wilt, plum leaf scald, phony peach, oak leaf scorch, and elm leaf scorch strains; and Group three, citrus variegated chlorosis and coffee leaf scorch strains. All X. fastidiosa strains exhibited significantly higher levels of sequence heterogeneity (63 to 83 nucleotide positions) when compared to species from Xanthomonas and Stenotrophomonas. Our data demonstrate that 16S rDNA sequence data could provide valuable information for future classification of X. fastidiosa at the sub-species level. PMID:11108013

Chen, J; Jarret, R L; Qin, X; Hartung, J S; Banks, D; Chang, C J; Hopkins, D L

2000-10-01

321

Bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent using man-made biofilms: effects of some variables.  

PubMed

Biofilm samples were established on glass slides by submerging them in oil-free and oil-containing sewage effluent for a month. In batch cultures, such biofilms were effective in removing crude oil, pure n-hexadecane, and pure phenanthrene contaminating sewage effluent. The amounts of the removed hydrocarbons increased with increasing biofilm surface area exposed to the effluent. On the other hand, addition of the reducing agent thioglycollate dramatically inhibited the hydrocarbon bioremediation potential of the biofilms. The same biofilm samples removed contaminating hydrocarbons effectively in three successive batch bioremediation cycles but started to become less effective in the cycles thereafter, apparently due to mechanical biofilm loss during successive transfers. As major hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, the biofilms harbored species belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Microvirga, Zavarzinia, Mycobacterium, Microbacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Gordonia, Bosea, Sphingobium, Brachybacterium, and others. The nitrogen fixer Azospirillum brasilense and the microalga Ochromonas distigma were also present; they seemed to enrich the biofilms, with nitrogenous compounds and molecular oxygen, respectively, which are known to enhance microbiological hydrocarbon degradation. It was concluded that man-made biofilms based upon sewage microflora are promising tools for bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent. PMID:25146193

Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S

2014-11-01

322

Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria Isolated from the Internal Organs of Edible Snow Crabs  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic resistance and microbiota within edible snow crabs are important for the Chionoecetes (snow crab) fishing industry. We investigated these parameters using culture methods and antibiotic susceptibility tests with six internal organs from three species of Chionoecetes. Each sample revealed many unexpected microbial species within Chionoecetes internal organs. On the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 381 isolates, the most abundant genera identified in Chionoecetes opilio were Acinetobacter spp. (24%), Bacillus spp. (4%), Pseudomonas spp. (34%), Stenotrophomonas spp. (28%), and Agreia spp. (11%). In Chionoecetes sp. crabs, Acinetobacter spp. (23%), Bacillus spp. (12%), and Psychrobacter spp. (20%) were most prevalent, while Agreia spp. (11%), Bacillus spp. (31%), Microbacterium spp. (10%), Rhodococcus spp. (12%), and Agrococcus spp. (6%) were most abundant in C. japonicus. Our antibiotic resistance test found resistance to all nine antibiotics tested in 19, 14, and two of the isolates from C. opilio, Chionoecetes sp., and, C. japonicus respectively. Our results are the first to show that microbes with antibiotic resistance are widely distributed throughout the internal organs of natural snow crabs. PMID:23990916

Kim, Misoon; Kwon, Tae-Hyung; Jung, Su-Mi; Cho, Seung-Hak; Jin, Seon Yeong; Park, Nyun-Ho; Kim, Choong-Gon; Kim, Jong-Shik

2013-01-01

323

Isolation of oxalotrophic bacteria able to disperse on fungal mycelium.  

PubMed

A technique based on an inverted Petri dish system was developed for the growth and isolation of soil oxalotrophic bacteria able to disperse on fungal mycelia. The method is related to the 'fungal highways' dispersion theory in which mycelial fungal networks allow active movement of bacteria in soil. Quantification of this phenomenon showed that bacterial dispersal occurs preferentially in upper soil horizons. Eight bacteria and one fungal strain were isolated by this method. The oxalotrophic activity of the isolated bacteria was confirmed through calcium oxalate dissolution in solid selective medium. After separation of the bacteria-fungus couple, partial sequencing of the 16S and the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences of the ribosomal RNA genes were used for the identification of bacteria and the associated fungus. The isolated oxalotrophic bacteria included strains related to Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, Cohnella, and Variovorax. The recovered fungus corresponded to Trichoderma sp. A test carried out to verify bacterial transport in an unsaturated medium showed that all the isolated bacteria were able to migrate on Trichoderma hyphae or glass fibers to re-colonize an oxalate-rich medium. The results highlight the importance of fungus-driven bacterial dispersal to understand the functional role of oxalotrophic bacteria and fungi in soils. PMID:24106816

Bravo, Daniel; Cailleau, Guillaume; Bindschedler, Saskia; Simon, Anaele; Job, Daniel; Verrecchia, Eric; Junier, Pilar

2013-11-01

324

Plant-microbe interactions: identification of epiphytic bacteria and their ability to alter leaf surface permeability.  

PubMed

Bacteria were either isolated from leaf surfaces of Hedera helix or obtained from a culture collection in order to analyse their effect on barrier properties of isolated Hedera and Prunus laurocerasus cuticles. On the basis of the 16S rDNA sequences the genera of the six bacterial isolates from Hedera were identified as Pseudomonas sp., Stenotrophomonas sp. and Achromobacter. Water permeability of cuticles isolated from H. helix was measured before and after inoculation with the six bacterial strains. In addition water permeability of cuticles isolated from P. laurocerasus was measured before and after inoculation with the three bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Xanthomonas campestris and Corynebacterium fascians. Rates of water diffusing across isolated cuticles of both species significantly increased by up to 50% after inoculation with all bacterial strains. Obtained results show that epiphytic bacteria have the ability of increasing water permeability of Hedera and Prunus cuticles, which in turn should increase the availability of water and dissolved compounds in the phyllopshere. Consequently, living conditions in the habitat phyllosphere are improved. It can be concluded that the ability to change leaf surface properties will improve epiphytic fitness of leaf surface bacteria. PMID:15819920

Schreiber, Lukas; Krimm, Ursula; Knoll, Daniel; Sayed, Mohamed; Auling, Georg; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M

2005-05-01

325

Isolation and molecular identification of landfill bacteria capable of growing on di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and deteriorating PVC materials.  

PubMed

Waste materials containing Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a suspected endocrine disruptor and reasonably anticipated human carcinogen, are typically disposed of in landfills. Despite this, very few studies had been conducted to isolate and identify DEHP-degrading bacteria in landfill leachate. Therefore, this study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteria in landfill leachate growing on DEHP as the sole carbon source and deteriorating PVC materials. Four strains LHM1, LHM2, LHM3 and LHM4, not previously reported as DEHP-degraders, were identified via 16S rRNA gene sequence. Gram-positive strains LHM1 and LHM2 had a greater than 97% similarity with Chryseomicrobium imtechense MW 10(T) and Lysinibacillus fusiformis NBRC 15717(T), respectively. Gram-negative strains LHM3 and LHM4 were related to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus DSM 30006(T) (90.7% similarity) and Stenotrophomonas pavanii ICB 89(T) (96.0% similarity), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis also corroborated these similarities of strains LHM1 and LHM2 to the corresponding bacteria species. Strains LHM2 and LHM4 grew faster than strains LHM1 and LHM3 in the enrichment where DEHP was the sole carbon source. When augmented to the reactors with PVC shower curtains containing DEHP, strains LHM1 and LHM2 developed greater optical densities in the solution phase and thicker biofilm on the surfaces of the shower curtains. PMID:22934997

Latorre, Isomar; Hwang, Sangchul; Montalvo-Rodriguez, Rafael

2012-01-01

326

Terrimicrobium sacchariphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic bacterium of the class 'Spartobacteria' in the phylum Verrucomicrobia, isolated from a rice paddy field.  

PubMed

A strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, carbohydrate-fermenting bacterium, designated NM-5T, was isolated from a rice paddy field. Cells of strain NM-5(T) were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, short rods (0.5-0.7 µm×0.6-1.2 µm). The strain grew optimally at 37 °C (growth range 20-40 °C) and pH 7.0 (pH 5.5-8.0). The strain could grow fermentatively on arabinose, xylose, fructose, galactose, glucose, ribose, mannose, cellobiose, lactose, maltose and sucrose. The main end-products of glucose fermentation were acetate and propionate. Organic acids, alcohols and amino acids were not utilized for growth. Yeast extract was not required but stimulated the growth. Nitrate, sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, and Fe (III) nitrilotriacetate were not used as terminal electron acceptors. The DNA G+C content was 46.3 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C14:0, C18:0 and C16:0. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NM-5T belongs to the class 'Spartobacteria', subdivision 2 of the bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia. Phylogenetically, the closest species was 'Chthoniobacter flavus' (89.6% similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence). A novel genus and species, Terrimicrobium sacchariphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of the type species is NM-5T (=JCM 17479T=CGMCC 1.5168T). PMID:24535138

Qiu, Yan-Ling; Kuang, Xiao-zhu; Shi, Xiao-shuang; Yuan, Xian-zheng; Guo, Rong-bo

2014-05-01

327

Hydrogenispora ethanolica gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic carbohydrate-fermenting bacterium from anaerobic sludge.  

PubMed

An anaerobic, spore-forming, ethanol-hydrogen-coproducing bacterium, designated LX-BT, was isolated from an anaerobic sludge treating herbicide wastewater. Cells of strain LX-BT were non-motile rods (0.3-0.5×3.0-18.0 µm). Spores were terminal with a bulged sporangium. Growth occurred at 20-50 °C (optimum 37-45 °C), pH 5.0-8.0 (optimum pH 6.0-7.7) and 0-2.5% (w/v) NaCl. The strain could grow fermentatively on glucose, maltose, arabinose, fructose, xylose, ribose, galactose, mannose, raffinose, sucrose, pectin, starch, glycerol, fumarate, tryptone and yeast extract. The major end-products of glucose fermentation were acetate, ethanol and hydrogen. Yeast extract was not required but stimulated growth. Nitrate, sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate, fumarate and Fe (III) nitrilotriacetate were not used as terminal electron acceptors. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 56.1 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C14:0 and C16:0. The most abundant polar lipids of strain LX-BT were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that it belongs to an as-yet-unidentified taxon at the order- or class-level (OPB54) within the phylum Firmicutes, showing 86.5% sequence similarity to previously described species of the Desulfotomaculum cluster. The name Hydrogenispora ethanolica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate strain LX-BT (=DSM 25471T=JCM 18117T=CGMCC 1.5175T) as the type strain. PMID:24554637

Liu, Yi; Qiao, Jiang-Tao; Yuan, Xian-Zheng; Guo, Rong-Bo; Qiu, Yan-Ling

2014-05-01

328

Oligosphaera ethanolica gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, carbohydrate-fermenting bacterium isolated from methanogenic sludge, and description of Oligosphaeria classis nov. in the phylum Lentisphaerae.  

PubMed

A mesophilic, obligately anaerobic, carbohydrate-fermenting bacterium, designated 8KG-4(T), was isolated from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating high-strength organic wastewater from salted vegetable production processes. Cells of strain 8KG-4(T) were non-motile, spherical and 0.7-1.5 µm in diameter (mean, 1.0 µm). Spore formation was not observed under any culture conditions tested. The strain grew optimally at 37 °C (range for growth 25-40 °C) and pH 7.0 (range, pH 6.5-7.5), and could grow fermentatively on glucose, ribose, xylose, galactose and sucrose. The main end products of glucose fermentation were acetate, ethanol and hydrogen. Organic acids, alcohols and amino acids were not utilized for growth. Yeast extract was not required for growth. Nitrate, sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite and Fe(III) nitrilotriacetate were not used as terminal electron acceptors. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.1 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate represented a previously uncultured lineage at the subphylum level within the phylum Lentisphaerae known as 'WWE2 subgroup I'. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15?:?0), iso-C(16?:?0), C(16?:?0) and anteiso-C(17?:?0). Respiratory quinones were not detected. The most abundant polar lipid of strain 8KG-4(T) was phosphatidylethanolamine. A novel genus and species, Oligosphaera ethanolica gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate strain 8KG-4(T) (?=?JCM 17152(T)?=?DSM 24202(T) ?=?CGMCC 1.5160(T)). In addition, we formally propose Oligosphaeria classis nov. and the subordinate taxa Oligosphaerales order nov. and Oligosphaeraceae fam. nov. PMID:22523166

Qiu, Yan-Ling; Muramatsu, Mizuho; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Guo, Rong-Bo; Sekiguchi, Yuji

2013-02-01

329

Bradyrhizobium huanghuaihaiense sp. nov., an effective symbiotic bacterium isolated from soybean (Glycine max L.) nodules.  

PubMed

In a survey of the biodiversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with soybean (Glycine max L.) in different sites of the Northern (Huang-Huai-Hai) Plain of China, ten strains were defined as representing a novel genomic species in the genus of Bradyrhizobium. They were distinguished from defined species in restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer (IGS). In BOX-PCR, these strains presented two patterns that shared 94% similarity, demonstrating that they were a homogenous group with limited diversity. In phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, IGS and housekeeping gene sequences, four representative strains formed a distant lineage within the genus Bradyrhizobium, which was consistent with the results of DNA-DNA hybridization. The strains of this novel group formed effective nodules with G. max, Glycine soja and Vigna unguiculata in cross-nodulation tests and harboured symbiotic genes (nodC and nifH) identical to those of reference strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and 'Bradyrhizobium daqingense' originating from soybean, implying that the novel group may have obtained these symbiotic genes by lateral gene transfer. In analyses of cellular fatty acids and phenotypic features, some differences were found between the novel group and related Bradyrhizobium species, demonstrating that the novel group is distinct phenotypically from other Bradyrhizobium species. Based upon the data obtained, these strains are proposed to represent a novel species, Bradyrhizobium huanghuaihaiense sp. nov., with CCBAU 23303(T) (?=?LMG 26136(T) ?=?CGMCC 1.10948(T) ?=?HAMBI 3180(T)) as the type strain. The DNA G+C content of strain CCBAU 23303(T) is 61.5 mol% (T(m)). PMID:22003042

Zhang, Yan Ming; Li, Ying; Chen, Wen Feng; Wang, En Tao; Sui, Xin Hua; Li, Qin Qin; Zhang, Yun Zeng; Zhou, Yu Guang; Chen, Wen Xin

2012-08-01

330

Kordiimonas lacus sp. nov., isolated from a ballast water tank, and emended description of the genus Kordiimonas.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated S3-22(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from a ballast water tank of a commercial ship and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic characterization. The isolate formed small, light-yellow, semi-translucent and circular colonies on solid complex media. The strain was oxidase- and catalase-positive and metabolized a large number of carbon sources. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed ubiquinone Q-10 as predominant respiratory quinone, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified glycolipid as major polar lipids and iso-C(17?:?1)?9c, iso-C(15?:?0), C(16?:?1)?7c and/or iso-C(15?:?0) 2-OH, C(16?:?0), iso-C(17?:?0) and C(18?:?1)?7c as major fatty acids and the hydroxy fatty acids iso-C(17?:?0) 3-OH and C(16?:?0) 3-OH. The genomic DNA G+C content was 54.9 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate has 96.1?% similarity to the type strain of Kordiimonas gwangyangensis, the sole described species within the order Kordiimonadales, and less than 91.0?% similarity to other recognized species. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain S3-22(T) represents a novel species of the genus Kordiimonas, for which the name Kordiimonas lacus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain S3-22(T) (=CGMCC 1.9109(T) =JCM 16261(T)). An emended description of the genus Kordiimonas is also presented. PMID:20348321

Xu, Xue-Wei; Huo, Ying-Yi; Bai, Xue-Dong; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Oren, Aharon; Li, Sui-Yan; Wu, Min

2011-02-01

331

Paracoccus oceanense sp. nov., isolated from the West Pacific.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, short ovoid- to coccus-shaped, aerobic, motile, non-spore-forming bacterium (designated strain JLT1679(T)) was isolated from West Pacific. Cells have subpolar flagella, dividing by binary fission. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belongs to branch of the evolutionary radiation occupied by the genus Paracoccus, family Rhodobacteraceae, order Rhodobacterales, class Alphaproteobacteria. The closest neighbours were Paracoccus stylophorae KTW-16(T) (97.1% similarity), Paracoccus caeni strain MJ17(T) (96.5% similarity), Paracoccus homiensis DD-R11(T) (96.0% similarity) and Paracoccus alcaliphilus JCM 7364(T) (95.8% similarity). The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain JLT1679(T) were summed feature 8 (18:1?6c) (38.8%), C(18:0) (27.7%), C(16:0) (22.5%), and significant amounts of C(18:1) ?9c (5.1%), C(14:0) (3.8%) and C(18:1) ?7c 11-methyl (2.1%), were present. The predominant respiratory ubiquinone of strain JLT1679(T) was Q-10 and the DNA G + C content of strain JLT1679(T) was 59.5 mol%. The polar lipid profile consisted of a mixture of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and sphingoglycolipid. The isolate was distinguishable from members of the genus Paracoccus on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. It is evident from the genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data that strain JLT1679(T) represents a novel species of the genus Paracoccus, for which the name Paracoccus oceanense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JLT1679(T) (= JCM 17768(T) = CGMCC 1.10831(T)). PMID:21960015

Fu, Yingnan; Li, Qipei; Liu, Keshao; Xu, Yongle; Wang, Yanan; Jiao, Nianzhi

2011-12-01

332

Paracoccus beibuensis sp. nov., isolated from the South China Sea.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative, non-motile, short rod-shaped or spherical bacterial strain that accumulates poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules was isolated from the Beibu Gulf in the South China Sea. Cells have no polar or subpolar flagella, dividing by binary fission. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain formed a monophyletic branch at the periphery of the evolutionary radiation occupied by the genus Paracoccus, family Rhodobacteraceae, order Rhodobacterales, class Alphaproteobacteria. The closest neighbours were Paracoccus aestuarii strain B7(T) (97.2% similarity), Paracoccus zeaxanthinifaciens ATCC 21588(T) (97.1% similarity) and Paracoccus homiensis DD-R11(T) (96.8%). The predominant fatty acids were C(18:1) ?7c (82.1%), and significant amounts of C(18:0) (5.6%), C(10:0) 3-OH (2.3%) and C(16:0) (1.5%) were present. The predominant respiratory ubiquinone of strain JLT1284(T) was Q-10 and the DNA G+C content of strain JLT1284(T) was 67.0 mol%. The isolate was also distinguishable from members of the genus Paracoccus on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. It is evident from the genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, therefore, that strain JLT1284(T) represents a novel species of the genus Paracoccus, for which the name Paracoccus beibuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JLT1284(T)=LMG 24871(T)=CGMCC 1.7295(T)). PMID:20936472

Zheng, Qiang; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Chuang; Wang, Yu; Xia, Xiaomin; Fu, Yingnan; Zhang, Rui; Jiao, Nianzhi

2011-03-01

333

Euryhalocaulis caribicus gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member [corrected] of the family Hyphomonadaceae isolated from the Caribbean Sea.  

PubMed

A new aerobic, Gram-negative, chemo-organotrophic, euryhaline bacterium, designated strain JL2009(T), was isolated from surface water of the Caribbean Sea. The strain formed flaxen colonies on marine ager 2216 (MA; Difco) medium. Cells were dimorphic, with stalks or a polar flagellum, and reproduction occurred by means of binary fission. Growth occurred at 15-45 °C (optimum at 35 °C), 0-15 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum at 1-10 %) and pH 5-9 (optimum at pH 7-8). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the family Hyphomonadaceae. Strain JL2009(T) was most closely related to Maricaulis parjimensis MCS 25(T) (92.2 % DNA sequence similarity), Woodsholea maritime CM2243(T) (90.9 %), and Oceanicaulis alexandrii C116-18(T) (90.9 %). The major respiratory quinone was Q-10. The dominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C(18:1) ?7c), C(18:0) and 11-methyl C(18:1) ?7c. The polar lipid pattern indicated the presence of phospholipid, phosphatidyl glycerol and glycolipids. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 70.5 mol%. On the basis of the chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics and the phylogenetic evidence, strain JL2009(T) represents a novel genus and species in the family Hyphomonadaceae, for which the name Euryhalocaulis caribicus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Euryhalocaulis caribicus is JL2009(T) (=CGMCC 1.12036(T) = JCM 18163(T)). PMID:23377489

Deng, Wenchao; Zhang, Yao; Xie, Xiabing; Zhao, Zihao; Fu, Yingnan

2013-06-01

334

Microbacterium hydrothermale sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from hydrothermal sediment.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, strain 0704C9-2(T), was isolated from hydrothermal sediment of the Indian Ocean. The organism grew with 0-5% (w/v) NaCl and at 10-37 °C, with optimal growth occurring with 1% NaCl and at 28-30 °C. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain 0704C9-2(T) belonged to the genus Microbacterium. It exhibited highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Microbacterium testaceum DSM 20166(T) (98.4%). Levels of similarity with the type strains of all other recognized species of the genus Microbacterium were less than 98.0%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments with strain 0704C9-2(T) and its closest relative, M. testaceum DSM 20166(T), revealed a low reassociation value of 42.9%. The DNA G+C content of strain 0704C9-2(T) was 73.3 mol%. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained ornithine and the acyl type was glycolyl. The major whole-cell sugars were mannose, galactose, rhamnose and glucose. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0. The predominant menaquinones were MK-11, MK-10 and MK-12. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, two unknown glycolipids and an unknown phospholipid. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic data, strain 0704C9-2(T) represents a novel species within the genus Microbacterium, for which the name Microbacterium hydrothermale sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 0704C9-2(T) ( = LMG 27542(T) = CGMCC 1.12512(T)). PMID:25052400

Zhang, Yubian; Ren, Huihui; Zhang, Gaiyun

2014-10-01

335

Defluviimonas indica sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, chemoheterotrophic marine bacterium, designated 20V17(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney collected from the South-west Indian Ridge. Cells of strain 20V17(T) were motile, short rods, 1.2-1.8 µm in length and 0.5-0.7 µm in width. Growth was observed at between 20 and 37 °C (optimum 25 °C-28 °C), pH 5.0 and 8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and 0.5 and 8% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1.5-2.0% NaCl). The major fatty acids were C(18?:?1)?7c (74.4%), C(19?:?0) cyclo ?8c (11%), C(18?:?0) (5.1%) and C(18?:?0) 3-OH (2.8%), and the polar lipid profile comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified glycolipid and four unidentified phospholipids. Ubiquinone 10 was the major quinone. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 66.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 20V17(T) belonged to the genus Defluviimonas and shared 96.5 and 96.1% sequence similarity with Defluviimonas denitrificans D9-3(T) and Defluviimonas aestuarii BS14(T), respectively. On the basis of the taxonomic data obtained in this study, strain 20V17(T) represents a novel species of the genus Defluviimonas, for which the name Defluviimonas indica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 20V17(T) (CGMCC 1.10859(T)?=?JCM 17871(T)?=?MCCC 1A01802(T)). PMID:24670896

Jiang, Lijing; Xu, Hongxiu; Shao, Zongze; Long, Minnan

2014-06-01

336

Sunxiuqinia elliptica gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from sediment in a sea cucumber farm.  

PubMed

Three novel aerobic, elliptic bacteria, designated DQHS4(T), DQHS8 and DQHS15, were isolated from sediment of a seashore pond for sea cucumber culture in Jimo, Qingdao, on the east coast of China. Cells were Gram-, oxidase- and catalase-negative. All three strains grew at 15-42 °C, pH 5-9 and NaCl concentrations between 0.5 and 10%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed high (>85%) relatedness among the three novel isolates and suggested that the strains constitute a single species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that these bacteria had less than 90% similarity to all described species of the phylum Bacteroidetes; the closest relative of the three isolates was Prolixibacter bellariivorans F2(T), sharing only 89.6% sequence similarity. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(17:0) 3-OH (19.8-20.0%), iso-C(15:0) (16.9-17.3%), anteiso-C(17:1) B and/or iso-C(17:1) I (7.4-8.7%), C(17:0) 2-OH (8.4%), anteiso-C(15:0) (8.2-8.6%) and C(17:1)?6c (5.6-6.0%). The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7) and the DNA G+C content was 41.8-43.5 mol%. Based on the distinct phylogenetic position and the combination of genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, these three strains were considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the phylum Bacteroidetes, for which the name Sunxiuqinia elliptica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Sunxiuqinia elliptica is DQHS4(T) (=CGMCC 1.9156(T) =NCCB 100301(T) =LMG 25367(T)). PMID:21257687

Qu, Lingyun; Zhu, Fengling; Hong, Xuguang; Gao, Wei; Chen, Junhui; Sun, Xiuqin

2011-12-01

337

Acuticoccus yangtzensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a Novel Member in the Family Rhodobacteraceae, Isolated from the Surface Water of the Yangtze Estuary.  

PubMed

A novel bacterium, strain JL1095(T), was isolated from the surface water of the Yangtze Estuary, China (31° N, 122° E). Cells were Gram negative, aerobic, oval-shaped with one peak end and motile by gliding. Cells divided by binary fission. Growth occurred at 15-50 °C (optimum at 35 °C), 2-10 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum at ~3 %) and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum at pH ~ 7.6). Strain JL1095(T) was able to utilize various sole-carbon-source, such as Tween 40, Tween 80, acetic acid, L-arabinose, D,L-lactic acid, urocanic acid, methyl-pyruvate, ?-hydroxy butyric acid, ?-hydroxy butyric acid, and ?-hydroxy butyric acid. The major cellular fatty acids were C16:0, C18:0, C19:0 ?8c cyclo, C20:1 ?7c, and Summed Feature 8. The whole respiratory ubiquinone was Q-10. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JL1095(T) was 51.5 %. According to the phylogenetic analysis, strain JL1095(T) formed a monophyletic branch at the periphery of the evolutionary radiation occupied by the genera Labrenzia, Pannonibacter, Stappia, Wenxnia, and Amaricoccus. The sequence similarity was 92.8 % with the most closely relating strain Stappia indica B106(T), and 92.6 % with the type species Stappia stellulatum IAM 12621(T). Based on the biochemical characteristics, chemotaxonomy and phylogenetic analysis, strain JL1095(T) is considered to be a novel genus which belongs to the family Rhodobacteraceae. The novel strain is named Acuticoccus yangtzensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Acuticoccus yangtzensis is JL1095(T) (=CGMCC 1.12795 = DSM 28604). PMID:25265882

Hou, Lei; Zhang, Yao; Sun, Jia; Xie, Xiabing

2015-02-01

338

Youngimonas vesicularis gen. nov., sp. nov., of the family Rhodobacteraceae, isolated from surface seawater, reclassification of Donghicola xiamenensis Tan et al. 2009 as Pseudodonghicola xiamenensis gen. nov., comb. nov. and emended description of the genus Donghicola Yoon et al. 2007.  

PubMed

A Gram-staining-negative, non-pigmented, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium, devoid of bacteriochlorophyll, designated strain CC-AMW-E(T), was isolated from surface seawater off the coast at Kending, Taiwan. Strain CC-AMW-E(T) shared 95.7 and 93.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively, with the type strains of the type species of the genera Donghicola (Donghicola eburneus SW-277(T)) and Roseovarius (Roseovarius tolerans EL-172(T)). The predominant (>75% of the total) fatty acid was summed feature 8 (C(18?:?1)?6c and/or C(18?:?1)?7c). The polar lipid profile included major amounts of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified aminolipid. In addition, moderate amounts of an unidentified lipid and trace amounts of an unidentified phospholipid were detected. The DNA G+C content was 67.9 mol%. Ubiquinone Q-10 was the sole respiratory quinone. Based on its phylogenetic distinctiveness and distinguishing phenotypic characteristics (in particular its polar lipid pattern), we conclude that strain CC-AMW-E(T) represents a novel genus and species of the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name Youngimonas vesicularis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Youngimonas vesicularis is CC-AMW-E(T) (?=?JCM 18819(T)?=?BCRC 80549(T)). In addition, an emended description of the genus Donghicola Yoon et al. 2007 and the reclassification of Donghicola xiamenensis Tan et al. 2009 as Pseudodonghicola xiamenensis gen. nov., comb. nov. (type strain Y-2(T)?=?MCCC 1A00107(T)?=?LMG 24574(T)?=?CGMCC 1.7081(T)) are proposed. PMID:24844264

Hameed, Asif; Shahina, Mariyam; Lin, Shih-Yao; Nakayan, Phanit; Liu, You-Cheng; Lai, Wei-An; Hsu, Yi-Han

2014-08-01

339

Rhizobium tibeticum sp. nov., a symbiotic bacterium isolated from Trigonella archiducis-nicolai (Sirj.) Vassilcz.  

PubMed

Isolated from root nodules of Trigonella archiducis-nicolai (Sirj.) Vassilcz. grown in Tibet, China, cells of the bacterial strains CCBAU 85039(T) and CCBAU 85027 were Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, non-spore-forming rods that formed colonies that were semi-translucent and opalescent on yeast extract-mannitol agar. In numerical taxonomy, SDS-PAGE analysis of whole-cell proteins and DNA-DNA hybridization, the two strains were very similar and were different from reference strains of defined Rhizobium species. In the phylogeny based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, they were most similar to Rhizobium etli CFN 42(T) (98.2 % similarity) and R. leguminosarum USDA 2370(T) (97.6 %). Sequence analyses of the housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer, phenotypic characteristics and cellular fatty acid profiles strongly suggested that these two strains represented a novel species within Rhizobium. Cross-nodulation tests and sequencing of nifH and nodA genes showed that these two strains were symbiotic bacteria that nodulated Trigonella archiducis-nicolai, Medicago lupulina, Medicago sativa, Melilotus officinalis, Phaseolus vulgaris and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Based on the results, the novel species Rhizobium tibeticum sp. nov. is described to accommodate the two strains. The type strain is CCBAU 85039(T) (=LMG 24453(T) =CGMCC 1.7071(T)). The DNA G+C content of this strain is 59.7 mol% (T(m)). PMID:19643889

Hou, Bao Chao; Wang, En Tao; Li, Ying; Jia, Rui Zong; Chen, Wen Feng; Gao, Yu; Dong, Ren Jie; Chen, Wen Xin

2009-12-01

340

Cohnella capsici sp. nov., a novel nitrogen-fixing species isolated from Capsicum annuum rhizosphere soil, and emended description of Cohnella plantaginis.  

PubMed

A novel bacterial strain designated YN-59(T) was isolated from Capsicum annuum rhizosphere soil in China. The isolate was found to be aerobic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped and to form ellipsoidal or oval spores positioned centrally in swollen sporangia. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolated strain YN-59 was determined to be related to members of genus Cohnella. High levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were found between strain YN-59 and Cohnella plantaginis DSM 25424(T) (98.5 %) and Cohnella ginsengisoli DSM18997(T) (97.3 %); the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain YN-59 and the other strains recognized members of the genus Cohnella were below 97 %. The DNA-DNA hybridization values of strain YN-59 with C. plantaginis DSM 25424(T) and C. ginsengisoli DSM18997(T) were 44.2 ± 8.4 and 28.8 ± 5.8 %, respectively. The DNA G + C content of strain YN-59(T) was determined to be 59.32 mol %. The major isoprenoid quinone was identified as MK-7 and the predominant fatty acids as anteiso-C15:0 (45.32 %), iso-C16:0 (19.19 %), iso-C15:0 (9.65 %) and C16:0 (8.91 %). The polar lipids of strain YN-59(T) were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol; several unidentified phospholipids were also detected. The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell wall was identified as meso-diaminopimelic. On the basis of its phenotypic and genotypic characteristics and levels of DNA-DNA hybridization, strain YN-59(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Cohnella, for which the name Cohnella capsici sp. nov. (type strain YN-59(T) = CGMCC 1.12046(T) = JCM 19168(T)) is proposed. PMID:25367338

Wang, Li-Ying; Wang, Tian-Shu; Chen, San-Feng

2015-01-01

341

Clostridium algifaecis sp. nov., an anaerobic bacterial species from decomposing algal scum.  

PubMed

Two anaerobic bacterial strains, MB9-7(T) and MB9-9, were isolated from decomposing algal scum and were characterized using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains MB9-7(T) and MB9-9 are closely related to each other (99.7% similarity) and they are also closely related to Clostridium tyrobutyricum (96.5%). The two strains were Gram-stain positive and rod-shaped. Growth occurred at 20-45 °C, at pH 4.0-8.0 and at NaCl concentrations of up to 2% (w/v). Acid was produced from glucose, xylose and mannose. Products of fermentation in PYG medium were mainly butyrate, acetate, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C(14:0) and C(16:0). The cellular polar lipids comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two glycolipids, one phospholipid, one aminophospholipid and two aminolipids. The DNA G+C contents of strain MB9-7(T) and MB9-9 were 27.9 and 28.7 mol%, respectively. These results support the assignment of the new isolates to the genus Clostridium and also distinguish them from other species of the genus Clostridium. Hence, it is proposed that strains MB9-7(T) and MB9-9 represent a novel species of the genus Clostridium, with the suggested name Clostridium algifaecis sp. nov. The type strain is MB9-7(T) (?=CGMCC 1.5188(T)?=DSM 28783(T)). PMID:25168611

Wu, Yu-Fan; Zheng, Hui; Wu, Qing-Long; Yang, Hong; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

2014-11-01

342

Maricoccus atlantica gen. nov. sp. nov., isolated from deep sea sediment of the Atlantic Ocean.  

PubMed

A taxonomic study was carried out on strain 22II-S10r2(T), which was isolated from the deep sea sediment of the Atlantic Ocean using oil-degrading enrichment. The bacterium was Gram-negative, oxidase positive and catalase negative, spherical in shape, and motile by polar flagella. Growth was observed at salinities of 0.5-7 % and at temperatures of 10-41 °C. The isolate was capable of aesculin hydrolysis, but unable to reduce nitrate to nitrite or degrade Tween 80 or gelatine. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 22II-S10r2(T) belonged to the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae, with highest sequence similarity to Thioalkalivibrio sulfidiphilus HL-EbGR7(T) (90.9 % similarity). The principal fatty acids were Sum In Feature 8 (C18:1 ?7c/?6c (29.9 %), C18:1 ?9c (13.5 %), C16:1 ?5c (12.3 %), C12:03OH (6.8 %), C18:1 ?5c (5.7 %) and C16:0 (5.3 %). The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 60.7 mol%. The respiratory quinone was determined to be Q-7 (25 %) and Q-8 (75 %). Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, aminophospholipid, glycolipid, three phospholipids and lipid were present. The strain was aerobic, non-phototrophic and non-chemolithoautotrophic. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain 22II-S10r2(T) represents a novel species within a novel genus, for which the name Maricoccus atlantica gen. nov. sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain 22II-S10r2(T) (=CGMCC NO.1.12317(T) = LMG 27155(T) = MCCC 1A09384(T)). PMID:24052366

Li, Guizhen; Lai, Qiliang; Liu, Xiupian; Sun, Fengqin; Du, Yaping; Li, Guangyu; Shao, Zongze

2013-12-01

343

Novosphingobium marinum sp. nov., isolated from the eastern Pacific Ocean seawater.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped bacterium, strain LA53(T), was isolated from a deep-sea water sample collected from the eastern Pacific Ocean. Strain LA53(T) grew in the presence of 0-7.0 % (w/v) NaCl and at 15-37 (o)C; optimum growth was observed with 1.0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl and at 35 (o)C. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed ubiquinone-10 as sole respiratory quinone, C18:1?7c and summed feature 3 (iso-C15:0 2-OH and/or C16:1?7c) as major fatty acids and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and sphingoglycolipid as major polar lipids. The genomic DNA G + C content was 57.7 mol%. And phylogenetic analyses revealed that strain LA53(T) belongs to the genus Novosphingbium. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain LA53(T) and the type strains of Novosphingobium species with validly published name ranged from 93.1 to 96.3 %. In addition, strain LA53(T) could be differentiated from N. pentaromativorans DSM 17173(T) and N. indicum DSM 23608(T) as well as the type species of the genus N. capsulatum DSM 30196(T) on the basis of some phenotypic characteristics, including hydrolysis of substrates, utilization of carbons and susceptibility to antibiotics.On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain LA53(T) represents a novel species within the genus Novosphingbium, for which the name Novosphingobium marinum sp. nov. (type strain LA53(T) = CGMCC 1.12918(T) = JCM 30307(T)) is proposed. PMID:25424486

Huo, Ying-Yi; You, Hong; Li, Zheng-Yang; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Xu, Xue-Wei

2014-11-25

344

Altererythrobacter oceanensis sp. nov., isolated from the Western Pacific.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain negative, ovoid-rod shaped, strictly aerobic bacterium, strain Y2(T), was isolated from a deep-sea sediment of the Western Pacific. Phylogenetic and phenotypic properties of the organism indicated that it belongs to the genus Altererythrobacter. Strain Y2(T) shares highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 96.6 % with Erythrobacter jejuensis CNU001(T), followed by the type strains of recognized members of the genus Altererythrobacter (94.8-96.5 %). Strain Y2(T) forms a clade with E. jejuensis CNU001(T) in the cluster of species of the genus Altererythrobacter. Growth of strain Y2(T) was observed at 4-40 °C (optimum, 35-37 °C), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0) and in the presence of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2-3 %). The major cellular fatty acids were found to be C17:1 ?6c (41.5 %), summed feature 8 (C18:1 ?7c and/or C18:1 ?6c; 17.2 %), C17:1 ?8c (11.0 %) and C15:0 2OH (8.1 %). The major respiratory quinone was determine to be ubiquinone 10 (Q-10). The polar lipid analysis indicated the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, one sphingoglycolipid, three unidentified phospholipids, two unidentified glycolipids, two unidentified aminolipids and three unknown lipids. The DNA G + C content of the type strain is 60.0 mol %. On the basis of the data from the polyphasic characterization, strain Y2(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Altererythrobacter oceanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Y2(T) (=CGMCC 1.12752(T) =LMG 28109(T)). PMID:25245787

Yang, Yanliu; Zhang, Gaiyun; Sun, Zhilei; Cheung, Man Kit; Huang, Cheney

2014-12-01

345

Celeribacter indicus sp. nov., a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium from deep-sea sediment and reclassification of Huaishuia halophila as Celeribacter halophilus comb. nov.  

PubMed

A taxonomic study was carried out on strain P73(T), which was isolated from deep-sea sediment of the Indian Ocean by enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The strain was able to degrade biphenyl, naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, acenaphthene, anthracene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, dibenzofuran, fluorene, 4-methyldibenzothiophene and fluoranthene, but not pyrene or chrysene. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain P73(T) formed a clade with the genera Celeribacter and Huaishuia within the family Rhodobacteraceae, with highest sequence similarity of 96.98?% to Celeribacter neptunius H 14(T), followed by Huaishuia halophila ZXM137(T) (96.42?%). The bacterium was Gram-stain-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped and non-motile. Growth was observed at salinities from 0.5 to 12?% and at temperatures from 10 to 41 °C. The principal fatty acids (>10?%) of strain P73(T) were summed feature 8 (C18?:?1?7c/?6c) and C19?:?0?8c cyclo. The sole respiratory quinone was Q-10. The major lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, one unknown aminolipid, one unknown phospholipid and one unknown lipid; a second unknown phospholipid and one unknown glycolipid were present as minor components. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 66.0 mol%. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain P73(T) represents a novel species of the genus Celeribacter, for which the name Celeribacter indicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P73(T) (?=?MCCC 1A01112(T)?=?LMG 27600(T)?=?DSM 27257(T)). Phylogenetic study and existing phenotypic information also show that Huaishuia halophila should be transferred to the genus Celeribacter as Celeribacter halophilus comb. nov. (type strain ZXM137(T)?=?MCCC 1A06432(T)?=?CGMCC 1.8891(T)?=?LMG 24854(T)). PMID:25256706

Lai, Qiliang; Cao, Junwei; Yuan, Jun; Li, Fuying; Shao, Zongze

2014-12-01

346

Maribacter thermophilus sp. nov., isolated from an algal bloom in the intertidal zone of Qingdao sea area, China, and an emended description of the genus Maribacter.  

PubMed

A novel facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, designated strain HT7-2T, was isolated from Ulva prolifera collected from the intertidal zone of Qingdao sea area, China, during its bloom. Cells were rod-shaped (1.9-3.5 × 0.4-0.6 ?m), non-sporulating, and motile by gliding. Strain HT7-2T was able to grow at 4-50 °C (optimum 40-42 °C), pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), 0-8% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-3%) and 0.5-10% (w/v) sea salts (optimum 2.5%). The genomic DNA G+C content was 38.8 mol%. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain HT7-2T belonged to the genus Maribacter with sequence similarity values of 94.5-96.6%, and was most closely related to Maribacter aestuarii GY20T (96.6%). Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that the main isoprenoid quinone was MK-6 and the major fatty acids were iso-C15:0 and unknown ECL 13.565. The polar lipids of strain HT7-2T consisted of one phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), four unidentified lipids (L1~4) and one unidentified aminolipid (AL). On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain HT7-2T (= CGMCC 1.12207T = JCM 18466T) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Maribacter, for which the name Maribacter thermophilus sp. nov. is proposed. An emended description of the genus Maribacter is also proposed. PMID:25269849

Hu, Jing; Yang, Qi-Qi; Ren, Yi; Zhang, Wen-Wu; Zheng, Gang; Sun, Cong; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Wu, Min

2014-09-30

347

Methermicoccus shengliensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic, methylotrophic methanogen isolated from oil-production water, and proposal of Methermicoccaceae fam. nov.  

PubMed

A thermophilic, methylotrophic methanogen, strain ZC-1(T), was isolated from the Shengli oilfield, China. Cells of strain ZC-1(T) were motile cocci, 0.7-1.0 microm in diameter and always occurred in clusters of two to four cells. Lysis-susceptibility experiments and analysis of transmission electron micrographs of strain ZC-1(T) suggested the presence of a proteinaceous cell wall. Strain ZC-1(T) used methanol, methylamine and trimethylamine as substrates for methanogenesis. Optimal growth, with a doubling time of around 5 h, occurred at pH 6.0-6.5, 65 degrees C, 0.3-0.5 M NaCl and 0.05-0.20 M MgCl(2). The DNA G+C content of this organism was 56 mol%. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and the inferred amino acid sequence of the mcrA gene of strain ZC-1(T) indicated that it is related specifically to members of the family Methanosaetaceae (90.6 and 76.6 % sequence similarity, respectively). However, strain ZC-1(T) failed to grow with acetate as substrate for methanogenesis, which is a special characteristic of the family Methanosaetaceae. Based on these phenotypic and phylogenic characteristics, strain ZC-1(T) is proposed to represent a novel genus and species, for which the name Methermicoccus shengliensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZC-1(T) (=CGMCC 1.5056(T)=DSM 18856(T)). Methermicoccaceae fam. nov. is also proposed. PMID:18048758

Cheng, Lei; Qiu, Tian-Lei; Yin, Xiao-Bo; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Hu, Guo-Quan; Deng, Yu; Zhang, Hui

2007-12-01

348

Paenibacillus typhae sp. nov., isolated from roots of Typha angustifolia L.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain xj7(T), was isolated from roots of Typha angustifolia L. growing in Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China. The isolate was identified as a member of the genus Paenibacillus based on phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic inference. The novel strain was spore-forming, motile, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Optimal growth of strain xj7(T) occurred at 28-30 °C and pH 7.0-7.5. Diphosphatidylglycerol was the most abundant polar lipid and occurred along with phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown phospholipid and three unknown aminophospholipids. The diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The major fatty acid components were anteiso-C15?:?0 (56.1?%), iso-C16?:?0 (9.1?%), C16?:?0 (8.0?%), iso-C14?:?0 (6.3?%) and iso-C15?:?0 (5.1?%). The G+C content of genomic DNA was 47.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain xj7(T) fell within the evolutionary radiation encompassed by the genus Paenibacillus, its closest neighbours were Paenibacillus borealis KK19(T) (97.5?%) and Paenibacillus durus DSM 1735(T) (97.1?%). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain xj7(T) and P. borealis KK19(T) and between strain xj7(T) and P. durus DSM 1735(T), were both 35?%. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strain xj7(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus typhae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is xj7(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.11012(T)?=?DSM 25190(T)). PMID:22707528

Kong, Bi He; Liu, Qun Fang; Liu, Min; Liu, Yang; Liu, Lei; Li, Chun Li; Yu, Rong; Li, Yan Hong

2013-03-01

349

Ureibacillus defluvii sp. nov., isolated from a thermophilic microbial fuel cell.  

PubMed

A thermophilic bacterium, designated DX-1T, was isolated from the anode biofilm of a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Cells of strain DX-1T were oxidase-positive, catalase-positive and Gram-staining-negative. The strain was found to be rod-shaped and non-motile and to produce subterminal spores. The strain was able to grow with NaCl at concentrations ranging from 0 to 6?%, at temperatures of 25-60 °C (optimum 55 °C) and pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DX-1T formed a cluster with Ureibacillus thermosphaericus DSM 10633T (96.9% 16S rRNA sequence similarity), Ureibacillus composti DSM 17951T (95.8%), Ureibacillus thermophilus DSM 17952T (95.7%) and Ureibacillus terrenus DSM 12654T (95.3%). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 40.4 mol%. The major quinone was MK-7, the peptidoglycan type was L-Lys?D-Asp, and the major cellular fatty acids (>5%) were iso-C16:0 and iso-C14:0. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phospholipids of unknown composition. Based on phenotypic characteristics, chemotaxonomic features and results of phylogenetic analyses, the strain was determined to represent a distinct novel species of the genus Ureibacillus, and the name proposed for the novel species is Ureibacillus defluvii sp. nov., with type strain DX-1T (=CGMCC 1.12358T=KCTC 33127T). PMID:24491829

Zhou, Shungui; Tang, Jia; Qin, Dongxing; Lu, Qin; Yang, Guiqin

2014-05-01

350

Aquibacillus salifodinae sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from a salt mine in Xinjiang province, China.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic bacterium, strain WSY08-1(T), was isolated from a salt mine in Wensu county, Xinjiang province, China. Spherical to ellipsoidal endospores were observed to be formed in terminal swollen sporangia. Strain WSY08-1(T) was found to be able to grow at 20-45 °C (optimum 37 °C), 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 4 %, w/v) and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum 7.0). Catalase and oxidase activities were observed to be positive. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain WSY08-1(T) was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) was identified as the predominant isoprenoid quinone. The polar lipids were found to consist of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown glycolipid, two unknown phospholipids and an unknown lipid. The major cellular fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 36.9 mol%. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain WSY08-1(T) is closely related to Aquibacillus halophilus B6B(T), Aquibacillus koreensis BH30097(T) and Aquibacillus albus YIM 93642(T) (97.6, 96.9 and 96.5 % similarity, respectively). The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strains WSY08-1(T) and A. halophilus B6B(T) was 31.4 %. On the basis of its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics, strain WSY08-1(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Aquibacillus, for which the name Aquibacillus salifodinae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WSY08-1(T) (=JCM 19761(T) = CGMCC 1.12849(T)). PMID:25465850

Zhang, Wei-Yan; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

2015-02-01

351

Chryseobacterium polytrichastri sp. nov., isolated from a moss (Polytrichastrum formosum), and emended description of the genus Chryseobacterium.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped and non-endospore forming bacterium, designated strain YG4-6(T), was isolated from Polytrichastrum formosum collected from Gawalong glacier in Tibet, China and characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The predominant fatty acids of strain YG4-6(T) were identified as iso-C15:0 (29.3 %), summed feature 3 (C16:1 ?7c and/or C16:1 ?6c as defined by MIDI, 23.5 %) and iso-C17:0 3-OH (16.5 %). The major polar lipids were found to consist of five unidentified aminolipids and three unidentified lipids. Strain YG4-6(T) was found to contain MK-6 as the dominant menaquinone and the G+C content of its genomic DNA was determined to be 37.3 mol%. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YG4-6(T) is affiliated to Chryseobacterium species, and its closest related species were Chryseobacterium aahli T68(T) (97.9 % sequence similarity), Chryseobacterium zeae JM-1085(T) (97.8 % sequence similarity), Chryseobacterium yeoncheonense DCY67(T) (97.6 % sequence similarity) and Chryseobacterium soldanellicola NBRC 100864(T) (97.2 % sequence similarity). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness values between these strains and strain YG4-6(T) were found to be clearly below 70 %. Based on the phylogenetic inference and phenotypic data, strain YG4-6(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name Chryseobacterium polytrichastri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YG4-6(T) (=CGMCC 1.12491(T) = DSM 26899(T)). An emended description of the genus Chryseobacterium is also proposed. PMID:25450189

Chen, Xin Yao; Zhao, Ran; Chen, Zhi Ling; Liu, Lei; Li, Xue Dong; Li, Yan Hong

2015-02-01

352

Sphaerisporangium dianthi sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from a root of Dianthus chinensis L.  

PubMed

A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-CY18(T), was isolated from the root of a Chinese medicinal plant Dianthus chinensis L and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The novel strain was found to develop spherical sporangia with non-motile spores on aerial mycelium. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars were identified as madurose, mannose, ribose, galactose and glucose. The phospholipid profile was found to contain diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and an unidentified phospholipid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H6). The major fatty acids were identified as C17:0 10-methyl, iso-C16:0 and C16:0. EzTaxon-e analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Sphaerisporangium and was most closely related to Sphaerisporangium cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T) (98.9 %) and Sphaerisporangium melleum JCM 13064(T) (98.3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain NEAU-CY18(T) forms a monophyletic clade with S. cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T), an association that was supported by a bootstrap value of 97 % in the neighbour-joining tree and also recovered with the maximum-likelihood algorithm. Comparisons of some phenotypic properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values enabled the strain to be differentiated from S. cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T) and S. melleum JCM 13064(T). Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-CY18(T) represents a novel Sphaerisporangium species, for which the name Sphaerisporangium dianthi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-CY18(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7132(T) = DSM 46736(T)). PMID:25294725

Xing, Jia; Liu, Chongxi; Zhang, Yuejing; He, Hairong; Zhou, Ying; Li, Lianjie; Zhao, Junwei; Liu, Shuanghe; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

2015-01-01

353

Halopelagius longus sp. nov., a member of the family Halobacteriaceae isolated from a salt mine, and emended description of the genus Halopelagius.  

PubMed

A thermotolerant, extremely halophilic archaeon, BC12-B1(T), was isolated from a salt mine in Baicheng county, Xinjiang province, China. Colonies were off-white-grey. The cells stained Gram-negative, were motile and irregularly long-rod-shaped (variation in both width and length) with abundant gas vesicles. The strain was able to grow at 20-55 °C (optimum, 48 °C), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, 7.0-7.3), with 1.8-6.0 M NaCl (optimum, 3.0-3.5 M) and with 0.02-2.2 M Mg(2+) (optimum, 0.1-0.2 M). Cells lysed in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was 8?% (w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain BC12-B1(T) was most closely related to Halopelagius inordinatus RO5-2(T) (98.5?%) with less than 95?% sequence similarity to other described species. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain BC12-B1(T) was 64.0 mol%. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain BC12-B1(T) and Hpl. inordinatus RO5-2(T) was 43.6?%. The major polar lipids of strain BC12-B1(T) were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, four glycolipids and an unknown lipid. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics, strain BC12-B1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Halopelagius, for which the name Halopelagius longus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BC12-B1(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.12397(T)?=?JCM 18758(T)). An emended description of the genus Halopelagius is also provided. PMID:23584287

Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Wei-Yan; Shen, Ai-Hua; Huo, Ying-Yi; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

2013-10-01

354

Anoxybacillus vitaminiphilus sp. nov., a strictly aerobic and moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring.  

PubMed

A strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, motile and spore-forming bacterium, strain 3nP4(T), was isolated from the Puge hot spring located in the south-western geothermal area of China. Strain 3nP4(T) grew at 38-66 °C (optimum 57-60 °C), at pH 6.0-9.3 (optimum 7.0-7.5) and with 0-4?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-0.5?%). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, as well as DNA-DNA relatedness values, indicated that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Anoxybacillus, related most closely to Anoxybacillus voinovskiensis DSM 12111(T). Strain 3nP4(T) had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and one unidentified phospholipid as major polar lipids and iso-C15?:?0 and iso-C17?:?0 as major fatty acids, which are both typical chemotaxonomic characteristics of the genus Anoxybacillus. The mean DNA G+C content of strain 3nP4(T) was 39.2±0.95 mol% (HPLC). A distinctive characteristic of the novel isolate was its extreme reliance on vitamin mixture or yeast extract for growth. Based on data from this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, strain 3nP4(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Anoxybacillus, for which the name Anoxybacillus vitaminiphilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3nP4(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.8979(T)?=?JCM 16594(T)). PMID:23728374

Zhang, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Li; Wu, Nan; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

2013-11-01

355

Altererythrobacter xiamenensis sp. nov., an algicidal bacterium isolated from red tide seawater.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-negative, yellow-pigmented, aerobic bacterial strain, designated LY02(T), was isolated from red tide seawater in Xiamen, Fujian Province, China. Growth was observed at temperatures from 4 to 44 °C, at salinities from 0 to 9% and at pH from 6 to 10. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the isolate was a member of the genus Altererythrobacter, which belongs to the family Erythrobacteraceae. Strain LY02(T) was related most closely to Altererythrobacter marensis MSW-14(T) (97.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), followed by Altererythrobacter ishigakiensis JPCCMB0017(T) (97.1%), Altererythrobacter epoxidivorans JCS350(T) (97.1%) and Altererythrobacter luteolus SW-109(T) (97.0%). The dominant fatty acids were C(18 : 1)?7c, C(17 : 1)?6c and summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)?7c and/or C(16 : 1)?6c). DNA-DNA hybridization showed that strain LY02(T) possessed low DNA-DNA relatedness to A. marensis MSW-14(T), A. ishigakiensis JPCCMB0017(T), A. epoxidivorans JCS350(T) and A. luteolus SW-109(T) (mean ± SD of 33.2 ± 1.3, 32.1 ± 1.0, 26.7 ± 0.7 and 25.2 ± 1.1?%, respectively). The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 61.2 mol%. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10 (Q-10). According to its morphology, physiology, fatty acid composition and 16S rRNA gene sequence data, the novel strain most appropriately belongs to the genus Altererythrobacter, but can readily be distinguished from recognized species. The name Altererythrobacter xiamenensis sp. nov. is proposed (type strain LY02(T)?=?CGMCC 1.12494(T)?=?KCTC 32398(T)?=?NBRC 109638(T)). PMID:24158949

Lei, Xueqian; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei; Lai, Qiliang; Zhang, Huajun; Guan, Chengwei; Cai, Guanjing; Yang, Xujun; Tian, Yun; Zheng, Tianling

2014-02-01

356

Deinococcus citri sp. nov., isolated from citrus leaf canker lesions.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, non-motile, coccoid bacterium, designated NCCP-154(T), was isolated from citrus leaf canker lesions and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain NCCP-154(T) grew at 10-37 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 7.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0). The novel strain exhibited tolerance of UV irradiation (>1000 J m(-2)). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain NCCP-154(T) showed the highest similarity to Deinococcus gobiensis CGMCC 1.7299(T) (98.8?%), and less than 94?% similarity to other closely related taxa. The chemotaxonomic data [major menaquinone, MK-8; cell-wall peptidoglycan type, A3? (Orn-Gly2); major fatty acids, summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?7c/iso-C15?:?0 2-OH; 35.3?%) followed by C16?:?0 (12.7?%), iso-C17?:?1?9c (9.2?%), C17?:?1?8c (7.4?%) and iso-C17?:?0 (6.9?%); major polar lipids made up of several unidentified phosphoglycolipids and glycolipids and an aminophospholipid, and mannose as the predominant whole-cell sugar] also supported the affiliation of strain NCCP-154(T) to the genus Deinococcus. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain NCCP-154(T) and D. gobiensis JCM 16679(T) was 63.3±3.7?%. The DNA G+C content of strain NCCP-154(T) was 70.0 mol%. Based on the phylogenetic analyses, DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical characteristics, strain NCCP-154(T) can be differentiated from species with validly published names. Therefore, it represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus. The name Deinococcus citri sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain NCCP-154(T) (?=?JCM 19024(T)?=?DSM 24791(T)?=?KCTC 13793(T)). PMID:25256704

Ahmed, Iftikhar; Abbas, Saira; Kudo, Takuji; Iqbal, Muhammad; Fujiwara, Toru; Ohkuma, Moriya

2014-12-01

357

Chryseobacterium takakiae sp. nov., a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from Takakia lepidozioides.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and non-endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain AG1-2(T), was isolated from Takakia lepidozioides collected from the Gawalong glacier in Tibet, China and characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The predominant fatty acids of strain AG1-2(T) were iso-C15?:?0 (36.0?%), iso-C17?:?0 3-OH (20.2?%), summed feature 9 (iso-C17?:?1?9c and/or C16?:?0 10-methyl, 16.4?%) and summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?7c and/or C16?:?1?6c, 11.1?%). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. Strain AG1-2(T) contained MK-6 as the dominant menaquinone, and the genomic DNA G+C content was 37.3 mol%. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain AG1-2(T) was affiliated to species of the genus Chryseobacterium, and its closest related species were Chryseobacterium taiwanense Soil-3-27(T), Chryseobacterium hispalense AG13(T), Chryseobacterium camelliae THG C4-1(T) and Chryseobacterium taeanense PHA3-4(T) with a sequence similarity of 98.0, 97.8, 97.3 and 97.1?%, respectively. However, the DNA-DNA relatedness values between these strains and strain AG1-2(T) were 29, 21, 21 and 45?%, respectively. Based on phylogenetic inference and phenotypic data, strain AG1-2(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name Chryseobacterium takakiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AG1-2(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.12488(T)?=?DSM 26898(T)). PMID:25273512

Zhao, Ran; Chen, Xin Yao; Li, Xue Dong; Chen, Zhi Ling; Li, Yan Hong

2015-01-01

358

Nesterenkonia alkaliphila sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic, halotolerant actinobacteria isolated from the western Pacific Ocean.  

PubMed

A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, motile and non-spore-forming actinobacteria, strain F10(T), was isolated from a deep-sea sediment of the western Pacific Ocean. Phylogenetic and phenotypic properties of the organism supported that it belonged to the genus Nesterenkonia. Strain F10(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 96.8 % with N. aethiopica DSM 17733(T), followed by N. xinjiangensis YIM 70097(T) (96.7 %) and N. alba CAAS 252(T) (96.6 %). The organism grew at 4-50 °, at pH 7.0-12.0 and in the presence of 0-12 % (w/v) NaCl, with optimal growth occurring at 40 °, at pH 9.0 and in the presence of 1 % NaCl (w/v). The polar lipid profile of strain F10(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, two unknown glycolipids and two unknown lipids. The isolate contained MK-9 (92 %) and MK-8 (5.8 %)as the major component of the menaquinone system and anteiso-C17:0 (50.9 %) and anteiso-C15:0 (29.8 %) as the predominant fatty acids. The G + C content of the genomic DNA of the type strain is 66.2 mol%. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, it is proposed that strain F10(T) represents a novel species for which the name Nesterenkonia alkaliphila sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is F10(T) (=LMG 28112(T)= CGMCC 1.12781(T)=MCCC 1A09946(T) = JCM 19766(T)). PMID:25389152

Zhang, Gaiyun; Zhang, Yubian; Yin, Xijie; Wang, Shuang

2014-11-11

359

Virgibacillus oceani sp. nov. isolated from ocean sediment.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-positive, moderately halophilic, motile, strictly aerobic, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, strain MY11(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the Western Pacific. This isolate grew in the presence of 0.5-18?% (w/v) NaCl and at pH 6.0-10.0 and 15-45 °C; optimum growth was observed with 3.5?% (w/v) NaCl and at pH 8.0-9.0 and 35-37 °C. Strain MY11(T) had menaquinone 7 (MK-7) as the predominant respiratory quinone and anteiso-C15?:?0 and anteiso-C17?:?0 as major fatty acids. Major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content was 34.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that strain MY11(T) was a member of the genus Virgibacillus, exhibiting sequence similarities of 95.3-97.6?% to the type strains of recognized Virgibacillus species. Strain MY11(T) could be differentiated from recognized species of the genus Virgibacillus based on phenotypic characteristics, chemotaxonomic differences, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization data. On the basis of the data presented, strain MY11(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus oceani sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MY11(T) (?=?LMG 28105(T)?=?CGMCC 1.12754(T)?=?MCCC 1A09973(T)). PMID:25301543

Yin, Xijie; Yang, Yanliu; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Gaiyun

2015-01-01

360

Bacillus vanillea sp. nov., Isolated from the Cured Vanilla Bean.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive bacterium, designated strain XY18(T), was isolated from a cured vanilla bean in Hainan province, China. Cells were rod-shaped, endospore producing, and peritrichous flagella. Strain XY18(T) grew at salinities of 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimally 1-4 %), pH 4.0-8.0 (optimally 5.0-7.0 %) and temperature range 20-45 °C (optimally 28-35 °C). The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, and iso-C17:0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain XY18(T) was a member of the genus Bacillus, and closely related to B. amyloliquefaciens NBRC 15535(T) and B. siamensis PD-A10(T), with 99.1 and 99.2 % sequence similarity, respectively. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain XY18(T) and B. amyloliquefaciens NBRC 15535(T) was 35.7 %. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain XY18(T) was 46.4 mol%, significantly differed from B. siamensis PD-A10(T) (41.4 %), which was higher than the range of 4 % indicative of species. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic study, including phenotypic features, chemotaxonomy, and phylogenetic analyses, strain XY18(T) represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus vanillea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XY18(T) (=CGMCC 8629 = NCCB 100507). PMID:25292250

Chen, Yong-Gan; Gu, Feng-Lin; Li, Ji-Hua; Xu, Fei; He, Shu-Zhen; Fang, Yi-Ming

2015-02-01

361

Flavobacterium maotaiense sp. nov., isolated from freshwater.  

PubMed

Two novel strains, T9(T) and T10, were isolated from water samples collected from Chishui River flowing through Maotai town, Guizhou, south-west China. The isolates were yellow-pigmented, Gram-reaction-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and aerobic. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates belonged to the genus Flavobacterium, and showed highest similarities to Flavobacterium hibernum DSM 12611(T) (97.0?%), followed by Flavobacterium granuli Kw05(T) (96.7?%) and Flavobacterium pectinovorum DSM 6368(T) (96.7?%). The novel strains were able to grow at 20-37 °C (optimum 25 °C), pH 7.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.0-8.0) and with 0-0.5?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0.5?%). The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15?:?0, C16?:?1?7c, anteiso-C15?:?0, C15?:?0, iso-C15?:?0 3-OH and iso-C15?:?1?10c, and menaquinone-6 (MK-6) was the main respiratory quinone. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown glycolipid, two unknown aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains T9(T) and T10 were 37.7 and 36.4 mol%, respectively. According to the phenotypic and genetic data, strains T9(T) and T10 represent a novel species in the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium maotaiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T9(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.12712(T)?=?JCM 19927(T)). PMID:25313092

Feng, Qingqing; Gao, Yuan; Nogi, Yuichi; Tan, Xu; Han, Lu; Zhang, Yali; Lv, Jie

2015-01-01

362

Lysinibacillus varians sp. nov., an endospore-forming bacterium with a filament-to-rod cell cycle.  

PubMed

Six Gram-stain-positive, motile, filamentous and/or rod-shaped, spherical spore-forming bacteria (strains GY32(T), L31, F01, F03, F06 and F07) showing polybrominated diphenyl ether transformation were investigated to determine their taxonomic status. After spore germination, these organisms could grow more than one hundred microns long as intact single cells and then divide into rod cells and form endospores in 33 h. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of these strains was type A4?, the predominant menaquinone was MK-7 and the major fatty acids were iso-C(16:0), iso-C(15:0) and C(16:1)?7C. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine were detected in the polar lipid profile. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these strains should be placed in the genus Lysinibacillus and they were most closely related to Lysinibacillus sphaericus DSM 28(T) (99% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The gyrB sequence similarity and DNA-DNA relatedness between strain GY32(T) and L. sphaericus JCM 2502(T) were 81% and 52%, respectively. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain GY32(T) was 43.2 mol%. In addition, strain GY32(T) showed differences in nitrate reduction, starch and gelatin hydrolysis, carbon resource utilization and cell morphology. The phylogenetic distance from its closest relative measured by DNA-DNA relatedness and DNA G+C content, and its phenotypic properties demonstrated that strain GY32(T) represents a novel species of the genus Lysinibacillus, for which the name Lysinibacillus varians sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GY32(T) (?=?NBRC 109424(T)?=?CGMCC 1.12212(T)?=?CCTCC M 2011307(T)). PMID:25070216

Zhu, Chunjie; Sun, Guoping; Chen, Xingjuan; Guo, Jun; Xu, Meiying

2014-11-01

363

Vibrio xiamenensis sp. nov., a cellulase-producing bacterium isolated from mangrove soil.  

PubMed

A taxonomic study was carried out on a cellulase-producing bacterium, strain G21(T), isolated from mangrove soil in Xiamen, Fujian province, China. Cells were Gram-negative, slightly curved rods, motile with a single polar flagellum. The strain grew at 15-40 °C and in 0.5-10% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain G21(T) belonged to the genus Vibrio and formed a clade with Vibrio furnissii ATCC 350116(T) (97.4% sequence similarity), V. fluvialis LMG 7894(T) (97.1%) and V. ponticus CECT 5869(T) (96.1%). However, multilocus sequence analysis (using rpoA, recA, mreB, gapA, gyrB and pyrH sequences) and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated that the strain was distinct from the closest related Vibrio species. Additionally, strain G21(T) could be differentiated from them phenotypically by the ability to grow in 10% NaCl but not on TCBS plates, its enzyme activity spectrum, citrate utilization, oxidization of various carbon sources, hydrolysis of several substrates and its cellular fatty acid profile. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 46.0 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C(16:1)?7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH), C(16:0) and C(18:1)?7c. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, with trace amounts of diphosphatidylglycerol. The predominant quinones were Q-8 and Q-7. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis, it is concluded that strain G21(T) represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio xiamenensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G21(T) (?=?DSM 22851(T) ?=?CGMCC 1.10228(T)). PMID:22039001

Gao, Zhao-Ming; Xiao, Jing; Wang, Xing-Na; Ruan, Ling-Wei; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

2012-08-01

364

Methylopila henanense sp. nov., a novel methylotrophic bacterium isolated from tribenuron methyl-contaminated wheat soil.  

PubMed

A bacterial strain, designated LYBFD3-16A2(T), was isolated from tribenuron methyl contaminated wheat soil. Cells were observed to be Gram-negative short rods with a single flagellum. The strain was found to utilize methanol, glucose, maltose and mannitol as carbon and energy sources, and utilized glutamate, leucine, phenylalanine as organic nitrogen sources. Strain LYBFD3-16A2(T) was found to be aerobic, to form urease, produce hydrogen sulfide and reduce nitrate to nitrite. The indole test in tryptone broth was observed to be positive. The major cellular fatty acids were identified as C18:1?7c (81.3 %), 11-methylC18:1?7c (7.9 %), C18:0 (3.0 %) and C16:0 (3.0 %). The major phospholipids were identified as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidyglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The main ubiquinone was identified as Q-10. The DNA G+C content was determined to be between 70.2 and 70.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated the affiliation of strain LYBFD3-16A2 to members of the genus Methylopila. The DNA-DNA hybridization values of the novel strain with the type strains of the most closely related species Methylopila musalis MUSA(T) and Methylopila jiangsuensis JZL-4(T) were 35.4 % and 31.4 % respectively. The genotypic and phenotypic characterization, along with chemotaxonomic properties of strain LYBFD3-16A2(T), showed that the strain represents a novel species of the genus Methylopila for which the name Methylopila henanense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LYBFD3-16A2(T) (=CGMCC1.10703(T) = LMG 25959(T)). PMID:25413715

Wang, Ya-Nan; Tian, Wen-Yu; He, Wei-Hong; Chen, Guo-Can; An, Ming-Li; Jia, Bin; Liu, Li; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

2015-02-01

365

Bacillus lonarensis sp. nov., an alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from a soda lake.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, motile and endospore-forming novel bacterial strain 25nlg(T) was isolated from Lonar soda lake, in India. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, it was identified as a member of Firmicutes, being most closely related to Bacillus patagoniensis PAT 05(T) (96.6 %) and other members in the genus Bacillus (<96.0 %). Strain 25nlg(T) was catalase and oxidase-positive. The strain grows optimally at a pH of 9.5 with 4-6 % (w/v) NaCl and temperature of 35-37 °C. The cell wall of the strain 25nlg(T) contains meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic amino acid. Polar lipids include diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unknown phospholipid (PL2), an aminophospholipid (APL2) and three unknown lipids (L2-4). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. iso-C15:0 (41.7 %) was the predominant fatty acid, and significant proportions of anteiso-C15:0 (20.8 %), C12:0 (5.5 %), anteiso-C17:0 (4.9 %), iso-C17:0 (4.5 %) were also detected in the strain 25nlg(T). The DNA G+C content of the strain 25nlg(T) was 40.5 mol%. The results of molecular, physiological and biochemical tests allowed a clear phenotypic differentiation of strain 25nlg(T) from all other members of the genus Bacillus. Strain 25nlg(T) represents a novel member of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus lonarensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 25nlg(T) (=KCTC 33413(T) = LMG 27974(T) = CGMCC = 1.12817(T)). PMID:25294189

Reddy, Sultanpuram Vishnuvardhan; Thirumala, Mothe; Farooq, Mohammed; Sasikala, Chintalapati; Ramana, Chintalapati Venkata

2015-01-01

366

Glycomyces artemisiae sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from the roots of Artemisia argyi.  

PubMed

An endophytic actinomycete strain, IXS4(T), was isolated from the root of Artemisia argyi, a medicinal plant collected from Yesanpo located in Laishui county, Hebei province, China. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain IXS(T) showed most similarity to Glycomyces mayteni YIM 61331(T) (98.23% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Glycomyces scopariae YIM 56256(T) (98.00%), Glycomyces sambucus E71(T) (97.90%) and Glycomyces algeriensis NRRL B-16327(T) (97.10%). DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain IXS4(T) and the closely related type strains were well below 70%. The strain also showed a number of physiological and biochemical characteristics that were distinct from the closely related species. The strain contained MK-10(H2) and MK-11(H0) as the detected menaquinones. The peptidoglycan was mainly meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole-cell sugars contained galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose and ribose. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C14:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. Based on the genetic and phenotypic properties, it is proposed that strain IXS4(T) represents a novel species of the genus Glycomyces, with the name http://dx.doi.org/10.1601/nm.7671Glycomyces artemisiae sp. nov. The type strain is IXS4(T) (?=?HBUM178000(T) = CGMCC 4.7067(T)?= NBRC 109773(T)). PMID:25052398

Zhang, Xiumin; Ren, Kai; Du, Jiao; Liu, Haiyan; Zhang, Liping

2014-10-01

367

Paradevosia shaoguanensis gen. nov., sp. nov., Isolated from a Coking Wastewater.  

PubMed

A Gram staining negative, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterial strain J5-3(T) with a single polar flagellum was isolated from coking wastewater collected from Shaoguan, Guangdong, China. It was motile and capable of optimal growth at pH 6-8, 30 °C, and 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl. Its predominant fatty acids were 11-methyl C18:1 ?7c (29.2 %), C16:0 (20.6 %), C19:0 cyclo ?8c (18.2 %), C18:0 (11.0 %), and C18:1 ?7c/C18:1 ?6c (10.9 %) when grown on trypticase soy agar. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, two unknown glycolipids (GL1, GL2), and two unknown phospholipid (PL1, PL2). The predominant ubiquinone was Q-10, and the genome DNA G+C content was 61.7 mol %. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain J5-3(T) belonged to the family Hyphomicrobiaceae in Alphaproteobacteria. It shared the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 93.8-96.1 % with the genus Devosia, 94.5-94.8 % with the genus Pelagibacterium, and <92.0 % with all the other type strains in family Hyphomicrobiaceae. It can be distinguished from the closest phylogenetic neighbors based on several phenotypic and genotypic features, including ?-galactosidase activity, tetracycline susceptibility, major fatty acid composition, polar lipid profile, DNA gyrase B subunit (gyrB) gene sequence, and random-amplified polymorphic DNA profile. Therefore, we consider strain J5-3(T) to represent a novel species of a novel genus within the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, for which the name Paradevosia shaoguanensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Paradevosia shaoguanensis is J5-3(T) (=CGMCC 1.12430(T) =LMG 27409(T)). PMID:25234654

Geng, Shuang; Pan, Xin-Chi; Mei, Ran; Wang, Ya-Nan; Sun, Ji-Quan; Liu, Xue-Ying; Tang, Yue-Qin; Wu, Xiao-Lei

2015-01-01

368

Seohaeicola nanhaiensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from the benthic sediment of South China Sea.  

PubMed

An aerobic, Gram-staining negative, non-motile, and rod-shaped bacterial strain, SS011A0-7#2-2(T), was isolated from the sediment of South China Sea with the depth of 1,500 m. Optimum growth occurred at pH 8.0, 30 °C, and 6 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain SS011A0-7#2-2(T) did not synthesize bacteriochlorophyll a or carotenoid, neither possess photosynthesis genes. Its genome DNA G+C content was 67.9 mol%. It contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18:1 ?7c (52.3 %) as the major fatty acid. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, unidentified phospholipid, and unidentified aminolipid. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that it was closely related to Seohaeicola saemankumensis SD-15(T), Phaeobacter gallaeciensis BS 107(T) and Roseovarius pacificus 81-2(T) in Rhodobacteraceae, with the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities being 96.5, 95.7, and 95.6 %, respectively. However, the phylogeny of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SS011A0-7#2-2(T) was a member of the genus Seohaeicola. Strain SS011A0-7#2-2(T) was moderately halophilic which was different from Seohaeicola saemankumensis SD-15(T), and it showed the enzyme activities and carbon source spectrum significantly different from Seohaeicola saemankumensis SD-15(T). As its physiological and chemotaxinomic properties were different from those of Seohaeicola saemankumensis SD-15(T), strain SS011A0-7#2-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Seohaecola. The name Seohaeicola nanhaiensis sp. nov. is proposed, with strain SS011A0-7#2-2(T) (=LMG 27733(T) = CGMCC 1.12759(T)) as the type strain. PMID:25027448

Xie, Bai-Sheng; Lv, Xiang-Lin; Cai, Man; Tang, Yue-Qin; Wang, Yan-Nan; Cui, Heng-Lin; Liu, Xue-Ying; Tan, Yan; Wu, Xiao-Lei

2014-12-01

369

Paenibacillus tianmuensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.  

PubMed

Two closely related, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, spore-forming strains, B27(T) and F6-B70, were isolated from soil samples of Tianmu Mountain National Natural Reserve in Zhejiang, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene and rpoB sequences indicated that the isolates were members of the genus Paenibacillus. Both isolates were closely related to Paenibacillus ehimensis IFO 15659(T), Paenibacillus elgii SD17(T) and Paenibacillus koreensis YC300(T) (? 95.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). DNA-DNA relatedness between strain B27(T) and P. ehimensis DSM 11029(T), P. elgii NBRC 100335(T) and P. koreensis KCTC 2393(T) was 21.2, 28.6 and 16.8 %, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids of strains B27(T) and F6-B70 were anteiso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The two isolates differed from their closest neighbours in terms of phenotypic characteristics and cellular fatty acid profiles (such as variable for oxidase, negative for methyl red test, unable to produce acid from d-fructose and glycogen and relatively higher amounts of iso-C(15 : 0) and lower amounts of C(16 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0)). Strains B27(T) and F6-B70 represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus tianmuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B27(T) (?=?DSM 22342(T) ?=?CGMCC 1.8946(T)). PMID:20543152

Wu, Xuechang; Fang, Haihuan; Qian, Chaodong; Wen, Yanping; Shen, Xiaobo; Li, Ou; Gao, Haichun

2011-05-01

370

Haloterrigena daqingensis sp. nov., an extremely haloalkaliphilic archaeon isolated from a saline-alkaline soil.  

PubMed

A haloalkaliphilic archaeon, strain JX313(T), was isolated from a saline-alkaline soil from Daqing, Heilongjiang Province, China. Its morphological, physiological and biochemical features and 16S rRNA gene sequence were determined. Colonies of the strain were orange-red and cells were non-motile cocci and Gram-stain-variable. The strain required at least 1.7 M NaCl for growth, with optimal growth occurring in 2.0-2.5 M NaCl. Growth was observed at 20-50°C and pH 8.0-10.5, with optimal growth at 35°C and pH 10.0. The G+C content of its genomic DNA was 59.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JX313(T) is associated with the genera Haloterrigena and Natrinema and is most closely related to Haloterrigena salina XH-65(T) (96.2? % sequence similarity) and Haloterrigena hispanica FP1(T) (96.2?%). DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed that the relatedness of strain JX313(T) to type strains of related species of the genus Haloterrigena or Natrinema was less than 50?%. Furthermore, the cellular polar lipids of strain JX313(T), identified as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester and mannose-2,6-disulfate (1?2)-glucose glycerol diether (S?-DGD), were consistent with the polar lipid characteristics of the genus Haloterrigena. Therefore, phylogenetic analysis, phenotypic assessment and chemotaxonomic data showed that JX313(T) represents a novel species within the genus Haloterrigena, for which the name Haloterrigena daqingensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JX313(T) (=CGMCC 1.8909(T) =NBRC 105739(T)). PMID:19915113

Wang, Shuang; Yang, Qian; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Sun, Lei; Wei, Dan; Zhang, Jun-Zheng; Song, Jin-Zhu; Yuan, Hai-Feng

2010-10-01

371

Micromonospora taraxaci sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinomycete isolated from dandelion root (Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.).  

PubMed

A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-P5(T), was isolated from dandelion root (Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.). Strain NEAU-P5(T) showed closest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Micromonospora chokoriensis 2-19/6(T) (99.5%), and phylogenetically clustered with Micromonospora violae NEAU-zh8(T) (99.3%), M. saelicesensis Lupac 09(T) (99.0%), M. lupini Lupac 14N(T) (98.8%), M. zeae NEAU-gq9(T) (98.4%), M. jinlongensis NEAU-GRX11(T) (98.3%) and M. zamorensis CR38(T) (97.9%). Phylogenetic analysis based on the gyrB gene sequence also indicated that the isolate clustered with the above type strains except M. violae NEAU-zh8(T). The cell-wall peptidoglycan consisted of meso-diaminopimelic acid and glycine. The major menaquinones were MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-10(H2). The phospholipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The major fatty acids were C(16:0), iso-C(15:0) and C(17:0). Furthermore, some physiological and biochemical properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values enabled the strain to be differentiated from members of closely related species. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-P5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Micromonospora, for which the name Micromonospora taraxaci sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-P5(T) (=CGMCC 4.7098(T) = DSM 45885(T)). PMID:25082023

Zhao, Junwei; Guo, Lifeng; He, Hairong; Liu, Chongxi; Zhang, Yuejing; Li, Chuang; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

2014-10-01

372

Pseudomonas sihuiensis sp. nov., isolated from a forest soil in South China.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain WM-2(T), was isolated from a forest soil in Sihui City, South China, and characterized by means of a polyphasic approach. Growth occurred with 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-1 %) and at pH 5.0-10.5 (optimum pH 8.5) and 4-40 °C (optimum 30 °C) in Luria-Bertani medium. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed that strain WM-2(T) is a member of the genus Pseudomonas and most closely related to P. guguanensis, P. oleovorans subsp. lubricantis, P. toyotomiensis, P. alcaliphila and P. mendocina with 97.1-96.6 % sequence similarities. In terms of gyrB and rpoB gene sequences, strain WM-2(T) showed the highest similarity with the type strains of the species P. toyotomiensis and P. alcaliphila. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain WM-2(T) with P. guguanensis and P. oleovorans subsp. lubricantis was 48.7 and 37.2 %, respectively. Chemotaxonomic characteristics (the main ubiquinone Q-9, major fatty acids C18:1 ?7c/C18:1 ?6c, C16:0 and C16:1 ?7c/C16:1 ?6c and DNA G+C content 65.2 ± 0.7 mol%) were similar to those of members of the genus Pseudomonas. Polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unknown aminophospholipid, an unknown phospholipid and five unknown lipids. According to the results of polyphasic analyses, strain WM-2(T) represents a novel species in the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas sihuiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WM-2(T) (=KCTC 32246(T)=CGMCC 1.12407(T)). PMID:24567079

Wu, Min; Wen, Junlin; Chang, Ming; Yang, Guiqin; Zhou, Shungui

2014-04-01

373

Pseudomonas chengduensis sp. nov., isolated from landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Strain MBR(T) was isolated from landfill leachate in a solid-waste disposal site in Chengdu, Sichuan, China. An analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolate was closely related to members of the genus Pseudomonas, sharing the highest sequence similarities with Pseudomonas toyotomiensis HT-3(T) (99.8?%), Pseudomonas alcaliphila AL15-21(T) (99.7?%) and Pseudomonas oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) (99.4?%). Multi-locus sequence analysis based on three housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) provided higher resolution at the species level than that based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, which was further confirmed by less than 70?% DNA-DNA relatedness between the new isolate and P. toyotomiensis HT-3(T) (61.3?%), P. alcaliphila AL15-21(T) (51.5?%) and P. oleovorans ATCC 8062(T) (57.8?%). The DNA G+C content of strain MBR(T) was 61.9 mol% and the major ubiquinone was Q-9. The major cellular fatty acids (>10?%) were C18?:?1?7c and/or C18?:?1?6c, C16?:?0, and C16?:?1?7c and/or C16?:?1?6c. Polyphasic analysis indicates that strain MBR(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas chengduensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MBR(T) (?=?CGMCC 2318(T)?=?DSM 26382(T)). PMID:24021726

Tao, Yong; Zhou, Yan; He, Xiaohong; Hu, Xiaohong; Li, Daping

2014-01-01

374

Bacillus cihuensis sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil of a plant in the Cihu area of Taiwan.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, moderately halotolerant, rod-shaped, spore forming bacterium, designated strain FJAT-14515(T) was isolated from a soil sample in Cihu area, Taoyuan County, Taiwan. The strain grew at 10-35 °C (optimum at 30 °C), pH 5.7-9.0 (optimum at pH 7.0) and at salinities of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum at 1 % w/v). The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan of the isolated strain was meso-diaminopimelic acid and major respiratory isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. Major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 (40.6 %), iso-C15:0 (20.7 %) and the DNA G+C content of strain FJAT-14515(T) was 37.1 mol %. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain FJAT-14515(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus, and was most closely related to the reference strains of Bacillus muralis DSM 16288(T) (97.6 %) and Bacillus simplex DSM 1321(T) (97.5 %). Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain FJAT-14515(T) and the reference strains of B. muralis DSM 16288(T) and B. simplex DSM 1321(T) were 27.9 % ± 3.32 and 44.1 % ± 0.57, respectively. Therefore, on the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties, strain FJAT-14515(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus cihuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FJAT-14515(T) (=DSM 25969(T) = CGMCC 1.12697(T)). PMID:25256951

Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Sengonca, Cetin; Schumann, Peter; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Tang, Jian-Yang; Chen, Mei-Chun

2014-12-01

375

Description of Belnapia rosea sp. nov. and emended description of the genus Belnapia Reddy et al. 2006.  

PubMed

A novel alphaproteobacterial strain, designated CPCC 100156(T), was isolated from a forest soil sample collected from Hainan Island, South China, and subjected to taxonomic investigation using a polyphasic approach. The pink- to rosy-coloured colonies on TSA and YM agar were smooth and moist. Good growth occurred at 28-32 °C and at pH 7.0-7.5. The respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-9. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylcholine (PC), hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine (OH-PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG) and two unidentified aminolipids (AL1, AL2), with a minor amount of ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipid. (NPG). The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C(18:1)?7c /C(18:1)?6c) (49.5%), summed feature 3 (C(16:1)?7c/C(16:1)?6c) (22.5%), and C(16:0) (14.0%). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 70.3 mol%. The organism showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.37% with Belnapia moabensis DSM 16746(T). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate belonged to the family Acetobacteraceae and consistently formed a robust cluster with Belnapia moabensis DSM 16746(T) in the phylogenetic tree. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between the new isolate and Belnapia moabensis DSM 16746(T) was 45.6%. On the basis of the taxonomic evidence, it is proposed that strain CPCC 100156(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Belnapia rosea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CPCC 100156(T) (=DSM 23312(T)=CGMCC 1.10758(T)). The description of the genus Belnapia is emended accordingly. PMID:21551325

Jin, Rong; Su, Jing; Liu, Hong-Yu; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Li, Qiu-Ping; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Yu, Li-Yan

2012-03-01

376

Rhodococcus kronopolitis sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from a millipede (Kronopolites svenhedind Verhoeff).  

PubMed

A novel actinobacterium, designated strain NEAU-ML12(T), was isolated from a millipede (Kronopolites svenhedind Verhoeff), which was collected from Fenghuang Mountain in Wuchang, Heilongjiang Province, north China. The strain was characterized using a polyphasic approach. Strain NEAU-ML12(T) was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of the members of the genus Rhodococcus. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis showed that the strain NEAU-ML12(T) belongs to the genus Rhodococcus, and was most closely related to Rhodococcus tukisamuensis Mb8(T) (98.9 %) and Rhodococcus koreensis DNP505(T) (97.7 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences also demonstrated that strain NEAU-ML12(T) should be classified in the genus Rhodococcus, forming a distinct clade with R. tukisamuensis Mb8(T) supported by a 99 % bootstrap value. However, the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain NEAU-ML12(T) and R. tukisamuensis Mb8(T) was found to be 41.9 ± 0.7 %. Furthermore, strain NEAU-ML12(T) could also be differentiated from R. tukisamuensis Mb8(T) and other closely related strains (R. koreensis DNP505(T) and Rhodococcus maanshanensis M712(T)) by morphological and physiological characteristics. Therefore, it is proposed that strain NEAU-ML12(T) represents a novel species of the genus Rhodococcus, for which the name Rhodococcus kronopolitis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-ML12(T) (=CGMCC 4.7145(T) = DSM 46702(T)). PMID:25261081

Liu, Hui; Zhang, Yuejing; Liu, Chongxi; Fang, Baozhu; Li, Chuang; Guan, Xuejiao; Li, Lianjie; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

2014-12-01

377

[Polyphasic evidence for the transfer of Promicromonospora yunnanensis to Cellulosimicrobium cellulans].  

PubMed

Polyphasic taxonomic investigations of Promicromonospora yunnanensis AS4.1333 deposited in the China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center (CGMCC) indicated that strain AS4.1333 was closely related to Cellulosimicrobium cellulans DSM43879(T), the two organisms shared a 16S rRNA gene similarity of 99.6% which correspond to 5 nt differences at 1423 positions. Corresponding DNA-DNA reassociation value was 89.3%, significantly higher than 70% cut-off point recommended for the delineation of genomic species by Wayne et al. (1987). Results of chemotaxonomic analyses of cell wall (Whole-organism hydrolysates were rich in rhamnose, fucose and galactose; peptidoglycan type A4a), mycolic acids (One dimensional TLC of whole-organism acid methanolysates revealed the absence of a lower spot (Rf value around 0.47) that corresponded to mycolic acids), principal menaquinones (MK-9 (H4)), phospholipid type (PV) and the G + C content of the DNA (73.8 mol%) supported the conclusions of the genotypic analyses. The very similar morphological and physiological characteristics agreed with the high degree of relatedness. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses based on the almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequence, DNA-DNA reassociation values, chemotaxonomic properties, morphological and physiological characteristics, it is concluded that strain AS4.1333 should be removed from the genus Promicromonospora, and strain AS4.1333 and Cellulosimicrobium cellulans should be considered to be a single species. Promicromonospora yunnanensis AS4.1333 was proposed to transfer into Cellulosimicrobium cellulans. The type strain remains DSM43879T. PMID:17037045

Zhang, Jian-li; Liu, Zhi-heng

2006-08-01

378

Halomonas huangheensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a saline-alkali soil.  

PubMed

A novel, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile and moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain BJGMM-B45(T), was isolated from a saline-alkali soil collected from Shandong Province, China. Growth of strain BJGMM-B45(T) occurred at 10-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and pH 5.0-12.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) on Luria-Bertani agar medium with 1-20?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 7-10?%). The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-9. The major cellular fatty acids (>5?%) were C18?:?1?7c, C16?:?0, C19?:?0 cyclo ?8c, summed feature 3, C12?:?0 3-OH and C12?:?0. The genomic DNA G+C content was 57.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain BJGMM-B45(T) belonged to the genus Halomonas in the class Gammaproteobacteria. The closest relatives were Halomonas cupida DSM 4740(T) (98.2?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Halomonas denitrificans M29(T) (97.8?%). Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain BJGMM-B45(T) and Halomonas cupida CGMCC 1.2312(T) and Halomonas denitrificans DSM 18045(T) were 57.0 and 58.9?%, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic features, strain BJGMM-B45(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Halomonas, for which the name Halomonas huangheensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BJGMM-B45(T) (?=?ACCC 05850(T)?=?KCTC 32409(T)). PMID:24425813

Miao, Chaohua; Jia, Fangfang; Wan, Yusong; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Min; Jin, Wujun

2014-03-01

379

Enterobacter xiangfangensis sp. nov., isolated from Chinese traditional sourdough, and reclassification of Enterobacter sacchari Zhu et al. 2013 as Kosakonia sacchari comb. nov.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain-negative bacterial strain, 10-17(T), was isolated from traditional sourdough in Heilongjiang Province, China. The bacterium was characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, RNA polymerase ? subunit (rpoB) gene sequence analysis, DNA gyrase (gyrB) gene sequence analysis, initiation translation factor 2 (infB) gene sequence analysis, ATP synthase ? subunit (atpD) gene sequence analysis, fatty acid methyl ester analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization and an analysis of phenotypic features. Strain 10-17(T) was phylogenetically related to Enterobacter hormaechei CIP 103441(T), Enterobacter cancerogenus LMG 2693(T), Enterobacter asburiae JCM 6051(T), Enterobacter mori LMG 25706(T), Enterobacter ludwigii EN-119(T) and Leclercia adecarboxylata LMG 2803(T), having 99.5%, 99.3%, 98.7%, 98.5%, 98.4% and 98.4% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. On the basis of polyphasic characterization data obtained in the present study, a novel species, Enterobacter xiangfangensis sp. nov., is proposed and the type strain is 10-17(T) (?=?LMG 27195(T)?=?NCIMB 14836(T)?=?CCUG 62994(T)). Enterobacter sacchari Zhu et al. 2013 was reclassified as Kosakonia sacchari comb. nov. on the basis of 16S rRNA, rpoB, gyrB, infB and atpD gene sequence analysis and the type strain is strain SP1(T)(?=?CGMCC 1.12102(T)?=?LMG 26783(T)). PMID:24824638

Gu, Chun Tao; Li, Chun Yan; Yang, Li Jie; Huo, Gui Cheng

2014-08-01

380

Amphiplicatus metriothermophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermotolerant alphaproteobacterium isolated from a hot spring.  

PubMed

A thermotolerant, Gram-strain-negative, non-spore-forming and strictly aerobic bacterium, designated GU51(T), was isolated from Guhai hot spring in Jimsar county, Xinjiang province, north-west China. Each cell of strain GU51(T) consisted of an oval body and two symmetrical long (3-6 µm) prosthecae. The strain moved by polar flagellum. Oxidase and catalase were produced. Strain GU51(T) grew within the ranges of 37-65 °C (optimum 48-50 °C), 0.5-7.5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-3%) and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.5). The major respiratory quinone detected was ubiquinone 10 (U-10) and the genomic DNA G+C content was 66.7±0.4 mol%. Major fatty acids (>5%) were C(16?:?0), C(18?:?1)?7c and 11-methyl C(18?:?1)?7c. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, five glycolipids, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown phospholipid. Phylogenetic analysis showed the closest relatives of strain GU51(T) were members of the genus Parvularcula with 92.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. On the basis of this polyphasic taxonomic characterization, it is suggested that strain GU51(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family 'Parvularculaceae', for which the name Amphiplicatus metriothermophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is GU51(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.12710(T)?=?JCM 19779(T)). PMID:24867176

Zhen-Li, Zhang; Xin-Qi, Zhang; Nan, Wu; Wen-Wu, Zhang; Xu-Fen, Zhu; Yi, Cao; Min, Wu

2014-08-01

381

Marinicauda pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a prosthecate alphaproteobacterium of the family Hyphomonadaceae isolated from deep seawater.  

PubMed

A marine prosthecate bacterium, designated strain P-1 km-3(T), was isolated from deep seawater from the Pacific. Cells of strain P-1 km-3(T) were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, dimorphic rods with a single polar prostheca or flagellum. The strain hydrolysed gelatin and grew at 6-40 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and with 0.5-12% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2%). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain P-1 km-3(T) belonged to the family Hyphomonadaceae in the class Alphaproteobacteria and represented a separate lineage, located between the genera Oceanicaulis and Woodsholea. Sequence similarities of strain P-1 km-3(T) with type strains of species of the genera Oceanicaulis and Woodsholea were 93.2-93.9%. The predominant cellular fatty acids in strain P-1 km-3(T) were C18:1?7c, C18:0, 11-methyl C18:1?7c, C17:0 and C19:0 cyclo ?8c. The major respiratory quinone of strain P-1 km-3(T) was Q-10. The polar lipids of strain P-1 km-3(T) comprised glucuronopyranosyldiglyceride (GUDG), monoglycosyldiglyceride (MGDG), sulfo-quinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), an unidentified phospholipid (PL) and an unidentified lipid (L). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain P-1 km-3(T) was 66.0 mol%. On the basis of the polyphasic data presented in this study, strain P-1 km-3(T) is proposed to represent a novel species in a new genus, Marinicauda pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., within the family Hyphomonadaceae. The type strain of the type species is P-1 km-3(T) (=KACC 16526(T)=CGMCC 1.11031(T)). PMID:23159747

Zhang, Xi-Ying; Li, Guo-Wei; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Zhang, Yan-Jiao; Xu, Xue-Wei; Li, Hai; Liu, Ang; Liu, Chang; Xie, Bin-Bin; Qin, Qi-Long; Xu, Zhong; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

2013-06-01