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Sample records for stephen jay gould

  1. Stephen Jay Gould on Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korb, Kevin B.

    1994-01-01

    Critiques ideas expressed by Gould in "The Mismeasure of Man." Agrees with Gould that many scientists who studied human intelligence were racist, but disagrees that their work must therefore necessarily be dismissed. Disputes Gould's claim that factor analysts who study human intelligence have reified their factors and that factor analysis is…

  2. Stephen Jay Gould as a political theorist.

    PubMed

    Prindle, David

    2006-01-01

    Before his death in 2002, paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould elaborated a large and inclusive theory of life's change. In this essay I concentrate on the aspects of Gould's vast theory that have the most direct political relevance. I briefly discuss his views on the philosophy of science. I examine the way he combined political values and methodology in a seamless, critical analysis of intelligence-testing and sociobiology. I concentrate most extensively on the impact his "punctuated equilibria" concept has made on contemporary political analysis, and I demonstrate that in their appropriation of this concept political scientists have violated the rules that Gould himself articulated for its use. In closing, I consider the possibility that a comprehensive theory of life, a theory that must include political values, might approach traditional questions of political thought more satisfyingly than has conventional philosophy. PMID:17722990

  3. Science and the Humanities: Stephen Jay Gould's Quest to Join the High Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruse, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Jay Gould was a scientist, a paleobiologist, who was also a professional-level historian of science. This essay explores Gould's work, showing how he used the history of science to further his agenda as a working scientist.

  4. Claiming Darwin: Stephen Jay Gould in contests over evolutionary orthodoxy and public perception, 1977-2002.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Myrna Perez

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes the impact of the resurgence of American creationism in the early 1980s on debates within post-synthesis evolutionary biology. During this period, many evolutionists criticized Harvard biologist Stephen Jay Gould for publicizing his revisions to traditional Darwinian theory and opening evolution to criticism by creationists. Gould's theory of punctuated equilibrium was a significant source of contention in these disputes. Both he and his critics, including Richard Dawkins, claimed to be carrying the mantle of Darwinian evolution. By the end of the 1990s, the debate over which evolutionary thinkers were the rightful heirs to Darwin's evolutionary theory was also a conversation over whether Darwinism could be defended against creationists in the broader cultural context. Gould and others' claims to Darwin shaped the contours of a political, religious and scientific controversy. PMID:24457049

  5. "Replaying Life's Tape": Simulations, metaphors, and historicity in Stephen Jay Gould's view of life.

    PubMed

    Sepkoski, David

    2016-08-01

    In a famous thought experiment, Stephen Jay Gould asked whether, if one could somehow rewind the history of life back to its initial starting point, the same results would obtain when the "tape" was run forward again. This hypothetical experiment is generally understood as a metaphor supporting Gould's philosophy of evolutionary contingency, which he developed and promoted from the late 1980s until his death in 2002. However, there was a very literal, non-metaphorical inspiration for Gould's thought experiment: since the early 1970s, Gould, along with a group of other paleontologists, was actively engaged in attempts to model and reconstruct the history of life using computer simulations and database analysis. These simulation projects not only demonstrate the impact that computers had on data analysis in paleontology, but also shed light on the close relationship between models and empirical data in data-oriented science. In a sense, I will argue, the models developed by paleontologists through simulation and quantitative analysis of the empirical fossil record in the 1970s and beyond were literal attempts to "replay life's tape" by reconstructing the history of life as data. PMID:26790344

  6. This View of Science: Stephen Jay Gould as Historian of Science and Scientific Historian, Popular Scientist and Scientific Popularizer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermer, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    Presents the results of an extensive quantitative content analysis of Gould's 22 books, 101 book reviews, 479 scientific papers, and 300 Natural History essays, in terms of subject matter, and thematic dichotomies. Emphasizes the interaction between the subjects and themata, how Gould has used the history of science to reinforce his evolutionary…

  7. Stephen Jay Kline on systems, or physics, complex systems, and the gap between.

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2011-06-01

    At the end of his life, Stephen Jay Kline, longtime professor of mechanical engineering at Stanford University, completed a book on how to address complex systems. The title of the book is 'Conceptual Foundations of Multi-Disciplinary Thinking' (1995), but the topic of the book is systems. Kline first establishes certain limits that are characteristic of our conscious minds. Kline then establishes a complexity measure for systems and uses that complexity measure to develop a hierarchy of systems. Kline then argues that our minds, due to their characteristic limitations, are unable to model the complex systems in that hierarchy. Computers are of no help to us here. Our attempts at modeling these complex systems are based on the way we successfully model some simple systems, in particular, 'inert, naturally-occurring' objects and processes, such as what is the focus of physics. But complex systems overwhelm such attempts. As a result, the best we can do in working with these complex systems is to use a heuristic, what Kline calls the 'Guideline for Complex Systems.' Kline documents the problems that have developed due to 'oversimple' system models and from the inappropriate application of a system model from one domain to another. One prominent such problem is the Procrustean attempt to make the disciplines that deal with complex systems be 'physics-like.' Physics deals with simple systems, not complex ones, using Kline's complexity measure. The models that physics has developed are inappropriate for complex systems. Kline documents a number of the wasteful and dangerous fallacies of this type.

  8. Gould talking past Dawkins on the unit of selection issue.

    PubMed

    Istvan, M A

    2013-09-01

    My general aim is to clarify the foundational difference between Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Dawkins concerning what biological entities are the units of selection in the process of evolution by natural selection. First, I recapitulate Gould's central objection to Dawkins's view that genes are the exclusive units of selection. According to Gould, it is absurd for Dawkins to think that genes are the exclusive units of selection when, after all, genes are not the exclusive interactors: those agents directly engaged with, directly impacted by, environmental pressures. Second, I argue that Gould's objection still goes through even when we take into consideration Sterelny and Kitcher's defense of gene selectionism in their admirable paper "The Return of the Gene." Third, I propose a strategy for defending Dawkins that I believe obviates Gould's objection. Drawing upon Elisabeth Lloyd's careful taxonomy of the various understandings of the unit of selection at play in the philosophy of biology literature, my proposal involves realizing that Dawkins endorses a different understanding of the unit of selection than Gould holds him to, an understanding that does not require genes to be the exclusive interactors. PMID:23806523

  9. Gould's NCLIS Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2000-01-01

    Describes Martha B. Gould's agenda for the United States National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS). Highlights include: political savvy and the National Technical Information Service; Internet policy for libraries; her status as the first public librarian to chair NCLIS; library education; federal responsibility in library…

  10. Gould Belt Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Leticia; Loinard, Laurent; Dzib, Sergio

    2013-07-01

    Using archive VLA data and recent observations on the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array it is worked on a semi-automatic python/CASA code to select, reduce and plot several young stars belonging to the Ophiuchus core. This code mean to help to select observations made along the 30 years of the VLA done in the selected area with the wide configurations A and B, and in the X and C band, to determine their position and compare it with the most recent ones. In this way it is possible to determinate their proper motion with very high precision. It is presented the phases of the process and our first results worked on three well know stars: S1, DoAr 21 and VLA1623. This is the tip of a bigger work that includes Taurus molecular cloud and other important recent star formation regions belonging to the Gould Belt. Our goal is to support the most suitable among several theories about Gould Belt origin or provide a new one taking in count the dynamics of those regions.

  11. Blue jays nest in an unusual structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin L.; Lyons, Curtis P.; Sedgwick, James A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a successful Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) nest in an unusual structure on the side of a building.  The nest was located near the edge of the species' range along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado.  The nest was completely obvious, suggesting that the structure itself provided adequate cover and sercurity for the jays.  Blue Jays appear to be declining in some areas of the United States such as the Southeast.  Structures such as the one we describe may be more useful in attracting Blue Jays than the nesting platforms available commercially.

  12. Florida Scrub Jay mortality on roadsides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.; Smith, Rebecca B.; Breininger, David R.

    1990-01-01

    Brevard County, Florida supports two of the three largest remaining Florida Scrub Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens coerulescens) populations, with about 1870 birds on Kennedy Space Center and 920 birds on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (Breininger 1989). Between 24 may and 5 June 1989, four Scrub Jay carcasses were collected on two roadsides in Brevard County apparently killed by vehicles.

  13. Weight for Stephen Finlay.

    PubMed

    Evers, Daan

    2013-04-01

    According to Stephen Finlay, 'A ought to X' means that X-ing is more conducive to contextually salient ends than relevant alternatives. This in turn is analysed in terms of probability. I show why this theory of 'ought' is hard to square with a theory of a reason's weight which could explain why 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es. I develop two theories of weight to illustrate my point. I first look at the prospects of a theory of weight based on expected utility theory. I then suggest a simpler theory. Although neither allows that 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es, this price may be accepted. For there remains a strong pragmatic relation between these claims. PMID:23576822

  14. Evolving to the Beat of a Different Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents arguments against the recent "punctuated equilibrium" point of view expressed by evolutionists Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge. Reviews evidence for continuous and gradual change, as recently cited by four anthropologists in the July 9 issue of "Nature." (CS)

  15. An Interview with Stephen Vitiello

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Vitiello is a world-renowned contemporary sound artist whom the author has known as a colleague for several years. This article presents an interview about the overall body of Vitiello's work to date, and his thoughts on teaching at Virginia Commonwealth University. The interview explores the creative and noncreative tensions between…

  16. Stephen Hawking's Universe. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Malcolm H.; Rameau, Jonathan D.

    This program guide is meant to help teachers assist their students in viewing the six-part public television series, "Stephen Hawking's Universe." The guide features program summaries that give background information and brief synopses of the programs; previewing activities that familiarize students with the subject; vocabulary that gives…

  17. SA Innovation Lecture Stephen Shapiro

    NASA Video Gallery

    Stephen Shapiro, one of America’s foremost innovation advisers, joined us on January 19th to show us how innovation isn’t just about generating occasional new ideas; it’s about making it a re...

  18. Losing Jay: A Meditation on Teaching while Grieving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Blaise Astra

    2009-01-01

    The author's partner Jay died on May 23, 2006. It was sudden and unexpected--he was 31, the author was 30. Her grief was prolonged and agonizing, and she has since learned that doctors refer to her condition as "complicated grief." Truly, she is not sure how she survived the first year after Jay's death. She certainly was not convinced she wanted…

  19. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.46 Depredation order for... to bury or otherwise destroy the carcasses of such birds is permitted: Provided, That the Director of... jays and Steller's jays killed as may be needed for scientific investigations. (c) That such birds...

  20. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.46 Depredation order for... to bury or otherwise destroy the carcasses of such birds is permitted: Provided, That the Director of... jays and Steller's jays killed as may be needed for scientific investigations. (c) That such birds...

  1. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.46 Depredation order for... to bury or otherwise destroy the carcasses of such birds is permitted: Provided, That the Director of... jays and Steller's jays killed as may be needed for scientific investigations. (c) That such birds...

  2. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.46 Depredation order for... to bury or otherwise destroy the carcasses of such birds is permitted: Provided, That the Director of... jays and Steller's jays killed as may be needed for scientific investigations. (c) That such birds...

  3. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon. 21.46 Section 21.46 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION,...

  4. Benjamin Apthorp Gould and the Founding of the Astronomical Journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, Owen

    1999-01-01

    On the sesquicentennial of the Astronomical Journal, we commemorate the life of its founder, Benjamin Apthorp Gould (1824-1896), and examine the precarious and heroic early days of this pioneering serial. The first six volumes appeared between 1849 November 2 and 1861 February, and after a hiatus of 25 years, Gould resumed the publication on 1886 November 2.

  5. 24. Aerial photograph dated 22 April 1942, showing Gould Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Aerial photograph dated 22 April 1942, showing Gould Island from the northeast. Complex under construction includes shop building (large rectangle at north end of island, and firing pier (at far right). Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  6. 30. 'Gould Island Facilities, General Plan,' submitted 29 December 1941 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. 'Gould Island Facilities, General Plan,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3859-46, Y&D Drawing 190833. Scales 1' = 50' and 1' = 10'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  7. 45. 'Replace Starboard Elevator and Repairs, Gould Island, Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 'Replace Starboard Elevator and Repairs, Gould Island, Building No. 35,' approved 26 July 1981, NUSC Drawing No. 80-67, NAV. FAC. Drawing No. 2,047,203. Scales as noted. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  8. Geographic variation in Mexican jays (Aphelocoma ultramarina): local differentiation, polyphyly or hybridization?

    PubMed

    Bhagabati, Nirmal K; Brown, Jerram L; Bowen, Bonnie S

    2004-09-01

    Studies of genetic variation within highly variable taxa can provide valuable insight into the factors influencing biological diversification. We examined six microsatellite loci, a nuclear intron and the mitochondrial control region to determine if the Mexican jay subspecies Aphelocoma ultramarina couchii and A. u. potosina have hybridized with western scrub-jays (A. californica). We suspected hybridization because these Mexican Jay populations resemble scrub-jays in several traits. We sampled six Mexican jay (N = 105) and four scrub-jay (N = 78) populations. Suspected hybrid Mexican Jay populations did not share any mitochondrial types or intron alleles with scrub-jays. All microsatellite alleles found in the suspected hybrid Mexican jay populations are also found in the control Mexican jay populations. Genetic distance-based trees from microsatellites supported reciprocal monophyly of Mexican jays and scrub-jays with bootstrap support > 80%. We randomized genotypes among populations to test scenarios consistent with hybridization. In some areas where Mexican jays and scrub-jays occur in sympatry or geographical proximity, randomization tests yield results expected under hybridization (100% support for seven of nine scenarios). However, these populations were not the primary candidates for hybridization based on phenotype. Even if low-level hybridization did occur, hybridization does not appear to be the main reason some Mexican jay populations resemble scrub-jays more than others. The scrub-jay-like traits in these populations may be due to drift, adaptation or plasticity. Alternatively, ancient hybridization, followed by selection for scrub-jay like traits in some Mexican jay populations, might have given rise to the observed variation. PMID:15315684

  9. CO depletion in the Gould Belt clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, H.; Viti, S.; Yates, J.; Hatchell, J.; Fuller, G. A.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Buckle, J. V.; Graves, S.; Roberts, J.; Nutter, D.; Davis, C.; White, G. J.; Hogerheijde, M.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Butner, H.; Richer, J.; Di Francesco, J.

    2012-05-01

    We present a statistical comparison of CO depletion in a set of local molecular clouds within the Gould Belt using Sub-millimetre Common User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) and Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme (HARP) data. This is the most wide-ranging study of depletion thus far within the Gould Belt. We estimate CO column densities assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium and, for a selection of sources, using the radiative transfer code RADEX in order to compare the two column density estimation methods. High levels of depletion are seen in the centres of several dust cores in all the clouds. We find that in the gas surrounding protostars, levels of depletion are somewhat lower than for starless cores with the exception of a few highly depleted protostellar cores in Serpens and NGC 2024. There is a tentative correlation between core mass and core depletion, particularly in Taurus and Serpens. Taurus has, on average, the highest levels of depletion. Ophiuchus has low average levels of depletion which could perhaps be related to the anomalous dust grain size distribution observed in this cloud. High levels of depletion are often seen around the edges of regions of optical emission (Orion) or in more evolved or less dynamic regions such as the bowl of L1495 in Taurus and the north-western region of Serpens.

  10. Author! Author! Picture Artist: Stephen Gammell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of illustrator Stephen Gammell, well-known for both his black-and-white and his brightly colored children's picture book art. Stephen Gammell has made a long career illustrating children's stories and poems. The first book he illustrated, "A Nutty Business" (written by Ida Chittum), was published in 1973 and…

  11. Stephen Hawking: An Unfettered Mind

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Kitty

    2012-02-23

    Kitty Ferguson, biographer of physicist Stephen Hawking, will give an informal, nontechnical talk about the experience of writing her two books about the celebrated cosmologist and also of helping Hawking edit his own “The Universe in a Nutshell”. Hawking thinks and works somewhat differently from others because he must work almost entirely in his head, and he has a practice of pulling the rug out from under his own discoveries and assertions. As he has approached his recent 70th birthday, he has devoted an increasing amount of his time in efforts to share his science and particularly the adventure of it with people without a science background and young people who may be scientists of the future. Ferguson will discuss Hawking’s place in the science community (he is not and has never claimed to be on par with Einstein), the unique contributions he is able to make, and what his legacy might be.

  12. Benjamin Apthorp Gould and the Founding of The Astronomical Journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    1998-05-01

    The origin and vicissitudes of The Astronomical Journal are inextricably bound up with the extraordinary career of Benjamin Apthorp Gould (1824-1896), the first American to obtain a PhD in astronomy (at Gottingen). Returning to Cambridge in 1848, Gould joined an informal group known as the Lazzaroni, who were determined to bring professional standards to American science. Gould devoted much of his life to professionalizing American astronomy, and his founding of the AJ was part of this strategy. Beginning on 2 November 1849, Gould's AJ was issued at irregular intervals, seldom shorter than two weeks and occasionally much longer, such as the two-month gap in 1851 when Gould had gone to the solar eclipse in Europe. About 20% of the space was devoted to asteroids, then the hot topic in astronomy. The 11th issue announced the discovery of the 11th asteroid; by March of 1853, 23 asteroids were known, and Gould editorialized about the "threatened consumption of astronomical energies." In 1856 the trustees of the newly-founded Dudley Observatory agreed to support the financially struggling AJ, and volume 5 (1856-58) bore the Albany dateline though printing continued in Cambridge. Gould's ill-fated directorship of the Dudley Observatory lasted only a year in Albany itself, and volume 6 was again edited in Cambridge. The Civil War then brought a 25-year hiatus to Gould's journal. In 1870 Gould went to Argentina, where he founded the Argentine National Observatory in Cordoba; he returned to Cambridge in 1885, and very shortly thereafter resumed publication of the AJ (in November, 1886). He continued his editorship for a decade, producing volumes 7-16; his last issue, vol. 17, no. 4, is dated just two weeks before his death. As his successor, Seth Chandler wrote, "Of all the great enterprises of his life, this is the one which he has most cherished."

  13. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 22 (JAY-TH00400022) on Town Highway 40, crossing Jay Branch, Jay, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Song, Donald L.

    1997-01-01

    8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northern Vermont. The 2.15-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is primarily pasture on the upstream and downstream left overbank while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. The downstream right overbank of the bridge is forested. In the study area, Jay Branch Tributary has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 26 ft and an average bank height of 3 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 40.5 mm (0.133 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on June 7, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The Town Highway 40 crossing of Jay Branch Tributary is a 27-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 25-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 6, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 23.5 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel skew and the opening-skew-to-roadway are zero degrees. The scour counter-measures at the site included type-2 stone fill (less than 36 inches diameter) at the upstream end of the left and right abutments, at the upstream right wingwall, and at the downstream left

  14. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Understanding the influence of outflows on Gould Belt clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabek-Maunder, E.; Hatchell, J.; Buckle, J. V.; Di Francesco, J.; Richer, J.

    2016-03-01

    Using James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey data from CO J = 3 → 2 isotopologues, we present a meta-analysis of the outflows and energetics of star-forming regions in several Gould Belt clouds. The majority of the regions are strongly gravitationally bound. There is evidence that molecular outflows transport large quantities of momentum and energy. Outflow energies are at least 20 per cent of the total turbulent kinetic energies in all of the regions studied and greater than the turbulent energy in half of the regions. However, we find no evidence that outflows increase levels of turbulence, and there is no correlation between the outflow and turbulent energies. Even though outflows in some regions contribute significantly to maintaining turbulence levels against dissipation, this relies on outflows efficiently coupling to bulk motions. Other mechanisms (e.g. supernovae) must be the main drivers of turbulence in most if not all of these regions.

  15. Malleability and Machines: Glenn Gould and the Technological Self.

    PubMed

    Jones-Imhotep, Edward

    2016-04-01

    The Pianist Glenn Gould has often been portrayed as a musical idealist who embraced mundane recording media as a way of escaping the anxiety of the concert hall. In pursuing his musical ideals, however, Gould obsessed over material objects-the qualities of a chair, the action of piano keys, the placement of splices in magnetic tape. This paper argues that for him, the detailed properties of machines and electronic media were crucial, not just as tools for pursuing disembodied aesthetic aims, but as instruments and material sites for a moral project. Locating Gould's concerns among the techniques and technologies that inspired him, the concert hall he despised, and the jazz and chance music he tolerated, the paper explores how Gould's famed philosophy of technology was rooted in a "technological self" that tied morality and aesthetics, and intimacy and isolation, to concrete ideals for the kinds of people we ought to be. PMID:27237066

  16. VIP interview: John D. (Jay) Rockefeller IV, United States Senator.

    PubMed

    Rockefeller, J D

    1994-01-01

    John D. (Jay) Rockefeller IV has proudly served the people of West Virginia for nearly 30 years. After coming to the town of Emmons in 1964 as a VISTA worker, Jay Rockefeller made the Mountain State his home. In 1966, he was elected to a two-year term in the West Virginia House of Delegates. He then served four years as Secretary of State, three years as President of West Virginia Wesleyan College, and eight years as Governor of West Virginia. In 1984, he was elected to the United States Senate and was reelected in 1990. PMID:10134008

  17. 29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing pier (still possessing third and fourth levels) in foreground. Pitched roof extending from south end of firing pier marks location of frame approach between pier and shop building (center rear) and power plant (to right of shop). Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  18. Stephen Hales: neglected respiratory physiologist.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    1984-09-01

    Stephen Hales was an eminent early 18th century scientist and minister of the parish of Teddington near London. He is well known for his early work on blood pressure. However, he made many contributions to respiratory physiology. He clarified the nature of the respiratory gases, distinguishing between their free (gaseous) and fixed (chemically combined) forms, demonstrated that rebreathing from a closed circuit could be extended if suitable gas absorbers were included (to remove carbon dioxide), suggested a similar device as a respirator for noxious atmospheres, invented the pneumatic trough for collecting gases, measured the size of the alveoli, calculated the surface area of the interior of the lung, calculated the time spent by the blood in a pulmonary capillary, invented the U-tube manometer, and measured intrathoracic pressures during normal and forced breathing. Hale's work is remarkable for its emphasis on the "statical" method, i.e., meticulous attention to detail in measurement and careful calculations. In his later life he made important contributions in the area of public health. He was a trustee of the new colony of Georgia and willed his own library of books to the colony though their whereabouts is unknown. He deserves more recognition in the history of respiratory physiology. PMID:6386767

  19. The Development of a Psychological Aesthetic: Jay Hambidge & Charles Henry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhinnie, Harold J.

    This article reviews several movements in late 19th and early 20th century art and psychological research that are related to the early Greek method of proportional analysis generally known as the Golden Section. The document discusses the work of the artist Jay Hambidge on the nature of Greek art and design and his theory of dynamic symmetry.…

  20. Retrospective Cognition by Food-Caching Western Scrub-Jays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kort, S.R.; Dickinson, A.; Clayton, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    Episodic-like memory, the retrospective component of cognitive time travel in animals, needs to fulfil three criteria to meet the behavioral properties of episodic memory as defined for humans. Here, we review results obtained with the cache-recovery paradigm with western scrub-jays and conclude that they fulfil these three criteria. The jays…

  1. Molecular systematics and evolution of the Cyanocorax jays.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, Elisa; Peterson, A Townsend; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Fleischer, Robert C

    2010-03-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were studied in the genus Cyanocorax (Aves: Corvidae) and related genera, Psilorhinus and Calocitta, a diverse group of New World jays distributed from the southern United States south to Argentina. Although the ecology and behavior of some species in the group have been studied extensively, lack of a molecular phylogeny has precluded rigorous interpretations in an evolutionary framework. Given the diverse combinations of plumage coloration, size, and morphology, the taxonomy of the group has been inconsistent and understanding of biogeographic patterns problematic. Moreover, plumage similarity between two geographically disjuct species, the Tufted jay (Cyanocorax dickeyi) from western Mexico and the White-tailed jay (C. mystacalis) from western Ecuador and Peru, has puzzled ornithologists for decades. Here, a phylogeny of all species in the three genera is presented, based on study of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. Phylogenetic trees revealed the non-monophyly of Cyanocorax, and the division of the whole assemblage in two groups: "Clade A" containing Psilorhinus morio, both species in Calocitta,Cyanocorax violaceus, C. caeruleus, C. cristatellus, and C. cyanomelas, and "Clade B" consisting of the remaining species in Cyanocorax. Relationships among species in Clade A were ambiguous and, in general, not well resolved. Within Clade B, analyses revealed the monophyly of the "Cissilopha" jays and showed no evidence for a sister relationship between C. mystacalis and C. dickeyi. The phylogenetic complexity of lineages in the group suggests several complications for the understanding biogeographic patterns, as well as for proposing a taxonomy that is consistent with morphological variation. Although multiple taxonomic arrangements are possible, recommendations are for recognizing only one genus, Cyanocorax, with Psilorhinus and Calocitta as synonyms. PMID:19931623

  2. Encounter with death: The thought of Robert Jay Lifton.

    PubMed

    Lageman, A G

    1987-12-01

    Robert Jay Lifton begins his work in the psychosocial framework that he takes over from Erik Erikson. Lifton's thought is based upon a central paradigm-"death and the continuity of life." Lifton makes important contributions with his five modes of symbolic immortality and with his investigation of the psychological themes in survivors. The origins and limits of Lifton's thought are critically examined. PMID:24302069

  3. Excerpts from the Writings of Stephen Toulmin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toulmin, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    Presents excerpts from Stephen Toulmin's (1996 Jefferson Lecturer for the Humanities) works. The excerpt from, "Wittgenstein's Vienna," concerns the corruption of social standards, norms, and political authority. "The Return to Cosmology" discusses the role of philosophy in postmodern society and reveals surprising antecedents in stoic and…

  4. Why Compare? A Response to Stephen Lawton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Liz; Pearce, Diane

    1993-01-01

    Aims to stimulate interest in comparative education policy analysis by critiquing a paper by Stephen Lawton. Such comparative analysis is important in understanding neoliberal education reforms, but more work is needed to provide adequate categories for analysis. Lawton's categories, reformulated here as efficiency, managing and provider capture,…

  5. 13. DETAIL OF DITCH ALIGNMENT NEAR THE OLD GOULD RANCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF DITCH ALIGNMENT NEAR THE OLD GOULD RANCH SITE. HIGHWAY 50 BRIDGE CROSSING OLD PLACERVILLE ROAD AND THE R/R ON RIGHT; VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Keefe-McDerby Mine Ditch, East of East Bidwell Street between Clarksville Road & Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  6. 4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF DITCH OVERLOOKING THE GOULD RANCH SITE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF DITCH OVERLOOKING THE GOULD RANCH SITE, HIGHWAY 50'S OVERPASS FOR THE R/R & OLD PLACERVILLE ROAD ON LEFT. EAST BIDWELL STREET APPROACHES TO HIGHWAY 50 ON RIGHT; VIEW TO SOUTH. - Keefe-McDerby Mine Ditch, East of East Bidwell Street between Clarksville Road & Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  7. 8. VIEW OF COMBINATION GEAR HOBBING MACHINE (Gould & Eberhardt, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF COMBINATION GEAR HOBBING MACHINE (Gould & Eberhardt, Newark, New Jersey. Patented No. 2103) AND LATHE (W.E. Shipley Machiner Co. Metal Working Machinery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1913). - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  8. 77 FR 10533 - Stephen L. Marks: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Stephen L. Marks: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) permanently debarring Stephen L. Marks from..., under authority delegated to the Director (Staff Manual Guide 1410.35), finds that Stephen L. Marks...

  9. Jay Lloyd Ankeney, June 7, 1921-December 24, 2014.

    PubMed

    Snow, Norman J; Rainer, W Gerald

    2015-11-01

    Jay Ankeney, the 16th President of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, was an early pioneer in adult and pediatric cardiac operations, a prescient advocate of off-bypass coronary revascularization, and a strong champion of cardiothoracic recertification. He was among the first to endorse the need to provide practicing cardiothoracic surgeons the means for self-assessment and improvement. He led the development of Coordinating Committee for Continuing Education in Thoracic Surgery and inaugurated the self-education/self assessment syllabus for this purpose. Under his leadership he persuaded the vast majority of cardiothoracic surgeons to embrace recertification and by this means provide reassurance and accountability to their patients. PMID:26522551

  10. Dr. John J. Stephens, Jr., metallurgist extraordinaire.

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, Floyd Michael

    2010-10-01

    The organizers of the Dr. John J. Stephens, Jr. Memorial Symposium: Deformation and Interfacial Phenomena in Advanced High-Temperature Materials are honoring the memory of Dr. Stephens and his many technical contributions that were accomplished over a relatively brief twenty year career. His research spanned the areas of creep and deformation of metals, dispersion-strengthened alloys and their properties, metal matrix composite materials, processing and properties of refractory metals, joining of ceramic-ceramic and metal-ceramic systems, active braze alloy development, and mechanical modeling of soldered and brazed assemblies. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight his research and engineering accomplishments, particularly during his professional career at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM.

  11. Review of Gould Dincer reservoir storage yield reliability estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Thomas A.; Pegram, Geoffrey G. S.; Vogel, Richard M.; Peel, Murray C.

    2007-09-01

    The Gould-Dincer suite of techniques (normal, log-normal and Gamma), which is used to estimate the reservoir capacity-yield-reliability ( S-Y-R) relationship, is the only known available procedure in the form of a simple formula, based on annual streamflow statistics, that allows one to compute the S-Y-R relationship for a single storage capacity across the range of annual streamflow characteristics observed globally. Several other techniques are available but they are inadequate because of the restricted range of flows on which they were developed or because they are based on the Sequent Peak Algorithm or are not suitable to compute steady-state reliability values. This paper examines the theoretical basis of the Gould-Dincer approach and applies the three models to annual streamflow data for 729 rivers distributed world-wide. The reservoir capacities estimated by the models are compared with equivalent estimates based on the Extended Deficit Analysis, Behaviour analysis and the Sequent Peak Algorithm. The results suggest that, in the context of preliminary water resources planning, the Gould-Dincer Gamma model provides reliable estimates of the mean first passage time from a full to empty condition for single reservoirs. Furthermore, the storage estimates are equivalent to deficits computed using the Extended Deficit Analysis for values of drift between 0.4 and 1.0 and the values are consistent with those computed using a Behaviour simulation or a Sequent Peak Algorithm. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of the effect on storage of the four main streamflow statistics confirms that the influential ones are mean and standard deviation, while effects of skew and serial correlation are orders of magnitude lower. This finding suggests that the simple reduced form of the Gould-Dincer equation may profitably be used for regional studies of reservoir reliability subject to climate change scenarios based on regional statistics, without having to perform calculations based

  12. Grade Inflation and the Extinction of the .400 Hitter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1998-01-01

    In "Full House: The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin," Stephen Jay Gould swats at nostalgia over extinction of the .400 batter--due more to game improvements than slumping batters. The better the averages, the harder it is to be a standout. As for grade inflation, today's students are studying harder subjects, and general achievement…

  13. Darwin's Revolution in Thought: An Illustrated Lecture. Teaching Guide and Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    "Darwin's Revolution in Thought" is Stephen Jay Gould's definitive treatise on Charles Darwin. This 50-minute classroom edition videotaped lecture is structured in the form of a paradox and three riddles about Darwin's life. Each is designed to shed light on one of the key features of the theory of natural selection, its philosophical radicalism,…

  14. Better than Ever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1998-01-01

    Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould contends that .400 hitter in baseball is thing of past because game has gotten better. The higher average, the harder to stand out from that average. Applies concept to education by comparing students' SAT scores over almost 20 years with grade-point averages. Students with highest grades received highest SAT…

  15. Mind the Gap (or Mending It): Qualitative Research and Interdisciplinarity in Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vertinsky, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the perceived gap between the humanities and social sciences, and the sciences in kinesiology faculties and departments as interdisciplinary pressures mount in an increasingly complex world. I use an historical lens to highlight past difficulties in working across the two solitudes and describe Stephen Jay Gould's efforts to…

  16. The Scientific Legacy of Stephen Rothman

    PubMed Central

    Burgdorf, Walter H. C.; Bickers, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The year 2014 marks the centennial of events that led to World War 1 (“the war to end all wars”) following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of the crumbling Austro-Hungarian Empire. It also marks the 120th anniversary of the birth of Stephen Rothman and the 60th anniversary of the publication of his epic textbook The Physiology and Biochemistry of the Skin. In this review we document our belief that Rothman had a seismic impact on moving investigative dermatology from a medical backwater to a scientific discipline that can hold its own with that of any other specialty. PMID:25373439

  17. The scientific legacy of Stephen Rothman.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf, Walter H C; Bickers, David R

    2015-04-01

    The year 2014 marks the centennial of events that led to the First World War ("the war to end all wars") following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of the crumbling Austro-Hungarian Empire. It also marks the 120th anniversary of the birth of Stephen Rothman and the 60th anniversary of the publication of his epic textbook The Physiology and Biochemistry of the Skin. In this review, we document our belief that Rothman had a seismic impact on moving investigative dermatology from a medical backwater to a scientific discipline that can hold its own with any other specialty. PMID:25373439

  18. Stephen J. Burges—New WRR editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The ‘tower of Babel syndrome’ is the most important problem facing water-resources researchers, says Stephen J. Burges, the new coeditor for hydrology and physical, chemical, and biological sciences for Water Resources Research (WRR). Burges was appointed to a 4-year term which began November 1. He succeeds R. Allan Freeze.Specialized research that lacks a sense of connection to other aspects of hydrology characterizes the syndrome, Burges explained. He traces this scattering of interests back to 1966 with the ‘evolution’ of the third-generation computer.

  19. A Response to Elizabeth Gould, "Nomadic Turns: Epistemology, Experience, and Women University Band Directors"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koza, Julia, Eklund

    2005-01-01

    In this response to Gould, the author has two goals: first, to forward another, not necessarily competing, postmodern understanding of feminism and power; and second, to expand Gould's project of examining professional climate. Koza defines feminism as a constellation of dynamic political positions that address and attempt to change the unequal…

  20. A Response to Elizabeth Gould, "Nomadic Turns: Epistemology, Experience and Women University Band Directors"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdzinski, Stephen, F.

    2005-01-01

    In this response to Gould, the author, a music education professor, acknowledges both the significant challenges that need to be overcome for future women university band directors, and the need to continue to encourage instrumental music education students (both male and female) to pursue their professional dreams and goals. He thanks Gould for…

  1. 77 FR 61003 - Stephen C. Delaney, Jr.: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Stephen C. Delaney, Jr.: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and... order under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) debarring Stephen C. Delaney, Jr...-796-4640. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Section 306(b)(1)(C) of the FD&C Act (21...

  2. John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood: Mayan Explorers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Michael

    This mini-unit focuses on the lives and accomplishments of John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood and their contacts with the Maya. This project deals specifically with how Stephens' published accounts and Catherwood's drawings became the basis from which all further Mayan research developed. These two explorers were the first to describe…

  3. New Burgess shale type fauna in the Middle Cambrian Stephen Formation on Mt. Stephen, British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Excavation of a fossil locality discovered in 1981 on Mount Stephen, 5 km south of the Burgess shale site on Mount Wapta, has yielded about 1000 specimens of a new soft-bodied and lightly-sclerotized fauna. The fauna includes the trilobite, Glossopleura, which is characteristic of the lower part of the Stephen Formation, 100 m or more stratigraphically below the level of the Burgess shale fauna. The arthropod, Alalcomenaeus, a genus extremely rare in the Burgess shale, is by far the most numerous, followed by a new, fishlike arthropod with prominent eyes, and Branchiocaris, another extremely rare Burgess shale arthropod. Many Burgess shale animals are present, although the most common, Marrella, is absent. They include the arthropods Canadaspis, Naraoia, Plenocaris and Tuzoia, the worms Ottoia and Burgessochaeta, the onychophoran Aysheaia, the sponge Leptomitus, Wiwaxia of unknown affinities, and Fasciculus, a possible ctenophore. The Glossopleura fauna thus adds extant and extinct invertebrate groups to those already known in the Middle Cambrian epoch, mostly from the Burgess shale. It also demonstrates that the animals preserved in the Stephen Formation are evolutionarily stable.

  4. Remeasuring man.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Samuel George Morton (1799-1851) was the most highly regarded American scientist of the early and middle 19th century. Thanks largely to Stephen Jay Gould's book The Mismeasure of Man, Morton's cranial capacity measurements of different races is now held up as a prime example of and cautionary tale against scientific racism. A team of anthropologists recently reevaluated Morton's work and argued that it was Gould, not Morton, who was biased in his analysis. This article is a reexamination of the Morton and Gould controversy. It argues that most of Gould's arguments against Morton are sound. Although Gould made some errors and overstated his case in a number of places, he provided prima facia evidence, as yet unrefuted, that Morton did indeed mismeasure his skulls in ways that conformed to 19th century racial biases. Gould's critique of Morton ought to remain as an illustration of implicit bias in science. PMID:24761929

  5. Habitat model for the Florida Scrub Jay on John F. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.

    1992-01-01

    The Florida Scrub Jay is endemic to Florida. The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) provides habitat for one of the three largest populations of the Florida Scrub Jay. This threatened bird occupies scrub, slash pine flatwoods, disturbed scrub, and coastal strand on KSC. Densities of Florida Scrub Jays were shown to vary with habitat characteristics but not necessarily with vegetation type. Relationships between Florida Scrub Jay densities and habitat characteristics were used to develop a habitat model to provide a tool to compare alternative sites for new facilities and to quantify environmental impacts. This model is being tested using long term demographic studies of colorbanded Florida Scrub Jays. Optimal habitat predicted by the model has greater than or equal to 50 percent of the shrub canopy comprised of scrub oaks, 20-50 percent open space or scrub oak vegetation within 100 m of a ruderal edge, less than or equal to 15 percent pine canopy cover, a shrub height of 120-170 cm, and is greater than or equal to 100 m from a forest. This document reviews life history, social behavior, food, foraging habitat, cover requirements, characteristics of habitat on KSC, and habitat preferences of the Florida Scrub Jay. Construction of the model and its limitations are discussed.

  6. Apparent predation by Gray Jays, Perisoreus canadensis, on Long-toed Salamanders, Ambystoma macrodactylum, in the Oregon Cascade Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, M.P.; Pearl, C.A.; Bury, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    We report observations of Gray Jays (Perisoreus canadensis) appearing to consume larval Long-toed Salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) in a drying subalpine pond in Oregon, USA. Corvids are known to prey upon a variety of anuran amphibians, but to our knowledge, this is the first report of predation by any corvid on aquatic salamanders. Long-toed Salamanders appear palatable to Gray Jays, and may provide a food resource to Gray Jays when salamander larvae are concentrated in drying temporary ponds.

  7. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Stephen E. Drew ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Stephen E. Drew Collection INTERIOR, SHOWING TRAIN ENGINE AND TRUSS CONSTRUCTION, AUGUST, 1938 - Virginia & Truckee Railroad Shops, Between Plaza, Ann, Stewart & Sophia Streets, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  8. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Stephen E. Drew ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Stephen E. Drew Collection VIEW FROM DINING ROOM LOOKING INTO FRONT PARLOR, 1889 - Henry Marvin Yerington House, 512 North Division Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  9. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Stephen E. Drew ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Stephen E. Drew Collection INTERIOR VIEWS, CIRCA 1880, FROM YERINGTON FAMILY ALBUM - St. Peter's Episcopal Church, 312 North Division Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  10. Time Restored - The Harrison Timekeepers and R.T. Gould, the Man Who Knew (Almost) Everything

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Jonathan

    2006-09-01

    This is the story of Rupert T. Gould (1890-1948), the polymath and horologist. A remarkable man, Lt Cmdr Gould made important contributions in an extraordinary range of subject areas throughout his relatively short and dramatically troubled life. From antique clocks to scientific mysteries, from typewriters to the first systematic study of the Loch Ness Monster, Gould studied and published on them all. With the title The Stargazer, Gould was an early broadcaster on the BBC's Children's Hour when, with his encyclopaedic knowledge, he became known as The Man Who Knew Everything. Not surprisingly, he was also part of that elite group on BBC radio who formed The Brains Trust, giving on-the-spot answers to all manner of wide ranging and difficult questions. With his wide learning and photographic memory, Gould awed a national audience, becoming one of the era's radio celebrities. During the 1920s Gould restored the complex and highly significant marine timekeepers constructed by John Harrison (1693-1776), and wrote the unsurpassed classic, The Marine Chronometer, its History and Development . Today he is virtually unknown, his horological contributions scarcely mentioned in Dava Sobel's bestseller Longitude. The TV version of Longitude, in which Jeremy Irons played Rupert Gould, did at least introduce Gould's name to a wider public. Gould suffered terrible bouts of depression, resulting in a number of nervous breakdowns. These, coupled with his obsessive and pedantic nature, led to a scandalously-reported separation from his wife and cost him his family, his home, his job, and his closest friends. In this first-ever biography of Rupert Gould, Jonathan Betts, the Royal Observatory Greenwich's Senior Horologist, has given us a compelling account of a talented but flawed individual. Using hitherto unknown personal journals, the family's extensive collection of photographs, and the polymath's surviving records and notes, Betts tells the story of how Gould's early life, his

  11. A New Population Estimate for the Florida Scrub Jay on Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.

    1989-01-01

    The variable circular plot method was used to sample avifauna within different vegetation types determined from aerial imagery. The Florida Scrub Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens coerulescens) population was estimated to range between 1,415 and 3,603 birds. Approximately half of the scrub and slash pine habitat appeared to be unused by Florida Scrub Jay, probably because the slash pine cover was too dense or the oak cover was too sparse. Results from the study suggest that the entire state population may be much lower than believed because the size of two of the three largest populations may have been overestimated.

  12. Fisher Ames and Political Judgment: Reason, Passion, and Vehement Style in the Jay Treaty Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes Fisher Ames' fiery speech of 1796 on the Jay Treaty. Demonstrates the influence of Scottish enlightenment thinkers (particularly in moral sense philosophy and faculty psychology) on Ames and his rhetoric. Demonstrates how Ames made a compelling case to shift the standard of political judgment from reason to passion. (SR)

  13. John Jay High School. Project RESCATE. O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1981-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima; And Others

    This is a second-year evaluation report for Project RESCATE, a bilingual education program for 285 Spanish and Haitian Creole speaking students at John Jay High School, Brooklyn, New York. The program provided bilingual instructional services in language and content area courses to Spanish dominant students, ESL and native language instruction to…

  14. John Jay High School Project TRIUNFE, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    In 1985-86, its third and final year of operation, John Jay High School's (Brooklyn, New York) Project TRIUNFE served 314 students of Hispanic, Asian, Haitian and Indian backgrounds. Its goals were to improve students' competence in speaking, reading, and writing English; to enhance students' native language ability and ethnic pride; and to teach…

  15. The Contradictions of Contemporary Culture: A Tribute to Norman Jay Levitt (1943-2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Norman Jay Levitt was the author's good friend, collaborator, and co-author. He was--above, before, and after politics--an honest inquirer. His socio-cultural views evolved continuously. Levitt, truth-seeker and liberal, was impatient with, and a devastating critic of, the political correctness and--even worse--the philosophic triviality that…

  16. Caching at a distance: a cache protection strategy in Eurasian jays.

    PubMed

    Legg, Edward W; Ostojić, Ljerka; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-07-01

    A fundamental question about the complexity of corvid social cognition is whether behaviours exhibited when caching in front of potential pilferers represent specific attempts to prevent cache loss (cache protection hypothesis) or whether they are by-products of other behaviours (by-product hypothesis). Here, we demonstrate that Eurasian jays preferentially cache at a distance when observed by conspecifics. This preference for a 'far' location could be either a by-product of a general preference for caching at that specific location regardless of the risk of cache loss or a by-product of a general preference to be far away from conspecifics due to low intra-species tolerance. Critically, we found that neither by-product account explains the jays' behaviour: the preference for the 'far' location was not shown when caching in private or when eating in front of a conspecific. In line with the cache protection hypothesis we found that jays preferred the distant location only when caching in front of a conspecific. Thus, it seems likely that for Eurasian jays, caching at a distance from an observer is a specific cache protection strategy. PMID:26984123

  17. Nonlinear Trivelpiece-Gould Waves: Frequency, Functional Form, and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2015-11-01

    This poster considers the frequency, spatial form, and stability, of nonlinear Trivelpiece- Gould (TG) waves on a cylindrical plasma column of length L and radius rp, treating both traveling and standing waves, and focussing on the regime of experimental interest in which L/rp >> 1. In this regime TG waves are weakly dispersive, allowing strong mode-coupling between Fourier harmonics. The mode coupling implies that linear theory for such waves is a poor approximation even at fairly small amplitudes, and nonlinear theories that include only a small number of harmonics (such as 3-wave parametric resonance theory) fail to fully capture the stability properties of the system. We find that nonlinear standing waves suffer jumps in their functional form as their amplitude is varied continuously. The jumps are caused by nonlinear resonances between the standing wave and nearly linear waves whose frequencies and wave numbers are harmonics of the standing wave. Also, the standing waves are found to be unstable to a multi-wave version of 3-wave parametric resonance, with an amplitude required for instability onset that is much larger than expected from three wave theory. For traveling wave, linearly stability is found for all amplitudes that could be studied, in contradiction to 3-wave theory. Supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1414570, Department of Energy Grants DE-SC0002451and DE-SC0008693.

  18. Radio-Loud and Radio-Quiet Gamma-Ray Pulsars from the Galactic Plane and the Gould Belt

    SciTech Connect

    Gonthier, P. L.

    2005-03-17

    We present recent results of a pulsar population synthesis study in the polar cap model that includes the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey, realistic beam geometries for radio and {gamma}-ray emission from neutron stars born in the Galactic disc as well as the local Gould Belt. We include nine radio surveys to normalize the simulated results from the Galactic disc to the number of radio pulsars observed by the group of selected surveys. In normalizing the contribution of the Gould Belt, we use results from a recent study that indicates a supernova rate in the Gould Belt of 3 to 5 times that of the local region of the Galactic plane leading to {approx}100 neutron stars born in the Gould Belt during the last 5 Myr. Our simulations include the dynamical evolution of the Gould Belt where neutron stars are produced in the plane of the Gould Belt during the past 5 Myr. We discuss the simulated numbers of radio-quiet (those below flux threshold of radio surveys) and radio-loud, {gamma}-ray pulsars from the Galactic disc and the Gould belt observed by {gamma}-ray telescopes EGRET, AGILE and GLAST. They suggest that about 35 of the unidentified EGRET sources could be (mostly radio-loud) {gamma}-ray pulsars with 2/3 of them born in the Galactic disc and 1/3 in the Gould Belt.

  19. Obituary: Andrew Stephen Wilson, 1947-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    On 24 May 2008, Andrew Stephen Wilson passed away at the age of 61, in his home in Silver Spring, Maryland, from complications resulting from a painful spinal illness. Andrew was arguably one of the first truly multi-wavelength astronomers of his generation. His scientific work on active galactic nuclei [AGN] spanned the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio to the X-rays. Andrew was born in Doncaster, Yorkshire, England, on 26 March 1947. He was the younger of two brothers whose births were separated by the Second World War. His father, Norman, came from a relatively affluent family who were coal merchants. His mother, Mary, came from a less comfortable background, one of seven children, daughter of a skilled cabinet maker/French polisher, who went through a very hard time during the depression. As a teacher, she placed enormous value on hard work and education as a way of gaining advancement in life. When Andrew was four, the family moved to Skipton, a nice market town in the Yorkshire dales. Andrew went to a small village school until age eleven when he entered Ermysted's Grammar School. He was an enthusiastic soccer and cricket player. He never lost his enthusiasm for soccer and supported the local soccer team, Leeds United, for all his life. Andrew also followed the Yorkshire county cricket team. Andrew's interest in astronomy stemmed from the fact that at Ermysted's Grammar School someone donated a four-inch refracting telescope, so he and his friends used to go back in the evenings to investigate the rings of Saturn, the moons of Jupiter, and various nebulae. While an undergraduate at Cambridge, Andrew joined the astronomy club and ground an 8-inch mirror by hand as a part of a telescope that he set up in the backyard of his parents' house. Andrew spent hours observing with this telescope, and it was the wonder of the family. At Cambridge, Andrew obtained his bachelor's degree with first-class honors in 1969. During a short visit in London with his

  20. SR-71 Pilot Stephen (Steve) D. Ishmael

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA research pilot Stephen D. Ishmael is pictured here in front of an SR-71 Blackbird on the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Ishmael was one of two NASA research pilots assigned to the SR-71 high speed research program in the early 1990s at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Facility (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994), Edwards, California. Ishmael became a NASA research pilot in 1977. Data from the SR-71 program will be used to aid designers of future supersonic aircraft and propulsion systems. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and

  1. Obituary: Andrew Stephen Wilson, 1947-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    On 24 May 2008, Andrew Stephen Wilson passed away at the age of 61, in his home in Silver Spring, Maryland, from complications resulting from a painful spinal illness. Andrew was arguably one of the first truly multi-wavelength astronomers of his generation. His scientific work on active galactic nuclei [AGN] spanned the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio to the X-rays. Andrew was born in Doncaster, Yorkshire, England, on 26 March 1947. He was the younger of two brothers whose births were separated by the Second World War. His father, Norman, came from a relatively affluent family who were coal merchants. His mother, Mary, came from a less comfortable background, one of seven children, daughter of a skilled cabinet maker/French polisher, who went through a very hard time during the depression. As a teacher, she placed enormous value on hard work and education as a way of gaining advancement in life. When Andrew was four, the family moved to Skipton, a nice market town in the Yorkshire dales. Andrew went to a small village school until age eleven when he entered Ermysted's Grammar School. He was an enthusiastic soccer and cricket player. He never lost his enthusiasm for soccer and supported the local soccer team, Leeds United, for all his life. Andrew also followed the Yorkshire county cricket team. Andrew's interest in astronomy stemmed from the fact that at Ermysted's Grammar School someone donated a four-inch refracting telescope, so he and his friends used to go back in the evenings to investigate the rings of Saturn, the moons of Jupiter, and various nebulae. While an undergraduate at Cambridge, Andrew joined the astronomy club and ground an 8-inch mirror by hand as a part of a telescope that he set up in the backyard of his parents' house. Andrew spent hours observing with this telescope, and it was the wonder of the family. At Cambridge, Andrew obtained his bachelor's degree with first-class honors in 1969. During a short visit in London with his

  2. Using Stephen Crane's "Maggie" To Teach the Progressive Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerwin, David; Manolios, Vassilios; Popodopoulos, Lia

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a lesson plan designed for an eleventh-grade U.S. history class in which the students learn about the Progressive Era by reading Stephen Crane's "Maggie: A Girl of the Streets." Explains that students analyze point of view, role play a talk show, write an essay, and complete a long-term research project. (CMK)

  3. Educational Technology at Stephens--Success or Failure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph Lee

    1976-01-01

    This is the seventeenth in a series of profiles documenting experiences with the use of instructional technology at 24 colleges and universities. Stephens was one of the first institutions in the country to commit its energy, time, and money to the extraordinary possibilities of educational telecommunications. (Editor/LBH)

  4. Toward Valid Measurement of Stephen Pepper's World Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, John A.

    Two measures of the "world hypotheses" of Stephen Pepper were mailed to 100 sociobiologists, 87 behaviorists, 79 personality psychologists, and 45 human developmentalists. The World Hypothesis Scale (WHS) was designed to measure Pepper's four world views: (1) formism; (2) mechanism; (3) organicism; and (4) contextualism. The Organicism-Mechanism…

  5. Between Traditions: Stephen Ball and the Critical Sociology of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Ball's work has deservedly received a good deal of attention. In this article, I detail a number of tasks in which the critical sociologist of education--as a "public intellectual"--should engage. I then place Ball's work within these tasks and evaluate his contributions to them. In the process, I show that one of the…

  6. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Stephen E. Drew ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Stephen E. Drew Collection GENERAL VIEW, RAILWAY YARDS, SHOWING EAST FACADE OF SHOPS AND AUXILLIARY BUILDINGS, MAY 29, 1949 - Virginia & Truckee Railroad Shops, Between Plaza, Ann, Stewart & Sophia Streets, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  7. Stephen Hawking bags big new 3m physics prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    A massive 3m in prize money has gone to the British cosmologist Stephen Hawking for his work on black holes, quantum gravity and the early universe. The award is one of two "special fundamental physics prizes" from the Fundamental Physics Prize Foundation, which was set up earlier this year by the Russian physicist-turned-entrepreneur Yuri Milner.

  8. Could the Unidentified EGRET Sources in the Gould Belt be of Pulsar Origin?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Bing; Harding, Alice K.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We explore the possibility, within the polar cap model, that at least some of the recently identified new population of Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) sources in the Gould Belt sources are gamma-ray pulsars, viewed at large angles to the magnetic axis, such that the line-of-sight misses both the bright gamma-ray double cone and the radio beam. We estimate that the detectability of such off-beam gamma-ray sources is about a factor of 4-5 times higher than that of the on-beam sources. The off-beam gamma-ray pulsars also have a faint, soft nature, which is consistent with the observed properties of the Gould Belt sources. We conclude that at least some of the middle latitude sources might be such off-beam gamma-ray pulsars if they are indeed in the Gould Belt.

  9. An introduced generalist parasite, the sticktight flea (Echidnophaga gallinacea), and its pathology in the threatened Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens).

    PubMed

    Boughton, R K; Atwell, J W; Schoech, S J

    2006-10-01

    The sticktight flea, (Echidnophaga gallinacea), a major pest of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) that can cause severe pathology or death if untreated, is rarely recorded in free-living avian species. Sticktight fleas, however, were observed on the federally threatened Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) in February 2004, in south central Florida. Of the 81 Florida scrub-jays (FSJs) sampled before the 2004 breeding season, 12 were infested, with from 1 to as many as 57 fleas. Subsequent survivorship and variation in health indices led us to conclude that the sticktight flea caused the death of several jays. Within 4 mo, 46% of sticktight flea-infested (INF) jays died, whereas in the nonflea-infested (NINF) jays, only 5.9% died. Adult INF birds lost body mass in the time since a previous capture compared with NINF jays, and mass gain was slowed in 1-yr-old INF jays. Hematocrit of INF jays was dramatically impacted, as low as 17%, and was negatively correlated with the extent of infestation. Leukocyte counts were highest in INF jays; however, plasma immunoglobulin levels were lowest. Physiological stress levels, measured using plasma corticosterone, increased more rapidly in INF jays than NINF jays and were positively correlated with heterophil/lymphocyte ratios. The impact of the sticktight flea on the federally threatened FSJ negates previous findings that sticktight fleas are benign in wild avian hosts. PMID:17152932

  10. The Gould Belt 'MISFITS' Survey: The Real Solar Neighborhood Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiderman, Amanda; Evans, Neal J., II

    2015-06-01

    We present an HCO+ J=3\\to 2 survey of Class 0+I and Flat SED young stellar objects (YSOs) found in the Gould Belt clouds by surveys with Spitzer. Our goal is to provide a uniform Stage 0+I source indicator for these embedded protostar candidates. We made single point HCO+ J=3\\to 2 measurements toward the source positions at the CSO and APEX of 546 YSOs (89% of the Class 0+I + Flat SED sample). Using the criteria from van Kempen et al., we classify sources as Stage 0+I or bona fide protostars and find that 84% of detected sources meet the criteria. We recommend a timescale for the evolution of Stage 0+I (embedded protostars) of 0.54 Myr. We find significant correlations of HCO+ integrated intensity with α and Tbol but not with Lbol. The detection fraction increases smoothly as a function of α and Lbol, while decreasing smoothly with Tbol. Using the Stage 0+I sources tightens the relation between protostars and high extinction regions of the cloud; 89% of Stage I sources lie in regions with AV > 8 mag. Class 0+I and Flat SED YSOs that are not detected in HCO+ have, on average, a factor of ∼2 higher Tbol and a factor of ∼5 lower Lbol than YSOs with HCO+ detections. We find less YSO contamination, defined as the number of undetected YSOs divided by the total number surveyed, for sources with Tbol ≲ 600 K and Lbol ≳ 1 L⊙. The contamination percentage is >90% at AV < 4 mag and decreases as AV increases.

  11. Mapping Florida Scrub Jay habitat for purposes of land-use management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.; Provancha, Mark J.; Smith, Rebecca B.

    1991-01-01

    Geographical information system (GIS) applications were used to map areas of primary and secondary Florida Scrub Jay habitat on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) using vegetation and soils maps. Data from field studies were used for accuracy assessment and evaluating the importance of mapping classes. Primary habitat accounts for 15 percent of the potential habitat and contained 57 percent of the Florida Scrub Jay population on KSC. Proximity analysis identified potential population centers, which were 44 percent of the potential habitat and contained 86 percent of the population. This study is an example of how remote sensing and GIS applications can provide information for land-use planning, habitat management, and the evaluation of cumulative impacts.

  12. Gould on Morton, Redux: What can the debate reveal about the limits of data?

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Jonathan Michael; Pigliucci, Massimo; Banta, Joshua Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Lewis et al. (2011) attempted to restore the reputation of Samuel George Morton, a 19th century physician who reported on the skull sizes of different folk-races. Whereas Gould (1978) claimed that Morton's conclusions were invalid because they reflected unconscious bias, Lewis et al. alleged that Morton's findings were, in fact, supported, and Gould's analysis biased. We take strong exception to Lewis et al.'s thesis that Morton was "right." We maintain that Gould was right to reject Morton's analysis as inappropriate and misleading, but wrong to believe that a more appropriate analysis was available. Lewis et al. fail to recognize that there is, given the dataset available, no appropriate way to answer any of the plausibly interesting questions about the "populations" in question (which in many cases are not populations in any biologically meaningful sense). We challenge the premise shared by both Gould and Lewis et al. that Morton's confused data can be used to draw any meaningful conclusions. This, we argue, reveals the importance of properly focusing on the questions asked, rather than more narrowly on the data gathered. PMID:25666493

  13. Teaching the Classics: The Origin of Species as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruse, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Many (including the author) argue that reading the classics in the field should be part of a scientist's education. However, how you read the classics can be very different depending on whether you read them as a historian or as a practicing scientist. This point will be made by comparing two readings of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species, and by looking at the use that Stephen Jay Gould made of the history of science in his quest to promote his scientific ideas.

  14. 76 FR 30947 - Stephen Lee Seldon: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing an order under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) permanently debarring Stephen Lee Seldon, M.D. from providing services in any capacity to a person that has an approved or pending drug product application. We base this order on a finding that Dr. Seldon was convicted of felonies under Federal law for conduct relating to......

  15. Astronaut Stephen Oswald and fellow crew members on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut Stephen S. Oswald (center), STS-67 mission commander, is seen with two of his fellow crew members and an experiment which required a great deal of his time on the middeck of the Earth orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. Astronaut John M. Grunsfeld inputs mission data on a computer while listening to a cassette. Astronaut William G. Gregory (right edge of frame), pilot, consults a check list. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE), not in use here, can be seen in upper center.

  16. Top scientists join Stephen Hawking at Perimeter Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Nine leading researchers are to join Stephen Hawking as visiting fellows at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Ontario, Canada. The researchers, who include string theorists Leonard Susskind from Stanford University and Asoka Sen from the Harisch-Chandra Research Institute in India, will each spend a few months of the year at the institute as "distinguished research chairs". They will be joined by another 30 scientists to be announced at a later date.

  17. A Markov decision process for managing habitat for Florida scrub-jays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Breininger, David R.; Duncan, Brean W.; Nichols, James D.; Runge, Michael C.; Williams, B. Ken

    2011-01-01

    Florida scrub-jays Aphelocoma coerulescens are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act due to loss and degradation of scrub habitat. This study concerned the development of an optimal strategy for the restoration and management of scrub habitat at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which contains one of the few remaining large populations of scrub-jays in Florida. There are documented differences in the reproductive and survival rates of scrubjays among discrete classes of scrub height (<120 cm or "short"; 120-170 cm or "optimal"; .170 cm or "tall"; and a combination of tall and optimal or "mixed"), and our objective was to calculate a state-dependent management strategy that would maximize the long-term growth rate of the resident scrub-jay population. We used aerial imagery with multistate Markov models to estimate annual transition probabilities among the four scrub-height classes under three possible management actions: scrub restoration (mechanical cutting followed by burning), a prescribed burn, or no intervention. A strategy prescribing the optimal management action for management units exhibiting different proportions of scrub-height classes was derived using dynamic programming. Scrub restoration was the optimal management action only in units dominated by mixed and tall scrub, and burning tended to be the optimal action for intermediate levels of short scrub. The optimal action was to do nothing when the amount of short scrub was greater than 30%, because short scrub mostly transitions to optimal height scrub (i.e., that state with the highest demographic success of scrub-jays) in the absence of intervention. Monte Carlo simulation of the optimal policy suggested that some form of management would be required every year. We note, however, that estimates of scrub-height transition probabilities were subject to several sources of uncertainty, and so we explored the management implications of alternative sets of transition probabilities

  18. Habitat-specific breeder survival of Florida Scrub-Jays: Inferences from multistate models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breininger, D.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Carter, G.M.; Oddy, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying habitat-specific survival and changes in habitat quality within disturbance-prone habitats is critical for understanding population dynamics and variation in fitness, and for managing degraded ecosystems. We used 18 years of color-banding data and multistate capture-recapture models to test whether habitat quality within territories influences survival and detection probability of breeding Florida Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) and to estimate bird transition probabilities from one territory quality state to another. Our study sites were along central Florida's Atlantic coast and included two of the four largest metapopulations within the species range. We developed Markov models for habitat transitions and compared these to bird transition probabilities. Florida Scrub-Jay detection probabilities ranged from 0.88 in the tall territory state to 0.99 in the optimal state; detection probabilities were intermediate in the short state. Transition probabilities were similar for birds and habitat in grid cells mapped independently of birds. Thus, bird transitions resulted primarily from habitat transitions between states over time and not from bird movement. Survival ranged from 0.71 in the short state to 0.82 in the optimal state, with tall states being intermediate. We conclude that average Florida Scrub-Jay survival will remain at levels that lead to continued population declines because most current habitat quality is only marginally suitable across most of the species range. Improvements in habitat are likely to be slow and difficult because tall states are resistant to change and the optimal state represents an intermediate transitional stage. The multistate modeling approach to quantifying survival and habitat transition probabilities is useful for quantifying habitat transition probabilities and comparing them to bird transition probabilities to test for habitat selection in dynamic environments. ?? 2009 by the Ecological society ot America.

  19. STS-90 Payload Specialist Jay Buckey is suited up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Payload Specialist Jay Buckey, M.D., prepares for launch during suit-up activities in KSC's Operations and Checkout Building. Buckey and the rest of the STS-90 crew will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits a second liftoff attempt at 2:19 p.m. EDT. His first trip into space, Buckey is participating in a life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  20. Mycoplasma sturni from blue jays and northern mockingbirds with conjunctivitis in Florida.

    PubMed

    Ley, D H; Geary, S J; Berkhoff, J E; McLaren, J M; Levisohn, S

    1998-04-01

    Northern mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) and blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) in a Florida (USA) wildlife care facility developed clinical signs and gross lesions suggestive of the ongoing outbreak of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) conjunctivitis in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) and American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis). Mycoplasmal organisms were cultured from conjunctival/corneal swabs of birds with sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and/or epiphora. All of the isolates tested were identified as Mycoplasma sturni by indirect immunofluorescence. Mycoplasma sturni as well as MG should be considered in the differential diagnosis of songbirds with conjunctivitis. PMID:9577796

  1. STS-79 Commander Readdy, Pilot Wilcutt and MS Jay Apt at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 Commander William F. Readdy (left), Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt and Mission Specialist Jay Apt chat after the six-member flight crew arrived at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. The astronauts' return to KSC coincides with the beginning of a three-day launch countdown that will culminate in the Sept. 16 liftoff of the Space Shuttle Atlantis on Mission STS-79. The 79th Shuttle flight will be highlighted by the fourth docking between the U.S. Shuttle and Russian Space Station Mir and the first U.S. crew exchange on the station. Launch from Pad 39A is set for about 4:54 a.m. EDT.

  2. Stephen Hales and the measurement of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Lewis, O

    1994-12-01

    Natural philosopher and inventor, Stephen Hales (1677-1761), undertook a lengthy series of experiments on animals described in Haemastaticks (1733) which led to the first direct measurement of blood pressure. Hales retained his interest in health and disease throughout his life, and this prompted what he regarded as his most important work: the invention of ventilation systems for use in ships or prisons. Hales was the 'perpetual curate' of Teddington, Middlesex, and he combined a mechanistic, quantitative approach to his experimental work with a need and, as he saw it, a duty to discover and wonder at the wisdom and goodness of God by studying His creation. PMID:7884783

  3. The Gould's Belt very large array survey. III. The Orion region

    SciTech Connect

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee; Loinard, Laurent; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Dzib, Sergio A.; Torres, Rosa M.; Boden, Andrew F.; Evans, Neal J. II; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John

    2014-07-20

    We present results from a high-sensitivity (60 μJy), large-scale (2.26 deg{sup 2}) survey obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array as part of the Gould's Belt Survey program. We detected 374 and 354 sources at 4.5 and 7.5 GHz, respectively. Of these, 148 are associated with previously known young stellar objects (YSOs). Another 86 sources previously unclassified at either optical or infrared wavelengths exhibit radio properties that are consistent with those of young stars. The overall properties of our sources at radio wavelengths such as their variability and radio to X-ray luminosity relation are consistent with previous results from the Gould's Belt Survey. Our detections provide target lists for follow-up Very Long Baseline Array radio observations to determine their distances as YSOs are located in regions of high nebulosity and extinction, making it difficult to measure optical parallaxes.

  4. Analytic wave solution with helicon and Trivelpiece-Gould modes in an annular plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, Johan; Pavarin, Daniele; Walker, Mitchell

    2009-11-01

    Helicon sources in an annular configuration have applications for plasma thrusters. The theory of Klozenberg et al. [J. P. Klozenberg B. McNamara and P. C. Thonemann, J. Fluid Mech. 21 (1965) 545-563] for the propagation and absorption of helicon and Trivelpiece-Gould modes in a cylindrical plasma has been generalized for annular plasmas. Analytic solutions are found also in the annular case, but in the presence of both helicon and Trivelpiece-Gould modes, a heterogeneous linear system of equations must be solved to match the plasma and inner and outer vacuum solutions. The linear system can be ill-conditioned or even exactly singular, leading to a dispersion relation with a discrete set of discontinuities. The coefficients for the analytic solution are calculated by solving the linear system with singular-value decomposition.

  5. First Results from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey in Taurus and Comparison with Other Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Jason

    The unparalleled sensitivity and mapping speed of the ESA Herschel Space Observatory makes it possible to now map entire star formation regions in the time it would once have taken to map a single prestellar core. The Herschel Gould Belt Survey is a key program designed to fully map the clouds of the Gould Belt at five wavelengths between 70 and 500 μm. These clouds span a range of physical conditions from the sterility of Polaris to the active cluster forming complexes of Orion and Aquila. These clouds allow us to examine the genesis of the core mass function and how the history of star formation in different regions varies. The early results have demonstrated the markedly different populations of cores in these regions and have revealed the nearly ubiquitous relationship of those cores with dense filaments.

  6. Jay's Collectibles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappel, James J.; Gillman, Jason R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in collectibles of many types, as indicated by the popularity of television programs such as the History Channel's "Pawn Stars" and "American Pickers" and the Public Broadcasting Service's "Antiques Road Show." The availability of online auction sites such as eBay has enabled many people to collect items of interest as a…

  7. Goulds Belt, Interstellar Clouds, and the Eocene-Oligocene Helium-3 Spike

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2015-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part or all of the (sup 3) He spike seen in the sedimentary record at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits.

  8. Western scrub-jays do not appear to attend to functionality in Aesop’s Fable experiments

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Brigit D.; Schlinger, Barney A.; Rensel, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Western scrub-jays are known for their highly discriminatory and flexible behaviors in a caching (food storing) context. However, it is unknown whether their cognitive abilities are restricted to a caching context. To explore this question, we tested scrub-jays in a non-caching context using the Aesop’s Fable paradigm, where a partially filled tube of water contains a floating food reward and objects must be inserted to displace the water and bring the food within reach. We tested four birds, but only two learned to drop stones proficiently. Of these, one bird participated in 4/5 experiments and one in 2/5 experiments. Both birds passed one experiment, but without attending to the functional differences of the objects, and failed the other experiments. Scrub-jays were not motivated to participate in these experiments, suggesting that either this paradigm was ecologically irrelevant or perhaps their flexibility is restricted to a caching context. PMID:26925331

  9. Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) infestation on medium-sized mammals and blue jays in northwestern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, A; Kitron, U; Jones, C J; Slajchert, T L

    1993-09-01

    High prevalence of infestation of five species of medium-sized mammals and blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata (L.), by immature Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman and Corwin was found in Castle Rock State Park in northwestern Illinois during May-August 1991. Raccoons, Procyon lotor L., and opossums, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, were infested with the highest larval densities and were trapped primarily in bottomland forest and ecotone habitats. All species had similar nymphal densities, except the eastern cottontails, Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, which were infested with fewer nymphs. Infestation by I. dammini is reported for the first time for fox squirrels, Sciurus niger E. G. St. Hilaire, and for the first time in the midwestern United States for blue jays, C. cristata. These two species were hosts for nymphs in upland forest habitat. Molting rates varied among ticks that fed on different host species and among larvae that fed on individuals of the same species. Molting rate is proposed as an important factor in determining the relative importance of a host species to I. dammini population dynamics. PMID:8254647

  10. Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) overcome their current desires to anticipate two distinct future needs and plan for them appropriately

    PubMed Central

    Cheke, Lucy G.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2012-01-01

    Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) have been shown to overcome present satiety to cache food they will desire in the future. Here, we show that another corvid, the Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius), can distinguish between two distinct future desires and plan for each appropriately, despite experiencing a conflicting current motivation. We argue that these data address the criticisms of previous work, and suggest a way in which associative learning processes and future-oriented cognition may combine to allow prospective behaviour. PMID:22048890

  11. Reading Stephen King: Issues of Censorship, Student Choice, and Popular Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Brenda Miller, Ed.; Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.; Chandler, Kelly, Ed.

    This collection of essays grew out of the "Reading Stephen King Conference" held at the University of Maine in 1996. Stephen King's books have become a lightning rod for the tensions around issues of including "mass market" popular literature in middle and high school English classes and of who chooses what students read. King's fiction is among…

  12. A Corrupt Medium: Stephen Burroughs and the Bridgehampton, New York, Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Susanna

    2003-01-01

    Discusses criminal Stephen Burroughs'"The Memoirs of Stephen Burroughs", a well-known rogue narrative of the 19th century, and his campaign to establish a library in Bridgehampton, New York. Topics include rationalism; the role of reading; the growth of libraries following the American Revolution; and the role of individual interpretations and…

  13. Efficacy of three vaccines in protecting Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) from experimental infection with West Nile virus: implications for vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis).

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Sarah S; Langevin, Stanley; Woods, Leslie; Carroll, Brian D; Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Reisen, William K; Boyce, Walter M

    2011-08-01

    The devastating effect of West Nile virus (WNV) on the avifauna of North America has led zoo managers and conservationists to attempt to protect vulnerable species through vaccination. The Island Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma insularis) is one such species, being a corvid with a highly restricted insular range. Herein, we used congeneric Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) to test the efficacy of three WNV vaccines in protecting jays from an experimental challenge with WNV: (1) the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator(®) DNA equine vaccine, (2) an experimental DNA plasmid vaccine, pCBWN, and (3) the Merial Recombitek(®) equine vaccine. Vaccine efficacy after challenge was compared with naïve and nonvaccinated positive controls and a group of naturally immune jays. Overall, vaccination lowered peak viremia compared with nonvaccinated positive controls, but some WNV-related pathology persisted and the viremia was sufficient to possibly infect susceptible vector mosquitoes. The Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA equine vaccine and the pCBWN vaccine provided humoral immune priming and limited side effects. Five of the six birds vaccinated with the Merial Recombitek vaccine, including a vaccinated, non-WNV challenged control, developed extensive necrotic lesions in the pectoral muscle at the vaccine inoculation sites, which were attributed to the Merial vaccine. In light of the well-documented devastating effects of high morbidity and mortality associated with WNV infection in corvids, vaccination of Island Scrub-Jays with either the Fort Dodge West Nile-Innovator DNA vaccine or the pCBWN vaccine may increase the numbers of birds that would survive an epizootic should WNV become established on Santa Cruz Island. PMID:21438693

  14. The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice: Academic Library, Special Library, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice started as a small collection of books in the corner of the New York City Police Academy. A little over four decades later, it now contains one of the best collections of criminal justice materials in the world. Despite fiscal setbacks and tough times for the University and the…

  15. Effective Integration of Technology and Instruction. Q&A with Michael Jay. REL Mid-Atlantic Educator Effectiveness Webinar Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In this webinar, long-time educator and developer of education technology Michael Jay discussed the importance of using technology to support learning and gave examples of how teachers can integrate technology into their instruction based on the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards. The PowerPoint presentation and…

  16. John Jay High School Project "RESCATE." O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1982-1983. [Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Grace Ibanez; Schulman, Robert

    Project RESCATE, in its third and final year of funding, provided instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL) and native language skills, as well as bilingual instruction in science, mathematics, and social studies, to 185 Spanish-speaking students of limited English proficiency (LEP) at John Jay High School in Brooklyn, New York. In…

  17. Patterns of West Nile virus infection in Ohio blue jays: implications for initiation of the annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Mary C; Tarvin, Keith A; Smith, Jennifer; Ohajuruka, Ojimadu A; Grimes, Sheila

    2004-05-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in North America in New York City in 1999 and rapidly moved westward. Understanding the mechanisms by which the amplification cycle is reinitiated each year increases our ability to predict epizootics and geographic expansion of the disease. Such understanding is enhanced by knowledge of the patterns of infection in the vertebrate reservoir hosts. Blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) may serve as reservoir hosts for WNV. We examined the influence of age and date on the prevalence of WNV in jay carcasses in Ohio during May-August 2002. Percent of carcasses that were infected increased significantly with time from 3% in May to more than 90% by August. We found no difference in prevalence between juvenile (nestlings and fledglings) and adult jays early in the season, which contradicts the expected pattern if the majority of the adults sampled in 2002 had been exposed to the virus in 2001. Therefore, jays infected in 2001 were unlikely to have been important in initiating the 2002 virus cycle in Ohio. PMID:15155993

  18. The Jay Baum Rich telescope: a Centurion 28 at the Wise Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosch, Noah; Kaspi, Shai; Niv, Saar; Manulis, Ilan

    2015-10-01

    We describe the third telescope of the Wise Observatory, a 0.70-m Centurion 28 (C28IL) installed in 2013 and named the Jay Baum Rich telescope to enhance significantly the wide-field imaging possibilities of the observatory. The telescope operates from a 5.5-m diameter dome and is equipped with a large-format red-sensitive CCD camera, offering a ˜one square degree imaged field sampled at . The telescope was acquired to provide an alternative to the existing 1-m telescope for studies such as microlensing, photometry of transiting exo-planets, the follow-up of supernovae and other optical transients, and the detection of very low surface brightness extended features around galaxies.

  19. Gould's Belt, interstellar clouds, and the Eocene-Oligocene helium-3 enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2016-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent interplanetary dust particle (IDPs) and small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part the helium-3 flux increase seen in the sedimentary record near the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, IDPs in the inner Solar System may have been dragged to Earth, while dust and small meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits; however, this hypotheses does not explain the Popigai and Chesapeake Bay impacts.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: JCMT Gould Belt Survey: dense cores in Orion B (Kirk+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, H.; di, Francesco J.; Johnstone, D.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Mottram, J. C.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-04-01

    Orion B was observed with SCUBA-2 at 850 and 450um as part of the JCMT Gould Belt Survey (Ward-Thompson et al. 2007PASP..119..855W). Three separate regions were observed: the areas around L1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, as illustrated in Figure 1. The SCUBA-2 observations were obtained between 2012 February and 2014 November with some initial science verification data taken in 2011 October and November. Portions of the NGC 2023/2024 and NGC 2068/2071 regions were also observed by the Gould Belt Survey (GBS) in 12CO(3-2) with HARP. (1 data file).

  1. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    2011-01-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, most of which sound quite ludicrous. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston- not Herschel- who coined the term "asteroid" to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  2. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.; Orchiston, Wayne

    2011-11-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, which Herschel rejected. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston, FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston - not Herschel - who coined the term 'asteroid' to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  3. Desire-state attribution: Benefits of a novel paradigm using the food-sharing behavior of Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius).

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Cheke, Lucy G; Shaw, Rachael C; Legg, Edward W; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have investigated the possibility that Eurasian jay food sharing might rely on desire-state attribution. The female's desire for a particular type of food can be decreased by sating her on it (specific satiety) and the food sharing paradigm can be used to test whether the male's sharing pattern reflects the female's current desire. Our previous findings show that the male shares the food that the female currently wants. Here, we consider 3 simpler mechanisms that might explain the male's behavior: behavior reading, lack of self-other differentiation and behavioral rules. We illustrate how we have already addressed these issues and how our food sharing paradigm can be further adapted to answer outstanding questions. The flexibility with which the food sharing paradigm can be applied to rule out alternative mechanisms makes it a useful tool to study desire-state attribution in jays and other species that share food. PMID:27195059

  4. Henry Knowles Beecher, Jay Katz, and the Transformation of Research with Human Beings.

    PubMed

    Capron, Alexander Morgan

    2016-01-01

    The modern history of experimentation with human beings is notable for its ethical lacunae, when even the clearest directives fail to prevent violations of subjects' rights and welfare. One such lacuna occurred during the 25 years between 1947, when the Nuremberg Code was articulated in the judgment passed on the men who had performed medical experiments in the Nazi concentration camps, and 1972, when the revelation of the 40-year-long Tuskegee Syphilis Study shocked the public and pushed Congress to adopt legislation that eventually transformed the governance of human subjects research. The work that Henry Beecher and Jay Katz did on the ethics of human experimentation beginning in 1964-which was mutually supportive but also divergent in its premises and prescriptions-played a prominent role in the policy-making processes. Beecher, whose detailed disclosure of the ethical lapses of leading researchers in his renowned 1966 New England Journal of Medicine article initiated the policy reform process, proved less influential in shaping those reforms than Katz. Ultimately, Beecher was one of the last and best exemplars of "medical ethics," while Katz-in his service on the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ad Hoc Advisory Panel and in his testimony before, and work with, the Senate Health subcommittee-was an early practitioner of bioethics, a field in which the rules are not all written and applied by the medical profession but arise through a messier process involving outsiders and formal regulatory decisions. PMID:27499485

  5. Evidence suggesting that desire-state attribution may govern food sharing in Eurasian jays.

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Ljerka; Shaw, Rachael C; Cheke, Lucy G; Clayton, Nicola S

    2013-03-01

    State-attribution is the ability to ascribe to others an internal life like one's own and to understand that internal, psychological states such as desire, hope, belief, and knowledge underlie others' actions. Despite extensive research, comparative studies struggle to adequately integrate key factors of state-attribution that have been identified by evolutionary and developmental psychology as well as research on empathy. Here, we develop a behavioral paradigm to address these issues and investigate whether male Eurasian jays respond to the changing desire-state of their female partners when sharing food. We demonstrate that males feed their mates flexibly according to the female's current food preference. Critically, we show that the males need to see what the female has previously eaten to know what food she will currently want. Consequently, the males' sharing pattern was not simply a response to their mate's behavior indicating her preference as to what he should share, nor was it a response to the males' own desire-state. Our results raise the possibility that these birds may be capable of ascribing desire to their mates. PMID:23382187

  6. Signaling for food and sex? Begging by reproductive female white-throated magpie-jays

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jesse M. S.; Langen, Tom A.; Berg, Elena C.

    2012-01-01

    Food begging is common in nutritionally dependent young of many animals, but structurally homologous calls recur in adult signal repertoires of many species. We propose eight functional hypotheses for begging in adults; these stem from observations in birds but apply broadly to other taxa in which begging occurs. Adult cooperatively-breeding white-throated magpie-jays (Calocitta formosa) use loud begging vocalizations, particularly near the nest site during reproduction. We analysed the social context and behavioural phenology of loud calling and allofeeding in this species and compared these with predictions from each functional hypothesis. We found that reproductive females are the primary producers of beg calls, and their begging peaks during the fertile period when reproductive conflict among males and females was highest. Loud begging rates correlated positively with provisioning rates, but females called more in the pre-incubation fertile period than after they initiated incubation. Based on the context, phenology and active space of the signal, we conclude that female loud begging vocalizations function to signal nutritional need to group members, but also have been evolutionarily co-opted to advertise fertility to potential extra-pair partners. The location of calling is likely a consequence of nest guarding by breeding females to prevent intraspecific brood parasitism. PMID:23293376

  7. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Dense Core Clusters in Orion B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Di Francesco, J.; Lane, J.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; The JCMT Gould Belt Survey team

    2016-04-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Legacy Survey obtained SCUBA-2 observations of dense cores within three sub-regions of Orion B: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, all of which contain clusters of cores. We present an analysis of the clustering properties of these cores, including the two-point correlation function and Cartwright’s Q parameter. We identify individual clusters of dense cores across all three regions using a minimal spanning tree technique, and find that in each cluster, the most massive cores tend to be centrally located. We also apply the independent M–Σ technique and find a strong correlation between core mass and the local surface density of cores. These two lines of evidence jointly suggest that some amount of mass segregation in clusters has happened already at the dense core stage.

  8. The JCMT Legacy Survey of the Gould Belt: a first look at Serpens with HARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, S. F.; Richer, J. S.; Buckle, J. V.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fuller, G. A.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Owen, J. E.; Brunt, C.; Butner, H. M.; Cavanagh, B.; Chrysostomou, A.; Curtis, E. I.; Davis, C. J.; Etxaluze, M.; Francesco, J. Di; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R. K.; Greaves, J. S.; Hatchell, J.; Johnstone, D.; Matthews, B.; Matthews, H.; Matzner, C. D.; Nutter, D.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Roberts, J. F.; Sadavoy, S.; Simpson, R. J.; Tothill, N. F. H.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Viti, S.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Yates, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Gould Belt Legacy Survey on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope's has observed a region of 260 arcmin2 in 12CO J= 3 → 2 emission, and a 190 arcmin2 subset of this in 13CO and C18O towards the Serpens molecular cloud. We examine the global velocity structure of the non-outflowing gas, and calculate excitation temperatures and opacities. The large-scale mass and energetics of the region are evaluated, with special consideration for high-velocity gas. We find the cloud to have a mass of 203 M⊙, and to be gravitationally bound, and that the kinetic energy of the outflowing gas is approximately 70 per cent of the turbulent kinetic energy of the cloud. We identify compact outflows towards some of the submillimetre Class 0/I sources in the region.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Serpens MWC 297 (Rumble+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, D.; Hatchell, J.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Kirk, H.; Buckle, J.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Di, Francesco J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-thompson, D.; Allen, L. E.; Cieza, L. A.; Dunham, M. M.; Harvey, P. M.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Bastien, P.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-09-01

    Serpens MWC 297 was observed with SCUBA-2 on the 2012 July 5 and 8 as part of the JCMT GBS MJLSG33 SCUBA-2 Serpens Campaign. Continuum observations at 850 and 450um were made using fully sampled 30 arcmin diameter circular regions centered on RA=18:28:13.8, DE=-03:44:01.7 (J2000). The MWC 297 region was observed twice by Spitzer in the mid-infrared, first as part of the Spitzer Young Clusters Survey (SYC; Gutermuth et al., 2009, Cat. J/ApJS/184/18) and secondly as part of the Spitzer legacy programme 'Gould's Belt: star formation in the solar neighbourhood' (SGBS, PID: 30574). In both surveys, mapping observations were taken at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0um with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and at 24um with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). (3 data files).

  10. Preliminary Results of the Herschel Gould Belt Survey in the Orion B Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves, Vera; André, Philippe; Palmeirim, Pedro; Schneider, Nicola; Arzoumanian, Doris; Men'shchikov, Alexander

    As a preliminary result of the Herschel Gould Belt survey (André et al. 2010) in the Orion B cloud complex we find a clear connection between the locations of the detected prestellar cores and the column density values. We find that the vast majority of the gravitationally bound prestellar cores are detected above a high column density of about 6-7 × 1021 cm-2 (A V ˜ 6-7). This is in very good agreement with dense core formation thresholds found in other regions. For Orion B, a similar limit appears both in the distribution of background column density values of the prestellar cores, and in the column density PDF of the region. Within our core formation scenario, the found threshold can be translated as the column density above which the filaments become gravitationally unstable and fragment into cores.

  11. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Dense Core Clusters in Orion B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Di Francesco, J.; Lane, J.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; The JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2016-04-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Legacy Survey obtained SCUBA-2 observations of dense cores within three sub-regions of Orion B: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, all of which contain clusters of cores. We present an analysis of the clustering properties of these cores, including the two-point correlation function and Cartwright’s Q parameter. We identify individual clusters of dense cores across all three regions using a minimal spanning tree technique, and find that in each cluster, the most massive cores tend to be centrally located. We also apply the independent M-Σ technique and find a strong correlation between core mass and the local surface density of cores. These two lines of evidence jointly suggest that some amount of mass segregation in clusters has happened already at the dense core stage.

  12. Results from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey in the Ophiuchus Main Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladjelate, Bilal; André, Philippe; Könyves, Vera; Men'shchikov, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Results from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey in the Ophiuchus Main CloudThe Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud is a well documented star-forming cloud located ~140 pc from the Sun. It is therefore an excellent laboratory for dense core search and classification. Harbouring low-mass star formation, its protostellar population have been studied for about three decades from the near infrared to the millimeter and radio range.As part of the Herschel Gould Belt Survey (http://www.herschel.fr/cea/gouldbelt/), extensive submillimeter images of the Ophiuchus Main Cloud (L1688) were produced and a deep census of both prestellar cores and young protostars was obtained using the multi-scale, multi-wavelength source extraction algorithm, getsources (Mensh'chikov et al. 2012).About 300 starless cores were extracted, including ~100 candidates gravitationally bound prestellar cores. The prestellar cores are primarily found in high column density filamentary structures above AV~7. Based on these data we discuss, the properties of the prestellar core mass function (CMF) as well as its variations in the various clumps of the cloud. The peak of the prestellar CMF appears to be close to 0.3 Solar masses in L1688.Conceptually, the low-mass end of the prestellar CMF is populated by pre-brown dwarf cores, the prototype of which is Oph-B11, a 20 Jovian masses object identified with SCUBA and IRAM (Greaves et al. 2003, André et al. 2012). Our Herschel census of dense cores in L1688 contains a few other candidate ultra low-mass cores under the hydrogen-burning limit (0.08 M⊙) which will be discussed.

  13. An example of phenotypic adherence to the island rule? - Anticosti gray jays are heavier but not structurally larger than mainland conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Dan; Norris, D Ryan

    2015-09-01

    The island rule refers to the tendency of small vertebrates to become larger when isolated on islands and the frequent dwarfing of large forms. It implies genetic control, and a necessary linkage, of size and body-mass differences between insular and mainland populations. To examine the island rule, we compared body size and mass of gray jays (Perisoreus canadensis) on Anticosti Island, Québec, located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, with three mainland populations (2 in Québec and 1 in Ontario). Although gray jays on Anticosti Island were ca 10% heavier, they were not structurally larger, than the three mainland populations. This suggests that Anticosti jays are not necessarily genetically distinct from mainland gray jays and that they may have achieved their greater body masses solely through packing more mass onto mainland-sized body frames. As such, they may be the first-known example of a proposed, purely phenotypic initial step in the adherence to the island rule by an insular population. Greater jay body mass is probably advantageous in Anticosti's high-density, intensely competitive social environment that may have resulted from the island's lack of mammalian nest predators. PMID:26380697

  14. An example of phenotypic adherence to the island rule? – Anticosti gray jays are heavier but not structurally larger than mainland conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Dan; Norris, D Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The island rule refers to the tendency of small vertebrates to become larger when isolated on islands and the frequent dwarfing of large forms. It implies genetic control, and a necessary linkage, of size and body-mass differences between insular and mainland populations. To examine the island rule, we compared body size and mass of gray jays (Perisoreus canadensis) on Anticosti Island, Québec, located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, with three mainland populations (2 in Québec and 1 in Ontario). Although gray jays on Anticosti Island were ca 10% heavier, they were not structurally larger, than the three mainland populations. This suggests that Anticosti jays are not necessarily genetically distinct from mainland gray jays and that they may have achieved their greater body masses solely through packing more mass onto mainland-sized body frames. As such, they may be the first-known example of a proposed, purely phenotypic initial step in the adherence to the island rule by an insular population. Greater jay body mass is probably advantageous in Anticosti's high-density, intensely competitive social environment that may have resulted from the island's lack of mammalian nest predators. PMID:26380697

  15. Treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability using the Broström-Gould procedure in athletes: long-term results

    PubMed Central

    RUSSO, ADRIANO; GIACCHÈ, PAOLO; MARCANTONI, ENRICO; ARRIGHI, ANNALISA; MOLFETTA, LUIGI

    2016-01-01

    Purpose this study was conducted to evaluate long-term results following treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability using the Broström-Gould technique in athletes. Methods eighteen athletes involved in competitive sports at different levels, who suffered from chronic lateral ankle instability, underwent Broström-Gould ligamentoplasty between 2000 and 2005. The results of the surgery were evaluated using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scale. Results the results at 10–15 years of follow-up were excellent in 94.5% of these cases and good in the remaining 5.5%. An increase of 31.2 points in the AOFAS scale score was recorded at follow-up (with the score rising to 98.8, from 67.6 preoperatively). All the athletes returned to their respective sports at the same level as prior to the surgery. Imaging at long-term follow-up showed no signs of arthritic degeneration. Conclusions the results of this study show that the Broström-Gould technique is an effective procedure for the treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability in the athlete, giving excellent long-term results. Level of evidence therapeutic case series, level IV. PMID:27602349

  16. Speciation in Western Scrub-Jays, Haldane’s rule, and genetic clines in secondary contact

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haldane’s Rule, the tendency for the heterogametic sex to show reduced fertility in hybrid crosses, can obscure the signal of gene flow in mtDNA between species where females are heterogametic. Therefore, it is important when studying speciation and species limits in female-heterogametic species like birds to assess the signature of gene flow in the nuclear genome as well. We studied introgression of microsatellites and mtDNA across a secondary contact zone between coastal and interior lineages of Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) to test for a signature of Haldane’s Rule: a narrower cline of introgression in mtDNA compared to nuclear markers. Results Our initial phylogeographic analysis revealed that there is only one major area of contact between coastal and interior lineages and identified five genetic clusters with strong spatial structuring: Pacific Slope, Interior US, Edwards Plateau (Texas), Northern Mexico, and Southern Mexico. Consistent with predictions from Haldane’s Rule, mtDNA showed a narrower cline than nuclear markers across a transect through the hybrid zone. This result is not being driven by female-biased dispersal because neutral diffusion analysis, which included estimates of sex-specific dispersal rates, also showed less diffusion of mtDNA. Lineage-specific plumage traits were associated with nuclear genetic profiles for individuals in the hybrid zone, indicating that these differences are under genetic control. Conclusions This study adds to a growing list of studies that support predictions of Haldane’s Rule using cline analysis of multiple loci of differing inheritance modes, although alternate hypotheses like selection on different mtDNA types cannot be ruled out. That Haldane’s Rule appears to be operating in this system suggests a measure of reproductive isolation between the Pacific Slope and interior lineages. Based on a variety of evidence from the phenotype, ecology, and genetics, we recommend elevating

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Uranometria Argentina catalog of bright southern stars (Gould, 1879)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    In 1879 Benjamin Apthorp Gould published in Buenos Aires, Argentina, the Uranometria Argentina catalog of 7756 stars south of declination +10 degrees. This included all those stars he considered magnitude 7 or brighter and some fainter stars which are close companions to brighter stars or to each other and have combined magnitude 7 or brighter. Star positions are in 1875 coordinates, and constellation boundaries also in 1875 coordinates were defined within the aforementioned declination range. With only a few small changes these were incorporated into the boundaries adopted by the IAU in 1930 and subsequently universally accepted. In terms of accurate photoelectric magnitude measurements the Uranometria Argentina is nearly complete to magnitude 6.5 in its declination range. In each constellation the individual stars considered to be magnitude 7 and brighter were numbered in sequence of increasing right ascension in 1875 coordinates, except that in a few cases this sequence was somewhat adjusted so that stars close together could be listed on adjacent lines of text. The numbering system is analogous to that in the Flamsteed Catalogus Brittanicus and now widely used. Star numbers from the Uranometria Argentina rarely appear in the 21st century despite the potential utility of their use. They were included in the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac until 1978, and in the FK5 catalog until 1999, always with the letter G following the number in the Uranometria Argentina catalog. This serves to distinguish Flamsteed numbers with no following letters from Gould numbers, and is utilized in this presentation and recommended for general use. The file catalog.dat includes every star in the original Uranometria Argentina. In the original the constellations were presented in sequence of increasing distance from the south pole and numbered accordingly. For the convenience of 21st century astronomers the constellations are presented here by alphabetical sequence in

  18. Fine-scale kin recognition in the absence of social familiarity in the Siberian jay, a monogamous bird species.

    PubMed

    Griesser, Michael; Halvarsson, Peter; Drobniak, Szymon M; Vilà, Carles

    2015-11-01

    Kin recognition is a critical element to kin cooperation, and in vertebrates, it is primarily based on associative learning. Recognition of socially unfamiliar kin occurs rarely, and it is reported only in vertebrate species where promiscuity prevents recognition of first-order relatives. However, it is unknown whether the recognition of socially unfamiliar kin can evolve in monogamous species. Here, we investigate whether genetic relatedness modulates aggression among group members in Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus). This bird species is genetically and socially monogamous and lives in groups that are formed through the retention of offspring beyond independence, and the immigration of socially unfamiliar nonbreeders. Observations on feeders showed that genetic relatedness modulated aggression of breeders towards immigrants in a graded manner, in that they chased most intensely the immigrant group members that were genetically the least related. However, cross-fostering experiments showed that breeders were equally tolerant towards their own and cross-fostered young swapped as nestlings. Thus, breeders seem to use different mechanisms to recognize socially unfamiliar individuals and own offspring. As Siberian jays show a high degree of nepotism during foraging and predator encounters, inclusive fitness benefits may play a role for the evolution of fine-scale kin recognition. More generally, our results suggest that fine-graded kin recognition can evolve independently of social familiarity, highlighting the evolutionary importance of kin recognition for social species. PMID:26460512

  19. STEPHEN CRANE'S "THE O'RUDDY"--A PROBLEM IN AUTHORSHIP DISCRIMINATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'DONNELL, BERNARD

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS ANALYSIS WAS TO DISCOVER CERTAIN ASPECTS OF STYLE (BOTH LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL) WHICH COULD BE COUNTED AND WHICH WOULD, WHEN COMPARED, DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN THE WRITTEN PROSE OF TWO AUTHORS. THE SUBJECT SELECTED FOR ANALYSIS WAS "THE O'RUDDY," BEGUN BY STEPHEN CRANE AND COMPLETED BY ROBERT BARR. SINCE THERE WAS NO RECORD OF…

  20. A Study Guide for Stephen B. Oates' "The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ron

    2006-01-01

    This document is a study guide for Stephen B. Oates biography of Nat Turner, "The Fires of Jubilee." The book is a practical reading vehicle for introducing Nat Turner to secondary students in grades 11 and 12. Oates divides his work into four parts, which could provide the basis for four reading assignments, although the sections are not of equal…

  1. 78 FR 6321 - Stephen Phillips, Brentwood Dam Ventures, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Stephen Phillips, Brentwood Dam Ventures, LLC; Notice of Transfer of... transfer of an exemption does not require Commission approval. \\1\\ 17 FERC ] 62,321, Order...

  2. The Compleat Teacher-Scholar: An Interview with Stephen F. Davis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskist, William

    2009-01-01

    Stephen F. Davis is Emeritus Professor of Psychology at Emporia State University. He served as the 2002-2003 Knapp Distinguished Professor of Arts and Sciences at the University of San Diego. Currently, he is Distinguished Guest Professor at Morningside College and Visiting Distinguished Professor of Psychology at Texas Wesleyan University. Since…

  3. Power/Knowledge for Educational Theory: Stephen Ball and the Reception of Foucault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the significance of the concept of power/knowledge in educational theory. The argument proceeds in two main parts. In the first, I consider aspects of Stephen J. Ball's highly influential work in educational theory. I examine his reception of Foucault's concept of power/knowledge and suggest that there are problems in his…

  4. Wrestling with Stephen and Matilda: Planning Challenging Enquiries to Engage Year 7 in Medieval Anarchy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    McDougall found learning about Stephen and Matilda fascinating, was sure that her pupils would also and designed an enquiry to engage them in "the anarchy" of 1139-1153 AD. Pupils enjoyed exploring "the anarchy" and learning about it enhanced their knowledge and understanding of the medieval period considerably. However, McDougall argues, story…

  5. Tripping with Stephen Gaskin: An Exploration of a Hippy Adult Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Gabriel Patrick

    2012-01-01

    For the last 40 years, Stephen Gaskin has been an adult educator on the fringe, working with tens of thousands of adults in the counterculture movement in pursuit of social change regarding marijuana legalization, women's rights, environmental justice issues and beyond. Gaskin has written 11 books about his experiences teaching and learning…

  6. What's So Funny about Stephen Toulmin?: Using Cartoons to Teach the Toulmin Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunk-Chavez, Beth L.

    2004-01-01

    The Toulmin model of argument was introduced in 1958 by British philosopher Stephen Toulmin in "The Uses of Argument" and adapted by compositionists in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Consisting of six parts--claim, support, warrant, backing, rebuttal, and qualifiers--the model provides a means for composition students "to describe the process by…

  7. Gaze Step Distributions Reflect Fixations and Saccades: A Comment on Stephen and Mirman (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogartz, Richard S.; Staub, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    In three experimental tasks Stephen and Mirman (2010) measured gaze steps, the distance in pixels between gaze positions on successive samples from an eyetracker. They argued that the distribution of gaze steps is best fit by the lognormal distribution, and based on this analysis they concluded that interactive cognitive processes underlie eye…

  8. Stephen Schneider and the "Double Ethical Bind" of Climate Change Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russill, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Stephen Schneider's perspective on climate change communication is distinguished by its longevity, a keen anticipation of research findings, historical understanding, and grounding in first-person experience. In this article, the author elaborates Schneider's work in terms of its key claims, suggestive research directions, and lessons for…

  9. The Penetration of Educational Leadership Texts by Revelation and Prophecy: The Case of Stephen R. Covey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick W.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that the uncritical citation of Stephen R. Covey's book, "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People," in educational administration texts undermines the social-scientific foundation of university-based administrator preparation. Asserts that the Covey's book is based on Mormon metaphysics, not social science. (Contains 41 references.) (PKP)

  10. Stephen M. Weiss: award for distinguished professional contributions to applied research.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for Stephen M. Weiss, who received the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research "for his work as an internationally recognized leader in the fields of health psychology and behavioral medicine." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115838

  11. 75 FR 8742 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX... were recovered from a large Caddo occupation site dating to approximately A.D. 1200-1400....

  12. Contributions of Stephen J. Ball to the Research on Educational and Curriculum Policies in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainardes, Jefferson; Gandin, Luis Armando

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at showcasing the main contributions of Stephen J. Ball to educational research in Brazil, particularly to the study of educational and curriculum policies. We also highlight some of the limitations in the incorporation of Ball's ideas in Brazil as well as some of the challenges that these author's ideas pose to…

  13. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: SCUBA-2 observations of circumstellar discs in L 1495

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, J. V.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Greaves, J.; Richer, J. S.; Matthews, B. C.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-05-01

    We present 850 and 450 μm data from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey obtained with Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) and characterize the dust attributes of Class I, Class II and Class III disc sources in L 1495. We detect 23 per cent of the sample at both wavelengths, with the detection rate decreasing through the Classes from I to III. The median disc mask is 1.6 × 10-3 M⊙, and only 7 per cent of Class II sources have disc masses larger than 20 Jupiter masses. We detect a higher proportion of discs towards sources with stellar hosts of spectral type K than spectral type M. Class II discs with single stellar hosts of spectral type K have higher masses than those of spectral type M, supporting the hypothesis that higher mass stars have more massive discs. Variations in disc masses calculated at the two wavelengths suggest that there may be differences in dust opacity and/or dust temperature between discs with hosts of spectral types K to those with spectral type M.

  14. Growing evidence for a core formation threshold traced in Herschel Gould Belt survey clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves , V.; André, Ph.; Schneider, N.; Palmeirim, P.; Arzoumanian, D.; Men'shchikov, A.

    2013-11-01

    It has already been suggested that a threshold in column density - or in visual extinction - may need to be exceeded to form dense cores and then protostars. Based on Herschel Gould Belt survey results in the Aquila and Orion B molecular cloud complexes we observe clear connection between the locations of the detected prestellar cores and their background column density values. This finding appears to support a core formation scenario where such threshold corresponds to the extinction above which interstellar filaments become gravitationally unstable and fragment into cores. In these two actively star-forming regions we find the vast majority of the gravitationally bound prestellar cores above a high column density of about (6-7) × 1021 cm-2 (AV ˜ 6-7). This limit similarly appears in the column density probability distribution function (PDF) of the regions as well. The spatial distribution of the protostars and young stellar objects (YSOs) also shows a tight connection with the densest sites of both clouds, as more than 70 % of them appear above the mentioned AV thresholds. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  15. The Frenkel Kontorova Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floría, L. M.; Baesens, C.; Gómez-Gardeñes, J.

    In the preface to his monograph on the structure of Evolutionary Theory [1], the late professor Stephen Jay Gould attributes to the philosopher Immanuel Kant the following aphorism in Science Philosophy: "Percepts without concepts are blind; concepts without percepts are empty". Using with a bit of freedom these Kantian terms, one would say that a scientific model is a framework (or network) of interrelated concepts and percepts where experts build up scientific consistent explanations of a given set of observations. Good models are those which are both, conceptually simple and universal in their perceptions. Let us illustrate with examples the meaning of this statement.

  16. Telling It Like It Is--And Like It Is Not: Fiction in the Service of Science in Jay Hosler's "The Sandwalk Adventures"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porat, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Biologist and graphic novelist Jay Hosler has long been introducing young readers to biological subjects through entertaining narratives combining strongly fictional elements with nonfictional ones. Extensive application of fiction to nonfictional subject matter is uncommon, even in graphic novels, but Hosler's "The Sandwalk Adventures"…

  17. A Conservation Strategy for the Florida Scrub-Jay on John F. Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge: An Initial Scientific Basis for Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, D. R.; Larson, V. L.; Schaub, R.; Duncan, B. W.; Schmalzer, P. A.; Oddy, D. M.; Smith, R. B.; Adrian, F.; Hill, H., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) is an indicator of ecosystem integrity of Florida scrub, an endangered ecosystem that requires frequent fire. One of the largest populations of this federally threatened species occurs on John F. Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. Population trends were predicted using population modeling and field data on reproduction and survival of Florida Scrub-Jays collected from 1988 - 1995. Analyses of historical photography indicated that habitat suitability has been declining for 30 years. Field data and computer simulations suggested that the population declined by at least 40% and will decline by another 40% in 1 0 years, if habitat management is not greatly intensified. Data and computer simulations suggest that habitat suitability cannot deviate greatly from optimal for the jay population to persist. Landscape trajectories of vegetation structure, responsible for declining habitat suitability, are associated with the disruption of natural fire regimes. Prescribed fire alone can not reverse the trajectories. A recovery strategy was developed, based on studies of Florida Scrub-Jays and scrub vegetation. A reserve design was formulated based on conservation science principles for scrub ecosystems. The strategy emphasizes frequent fire to restore habitat, but includes mechanical tree cutting for severely degraded areas. Pine thinning across large areas can produce rapid increases in habitat quality. Site-specific strategies will need to be developed, monitored, and modified to achieve conditions suitable for population persistence.

  18. The Effect of Modified Brostrom-Gould Repair for Lateral Ankle Instability on In Vivo Tibiotalar Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Wainright, William B; Spritzer, Charles E.; Lee, Jun Young; Easley, Mark E.; DeOrio, James K.; Nunley, James A.; DeFrate, Louis E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Lateral ankle instability leads to an increased risk of tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis. Previous studies have found abnormal tibiotalar joint motions with lateral ankle instability that may contribute to this increased incidence of osteoarthritis, including increased anterior translation and internal rotation of the talus under weight-bearing loading. Surgical repairs for lateral ankle instability have shown good clinical results, but the effects of repair on in vivo ankle motion are not well understood. Hypothesis The modified Broström-Gould lateral ligament reconstruction decreases anterior translation and internal rotation of the talus under in vivo weight-bearing loading conditions. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Seven patients underwent modified Brostöm-Gould repair for unilateral lateral ankle instability. Ankle joint kinematics as a function of increasing body weight were studied with magnetic resonance imaging and biplanar fluoroscopy. Tibiotalar kinematics were measured in unstable ankles preoperatively and postoperatively at a mean follow-up of 12 months, as well as in the uninjured contralateral ankles of the same individuals. Results Surgical repair resulted in statistically significant decreases in anterior translation of the talus (0.9±0.3mm, p=0.018) at 100% bodyweight and internal rotation of the talus at 75% (2.6±0.8°, p=0.019) and 100% (2.7±0.8°, p=0.013) bodyweight compared to ankle kinematics measured before repair. No statistically significant differences were detected between repaired ankles and contralateral normal ankles. Conclusion The modified Broström-Gould repair improved the abnormal joint motion observed in patients with lateral ankle instability, decreasing anterior translation and internal rotation of the talus. Clinical Relevance Altered kinematics may contribute to the tibiotalar joint degeneration that occurs with chronic lateral ankle instability. The findings of the current study support

  19. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: a quantitative comparison between SCUBA-2 data reduction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mairs, S.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Graves, S.; Buckle, J.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Salji, C.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; JCMT Gould Belt survey Team

    2015-12-01

    Performing ground-based submillimetre observations is a difficult task as the measurements are subject to absorption and emission from water vapour in the Earth's atmosphere and time variation in weather and instrument stability. Removing these features and other artefacts from the data is a vital process which affects the characteristics of the recovered astronomical structure we seek to study. In this paper, we explore two data reduction methods for data taken with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array-2 (SCUBA-2) at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). The JCMT Legacy Reduction 1 (JCMT LR1) and The Gould Belt Legacy Survey Legacy Release 1 (GBS LR1) reduction both use the same software (STARLINK) but differ in their choice of data reduction parameters. We find that the JCMT LR1 reduction is suitable for determining whether or not compact emission is present in a given region and the GBS LR1 reduction is tuned in a robust way to uncover more extended emission, which better serves more in-depth physical analyses of star-forming regions. Using the GBS LR1 method, we find that compact sources are recovered well, even at a peak brightness of only three times the noise, whereas the reconstruction of larger objects requires much care when drawing boundaries around the expected astronomical signal in the data reduction process. Incorrect boundaries can lead to false structure identification or it can cause structure to be missed. In the JCMT LR1 reduction, the extent of the true structure of objects larger than a point source is never fully recovered.

  20. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: evidence for radiative heating and contamination in the W40 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, D.; Hatchell, J.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, H.; Wilson, T.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-08-01

    We present SCUBA-2 450{\\mu}m and 850{\\mu}m observations of the W40 complex in the Serpens-Aquila region as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey (GBS) of nearby star-forming regions. We investigate radiative heating by constructing temperature maps from the ratio of SCUBA-2 fluxes using a fixed dust opacity spectral index, {\\beta} = 1.8, and a beam convolution kernel to achieve a common 14.8" resolution. We identify 82 clumps ranging between 10 and 36K with a mean temperature of 20{\\pm}3K. Clump temperature is strongly correlated with proximity to the external OB association and there is no evidence that the embedded protostars significantly heat the dust. We identify 31 clumps that have cores with densities greater than 105cm{^{-3}}. Thirteen of these cores contain embedded Class 0/I protostars. Many cores are associated with bright-rimmed clouds seen in Herschel 70 {\\mu}m images. From JCMT HARP observations of the 12CO 3-2 line, we find contamination of the 850{\\mu}m band of up to 20 per cent. We investigate the free-free contribution to SCUBA-2 bands from large-scale and ultracompact H ii regions using archival VLA data and find the contribution is limited to individual stars, accounting for 9 per cent of flux per beam at 450 {\\mu}m or 12 per cent at 850 {\\mu}m in these cases. We conclude that radiative heating has potentially influenced the formation of stars in the Dust Arc sub-region, favouring Jeans stable clouds in the warm east and fragmentation in the cool west.

  1. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: evidence for radiative heating and contamination in the W40 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, D.; Hatchell, J.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, H.; Wilson, T.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-08-01

    We present SCUBA-2 450 μm and 850 μm observations of the W40 complex in the Serpens-Aquila region as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey (GBS) of nearby star-forming regions. We investigate radiative heating by constructing temperature maps from the ratio of SCUBA-2 fluxes using a fixed dust opacity spectral index, β = 1.8, and a beam convolution kernel to achieve a common 14.8 arcsec resolution. We identify 82 clumps ranging between 10 and 36 K with a mean temperature of 20 ± 3 K. Clump temperature is strongly correlated with proximity to the external OB association and there is no evidence that the embedded protostars significantly heat the dust. We identify 31 clumps that have cores with densities greater than 105cm-3. 13 of these cores contain embedded Class 0/I protostars. Many cores are associated with bright-rimmed clouds seen in Herschel 70 μm images. From JCMT HARP observations of the 12CO 3-2 line, we find contamination of the 850 μm band of up to 20 per cent. We investigate the free-free contribution to SCUBA-2 bands from large-scale and ultracompact H II regions using archival VLA data and find the contribution is limited to individual stars, accounting for 9 per cent of flux per beam at 450 μm or 12 per cent at 850 μm in these cases. We conclude that radiative heating has potentially influenced the formation of stars in the Dust Arc sub-region, favouring Jeans stable clouds in the warm east and fragmentation in the cool west.

  2. A Search for Very Low-luminosity Objects in Gould Belt Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mi-Ryang; Lee, Chang Won; Dunham, Michael M.; Evans, Neal J., II; Kim, Gwanjeong; Allen, Lori E.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of a search for Very Low-Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs) in the Gould Belt (GB) clouds using infrared and sub-millimeter (sub-mm) data from 1.25 to 850 μm and our {{{N}}}2{{{H}}}+ (J = 1‑0) observations. We modified the criteria by Dunham et al. to select the VeLLOs in the GB clouds, finding 95 VeLLO candidates, 79 of which are newly identified in this study. Out of 95 sources, 44 were detected in both sub-mm continuum and {{{N}}}2{{{H}}}+ emission and were classified as Group A (the VeLLOs), and 51 sources detected in either sub-mm emission or {{{N}}}2{{{H}}}+ emission were classified with Group B as candidate VeLLOs. We find that these VeLLOs and the candidates are forming in environments different from those of the likely VeLLOs. Seventy-eight sources are embedded within their molecular clouds, and thus are likely VeLLOs forming in a dense environment. The remaining 17 sources are located in low-level extinction regions ({A}V\\lt 1) connected to the clouds, and can be either background sources or candidate substellar objects forming in an isolated mode. The VeLLOs and the candidates are likely more luminous and their envelopes tend to be more massive in denser environments. The VeLLOs and the candidates are more populous in the clouds where more YSOs form, indicating that they form in a manner similar to that of normal YSOs. The bolometric luminosities and temperatures of the VeLLOs are compared to predictions of episodic accretion models, showing that the low luminosities for most VeLLOs can be well explained by their status in the quiescent phases of a cycle of episodic mass accretion.

  3. Insights into the earliest stages of star cluster formationfrom Herschel Gould Belt survey observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Philippe; Ladjelate, Bilal; Könyves, Vera

    2015-08-01

    For a long time, the conventional wisdom has been that "clustered star formation" and "isolated (or distributed) star formation" represent two fundamentally distinct modes of the star formation process. Recent detailed infrared studies of the spatial distribution of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the solar neighborhood, however, suggest that there is a continuous distribution of YSO surface densities from a diffuse population to the densest groups or clusters, with no evidence for discrete modes of star formation (e.g. Bressert et al. 2010). Based on the results of the Herschel Gould Belt survey (http://gouldbelt-herschel.cea.fr) toward the nearest regions of "clustered" and "distributed" star formation, including the Ophiuchus and Taurus clouds, we will show how these two seemingly opposing views can be reconciled.The Herschel results point to the key role of the quasi-universal filamentary structure pervading the cold ISM (cf. André et al. 2014, Protostars and Planets VI). Indeed, a large fraction of the dense molecular gas is found to be in the form of filaments and most prestellar cores are located within dense, "supercritical" filaments. To a large extent, therefore, the spatial distribution of YSOs is inherited from the filamentary texture of molecular clouds, which is partly hierarchical and shaped by a combination of turbulent, magnetic, and gravitational effects. Wherever gravity dominates on large scales, a "hub-filament" system develops (cf. Myers 2009) and a protocluster is generated at the "hub" or junction of a converging network of filaments. More distributed star formation occurs along individual filaments with marginally supercritical masses per unit length.

  4. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: A First Look at Dense Cores in Orion B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, H.; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Mottram, J. C.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-02-01

    We present a first look at the SCUBA-2 observations of three sub-regions of the Orion B molecular cloud: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify 29, 564, and 322 dense cores in L1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071 respectively, using the SCUBA-2 850 μm map, and present their basic properties, including their peak fluxes, total fluxes, and sizes, and an estimate of the corresponding 450 μm peak fluxes and total fluxes, using the FellWalker source extraction algorithm. Assuming a constant temperature of 20 K, the starless dense cores have a mass function similar to that found in previous dense core analyses, with a Salpeter-like slope at the high-mass end. The majority of cores appear stable to gravitational collapse when considering only thermal pressure; indeed, most of the cores which have masses above the thermal Jeans mass are already associated with at least one protostar. At higher cloud column densities, above 1-2 × 1023 cm-2, most of the mass is found within dense cores, while at lower cloud column densities, below 1 × 1023 cm-2, this fraction drops to 10% or lower. Overall, the fraction of dense cores associated with a protostar is quite small (<8%), but becomes larger for the densest and most centrally concentrated cores. NGC 2023/2024 and NGC 2068/2071 appear to be on the path to forming a significant number of stars in the future, while L1622 has little additional mass in dense cores to form many new stars.

  5. Virginia Woolf and Leslie Stephen: a father's contribution to psychosis and genius.

    PubMed

    Bond, A H

    1986-10-01

    Leslie Stephen, the father of Virginia Woolf, was a cacophony of contradictions. From all accounts, he was a bully, a manipulator, and a blustering, pessimistic, emotionally dishonest man. Although he could be lovable, charming, whimsical, encouraging, and deeply devoted to his family, he subjugated the adult women in his household and at least one son to exploitation and abuse, demanding (and receiving from his wife and step-daughter) almost total abnegation of self. Julia Stephen, in contrast, was an optimistic, seemingly selfless person, who characteristically presented herself in an "up" mood to the world. Virginia incorporated both parental moods into her character structure, as have a number of the author's cyclothymic patients. Therefore, it is postulated that pessimism and habitual deflating affronts on the part of one parent, in combination with a compulsive "good mood" on the part of the second parent, are a particularly lethal combination of character traits, which in their offspring may contribute to the rapid mood shifting characteristic of manic depression. In contrast to Julie, Stephen was a presence who could not be side-stepped. This combination of sweet and monstrous attributes in her father's nature, and again in the contrasting temperaments of the parental couple, must have been impossible to integrate for the small Virginia, who already was desperately engaged in the struggle for selfhood. She could not complete her development on the oedipal level, although she loved her father dearly, because identification with her mother meant further threat to an identity already weakened at the separation-individuation phase of development. Virginia's solution was to identify with her father in his character, his sexual identity, and his profession. Stephen, who was particularly devoted to Virginia, whom he regarded as an extension of himself, encouraged this identification, and served as her teacher and mentor. In that sense, he truly was the captain of

  6. Sex differences in the long-term repeatability of the acute stress response in long-lived, free-living Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens).

    PubMed

    Small, Thomas W; Schoech, Stephan J

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that individual differences in the physiological stress response are persistent traits in many animals. To test the hypothesis that the stress-induced CORT (SI-CORT) response is repeatable over the adult life span of Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens), we sampled 32 male and 25 female free-living scrub-jays (aged 2-13 years) during a 9-year period (2004-2012). Each individual was sampled two to five times and samples were collected one or more years apart during the pre-breeding season (Jan-March). In addition, individuals sampled over the greatest time period (6-8 years) were analyzed separately to more closely assess long-term repeatability. SI-CORT was repeatable in females, but not males, when values were not corrected for confounding variables (agreement repeatability). However, when the year and time of day of sample collection were controlled (adjusted repeatability), SI-CORT was repeatable in both sexes. SI-CORT was also repeatable in the males and females sampled 6-8 years apart. Finally, baseline CORT levels of males, but not females, exhibited low but significant repeatability when adjusted for year. The results of this study demonstrate that differences in SI-CORT levels were repeatable within adult scrub-jays sampled up to 8 years apart. Further, the female SI-CORT response was more consistent between pre-breeding seasons than males, which may have resulted from males having higher SI-CORT plasticity in response to environmental conditions. These data support the hypothesis that the SI-CORT response of Florida scrub-jays develops before adulthood and persists throughout much, if not all, of their natural adult life span. PMID:25378217

  7. Significance of a basal melanin layer to production of non-iridescent structural plumage color: evidence from an amelanotic Steller's jay (Cyanocitta stelleri).

    PubMed

    Shawkey, Matthew D; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2006-04-01

    Non-iridescent structural plumage color is typically produced by coherent scattering of light within a matrix of keratin and air (a ;spongy layer') in feather barbs. It remains unclear what role, if any, the basal melanin layer underlying this spongy layer plays in the production of coloration. Amelanism in birds with structural color is a ;natural experiment' in which melanin pigmentation is lost, allowing us to identify the effects of the loss of melanin on structural color production. Here we use full-spectrum spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier analysis to compare the color and nanostructure of an amelanotic Steller's jay (Cyanocitta stelleri Gmelin) feather with a normal blue Steller's jay feather. As a control, we also examined a white domestic chicken (Gallus gallus Linnaeus) feather. The pale amelanotic jay feather had a broad reflectance curve with a blue/green peak, while the typical blue feather had a typical distinct bell-shaped blue curve with a UV/violet peak. The white chicken feather had a typical white reflectance curve with no discrete peaks. Electron microscopy revealed that both the amelanotic and blue feather barbs contained well-formed spongy layers that were of the correct size and arrangement to produce their measured peak reflectance values, whereas the chicken feather had no spongy layer. The washed-out color of the amelanotic jay feather was thus most probably caused by the loss of the basal melanin layer, suggesting that melanin functions to absorb incoherently scattered white light from the feather barb thereby increasing the purity of the color produced by the spongy layer. PMID:16547296

  8. Festschrift in the Honor of Stephen H. White’s 70th Birthday

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The Symposium ‘Frontiers in membrane and membrane protein biophysics: experiments and theory’, held this year at the University of California, Irvine (August 19–20), celebrated the 70th Birthday of Stephen H. White by bringing together distinguished experimentalists and theoreticians to discuss the state of the art and future challenges in the field of membrane and membrane protein biophysics. The meeting and this special issue highlight the highly interdisciplinary nature of membrane and membrane protein biophysics, and the tremendous contributions that S. H. White and his lab have brought to the field. PMID:21191785

  9. The genus Alphitobius Stephens (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Alphitobiini) in Africa and adjacent islands

    PubMed Central

    Schawaller, Wolfgang; Grimm, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Abstract All species of the genus Alphitobius Stephens, 1829 (Alphitobiini Reitter, 1917, subfamily Tenebrioninae Latreille, 1802) from Africa and adjacent islands are revised. New species: Alphitobius capitaneus sp. n. from Kenya. New synonyms: Cryptops ulomoides Solier, 1851, syn. n. of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1796); Alphitobius rufus Ardoin, 1976, syn. n. of Alphitobius hobohmi Koch, 1953); Peltoides (Micropeltoides) crypticoides Pic, 1916, syn. n. of Peltoides (Micropeltoides) opacus (Gerstaecker, 1871), comb. n. Homonym: Alphitobius ulomoides Koch, 1953 = Alphitobius arnoldi nom. n. New combinations from Alphitobius: Ulomoides basilewskyi (Ardoin, 1969), comb. n.; Peltoides (Micropeltoides) opacus (Gerstaecker, 1871), comb. n. Figures of all examined species are added and a species key is compiled. PMID:25009427

  10. Chromosomal mapping of tandem repeats in the Yesso Scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay, 1857), utilizing fluorescence in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Yang, Zujing; Liao, Huan; Zhang, Zhengrui; Huang, Xiaoting; Bao, Zhenmin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Construction of cytogenetic maps can provide important information for chromosome identification, chromosome evolution and genomic research. However, it hasn’t been conducted in many scallop species yet. In the present study, we attempted to map 12 fosmid clones containing tandem repeats by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the Yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay, 1857). The results showed 6 fosmid clones were successfully mapped and distributed in 6 different pairs of chromosomes. Three clones were respectively assigned to a pair of metacentric chromosomes, a pair of submetacentric chromosomes and a pair of telocentric chromosomes and the remaining 3 clones showed their loci on three different pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes by co-hybridization. In summary, totally 8 pairs of chromosomes of the Yesso scallop were identified by 6 fosmid clones and two rDNA probes. Furthermore, 6 tandem repeats of 5 clones were sequenced and could be developed as chromosome specific markers for the Yesso scallop. The successful localization of fosmid clones will undoubtedly facilitate the integration of linkage groups with cytogenetic map and genomic research for the Yesso scallop. PMID:27186345

  11. The Development of Caching and Object Permanence in Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica): Which Emerges First?

    PubMed Central

    Salwiczek, Lucie H.; Schlinger, Barney; Emery, Nathan J.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies on the food-caching behavior of corvids have revealed complex physical and social skills, yet little is known about the ontogeny of food caching in relation to the development of cognitive capacities. Piagetian object permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible. Here, the authors focus on Piagetian Stages 3 and 4, because they are hallmarks in the cognitive development of both young children and animals. Our aim is to determine in a food-caching corvid, the Western scrub-jay, whether (1) Piagetian Stage 4 competence and tentative caching (i.e., hiding an item invisibly and retrieving it without delay), emerge concomitantly or consecutively; (2) whether experiencing the reappearance of hidden objects enhances the timing of the appearance of object permanence; and (3) discuss how the development of object permanence is related to behavioral development and sensorimotor intelligence. Our findings suggest that object permanence Stage 4 emerges before tentative caching, and independent of environmental influences, but that once the birds have developed simple object-permanence, then social learning might advance the interval after which tentative caching commences. PMID:19685971

  12. Protostars, multiplicity, and disk evolution in the Corona Australis region: a Herschel Gould Belt Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, A.; Henning, T.; Linz, H.; André, P.; Stutz, A.; Eiroa, C.; White, G. J.

    2013-03-01

    Context. The CrA region and the Coronet cluster form a nearby (138 pc), young (1-2 Myr) star-forming region that hosts a moderate population of Class I, II, and III objects. Aims: We study the structure of the cluster and the properties of the protostars and protoplanetary disks in the region. Methods: We present Herschel PACS photometry at 100 and 160 μm, obtained as part of the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. The Herschel maps reveal the cluster members within the cloud with high sensitivity and high dynamic range. Results: Many of the cluster members are detected, including some embedded, very low-mass objects, several protostars (some of them extended), and substantial emission from the surrounding molecular cloud. Herschel also reveals some striking structures, such as bright filaments around the IRS 5 protostar complex and a bubble-shaped rim associated with the Class I object IRS 2. The disks around the Class II objects display a wide range of mid- and far-IR excesses consistent with different disk structures. We have modeled the disks with the RADMC radiative transfer code to quantify their properties. Some of them are consistent with flared, massive, relatively primordial disks (S CrA, T CrA). Others display significant evidence for inside-out evolution, consistent with the presence of inner holes/gaps (G-85, G-87). Finally, we found disks with a dramatic small dust depletion (G-1, HBC 677) that, in some cases, could be related to truncation or to the presence of large gaps in a flared disk (CrA-159). The derived masses for the disks around the low-mass stars are found to be below the typical values in Taurus, in agreement with previous Spitzer observations. Conclusions: The Coronet cluster presents itself as an interesting compact region that contains both young protostars and very evolved disks. The Herschel data provide sufficient spatial resolution to detect small-scale details, such as filamentary structures or spiral arms associated with multiple star

  13. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: evidence for radiative heating in Serpens MWC 297 and its influence on local star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, D.; Hatchell, J.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Kirk, H.; Buckle, J.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Allen, L. E.; Cieza, L. A.; Dunham, M. M.; Harvey, P. M.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Bastien, P.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-04-01

    We present SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm observations of the Serpens MWC 297 region, part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey of nearby star-forming regions. Simulations suggest that radiative feedback influences the star formation process and we investigate observational evidence for this by constructing temperature maps. Maps are derived from the ratio of SCUBA-2 fluxes and a two-component model of the JCMT beam for a fixed dust opacity spectral index of β = 1.8. Within 40 arcsec of the B1.5Ve Herbig star MWC 297, the submillimetre fluxes are contaminated by free-free emission with a spectral index of 1.03 ± 0.02, consistent with an ultracompact H II region and polar winds/jets. Contamination accounts for 73 ± 5 per cent and 82 ± 4 per cent of peak flux at 450 μm and 850 μm, respectively. The residual thermal disc of the star is almost undetectable at these wavelengths. Young stellar objects (YSOs) are confirmed where SCUBA-2 850 μm clumps identified by the FELLWALKER algorithm coincide with Spitzer Gould Belt Survey detections. We identify 23 objects and use Tbol to classify nine YSOs with masses 0.09 to 5.1 M⊙. We find two Class 0, one Class 0/I, three Class I and three Class II sources. The mean temperature is 15 ± 2 K for the nine YSOs and 32 ± 4 K for the 14 starless clumps. We observe a starless clump with an abnormally high mean temperature of 46 ± 2 K and conclude that it is radiatively heated by the star MWC 297. Jeans stability provides evidence that radiative heating by the star MWC 297 may be suppressing clump collapse.

  14. Stephen Neidle on cancer therapy and G-quadruplex inhibitors. Interview by Joanna De Souza.

    PubMed

    Neidle, Stephen

    2004-09-15

    Stephen Neidle was educated at Imperial College, London, where he graduated in chemistry and then proceeded to do a PhD in crystallography. After a period as an ICI Fellow, he joined the Biophysics Department at King's College, which ignited his interest in nucleic acid structural studies. He was appointed as one of the first Cancer Research Campaign Career Development Awardees, becoming a Life Fellow on moving to the Institute of Cancer Research. He was appointed to the Chair of Biophysics at the Institute of Cancer Research in 1990, and moved to the new Chair of Chemical Biology at the School of Pharmacy in the University of London in 2002, where he also directs the Cancer Research UK Biomolecular Structure Group. He is currently Chairman of the Chemical Biology Forum of the Royal Society of Chemistry, which is involved in developing the interface between chemistry and the life sciences. He will shortly assume the Directorship of the newly-established Centre for Cancer Medicines at the School. Stephen Neidle has received several awards for his work on drug-nucleic acid recognition and drug design, including the 2000 prize of the Biological and Medicinal Chemistry Sector of the Royal Society of Chemistry, and its 2002 Interdisciplinary Award. He was the 2004 Paul Ehrlich Lecturer of the French Societé de Chimie Therapeutique, and was recently awarded the 2004 Aventis Prize in Medicinal Chemistry. PMID:15364062

  15. A new species of Caenis Stephens, 1836 (Ephemeroptera: Caenidae) from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Lucas R C; Molineri, Carlos; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Caenis Stephens is described based on the male imago, female imago and egg stages from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The male imago of Caenis gaucha sp. nov. is diagnosed as follows: body length of male 2.0-2.5 mm; base of antennal flagellum not dilated; forceps apically rounded, not fused to lateral margins of styliger plate; styliger plate short with posterior margin slightly sub-triangular; ratio of foreleg 1.7-2.2 × the length of hind leg, forceps length 4.4-6.0 × the width ½ from base, and distance between the extreme lateral points of the forceps bases 1.7-1.8 × forceps length. PMID:25947532

  16. Stephen Hall Receives 2012 Walter Sullivan Award for Excellence in Science Journalism-Features: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Hall, a freelance science writer and science-communication teacher, received the Walter Sullivan Award for Excellence in Science Journalism-Features at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 5 December 2012 in San Francisco, Calif. Hall was honored for the article "At Fault?" published 15 September 2011 in Nature. The article examines the legal, personal, and political repercussions from a 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila, Italy for seismologists who had attempted to convey seismic risk assessments to the public. The 6.3 magnitude quake devastated the medieval town and caused more than 300 deaths. Six scientists and one government official were subsequently convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to prison for inadequately assessing and mischaracterizing the risks to city residents, despite the inexact nature of seismic risk assessment. The Sullivan award is for work published with a deadline pressure of more than 1 week.

  17. Solar space heating for the Visitors Center, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at the Visitors' Center on the Stephens College Campus, Columbia, Missouri is discussed. The system is installed in a four-story, 15,000 square foot building. The solar energy system is an integral design of the building and utilizes 176 hydronic flat plate collectors which use a 50 percent water ethylene blycol solution and water-to-water heat exchanger. Solar heated water is stored in a 5,000 gallon water storage tank located in the basement equipment room. A natural gas fired hot water boiler supplies hot water when the solar energy heat supply fails to meet the demand. The designed solar contribution is 71 percent of the heating load.

  18. Congruent population structure inferred from dispersal behaviour and intensive genetic surveys of the threatened Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma cœrulescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coulon, A.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Bowman, R.; Stith, B.M.; Makarewich, C.A.; Stenzler, L.M.; Lovette, I.J.

    2008-01-01

    The delimitation of populations, defined as groups of individuals linked by gene flow, is possible by the analysis of genetic markers and also by spatial models based on dispersal probabilities across a landscape. We combined these two complimentary methods to define the spatial pattern of genetic structure among remaining populations of the threatened Florida scrub-jay, a species for which dispersal ability is unusually well-characterized. The range-wide population was intensively censused in the 1990s, and a metapopulation model defined population boundaries based on predicted dispersal-mediated demographic connectivity. We subjected genotypes from more than 1000 individual jays screened at 20 microsatellite loci to two Bayesian clustering methods. We describe a consensus method for identifying common features across many replicated clustering runs. Ten genetically differentiated groups exist across the present-day range of the Florida scrub-jay. These groups are largely consistent with the dispersal-defined metapopulations, which assume very limited dispersal ability. Some genetic groups comprise more than one metapopulation, likely because these genetically similar metapopulations were sundered only recently by habitat alteration. The combined reconstructions of population structure based on genetics and dispersal-mediated demographic connectivity provide a robust depiction of the current genetic and demographic organization of this species, reflecting past and present levels of dispersal among occupied habitat patches. The differentiation of populations into 10 genetic groups adds urgency to management efforts aimed at preserving what remains of genetic variation in this dwindling species, by maintaining viable populations of all genetically differentiated and geographically isolated populations.

  19. Perspectives: Antioch University's James Craiglow and the University System of New Hampshire's Stephen Reno on Business and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Cherryl

    2003-01-01

    What does business want from higher education? What does higher education want from business? To shed light on these issues, the author conducted an interview with presidents of two distinctly different higher education systems, James H. Craiglow and Stephen J. Reno. Craiglow is the chancellor of Antioch University, a private five-campus…

  20. Chaetocnema Stephens, 1831 (Insecta, Coleoptera): proposed conservation of usage by designation of Altica hortensis Geoffroy, 1785 as the type species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this application, in relation to Article 70 of the Code, is to conserve the widespread usage of the generic name Chaetocnema Stephens, 1831 for a group for flea beetles (Chrysomelidae: Alticini) by validating Maulik’s (1926) designation of Altica hortensis Geoffroy, 1785 as the types ...

  1. Using H. Stephen Glenn's Developing Capable People Program with Adults in Montana: How Effective Is the Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Lorbeer, Scott

    1998-01-01

    Pre/posttest scores of 30 participants in H. Stephen Glenn's Developing Capable People (DCP) program offered by Montana Extension showed that DCP effectively increased the use of positive behaviors and decreased negative behaviors in adults interacting with youth. These changes were sustained over 18 months after program completion. (SK)

  2. All of Us Are Present. The Stephens College Symposium. Women's Education: The Future (Columbia, Missouri, February 15-18, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Eleanor M., Ed.; And Others

    Women's education and the future are considered in 10 papers/summaries from a 1983 symposium at Stephens College. Four basic themes are addressed: effects of social change on women's lives; the diversity of women students (in age, racial/ethnic background, economic level); structure/content of the college curriculum; and the necessity to make…

  3. A Historical Analysis of the Leadership and Strategic Plan of Chancellor Stephen R. Portch in the University System of Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild-Pierce, Jennifer Elis

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation provides historical insight into the design and implementation of one strategic plan of a public higher education system in an effort to inform future similar strategic planning processes. On July 1, 1994, the Board of Regents appointed Stephen R. Portch the ninth Chancellor of the University System of Georgia. The timing was…

  4. Chief Stephen's Parky: One Year in the Life of an Athapascan Girl. The Council for Indian Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandonnet, Ann

    This book tells the fictional story of Olga, the wife of Chief Stephen, leader of a Tanaina Athapascan village on Cook Inlet, northwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Olga works for one full year with great courage and independence trapping ground squirrels and gathering materials needed to tan, dye, and sew furs to make a parka for her husband. She uses…

  5. Globalization, Edu-Business and Network Governance: The Policy Sociology of Stephen J. Ball and Rethinking Education Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces developments across Stephen J. Ball's policy sociology in education "oeuvre" and considers their implications for doing research on education policy today. It begins with an account of his policy sociology trilogy from the 1990s, which outlined his conception of the policy cycle consisting of the contexts of…

  6. School Choice Research in Five European Countries: The Circulation of Stephen Ball's Concepts and Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zanten, Agnès; Kosunen, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the influence of Stephen Ball's work on research on markets and school choice in five European countries (Finland, France, Norway, Spain, and Sweden). The main focus is on the intellectual circulation of ideas, but the authors also take into account the relationship between ideas and social and political changes, as well…

  7. 75 FR 8741 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Stephen F. Austin State University... with the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma. The ceramic and arrow point styles were identified as Caddo,...

  8. Stephen J. Kramer: The Effects of Two Different Music Programs on Third and Fourth Grade Children's Ability to Match Pitches Vocally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apfelstadt, Hilary

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes and critiques Kramer's dissertation which compared the Gould Specialized Program in Singing with the New Providence K-5 Music Curriculum Guide on the premise that various types of imagery (aural, visual, and kinesthetic) play a vital role in developing vocal accuracy. States that despite complexity, the topic and Kramer's…

  9. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: low-mass protoplanetary discs from a SCUBA-2 census of NGC 1333

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodds, P.; Greaves, J. S.; Scholz, A.; Hatchell, J.; Holland, W. S.; JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2015-02-01

    NGC 1333 is a 1-2 Myr old cluster of stars in the Perseus molecular cloud. We used 850 μm data from the Gould Belt Survey with SCUBA-2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to measure or place limits on disc masses for 82 Class II sources in this cluster. Eight disc candidates were detected; one is estimated to have mass of about 9 MJup in dust plus gas, while the others host only 2-4 MJup of circumstellar material. None of these discs exceeds the threshold for the `minimum mass solar nebula' (MMSN). This reinforces previous claims that only a small fraction of Class II sources at an age of 1-2 Myr have discs exceeding the MMSN threshold and thus can form a planetary system like our own. However, other regions with similarly low fractions of MMSN discs (IC 348, UpSco, σ Ori) are thought to be older than NGC 1333. Compared with coeval regions, the exceptionally low fraction of massive discs in NGC 1333 cannot easily be explained by the effects of UV radiation or stellar encounters. Our results indicate that additional environmental factors significantly affect disc evolution and the outcome of planet formation by core accretion.

  10. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-01-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  11. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  12. Abraham Lincoln loses a medical malpractice case, debates Stephen A. Douglas, and secures two murder acquittals.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Allen D; Kavaler, Florence

    2004-02-01

    An improperly healed fracture was the most common reason for the medical malpractice crisis between the 1830s and 1860s in the United States. As a practicing lawyer in Illinois, Abraham Lincoln defended physicians in medical malpractice law suits. One of these was Dr. Powers Ritchey, who was sued for malpractice in 1855. Lincoln agreed to represent Dr. Ritchey in 1858 as the case was appealed to the supreme court of Illinois. In the interim, Lincoln defended two indicted murderers and won acquittals for both. Between the two murder trials, Lincoln debated Stephen A. Douglas while running for U.S. Senator from Illinois. Lincoln believed that Ritchey's case was poorly represented in the lower court. Ritchey's prior attorneys did not file a bill of exceptions to the testimony of the plaintiff's expert medical witnesses. Lincoln attempted to rebut the allegation of a lack of reasonable medical care and diligence by Ritchey, and he sought to secure a new trial for his client. In its decision, the supreme court of Illinois did not find any error and affirmed the lower court's judgment. PMID:14768936

  13. Straight talk with...Stephen O'Brien. Interviewed by Elie Dolgin.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Stephen O'Brien joined the US National Cancer Institute as a post doc in 1971 and climbed the ranks to become head of the institute's Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, a position he held for 25 years. But, after four decades at the government agency, O'Brien was ready for something new. In December 2011, he stepped down and took up a three-year, $5 million 'megagrant' in Russia through a program started a year earlier by the Russian Ministry of Education and Science to attract big-name researchers to work at least part-time in that country. O'Brien used his money to help launch the Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics at Saint Petersburg State University. Although O'Brien is a cancer researcher, he has diverse scientific interests. He led the team that discovered the CCR5-Δ32 mutation that confers resistance to HIV, and he has helped document the remarkable genetic uniformity of African cheetahs. Recently, he and two California scientists started the Genome 10K project, which aims to sequence the genetic blueprints of 10,000 vertebrate species. On a trip back to the US, O'Brien spoke with Elie Dolgin about how comparative genomics and his new Russian center will help advance the search for new therapeutics. PMID:23295996

  14. Solar space heating for the visitors' center, Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, Marion

    1980-06-01

    This document is the final report of the solar energy system located at the Visitors' Center on the Stephens College Campus, Columbia, Missouri. The system is installed in a four-story, 15,000 square foot building designed to include the college's Admission Office, nine guest rooms for overnight lodging for official guests of the college, a two-story art gallery, and a Faculty Lounge. The solar energy system is an integral design of the building and utilizes 176 Honeywell/Lennox hydronic flat-plate collectors which use a 50% water-ethylene glycol solution and water-to-water heat exchanger. Solar heated water is stored in a 5000 gallon water storage tank located in the basement equipment room. A natural gas fired hot water boiler supplies hot water when the solar energy heat supply fails to meet the demand. The designed solar contribution is 71% of the heating load. The demonstration period for this project ends June 30, 1984.

  15. First use of halothane in the United States, C. Ronald Stephen, M.D. (1916-2006).

    PubMed

    Giesecke, Adolph H

    2008-01-01

    Anesthesia is one of the most valued discoveries in all of history. Almost immediately after the first public demonstration of ether anesthesia, a search for a better drug began. Ether, despite its flammability, persisted as the primary inhalation agent for over a hundred years. The breakthrough came with the introduction of a non-flammable volatile anesthetic called halothane in 1955. The drug was approved by the FDA in 1958 and quickly became the most commonly used agent in the United States. It was a quantum leap forward in the safety of anesthetic drugs. It became obsolete in 1988 because of hepatotoxicity. Three eminent anesthesiologists: Drs. Abajian of Vermont, Siker of Pittsburgh and Stephen of Duke could have been the first to use halothane in the USA. My review of the documents and writings of the three confirm that Dr. C. Ronald Stephen of Duke University was indeed the first to use and publish on halothane anesthesia in the USA. PMID:20506766

  16. Payer Perspectives on PCSK9 Inhibitors: A Conversation with Stephen Gorshow, MD, and James T. Kenney, RPh, MBA.

    PubMed

    Mehr, Stanton R

    2016-02-01

    The new proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors can have significant budget effects, depending on the breadth of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s approved labeling. American Health & Drug Benefits asked Stephen Gorshow, MD, Regional Medical Director, UnitedHealthcare, and James T. Kenney, RPh, MBA, Manager, Specialty and Pharmacy Contracts, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, to participate in a teleconference to better understand how payers are approaching the management of these agents. PMID:27066194

  17. Genetic analysis of adult plant, quantitative resistance to stripe rust in wheat cultivar 'Stephens' in multi-environment trials.

    PubMed

    Dolores Vazquez, M; James Peterson, C; Riera-Lizarazu, Oscar; Chen, Xianming; Heesacker, Adam; Ammar, Karim; Crossa, Jose; Mundt, Christopher C

    2012-01-01

    The wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar 'Stephens' has been grown commercially in the USA Pacific Northwest for 30 years. The durable resistance of 'Stephens' to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) was believed to be due to a combination of seedling and adult plant resistance genes. Multilocation field trials, diversity array technology (DArT), and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance. Recombinant inbred lines were assessed for stripe rust response in eight locations/years, five in 2008 and three in 2009. The data from Mt. Vernon, WA, differed from all other environments, and composite interval mapping (CIM) identified three QTL, QYrst.orr-1AL, QYrst.orr-4BS, and QYrpl.orr-6AL, which accounted for 12, 11, and 6% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. CIM across the remaining six environments identified four main QTL. Two QTL, QYrst.orr-2BS.2 and QYrst.orr-7AS, were detected in five of six environments and explained 11 and 15% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. Two other QTL, QYrst.orr-2AS and QYrpl.orr-4BL, were detected across four and three of six environments, and explained 19 and 9% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. The susceptible parent 'Platte' contributed QYrpl.orr-4BL and QYrpl.orr-6AL, with the remaining QTL originating from 'Stephens'. For each environment, additional minor QTL were detected, each accounting for 6-10% of the phenotypic variance. Different QTL with moderate effects were identified in both 'Stephens' and 'Platte'. Significant QTL × environment interactions were evident, suggesting that specificity to plant stage, pathogen genotype, and/or temperature was important. PMID:21912857

  18. Payer Perspectives on PCSK9 Inhibitors: A Conversation with Stephen Gorshow, MD, and James T. Kenney, RPh, MBA

    PubMed Central

    Mehr, Stanton R.

    2016-01-01

    The new proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors can have significant budget effects, depending on the breadth of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s approved labeling. American Health & Drug Benefits asked Stephen Gorshow, MD, Regional Medical Director, UnitedHealthcare, and James T. Kenney, RPh, MBA, Manager, Specialty and Pharmacy Contracts, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, to participate in a teleconference to better understand how payers are approaching the management of these agents. PMID:27066194

  19. A new species of the genus Quedius Stephens, 1829, subgenus Microsaurus Dejean, 1833, from northeastern North America (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Staphylinini, Quediina)

    PubMed Central

    Smetana, Aleš; Webster, Reginald P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The paper contains a description of a new species of the subgenus Microsaurus Dejean, 1833, of the genus Quedius Stephens, 1829, based on specimens from northeastern North America (Canada: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick; USA: New Hampshire). PMID:21998540

  20. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. V. OPHIUCHUS NORTH OBSERVED WITH IRAC AND MIPS

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, J.; Terebey, S.; Huard, T.; Mamajek, E. E. E-mail: sterebe@calstatela.edu; and others

    2012-08-01

    We present Spitzer IRAC (2.1 deg{sup 2}) and MIPS (6.5 deg{sup 2}) observations of star formation in the Ophiuchus North (Oph N) molecular clouds. This fragmentary cloud complex lies on the edge of the Sco-Cen OB association, several degrees to the north of the well-known {rho} Oph star-forming region, at an approximate distance of 130 pc. The Oph N clouds were mapped as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt project under the working name 'Scorpius'. In the regions mapped, selected to encompass all the cloud with visual extinction A{sub V} > 3, 11 young stellar object (YSO) candidates are identified, 8 from IRAC/MIPS color-based selection and 3 from Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) K{sub S} /MIPS colors. Adding to one source previously identified in L43, this increases the number of YSOcs identified in Oph N to 12. During the selection process, four color-based YSOcs were rejected as probable asymptotic giant branch stars and one as a known galaxy. The sources span the full range of YSOc classifications from Class 0/1 to Class III, and starless cores are also present. Twelve high extinction (A{sub V} > 10) cores are identified with a total mass of {approx}100 M{sub Sun }. These results confirm that there is little ongoing star formation in this region (instantaneous star formation efficiency <0.34%) and that the bottleneck lies in the formation of dense cores. The influence of the nearby Upper Sco OB association, including the 09V star {zeta} Oph, is seen in dynamical interactions and raised dust temperatures but has not enhanced levels of star formation in Oph N.

  1. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: the effect of molecular contamination in SCUBA-2 observations of Orion A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudé, S.; Bastien, P.; Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Graves, S.; Hatchell, J.; Chapin, E. L.; Gibb, A. G.; Matthews, B.; JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2016-04-01

    Thermal emission from cold dust grains in giant molecular clouds can be used to probe the physical properties, such as density, temperature and emissivity in star-forming regions. We present the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA-2) shared-risk observations at 450 and 850 μm of the Orion A molecular cloud complex taken at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Previous studies showed that molecular emission lines can contribute significantly to the measured fluxes in those continuum bands. We use the Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme 12CO J = 3-2 integrated intensity map for Orion A in order to evaluate the molecular line contamination and its effects on the SCUBA-2 maps. With the corrected fluxes, we have obtained a new spectral index α map for the thermal emission of dust in the well-known integral-shaped filament. Furthermore, we compare a sample of 33 sources, selected over the Orion A molecular cloud complex for their high 12CO J = 3-2 line contamination, to 27 previously identified clumps in OMC 4. This allows us to quantify the effect of line contamination on the ratio of 850-450 μm flux densities and how it modifies the deduced spectral index of emissivity β for the dust grains. We also show that at least one Spitzer-identified protostellar core in OMC 5 has a 12CO J = 3-2 contamination level of 16 per cent. Furthermore, we find the strongest contamination level (44 per cent) towards a young star with disc near OMC 2. This work is part of the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey.

  2. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. IV. LUPUS V AND VI OBSERVED WITH IRAC AND MIPS

    SciTech Connect

    Spezzi, Loredana; Vernazza, Pierre; Merin, Bruno; Allen, Lori E.; Evans, Neal J. II; Harvey, Paul M.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Peterson, Dawn; Cieza, Lucas A.; Dunham, Michael M.; Huard, Tracy L.; Tothill, Nick F. H.

    2011-04-01

    We present Gould's Belt (GB) Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the Lupus V and VI clouds and discuss them in combination with near-infrared (2MASS) data. Our observations complement those obtained for other Lupus clouds within the frame of the Spitzer 'Core to Disk' (c2d) Legacy Survey. We found 43 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in Lupus V and 45 in Lupus VI, including two transition disks, using the standard c2d/GB selection method. None of these sources was classified as a pre-main-sequence star from previous optical, near-IR, and X-ray surveys. A large majority of these YSO candidates appear to be surrounded by thin disks (Class III; {approx}79% in Lupus V and {approx}87% in Lupus VI). These Class III abundances differ significantly from those observed for the other Lupus clouds and c2d/GB surveyed star-forming regions, where objects with optically thick disks (Class II) dominate the young population. We investigate various scenarios that can explain this discrepancy. In particular, we show that disk photoevaporation due to nearby OB stars is not responsible for the high fraction of Class III objects. The gas surface densities measured for Lupus V and VI lie below the star formation threshold (A{sub V} {approx} 8.6 mag), while this is not the case for other Lupus clouds. Thus, few Myr older age for the YSOs in Lupus V and VI with respect to other Lupus clouds is the most likely explanation of the high fraction of Class III objects in these clouds, while a higher characteristic stellar mass might be a contributing factor. Better constraints on the age and binary fraction of the Lupus clouds might solve the puzzle but require further observations.

  3. Test series 1: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Gould NCX-2250 battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L. L.; Hente, D. B.; Kukreti, B. M.; Schendel, J. S.; Tulk, J. D.; Janis, W. J.; Black, D A; Paulsen, G. D.; Aucoin, B. D.

    1984-09-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged, nuclear station, safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds; and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the end-of-life of a battery, given a seismic event. This report covers the first test series of an extensive program using 12-year old, lead-calcium, Gould NCX-2250 cells, from the James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Station operated by the New York Power Authority. Seismic tests with three cell configurations were performed using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; multi-cell (three) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack; and single-cell tests specifically aimed towards examining propagation of pre-existing case cracks. In general the test philosophy was to monitor the electrical properties including discharge capacity of cells through a graduated series of g-level step increases until either the shake-table limits were reached or until electrical failure of the cells occurred. Of nine electrically active cells, six failed during seismic testing over a range of imposed g-level loads in excess of a 1-g ZPA. Post-test examination revealed a common failure mode, the cracking at the abnormally brittle, positive lead bus-bar/post interface; further examination showed that the failure zone was extremely coarse grained and extensively corroded. Presently accepted accelerated-aging methods for qualifying batteries, per IEEE Std. 535-1979, are based on plate growth, but these naturally-aged 12-year old cells showed no significant plate growth.

  4. ITER Plasma at Electron Cyclotron Frequency Domain: Stimulated Raman Scattering off Gould-Trivelpiece Modes and Generation of Suprathermal Electrons and Energetic Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering in the electron cyclotron frequency range of the X-Mode and O-Mode driver with the ITER plasma leads to the ``tail heating'' via the generation of suprathermal electrons and energetic ions. The scattering off Trivelpiece-Gould (T-G) modes is studied for the gyrotron frequency of 170GHz; X-Mode and O-Mode power of 24 MW CW; on-axis B-field of 10T. The synergy between the two-plasmon decay and Raman scattering is analyzed in reference to the bulk plasma heating. Supported in part by Nikola TESLA Labs, La Jolla, CA

  5. Depositional environments and diagenesis of lower Pennsylvanian Caddo Formation, Stephens County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Guzan, M.; Humphrey, J. )

    1987-02-01

    Since its discovery in 1916, the Lower Pennsylvanian Caddo limestone has been one of the most prolific producing intervals in the central Texas region. Favorable reservoir characteristics, with porosities from 9 to 24% and permeabilities from 0.1 to 1,000 md in the pay interval, have enabled many oil companies to initiate successful secondary recovery waterflood projects. Since its discovery, more than 200 million bbl of oil has been recovered from this formation in Stephens County alone. The Caddo reef trend developed during the Early Pennsylvanian, generally along the axis of the Bend flexure. Close examination of whole core and thin sections reveals the formation to be a series of small reef mounds characterized by wackestones. The wackestones consist of green algae, brachiopods, and some rugose corals, which are found on the leeward side (back reef). This sequence is commonly found in the top segment of the Caddo. Deeper into the formation the sequence grades into a packstone/wackestone, characteristic of an oceanward margin (fore reef), and is distinguished by red algae, foraminifera (fusulinids and miliolids), and crinoid hash. The basal sequence is a series of alternating lime mudstones and shales that are heavily silicified. Diagenesis is the key to reservoir rock quality. Moldic porosity was created through dissolution of organisms composed of low magnesium calcite (brachiopods) and aragonite (corals) during periods of subaerial exposure of the back reef. During this period of low sea level, fore-reef sediments were partly cemented by CaCO{sub 3} and were not subaerially exposed. Therefore, moldic porosity was not created in the fore-reef sediments. Porosity in the fore reef was later created in places by dissolution of this cement. Secondary dolomite was later precipitated along pore walls, and in places it occluded porosity in the pore spaces.

  6. THE HERSCHEL AND JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEYS: CONSTRAINING DUST PROPERTIES IN THE PERSEUS B1 CLUMP WITH PACS, SPIRE, AND SCUBA-2

    SciTech Connect

    Sadavoy, S. I.; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Fallscheer, C.; Matthews, B.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T.; Drabek, E.; Hatchell, J.; Nutter, D.; Andre, Ph.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Koenyves, V.; Benedettini, M.; Bernard, J.-P.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Friesen, R.; Greaves, J.; Collaboration: JCMT and Herschel Gould Belt Survey teams; and others

    2013-04-20

    We present Herschel observations from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey and SCUBA-2 science verification observations from the JCMT Gould Belt Survey of the B1 clump in the Perseus molecular cloud. We determined the dust emissivity index using four different techniques to combine the Herschel PACS+SPIRE data at 160-500 {mu}m with the SCUBA-2 data at 450 {mu}m and 850 {mu}m. Of our four techniques, we found that the most robust method was filtering out the large-scale emission in the Herschel bands to match the spatial scales recovered by the SCUBA-2 reduction pipeline. Using this method, we find {beta} Almost-Equal-To 2 toward the filament region and moderately dense material and lower {beta} values ({beta} {approx}> 1.6) toward the dense protostellar cores, possibly due to dust grain growth. We find that {beta} and temperature are more robust with the inclusion of the SCUBA-2 data, improving estimates from Herschel data alone by factors of {approx}2 for {beta} and by {approx}40% for temperature. Furthermore, we find core mass differences of {approx}< 30% compared to Herschel-only estimates with an adopted {beta} = 2, highlighting the necessity of long-wavelength submillimeter data for deriving accurate masses of prestellar and protostellar cores.

  7. The Spitzer survey of interstellar clouds in the gould belt. VI. The Auriga-California molecular cloud observed with IRAC and MIPS

    SciTech Connect

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Harvey, Paul M.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F.; Tothill, Nicholas F. H.; Nutter, David; Bourke, Tyler L.; DiFrancesco, James; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Allen, Lori E.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Dunham, Michael M.; Merín, Bruno; Terebey, Susan; Peterson, Dawn E.; and others

    2014-05-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70, and 160 μm observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg{sup 2} with IRAC and 10.47 deg{sup 2} with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors, and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkHα 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the relative fraction of YSOs in earlier (Class I and F) and later (Class II) classes compared to other clouds. We perform simple SED modeling of the YSOs with disks to compare the mid-IR properties to disks in other clouds and identify 14 classical transition disk candidates. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size, and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15-20 times fewer stars.

  8. The Spitzer Survey of Interstellar Clouds in the Gould Belt. VI. The Auriga-California Molecular Cloud Observed with IRAC and MIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Harvey, Paul M.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Tothill, Nicholas F. H.; Nutter, David; Bourke, Tyler L.; DiFrancesco, James; Jorgensen, Jes K.; Allen, Lori E.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Dunham, Michael M.; Merin, Bruno; Miller, Jennifer F.; Terebey, Susan; Peterson, Dawn E.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70 and 160 micrometers observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg(exp 2) with IRAC and 10.47 deg2 with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkH(alpha) 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the fraction of YSOs in the region with disks relative to an estimate of the diskless YSO population. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15 - 20 times fewer stars.

  9. The JCMT Legacy Survey of the Gould Belt: mapping 13CO and C18O in Orion A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, J. V.; Davis, C. J.; Francesco, J. Di; Graves, S. F.; Nutter, D.; Richer, J. S.; Roberts, J. F.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.; Brunt, C.; Butner, H. M.; Cavanagh, B.; Chrysostomou, A.; Curtis, E. I.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Etxaluze, M.; Fich, M.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Greaves, J. S.; Hatchell, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Matthews, B.; Matthews, H.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Sadavoy, S.; Simpson, R. J.; Tothill, N. F. H.; Tsamis, Y. G.; Viti, S.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Yates, J.

    2012-05-01

    The Gould Belt Legacy Survey will map star-forming regions within 500 pc, using Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme (HARP), Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) and Polarimeter 2 (POL-2) on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). This paper describes HARP observations of the J= 3 → 2 transitions of 13CO and C18O towards Orion A. The 15 arcsec resolution observations cover 5 pc of the Orion filament, including OMC 1 (including BN-KL and Orion bar), OMC 2/3 and OMC 4, and allow a comparative study of the molecular gas properties throughout the star-forming cloud. The filament shows a velocity gradient of ˜1 km s-1 pc-1 between OMC 1, 2 and 3, and high-velocity emission is detected in both isotopologues. The Orion Nebula and Bar have the largest masses and linewidths, and dominate the mass and energetics of the high-velocity material. Compact, spatially resolved emission from CH3CN, 13CH3OH, SO, HCOOCH3, CH3CHO and CH3OCHO is detected towards the Orion Hot Core. The cloud is warm, with a median excitation temperature of ˜24 K; the Orion Bar has the highest excitation temperature gas, at >80 K. The C18O excitation temperature correlates well with the dust temperature (to within 40 per cent). The C18O emission is optically thin, and the 13CO emission is marginally optically thick; despite its high mass, OMC 1 shows the lowest opacities. A virial analysis indicates that Orion A is too massive for thermal or turbulent support, but is consistent with a model of a filamentary cloud that is threaded by helical magnetic fields. The variation of physical conditions across the cloud is reflected in the physical characteristics of the dust cores. We find similar core properties between starless and protostellar cores, but variations in core properties with position in the filament. The OMC 1 cores have the highest velocity dispersions and masses, followed by OMC 2/3 and OMC 4. The differing fragmentation of these cores may explain why OMC 1 has formed

  10. Four new species of Meligethes Stephens from China and additional data on other species of the genus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae: Meligethinae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Meike; Yang, Xingke; Huang, Min; Jelínek, Josef; Audisio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Four new species of Meligethes Stephens, 1830, M. (s.str.) macrofemoratus (Shaanxi, Ningxia), M. (s.str.) yak (NW Sichuan), M. (s.str.) auropilosus (Tibet) and M. (Odontogethes) aurorugosus (Tibet) spp. nov., are described and illustrated from China. Diagnostic characters distinguishing these new species from closely related taxa are discussed. The previously unknown male of Meligethes (s.str.) aureolineatus Audisio, Sabatelli & Jelínek, 2015 from Sichuan and the previously unknown female of M. (Odontogethes) scrobescens Chen, Lin, Huang & Yang, 2015 from Sichuan are also described. Additional data are also presented on the geographic distribution and life history of other Chinese Meligethes species. PMID:27395211

  11. A census of dense cores in the Aquila cloud complex: SPIRE/PACS observations from the Herschel Gould Belt survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves, V.; André, Ph.; Men'shchikov, A.; Palmeirim, P.; Arzoumanian, D.; Schneider, N.; Roy, A.; Didelon, P.; Maury, A.; Shimajiri, Y.; Di Francesco, J.; Bontemps, S.; Peretto, N.; Benedettini, M.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Elia, D.; Griffin, M. J.; Hill, T.; Kirk, J.; Ladjelate, B.; Marsh, K.; Martin, P. G.; Motte, F.; Nguyên Luong, Q.; Pezzuto, S.; Roussel, H.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Sadavoy, S. I.; Schisano, E.; Spinoglio, L.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    We present and discuss the results of the Herschel Gould Belt survey (HGBS) observations in an 11 deg2 area of the Aquila molecular cloud complex at d 260 pc, imaged with the SPIRE and PACS photometric cameras in parallel mode from 70 μm to 500 μm. Using the multi-scale, multi-wavelength source extraction algorithm getsources, we identify a complete sample of starless dense cores and embedded (Class 0-I) protostars in this region, and analyze their global properties and spatial distributions. We find a total of 651 starless cores, 60% ± 10% of which are gravitationally bound prestellar cores, and they will likely form stars inthe future. We also detect 58 protostellar cores. The core mass function (CMF) derived for the large population of prestellar cores is very similar in shape to the stellar initial mass function (IMF), confirming earlier findings on a much stronger statistical basis and supporting the view that there is a close physical link between the stellar IMF and the prestellar CMF. The global shift in mass scale observed between the CMF and the IMF is consistent with a typical star formation efficiency of 40% at the level of an individual core. By comparing the numbers of starless cores in various density bins to the number of young stellar objects (YSOs), we estimate that the lifetime of prestellar cores is 1 Myr, which is typically 4 times longer than the core free-fall time, and that it decreases with average core density. We find a strong correlation between the spatial distribution of prestellar cores and the densest filaments observed in the Aquila complex. About 90% of the Herschel-identified prestellar cores are located above a background column density corresponding to AV 7, and 75% of them lie within filamentary structures with supercritical masses per unit length ≳16 M⊙/pc. These findings support a picture wherein the cores making up the peak of the CMF (and probably responsible for the base of the IMF) result primarily from the

  12. The Herschel Gould Belt Survey in Chamaeleon II. Properties of cold dust in disks around young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezzi, L.; Cox, N. L. J.; Prusti, T.; Merín, B.; Ribas, Á.; Alves de Oliveira, C.; Winston, E.; Kóspál, Á.; Royer, P.; Vavrek, R.; André, Ph.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Testi, L.; Bressert, E.; Ricci, L.; Men'shchikov, A.; Könyves, V.

    2013-07-01

    Context. We report on the Herschel Gould Belt survey (HGBS) of the Chamaeleon II (Cha II) star-forming region, focusing on the detection of Class I to III young stellar objects (YSOs). Aims: We aim at characterizing the circumstellar material around these YSOs and at understanding which disk parameters are most likely constrained by the new HGBS data, which are expected to be crucial for studying the transition from optically thick disks to evolved debris-type disks. Methods: We recovered 29 of the 63 known YSOs in Cha II with a detection in at least one of the PACS/SPIRE pass-bands: 3 Class I YSOs (i.e.,100%), 1 flat source (i.e., 50%), 21 Class II objects (i.e., 55%), 3 Class III objects (i.e, 16%), and the unclassified far-infrared source IRAS 12522-7640. We explored PACS/SPIRE colors of this sample and modeled their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from the optical to Herschel's wavelengths with the RADMC-2D radiative transfer code. Results: We find that YSO colors are typically confined to the following ranges: -0.7 ≲ log (F70 / F160) ≲ 0.5, -0.5 ≲ log (F160 / F250) ≲ 0.6, 0.05 ≲ log (F250 / F350) ≲ 0.25 and -0.1 ≲ log (F350 / F500) ≲ 0.5. These color ranges are expected to be only marginally contaminated by extragalactic sources and field stars and, hence, provide a useful YSO selection tool when applied together. We were able to model the SED of 26 of the 29 detected YSOs. We discuss the degeneracy/limitations of our SED fitting results and adopted the Bayesian method to estimate the probability of different values for the derived disk parameters. The Cha II YSOs present typical disk inner radii ≲0.1 AU, as previously estimated in the literature on the basis of Spitzer data. Our probability analysis shows that, thanks to the new Herschel data, the lower limits to the disk mass (Mdisk) and characteristic radius (RC) are well constrained, while the flaring angle (1 + φ) is only marginally constrained. The lower limit to RC is typically

  13. Behaviour and stability of Trivelpiece-Gould modes in non-neutral plasma containing small density fraction of background gas ions

    SciTech Connect

    Yeliseyev, Y. N.

    2013-03-19

    It is shown that the frequencies of Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) modes in non-neutral plasma can get into the low-frequency range due to the Doppler shift caused by plasma rotation in crossed fields. TG modes interact with the ion modes that leads to plasma instability. In paper the frequency spectrum of 'cold' electron plasma completely filling a waveguide and containing small density fraction of ions of background gas is determined numerically. For ions the kinetic description is used. Oscillations having azimuthal number m= 2 are considered. In this case both low- and upper-hybrid TG modes get into the low-frequency range. The spectrum consists of families of 'modified' ion cyclotron (MIC) modes and electron TG modes with the frequencies equal to hybrid frequencies with the Doppler shift. The growth rates of upper-hybrid modes are much faster than the growth rates of low-hybrid and MIC modes.

  14. Counterfactuals and history: Contingency and convergence in histories of science and life.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Ian

    2016-08-01

    This article examines a series of recent histories of science that have attempted to consider how science may have developed in slightly altered historical realities. These works have, moreover, been influenced by debates in evolutionary science about the opposing forces of contingency and convergence in regard to Stephen Jay Gould's notion of "replaying life's tape." The article argues that while the historians under analysis seem to embrace contingency in order to present their counterfactual narratives, for the sake of historical plausibility they are forced to accept a fairly weak role for contingency in shaping the development of science. It is therefore argued that Simon Conway Morris's theory of evolutionary convergence comes closer to describing the restrained counterfactual worlds imagined by these historians of science than does contingency. PMID:26791094

  15. The Ascent of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Brian L.

    2000-04-01

    From the revolutionary discoveries of Galileo and Newton to the mind-bending theories of Einstein and Heisenberg, from plate tectonics to particle physics, from the origin of life to universal entropy, and from biology to cosmology, here is a sweeping, readable, and dynamic account of the whole of Western science.In the approachable manner and method of Stephen Jay Gould and Carl Sagan, the late Brian L. Silver translates our most important, and often most obscure, scientific developments into a vernacular that is not only accessible and illuminating but also enjoyable. Silver makes his comprehensive case with much clarity and insight; his book aptly locates science as the apex of human reason, and reason as our best path to the truth. For all readers curious about--or else perhaps intimidated by--what Silver calls "the scientific campaign up to now", The Ascent of Science will be fresh, vivid, and fascinating reading.

  16. Surveillance for West Nile Virus and Vaccination of Free-Ranging Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis) on Santa Cruz Island, California

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Sillett, T. Scott; Caldwell, Luke; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Barker, Christopher M.; Cummings, Robert; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) on mainland California poses an ongoing threat to the island scrub-jay (ISSJ, Aphelocoma insularis), a species that occurs only on Santa Cruz Island, California, and whose total population numbers <5000. Our report describes the surveillance and management efforts conducted since 2006 that are designed to understand and mitigate for the consequences of WNV introduction into the ISSJ population. We suspect that WNV would most likely be introduced to the island via the movement of infected birds from the mainland. However, antibody testing of >750 migrating and resident birds on the island from 2006 to 2009 indicated that WNV had not become established by the end of 2009. Several species of competent mosquito vectors were collected at very low abundance on the island, including the important mainland vectors Culex tarsalis and Culex quinquefasciatus. However, the island was generally cooler than areas of mainland California that experienced intense WNV transmission, and these lower temperatures may have reduced the likelihood of WNV becoming established because they do not support efficient virus replication in mosquitoes. A vaccination program was initiated in 2008 to create a rescue population of ISSJ that would be more likely to survive a catastrophic outbreak. To further that goal, we recommend managers vaccinate >100 ISSJ each year as part of ongoing research and monitoring efforts. PMID:21438695

  17. Reproductive Ecology Of The Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma Coerulescens) On John F. Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge: A Long-Term Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Geoffry M.; Breininger, David R.; Larson, Vicky L.; Oddy, Donna M.; Smith, Rebecca B.; Stolen, Eric D.

    2005-01-01

    From 1988 to 2002 we studied the breeding ecology of Florida Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) on John F. Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. We examined phenology, clutch size, hatching failure rates, fledgling production, nest success, predation rates, sources egg and nestling mortality, and the effects of helpers on these measures. Nesting phenology was similar among sites. Mean clutch size at Titan was significantly larger than at HC or T4. Pairs with helpers did not produce larger clutches than pairs without helpers. Fledgling production at T4 was significantly greater than at HC and similar to Titan. Pairs with helpers at HC produced significantly more fledglings than pairs without helpers; helpers did not influence fledgling production at the other sites. Nest success at HC and Titan was low, 19% and 32% respectively. Nest success at T4 was 48% and was significantly greater than at HC. Average predation rates at all sites increased with season progression. Predation rates at all sight rose sharply by early June. The main cause of nest failure at all sites was predation, 93%.

  18. Social influence of a religious hero: the late Cardinal Stephen Kim Sou-hwan's effect on cornea donation and volunteerism.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyuhn-Suhck; Brown, William J; Kang, Seok

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the mediated influence of a celebrated religious hero in South Korea, Cardinal Stephen Kim, through two forms of involvement--parasocial interaction and identification--on intention toward cornea donation and volunteerism, and it investigated how the news media diffused of his death. A structural equation modeling analysis with a Web-based voluntary survey of more than 1,200 people in South Korea revealed a multistep social influence process, beginning with parasocial interaction with Cardinal Kim, leading to identification with him, which predicted intention toward cornea donation and volunteerism. Additional investigations found that news of Cardinal Kim's death diffused rapidly through media and interpersonal communication. Results of this study demonstrate that religious leaders who achieve a celebrity hero status can prompt public discussion of important issues rather quickly through extensive media coverage, enabling them to promote prosocial behavior and positively affect public health. PMID:21086210

  19. Three who made an association: I. Sir William Osler, 1849-1919 II. George Milbry Gould, 1848-1922 III. Margaret Ridley Charlton, 1858-1931 and the founding of the Medical Library Association, Philadelphia, 1898.

    PubMed Central

    Groen, F K

    1996-01-01

    The careers and personalities of the three founders of the Medical Library Association, Sir William Osler, George Milbry Gould, and Margaret Ridley Charlton are outlined, followed by a review of their role in the founding of the association. The career of Sir William Osler is well documented in existing literature, both in medical history and medical librarianship; the biographies of George Milbry Gould and Margaret Ridley Charlton are less known, and this article describes their lives in relation to the founding of the association. The issue of responsibility for the association's founding is explored, and primary recognition is attributed to Margaret Charlton. The author attempts to follow the tradition of Harvey Cushing in his The Life of Sir William Osler in allowing the characters to speak in their own words as much as possible. Images PMID:8883979

  20. Three who made an association: I. Sir William Osler, 1849-1919. II. George Milbry Gould, 1848-1922. III. Margaret Ridley Charlton, 1858-1931 and the founding of the Medical Library Association, Philadelphia, 1898.

    PubMed Central

    Groen, F K

    1998-01-01

    The careers and personalities of the three founders of the Medical Library Association, Sir William Osler, George Milbry Gould, and Margaret Ridley Charlton are outlined, followed by a review of their role in the founding of the association. The career of Sir William Osler is well documented in existing literature, both in medical history and medical librarianship; the biographies of George Milbry Gould and Margaret Ridley Charlton are less known, and this article describes their lives in relation to the founding of the association. The issue of responsibility for the association's founding is explored, and primary recognition is attributed to Margaret Charlton. The author attempts to follow the tradition of Harvey Cushing in his The Life of Sir William Osler in allowing the characters to speak in their own words as much as possible. Images PMID:9578937

  1. Cytotoxic effects of Jay Amin hydroxamic acid (JAHA), a ferrocene-based class I histone deacetylase inhibitor, on triple-negative MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Librizzi, Mariangela; Longo, Alessandra; Chiarelli, Roberto; Amin, Jahanghir; Spencer, John; Luparello, Claudio

    2012-11-19

    The histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are a class of chemically heterogeneous anticancer agents of which suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a prototypical member. SAHA derivatives may be obtained by three-dimensional manipulation of SAHA aryl cap, such as the incorporation of a ferrocene unit like that present in Jay Amin hydroxamic acid (JAHA) and homo-JAHA [ Spencer , et al. ( 2011 ) ACS Med. Chem. Lett. 2 , 358 - 362 ]. These metal-based SAHA analogues have been tested for their cytotoxic activity toward triple-negative MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells. The results obtained indicate that of the two compounds tested, only JAHA was prominently active on breast cancer cells with an IC(50) of 8.45 μM at 72 h of treatment. Biological assays showed that exposure of MDA-MB231 cells to the HDACi resulted in cell cycle perturbation with an alteration of S phase entry and a delay at G(2)/M transition and in an early reactive oxygen species production followed by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) dissipation and autophagy inhibition. No annexin binding was observed after short- (5 h) and longer (24 and 48 h) term incubation with JAHA, thereby excluding the promotion of apoptosis by the HDACi. Although caution must be exercised in extrapolation of in vitro results to the in vivo situation for which research on animals and human trials are needed, nevertheless JAHA treatment possesses the potential for its development as an agent for prevention and/or therapy of "aggressive" breast carcinoma, thus prompting us to get more insight into the molecular basis of its antibreast cancer activity. PMID:23094795

  2. Singing from the Grave: DNA from a 180 Year Old Type Specimen Confirms the Identity of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens)

    PubMed Central

    Price, Ben W.; Henry, Charles S.; Hall, Andie C.; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Duelli, Peter; Brooks, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Historically serving as repositories for morphologically-based taxonomic research, natural history collections are now increasingly being targeted in studies utilizing DNA data. The development of advanced molecular techniques has facilitated extraction of useable DNA from old specimens, including type material. Sequencing diagnostic molecular markers from type material enables accurate species designation, especially where modern taxonomic hypotheses confirm morphologically cryptic species complexes. One such example is Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), which belongs to a complex of about 20 cryptic species, most of which can only be reliably distinguished by their pre-mating courtship songs or by DNA analysis. The subtle morphological variation in the group has led to disagreement over the previous designation of the lectotype for C. carnea, an issue that has been further compounded because Chrysoperla carnea is a highly valued biological control agent in arable crops. Archival DNA extraction and sequencing from the 180 year old lectotype specimen, combined with Bayesian and Likelihood based phylogenetic analyses of modern specimens from the entire complex, were used to establish unambiguously the true identity of Chrysoperla carnea. PMID:25853856

  3. Identification and mapping QTL for high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar 'Stephens'.

    PubMed

    Santra, D K; Chen, X M; Santra, M; Campbell, K G; Kidwell, K K

    2008-09-01

    High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance from the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar 'Stephens' has protected wheat crops from stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici for 30 years. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for HTAP resistance in Stephens through genetic linkage analysis and identify DNA markers linked to the QTL for use in marker-assisted breeding. Mapping populations consisted of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) through single-seed descent from 'Stephens' (resistant) x 'Michigan Amber' (susceptible). F(5), F(6) and F(7) RILs were evaluated for stripe rust resistance at Pullman, WA in 1996, 1997 and 1998, respectively, whereas F(8) RILs were evaluated at Mt Vernon, WA, USA in 2005. The 101 F(8) RILs were evaluated with 250 resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP), 245 simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 1 sequence tagged site (STS) markers for genetic linkage map construction. Two QTL, which explained 48-61% of the total phenotypic variation of the HTAP resistance in Stephens, were identified. QYrst.wgp-6BS.1 was within a 3.9-cM region flanked by Xbarc101 and Xbarc136. QYrst.wgp-6BS.2 was mapped in a 17.5-cM region flanked by Xgwm132 and Xgdm113. Both two QTL were physically mapped to the short arm of chromosome 6B, but in different bins. Validation and polymorphism tests of the flanking markers in 43 wheat genotypes indicated that the molecular markers associated with these QTL should be useful in marker-assisted breeding programs to efficiently incorporate HTAP resistance into new wheat cultivars. PMID:18584147

  4. Biodiversity of Spongosorites coralliophaga (Stephens, 1915) on coral rubble at two contrasting cold-water coral reef settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazanidis, Georgios; Henry, Lea-Anne; Roberts, J. Murray; Witte, Ursula F. M.

    2016-03-01

    Cold-water coral reefs (CWRs) in the northeast Atlantic harbor diverse sponge communities. Knowledge of deep-sea sponge ecology is limited and this leaves us with a fragmented understanding of the ecological roles that sponges play in CWR ecosystems. We present the first study of faunal biodiversity associated with the massive demosponge Spongosorites coralliophaga (Stephens, 1915) that typically colonizes coral debris fields of CWRs. Our study focused on the sessile fauna inhabiting sponges mixed with coral rubble at two contrasting settings in the northeast Atlantic: the shallow inshore (120-190 m water depth) Mingulay Reef Complex (MRC) and the deep offshore (500-1200 m) Logachev Mound (LM) coral province. MRC is dominated by the scleractinian Lophelia pertusa, while LM is dominated by L. pertusa and Madrepora oculata. Nine sponge-coral rubble associations were collected from MRC and four from LM. Measurements of abundance, species richness, diversity, evenness, dry biomass, and composition of sessile fauna on sponge and coral rubble microhabitats were undertaken. Differences in community composition between the two regions were mainly a response to changes in fauna with depth. Fauna composition was also different between sponge and coral rubble within each region. Infauna constituted a minor component of the sponge-associated fauna in MRC but had a higher contribution in LM. Sponge and coral rubble sessile fauna in both regions was mainly composed of cnidarians and molluscs, similarly to some previous studies. Sponges' outer surfaces at MRC were colonized by a species-rich community with high abundance and biomass suggesting that S. coralliophaga at MRC acts as a settlement surface for various organisms but such a role is not the case at LM. This difference in the role of S. coralliophaga as a biological structure is probably related to differences in fauna composition with depth, bottom current speed, and the quantity/quality of food supplied to the benthos.

  5. Stephen Hales: the contributions of an Enlightenment physiologist to the study of the kidney in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2016-02-01

    Stephen Hales (1677-1761) was an English clergyman who made major contributions to a wide range of scientific topics such as botany, chemistry, pneumatics, and physiology. Early in his career he developed a keen interest in medicine through his association with his younger physician friend at Cambridge, William Stukeley (1687-1765), with whom he dissected animals and attended experiments in the laboratory of Isaac Newton. His fame as a scientist grew and by the end of his life he had achieved an international reputation as a major scientist of the Enlightenment. He is best known for his 1733 Statical Essays, in the second part of which he describes his studies in animal physiology. Most famous amongst those are his assessments of the force of the blood, which he measured in horses and dogs. Less well known and often unrecognized are his studies on the kidney in health and disease, which are the focus of this review. Amongst others Hales described the effects of hemorrhagic shock which he observed as he bled his animals while measuring their blood pressure; he then studied the effect of increasing saline perfusion pressures on the renal secretion of urine; and delved into biochemistry in exploring the composition of and solutions to dissolve bladder stones. His 1733 statement in the introduction to his hemodynamic studies that the healthy State of the Animal principally consists, in the maintaining of a due Equilibrium between the body solids and fluids literally predicts the milieu intrieur that would ultimately be formulated in 1854 by Claude Bernard (1813-1878). PMID:26913873

  6. Laparoscopy-assisted orchiopexy versus laparoscopic two-stage fowler stephens orchiopexy for nonpalpable testes: Comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Alzahem, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    Background/Purpose: To assess the outcome of the primary laparoscopy-assisted orchiopexy (LAO) and the laparoscopic two-stage Fowler Stephens orchiopexy (FSO) for managing patients with nonpalpable testis in terms of safety, feasibility and efficacy. Materials and Methods: This study included 94 patients (110 nonpalpable testes) who underwent laparoscopy at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh between July 1998 and June 2012. Patients were evaluated postoperatively to check the location and size of testes and to exclude any other complications. Results: Mean age at presentation was 24+/−19 months (9-96 months). Orchiectomy was done for 5 atrophic testes. 36 open orchiopexy was done for 29 canalicular testes and 7 peeping testes. 35 LAO were done for 1 canalicular testis, 5 peeping testes, 16 low intraabdominal testes and 13 high intraabdominal testes. 34 FSO were done for 23 high intraabdominal testes, 9 low intraabdominal testes and 2 peeping testes. Median follow up was 12 months (1-84 months) and 6 patients were lost to follow up. The overall success rates for LAO and FSO were 88% and 63%, respectively. Overall testicular atrophy rates were 3% and 30% for LAO and FSO, respectively (OR 0.08 [95% CI, 0.01-0.69], P = 0.006). For high intraabdominal testes, the atrophy rates were 3% and 20% for LAO and FSO, respectively (OR 0.14 [95% CI, 0.02-1.21, P = 0.049).Testicular displacement rates were 9% and 7% for LAO and FSO, respectively (OR 1.5, 95% CI, 0.24-9.59, P = 0.514). Conclusions: Laparoscopy provides a safe and accurate modality for diagnosing and managing patients with nonpalpable testes. LAO appears to be feasible and effective in management of high intraabdominal testes. Further well-conducted comparative studies are needed. PMID:23798870

  7. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: first results from the SCUBA-2 observations of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud and a virial analysis of its prestellar core population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattle, K.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Kirk, J. M.; White, G. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Buckle, J.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Kirk, H.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Francesco, J. Di; Hogerheijde, M. R.; André, Ph.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Griffin, M. J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Knee, L. B. G.; Könyves, V.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Spinoglio, L.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present the first observations of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud performed as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey (GBS) with the SCUBA-2 instrument. We demonstrate methods for combining these data with previous HARP CO, Herschel, and IRAM N2H+ observations in order to accurately quantify the properties of the SCUBA-2 sources in Ophiuchus. We produce a catalogue of all of the sources found by SCUBA-2. We separate these into protostars and starless cores. We list all of the starless cores and perform a full virial analysis, including external pressure. This is the first time that external pressure has been included in this level of detail. We find that the majority of our cores are either bound or virialized. Gravitational energy and external pressure are on average of a similar order of magnitude, but with some variation from region to region. We find that cores in the Oph A region are gravitationally bound prestellar cores, while cores in the Oph C and E regions are pressure-confined. We determine that N2H+ is a good tracer of the bound material of prestellar cores, although we find some evidence for N2H+ freeze-out at the very highest core densities. We find that non-thermal linewidths decrease substantially between the gas traced by C18O and that traced by N2H+, indicating the dissipation of turbulence at higher densities. We find that the critical Bonnor-Ebert stability criterion is not a good indicator of the boundedness of our cores. We detect the pre-brown dwarf candidate Oph B-11 and find a flux density and mass consistent with previous work. We discuss regional variations in the nature of the cores and find further support for our previous hypothesis of a global evolutionary gradient across the cloud from south-west to north-east, indicating sequential star formation across the region.

  8. The JCMT and Herschel Gould Belt Surveys: A comparison of SCUBA-2 and Herschel data of dense cores in the Taurus dark cloud L1495

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward-Thompson, D.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, J. M.; Marsh, K.; Buckle, J.; Hatchell, J.; Nutter, D. J.; Griffin, M. J.; Di Francesco, J.; André, P.; Beaulieu, S.; Berry, D.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Mottram, J.; Pineda, J.; Quinn, C.; Sadavoy, S.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; White, G.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Palmeirim, P.; Pezzuto, S.

    2016-08-01

    We present a comparison of SCUBA-2 850-μm and Herschel 70-500-μm observations of the L1495 filament in the Taurus Molecular Cloud with the goal of characterising the SCUBA-2 Gould Belt Survey (GBS) data set. We identify and characterise starless cores in three data sets: SCUBA-2 850-μm, Herschel 250-μm, and Herschel 250-μm spatially filtered to mimic the SCUBA-2 data. SCUBA-2 detects only the highest-surface-brightness sources, principally detecting protostellar sources and starless cores embedded in filaments, while Herschel is sensitive to most of the cloud structure, including extended low-surface-brightness emission. Herschel detects considerably more sources than SCUBA-2 even after spatial filtering. We investigate which properties of a starless core detected by Herschel determine its detectability by SCUBA-2, and find that they are the core's temperature and column density (for given dust properties). For similar-temperature cores, such as those seen in L1495, the surface brightnesses of the cores are determined by their column densities, with the highest-column-density cores being detected by SCUBA-2. For roughly spherical geometries, column density corresponds to volume density, and so SCUBA-2 selects the densest cores from a population at a given temperature. This selection effect, which we quantify as a function of distance, makes SCUBA-2 ideal for identifying those cores in Herschel catalogues that are closest to forming stars. Our results can now be used by anyone wishing to use the SCUBA-2 GBS data set.

  9. Ecological effects of the harvest phase of geoduck clam (Panopea generosa Gould, 1850) aquaculture on infaunal communities in southern Puget Sound, Washington USA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vanblaricom, Glenn R.; Eccles, Jennifer L.; Olden, Julian D.; Mcdonald, P. Sean

    2015-01-01

    Intertidal aquaculture for geoducks (Panopea generosa Gould, 1850) is expanding in southern Puget Sound, Washington, where gently sloping sandy beaches are used for field culture. Geoduck aquaculture contributes significantly to the regional economy, but has become controversial because of a range of unresolved questions involving potential biological impacts on marine ecosystems. From 2008 through 2012, the authors used a “before-after-control-impact” experimental design, emphasizing spatial scales comparable with those used by geoduck culturists to evaluate the effects of harvesting market-ready geoducks on associated benthic infaunal communities. Infauna were sampled at three different study locations in southern Puget Sound at monthly intervals before, during, and after harvests of clams, and along extralimital transects extending away from the edges of cultured plots to assess the effects of harvest activities in adjacent uncultured habitat. Using multivariate statistical approaches, strong seasonal and spatial signals in patterns of abundance were found, but there was scant evidence of effects on the community structure associated with geoduck harvest disturbances within cultured plots. Likewise, no indications of significant “spillover” effects of harvest on uncultured habitat adjacent to cultured plots were noted. Complementary univariate approaches revealed little evidence of harvest effects on infaunal biodiversity and indications of modest effects on populations of individual infaunal taxa. Of 10 common taxa analyzed, only three showed evidence of reduced densities, although minor, after harvests whereas the remaining seven taxa indicated either neutral responses to harvest disturbances or increased abundance either during or in the months after harvest events. It is suggested that a relatively active natural disturbance regime, including both small-scale and large-scale events that occur with comparable intensity but more frequently than

  10. Convergent evolution as natural experiment: the tape of life reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Powell, Russell; Mariscal, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Stephen Jay Gould argued that replaying the 'tape of life' would result in radically different evolutionary outcomes. Recently, biologists and philosophers of science have paid increasing attention to the theoretical importance of convergent evolution-the independent origination of similar biological forms and functions-which many interpret as evidence against Gould's thesis. In this paper, we examine the evidentiary relevance of convergent evolution for the radical contingency debate. We show that under the right conditions, episodes of convergent evolution can constitute valid natural experiments that support inferences regarding the deep counterfactual stability of macroevolutionary outcomes. However, we argue that proponents of convergence have problematically lumped causally heterogeneous phenomena into a single evidentiary basket, in effect treating all convergent events as if they are of equivalent theoretical import. As a result, the 'critique from convergent evolution' fails to engage with key claims of the radical contingency thesis. To remedy this, we develop ways to break down the heterogeneous set of convergent events based on the nature of the generalizations they support. Adopting this more nuanced approach to convergent evolution allows us to differentiate iterated evolutionary outcomes that are probably common among alternative evolutionary histories and subject to law-like generalizations, from those that do little to undermine and may even support, the Gouldian view of life. PMID:26640647

  11. From weird wonders to stem lineages: the second reclassification of the Burgess Shale fauna.

    PubMed

    Brysse, Keynyn

    2008-09-01

    The Burgess Shale, a set of fossil beds containing the exquisitely preserved remains of marine invertebrate organisms from shortly after the Cambrian explosion, was discovered in 1909, and first brought to widespread popular attention by Stephen Jay Gould in his 1989 bestseller Wonderful life: The Burgess Shale and the nature of history. Gould contrasted the initial interpretation of these fossils, in which they were 'shoehorned' into modern groups, with the first major reexamination begun in the 1960s, when the creatures were perceived as 'weird wonders', possessing unique body plans and unrelated to modern organisms. More recently, a third phase of Burgess Shale studies has arisen, which has not yet been historically examined. This third phase represents a revolutionary new understanding, brought about, I believe, by a change in taxonomic methodology that led to a new perception of the Burgess creatures, and a new way to comprehend their relationships with modern organisms. The adoption of cladistics, and its corollary, the stem group concept, has forged a new understanding of the Burgess Shale ... but has it also changed the questions we are allowed to ask about evolution? PMID:18761282

  12. Stephen's Second Birthday

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Catherine C.

    1977-01-01

    A mother relates the first 2 years of development and treatment of her son with cystic hygroma, a rare condition which affects the lymph glands and causes tumors in the neck, tongue, and in more serious cases, the lungs. (SBH)

  13. Hawking, Stephen W (1942-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Cosmologist and theoretical astrophysicist, born in Oxford, England, where he studied physics at University College. Moved to Cambridge to take up research in general relativity and cosmology, became Lucasian professor (an appointment earlier held by ISAAC NEWTON, with whom Hawking has been compared). Hawking worked to develop a valid mathematical treatment of the `singularities' in the theor...

  14. HMGB in Mollusk Crassostrea ariakensis Gould: Structure, Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Function Characterization and Anti-Infection Role of Its Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ting; Ye, Shigen; Luo, Ming; Zhu, Zewen; Wu, Xinzhong

    2012-01-01

    Background Crassostrea ariakensis Gould is a representative bivalve species and an economically important oyster in China, but suffers severe mortalities in recent years that are caused by rickettsia-like organism (RLO). Prevention and control of this disease is a priority for the development of oyster aquaculture. It has been proven that mammalian HMGB (high mobility group box) can be released extracellularly and acts as an important pro-inflammatory cytokine and late mediator of inflammatory reactions. In vertebrates, HMGB’s antibody (anti-HMGB) has been shown to confer significant protection against certain local and systemic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated the functions of Ca-HMGB (oyster HMGB) and anti-CaHMGB (Ca-HMGB’s antibody) in oyster RLO/LPS (RLO or LPS)-induced disease or inflammation. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequencing analysis revealed Ca-HMGB shares conserved structures with mammalians. Tissue-specific expression indicates that Ca-HMGB has higher relative expression in hemocytes. Significant continuous up-regulation of Ca-HMGB was detected when the hemocytes were stimulated with RLO/LPS. Recombinant Ca-HMGB protein significantly up-regulated the expression levels of some cytokines. Indirect immunofluorescence study revealed that Ca-HMGB localized both in the hemocyte nucleus and cytoplasm before RLO challenge, but mainly in the cytoplasm 12 h after challenge. Western blot analysis demonstrated Ca-HMGB was released extracellularly 4–12 h after RLO challenge. Anti-CaHMGB was added to the RLO/LPS-challenged hemocyte monolayer and real-time RT-PCR showed that administration of anti-CaHMGB dramatically reduced the rate of RLO/LPS-induced up-regulation of LITAF at 4–12 h after treatment. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that administration of anti-CaHMGB reduced RLO/LPS-induced hemocyte apoptosis and necrosis rates. Conclusions/Significance Ca-HMGB can be released extracellularly and its subcellular localization varies

  15. The description of Centrorhynchus globirostris n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) from the pheasant crow, Centropus sinensis (Stephens) in Pakistan, with gene sequence analysis and emendation of the family diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Wilson, Eric; Keele, Brianna; Khan, Aly

    2015-06-01

    A new species of Centrorhynchus (Centrorhynchidae) with receptacle insertion at the posterior third of the proboscis is described from the pheasant crow Centropus sinensis (Stephens) (Cuculidae) in Pakistan. Centrorhynchu sglobirostris n. sp. is similar to the 98 other known species of Centrorhynchus Lühe, 1911 in having long cylindrical trunk with anterior dilation and transverse anastomoses of the secondary lacunar vessels. However, specimens of C. globirostris differ from all other species of the genus by having a unique globular proboscis not divided into anterior proboscis with rooted hooks and posterior proboscis with rootless spines. Posterior hooks of C. globirostris emerge at the level of the receptacle insertion and are uniquely fully rooted. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of C. globirostris 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes reveals the genetic and evolutionary relationships between C. globirostris and other members of Centrorhynchidae which have representative orthologs in public databases. Comparison to known acanthocephalans confirms appropriate inclusion in the genus Centrorhynchus. PMID:25804972

  16. Local knowledge, environmental politics, and the founding of ecology in the United States. Stephen Forbes and "The Lake as a Microcosm" (1887).

    PubMed

    Schneider, D W

    2000-12-01

    Stephen Forbes's "The Lake as a Microcosm" is one of the founding documents of the science of ecology in the United States. By tracing the connections between scientists and local fishermen underlying the research on floodplain lakes presented in "The Lake as a Microcosm," this essay shows how the birth of ecology was tied to local knowledge and the local politics of environmental transformation. Forbes and the other scientists of the Illinois Natural History Survey relied on fishermen for manual labor, expertise in catching fish, and knowledge of the natural history of the fishes. As Forbes and his colleagues worked in close contact with fishermen, they also adopted many of their political concerns over the privatization of the floodplain and became politically active in supporting their interests. The close connection between scientists and local knowledge forced the ecologists to reframe the boundaries of ecology as objective or political, pure or applied, local or scientific. PMID:11284229

  17. Unravelling dropsy: from Marcello Malpighi's discovery of the capillaries (1661) to Stephen Hales' production of oedema in an experimental model (1733).

    PubMed

    Andreae, L; Fine, L G

    1997-01-01

    A modern understanding of oedema formation traditionally begins with Starling's description in 1898 of hydrostatic and oncotic forces acting on the capillary membrane. Clearly, hypotheses of oedema formation predating the knowledge of the existence of capillaries must have been incomplete. Marcello Malpighi first described capillaries in 1661, but although he displayed a good grasp of the principles of the Harveian circulation and believed that oedema fluid (the clinical entity dropsy) was derived from the blood rather than the tissues, we have found no evidence that he realised the central role played by his discovery. However, only 60 years later, Stephen Hales' Haemastaticks reveals the creation of an experimental model for dropsy which led him towards an understanding of oedema formation not far behind Starling. PMID:9189256

  18. "The Role of the Unit in Physics and Psychometrics" by Stephen Humphry--One Small Step for the Rasch Model, but Possibly One Giant Leap for Measurement in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzberger, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Compared to traditional test theory, where person measures are typically referenced to the distribution of a population, item response theory allows for a much more meaningful interpretation of measures as they can be directly compared to item locations. However, Stephen Humphry shows that the crucial role of the unit of measurement has been…

  19. Topical toxicity of two acetonic fractions of Trichilia havanensis Jacq. and four insecticides to larvae and adults of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Huerta, A; Medina, P; Smagghe, G; Castañera, P; Viñuela, E

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of botanical origin compounds such as two acetonic fractions of the seed kernels of the Meliacea Trichilia havanensis Jacq with insecticide properties (azadirone (F12) and the mixture F18 [1,7+3,7-di-O-acethylhavanensin (4:1)], three insecticides commercially available (imidacloprid, natural pyrethrins+PBO, triflumuron) and phloxine B, were tested in the laboratory. Topical bioassays using third instar and newly emerged adults of the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) at the maximum field recommended rate in Spain for commercials and at 1,000 ppm of active ingredient for T. havanensis acetone fractions and phloxine-B, were carried out. Imidacloprid and triflumuron were very toxic to third instar larvae inhibiting adult emergence, being the rest of insecticides harmless. Fecundity and fertility were not affected by the non-toxic compounds. Concerning adults, only imidacloprid and natural pyrethrins killed them significantly 24 hours after treatment. Phloxine B, triflumuron and T. havanensis fractions were harmless and did not cause any effect on fecundity and fertility with the exception of triflumuron, which reduced considerably the egg hatch. It can be concluded that T. havanensis acetonic fractions and phloxine B were non-toxic to larvae and adults of C. carnea when treated topically, whereas triflumuron, natural pyrethrins and imidacloprid affected one or more of the evaluated parameters under our conditions. PMID:15149120

  20. Post-exposure temperature influence on the toxicity of conventional and new chemistry insecticides to green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Afzal, Muhammad; Raza, Abu Bakar M.; Akram, Zeeshan; Waqar, Adil; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad

    2014-01-01

    Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) is an important biological control agent currently being used in many integrated pest management (IPM) programs to control insect pests. The effect of post-treatment temperature on insecticide toxicity of a spinosyn (spinosad), pyrethroid (lambda cyhalothrin), organophosphate (chlorpyrifos) and new chemistry (acetamiprid) to C. carnea larvae was investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature coefficients of each insecticide tested were evaluated. From 20 to 40 °C, toxicity of lambda cyhalothrin and spinosad decreased by 2.15- and 1.87-fold while toxicity of acetamiprid and chlorpyrifos increased by 2.00 and 1.79-fold, respectively. The study demonstrates that pesticide effectiveness may vary according to environmental conditions. In cropping systems where multiple insecticide products are used, attention should be given to temperature variation as a key factor in making pest management strategies safer for biological control agents. Insecticides with a negative temperature coefficient may play a constructive role to conserve C. carnea populations. PMID:25972753

  1. Post-exposure temperature influence on the toxicity of conventional and new chemistry insecticides to green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Muhammad Mudassir; Afzal, Muhammad; Raza, Abu Bakar M; Akram, Zeeshan; Waqar, Adil; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad

    2015-05-01

    Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) is an important biological control agent currently being used in many integrated pest management (IPM) programs to control insect pests. The effect of post-treatment temperature on insecticide toxicity of a spinosyn (spinosad), pyrethroid (lambda cyhalothrin), organophosphate (chlorpyrifos) and new chemistry (acetamiprid) to C. carnea larvae was investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature coefficients of each insecticide tested were evaluated. From 20 to 40 °C, toxicity of lambda cyhalothrin and spinosad decreased by 2.15- and 1.87-fold while toxicity of acetamiprid and chlorpyrifos increased by 2.00 and 1.79-fold, respectively. The study demonstrates that pesticide effectiveness may vary according to environmental conditions. In cropping systems where multiple insecticide products are used, attention should be given to temperature variation as a key factor in making pest management strategies safer for biological control agents. Insecticides with a negative temperature coefficient may play a constructive role to conserve C. carnea populations. PMID:25972753

  2. My Most Memorable AAS Meeting, or How Stephen Hawking's Chauffeur and Chubby Wise's Fiddle Are Related to the Hubble Deep Field (At Least In My Mind and Experience!)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, R. A.

    1999-05-01

    Sometimes, in the most extraordinary conditions and times, strange things happen which remind us of just how small a world we really inhabit, and how so many varied things may suddenly be juxtaposed in our lives, and in the lives of others. My most memorable AAS meeting involves not only the meeting but events while getting there. It was January 1996, and we had just finished our observations and initial data reduction of the Hubble Deep Field, the members of the HDF working group doggedly coming in to the STScI by various means over the December holidays and the New Year, in the midst of several blizzards which even closed STScI for a number of days. Not surprisingly, work on the HDF AAS presentations was ongoing until the last minute, until people left snowy Baltimore for sunny San Antonio. My street was plowed for the first time in a week a few hours before my 6AM flight, so after digging out my car, with no time for sleep, between 3AM and 6AM on the morning I left, I soon discovered my own surprising connections between Stephen Hawking's chauffeur, Chubby Wise's fiddle, and the Hubble Deep Field. I'll elaborate in this paper if you're curious!

  3. Meet the GPM Team: Jay Parker

    NASA Video Gallery

    It takes hundreds of designers, engineers and technicians to build the largest spacecraft ever assembled at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the GPM Core Observatory. Check out a few of the team...

  4. Interview with Jay O'Callahan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Don

    2008-01-01

    Usually stories have elements of risk, trouble, challenge, adventure. These elements are universal because they're part of life. A story gets exciting when someone takes a risk. With risk there's tension and with tension there's energy, and the energy draws us into who the story. NASA's work involves great risk. Sometimes, as with Challenger and Columbia, the result is tragedy. I had a sense the astronauts were invulnerable. They were so well trained, and the engineers behind them were superb. Nothing was going to go wrong. That's one of the reasons the Challenger crew's death moved people so deeply. Christa McAuliffe was not an engineer; she was a teacher and she died, and the whole space enterprise became very human. The Challenger lifted off and in seventy-three seconds the Space Shuttle disintegrated. Seventy-three seconds. That's a day I'll remember, like the day of Kennedy's death. The danger was there, but we were lulled into thinking the space flight was routine. My firm: job would be to talk with MAS people-scientists, engineers, astronauts. I'm sure that underneath the whole NASA enterprise there is a sense of wonder. Perhaps science and myth are coming together in NASA. The myths of old were often stories about the sun, the stars, and the moon. Now with NASA, we're going out there. NASA is turning our eyes heavenward just as the ancients did.

  5. Jay Carter Enterprises, Incorporated steam engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment (SCSE) selected an organic rankine cycle (ORC) engine driving a high speed permanent magnet alternator (PMA) as the baseline power conversion subsystem (PCS) design. The back-up conceptual PCS design is a steam engine driving an induction alternator delivering power directly to the grid. The development of the automotive reciprocating simple rankine cycle steam engine and how an engine of similar design might be incorporated into the SCSE is discussed. A description of the third generation automotive engine is included along with some preliminary test data. Tests were conducted with the third generation engine driving an induction alternator delivering power directly to the grid. The purpose of these tests is to further verify the effects of expander inlet temperature, input thermal power level, expansion ratio, and other parameters affecting engine performance to aid in the development of an SCSE PCS.

  6. Franz Samelson (1923-2015).

    PubMed

    Harris, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Franz Samelson, social psychologist and historian of psychology, died in Manhattan, Kansas, on March 16, 2015. Franz joined the Psychology Department at Kansas State University (KSU) in 1957 and rose through the ranks to retire as Professor in 1990. At KSU he taught social psychology informed by his dislike of narrow empiricism and a growing interest in historical topics. The history of social psychology, Franz believed, was distorted by post-World War II desires for value-free empiricism. Gordon Allport, he showed, created an origin myth for the field that suited his values, obscuring the ideological diversity of his predecessors. Turning to intelligence and intelligence testing, Franz's research again altered the scholarly landscape. Although it was long believed that psychologists' testing in World War I demonstrated the usefulness of their young science, Franz revealed this to be another disciplinary myth. Next, Franz showed that a popular history of IQ testing (Stephen Jay Gould's Mismeasure of Man) was distorted by the author's liberal enthusiasm-again showing his willingness to take on the political left as well as the right. PMID:26766769

  7. Gray, Stephen (1666-1736)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer and scientist, born in Canterbury, Kent, England. Something of a scientific enigma, Gray at first devoted his energy to astronomy, observing eclipses, sunspots, the satellites of Jupiter, and communicating his results to the first Astronomer Royal, JOHN FLAMSTEED. He was interested in instrumentation and invented a microscope in which a drop of water was the lens. In his later years, h...

  8. Ultrastructure and molecular characterization of the microsporidium, Nosema chrysoperlae sp. nov., from the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) used for biological pest control.

    PubMed

    Bjørnson, S; Steele, T; Hu, Q; Ellis, B; Saito, T

    2013-09-01

    Lacewing larvae are generalist predators that are commercially available for aphid control on a variety of crops in both Europe and North America. Although lacewings are known for their symbiotic association with yeasts and bacteria, there are few reports of microsporidia in these natural enemies. An undescribed microsporidium was found in Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) during the routine examination of specimens that were obtained from a commercial insectary for biological pest control. The objective of this study was to describe the pathogen by means of ultrastructure, molecular characterization and tissue pathology. All stages of the microsporidium were diplokaryotic and developed in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm. Merogony and sporogony were not observed. Mature spores measured 3.49±0.10×1.52±0.05μm and had an isofilar polar filament with 8-10 coils that were frequently arranged in a single row, although double rows were also observed. Spores contained a lamellar polaroplast and a relatively small and inconspicuous polar vacuole was observed in the posterior region of about half of the spores that were examined. Tubular structures, similar in appearance to those in Nosema granulosis were observed in both sporonts and in spores. A cluster of small tubules was also observed in the posterior region of some spores. Microsporidian spores were observed in cells of the proventriculus, diverticulum and in epithelial cells of the posterior midgut. The Malpighian tubules, ileum, and rectum were heavily infected. Spores were also observed in the fat body, peripheral region of the ganglia, within and between the flight muscles, and beneath the cuticle. Although the tissues adjacent to the ovaries were heavily infected, microsporidian spores were not observed within the developing eggs. Pathogen transmission was not studied directly because it was difficult to maintain microsporidia-infected C. carnea in the laboratory. The presence of microsporidian spores

  9. School Law in Review, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.

    This book is a compilation of the presentations delivered at the National School Boards Association (NSBA) Council of School Attorneys Annual School Law Seminar on March 22-24, 2001, in San Diego, California. Presentations include: (1) "Religion and the Public Schools--What Hath the Supreme Court Wrought?" (Jay Worona and Patricia H. Gould); (2)…

  10. ‘Primum non nocere’: A review of Taking America off Drugs: Why Behavioral Therapy is More Effective for Treating ADHD, OCD, Depression and Other Psychological Problems by Stephen Ray Flora

    PubMed Central

    van Haaren, Frans

    2009-01-01

    Taking America off Drugs by Stephen Ray Flora provides an overview of effective behavioral interventions to treat a variety of mental health concerns, including depression and phobias. These disorders are better treated with behavioral than psychopharmacological interventions. Yet, the latter prevail in today's society. Taking America off Drugs provides the background to help us understand why, as it puts the treatment of behavioral disorders in the context of modern psychiatry and its relationship with the pharmaceutical industry. This review provides an overview and critical evaluation of the book, but it also extends its context by discussing the history of the treatment of mental illness and practices of the pharmaceutical-medical complex and by offering an optimistic scenario by which psychopharmacological agents will ultimately be replaced by interventions based on the principles of applied behavior analysis. PMID:22477708