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1

Precocious sexual signalling and mating in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) sterile males achieved through juvenile hormone treatment and protein supplements.  

PubMed

Sexual maturation of Anastrepha fraterculus is a long process. Methoprene (a mimic of juvenile hormone) considerably reduces the time for sexual maturation in males. However, in other Anastrepha species, this effect depends on protein intake at the adult stage. Here, we evaluated the mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory males and females that were treated with methoprene (either the pupal or adult stage) and were kept under different regimes of adult food, which varied in the protein source and the sugar:protein ratio. Experiments were carried out under semi-natural conditions, where laboratory flies competed over copulations with sexually mature wild flies. Sterile, methoprene-treated males that reached sexual maturity earlier (six days old), displayed the same lekking behaviour, attractiveness to females and mating competitiveness as mature wild males. This effect depended on protein intake. Diets containing sugar and hydrolyzed yeast allowed sterile males to compete with wild males (even at a low concentration of protein), while brewer´s yeast failed to do so even at a higher concentration. Sugar only fed males were unable to achieve significant numbers of copulations. Methoprene did not increase the readiness to mate of six-day-old sterile females. Long pre-copulatory periods create an additional cost to the management of fruit fly pests through the sterile insect technique (SIT). Our findings suggest that methoprene treatment will increase SIT effectiveness against A. fraterculus when coupled with a diet fortified with protein. Additionally, methoprene acts as a physiological sexing method, allowing the release of mature males and immature females and hence increasing SIT efficiency. PMID:22929968

Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Bachmann, G E; Utgés, M E; Abraham, S; Vera, M T; Lanzavecchia, S B; Bouvet, J P; Gómez-Cendra, P; Hendrichs, J; Teal, P E A; Cladera, J L; Segura, D F

2013-02-01

2

Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations. PMID:19617877

Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

2010-01-01

3

Genetically engineered cytoplasmic male sterility.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic male sterility, conditioned by some maternally inherited plant mitochondrial genomes, is the most expedient method to produce uniform populations of pollen-sterile plants on a commercial scale. Plant mitochondrial genomes are not currently amenable to genetic transformation, but genetic manipulation of the plastid genome allows engineering of maternally inherited traits in some species. A recent study has shown that the Acinetobacter beta-ketothiolase gene, expressed in the Nicotiana tabacum plastid, conditions maternally inherited male sterility, laying the groundwork for new approaches to control pollen fertility in crop plants. PMID:16356756

Chase, Christine D

2006-01-01

4

The Sterile Insect Technique for Controlling Populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) on Reunion Island: Mating Vigour of Sterilized Males  

PubMed Central

Reunion Island suffers from high densities of the chikungunya and dengue vector Aedes albopictus. The sterile insect technique (SIT) offers a promising strategy for mosquito-borne diseases prevention and control. For such a strategy to be effective, sterile males need to be competitive enough to fulfil their intended function by reducing wild mosquito populations in natura. We studied the effect of irradiation on sexual maturation and mating success of males, and compared the sexual competitiveness of sterile versus wild males in the presence of wild females in semi-field conditions. For all untreated or sterile males, sexual maturation was completed within 13 to 20 h post-emergence and some males were able to inseminate females when 15 h old. In the absence of competition, untreated and sterile males were able to inseminate the same number of virgin females during 48 h, in small laboratory cages: an average of 93% of females was inseminated no matter the treatment, the age of males, and the sex ratio. Daily mating success of single sterile males followed the same pattern as for untreated ones, although they inseminated significantly fewer females after the ninth day. The competitiveness index of sterile males in semi-field conditions was only 0.14 when they were released at 1-day old, but improved to 0.53 when the release occurred after a 5-day period in laboratory conditions. In SIT simulation experiments, a 5?1 sterile to wild male ratio allowed a two-fold reduction of the wild population’s fertility. This suggests that sterile males could be sufficiently competitive to mate with wild females within the framework of an SIT component as part of an AW-IPM programme for suppressing a wild population of Ae. albopictus in Reunion Island. It will be of interest to minimise the pre-release period in controlled conditions to ensure a good competitiveness without increasing mass rearing costs. PMID:23185329

Oliva, Clelia F.; Jacquet, Maxime; Gilles, Jeremie; Lemperiere, Guy; Maquart, Pierre-Olivier; Quilici, Serge; Schooneman, Francois; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Boyer, Sebastien

2012-01-01

5

Transfer of Ogu cytoplasmic male sterility to Brassica juncea and improvement of the male sterile line through somatic cell fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male sterility conferred by ogu cytoplasm of Raphanus sativus has been transferred to Brassica juncea cv ‘RLM 198’ from male-sterile B. napus through repeated backcrossing and selection. The male-sterile B. juncea is, however, highly chlorotic and late. It has low female (seed) fertility and small contorted pods. To rectify these defects, protoplasts of the male sterile were fused with normal

P. B. Kirti; S. S. Banga; S. Prakash; V. L. Chopra

1995-01-01

6

No evidence for faster male hybrid sterility in population crosses of an intertidal copepod (Tigriopus californicus).  

PubMed

Two different forces are thought to contribute to the rapid accumulation of hybrid male sterility that has been observed in many inter-specific crosses, namely the faster male and the dominance theories. For male heterogametic taxa, both faster male and dominance would work in the same direction to cause the rapid evolution of male sterility; however, for taxa lacking differentiated sex chromosomes only the faster male theory would explain the rapid evolution of male hybrid sterility. It is currently unknown what causes the faster evolution of male sterility, but increased sexual selection on males and the sensitivity of genes involved in male reproduction are two hypotheses that could explain the observation. Here, patterns of hybrid sterility in crosses of genetically divergent copepod populations are examined to test potential mechanisms of faster male evolution. The study species, Tigriopus californicus, lacks differentiated, hemizygous sex chromosomes and appears to have low levels of divergence caused by sexual selection acting upon males. Hybrid sterility does not accumulate more rapidly in males than females in these crosses suggesting that in this taxon male reproductive genes are not inherently more prone to disruption in hybrids. PMID:17701279

Willett, Christopher S

2008-06-01

7

Inheritance of the trait of male sterility in Cryptomeria japonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matings of male-sterileC. japonica and fertile eliteC. japonica, as well as backcross seedlings of male-sterile trees, were carried out to clarify the genetic trait of male sterility of\\u000a theC. japonica. The seeds from male-sterileC. japonica were germinated in an incubator and grown them in the greenhouse between 1994 and 1997. The seedlings were treated with 100\\u000a ppm gibberellin at early

Hideaki Taira; Maki Saito; Yoshihiko Furuta

1999-01-01

8

Suppression of Pest Lepidoptera by Releasing Partially Sterile Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses population growth models to calculate the theoretical suppression of reproduction achieved by releasing irradiated male moths carrying genetic sterility factors. Shows that releasing partially sterile males should be more effective than releasing fully sterile males. Discusses the costs and advantages of applying this approach to the control…

Knipling. E. F.

1970-01-01

9

Cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassicaceae crops  

PubMed Central

Brassicaceae crops display strong hybrid vigor, and have long been subject to F1 hybrid breeding. Because the most reliable system of F1 seed production is based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), various types of CMS have been developed and adopted in practice to breed Brassicaceae oil seed and vegetable crops. CMS is a maternally inherited trait encoded in the mitochondrial genome, and the male sterile phenotype arises as a result of interaction of a mitochondrial CMS gene and a nuclear fertility restoring (Rf) gene. Therefore, CMS has been intensively investigated for gaining basic insights into molecular aspects of nuclear-mitochondrial genome interactions and for practical applications in plant breeding. Several CMS genes have been identified by molecular genetic studies, including Ogura CMS from Japanese radish, which is the most extensively studied and most widely used. In this review, we discuss Ogura CMS, and other CMS systems, and the causal mitochondrial genes for CMS. Studies on nuclear Rf genes and the cytoplasmic effects of alien cytoplasm on general crop performance are also reviewed. Finally, some of the unresolved questions about CMS are highlighted. PMID:24987289

Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Bhat, Shripad R.

2014-01-01

10

A Cryptic Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Unveils a Possible Gynodioecious Past for Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Gynodioecy, the coexistence of hermaphrodites and females (i.e. male-sterile plants) in natural plant populations, most often results from polymorphism at genetic loci involved in a particular interaction between the nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic compartments (cytonuclear epistasis): cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). Although CMS clearly contributes to the coevolution of involved nuclear loci and cytoplasmic genomes in gynodioecious species, the occurrence of CMS genetic factors in the absence of sexual polymorphism (cryptic CMS) is not easily detected and rarely taken in consideration. We found cryptic CMS in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana after crossing distantly related accessions, Sha and Mr-0. Male sterility resulted from an interaction between the Sha cytoplasm and two Mr-0 genomic regions located on chromosome 1 and chromosome 3. Additional accessions with either nuclear sterility maintainers or sterilizing cytoplasms were identified from crosses with either Sha or Mr-0. By comparing two very closely related cytoplasms with different male-sterility inducing abilities, we identified a novel mitochondrial ORF, named orf117Sha, that is most likely the sterilizing factor of the Sha cytoplasm. The presence of orf117Sha was investigated in worldwide natural accessions. It was found mainly associated with a single chlorotype in accessions belonging to a clade predominantly originating from Central Asia. More than one-third of accessions from this clade carried orf117Sha, indicating that the sterilizing-inducing cytoplasm had spread in this lineage. We also report the coexistence of the sterilizing cytoplasm with a non-sterilizing cytoplasm at a small, local scale in a natural population; in addition a correlation between cytotype and nuclear haplotype was detected in this population. Our results suggest that this CMS system induced sexual polymorphism in A. thaliana populations, at the time when the species was mainly outcrossing. PMID:23658632

Gobron, Nicolas; Waszczak, Cezary; Simon, Matthieu; Hiard, Sophie; Boivin, Stéphane; Charif, Delphine; Ducamp, Aloïse; Wenes, Estelle; Budar, Françoise

2013-01-01

11

A genetic study of partial male sterility in sorghum  

E-print Network

'ale-sterile plants are of the constitution- M ? s ~ Plant s which either lack the deed. nant sterility gene, carry the dombumt suppressor~ or possess the nonsterile cyto olasm are male-fertile. Due to complete selective fertilisation, the suppressor gene...'ale-sterile plants are of the constitution- M ? s ~ Plant s which either lack the deed. nant sterility gene, carry the dombumt suppressor~ or possess the nonsterile cyto olasm are male-fertile. Due to complete selective fertilisation, the suppressor gene...

Holland, Richard Franklin

2012-06-07

12

Anther developmental defects in Arabidopsis thaliana male-sterile mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identified Arabidopsis thaliana sterility mutants by screening T-DNA and EMS-mutagenized lines and characterized several male-sterile mutants with defects\\u000a specific for different anther processes. Approximately 44 and 855 sterile mutants were uncovered from the T-DNA and EMS screens,\\u000a respectively. Several mutants were studied in detail with defects that included the establishment of anther morphology, microspore\\u000a production, pollen differentiation, and anther

Paul M. Sanders; Anhthu Q. Bui; Koen Weterings; Katherine N. McIntire; Yung-Chao Hsu; Pei Yun Lee; Mai Thy Truong; T. P. Beals; R. B. Goldberg

1999-01-01

13

Metabolically engineered male sterility in rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male sterility is of special interest as a mechanism allowing hybrid breeding, especially in important crops such as rapeseed\\u000a (Brassica napus). Male sterile plants are also suggested to be used as a biological safety method to prevent the spread of transgenes, a\\u000a risk that is high in the case of rapeseed due to the mode of pollination, out-crossing by wind

Thomas Engelke; J. Hirsche; T. Roitsch

2011-01-01

14

Mitochondrially-targeted expression of a cytoplasmic male sterility-associated orf220 gene causes male sterility in Brassica juncea  

PubMed Central

Background The novel chimeric open reading frame (orf) resulting from the rearrangement of a mitochondrial genome is generally thought to be a causal factor in the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). Both positive and negative correlations have been found between CMS-associated orfs and the occurrence of CMS when CMS-associated orfs were expressed and targeted at mitochondria. Some orfs cause male sterility or semi-sterility, while some do not. Little is currently known about how mitochondrial factor regulates the expression of the nuclear genes involved in male sterility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological function of a candidate CMS-associated orf220 gene, newly isolated from cytoplasmic male-sterile stem mustard, and show how mitochondrial retrograde regulated nuclear gene expression is related to male sterility. Results It was shown that the ORF220 protein can be guided to the mitochondria using the mitochondrial-targeting sequence of the ? subunit of F1-ATPase (atp2-1). Transgenic stem mustard plants expressed the chimeric gene containing the orf220 gene and a mitochondrial-targeting sequence of the ? subunit of F1-ATPase (atp2-1). Transgenic plants were male-sterile, most being unable to produce pollen while some could only produce non-vigorous pollen. The transgenic stem mustard plants also showed aberrant floral development identical to that observed in the CMS stem mustard phenotype. Results obtained from oligooarray analysis showed that some genes related to mitochondrial energy metabolism were down-regulated, indicating a weakening of mitochondrial function in transgenic stem mustard. Some genes related to pollen development were shown to be down-regulated in transgenic stem mustard and the expression of some transcription factor genes was also altered. Conclusion The work presented furthers our understanding of how the mitochondrially-targeted expression of CMS-associated orf220 gene causes male sterility through retrograde regulation of nuclear gene expression in Brassica juncea. PMID:20974011

2010-01-01

15

Sexual and aggressive motives in sexually aggressive college males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative contributions to sexual aggression of general sexual and aggressive motives and their respective inhibitory factors were compared. One hundred forty-three university males responded to self-report measures of sexual and aggressive drives, sex and hostility guilt, social desirability response bias, and history of coercive sexuality. With the effects of social desirability controlled, the only predictor of sexual aggression was

James F. Porter; Joseph W. Critelli; Catherine S. K. Tang

1992-01-01

16

Cytoplasmic male sterility-regulated novel microRNAs from maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

In higher plants, microRNA (miRNA) is involved in regulation of developmental processes, including sexual organ development.\\u000a Seven novel miRNA families with one known miRNA were isolated by constructing a small RNA library from a mixture of anther\\u000a from a cytoplasmic male sterile line and its maintainer. Two miRNAs are conserved in plant species. A total of 18 potential\\u000a targets were

Yaou Shen; Zhiming Zhang; Haijian Lin; Hailan Liu; Jie Chen; Hua Peng; Moju Cao; Tingzhao Rong; Guangtang Pan

2011-01-01

17

Evaluation of Male Sexual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The management of male sexual dysfunction and specifically erectile dysfunction (ED) has seen major changes in each decade\\u000a since the 1970s thanks to the discovery that a papaverine injection could produce erection, the NIH Consensus Statement which\\u000a defined ED in 1992, advances in minimally invasive diagnostics, and the development of orally effective erectogenic class\\u000a of drugs, the phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors

Gregory A. Broderick

18

Sexual Identity Development among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored how ethnicity influenced sexual identity development in 139 sexual-minority males. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low internalized homophobia, and became romantically and sexually involved with other males

Dube, Eric M.; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

1999-01-01

19

Sexual Identity Development Among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research explores how ethnicity influences sexual identity development. Among 139 sexual-minority male youths, measures of sexual identity development assessed the timing and sequencing of developmental milestones, disclosure of sexual identity to others, internalized homophobia, and same- and opposite-sex relationship histories. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low

Eric M. Dubé; Ritch C. Savin-Williams

1999-01-01

20

Depressed affect and male sexual arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of elated and depressed affect on sexual arousal in 15 sexually functional males. Subjects received elation and depression mood inductions in a repeated-measures design. Immediately following each induction, subjects viewed a brief erotic film during which penile tumescence and subjective sexual arousal were recorded continuously. Following depression induction there was a trend toward diminished subjective sexual

Andrew W. Meisler; Michael P. Carey

1991-01-01

21

The molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited condition in which a plant is unable to produce functional pollen. It occurs in many plant species and is often associated with chimeric mitochondrial open reading frames. In a number of cases, transcripts originating from these altered open reading frames are translated into unique proteins that appear to interfere with mitochondrial function

Patrick S Schnable; Roger P Wise

1998-01-01

22

Sexual Confusion among Certain College Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes fairly common inability among college-age males to successfully form intimate relationships with same-age females, sometimes resulting in young males developing fear of being sexually abnormal, perhaps even homosexual. Reviews literature on sexual developmental issues of adolescent male as backdrop for this problem. Explores specific…

Goff, J. Larry

1990-01-01

23

Genetics and Evolution of Hybrid Male Sterility in House Mice  

PubMed Central

Comparative genetic mapping provides insights into the evolution of the reproductive barriers that separate closely related species. This approach has been used to document the accumulation of reproductive incompatibilities over time, but has only been applied to a few taxa. House mice offer a powerful system to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive isolation between multiple subspecies pairs. However, studies of the primary reproductive barrier in house mice—hybrid male sterility—have been restricted to a single subspecies pair: Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. To provide a more complete characterization of reproductive isolation in house mice, we conducted an F2 intercross between wild-derived inbred strains from Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus. We identified autosomal and X-linked QTL associated with a range of hybrid male sterility phenotypes, including testis weight, sperm density, and sperm morphology. The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) was strongly associated with hybrid sterility phenotypes when heterozygous. We compared QTL found in this cross with QTL identified in a previous F2 intercross between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus and found three shared autosomal QTL. Most QTL were not shared, demonstrating that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility largely differs between these closely related subspecies pairs. These results lay the groundwork for identifying genes responsible for the early stages of speciation in house mice. PMID:22554891

White, Michael A.; Stubbings, Maria; Dumont, Beth L.; Payseur, Bret A.

2012-01-01

24

Remating behavior in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) females is affected by male juvenile hormone analog treatment but not by male sterilization.  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been proposed as an area-wide method to control the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann). This technique requires sterilization, a procedure that affects, along with other factors, the ability of males to modulate female sexual receptivity after copulation. Numerous pre-release treatments have been proposed to counteract the detrimental effects of irradiation, rearing and handling and increase SIT effectiveness. These include treating newly emerged males with a juvenile hormone mimic (methoprene) or supplying protein to the male's diet to accelerate sexual maturation prior to release. Here, we examine how male irradiation, methoprene treatment and protein intake affect remating behavior and the amount of sperm stored in inseminated females. In field cage experiments, we found that irradiated laboratory males were equally able to modulate female remating behavior as fertile wild males. However, females mated with 6-day-old, methoprene-treated males remated more and sooner than females mated with naturally matured males, either sterile or wild. Protein intake by males was not sufficient to overcome reduced ability of methoprene-treated males to induce refractory periods in females as lengthy as those induced by wild and naturally matured males. The amount of sperm stored by females was not affected by male irradiation, methoprene treatment or protein intake. This finding revealed that factors in addition to sperm volume intervene in regulating female receptivity after copulation. Implications for SIT are discussed. PMID:23340454

Abraham, S; Liendo, M C; Devescovi, F; Peralta, P A; Yusef, V; Ruiz, J; Cladera, J L; Vera, M T; Segura, D F

2013-06-01

25

Sexual inadequacy in the male  

PubMed Central

The adequacy of sexual functioning in the male depends on a complex interaction between psychological, hormonal and neurophysiological factors. Disturbance of any one of these factors may lead to sexual inadequacy. In the majority of cases no gross abnormality is found but the absence of gross hormonal or neurophysiological abnormality does not necessarily imply a purely psychological cause. Individual variations in the pattern of response of the autonomic nervous system or in the ability to learn control of autonomic responses such as erection or ejaculation may be sufficient to account for some cases of inadequacy and in others may increase the susceptibility to psychological factors. Further research is required to clarify these undoubtedly important psychophysiological relationships. Treatment has been most successful when it has taken into account both psychological and physiological factors. The advances made by Masters & Johnson (1970) in this area have partly depended on their earlier physiological and anatomical studies of sexual response (Masters & Johnson, 1966). It may be that in some cases the use of anxiety-reducing drugs or androgens will be all that is required but further work is required to identify such cases. The placebo effects of such preparations should not be overlooked particularly as many cases of sexual inadequacy are based on lack of confidence or ignorance and require little more than good advice or reassurance. Considerable advances in our understanding of these problems have been made in the past 20 years and techniques of endocrine, physiological and behavioural assessment are now available which should enable further progress to be made in the near future.

Bancroft, John

1971-01-01

26

Male-Female Sexuality: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography contains over 500 sources on the historical and contemporary development and expression of male and female sexuality. There are 68 topic headings which provide easy access for subject areas. A major portion of the bibliography is devoted to contemporary male-female sexuality. These materials consist of research findings…

Wilson, Janice

27

Sexuality of Male-to-Female Transsexuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blanchard’s (J Nerv Ment Dis 177:616–623, 1989) theory of autogynephilia suggests that male-to-female transsexuals can be\\u000a categorized into different types based on their sexuality. Little previous research has compared the sexuality of male-to-female\\u000a transsexuals to biological females. The present study examined 15 aspects of sexuality among a non-clinical sample of 234\\u000a transsexuals and 127 biological females, using either an online

Jaimie F. Veale; Dave E. Clarke; Terri C. Lomax

2008-01-01

28

Sterilization.  

PubMed

Male and female sterilization is a safe and effective form of permanent contraception. The number of patients accepting this method has rapidly increased over the last ten years and is likely to continue. In some countries the rate has plateaued out: in the USA it has been 31 per cent of all married women for the last eight years. Before sterilization it is important that adequate counselling is given to both partners and that the decision is not hurried. This is emphasized by the number of women and men requesting reversal of sterilization (thought to be between 0.1 and 10 per cent of all sterilizations). These requests for reversal usually come from couples who have remarried, tend to be younger, have fewer live children, have had more abortions, less schooling and are poor users of contraception. In these high-risk patients counselling and time to make the decision is essential. Other studies indicate that regret after puerperal sterilization may be commoner, but the risks of further pregnancies have to be weighed against sterilization regret. The methodology of male sterilization has changed little in the last ten years; it is simple and usually done under local anaesthesia. In contrast, female sterilization methods are constantly being refined, from laparotomy to laparoscopy and from extensive tubal destruction or excision to minimal tubal damage. The common methods now are mini-laparotomy and laparoscopy under local or general anaesthesia, with tubal occlusion by clips, rings or bipolar or thermal coagulation. There is no place now for unipolar diathermy, because of the higher complication rate, especially for major complications such as bowel burns. Recent multicentre studies comparing different methods give low rates for immediate morbidity and surgical complications (0.8 to 2.5 per cent of cases). Technical failure is rare but often due to a pre-existing condition, for example obesity or previous pelvic disease. Some failures are due, however, to difficulties with the instruments, especially at laparoscopy; here further developments and the use of teaching aids for those in training will help to reduce problems. Mortality from female sterilization is low, at 2 to 10 per 100 000 procedures; however, half is due in part to anaesthetic complications (hypoventilation), which can be avoided by intubation, and others are due to pre-existing medical conditions. Long-term follow-up has now shown that sterilization does not cause an increase in menstrual blood loss.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6239731

Newton, J R

1984-12-01

29

Programmed cell death promotes male sterility in the functional dioecious Opuntia stenopetala (Cactaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The sexual separation in dioecious species has interested biologists for decades; however, the cellular mechanism leading to unisexuality has been poorly understood. In this study, the cellular changes that lead to male sterility in the functionally dioecious cactus, Opuntia stenopetala, are described. Methods The spatial and temporal patterns of programmed cell death (PCD) were determined in the anthers of male and female flowers using scanning electron microscopy analysis and histological observations, focusing attention on the transition from bisexual to unisexual development. In addition, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling assays were used as an indicator of DNA fragmentation to corroborate PCD. Key results PCD was detected in anthers of both female and male flowers, but their patterns differed in time and space. Functionally male individuals developed viable pollen, and normal development involved PCD on each layer of the anther wall, which occurred progressively from the inner (tapetum) to the outer layer (epidermis). Conversely, functional female individuals aborted anthers by premature and displaced PCD. In anthers of female flowers, the first signs of PCD, such as a nucleus with irregular shape, fragmented and condensed chromatin, high vacuolization and condensed cytoplasm, occurred at the microspore mother cell stage. Later these features were observed simultaneously in all anther wall layers, connective tissue and filament. Neither pollen formation nor anther dehiscence was detected in female flowers of O. stenopetala due to total anther disruption. Conclusions Temporal and spatial changes in the patterns of PCD are responsible for male sterility of female flowers in O. stenopetala. Male fertility requires the co-ordination of different events, which, when altered, can lead to male sterility and to functionally unisexual individuals. PCD could be a widespread mechanism in the determination of functionally dioecious species. PMID:23877075

Flores-Renteria, Lluvia; Orozco-Arroyo, Gregorio; Cruz-Garcia, Felipe; Garcia-Campusano, Florencia; Alfaro, Isabel; Vazquez-Santana, Sonia

2013-01-01

30

Absence of the prion protein homologue Doppel causes male sterility  

PubMed Central

The agent that causes prion diseases is thought to be identical with PrPSc, a conformer of the normal prion protein PrPC. PrPC-deficient mice do not exhibit major pathologies, perhaps because they express a protein termed Dpl, which shares significant biochemical and structural homology with PrPC. To investigate the physiological function of Dpl, we generated mice harbouring a homozygous disruption of the Prnd gene that encodes Dpl. Dpl deficiency did not interfere with embryonic and postnatal development, but resulted in male sterility. Dpl protein was expressed at late stages of spermiogenesis, and spermatids of Dpl mutants were reduced in numbers, immobile, malformed and unable to fertilize oocytes in vitro. Mechanical dissection of the zona pellucida partially restored in vitro fertilization. We conclude that Dpl regulates male fertility by controlling several aspects of male gametogenesis and sperm–egg interaction. PMID:12110578

Behrens, Axel; Genoud, Nicolas; Naumann, Heike; Rulicke, Thomas; Janett, Fredi; Heppner, Frank L.; Ledermann, Birgit; Aguzzi, Adriano

2002-01-01

31

Genetic analysis of male fertility restoration in wild cytoplasmic male sterility G of beet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been used in the breeding of sugar beet for decades but is also more generally an important feature of the reproductive system in its wild relative, Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima. Among the several CMSs found in wild populations, the G CMS is a mitochondrial variant of the respiratory chain. The segregants derived from a cross

Pascal Touzet; Nathalie Hueber; Alexandra Bürkholz; Stephen Barnes; Joël Cuguen

2004-01-01

32

[Male infertility in delay of sexual development].  

PubMed

The examination of 260 infertile males revealed that delay of sexual development (DSD) predisposes to male infertility. DSD is often characterized by autoimmune reactions pointing to DSD as one of the causes of autoimmune infertility. Spermatozoa in DSD have low viability. Hormonal changes in DSD in adult males did not significantly change from the group with normal sexual development. LH/testosterone and testosteron/estradiol differed significantly in DSD and hypogonadism. Calculation of these proportions may serve differential criteria of DSD and secondary hypogonadism. PMID:17915450

Kirpatovski?, I D; Kir'ianov, A V

2007-01-01

33

Sexual function of the ageing male.  

PubMed

With the progressive increase in the proportion of older people, there is an increasing interest in characterizing the modifications of sexual health and the effect of its perturbations as a function of the aging process. The aim of this review is to summarize the available evidence regarding the age-dependent modifications of male sexual function and their interaction with general health and age-dependent modification of endocrine function. Elderly patients are often affected by multiple organic diseases which can interfere with sexual function. Despite this evidence, several studies have indicated that, with advancing age, normal erections are not an absolute prerequisite to remain sexually active. Good physical health, the availability of a partner, and a regular and stable pattern of sexual activity earlier in life predict the maintenance of sexual activity in old age. Conversely, there are no convincing data that hormonal changes, associated with aging, have a primary role in underlying changes in sexual function in healthy aging men. Nonetheless, sexual dysfunctions especially in elderly people are poor investigated. Asking about sexual health remains difficult or embarrassing for many primary care physicians. In addition, many patients find it difficult to raise sexual issues with their doctor. This situation often results in sexual issues not being adequately addressed thus resulting in depression, social withdrawal and delayed diagnosis of underlying medical conditions often resulting in forthcoming cardiovascular events. Education and permission from a health care professional may help to alter such misconceptions. Information from physicians regarding normal age-related changes in sexuality and encouragement, together with advice on how to continue meaningful sexual relations, may play a key role in altering such negative attitudes. PMID:24054932

Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Maseroli, Elisa; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

2013-08-01

34

Sexual identity and HIV: The male prostitute  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationships among sexual self?identity, sexual and drug use behaviors, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among a sample of 224 male street prostitutes. Structured interviews were administered, and blood samples were collected and tested for HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B. The sample included 17.9% homosexual, 46.4% heterosexual, and 35.7% bisexually identified men. Congruence between the prostitutes’ non?paid

Jacqueline Boles; Kirk W. Elifson

1994-01-01

35

Sterilizing effects of cobalt-60 and cesium-137 radiation on male sea lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Male spawning-run sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus were exposed to various doses of cobalt-60 or cesium-137 radiation in an attempt to sterilize them for use in a program for controlling sea lampreys through the release of sterile males. Males captured and irradiated during the early part of the upstream migration were not effectively sterilized at the doses tested. After irradiation, the sea lampreys were more susceptible to fungal infections by Saprolegnia sp., and many died without attempting to spawn. Males captured and irradiated during the middle and late parts of the spawning migration were effectively sterilized at a dose of 2,000 rads. However, some radiation-induced mortality was observed in males captured and irradiated during the middle part of the spawning migration. Radiation is not as effective as the chemosterilant bisazir for sterilizing male sea lampreys.

Hanson, L. H.

1990-01-01

36

Celibacy and male psycho-sexual development.  

PubMed

Counselors and psychologists would benefit from a nuanced appreciation of Catholic sexual morality when working with human development issues among those who adhere to Church teaching. This focus is especially so among those preparing for a life of stable celibate chastity. Appreciation of the differences between boys and men and girls and women in the processes of psycho-sexual maturation is important. This article addresses these issues with a focus on celibacy and male psycho-sexual development in young men of Catholic commitment. PMID:22452150

McGavin, Paul Anthony

2011-01-01

37

Hybridization using cytoplasmic male sterility and herbicide tolerance from nuclear genes  

SciTech Connect

An improved process is described for producing a substantially homogeneous population of plants of a predetermined hybrid variety of a crop which is capable of undergoing both self-pollination and cross-pollination. This process comprises: growing in a first planting area a substantially random population of cytoplasmic male sterile plants which exhibit tolerance to at least one herbicide attributable solely to homozygous dominant nuclear genes, and male fertile plants which are capable of pollinating the cytoplasmic male sterile plants and which lack the herbicide tolerance because the presence of homozygous recessive nuclear genes for such trait. The cytoplasmic male sterile plants and the male fertile plants are pollinated with pollen derived from the male fertile plants. Seed is formed on the cytoplasmic male sterile plants and on the male fertile plants. Harvesting in bulk the seed is formed on the plants of the first planting area.

Beversdorf, W.D.; Erickson, L.R.; Grant, I.

1987-04-14

38

Role of no scalpel vasectomy in male sterilization.  

PubMed

No Scalpel Vasectomy (NSV) is a modern method of delivery, ligation and excision of vas deference without use of a knife. It provides a permanent sterilization option for male. It is a safe, effective method of vasectomy with low complication and greater patient compliance. To evaluate effectiveness and its acceptance of the procedure data were collected on men who accepted NSV between Jan'2008 to Mar'09. Demographic information, motivating factors, educational status and surgical complications were recorded. The cases were done in rural hospitals & Primary health centers as camp procedure. A total of 649 vasectomies performed using NSV method from Jan'08 to Mar'09. The mean age of the acceptors was 35 years with 4 numbers of children on average. Complications included bleeding during surgery in 4 cases (0.6%), haematoma in one case (0.2%), and superficial wound infection occurred in two cases (0.3%) and scrotal pain in 4 cases (0.6%). NSV is an effective, minimal access method of vas delivery, ligation and excision. It provides safe and effective contraceptive option to male population with minimal complications. Doctors, health workers along with the simplicity of procedure and early return to work are great motivating factors. It is easily performed as camp procedure in a simple medical setup. Doctors can be effectively trained hands on during the camp procedure. PMID:23904714

Bhuyan, K; Ali, Ilias; Barua, S J

2012-08-01

39

Effects of alcohol on male sexual responding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen adult males participated in a repeated measures design in which they served as their own control to determine the effects of various amounts of alcohol on: (1) their sexual arousal elicited by erotic motion-pictures, as measured by a penile transducer, (2) the ability to voluntarily inhibit their arousal to those same films in accordance with instructions, and (3) the

H. B. Rubin; Donald E. Henson

1976-01-01

40

Epidemiology and pathophysiology of male sexual dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male sexual dysfunction (MSD) is a common disorder associated with a wide range of physical and psychological conditions. Erectile dysfunction, the most commonly studied aspect of MSD, is common and increases with age and with certain comorbid conditions. The pathophysiology of ED and other forms of MSD can be traced to a variety of etiologies, including vascular, hormonal, psychiatric, iatrogenic

J Kaminetsky

2008-01-01

41

Reduction in sea lamprey hatching success due to release of sterilized males  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), sterilized by injection with bisazir, were released in Lake Superior tributaries from 1991 to 1996 and exclusively in the St. Marys River (the outflow from Lake Superior to Lake Huron) since 1997 as an alternative to chemical control. To determine effectiveness in reducing reproductive potential through the time of hatch, males were observed on nests and egg viability was determined in nests in selected Lake Superior tributaries and the St. Marys River. The proportions of sterilized males observed on nests were not significantly different than their estimated proportion in the population for all streams and years combined or for the St. Marys River alone. It was concluded that sterilized males survive, appear on the spawning grounds, and nest at near their estimated proportion in the population. There was a significant reduction in egg viability corresponding with release of sterilized males for all streams and years combined or for the St. Marys River alone. In the St. Marys River from 1993 to 2000, the percent reduction in egg viability was significantly correlated with the observed proportion of sterile males on nests. It was further concluded that sterilized males remain sterile through nesting and attract and mate with females. Reduction in reproductive potential in the St. Marys River due to both removal of females by traps and sterile-male-release ranged from 34 to 92% from 1993 to 2001 and averaged 64%. From 1999 to 2001, when the program stabilized, reductions ranged from 71 to 92% and averaged 81%. The current release of sterile males in the St. Marys River effectively reduced reproductive potential through the time of hatch and did so near theoretical levels based on numbers released, estimates of population size, and the assumptions of full sterility and competitiveness.

Bergstedt, Roger A.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Twohey, Michael B.; Mullett, Katherine M.; Young, Robert J.; Heinrich, John W.

2003-01-01

42

Hybrid male sterility in rice controlled by interaction between divergent alleles of two adjacent genes  

PubMed Central

Sterility is common in hybrids between divergent populations, such as the indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa). Although multiple loci for plant hybrid sterility have been identified, it remains unknown how alleles of the loci interact at the molecular level. Here we show that a locus for indica-japonica hybrid male sterility, Sa, comprises two adjacent genes, SaM and SaF, encoding a small ubiquitin-like modifier E3 ligase-like protein and an F-box protein, respectively. Most indica cultivars contain a haplotype SaM+SaF+, whereas all japonica cultivars have SaM?SaF? that diverged by nucleotide variations in wild rice. Male semi-sterility in this heterozygous complex locus is caused by abortion of pollen carrying SaM?. This allele-specific gamete elimination results from a selective interaction of SaF+ with SaM?, a truncated protein, but not with SaM+ because of the presence of an inhibitory domain, although SaM+ is required for this male sterility. Lack of any one of the three alleles in recombinant plants does not produce male sterility. We propose a two-gene/three-component interaction model for this hybrid male sterility system. The findings have implications for overcoming male sterility in inter-subspecific hybrid rice breeding. PMID:19033192

Long, Yunming; Zhao, Lifeng; Niu, Baixiao; Su, Jing; Wu, Hao; Chen, Yuanling; Zhang, Qunyu; Guo, Jingxin; Zhuang, Chuxiong; Mei, Mantong; Xia, Jixing; Wang, Lan; Wu, Haibin; Liu, Yao-Guang

2008-01-01

43

Genetic determination of male sterility in gynodioecious Silene nutans.  

PubMed

Gynodioecy, the coexistence of female and hermaphrodite plants within a species, is often under nuclear-cytoplasmic sex determination, involving cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes and nuclear restorers. A good knowledge of CMS and restorer polymorphism is essential for understanding the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy, but reciprocal crossing studies remain scarce. Although mitochondrial diversity has been studied in a few gynodioecious species, the relationship between mitotype diversity and CMS status is poorly known. From a French sample of Silene nutans, a gynodioecious species whose sex determination remains unknown, we chose the four most divergent mitotypes that we had sampled at the cytochrome b gene and tested by reciprocal crosses whether they carry distinct CMS genes. We show that gynodioecy in S. nutans is under nuclear-cytoplasmic control, with at least two different CMSs and up to four restorers with epistatic interactions. Female occurrence and frequency were highly dependent on the mitotype, suggesting that the level of restoration varies greatly among CMSs. Two of the mitotypes, which have broad geographic distributions, represent different CMSs and are very unequally restored. We discuss the dynamics of gynodioecy at the large-scale meta-population level. PMID:20808324

Garraud, C; Brachi, B; Dufay, M; Touzet, P; Shykoff, J A

2011-05-01

44

Genetic determination of male sterility in gynodioecious Silene nutans  

PubMed Central

Gynodioecy, the coexistence of female and hermaphrodite plants within a species, is often under nuclear–cytoplasmic sex determination, involving cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes and nuclear restorers. A good knowledge of CMS and restorer polymorphism is essential for understanding the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy, but reciprocal crossing studies remain scarce. Although mitochondrial diversity has been studied in a few gynodioecious species, the relationship between mitotype diversity and CMS status is poorly known. From a French sample of Silene nutans, a gynodioecious species whose sex determination remains unknown, we chose the four most divergent mitotypes that we had sampled at the cytochrome b gene and tested by reciprocal crosses whether they carry distinct CMS genes. We show that gynodioecy in S. nutans is under nuclear–cytoplasmic control, with at least two different CMSs and up to four restorers with epistatic interactions. Female occurrence and frequency were highly dependent on the mitotype, suggesting that the level of restoration varies greatly among CMSs. Two of the mitotypes, which have broad geographic distributions, represent different CMSs and are very unequally restored. We discuss the dynamics of gynodioecy at the large-scale meta-population level. PMID:20808324

Garraud, C; Brachi, B; Dufay, M; Touzet, P; Shykoff, J A

2011-01-01

45

Sexually Antagonistic Selection in Human Male Homosexuality  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling ‘Darwinian paradox’. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait. PMID:18560521

Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

2008-01-01

46

Male Sex Interspecies Divergence and Down Regulation of Expression of Spermatogenesis Genes in Drosophila Sterile Hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male sex genes have shown a pattern of rapid interspecies divergence at both the coding and gene expression level. A common\\u000a outcome from crosses between closely-related species is hybrid male sterility. Phenotypic and genetic studies in Drosophila sterile hybrid males have shown that spermatogenesis arrest is postmeiotic with few exceptions, and that most misregulated\\u000a genes are involved in late stages

Vignesh Sundararajan; Alberto Civetta

2011-01-01

47

Cytoplasmic male sterility in Mimulus hybrids has pleiotropic effects on corolla and pistil traits  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms underlying genetic associations have important consequences for evolutionary outcomes, but distinguishing linkage from pleiotropy is often difficult. Here, we use a fine mapping approach to determine the genetic basis of association between cytonuclear male sterility and other floral traits in Mimulus hybrids. Previous work has shown that male sterility in hybrids between Mimulus guttatus and Mimulus nasutus is due to interactions between a mitochondrial gene from M. guttatus and two tightly linked nuclear restorer alleles on Linkage Group 7, and that male sterility is associated with reduced corolla size. In the present study, we generated a set of nearly isogenic lines segregating for the restorer region and male sterility, but with unique flanking introgressions. Male-sterile flowers had significantly smaller corollas, longer styles and greater stigmatic exsertion than fertile flowers. Because these effects were significant regardless of the genotypic composition of introgressions flanking the restorer region, they suggest that these floral differences are a direct byproduct of the genetic incompatibility causing anther abortion. In addition, we found a non-significant but intriguing trend for male-sterile plants to produce more seeds per flower than fertile siblings after supplemental pollination. Such pleiotropic effects may underlie the corolla dimorphism frequently observed in gynodioecious taxa and may affect selection on cytoplasmic male sterility genes when they initially arise. PMID:21245895

Barr, C M; Fishman, L

2011-01-01

48

Males under attack: sexual cannibalism and its consequences for male morphology  

E-print Network

Males under attack: sexual cannibalism and its consequences for male morphology and behaviour by sexual cannibalism, which has been hypothesized to drive the evolution of male morphology and mating duration due to sexual cannibalism in the highly sexually dimorphic orb-weaving spider Argiope aurantia

Foellmer, Matthias

49

On Sexual Apathy in the Male  

PubMed Central

Ever since World War II, there has been a noticeable change in the sexual behavior and responses in men and women. Women, in general, are becoming sexually more assertive and demanding and men more indifferent and lethargic. In patients of middle age, sexual boredom is particularly pronounced in men, whereas the post-menopausal female becomes more interested in sexual pleasure. In the youth of the “cool” generation, both boys and girls are quite open about sex, but their sexual activities precede emotional involvement. The similarities in dress and behavior of both sexes indicate a wish for a twin rather than a search for a lover. In the age group between 25 and 45, women demand equal orgasms since they have become economically independent and are relatively free of the fear of pregnancy. This seems to have mobilized a deep-seated unconscious fear and hatred of women in the male, making him sexually apathetic. In both sexes there is a growing alienation between romantic love and sex. PMID:5652746

Greenson, Ralph R.

1968-01-01

50

The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Male Sexual Dysfunction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 359 men who sought sexual dysfunction treatment found that childhood sexual abuse did not predict sexual dysfunction in the men. Unemployment was the only significant predictor of male sexual dysfunction. Differences between the sexual abuse experiences of the male victims compared to female victims (n=73) are discussed. (Author/CR)

Sarwer, David B.; And Others

1997-01-01

51

Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Comparisons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually

Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.

2011-01-01

52

Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Contributes to Hybrid Incompatibility Between Subspecies of Arabidopsis lyrata  

PubMed Central

In crosses between evolutionarily diverged populations, genomic incompatibilities may result in sterile hybrids, indicating evolution of reproductive isolation. In several plant families, crosses within a population can also lead to male sterile progeny because of conflict between the maternally and biparentally inherited genomes. We examined hybrid fertility between subspecies of the perennial outcrossing self-incompatible Lyrate rockcress (Arabidopsis lyrata) in large reciprocal F2 progenies and three generations of backcrosses. In one of the reciprocal F2 progenies, almost one-fourth of the plants were male-sterile. Correspondingly, almost one-half of the plants in one of the four reciprocal backcross progenies expressed male sterility. In an additional four independent F2 and backcross families, three segregated male sterility. The observed asymmetrical hybrid incompatibility is attributable to male sterility factors in one cytoplasm, for which the other population lacks effective fertility restorers. Genotyping of 96 molecular markers and quantitative trait locus mapping revealed that only 60% of the plants having the male sterile cytoplasm and lacking the corresponding restorers were phenotypically male-sterile. Genotyping data showed that there is only one restorer locus, which mapped to a 600-kb interval at the top of chromosome 2 in a region containing a cluster of pentatricopeptide repeat genes. Male fertility showed no trade-off with seed production. We discuss the role of cytoplasm and genomic conflict in incipient speciation and conclude that cytoplasmic male sterility–lowering hybrid fitness is a transient effect with limited potential to form permanent reproductive barriers between diverged populations of hermaphrodite self-incompatible species. PMID:23935000

Aalto, Esa A.; Koelewijn, Hans-Peter; Savolainen, Outi

2013-01-01

53

Ultrastructure in Microspore Abortion of Genic Male Sterile Line in Sesame ( Sesamum indicum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the abortion mechanism of genic male sterile (GMS) line in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), a comparative study was conducted on the fertile and sterile microsporogenesis of ms86-1 using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. According to the morphologic characteristics of the microspores, the developmental process of sesame pollen could be tentatively divided into 7 stages, namely microsporocyte formation, microsporocyte

Xiao-Li YANG; Hai-Yang ZHANG; Wang-Zhen GUO; Yong-Zhan ZHENG; Hong-Mei MIAO; Li-Bin WEI; Tian-Zhen ZHANG

2008-01-01

54

Histology of sterile male and female cones in Pinus monticola (western white pine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two years of histological samples were collected from a Pinus monticola Dougl. (western white pine) tree identified as not producing mature pollen or seed cones. Anatomical information was collected to the ultrastructural level, to assess possible mechanisms for pollen and cone abortion resulting in sterility. Development of male and female gametophytes in the sterile western white pine tree was arrested

Vivienne R. Wilson; John N. Owens

2003-01-01

55

Review: neuroestrogen regulation of socio-sexual behavior of males  

PubMed Central

It is thought that estrogen (neuroestrogen) synthesized by the action of aromatase in the brain from testosterone activates male socio-sexual behaviors, such as aggression and sexual behavior in birds. We recently found that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, inhibits socio-sexual behaviors of male quail by directly activating aromatase and increasing neuroestrogen synthesis in the preoptic area (POA). The POA is thought to be the most critical site of aromatization and neuroestrogen action for the regulation of socio-sexual behavior of male birds. We concluded that GnIH inhibits socio-sexual behaviors of male quail by increasing neuroestrogen concentration beyond its optimal concentration in the brain for expression of socio-sexual behavior. On the other hand, it has been reported that dopamine and glutamate, which stimulate male socio-sexual behavior in birds and mammals, inhibit the activity of aromatase in the POA. Multiple studies also report that the activity of aromatase or neuroestrogen is negatively correlated with changes in male socio-sexual behavior in fish, birds, and mammals including humans. Here, we review previous studies that investigated the role of neuroestrogen in the regulation of male socio-sexual behavior and reconsider the hypothesis that neuroestrogen activates male socio-sexual behavior in vertebrates. It is considered that basal concentration of neuroestrogen is required for the maintenance of male socio-sexual behavior but higher concentration of neuroestrogen may inhibit male socio-sexual behavior. PMID:25352775

Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

2014-01-01

56

Fitness improvement of mass-reared sterile males of Ceratitis capitata (Vienna 8 strain) (Diptera: Tephritidae) after gut enrichment with probiotics.  

PubMed

Successful mass rearing is crucial for sterile insect technique programs. It has been shown that the sterilizing process using gammaradiation results in damage to midgut tissue, cellular organelles, and gut microbiota of flies. This can be responsible for the inferiority of sterile males compared with wild males. A bacteria-enhanced diet could contribute to the improvement of the fly's fitness. We investigated ways of increasing the competitiveness of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) sterile males. We tested the hypothesis that the addition of beneficial bacteria to the larvae's diet would lead to a significant increase in their levels in the gut of the sterile adults and consequently improve their size and fitness. As expected, enriching the diet of mass-rearing Vienna-8 strain larvae with beneficial bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter freundii) resulted in increase in the number of Enterobacteriacae communities inhabiting the male's gut and a subsequent significant increase in the size of males and other morphometric traits and enhanced sexual performance of males at emergence. PMID:23786049

Hamden, Heithem; Guerfali, Meriem M'Saad; Fadhl, Selma; Saidi, Mouldi; Chevrier, Claude

2013-04-01

57

Research to Support Sterile-male-release and Genetic Alteration Techniques for Sea Lamprey Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated pest management of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes has recently been enhanced by addition of a sterile-male-release program, and future developments in genetic approaches may lead to additional methods for reducing sea lamprey reproduction. We review the development, implementation, and evaluation of the sterile-male-release technique (SMRT) as it is being applied against sea lampreys in the Great

Roger A. Bergstedt; Michael B. Twohey

2007-01-01

58

A Moricandia arvensis– based cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration system in Brassica juncea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cytoplasmic male-sterility system has been developed in mustard (Brassica juncea) following repeated backcrossings of the somatic hybrid Moricandia arvensis (2n=28, MM)+B. juncea (2n=36, AABB), carrying mitochondria and chloroplasts from M. arvensis, to Brassica juncea. Cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) plants are similar to normal B. juncea; however, the leaves exhibit severe chlorosis resulting in delayed flowering. Flowers are normal with slender,

S. Prakash; P. B. Kirti; S. R. Bhat; K. Gaikwad; V. D. Kumar; V. L. Chopra

1998-01-01

59

Transgenic induction of mitochondrial rearrangements for cytoplasmic male sterility in crop plants  

PubMed Central

Stability of the mitochondrial genome is controlled by nuclear loci. In plants, nuclear genes suppress mitochondrial DNA rearrangements during development. One nuclear gene involved in this process is Msh1. Msh1 appears to be involved in the suppression of illegitimate recombination in plant mitochondria. To test the hypothesis that Msh1 disruption leads to the type of mitochondrial DNA rearrangements associated with naturally occurring cytoplasmic male sterility in plants, a transgenic approach for RNAi was used to modulate expression of Msh1 in tobacco and tomato. In both species, these experiments resulted in reproducible mitochondrial DNA rearrangements and a condition of male (pollen) sterility. The male sterility was, in each case, heritable, associated with normal female fertility, and apparently maternal in its inheritance. Segregation of the transgene did not reverse the male sterile phenotype, producing stable, nontransgenic male sterility. The reproducible transgenic induction of mitochondrial rearrangements in plants is unprecedented, providing a means to develop novel cytoplasmic male sterile lines for release as non-GMO or transgenic materials. PMID:17261806

Sandhu, Ajay Pal S.; Abdelnoor, Ricardo V.; Mackenzie, Sally A.

2007-01-01

60

Transgenic induction of mitochondrial rearrangements for cytoplasmic male sterility in crop plants.  

PubMed

Stability of the mitochondrial genome is controlled by nuclear loci. In plants, nuclear genes suppress mitochondrial DNA rearrangements during development. One nuclear gene involved in this process is Msh1. Msh1 appears to be involved in the suppression of illegitimate recombination in plant mitochondria. To test the hypothesis that Msh1 disruption leads to the type of mitochondrial DNA rearrangements associated with naturally occurring cytoplasmic male sterility in plants, a transgenic approach for RNAi was used to modulate expression of Msh1 in tobacco and tomato. In both species, these experiments resulted in reproducible mitochondrial DNA rearrangements and a condition of male (pollen) sterility. The male sterility was, in each case, heritable, associated with normal female fertility, and apparently maternal in its inheritance. Segregation of the transgene did not reverse the male sterile phenotype, producing stable, nontransgenic male sterility. The reproducible transgenic induction of mitochondrial rearrangements in plants is unprecedented, providing a means to develop novel cytoplasmic male sterile lines for release as non-GMO or transgenic materials. PMID:17261806

Sandhu, Ajay Pal S; Abdelnoor, Ricardo V; Mackenzie, Sally A

2007-02-01

61

Instability in mitochondrial membranes in Polima cytoplasmic male sterility of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important factor to observe heterosis in Brassica rapa. Although several studies have documented the rearrangements of mitochondrial DNA and dysfunction in the mitochondria have been observed in most types of CMS, the basis of the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes and other effects on CMS remain unclear. In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization was performed in the flowers of an alloplasmic Polima CMS system from B. rapa ssp. chinensis to identify genes that are differentially expressed between fertile and sterile plants. A total of 443 clones were isolated (156 were upregulated in fertile buds, and 287 were upregulated in sterile ones). Real-time RT-PCR further demonstrated the credibility of SSH. Among these genes, many membrane protein genes (LTP12, PIP2A, and GRP14) were inhibited in the sterile male line. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) assay was then performed. Results showed that the sterile MMP was unstable and failed to create a potential difference; thus, mitochondrial dysfunction occurred. Moreover, abnormal microtubules and photosynthetic pathways were found in sterile male cells. Unstable MMP, nutritional deficiency, and abnormal microtubules were the causes of Polima CMS in Brassica campestris. H2O2, MDA, and O(2-), accumulated as byproducts of energy metabolism disorder in sterile male cells. PMID:24652098

Li, Ying; Liu, Tongkun; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Shi, Gongjun; Zhang, Jingyi; Deng, Xiaohui; Zhang, Shuning; Hou, Xilin

2014-06-01

62

The sterile-male-release technique in Great Lakes sea lamprey management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The implementation of a sterile-male-release technique from 1991 through 1999 and evaluation of its effectiveness in the Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) management program is reviewed. Male sea lampreys were injected with the chemosterilant bisazir (P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N- methylphosphinothioic amide) using a robotic device. Quality assurance testing indicated the device delivered a consistent and effective dose of bisazir. Viability of embryos in an untreated control group was 64% compared to 1% in a treatment group. A task force developed nine hypotheses to guide implementation and evaluation of the technique. An annual average of 26,000 male sea lampreys was harvested from as many as 17 Great Lakes tributaries for use in the technique. An annual average of 16,100 sterilized males was released into 33 tributaries of Lake Superior to achieve a theoretical 59% reduction in larval production during 1991 to 1996. The average number of sterile males released in the St. Marys River increased from 4,000 during 1991 to 1996 to 20,100 during 1997 to 1999. The theoretical reduction in reproduction when combined with trapping was 57% during 1991 to 1996 and 86% during 1997 to 1999. Evaluation studies demonstrated that sterilized males were competitive and reduced production of larvae in streams. Field studies and simulation models suggest reductions in reproduction will result in fewer recruits, but there is risk of periodic high recruitment events independent of sterile-male release. Strategies to reduce reproduction will be most reliable when low densities of reproducing females are achieved. Expansion of the technique is limited by access to additional males for sterilization. Sterile-male release and other alternative controls are important in delivering integrated pest management and in reducing reliance on pesticides.

Twohey, M. B.; Heinrich, J. W.; Seelye, J. G.; Fredricks, K. T.; Bergstedt, R. A.; Kaye, C. A.; Scholefield, R. J.; McDonald, R. B.; Christie, G. C.

2003-01-01

63

The sterile-male-release technique in Great Lakes sea lamprey management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The implementation of a sterile-male-release technique from 1991 through 1999 and evaluation of its effectiveness in the Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) management program is reviewed. Male sea lampreys were injected with the chemosterilant bisazir (P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide) using a robotic device. Quality assurance testing indicated the device delivered a consistent and effective dose of bisazir. Viability of embryos in an untreated control group was 64% compared to 1% in a treatment group. A task force developed nine hypotheses to guide implementation and evaluation of the technique. An annual average of 26,000 male sea lampreys was harvested from as many as 17 Great Lakes tributaries for use in the technique. An annual average of 16,100 sterilized males was released into 33 tributaries of Lake Superior to achieve a theoretical 59% reduction in larval production during 1991 to 1996. The average number of sterile males released in the St. Marys River increased from 4,000 during 1991 to 1996 to 20,100 during 1997 to 1999. The theoretical reduction in reproduction when combined with trapping was 57% during 1991 to 1996 and 86% during 1997 to 1999. Evaluation studies demonstrated that sterilized males were competitive and reduced production of larvae in streams. Field studies and simulation models suggest reductions in reproduction will result in fewer recruits, but there is risk of periodic high recruitment events independent of sterile-male release. Strategies to reduce reproduction will be most reliable when low densities of reproducing females are achieved. Expansion of the technique is limited by access to additional males for sterilization. Sterile-male release and other alternative controls are important in delivering integrated pest management and in reducing reliance on pesticides.

Twohey, Michael B.; Heinrich, John W.; Seelye, James G.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Kaye, Cheryl A.; Scholefield, Ron J.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Christie, Gavin C.

2003-01-01

64

Sexual Dysfunction in Males: Significance of Adverse Childhood Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 301 male college students found that occasional sexual dysfunction was frequent in young male adults, and long-lasting adverse familial relationships to attachment figures were more influential in later sexual dysfunction than were childhood sexual abuse experiences. (Author/DB)

Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others

1996-01-01

65

ORIGINAL PAPER Males, but not females, contribute to sexual isolation  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Males, but not females, contribute to sexual isolation between two sympatric species; salamanders: Arnold et al. 1993; birds: Sætre et al. 1997a, b; crickets: Jang et al. 2007). Sexual isolation

Gabor, Caitlin - Department of Biology, Texas State University

66

Stranger and Acquaintance Sexual Assault of Adult Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined victim and assault characteristics and the nature and extent of coercion, violence, and physical injuries among adult male victims of sexual assaults. Client records of three groups presenting to a sexual assault care center were included: males assaulted by a stranger (n = 64), males assaulted by an acquaintance (n = 81), and…

Stermac, Lana; del Bove, Giannetta; Addison, Mary

2004-01-01

67

Sexual Agreements among Gay Male Couples  

PubMed Central

Many gay male couples make agreements about whether or not to permit sex with outside partners, yet little is known about the development and maintenance of these agreements, their impact on relationships, and whether they are an effective HIV prevention strategy. Using semi-structured, qualitative interviews, 39 gay male couples were asked about their sexual agreements and about other relationship dynamics that might affect their agreements. Analysis revealed a wide range of agreement types, all of which are presented along a continuum rather than as discrete categories. For couples with open agreements, most placed rules or conditions limiting when, where, how often, and with whom outside sex was permitted. Although motivations for having agreements varied, HIV prevention did not rank as a primary factor for any couple. Most couples had congruous agreements; however, a small number reported discrepancies which may increase HIV transmission risk. How couples handled breaks in their agreements also varied, depending on what condition was broken, whether it was disclosed, and the partner's reaction. Additional results include differences in agreement type and motivations for having an agreement based on couple serostatus. Overall, agreements benefited couples by providing boundaries for the relationship, supporting a non-heteronormative identity, and fulfilling the sexual needs of the couple. Future prevention efforts involving gay couples must address the range of agreement types and the meanings couples ascribe to them, in addition to tempering safety messages with the relationship issues that are important to and faced by gay couples. PMID:18686027

Hoff, Colleen H.; Beougher, Sean C.

2009-01-01

68

Meiotic disturbances related to human male sterility J. M. LUCIANI, A. STAHL  

E-print Network

of each anomaly, we would like to consider in more detail three groups : males with Klinefelter's syndrome, 47, XYY patients and those males with autosomal anomalies. Aside from these mitotic aberrations constitution. 1. Klinefelter's syndrome. - The role of certain gonosomal anomalies in relation to sterility

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation Is Disrupted in Sterile Hybrid Male House Mice  

PubMed Central

In male mammals, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced in primary spermatocytes by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) and remain repressed for the duration of spermatogenesis. Here, we test the longstanding hypothesis that disrupted MSCI might contribute to the preferential sterility of heterogametic hybrid males. We studied a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus in which sterility is asymmetric: F1 males with a M. m. musculus mother are sterile or nearly so while F1 males with a M. m. domesticus mother are normal. In previous work, we discovered widespread overexpression of X-linked genes in the testes of sterile but not fertile F1 males. Here, we ask whether this overexpression is specifically a result of disrupted MSCI. To do this, we isolated cells from different stages of spermatogenesis and measured the expression of several genes using quantitative PCR. We found that X overexpression in sterile F1 primary spermatocytes is coincident with the onset of MSCI and persists in postmeiotic spermatids. Using a series of recombinant X genotypes, we then asked whether X overexpression in hybrids is controlled by cis-acting loci across the X chromosome. We found that it is not. Instead, one large interval in the proximal portion of the M. m. musculus X chromosome is associated with both overexpression and the severity of sterility phenotypes in hybrids. These results demonstrate a strong association between X-linked hybrid male sterility and disruption of MSCI and suggest that trans-acting loci on the X are important for the transcriptional regulation of the X chromosome during spermatogenesis. PMID:23307891

Campbell, Polly; Good, Jeffrey M.; Nachman, Michael W.

2013-01-01

70

A Cytoplasmic Male SterilityAssociated Mitochondrial Peptide in Common Bean Is Post-Translationally Regulated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytoplasmic male sterility in the common bean plant is associated with a dominant mitochondrial mutation designated pvs-orf239 (for Phaseolus vulgaris sterility sequence open reading frame 239). The sequence is transcribed in both veg- etative and reproductive tissues, but the translation product, ORF239, is present only in reproductive tissues. We present evidence to support a model of post-translational regulation of ORF239

Rodrigo Sarria; Anna Lyznik; C. Eduardo Vallejos; Sally A. Mackenzie

1998-01-01

71

Release of thiotepa sterilized males into caged populations of Aedes aegypti: life table analysis.  

PubMed

Successful SIT trials against mosquitoes in the 1960-70s were achieved by sterilizing male mosquitoes using chemosterilants. Their use was discontinued after concerns were raised about the effect of residues on non-target organisms, although scant evidence has been published. Irradiation is an expensive process; chemosterilization could be an affordable option for implementing SIT programs in developing countries. We compare life table parameters of three Aedes aegypti populations comprising different ratios of thiotepa-treated and non-treated males in order to identify the impact on reproductive potential of the presence of sterile males. No difference was observed in the survival of the treated and untreated males. The release of thiotepa sterilized males into caged Ae. aegypti populations had no effect on death or survival probability of the individuals in the cages but the fecundity of females was significantly reduced, as evaluated by hatch rate and stable age structure parameters. The significant decreases in net reproduction rate, finite rate of natural increase and intrinsic rate of natural increase in populations including sterile males are sufficient to indicate that such populations would not be able to proliferate in natural conditions. This suggests that release of Ae. aegypti thiotepa-treated males could be effective in reducing the reproductive capability of the target population and consequently contribute to vector control. PMID:24513037

Gato, René; Companioni, Ariamys; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Menéndez, Zulema; González, Aileen; Rodríguez, Misladys

2014-04-01

72

Breeding male sterile lines of dutch onion varieties as a preliminary to the breeding of hybrid varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.By means of test crossings to American male sterile varieties N ms ms plants were found in Netherlands onion varieties.2.In 14 man-days of searching in commercial seed plots 92 male sterile plants (S ms ms) were found. From these plants male sterile descendants were gained.3.From the S ms ms and N ms ms plants of the Netherlands variety Primeur a

O. Banga; J. Petiet

1958-01-01

73

Sexual size dimorphism in the American rubyspot: male body size predicts male competition and mating success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual differences in body size are widespread among animals, and various explanations for the evolution and maintenance of sexual size dimorphism have been proposed. We investigated the effects of sexual selection and fecundity selection on the sizes of males and females, respectively, in American rubyspots, Hetaerina americana. Males are larger than females and have large red spots at the base

M. A. Serrano-Meneses; A. Córdoba-Aguilar; V. Méndez; S. J. Layen; T. Székely

2007-01-01

74

Male ornament variation in a sexually dimorphic seabird with variable male mating success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions: Are sex-specific ornaments necessarily under sexual selection? Could previous sexual selection have eliminated meaningful variation in male ornaments, as envisioned by the lek paradox? Background: The lek paradox proposes that sexual selection on a trait can become limited by the availability of genetic variation. If prolonged directional selection leads to an exhaustion of genetic variation in male ornaments, selection

Stephanie G. Wright; Donald C. Dearborn

2009-01-01

75

A genetic study of male sexual orientation.  

PubMed

Homosexual male probands with monozygotic cotwins, dizygotic cotwins, or adoptive brothers were recruited using homophile publications. Sexual orientation of relatives was assessed either by asking relatives directly, or when this was impossible, asking the probands. Of the relatives whose sexual orientation could be rated, 52% (29/56) of monozygotic cotwins, 22% (12/54) of dizygotic cotwins, and 11% (6/57) of adoptive brothers were homosexual. Heritabilities were substantial under a wide range of assumptions about the population base rate of homosexuality and ascertainment bias. However, the rate of homosexuality among nontwin biological siblings, as reported by probands, 9.2% (13/142), was significantly lower than would be predicted by a simple genetic hypothesis and other published reports. A proband's self-reported history of childhood gender non-conformity did not predict homosexuality in relatives in any of the three subsamples. Thus, childhood gender nonconformity does not appear to be an indicator of genetic loading for homosexuality. Cotwins from concordant monozygotic pairs were very similar for childhood gender nonconformity. PMID:1845227

Bailey, J M; Pillard, R C

1991-12-01

76

Thyroid hormones and male sexual function.  

PubMed

The role of thyroid hormones in the control of erectile functioning has been only superficially investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between thyroid and erectile function in two different cohorts of subjects. The first one derives from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS study), a multicentre survey performed on a sample of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years (mean 60 ± 11 years). The second cohort is a consecutive series of 3203 heterosexual male patients (mean age 51.8 ± 13.0 years) attending our Andrology and Sexual Medicine Outpatient Clinic for sexual dysfunction at the University of Florence (UNIFI study). In the EMAS study all subjects were tested for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4). Similarly, TSH levels were checked in all patients in the UNIFI study, while FT4 only when TSH resulted outside the reference range. Overt primary hyperthyroidism (reduced TSH and elevated FT4, according to the reference range) was found in 0.3 and 0.2% of EMAS and UNIFI study respectively. In both study cohorts, suppressed TSH levels were associated with erectile dysfunction (ED). Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with an increased risk of severe erectile dysfunction (ED, hazard ratio = 14 and 16 in the EMAS and UNIFI study, respectively; both p < 0.05), after adjusting for confounding factors. These associations were confirmed in nested case-control analyses, comparing subjects with overt hyperthyroidism to age, BMI, smoking status and testosterone-matched controls. Conversely, no association between primary hypothyroidism and ED was observed. In conclusion, erectile function should be evaluated in all individuals with hyperthyroidism. Conversely, assessment of thyroid function cannot be recommended as routine practice in all ED patients. PMID:22834774

Corona, G; Wu, F C W; Forti, G; Lee, D M; O'Connor, D B; O'Neill, T W; Pendleton, N; Bartfai, G; Boonen, S; Casanueva, F F; Finn, J D; Giwercman, A; Han, T S; Huhtaniemi, I T; Kula, K; Lean, M E J; Punab, M; Vanderschueren, D; Jannini, E A; Mannucci, E; Maggi, M

2012-10-01

77

Epidemiological characteristics of male sexual assault in a criminological database.  

PubMed

Sexual assault among males, compared with females, is understudied, and may also be significantly underreported. Past studies have relied primarily on population-based survey data to estimate the prevalence of sexual assault and associated health outcomes. However, survey-based studies rely primarily on self-reports of victimization and may not accurately estimate the true prevalence of male sexual assault victimization. In order to obtain a detailed assessment of sexual assault among males, criminological databases like the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) may provide an important and unique source of information. The objective of the current study was to use data from the 2001-2005 NIBRS to construct an epidemiological profile of sexual assault among males. Our results suggest that the incidence of sexual assault was higher among young males (less than 19 years of age), with approximately 90% of all cases being reported among members of this age group. Among males of all ages, forcible fondling and sodomy were the most prevalent forms of sexual assault. Results from additional analyses include age- and race-specific rates of male sexual assault, the prevalence and severity of injury, and time trends detailing incidence by time of the day and location of the incident. Our analyses show that sexual assault is experienced by males of all age groups. However, the rate of sexual assault is higher among younger males. Despite some limitations, results from this study suggest that NIBRS data may provide a important complement to survey data for understanding breadth and consequences of male sexual assault. PMID:21987510

Choudhary, Ekta; Gunzler, Douglas; Tu, Xin; Bossarte, Robert M

2012-02-01

78

Inventories for male and female sexual dysfunctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several illnesses can distress sexual health and disrupt sexuality, an integral part of being human. These illnesses are not different in origin from those affecting other health areas, but, because sexuality is involved, effective communication and empathy between the physician and the patient may be severely hindered by negative feelings such as anxiety and guiltiness. A detailed general and sexual

G Corona; E A Jannini; M Maggi

2006-01-01

79

Sexual behavior patterns of customers of male street prostitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information about male customers of male prostitutes, including sociodemographic and life-style characteristics, sexual and drug use behaviors, and knowledge about HIV infection were collected from a convenience sample of 211 male street prostitutes and a convenience sample of 15 male customers as part of a feasibility study. Data from these two groups indicate that despite knowledge of HIV infection and

Edward V. Morse; Patricia M. Simon; Paul M. Balson; Howard J. Osofsky

1992-01-01

80

Characterisation and expression of the mitochondrial genome of a new type of cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new cytoplasmic male sterile sunflower, CMS3 [44], was characterised in relation to the Petiolaris (PET1) cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower, CMS89 [25]. Southern blot analysis showed that the mitochondrial genome of CMS3 contains unique rearrangements in at least five loci (atp6, atp9, atpA, nad1+5 and coxIII) compared to the PET1 sterile and the fertile cytoplasms. Transcripts of two (coxIII and atp6)

Mariana Spassova; Françoise Moneger; Christopher J. Leaver; Peter Petrov; Atanas Atanassov; H. John J. Nijkamp; Jacques Hille

1994-01-01

81

Production of male- and female-sterile plants through reproductive tissue ablation.  

PubMed

Male and female sterilities have many useful applications in horticultural crops, including reducing the invasive potential of new ornamentals, elimination of pollen allergens and redirecting resources from seeds to vegetative growth. In this study, we tested a male- and female-sterility (MS; FS) gene construct in Nicotiana tabacum to evaluate its effectiveness and effect on phenotype. Three T1 Nicotiana tabacum lines expressing the MS (p108:barnase) and FS (sp41:barnase) genes (MS/FS lines) and a control Nicotiana tabacum line (WT GUS) were measured for plant height, leaf length and width, corolla length, number of nodes on the main stem and stem diameter. No significant differences were found in these growth measurements between MS/FS lines and WT GUS. No pollen was observed on any of the lines carrying the MS and FS genes, indicating that the male sterility was complete. Seed set was greatly reduced or completely eliminated in plants with the MS and FS genes, after heavy pollinations of mature flowers with WT GUS pollen. However, pollinations of immature flowers resulted in very low seed set. This may be due to the nature of the promoter controlling expression of the FS gene as it had the highest expression levels at anthesis. The combination of male- and female-sterility genes was effective in eliminating seed set in all the lines examined and has direct application for reducing invasiveness of ornamental plants. PMID:19070936

Gardner, Nicole; Felsheim, Roderick; Smith, Alan G

2009-05-15

82

HYBRID DYSGENESIS IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER: A SYNDROME OF ABERRANT TRAITS INCLUDING MUTATION, STERILITY AND MALE RECOMBINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A syndrome of associated aberrant traits is described in Drosophila mel- anogaster. Six of these traits, mutation, sterility, male recombination, trans- mission ratio distortion, chromosomal aberrations and local increases in female recombination, have previously been reported. A seventh trait, nondisjunc- tion, is described for the first time. All of the traits we have examined are found nonreciprocally in F, hybrids.

MARGARET G. KIDWELL; JAMES F. KIDWELL; JOHN A. SVED

83

Meiotic studies in a series of 1100 infertile and sterile males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meiotic studies have been carried out in a series of 1100 infertile and sterile males. Of these, 599 cases have been studies in testicular biopsy, and 501, in semen samples. This is the largest meiotic series published so far. The incidence of meiotic anomalies was 4.3%. The most frequent chromosome abnormality was desynapsis (3.7%). However, the number of cases with

J. Egozcue; C. Templado; F. Vidal; J. Navarro; F. Morer-Fargas; S. Marina

1983-01-01

84

A Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Structured Populations of Silene vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gynodioecy, the coexistence of functionally female and hermaphroditic morphs within plant popula- tions, often has a complicated genetic basis involving several cytoplasmic male-sterility factors and nuclear restorers. This complexity has made it difficult to study the genetics and evolution of gynodioecy in natural populations. We use a quantitative genetic analysis of crosses within and among populations of Silene vulgaris to

Douglas R. Taylor; Matthew S. Olson; David E. McCauley

85

Restoration of fertility by antisense RNA in genetically engineered male sterile tobacco plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) expressing the rolC gene of Agrobacterium rhizogenes under the transcriptional control of the 35S RNA promoter are male sterile. When these plants are genetically crossed with others containing the rolC gene linked in antisense orientation to the 35S RNA promoter, hybrid progeny display restoration of male fertility. Moreover, hybrid progeny are revertant for other

Thomas Schmülling; Horst Röhrig; Silke Pilz; Richard Walden; Jeff Schell

1993-01-01

86

Predictors of sexual aggression among male juvenile offenders.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to conduct a longitudinal examination of predictors of sexual aggression among male juvenile offenders. Four hundred and four adolescent males between the ages of 14 and 17 years were recruited from juvenile probation offices to take part in a prospective study of substance use and sexual risk. At baseline, participants completed a series of questionnaires that assessed putative risk factors for sexual aggression. They then completed a measure of sexual aggression at the 6-month follow-up period. Correlational analyses revealed that participants who reported hard drug use, more frequent alcohol and marijuana use, and less severe offenses reported engaging in more severe sexual aggression. In addition, participants who reported higher impulsivity, sensation seeking, and externalizing behaviors also reported participating in more severe sexual aggression. When these variables were included in a regression analysis, only externalizing behaviors and severity of offense uniquely predicted severity of sexual aggression at the 6-month follow-up. PMID:22080583

Yeater, Elizabeth A; Lenberg, Kathryn L; Bryan, Angela D

2012-05-01

87

Male brush-turkeys attempt sexual coercion in unusual circumstances.  

PubMed

Sexual coercion by males is generally understood to have three forms: forced copulation, harassment and intimidation. We studied Australian brush-turkeys, Alectura lathami, to determine whether some male behaviours towards females at incubation mounds could be classified as aggressive, whether males were attempting sexual coercion and, if so, whether the coercion was successful. We found that some male behaviours towards females were significantly more likely to be followed by the cessation of female mound activity, and hence could be classified as aggressive, while others were significantly more likely to be followed by the commencement of female mound activity, and hence could be classified as enticing. Copulation was preceded by higher rates of male enticement and by higher rates of certain types of male aggression. It therefore seemed that males were attempting sexual coercion. There was little evidence, however, that this combination of coercion and enticement was successful in obtaining copulations. While forced copulation did occur, it was infrequent, and no evidence could be found for intimidation. We conclude that harassment is the primary form of sexual coercion by male brush-turkeys. Although sexual coercion is understood to be a sub-optimal tactic, brush-turkey sexual coercion was employed as a primary tactic by dominant males who owned incubation mounds. One possible explanation for this apparent paradox is that aggression is the default solution for social conflicts in this species, and hence can be interpreted as a behavioural syndrome. PMID:24932897

Wells, David A; Jones, Darryl N; Bulger, David; Brown, Culum

2014-07-01

88

Targeted sequence capture provides insight into genome structure and genetics of male sterility in a gynodioecious diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae).  

PubMed

Gynodioecy is a sexual system wherein females coexist with hermaphrodites. It is of interest not only because male-sterile plants are advantageous in plant breeding but also because it can be a crucial step in the evolutionary transition to entirely separate sexes (dioecy) from a hermaphroditic ancestor. The gynodioecious diploid wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae), is a member of a clade with both dioecious and cultivated species, making it an ideal model in which to study the genetics of male sterility. To create a genetic map of F. v. ssp. bracteata, we identified informative polymorphisms from genomic sequencing (3-5x coverage) of two outbred plants from the same population. Using targeted enrichment, we sequenced 200 bp surrounding each of 6575 polymorphisms in 48 F1 offspring, yielding genotypes at 98% of targeted sites with mean coverage >100x, plus more than 600-kb high-coverage nontargeted sequence. With the resulting linkage map of 7802 stringently filtered markers (5417 targeted), we assessed recombination rates and genomic incongruities. Consistent with past work in strawberries, male sterility is dominant, segregates 1:1, and maps to a single location in the female. Further mapping an additional 55 offspring places male sterility in a gene-dense, 338-kb region of chromosome 4. The region is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions in the closely related octoploids, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, suggesting either independent origins or translocation. The 57 genes in this region do not include protein families known to control male sterility and thus suggest alternate mechanisms for the suppression of male function. PMID:23749450

Tennessen, Jacob A; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

2013-08-01

89

Targeted Sequence Capture Provides Insight into Genome Structure and Genetics of Male Sterility in a Gynodioecious Diploid Strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae)  

PubMed Central

Gynodioecy is a sexual system wherein females coexist with hermaphrodites. It is of interest not only because male-sterile plants are advantageous in plant breeding but also because it can be a crucial step in the evolutionary transition to entirely separate sexes (dioecy) from a hermaphroditic ancestor. The gynodioecious diploid wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae), is a member of a clade with both dioecious and cultivated species, making it an ideal model in which to study the genetics of male sterility. To create a genetic map of F. v. ssp. bracteata, we identified informative polymorphisms from genomic sequencing (3?5x coverage) of two outbred plants from the same population. Using targeted enrichment, we sequenced 200 bp surrounding each of 6575 polymorphisms in 48 F1 offspring, yielding genotypes at 98% of targeted sites with mean coverage >100x, plus more than 600-kb high-coverage nontargeted sequence. With the resulting linkage map of 7802 stringently filtered markers (5417 targeted), we assessed recombination rates and genomic incongruities. Consistent with past work in strawberries, male sterility is dominant, segregates 1:1, and maps to a single location in the female. Further mapping an additional 55 offspring places male sterility in a gene-dense, 338-kb region of chromosome 4. The region is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions in the closely related octoploids, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, suggesting either independent origins or translocation. The 57 genes in this region do not include protein families known to control male sterility and thus suggest alternate mechanisms for the suppression of male function. PMID:23749450

Tennessen, Jacob A.; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

2013-01-01

90

Male sterility and double heterozygosity for chromosomal inversion.  

PubMed

A meiotic analysis has been carried out on male mice heterozygous for one of two inversions in Chromosome 2, In(2)5Rk and In(2)2H, as well as on double heterozygotes for these two overlapping inversions. Electron microscopic observation of synaptonemal complexes revealed that heterosynapsis had occurred in a large number of spermatocytes, producing a small number of cells with an inversion loop. Heterozygous carriers of a single inversion loop reproduced quite normally, whereas doubly heterozygous carriers of a double loop showed a reduction in spermatogenesis. These data shed new light on the role of inversions in speciation. PMID:7835090

Rumpler, Y; Gabriel-Robez, O; Volobouev, V; Yu, W; Rasamimanana, P; de Perdigo, A

1995-01-01

91

How Sexual Orientation and Physical Attractiveness Affect Impressions of Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stereotyped impressions of male homosexuals and the underlying importance of sexuality in social attraction and perceptions were investigated. Male (N=80) and female (N=80) college students responded to either an attractive or an unattractive photo of a male stimulus person, who was identified to half of the subjects as a homosexual. Compared to…

Elman, Donald; And Others

92

Sexual interest, activity, and satisfaction among male nursing home residents.  

PubMed

Structured interviews were conducted with all male residents (n = 116) of a Veterans Affairs Nursing Home to gather information on sexual interest, preference, activity levels, satisfaction, and distress. We excluded males with severe cognitive impairment, leaving a sample of 61. Of these, 30 had partners. Sexual interest was significantly higher among those with partners (p = 0.014), although those without partners reported that their interest would have been higher if they had a sexual partner. Sexual preference was strongly in favor of vaginal intercourse, regardless of the presence or absence of a partner. Among those with partners, coitus was reported to occur at least monthly by 17%, and other forms of sexual activity (e.g. hugging, kissing) were practiced at least monthly by 73%. Sexual satisfaction was high, and distress with relative sexual inactivity was remarkably low. We found age, functional status, and intercourse frequency to correlate positively with sexual satisfaction, whereas marital status, cognitive function, libido, and frequency of kissing were positive correlates of sexual distress. Institutionalized elderly males remain sexually interested, especially in coitus, and may benefit from counseling and home visits when a partner is available. PMID:2064543

Mulligan, T; Palguta, R F

1991-04-01

93

Hybridization using cytoplasmic male sterility, cytoplasmic herbicide tolerance, and herbicide tolerance from nuclear genes  

SciTech Connect

An improved process is described for producing a substantially homogeneous population of plants of a predetermined hybrid variety of crop which is capable of undergoing self-pollination and cross-pollination. The process comprises: growing in a first planting area a substantially random population of cytoplasmic male sterile plants which exhibit cytoplasmic herbicide tolerance to at least one Type A herbicide and exhibit tolerance to at least one Type B herbicide which is attributable solely to homozygous dominant nuclear genes and male fertile plants which are homozygous recessive maintainer plants for the cytoplasmic male sterile plants and which lack the cytoplasmic herbicide tolerance to at least one Type A herbicide and exhibit tolerance to at least one Type B herbicide attributable solely to the homozygous dominant nuclear genes.

Beversdorf, W.D.; Erickson, L.R.; Grant, I.

1987-04-14

94

Adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse: Prevalence, sexual abuse characteristics, and long-term effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the plethora of research literature on female victims of childhood sexual abuse, it is only recently that male victims have received some attention. The present paper critically reviews the literature on men who had been sexually abused in childhood. It examines the issues of prevalence, nature of the abuse, and the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Where provided,

Robert R. Ross

1996-01-01

95

Sexual Victimization Among Male College Students: Assault Severity, Sexual Functioning, and Health Risk Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between college men's sexual victimization experiences, engagement in a number of health risk behaviors, and sexual functioning. The study also examined sexual victimization by assault severity categories and utilized a multiitem, behaviorally specific, gender-neutral measure. Three hundred and two male college students were recruited for the current study from a

Jessica A. Turchik

2012-01-01

96

[Perinatal clomiphene citrate treatment changes sexual orientations of male mice].  

PubMed

Perinatal period and adolescence are critical for brain development, which is the biological basis of an individual's sexual orientation and sexual behavior. In this study, animals were divided into two groups and their sexual orientations were observed: one group experienced drug treatments during the perinatal period, and the other group was castrated at puberty. The results showed that estradiol treatment had no effect on mature male offspring's sexual orientations, but 9 days and 14 days of clomiphene citrate treatment significantly increased the chance of homosexuality and effeminized behavior. In addition, the sexual orientation of mature normal male offspring, which were castrated when they were 21 days old,was not significant different from the control animals. These findings suggest that the inhibition of perinatal estrogen activities could suppress individual male-typical responses, enhance female-typical responses and induce homosexual orientations. Moreover, the masculinizing effects of estrogen were more obvious during perinatal period than adolescence. PMID:24115661

He, Feng-Qin; Zhang, Heng-Rui

2013-10-01

97

Effects of Perpetrator Gender and Victim Sexuality on Blame Toward Male Victims of Sexual Assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most researchers who have investigated attributions of blame toward victims in sexual-assault depictions have considered only female victims of male perpetrators. Few researchers have investigated the effects of perpetrator gender or victim sexual orientation on blame attributions toward male victims. The present authors investigated those two variables. Participants were 161 undergraduates at a British university in social science courses, each

Michelle Davies; Paul Pollard; John Archer

2006-01-01

98

Depressive symptomatology and male sexual functions in late life  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWe aimed to investigate the association between depressive symptoms and various male sexual functions, and to identify which depressive symptoms are most predictive of erectile dysfunction (ED).

Jackie Y. W. Cheng; Emil M. L. Ng; John S. N. Ko

2007-01-01

99

Discovery of a novel cytoplasmic male-sterility and its restorer lines in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).  

PubMed

A male-sterile (MS) radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was found in an accession collected from Uzbekistan. Unlike Ogura MS radishes in which no pollen grain is typically visible during anthesis, a small number of pollen grains stuck together in the dehiscing anthers was observed in the newly identified MS radish. Fluorescein diacetate tests and scanning electron micrographs showed that pollen grains in the new MS radish were severely deformed and non-viable. Cytological examination of pollen development stages showed a clear difference in the defective stage from that seen in Ogura male-sterility. Reciprocal cross-pollination with diverse male-fertile lines indicated that pollen grains of the new MS radish were completely sterile, and the female organs were fully fertile. When the new MS radish and Ogura MS lines were cross-pollinated with a set of eight breeding lines, all F1 progeny originating from crosses with the new MS radish were male-sterile. In contrast, most of the F1 progeny resulting from crosses with Ogura MS lines were male-fertile. These results demonstrated that factors associated with induction of the newly identified male-sterility are different from those of Ogura male-sterility. The lack of restorer lines for the newly identified male-sterility led us to predict that it might be a complete cytoplasmic male-sterility without restorer-of-fertility genes in nuclear genomes. However, cross-pollination with more diverse radish germplasm identified one accession introduced from Russia that could completely restore fertility, proving the existence of restorer-of-fertility gene(s) for the new male-sterility. Meanwhile, the PCR amplification profile of molecular markers for the classification of radish mitochondrial genome types revealed that the new MS radish contained a novel mitotype. PMID:18597066

Lee, Young-Pyo; Park, Suhyung; Lim, Chaewan; Kim, Hyojung; Lim, Heerae; Ahn, Youngsoon; Sung, Soon-Kee; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Kim, Sunggil

2008-10-01

100

Sport and the sexually abused male child1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through feminist research in the study of sport, the issue of child sexual abuse has been driven onto the agenda of sports organisations, resulting in considerable practical reform (Brackenridge, 2001). However, the flip-side to this development is that the experience of sexually abused males has been largely ignored. In 1990, Struve claimed, ‘a growing number of clinicians who work with

Mike Hartill

2005-01-01

101

Epidemiological Characteristics of Male Sexual Assault in a Criminological Database  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual assault among males, compared with females, is understudied, and may also be significantly underreported. Past studies have relied primarily on population-based survey data to estimate the prevalence of sexual assault and associated health outcomes. However, survey-based studies rely primarily on self-reports of victimization and may not…

Choudhary, Ekta; Gunzler, Douglas; Tu, Xin; Bossarte, Robert M.

2012-01-01

102

Routine Activity Theory and Sexual Deviance Among Male College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research on sexual deviance on university and college campuses is limited by its narrow focus on group affiliation. In this study, it is argued that prior deviance and opportunity serve as more robust predictor variables of sexual deviance. Using a sample of 304 male college students from four universities within the Ohio Valley Conference, this paper utilizes Analytic moment

Arrick Jackson; Katherine Gilliland; Louis Veneziano

2006-01-01

103

Male Involvement: Implications for Reproductive and Sexual Health Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sexual health needs of young males have been largely ignored in the field of reproductive health. Until recently, the health care needs of females have received the vast majority of attention from public health professionals and organizations with services focused on the prevention of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and…

Edmunds, Lena; Rink, Elizabeth; Zukoski, Ann P.

2004-01-01

104

Diabetes, psychological function and male sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to assess psychological contributors or correlates of sexual dysfunction in diabetic men. The study was conducted on 40 diabetic men and 40 age-matched healthy volunteers. The subjects underwent a psychosexual interview with their sexual partners and had a comprehensive medical evaluation to rule out the confounding effects of other illnesses or medications. Psychiatric, psychological

Raul C. Schiavi; Barbara B. Stimmel; John Mandeli; Patricia Schreiner-Engel; Anna Ghizzani

1995-01-01

105

ASYMMETRY AND POLYMORPHISM OF HYBRID MALE STERILITY DURING THE EARLY STAGES OF SPECIATION IN HOUSE MICE  

PubMed Central

House mice offer a powerful system for dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypes that isolate species in the early stages of speciation. We used a series of reciprocal crosses between wild-derived strains of Mus musculus and M. domesticus to examine F1 hybrid male sterility, one of the primary phenotypes thought to isolate these species. We report four main results. First, we found significantly smaller testes and fewer sperm in hybrid male progeny of most crosses. Second, in some crosses hybrid male sterility was asymmetric and depended on the species origin of the X chromosome. These observations confirm and extend previous findings, underscoring the central role that the M. musculus X chromosome plays in reproductive isolation. Third, comparisons among reciprocal crosses revealed polymorphism at one or more hybrid incompatibilities within M. musculus. Fourth, the spermatogenic phenotype of this polymorphic interaction appears distinct from previously described hybrid incompatibilities between these species. These data build on previous studies of speciation in house mice and show that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility is fairly complex, even at this early stage of divergence. PMID:18005156

Good, Jeffrey M.; Handel, Mary Ann; Nachman, Michael W.

2010-01-01

106

A Social Learning Theory Comparison of the Sexual Victimization of Adolescent Sexual Offenders and Nonsexual Offending Male Delinquents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared 216 adolescent sexually victimized sexual offenders and 93 adolescent sexually victimized nonsexual offending delinquents. Sexually offending delinquents had closer relationships with their perpetrators, a higher chance of having a male perpetrator, a longer duration of sexual victimization, more forceful sexual victimization, and…

Burton, David L.; Miller, Diane Lynn; Shill, Chien Tai

2002-01-01

107

Blind sterile 2 (bs2), a hypomorphic mutation in Agps, results in cataracts and male sterility in mice.  

PubMed

Blind sterile 2 (bs2) is a spontaneous autosomal recessive mouse mutation exhibiting cataracts and male sterility. Detailed clinical and histological evaluation revealed that bs2 mice have cataracts resulting from severely disrupted lens fiber cells. Analysis of bs2 testes revealed the absence of mature sperm and the presence of large multinucleate cells within the lumens of seminiferous tubules. Linkage analysis mapped the bs2 locus to mouse chromosome 2, approximately 45cM distal from the centromere. Fine mapping established a 3.1Mb bs2 critical region containing 19 candidate genes. Sequence analysis of alkylglycerone-phosphate synthase (Agps), a gene within the bs2 critical region, revealed a G to A substitution at the +5 position of intron 14. This mutation results in two abundantly expressed aberrantly spliced Agps transcripts: Agps(?exon14) lacking exon 14 or Agps(exon?13-14) lacking both exons 13 and 14 as well as full-length Agps transcript. Agps is a peroxisomal enzyme which catalyzes the formation of the ether bond during the synthesis of ether lipids. Both aberrantly spliced Agps(?exon14) and Agps(exon?13-14) transcripts led to a frame shift, premature stop and putative proteins lacking the enzymatic FAD domain. We present evidence that bs2 mice have significantly decreased levels of ether lipids. Human mutations in Agps result in rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 3 (RCDP3), a disease for which bs2 is the only genetic model. Thus, bs2 is a hypomorphic mutation in Agps, and represents a useful model for investigation of the tissue specificity of ether lipid requirements which will be particularly valuable for elucidating the mechanism of disease phenotypes resulting from ether lipid depletion. PMID:21353609

Liegel, R; Chang, B; Dubielzig, R; Sidjanin, D J

2011-05-01

108

The effect of male sterility on oil content and seed yield in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.)  

E-print Network

The effect of male sterility on oil content and seed yield in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L stérilité mâle sur la teneur en huile et le rendement en grains chez le tournesol (Helian- thus annuus L différences entre mâle-stérile et mâle- fertile ne soient pas dues au cytoplasme mâle-stérile de Helianthus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

109

Relationship of Metabolism of Reactive Oxygen Species with Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Pepper( Capsicum annuum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pepper cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line 9704A is one of the CMS types used for hybrid pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) production in China. Our previous studies suggested that CMS-9704A may suffer from oxidative stress as its cyanide-resistant respiration is lower than that of the maintainer line. To elucidate the metabolic mechanism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the CMS-pepper anthers,

Ming-Hua DENG; Jin-Fen WEN; Jin-Long HUO; Hai-Shan ZHU; Xiong-Ze DAI; Zhu-Qing ZHANG; Hui ZHOU; Xue-Xiao ZOU

110

Metabolism of reactive oxygen species in cotton cytoplasmic male sterility and its restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism of cotton cytoplasmic male sterility and the effects of restorer gene\\u000a on the metabolism of ROS, the metabolism changes in the production and scavenging of ROS and gene expression related to ROS-scavenging\\u000a enzymes were investigated in the anther mitochondria of CMS line, maintainer line and hybrid F1. During the abortion preliminary stage (sporogenous

Peidong Jiang; Xiaoquan Zhang; Yunguo Zhu; Wei Zhu; Haiyan Xie; Xuede Wang

2007-01-01

111

Molecular analysis of a new cytoplasmic male sterile genotype in sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA from 1 fertile and 6 cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) sunflower genotypes was studied. The CMS genotypes had been obtained either by specific crosses between different Helianthus species or by mutagenesis. CMS-associated restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were found in the vicinity of the atpA locus, generated by various restriction enzymes. The organization of the mitochondrial genes 26S rRNA,

Mariana Spassova; Michail Christov; Natasha Bohorova; Peter Petrov; Kalin Dudov; Atanas Atanassov; H. John J. Nijkamp; Jaques Hille

1992-01-01

112

JAMA Patient Page: Male Sexual Dysfunction  

MedlinePLUS

... call 718/946-7424. • Low libido (sexual interest) • Erectile dysfunction (ED, difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection) • Premature ... or discontinue the medication. • Prescription medications that treat erectile dysfunction may help a man achieve and maintain erections. • ...

113

Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.  

PubMed

As part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target effects of irradiation on male performance while maintaining sterility can improve the feasibility and economy of SIT programs. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of damaging free radicals in biological systems that may reduce sterile male performance. Here, we test whether exposure to an anoxic environment for 1 h before and during irradiation improves male performance, while maintaining sterility in males of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). We show that exposure to 1 h of anoxia increases the moth's antioxidant capacity and that irradiation in anoxia after 1 h of anoxic conditioning decreases irradiation-induced oxidative damage to the moth's lipids and proteins. Anoxia treatment that reduced oxidative damage after irradiation also produced moths with greater flight performance, mating success, and longevity, while maintaining F1 male sterility at acceptable levels for SIT. We conclude that anoxia pretreatment followed by irradiation in anoxia is an efficient way to improve the quality of irradiated moths and perhaps lower the number of moths needed for release SIT moth operations. PMID:24665701

López-Martínez, Giancarlo; Carpenter, James E; Hight, Stephen D; Hahn, Daniel A

2014-02-01

114

Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L  

PubMed Central

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3) and its maintainer (designated NB3) in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS), annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper. PMID:24264042

Wu, Zhiming; Cheng, Jiaowen; Qin, Cheng; Hu, Zhiqun; Yin, Caixia; Hu, Kailin

2013-01-01

115

Differential proteomic analysis of anthers between cytoplasmic male sterile and maintainer lines in Capsicum annuum L.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3) and its maintainer (designated NB3) in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS), annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper. PMID:24264042

Wu, Zhiming; Cheng, Jiaowen; Qin, Cheng; Hu, Zhiqun; Yin, Caixia; Hu, Kailin

2013-01-01

116

Pain Reduces Sexual Motivation in Female But Not Male Mice  

PubMed Central

Chronic pain is often associated with sexual dysfunction, suggesting that pain can reduce libido. We find that inflammatory pain reduces sexual motivation, measured via mounting behavior and/or proximity in a paced mating paradigm, in female but not male laboratory mice. Pain was produced by injection of inflammogens zymosan A (0.5 mg/ml) or ?-carrageenan (2%) into genital or nongenital (hind paw, tail, cheek) regions. Sexual behavior was significantly reduced in female mice experiencing pain (in all combinations); male mice similarly treated displayed unimpeded sexual motivation. Pain-induced reductions in female sexual behavior were observed in the absence of sex differences in pain-related behavior, and could be rescued by the analgesic, pregabalin, and the libido-enhancing drugs, apomorphine and melanotan-II. These findings suggest that the well known context sensitivity of the human female libido can be explained by evolutionary rather than sociocultural factors, as female mice can be similarly affected. PMID:24760835

Farmer, Melissa A.; Leja, Alison; Foxen-Craft, Emily; Chan, Lindsey; MacIntyre, Leigh C.; Niaki, Tina; Chen, Mengsha; Mapplebeck, Josiane C.S.; Tabry, Vanessa; Topham, Lucas; Sukosd, Melissa; Binik, Yitzchak M.; Pfaus, James G.

2014-01-01

117

Pain reduces sexual motivation in female but not male mice.  

PubMed

Chronic pain is often associated with sexual dysfunction, suggesting that pain can reduce libido. We find that inflammatory pain reduces sexual motivation, measured via mounting behavior and/or proximity in a paced mating paradigm, in female but not male laboratory mice. Pain was produced by injection of inflammogens zymosan A (0.5 mg/ml) or ?-carrageenan (2%) into genital or nongenital (hind paw, tail, cheek) regions. Sexual behavior was significantly reduced in female mice experiencing pain (in all combinations); male mice similarly treated displayed unimpeded sexual motivation. Pain-induced reductions in female sexual behavior were observed in the absence of sex differences in pain-related behavior, and could be rescued by the analgesic, pregabalin, and the libido-enhancing drugs, apomorphine and melanotan-II. These findings suggest that the well known context sensitivity of the human female libido can be explained by evolutionary rather than sociocultural factors, as female mice can be similarly affected. PMID:24760835

Farmer, Melissa A; Leja, Alison; Foxen-Craft, Emily; Chan, Lindsey; MacIntyre, Leigh C; Niaki, Tina; Chen, Mengsha; Mapplebeck, Josiane C S; Tabry, Vanessa; Topham, Lucas; Sukosd, Melissa; Binik, Yitzchak M; Pfaus, James G; Mogil, Jeffrey S

2014-04-23

118

Measuring Love: Sexual Minority Male Youths' Ideal Romantic Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Research examining how sexual minorities characterize love within same-sex relationships is scarce. In this study, we examined the validity of Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love in a sample of sexual minority male youth (N = 447). To test the adequacy of the theory for our population, we examined the psychometric properties of the Triadic Love Scale (TLS) and tested whether the three underlying constructs of the theory (Intimacy, Passion, and Commitment) emerged when participants were asked to consider their ideal relationship with another man. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we found support for the three-factor solution to characterize sexual minority male youths’ ideal romantic relationship, after minimizing item cross-loadings and adapting the content of the Passion subscale. We discuss the implications of our findings regarding the measurement of the TLS among sexual minority male youth and propose ways to enhance its measurement in future research. PMID:21709758

Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily; Eisenberg, Anna; Santana, Matt Leslie; Zimmerman, Marc

2011-01-01

119

Premarital Sexual Behavior among male college students of Kathmandu, Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background In Nepal, as in other Asian countries, the issue of sexuality still remains a taboo. Despite this fact, an increasing number of sexual activities is being reported by Nepalese students. This trend warrants serious and timely attention. Due to the sensitivity of the topic of premarital sexuality, youth receive inadequate education, guidance and services on reproductive health. The main objectives of this paper are to explore the sexual behavior especially focusing on prevalence of premarital sex among college men and to investigate the factors surrounding premarital sexual behavior. Methods A cross-sectional survey of college students was conducted in April-May 2006. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 573 male students. Association between premarital sex and the explanatory variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using Chi-square tests. The associations were further explored using multivariate logistic analysis. Results Despite the religious and cultural restrictions, about two-fifths of survey respondents (39%) reported that they have had premarital sex. The study has also shown that substantial proportions of students indulge in sexual activities as well as risky sexual behavior. Sex with commercial sex workers, multiple sex partners, and inconsistence use of condom with non-regular partner was common among the students. Less than two in five male students (57%) had used condom at the first sexual intercourse. The prevalence of premarital sex varied on different settings. Older students aged 20 and above were more likely to have premarital sex compared with younger students aged 15–19. Men who had liberal attitude towards male virginity at marriage were almost two times more likely to have engaged in premarital sex compared to their counterparts who have conservative attitude towards male virginity at marriage. Moreover, those students who believe in Hindu religion were more than two times (OR = 2.5) more likely to have premarital sex compared with those who follow other religions. Furthermore, those men who have close unmarried friends who have experienced premarital sexual intercourse were eight times (OR = 8.4) more likely to be sexually active compared to those who did not have such sexually active friends. Conclusion Prevalence of premarital sexual intercourse and risky sexual behavior are not uncommon in Nepal. Young people are exposed to health hazards due to their sexual behavior; hence sex education should be provided. School or college based sexuality education could benefit even out-of-school youths, because their partners often are students. PMID:19604383

Adhikari, Ramesh; Tamang, Jyotsna

2009-01-01

120

A comparison of male and female patterns of sexual arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural patterns of sexual arousal are examined for eight male and eight female heterosexuals. Comparisons are made in terms of physiological and subjective arousal. The results indicate (1) that males and females differ in both the direction and magnitude of their arousal response to a variety of erotic stimuli and (2) that there is a stronger correspondence between subjective

Debra L. Steinman; John P. Wincze; Sakheim; David H. Barlow; Matig Mavissakalian

1981-01-01

121

Images from Purgatory: Art Therapy with Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the clinical practice of two male art therapists and their work with male adolescent sex offenders in a residential treatment facility. The authors share experiences of working with clients who, in addition to being offenders, were diagnosed with a mental illness and were themselves victims of sexual abuse. The function of…

Mazloomian, Hoda; Moon, Bruce L.

2007-01-01

122

Impact of a Sexual Responsibility Program on Young Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data are presented from 335 young males who are participants in Wise Guys, a sexual responsibility program of the Family Life Council of Greater Greensboro. Comparisons were made with 145 similar males who did not participate in the program. Positive changes in knowledge and behavior were observed among the program participants but not the…

Gottsegen, Emile; Philliber, William W.

2001-01-01

123

Molecular aspects of cytoplasmic male sterility in perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.): mtDNA and RNA differences between plants with male-sterile and fertile cytoplasm and restriction mapping of their atp6 and coxI homologous regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lolium perenne L. male-sterile and fertile cytoplasms contain different mitochondrial genomes, as revealed by Southern hybridization with a number of heterologous mitochondrial probes. In addition, transcriptional patterns of atp6 and coxI genes distinguish both cytoplasmic types. The majority of the L. perenne sequences from male-sterile and fertile cytoplasm showing homology with these two genes has been cloned and mapped by

G. J. A. Rouwendal; J. Creemers-Molenaar; F. A. Krens

1992-01-01

124

Post-copulatory sexual selection and sexual conflict in the evolution of male pregnancy.  

PubMed

Male pregnancy in seahorses, pipefishes and sea dragons (family Syngnathidae) represents a striking reproductive adaptation that has shaped the evolution of behaviour and morphology in this group of fishes. In many syngnathid species, males brood their offspring in a specialized pouch, which presumably evolved to facilitate male parental care. However, an unexplored possibility is that brood pouch evolution was partly shaped by parent-offspring or sexual conflict, processes that would result in trade-offs between current and future pregnancies. Here we report a controlled breeding experiment using the sexually dimorphic Gulf pipefish, Syngnathus scovelli, to test for post-copulatory sexual selection within broods and for trade-offs between successive male pregnancies as functions of female attractiveness. Offspring survivorship within a pregnancy was affected by the size of a male's mate, the number of eggs transferred and the male's sexual responsiveness. Significantly, we also found that embryo survivorship in a current pregnancy was negatively related to survivorship in the prior pregnancy, clearly demonstrating fitness trade-offs between broods. Overall, our data indicate that post-copulatory sexual selection and sexual conflict occur in Gulf pipefishes. The conflict seems to be mediated by a strategy of cryptic choice in which males increase rates of offspring abortion in pregnancies from unattractive mothers to retain resources for future reproductive opportunities. Hence, the male brood pouch of syngnathid fishes, which nurtures offspring, also seems to have an important role as an arbiter of conflict between the sexes. PMID:20237568

Paczolt, Kimberly A; Jones, Adam G

2010-03-18

125

Male-on-male sexual assaults: an analysis of crime scene actions.  

PubMed

While the concept of male victimization is not a new phenomenon, the sexual assault of a male is a relatively new notion, emerging over the last 30 years in social research literature. Studies of female rape, pedophilia, and juvenile sex offenders have suggested that different styles of offending are reflected in the different types of behaviors committed by offenders at the crime scene. These studies suggest that there are three distinct themes of behavior: Control, Hostility, and Involvement. Using the crime scene actions of 305 male-on-male sexual assault from a U.K. national police database, multidimensional analysis was carried out. The proposed framework was found to be a useful way of classifying male-on-male sexual assaulters with 74% displaying a dominant theme. These resulted in 42% classified as displaying hostility, 23% as control, and 9% as involvement. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24255070

Almond, Louise; McManus, Michelle A; Ward, Lydia

2014-05-01

126

Analysis of seed set and stigma receptivity among cytoplasmic male sterile sorghum Sorghum bicolor [(L.) Moench] cultivars  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS OP SEED SET AND STIGMA RECEPTIVITY AMONG CYTOPLASMIC MALE STERILE SORGHUM SORGHUM 8ICOLOR [(L. ) MOENCH] CULTIVARS A Thesis JOHN ROBERT JASTER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OP SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Agronomy ANALYSIS OF SEED SET AND STIGMA RECEPTIVITY AMONG CYTOPLASMIC MALE STERILE SORGHUM SORGHUM 8/COLOR [(L. ) MOENCH] CULTIVARS A Thesis JOHN ROBERT JASTER Approved...

Jaster, John Robert

2012-06-07

127

Combining ability and heterosis as influenced by male-sterility inducing cytoplasms in sorghum [ Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was carried out to assess the efficiency of A2 cytoplasmic-nuclear male-sterility (CMS) system in comparison to the widely used A1 cytoplasm in terms of general combining ability (gca) effects of male-sterile (A-) lines and mean performance, specific combining ability (sca) effects and mid-parent heterosis of hybrids for days to 50% flowering, plant height and grain yield at International

Belum V. S. Reddy; S. Ramesh; P. Sanjana Reddy; B. Ramaiah

2007-01-01

128

Male Pseudoheterosexuality and Minimal Sexual Dysfunction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is often a correlation between "pseudoheterosexuality" and minor sexual dysfunction. Insight alone is not sufficient to provide relief, but when the patient can be helped to a comfortable acceptance of his homosexual feelings as a normal and healthy facet of his personality, very often the dysfunction is relieved. (Author)

Gutstadt, Joseph P.

1976-01-01

129

Y-Linked male sterile mutations induced by P element in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed Central

The Y chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster is composed of highly repetitive sequences and is essential only in the male germ line. We employed P-element insertional mutagenesis to induce male sterile mutations in the Y chromosome. By using a combination of two modifiers of position effect variegation, adding an extra Y chromosome and increasing temperature, we isolated 61 P(ry+) elements in the Y chromosome. Six of these Y-linked insertions (approximately 10%) induced male sterile mutations that are mapped to two genes on the long and one on the short arms of the Y chromosome. These mutations are revertible to the wild type in a cell-autonomous and germ-line-dependent manner, consistent with previously defined Y-linked gene functions. Phenotypes associated with these P-induced mutations are similar to those resulting from deletions of the Y chromosome regions corresponding to the male fertility genes. Three alleles of the kl-3 gene on the Y long arm result in loss of the axonemal outer dynein arms in the spermatid tail, while three ks-2 alleles on the Y short arm induce defects at early postmeiotic stages. The recovery of the ms(Y) mutations induced by single P-element insertions will facilitate our effort to understand the structural and functional properties of the Y chromosome. PMID:9755204

Zhang, P; Stankiewicz, R L

1998-01-01

130

Cytoplasmic male sterility: a window to the world of plant mitochondrial-nuclear interactions.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial function depends on the coordinate action of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The genetic dissection of these interactions presents special challenges in obligate aerobes, because the viability of these organisms depends on mitochondrial respiration. The plant trait cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is determined by the mitochondrial genome and is associated with a pollen sterility phenotype that can be suppressed or counteracted by nuclear genes known as restorer-of-fertility genes. Here, I review the nature and the origin of the genes that determine CMS, together with recent investigations that have exploited CMS to provide new insights into plant mitochondrial-nuclear communication. These studies have implicated mitochondrial signaling pathways, including those involved in regulating cell death and nuclear gene expression, in the elaboration of CMS. The molecular cloning of nuclear genes that restore fertility (i.e. restorer-of-fertility genes) has identified genes encoding pentatricopeptide-repeat proteins as key regulators of plant mitochondrial gene expression. PMID:17188396

Chase, Christine D

2007-02-01

131

Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

Taylor, Peggy; And Others

132

Male Child Sexual Abuse: A Phenomenology of Betrayal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being deeply understood relies on the ability of the social work clinician to have authentic and genuine empathy for their\\u000a client. This phenomenological study sought to understand the lived experience of men sexually abused as boys in their childhood,\\u000a and what life is like for them as sexual abuse survivors in adulthood. Analyses of fourteen male survivors’ narratives into\\u000a the

Ramona Alaggia; Graeme Millington

2008-01-01

133

[Questionnaires on male sexual dysfunction and their clinical application].  

PubMed

With the increasing incidence and prevalence of male sexual dysfunction, andrologists are more and more in need of accurate and efficient tools to assess therapeutic efficacy and patients' satisfaction and to help patients achieve satisfactory treatment results. This article summarizes some of the most commonly used questionnaires for the diagnosis and assessment of the treatment of male sexual dysfunction, including International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), Erection Hardness Score (EHS), Quality of Erection Questionnaire (QEQ), Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS), Treatment Satisfaction Scale (TSS), Self-Esteem and Relationship (SEAR), Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP), Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), Index of Premature Ejaculation (IPE), Arabic Index of Premature Ejaculation (AIPE), Aging Male Symptoms Scale (AMS), Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM), and Symptomatic Inventory for Screening Late-Onset Hypogonadism in Males (SILOH), and presents an overview on their clinical application. PMID:25306815

Cai, Yang; Wang, Tao; Liu, Ji-Hong

2014-09-01

134

Masculinity and the male role in sexual health.  

PubMed

The program of action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development defines reproductive and sexual health as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. Sexual health therefore involves enhancing the quality of life and personal relations. Programs to promote sexual health must address a broad range of social and personal problems. Reproductive health programs need to abandon their exclusive focus upon women to give attention and services to men, women, and couples. Male rights and duties, targeting men who act responsibly as heads of households, cultural models of masculinity, men's contempt of femininity, and recognition of homophobia and misogyny as the most powerful mechanisms of social repression are discussed. Sexual education programs, violence prevention programs, and education from the gender perspective all need to focus directly upon the themes of gender equality and sexual diversity. PMID:12291933

Shephard, B

1996-01-01

135

Epidemiology of sexual dysfunction in the male population.  

PubMed

Sexual dysfunctions have found an increasing attention in recent epidemiological studies of the ageing male. The purpose of this paper is to review the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions and risk factors based on community samples. Studies have not only demonstrated a strong age-related incline of erectile dysfunction (ED), but also of ejaculatory and orgasmic disorders (particularly a reduced or absent ejaculation). Despite a declining sexual desire, sexual interest remains present in old age. Lower urinary tract symptoms have been identified as strong risk factors for ED along with cardiovascular, metabolic, psychiatric disorders and lifestyle factors. The wide range of prevalence rate estimates is likely because of different definitions and criteria of sexual dysfunctions. More research is needed on other dysfunctions besides ED and on the partner relationship as a major determinant of sexual activity and satisfaction. The interrelationship between risk factors calls for interdisciplinary prevention and treatment approaches. As disability-free life expectancy keeps increasing, the need to identify, adequately assess and treat male sexual dysfunction as an important impediment to quality of life most likely will become even more pressing. PMID:16872462

Beutel, M E; Weidner, W; Brähler, E

2006-08-01

136

A thermogenic secondary sexual character in male sea lamprey  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Secondary sexual characters in animals are exaggerated ornaments or weapons for intrasexual competition. Unexpectedly, we found that a male secondary sexual character in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a thermogenic adipose tissue that instantly increases its heat production during sexual encounters. This secondary sexual character, developed in front of the anterior dorsal fin of mature males, is a swollen dorsal ridge known as the ‘rope’ tissue. It contains nerve bundles, multivacuolar adipocytes and interstitial cells packed with small lipid droplets and mitochondria with dense and highly organized cristae. The fatty acid composition of the rope tissue is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The cytochrome c oxidase activity is high but the ATP concentration is very low in the mitochondria of the rope tissue compared with those of the gill and muscle tissues. The rope tissue temperature immediately rose up to 0.3°C when the male encountered a conspecific. Mature males generated more heat in the rope and muscle tissues when presented with a mature female than when presented with a male (paired t-test, P<0.05). On average, the rope generated 0.027±0.013 W cm?3 more heat than the muscle in 10 min. Transcriptome analyses revealed that genes involved in fat cell differentiation are upregulated whereas those involved in oxidative-phosphorylation-coupled ATP synthesis are downregulated in the rope tissue compared with the gill and muscle tissues. Sexually mature male sea lamprey possess the only known thermogenic secondary sexual character that shows differential heat generation toward individual conspecifics. PMID:23804672

Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Priess, M. Cody; Yeh, Chu-Yin; Brant, Cory O.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Ke; Nanlohy, Kaben G.; Bryan, Mara B.; Brown, C. Titus; Choi, Jongeun; Li, Weiming

2013-01-01

137

Fine mapping of the recessive genic male-sterile gene (Bnms1) in Brassica napus L.  

PubMed

A recessive genic male sterility (RGMS) system, S45 AB, has been developed from spontaneous mutation in Brassica napus canola variety Oro, and is being used for hybrid cultivar development in China. The male sterility of S45 was controlled by two duplicated recessive genes, named as Bnms1 and Bnms2. In this study, a NIL (near-isogenic line) population from the sib-mating of S45 AB was developed and used for the fine mapping of the Bnms1 gene, in which the recessive allele was homozygous at the second locus. AFLP technology combined with BSA (bulked segregant analysis) was used. From a survey of 2,560 primer combinations (+3/+3 selective bases), seven AFLP markers linked closely to the target gene were identified, of which four were successfully converted to sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. For further analysis, a population of 1,974 individuals was used to map the Bnms1 gene. On the fine map, Bnms1 gene was flanked by two SCAR markers, SC1 and SC7, with genetic distance of 0.1 cM and 0.3 cM, respectively. SC1 was subsequently mapped on linkage group N7 using doubled-haploid mapping populations derived from the crosses Tapidor x Ningyou7 and DH 821 x DHBao 604, available at IMSORB, UK, and our laboratory, respectively. Linkage of an SSR marker, Na12A02, with the Bnms1 gene further confirmed its location on linkage group N7. Na12A02, 2.6 cM away from Bnms1, was a co-dominant marker. These molecular markers developed from this research will facilitate the marker-assisted selection of male sterile lines and the fine map lays a solid foundation for map-based cloning of the Bnms1 gene. PMID:16804725

Yi, Bin; Chen, Yuning; Lei, Shaolin; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong

2006-08-01

138

Pelvic floor and sexual male dysfunction.  

PubMed

The pelvic floor is a complex multifunctional structure that corresponds to the genito-urinary-anal area and consists of muscle and connective tissue. It supports the urinary, fecal, sexual and reproductive functions and pelvic statics. The symptoms caused by pelvic floor dysfunction often affect the quality of life of those who are afflicted, worsening significantly more aspects of daily life. In fact, in addition to providing support to the pelvic organs, the deep floor muscles support urinary continence and intestinal emptying whereas the superficial floor muscles are involved in the mechanism of erection and ejaculation. So, conditions of muscle hypotonia or hypertonicity may affect the efficiency of the pelvic floor, altering both the functionality of the deep and superficial floor muscles. In this evolution of knowledge it is possible imagine how the rehabilitation techniques of pelvic floor muscles, if altered and able to support a voiding or evacuative or sexual dysfunction, may have a role in improving the health and the quality of life. PMID:23695397

Pischedda, Antonella; Fusco, Ferdinando; Curreli, Andrea; Grimaldi, Giovanni; Pirozzi Farina, Furio

2013-03-01

139

Male-male sexual behavior in the parasitic wasp Psyttalia concolor.  

PubMed

The role of male-male courtship in parasitic Hymenoptera is poorly known. A laboratory study was conducted to assess if Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) male courtship can be affected by a previous experience in courting young conspecifics of both sexes. Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of experience in courting young wasps on both male courtship and male-male competition behavior. Results showed that a courting experience on both sexes can modify some sexual traits in a P. concolor male, without affecting its success in mating. When approaching virgin females, a P. concolor male that had a previous courtship experience with young wasps of either sex showed shorter latency times, more wing fanning, and longer courtship durations with respect to the control male. The hypothesis that a previous courting experience may allow a P. concolor male to refine its courtship behavior and to enhance courtship intensity in subsequent encounters with females was discussed. PMID:23895402

Benelli, Giovanni; Canale, Angelo

2013-01-01

140

Male-Male Sexual Behavior in the Parasitic Wasp Psyttalia concolor  

PubMed Central

The role of male-male courtship in parasitic Hymenoptera is poorly known. A laboratory study was conducted to assess if Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) male courtship can be affected by a previous experience in courting young conspecifics of both sexes. Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of experience in courting young wasps on both male courtship and male-male competition behavior. Results showed that a courting experience on both sexes can modify some sexual traits in a P. concolor male, without affecting its success in mating. When approaching virgin females, a P. concolor male that had a previous courtship experience with young wasps of either sex showed shorter latency times, more wing fanning, and longer courtship durations with respect to the control male. The hypothesis that a previous courting experience may allow a P. concolor male to refine its courtship behavior and to enhance courtship intensity in subsequent encounters with females was discussed. PMID:23895402

Benelli, Giovanni; Canale, Angelo

2013-01-01

141

The makings of maleness: towards an integrated view of male sexual development  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the mammalian embryo develops, it must engage one of the two distinct programmes of gene activity, morphogenesis and organogenesis that characterize males and females. In males, sexual development hinges on testis determination and differentiation, but also involves many coordinated transcriptional, signalling and endocrine networks that underpin the masculinization of other organs and tissues, including the brain. Here we bring

Dagmar Wilhelm; Peter Koopman

2006-01-01

142

Characteristic Male Urine Microbiomes Associate with Asymptomatic Sexually Transmitted Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe microbiome of the male urogenital tract is poorly described but it has been suggested that bacterial colonization of the male urethra might impact risk of sexually transmitted infection (STI). Previous cultivation-dependent studies showed that a variety of non-pathogenic bacteria colonize the urethra but did not thoroughly characterize these microbiomes or establish links between the compositions of urethral microbiomes and

David E. Nelson; Barbara van der Pol; Qunfeng Dong; Kashi V. Revanna; Baochang Fan; Shraddha Easwaran; Erica Sodergren; George M. Weinstock; Lixia Diao; J. Dennis Fortenberry; Raphael H. Valdivia

2010-01-01

143

[Male sexual initiation: personal conversations for private forums].  

PubMed

This paper aims to analyze the male sexual initiation, identifying the way low income youth understand it. The theoretical and conceptual references were those in which sexuality reflects wider relations that involve the person itself and society. The methodological plan features a case study under the social sciences perspectives, supported by a hermeneutic and dialectical approach. It involves 19 male youngsters aged 15 to 17. During young men's conversations, it is observed that certain sources of information are valued in preference to others, on the one hand there is a range between to permit and to forbid subjects usually related to sexuality and particularly to sexual initiation. Youngsters associate it with something complicated, pleasure-giving, affective and consider it a learning environment. Study discoveries indicate the investments needed to supply the public health field in order to develop technologies to provide the young men sexual demands, changing them from private forums to sexual initiation to an integral health care to young men. PMID:19721950

do Nascimento, Elaine Ferreira; Gomes, Romeu

2009-01-01

144

Production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium plants  

PubMed Central

Background Pelargonium is one of the most popular garden plants in the world. Moreover, it has a considerable economic importance in the ornamental plant market. Conventional cross-breeding strategies have generated a range of cultivars with excellent traits. However, gene transfer via Agrobacterium tumefaciens could be a helpful tool to further improve Pelargonium by enabling the introduction of new genes/traits. We report a simple and reliable protocol for the genetic transformation of Pelargonium spp. and the production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium zonale plants, using the pSAG12::ipt and PsEND1::barnase chimaeric genes respectively. Results The pSAG12::ipt transgenic plants showed delayed leaf senescence, increased branching and reduced internodal length, as compared to control plants. Leaves and flowers of the pSAG12::ipt plants were reduced in size and displayed a more intense coloration. In the transgenic lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct no pollen grains were observed in the modified anther structures, which developed instead of normal anthers. The locules of sterile anthers collapsed 3–4?days prior to floral anthesis and, in most cases, the undeveloped anther tissues underwent necrosis. Conclusion The chimaeric construct pSAG12::ipt can be useful in Pelargonium spp. to delay the senescence process and to modify plant architecture. In addition, the use of engineered male sterile plants would be especially useful to produce environmentally friendly transgenic plants carrying new traits by preventing gene flow between the genetically modified ornamentals and related plant species. These characteristics could be of interest, from a commercial point of view, both for pelargonium producers and consumers. PMID:22935247

2012-01-01

145

A low molecular weight proteome comparison of fertile and male sterile 8 anthers of Zea mays  

PubMed Central

Summary During maize anther development, somatic locular cells differentiate to support meiosis in the pollen mother cells. Meiosis is an important event during anther growth and is essential for plant fertility as pollen contains the haploid sperm. A subset of maize male sterile mutants exhibit meiotic failure, including ms8 (male sterile 8) in which meiocytes arrest as dyads and the locular somatic cells exhibit multiple defects. Systematic proteomic profiles were analysed in biological triplicates plus technical triplicates comparing ms8 anthers with fertile sibling samples at both the premeiotic and meiotic stages; proteins from 3.5 to 20 kDa were fractionated by 1-D PAGE, cleaved with Lys-C and then sequenced using a LTQ Orbitrap Velos MS paradigm. Three hundred and 59proteins were identified with two or more assigned peptides in which each of those peptides were counted at least two or more times (0.4% peptide false discovery rate (FDR) and 0.2% protein FDR); 2761 proteins were identified with one or more assigned peptides (0.4% peptide FDR and 7.6% protein FDR). Stage-specific protein expression provides candidate stage markers for early anther development, and proteins specifically expressed in fertile compared to sterile anthers provide important clues about the regulation of meiosis. 49% of the proteins detected by this study are new to an independent whole anther proteome, and many small proteins missed by automated maize genome annotation were validated; these outcomes indicate the value of focusing on low molecular weight proteins. The roles of distinctive expressed proteins and methods for mass spectrometry of low molecular weight proteins are discussed. PMID:22748129

Wang, Dongxue; Adams, Christopher M.; Fernandes, John F.; Egger, Rachel L.; Walbot, Virginia

2014-01-01

146

Volunteer bias in a study of male alcoholics' sexual behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on sexual behavior frequently require that subject volunteers engage in intrusive\\/sensitive assessment procedures. While earlier investigators have found that these demands may result in volunteer bias (volunteers differing from nonvolunteers), these studies were limited to nonclinical samples. The present study involved 182 males admitted to an inpatient alcoholism rehabilitation program. Those patients who volunteered to participate in an intrusive

Ted D. Nirenberg; John P. Wincze; Sudhir Bansal; Michael R. Liepman; Mindy Engle-Friedman; Ann Begin

1991-01-01

147

Sexual dysfunction in African males in Nairobi, Kenya.  

PubMed

Out of a total of 295 subjects referred to the Pangani Clinic for psychiatric assessment, between January 1990 and December 1993, 49 were studied. All were males and aged between 16 and 55 years. Using a cross-sectional design study, they were consecutively assessed for sexual dysfunction. Each subject was studied using, the Self Rating Questionnaire, the Standardized Psychiatric Interview and WHO Audit Instrument for Alcohol abuse. The final diagnoses of sexual dysfunction were made according to DSM-R categories. A matched analysis using Chi-squared (X2) test were carried out. The finding was that erectile disorder was the major disorder seen in 57.1% of the subjects. The peak age for sexual dysfunction was between 26 and 36 years. In an African setting, questions pertinent to bewitchment and age (husband versus wife) are very important with regard to sexual dysfunction. PMID:8904041

Sebit, M B

1995-10-01

148

Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.  

PubMed

Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624

Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

2012-04-23

149

Cytogenetics of Flower Modification of a Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Tobacco  

PubMed Central

Plants combining the cytoplasm of Nicotiana debneyi and the 48 chromosomes from N. tabacum are male sterile. Early backcross generations of the amphidiploid hybrid to male N. tabacum produced a great variety of plants from which a series of phenotypes with characteristic flower forms and transmission rates have been isolated. Type 1A possesses completely feminized stamens and deeply split corollas, breeds true when backcrossed to normal males and carries 48 N. tabacum chromosomes. Other phenotypes, 2C, 3E and 4H, range toward normal morphology of corollas and stamens. Like 1A, 2C forms no anther tissue and has 48 chromosomes. This type is transmitted to 36.3% of the backcross progeny, the remainder being of type 1A; presumably 2C carries a chromosome segment from N. debneyi that is responsible for the partial restoration of flower structure. In contrast, both 3E and 4H produce anthers and possess an extra chromosome. The extra chromosomes are transmitted to only 19.9% and 7.1% of the progeny, respectively. Significantly, the extra chromosomes found in the anther-forming types are nucleolus organizing and carry a satellite from N. debneyi. On the basis of these observations, we surmise that differentiation of anthers in plants with N. debneyi cytoplasm may depend on the presence of a nucleolus-organizing chromosome from that species. This chromosome is unstable; unaltered, it conditions a highly restored phenotype (4H), but when structurally modified, it may control different phenotypic expressions. Other examples of satellited restorer chromosomes had been reported for different cytoplasmically male-sterile combinations; therefore, the phenomenon may have more general significance. PMID:17249061

Gerstel, D. U.; Burns, J. A.; Sand, S. A.

1980-01-01

150

Adult Male Circumcision: Effects on Sexual Function and Sexual Satisfaction in Kisumu, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Introduction Male circumcision is being promoted for HIV prevention in high-risk heterosexual populations. However, there is a concern that circumcision may impair sexual function. Aim To assess adult male circumcision’s effect on men’s sexual function and pleasure. Methods Participants in a controlled trial of circumcision to reduce HIV incidence in Kisumu, Kenya were uncircumcised, HIV negative, sexually active men, aged 18–24 years, with a hemoglobin ?9.0 mmol/L. Exclusion criteria included foreskin covering less than half the glans, a condition that might unduly increase surgical risks, or a medical indication for circumcision. Participants were randomized 1:1 to either immediate circumcision or delayed circumcision after 2 years (control group). Detailed evaluations occurred at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures (i) Sexual function between circumcised and uncircumcised men; and (ii) sexual satisfaction and pleasure over time following circumcision. Results Between February 2002 and September 2005, 2,784 participants were randomized, including the 100 excluded from this analysis because they crossed over, were not circumcised within 30 days of randomization, did not complete baseline interviews, or were outside the age range. For the circumcision and control groups, respectively, rates of any reported sexual dysfunction decreased from 23.6% and 25.9% at baseline to 6.2% and 5.8% at month 24. Changes over time were not associated with circumcision status. Compared to before they were circumcised, 64.0% of circumcised men reported their penis was “much more sensitive,” and 54.5% rated their ease of reaching orgasm as “much more” at month 24. Conclusions Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. Circumcised men reported increased penile sensitivity and enhanced ease of reaching orgasm. These data indicate that integration of male circumcision into programs to reduce HIV risk is unlikely to adversely effect male sexual function. PMID:18761593

Krieger, John N.; Mehta, Supriya D.; Bailey, Robert C.; Agot, Kawango; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O.; Parker, Corette; Moses, Stephen

2010-01-01

151

Mutation in CSA creates a new photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile line applicable for hybrid rice seed production  

PubMed Central

Rice is a major staple food worldwide. Making hybrid rice has proved to be an effective strategy to significantly increase grain yield. Current hybrid rice technologies rely on male sterile lines and have been used predominantly in indica cultivars. However, intrinsic problems exist in the implementation of these technologies, such as limited germplasms and unpredictable conversions from sterility to fertility in the field. Here, we describe a photoperiod-controlled male sterile line, carbon starved anther (csa), which contains a mutation in an R2R3 MYB transcription regulator of pollen development. This mutation was introduced into indica and japonica rice, and it rendered male sterility under short-day conditions and male fertility under long-day conditions in both lines. Furthermore, F1 plants of csa and a restorer line JP69 exhibited heterosis (hybrid vigor), suggesting the feasibility of using this mutation to create hybrid rice. The csa-based photoperiod-sensitive male sterile line allows the establishment of a stable two-line hybrid system, which promises to have a significant impact on agriculture. PMID:23256151

Zhang, Hui; Xu, Chenxi; He, Yi; Zong, Jie; Yang, Xijia; Si, Huamin; Sun, Zongxiu; Hu, Jianping; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

2013-01-01

152

Mutation in CSA creates a new photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile line applicable for hybrid rice seed production.  

PubMed

Rice is a major staple food worldwide. Making hybrid rice has proved to be an effective strategy to significantly increase grain yield. Current hybrid rice technologies rely on male sterile lines and have been used predominantly in indica cultivars. However, intrinsic problems exist in the implementation of these technologies, such as limited germplasms and unpredictable conversions from sterility to fertility in the field. Here, we describe a photoperiod-controlled male sterile line, carbon starved anther (csa), which contains a mutation in an R2R3 MYB transcription regulator of pollen development. This mutation was introduced into indica and japonica rice, and it rendered male sterility under short-day conditions and male fertility under long-day conditions in both lines. Furthermore, F(1) plants of csa and a restorer line JP69 exhibited heterosis (hybrid vigor), suggesting the feasibility of using this mutation to create hybrid rice. The csa-based photoperiod-sensitive male sterile line allows the establishment of a stable two-line hybrid system, which promises to have a significant impact on agriculture. PMID:23256151

Zhang, Hui; Xu, Chenxi; He, Yi; Zong, Jie; Yang, Xijia; Si, Huamin; Sun, Zongxiu; Hu, Jianping; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

2013-01-01

153

[Therapy for male patients with sexual dysfunction].  

PubMed

Phosphodiasterase type 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, vardenafil, tadalafil) are the first line symptomatic therapy for patients with erectile dysfunction. The patient should receive a meticolous information on the use of these drugs and their possible side effects. These drugs are safe and can be used even in patients with stable cardiovascular disease. Patients not responding to oral drugs may be offered intraurethral or intracavernous alprostadil. Vacuum constriction devices are a second line option more acceptable to older patients. Penile prosthesis are very seldom used in Switzerland and vascular surgery is a vanishing option. Testosterone substitution is seldom needed in this setting. Treatment of premature ejaculation subdivides into behavioural therapy ("stop-start" or "squeeze" technique) and drug therapy as well. Topical therapy with lidocaine/prilocaine-containing medications to be applied before sexual intercourse and a oral daily off label use therapy with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (paroxetine, fluoxetine, sertraline) can be offered. Dapoxetine, a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with short half life time, is the first officially approved medication for the treatment of premature ejaculation and should be available soon in Switzerland. PMID:20235039

Casella, Roberto

2010-03-01

154

Hybrid male sterility in rice controlled by interaction between divergent alleles of two adjacent genes  

E-print Network

hybrid sterility reproductive barrier two-gene/three-component model Hybrid sterility is the most common increases in rice. How- ever, the partial or complete sterility of the hybrids forms a reproductive barrier in indica-japonica hy- brids has been cloned recently (19). Plant hybrid sterility is thought to be caused

Nachman, Michael

155

Exposure to harsh parenting and pornography as explanations for males' sexual coercion and females' sexual victimization.  

PubMed

Sexual violence against women is a major concern to researchers and policy makers, as well as to the general public. This study uses a sample of more than 2,000 college students to investigate the extent to which exposure to harsh parenting practices and sexually explicit materials contributes to perpetration and victimization. Findings indicate that frequent corporal punishment in the family of origin combined with consumption of pornographic materials increased the probability that males reported engaging in coercive sexual practices. For females, both frequent corporal punishment and exposure to paternal hostility combined with consumption of pornographic materials were associated with higher levels of reported sexual victimization. These results provide increased understanding of the impact of pornography use among a nonclinical sample, as well as the consequences of experiencing harsh corporal punishment in one's family of origin, on the sexual victimization of females. PMID:22852438

Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man-Kit; Sutton, Tara E

2012-01-01

156

Sexually Degrading Music Videos and Lyrics: Their Effects on Males’ Aggression and Endorsement of Rape Myths and Sexual Stereotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing a 2 (lyrics: present or absent) × 2 (images: present or absent) design, this study examined the unique effects of sexually degrading music videos and music lyrics on males’ aggressive behavior toward women, as well as males’ endorsement of rape myths and sexual stereotypes. Under the guise of a media memory study, 187 male undergraduate students were randomly assigned

Eric L. Sprankle; Christian M. End; Miranda N. Bretz

2012-01-01

157

Genome Barriers between Nuclei and Mitochondria Exemplified by Cytoplasmic Male Sterility  

PubMed Central

Since plants retain genomes of an extremely large size in mitochondria (200–2,400 kb), and mitochondrial protein complexes are comprised of chimeric structures of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded subunits, coordination of gene expression between the nuclei and mitochondria is indispensable for sound plant development. It has been well documented that the nucleus regulates organelle gene expression. This regulation is called anterograde regulation. On the other hand, recent studies have demonstrated that signals emitted from organelles regulate nuclear gene expression. This process is known as retrograde signaling. Incompatibility caused by genome barriers between a nucleus and foreign mitochondria destines the fate of pollen to be dead in cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), and studies of CMS confirm that pollen fertility is associated with anterograde/retrograde signaling. This review summarizes the current perspectives in CMS and fertility restoration, mainly from the viewpoint of anterograde/retrograde signaling. PMID:18625609

Fujii, Sota; Toriyama, Kinya

2008-01-01

158

Sexual selection against deleterious mutations via variable male search success  

PubMed Central

In many species, successful mating requires the initial step of actively searching for and locating a female. The overall health or condition of a male is likely to affect their ability to do this, making search effort a potentially important component of sexual fitness that may have important consequences for population mean fitness. We investigated the potential population genetic consequences of search effort using 10 populations of Drosophila melanogaster, each fixed for a different recessive mutation with a visible phenotypic effect. Mate choice trials were conducted in arenas of varying size, requiring different levels of search ability. Sexual selection against mutant males was stronger when increased search effort was included than when it was excluded. Varying abilities to find mates can substantially increase the strength of selection against deleterious alleles. PMID:19625301

MacLellan, Kelsie; Whitlock, Michael C.; Rundle, Howard D.

2009-01-01

159

Open Field Release of Genetically Engineered Sterile Male Aedes aegypti in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. In the absence of specific drugs or vaccines, control focuses on suppressing the principal mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, yet current methods have not proven adequate to control the disease. New methods are therefore urgently needed, for example genetics-based sterile-male-release methods. However, this requires that lab-reared, modified mosquitoes be able to survive and disperse adequately in the field. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult male mosquitoes were released into an uninhabited forested area of Pahang, Malaysia. Their survival and dispersal was assessed by use of a network of traps. Two strains were used, an engineered ‘genetically sterile’ (OX513A) and a wild-type laboratory strain, to give both absolute and relative data about the performance of the modified mosquitoes. The two strains had similar maximum dispersal distances (220 m), but mean distance travelled of the OX513A strain was lower (52 vs. 100 m). Life expectancy was similar (2.0 vs. 2.2 days). Recapture rates were high for both strains, possibly because of the uninhabited nature of the site. Conclusions/Significance After extensive contained studies and regulatory scrutiny, a field release of engineered mosquitoes was safely and successfully conducted in Malaysia. The engineered strain showed similar field longevity to an unmodified counterpart, though in this setting dispersal was reduced relative to the unmodified strain. These data are encouraging for the future testing and implementation of genetic control strategies and will help guide future field use of this and other engineered strains. PMID:22970102

Raduan, Norzahira; Kwee Wee, Lim; Hong Ming, Wong; Guat Ney, Teoh; Rahidah A.A., Siti; Salman, Sawaluddin; Subramaniam, Selvi; Nordin, Oreenaiza; Hanum A.T., Norhaida; Angamuthu, Chandru; Marlina Mansor, Suria; Lees, Rosemary S.; Naish, Neil; Scaife, Sarah; Gray, Pam; Labbe, Genevieve; Beech, Camilla; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; Vasan, Seshadri S.; Han Lim, Lee; Wasi A., Nazni; Murad, Shahnaz

2012-01-01

160

Male adolescent sexual behavior, the forgotten partner: a review.  

PubMed

It is encouraging that after years of focusing attention on the female's ability and responsibility to manage her reproductive behavior, the male is finally beginning to receive notice and attention. Ironically, before the widespread use of the Pill and the IUD, men and male birth control methods played an important role in family planning. Even today, reliance on vasectomies, the condom and withdrawal account for 25% of the contraceptive use among couples and trend statistics point to an increased interest among selected populations in the use of barrier methods that require partner cooperation for effective use. Yet, most small scale and nationwide knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) studies focus on the female, particularly the teen-age female. With the exception of fragmentary survey data, pertinent information about male adolescent sexual activity is virtually nonexistent. The growing consensus among researchers and planners is that it is now crucial to research the forgotten partner--the adolescent male. PMID:6558293

Finkel, M L; Finkel, D J

1983-11-01

161

SRY alone can induce normal male sexual differentiation  

SciTech Connect

Most individuals with the rare 46,XX male {open_quotes}syndrome{close_quotes} arise due to an unequal interchange between Xp and Yp termini during paternal meiosis. The pattern of Y-sequences in these patients varies considerably, but very few cases have been reported showing only SRY. The phenotype in these patients is also variable ranging from severe impairment of the external genitalia through hypospadias and/or cryptorchidism to occasional normal male phenotype. We report a Mexican 46,XX male patient without genital ambiguities in whom DNA analysis showed the presence of SRY and the absence of ZFY. We conclude that in this case SRY alone was enough for complete male sexual differentiation. 25 refs., 1 fig.

Lopez, M.; Torres, L.; Cervantes, A. [HGM SSa. Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, MX (United States)] [and others

1995-01-30

162

Lifetime sexual behaviors among runaway males and females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifetime sexual behaviors were examined among 206 male and female runaway adolescents aged 11–18 in New York City who were predominantly Black or Hispanic. Most youths experienced oral, anal or vaginal sex with opposite?sex partners (84%), began to engage in these heterosexual activities at a relatively young age (M = 12.9 years), and used condoms inconsistently or not at all

Cheryl Koopman; Margaret Rosario; Theresa M. Exner; Ronald Henderson; Marjory Matthieu; Rhoda S. Gruen

1992-01-01

163

Childhood Abuse and Premilitary Sexual Assault in Male Navy Recruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three samples of male U.S. Navy recruits (N = 7,850) were surveyed to determine whether a history of childhood physical abuse (CPA) or childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was predictive of premilitary rape of women and whether these relationships were mediated by alcohol problems and number of sex partners. In the 3 samples, 11.3%, 11.6%, and 9.9% of men reported committing

Lex L. Merrill; Cynthia J. Thomsen; Steven R. Gold; Joel S. Milner

2001-01-01

164

Sexually dimorphic RB inactivation underlies mesenchymal glioblastoma prevalence in males.  

PubMed

The prevalence of brain tumors in males is common but unexplained. While sex differences in disease are typically mediated through acute sex hormone actions, sex-specific differences in brain tumor rates are comparable at all ages, suggesting that factors other than sex hormones underlie this discrepancy. We found that mesenchymal glioblastoma (Mes-GBM) affects more males as the result of cell-intrinsic sexual dimorphism in astrocyte transformation. We used astrocytes from neurofibromin-deficient (Nf1-/-) mice expressing a dominant-negative form of the tumor suppressor p53 (DNp53) and treated them with EGF as a Mes-GBM model. Male Mes-GBM astrocytes exhibited greater growth and colony formation compared with female Mes-GBM astrocytes. Moreover, male Mes-GBM astrocytes underwent greater tumorigenesis in vivo, regardless of recipient mouse sex. Male Mes-GBM astrocytes exhibited greater inactivation of the tumor suppressor RB, higher proliferation rates, and greater induction of a clonogenic, stem-like cell population compared with female Mes-GBM astrocytes. Furthermore, complete inactivation of RB and p53 in Mes-GBM astrocytes resulted in equivalent male and female tumorigenic transformation, indicating that intrinsic differences in RB activation are responsible for the predominance of tumorigenic transformation in male astrocytes. Together, these results indicate that cell-intrinsic sex differences in RB regulation and stem-like cell function may underlie the predominance of GBM in males. PMID:25083989

Sun, Tao; Warrington, Nicole M; Luo, Jingqin; Brooks, Michael D; Dahiya, Sonika; Snyder, Steven C; Sengupta, Rajarshi; Rubin, Joshua B

2014-09-01

165

Sexually dimorphic RB inactivation underlies mesenchymal glioblastoma prevalence in males  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of brain tumors in males is common but unexplained. While sex differences in disease are typically mediated through acute sex hormone actions, sex-specific differences in brain tumor rates are comparable at all ages, suggesting that factors other than sex hormones underlie this discrepancy. We found that mesenchymal glioblastoma (Mes-GBM) affects more males as the result of cell-intrinsic sexual dimorphism in astrocyte transformation. We used astrocytes from neurofibromin-deficient (Nf1–/–) mice expressing a dominant-negative form of the tumor suppressor p53 (DNp53) and treated them with EGF as a Mes-GBM model. Male Mes-GBM astrocytes exhibited greater growth and colony formation compared with female Mes-GBM astrocytes. Moreover, male Mes-GBM astrocytes underwent greater tumorigenesis in vivo, regardless of recipient mouse sex. Male Mes-GBM astrocytes exhibited greater inactivation of the tumor suppressor RB, higher proliferation rates, and greater induction of a clonogenic, stem-like cell population compared with female Mes-GBM astrocytes. Furthermore, complete inactivation of RB and p53 in Mes-GBM astrocytes resulted in equivalent male and female tumorigenic transformation, indicating that intrinsic differences in RB activation are responsible for the predominance of tumorigenic transformation in male astrocytes. Together, these results indicate that cell-intrinsic sex differences in RB regulation and stem-like cell function may underlie the predominance of GBM in males. PMID:25083989

Sun, Tao; Warrington, Nicole M.; Luo, Jingqin; Brooks, Michael D.; Dahiya, Sonika; Snyder, Steven C.; Sengupta, Rajarshi; Rubin, Joshua B.

2014-01-01

166

Identification of microRNAs potentially involved in male sterility of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis using microRNA array and quantitative RT-PCR assays.  

PubMed

microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of newly identified, noncoding, small RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression. Many miRNAs are reportedly involved in plant growth, development and stress response processes. However, their roles in the sexual reproduction mechanisms in flowering plants remain unknown. Pollen development is an important process in the life cycle of a flowering plant, and it is closely related to the yield and quality of crop seeds. This study aimed to identify miRNAs involved in pollen development. A microarray assay was conducted using the known complementary sequences of plant miRNAs as probes on inflorescences of a sterile male line (Bcajh97-01A) and a fertile male line (Bcajh97-01B) of the Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis cv. 'Aijiaohuang' genic male sterility sister line system (Bcajh97-01A/B). The results showed that 44 miRNAs were differently expressed in the two lines. Of these, 15 had over 1.5-fold changes in their transcript levels, with 9 upregulated and 6 downregulated miRNAs in inflorescences of 'Bcajh97-01A' sterile line plants. We then focused on 3 of these 15 miRNAs (miR158, miR168 and miR172). Through computational methods, 13 family members were predicted for these 3 miRNAs and 22 genes were predicted to be their candidate target genes. By using 5' modified RACE, 2 target genes of miR168 and 5 target genes of miR172 were identified. Then, qRT-PCR was applied to verify the existence and expression patterns of the 3 miRNAs in the flower buds at five developmental stages. The results were generally consistent with those of the microarray. Thus, this study may give a valuable clue for further exploring the miRNA group that may function during pollen development. PMID:23864334

Jiang, Jianxia; Jiang, Jingjing; Yang, Yafei; Cao, Jiashu

2013-09-01

167

PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS ON SEX CONTROL IN TROUT : PRODUCTION OF STERILE FISHES  

E-print Network

. 100 of males only 6 p. 100 of sterile fishes 30 p. 100 of hermaphrodites. The gonads present a complex of sterile fishes 12 p. 100 of hermaphrodites These results demonstrate the lability of the sexual phenotypePRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS ON SEX CONTROL IN TROUT : PRODUCTION OF STERILE FISHES AND SIMULTANEOUS

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

168

Prerelease exposure to methyl eugenol increases the mating competitiveness of sterile males of the oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in a Hawaiian orchard.  

PubMed

Males of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME), and recent work demonstrated that ingestion of this chemical enhances male mating success, apparently owing its role as a precursor in the synthesis of the male sex pheromone. The current study expanded upon earlier laboratory and field-cage experiments by assessing whether prerelease exposure to ME increased the mating competitiveness of mass-reared, sterile males in Hawaiian orchards. Releases of sterile males from a pupal color-based sexing strain were made weekly in two fruit orchards over 8 mo, with the sterile males at one site given ME for 24 h before release (treated) and the sterile males at the other site given no ME before release (control). Fruits were collected periodically during the study period, and eggs were dissected and incubated to score hatch rate. At both sites, releases of sterile males increased the proportion of unhatched eggs well above prerelease levels, but the incidence of egg sterility was consistently, and statistically, greater in the orchard receiving ME-exposed males. Computed over the entire release period, the average value of Fried's competitive index (that characterizes the mating success of sterile males relative to their wild counterparts) for ME-treated males was 3.5 times greater than that for control males, although this difference was not statistically significant. However, when computed over the period during which egg sterility values were elevated and stable, presumably when females inseminated before the releases were rare or absent, the competitive indices were significantly higher for ME-treated sterile males. The implications of these results for implementing the Sterile Insect Technique against this species are discussed. PMID:22299359

McInnis, D; Kurashima, R; Shelly, T; Komatsu, J; Edu, J; Pahio, E

2011-12-01

169

Evaluation of strategies for the release of male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in Lake Superior for a proposed sterile-male-release program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Successful implementation of a sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control technique that uses sterilized males to reduce reproduction presently depends on the importation of large numbers of males outside of the target population. Strategies were examined for releasing male sea lampreys from Lakes Michigan and Huron into the Lake Superior spawning population and the ability of these introduced males to compete with resident males and spawn with resident females. During 1987, 553 (9%) of 6,324 imported fertile males released at 12 shoreline and one offshore site in Lake Superior were recaptured. Most remained within 20 km of the release site and entered the first stream encountered. During 1988, 393 (18%) of 2,208 imported fertile males released directly into three spawning rivers were recaptured. In both cases, animals released early during the spawning run were more likely to be recaptured than those released later. Introduced males successfully competed with resident males and spawned with resident females. Demonstrating that male sea lampreys could reproduce successfully when relocated supported subsequent large-scale field trials of the sterile-male-release technique.

Kaye, C. A.; Heinrich, J. W.; Hanson, L. H.; McDonald, R. B.; Slade, J. W.; Genovese, J. H.; Swink, W. D.

2003-01-01

170

Maternal treatment with picrotoxin in late pregnancy improved female sexual behavior but did not alter male sexual behavior of offspring.  

PubMed

Previous studies from our laboratory investigated the effects of picrotoxin (PT), a ?-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist administered during several perinatal periods, on the sexual behavior of male and female rats. We observed that the time of perinatal exposure to PT is critical to determine either facilitation or impairment of sexual behavior. The present study evaluated the effects of prenatal administration of a single dose of PT on gestation day 18 of dams (the first critical period of male brain sexual differentiation) on sexual behavior of male and female offspring. Thus, female Wistar rats were mated with males and, on gestation day 18, received 0.6 mg/kg of PT or 0.9% saline solution subcutaneously. On postnatal day 1, the offspring were weighed and several measures of sexual development were assessed. The sexual behaviors and the general activity in the open field of adult male and ovariectomized, hormone-treated female rats were observed. On comparison with the control group, maternal PT treatment: (i) did not alter the maternal weight, pup weight, anogenital distance, or male and female general activity; (ii) increased female sexual behavior, that is, decreased the latencies to first mount, first lordosis, and tenth lordosis, and the percentage of females presenting lordosis; and (iii) did not alter male sexual behavior. It is suggested that prenatal PT exposure interfered with epigenetic mechanisms related to the development of sex differences in the brain, leading to the observed sexually dimorphic effects on sexual behavior. PMID:23838964

Bernardi, Maria M; Scanzerla, Kayne K; Chamlian, Mayra; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Felicio, Luciano F

2013-08-01

171

Sexuality and aging in male veterans: A cross-sectional study of interest, ability, and activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gather data on sexuality, specifically in male veterans, and to test the hypothesis that aged males remain interested in sexual intercourse yet suffer from erectile failure, veterans age 30 to 99 were surveyed. The mailed survey had 88 questions and was pretested on young potent males and aged impotent males. From 1031 randomly selected subjects, there were 806 replies:

Thomas Mulligan; C. Renee Moss

1991-01-01

172

Sexually mature and immature yearling male European ground squirrels: A comparison of behavioral and physiological parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early puberty may increase lifetime reproductive success, but may also entail diverse costs. In male European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus), age at sexual maturity varies among individuals. We compared sexually active and inactive yearling males under standardized conditions in outdoor enclosures. Non-reproductive yearling males hibernated significantly longer than mature males and emerged when the mating period had already started. Testosterone

Anna Strauss; Elvira Mascher; Rupert Palme; Eva Millesi

2007-01-01

173

Male sexual harassment and female schooling behaviour in the eastern mosquitofish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among poeciliid fish, male sexual harassment is often intense and is costly for females. In Gambusia holbrooki, sexual harassment can greatly reduce female foraging efficiency when an isolated female is harassed by a single male and these costs are negatively correlated with male length. However, when females are in groups, male harassment is diluted and female foraging efficiency increases. When

Marco Dadda; Andrea Pilastro; Angelo Bisazza

2005-01-01

174

Comparing Female and Male Perpetrators' Modus Operandi: Victims' Reports of Sexual Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated similarities and differences in modus operandi of female and male child sexual abusers by comparing victims of female and male perpetrators. Females were more often involved with males in co-offender situations and were more likely to exploit victims. Males were more sexually invasive and more likely to use bribes to obtain victim…

Kaufman, Keith L.; And Others

1995-01-01

175

Pheromone evolution and sexual behavior in Drosophila are shaped by male sensory exploitation of other males  

PubMed Central

Animals exhibit a spectacular array of traits to attract mates. Understanding the evolutionary origins of sexual features and preferences is a fundamental problem in evolutionary biology, and the mechanisms remain highly controversial. In some species, females choose mates based on direct benefits conferred by the male to the female and her offspring. Thus, female preferences are thought to originate and coevolve with male traits. In contrast, sensory exploitation occurs when expression of a male trait takes advantage of preexisting sensory biases in females. Here, we document in Drosophila a previously unidentified example of sensory exploitation of males by other males through the use of the sex pheromone CH503. We use mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and behavioral analysis to demonstrate that an antiaphrodisiac produced by males of the melanogaster subgroup also is effective in distant Drosophila relatives that do not express the pheromone. We further show that species that produce the pheromone have become less sensitive to the compound, illustrating that sensory adaptation occurs after sensory exploitation. Our findings provide a mechanism for the origin of a sex pheromone and show that sensory exploitation changes male sexual behavior over evolutionary time. PMID:24516141

Ng, Soon Hwee; Shankar, Shruti; Shikichi, Yasumasa; Akasaka, Kazuaki; Mori, Kenji; Yew, Joanne Y.

2014-01-01

176

Hybrid Dysgenesis in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER: A Syndrome of Aberrant Traits Including Mutation, Sterility and Male Recombination  

PubMed Central

A syndrome of associated aberrant traits is described in Drosophila melanogaster. Six of these traits, mutation, sterility, male recombination, transmission ratio distortion, chromosomal aberrations and local increases in female recombination, have previously been reported. A seventh trait, nondisjunction, is described for the first time. All of the traits we have examined are found nonreciprocally in F1 hybrids. We present evidence that at least four of the traits are not found in nonhybrids. Therefore we have proposed the name hybrid dysgenesis to describe this syndrome.—A partition of tested strains into two types, designated P and M, was made according to the paternal or maternal contribution required to produce hybrid dysgenesis. This classification seems to hold for crosses of strains from within the United States and Australia, as well as for crosses between strains from the two countries. Strains collected recently from natural populations are typically of the P type and those having a long laboratory history are generally of the M type. However, a group of six strains collected from the wild in the 1960's are unambiguously divided equally between the P and M types. The dichotomy of this latter group raises interesting questions concerning possible implications for speciation.—Temperature often has a critical effect on the manifestation of hybrid dysgenesis. High F1 developmental temperatures tend to increase the expression of sterility, sometimes to extreme levels. Conversely, low developmental temperatures tend to inhibit the expression of some dysgenic traits.—There are potentially important practical implications of hybrid dysgenesis for laboratory experimentation. The results suggest that care should be exercised in planning experiments involving strain crosses. PMID:17248751

Kidwell, Margaret G.; Kidwell, James F.; Sved, John A.

1977-01-01

177

Sexually selected behaviour: red squirrel males search for reproductive success.  

PubMed

1. Differential male reproductive success is commonplace in mammals and frequently attributed to variation in morphological traits that provide individuals with a competitive advantage in female defence mating systems. Other mammalian mating systems, however, have received comparatively little attention and correlates of male reproductive success in them are less well understood. 2. We studied a free-ranging population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Erxleben) exhibiting year-round individual territoriality. Males must temporarily vacate their territories to locate spatially dispersed receptive females, thereby setting the stage for a scramble competition mating system. 3. We predicted that both male annual mating success (measured as the number of females copulated with) and annual reproductive success (measured as the number of offspring sired) would be positively correlated with both search ability (measured as the number of oestrous females located over the mating season) and effort (measured as mating season home range size), generating directional sexual selection on these two metrics. 4. Mating season home ranges of males showed, on average, an almost 10-fold increase relative to those measured during the nonmating season, while those of females showed a more moderate twofold increase and both annual mating and reproductive success of males was positively correlated with search ability and search effort. 5. The spatial dispersion of females, resulting from the strict territorial social structure of red squirrels, gave rise to a predicted scramble competition mating system. Furthermore, the strength of sexual selection on behavioural traits in this mating system equalled previous estimates for morphological traits in female defence mating systems. PMID:19040682

Lane, Jeffrey E; Boutin, Stan; Gunn, Melissa R; Coltman, David W

2009-03-01

178

Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviours among Malaysian male youths.  

PubMed

This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas. PMID:23480474

Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun

2014-03-01

179

Mass rearing history negatively affects mating success of male Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared for sterile insect technique programs.  

PubMed

Mating competitiveness and sterility induction into cohorts of wild Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was compared among wild and laboratory flies reared for use in the sterile insect technique Mexican program. Laboratory flies stemming from an 11-yr-old bisexual strain were either not irradiated, irradiated at 3 krad (low dose), or irradiated at 8 krad. In 30 by 30 by 30-cm Plexiglas cages, where a cohort of laboratory flies (male and female) irradiated at different doses (0, 3, and 8 krad) was introduced with a cohort of wild flies, males and females of each type mated randomly among themselves. Compared with nonirradiated laboratory and wild males, irradiated males, irrespective of dose (3 or 8 krad), induced shorter refractory periods and greater mating frequency in wild females. Nevertheless, laboratory flies irradiated at a low dose induced greater sterility into cohorts of wild flies than laboratory flies irradiated at a high dose. In a 3 by 3 by 3-m walk-in cage, wild males gained significantly more matings with wild females than nonirradiated and irradiated laboratory males a finding that revealed a strong effect of strain on mating performance. Mating incompatibility of the laboratory strain might have obscured the effect of reduced irradiation doses on male mating performance in the walk-in cage. Our results highlight an urgent need to replace the A. ludens strain currently used by the Mexican fruit fly eradication campaign and at least suggest that reducing irradiation doses result in an increase in sterility induction in wild populations. PMID:16334318

Rull, Juan; Brunel, Odette; Mendez, Maria Elena

2005-10-01

180

Signals in intra-sexual competition between ring-necked pheasant males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many sexual ornaments are signals commonly used in both sexual selection contexts: mate choice and intra-sexual competition. Previous studies show that female choice in ring-necked pheasants,Phasianus colchicus, is influenced by features of some male ornaments. Experiments and correlational data were used in this study to investigate the role of male ornaments in male–male agonistic encounters. Some traits used by females

CONCHA MATEOS; JUAN CARRANZA

1997-01-01

181

Theoretical Perspectives of Male Sexual Abuse: Conceptualization of a Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the traumatic impact that sexual abuse can have on a young male's development by addressing mediating dispositions that can render a child vulnerable to the effects of sexual abuse. Consideration is given to three different theoretical perspectives that are not exclusive to male victims but shed light on the impact that sexual

Terry Diamanduros; Clare E. Cosentino; P. Dawn Tysinger; Jeffrey A. Tysinger

2012-01-01

182

Factors influencing sexual initiation, multiple partners and condom use among male slum youth in Pune, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the factors that influence sexual behaviours among young unmarried males living in urban slums in India, a population characterised by high vulnerability to STI and HIV infections. Data were collected from 600 unmarried male slum youth to examine the relationships between three outcomes of heterosexual behaviour (age at sexual initiation, number of sexual partners and condom use

Rukmini Potdar; Kristin Mmari

2010-01-01

183

Factors influencing sexual initiation, multiple partners and condom use among male slum youth in Pune, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the factors that influence sexual behaviours among young unmarried males living in urban slums in India, a population characterised by high vulnerability to STI and HIV infections. Data were collected from 600 unmarried male slum youth to examine the relationships between three outcomes of heterosexual behaviour (age at sexual initiation, number of sexual partners and condom use

Rukmini Potdar; Kristin Mmari

2011-01-01

184

The role of sadism and peer pressure in the sexual aggression of male college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of motivational models help explain sexual aggression in college men. Socialization models emphasize imperatives of the male sex role, whereas a sadistic model focuses on increased sexual stimulation from female distress. These models were evaluated by comparing the relationship between a measure of sexual sadism and the frequency of sexually aggressive episodes with the relationship between peer pressure

Alfred B. Heilbrun Jr; Maura P. Loftus

1986-01-01

185

Childhood and Adolescent Victimization and Perpetration of Sexual Coercion by Male and Female University Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the extent to which male and female university students use verbal sexual coercion and physically forced sex on a dating partner and tests a theoretical model that specifies that corporal punishment, minor forms of neglect by parents, and sexual abuse increase the probability of sexually coercing and sexually assaulting a partner, and that this relationship is partly

Manuel Gámez-Guadix; Murray A. Straus; Scott L. Hershberger

2011-01-01

186

The dual control model of male sexual response: a theoretical approach to centrally mediated erectile dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model of dual control of male sexual response is considered, based on the balancing of central excitation and inhibition, with individuals varying in their propensity for both sexual excitation and inhibition of sexual response. A questionnaire method for measuring propensities for sexual excitation and inhibition has been developed (SIS\\/SES questionnaire), resulting in one excitation factor (SES) and two

John Bancroft; Erick Janssen

2000-01-01

187

Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Male Sexual Abuse: The Case of South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for sexual abuse of boys in South Korea by asking a national sample of 1,043 adult males whether they had experienced sexual abuse during childhood. The results indicate that 13.5% experienced at least one of the nine types of child sexual abuse assessed. In addition, the majority of the sexually abused

In Young Han; Yongwoo Lee; Seo Koo Yoo; Jun Sung Hong

2011-01-01

188

Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

2007-01-01

189

Sexual cannibalism and mate choice decisions in wolf spiders: influence of male size and secondary sexual characters  

E-print Network

Sexual cannibalism and mate choice decisions in wolf spiders: influence of male size and secondary; published online 11 November 2004; MS. number: A9539R) Sexual cannibalism may influence expression, probability of attempted premating cannibalism varied with male size, body condition, tuft size, fluctuating

Persons, Matthew H.

190

Age and sexual culture among homosexually oriented males.  

PubMed

It is here argued that the thesis has been overgeneralized that the culture of homosexually oriented males is heavily youth oriented. It is suggested that any "youth orientedness" is due to their largely single "marital status" rather than to sexual orientation. Utilizing data from 243 males from the Detroit area, several qualifications to the thesis of youth orientedness are indicated. It was found that a majority of males aged 18-24 prefer a male partner who is older, a majority of those aged 25-34 years prefer a same-age person, and 50% of theose over 35 prefer a younger partner. These relationships were found to be especially strong among those segments of the sample who attend gay bars infrequently or who are of lower occupational levels. Also, higher occupational status was found to be associated with preference for the younger, independent of age. It is suggested that, because of the heterogeneity of the male homosexual community, the degree of emphasis of youth will be found to vary with social setting. PMID:666573

Harry, J; DeVall, W

1978-05-01

191

Masculinization of gene expression is associated with exaggeration of male sexual dimorphism.  

PubMed

Gene expression differences between the sexes account for the majority of sexually dimorphic phenotypes, and the study of sex-biased gene expression is important for understanding the genetic basis of complex sexual dimorphisms. However, it has been difficult to test the nature of this relationship due to the fact that sexual dimorphism has traditionally been conceptualized as a dichotomy between males and females, rather than an axis with individuals distributed at intermediate points. The wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) exhibits just this sort of continuum, with dominant and subordinate males forming a gradient in male secondary sexual characteristics. This makes it possible for the first time to test the correlation between sex-biased gene expression and sexually dimorphic phenotypes, a relationship crucial to molecular studies of sexual selection and sexual conflict. Here, we show that subordinate male transcriptomes show striking multiple concordances with their relative phenotypic sexual dimorphism. Subordinate males were clearly male rather than intersex, and when compared to dominant males, their transcriptomes were simultaneously demasculinized for male-biased genes and feminized for female-biased genes across the majority of the transcriptome. These results provide the first evidence linking sexually dimorphic transcription and sexually dimorphic phenotypes. More importantly, they indicate that evolutionary changes in sexual dimorphism can be achieved by varying the magnitude of sex-bias in expression across a large proportion of the coding content of a genome. PMID:23966876

Pointer, Marie A; Harrison, Peter W; Wright, Alison E; Mank, Judith E

2013-01-01

192

A quantitative genetic analysis of nuclear-cytoplasmic male sterility in structured populations of Silene vulgaris.  

PubMed

Gynodioecy, the coexistence of functionally female and hermaphroditic morphs within plant populations, often has a complicated genetic basis involving several cytoplasmic male-sterility factors and nuclear restorers. This complexity has made it difficult to study the genetics and evolution of gynodioecy in natural populations. We use a quantitative genetic analysis of crosses within and among populations of Silene vulgaris to partition genetic variance for sex expression into nuclear and cytoplasmic components. We also use mitochondrial markers to determine whether cytoplasmic effects on sex expression can be traced to mitochondrial variance. Cytoplasmic variation and epistatic interactions between nuclear and cytoplasmic loci accounted for a significant portion of the variation in sex expression among the crosses. Source population also accounted for a significant portion of the sex ratio variation. Crosses among populations greatly enhanced the dam (cytoplasmic) effect, indicating that most among-population variance was at cytoplasmic loci. This is supported by the large among-population variance in the frequency of mitochondrial haplotypes, which also accounted for a significant portion of the sex ratio variance in our data. We discuss the similarities between the population structure we observed at loci that influence sex expression and previous work on putatively neutral loci, as well as the implications this has for what mechanisms may create and maintain population structure at loci that are influenced by natural selection. PMID:11404344

Taylor, D R; Olson, M S; McCauley, D E

2001-06-01

193

DNA methylation changes in photoperiod-thermo-sensitive male sterile rice PA64S under two different conditions.  

PubMed

Epigenetic modification can occur at a high frequency in crop plants and might generate phenotypic variation without changes in DNA sequences. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that may contribute to environmentally-induced phenotypic variations by regulating gene expression. Rice Photoperiod-Thermo-Sensitive Genic Male Sterile (PTGMS) lines can transform from sterility to fertility under lower temperatures and short-day (SD) conditions during anther development. So far, little is known about the DNA methylation variation of PTGMS throughout the genome in rice. In this study, we investigated DNA cytosine methylation alterations in the young panicles of PTGMS line PA64S under two different conditions using methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) method. Compared with the DNA methylation level of PA64S under lower temperatures and SD conditions (fertility), higher methylation was observed in PA64S (sterility). The sequences of 25 differentially amplified fragments were successfully obtained and annotated. Three methylated fragments, which are homologous to D2, NAD7 and psaA, were confirmed by bisulfite sequencing and their expression levels were also evaluated by qPCR. Real time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that five of the six selected methylated genes were downregulated in PA64S (sterility). These results suggested that DNA methylation may be involved in the sterility-fertility transition of PA64S under two different environmental conditions. PMID:24365594

Chen, Xiaojun; Hu, Jihong; Zhang, Hongyuan; Ding, Yi

2014-03-01

194

Drugs For Male Sexual Dysfunction Show Promise In The Lab For Treating Female Sexual Disorders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an APS press release on a study that found that female sexual dysfunction may be, in part, the result of inadequate supply of blood to the female genitals and may be addressed with erectile dysfunction drugs. Originally developed as therapy for hypertension, these drugs work by dilating blood vessels sufficiently to produce erections in males. These drugs have not been fully explored in females.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2006-04-17

195

Sexual Experience Increases Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Medial Preoptic Area of Male Rats  

E-print Network

experience facilitates sexual behavior in male rats. Keywords: sexual behavior, learning, memory, glutamate females rather than for males; require fewer mounts and intromissions to reach an ejaculation; have in the MPOA of virgin male rats immediately before each of seven noncopulatory exposures to a receptive female

Contreras, Robert J.

196

Sexual-Discrimination Learning in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated how male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) learn through extensive social and sexual experience to discriminate between male and female conspecifics. Opportunity for heterosexual copulation was important for this learning, but even extensive copulatory opportunity was not sufficient to produce a sexual discrimination; subjects also required exposure to other males. Exposure to females after copulatory opportunity did not

Susan Nash; Michael Domjan; Martha Askins

1989-01-01

197

Analysis of genetic diversity in cytoplasmic male sterility, and association of mitochondrial genes with petaloid-type cytoplasmic male sterility in tuber mustard ( Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen et Lee)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our previous study, we bred a stable cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line of tuber mustard by using distant hybridization\\u000a and subsequent backcrosses. In this CMS plants, all floral organs are normal except the anthers, which are transformed into\\u000a petals or tubular structures. Recently, 2 mitochondrial genes—atpA and orf220—that are distinctively present in the CMS line of tuber mustard were

Xiaolin Yu; Haiyu Lu; Gang Lu; Zhujun Chen; Jiashu Cao; Yutaka Hirata

2010-01-01

198

Dispersal and survival of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) males in Italian urban areas and significance for sterile insect technique application.  

PubMed

The dispersal and survival of laboratory-reared Aedes albopictus Skuse males were investigated during the summer of 2007 in three Northern Italy urban localities by mark-release-recapture techniques. Two marking methods were compared: one group of males was dusted with fluorescent pigments on the body (FP), and the other group was obtained from a strain whose natural infection of Wolbachia had been removed (WB0). FP- and WB0-marked males were released as adults and pupae, respectively, in one fixed station at each locality. Recaptures were performed by skilled technicians, within a radius of 350 m from the release site, on days 4, 5, and 7 after the release, and the males were collected while flying around the technician's body or in swarms. Recapture rates ranged from 0.63 to 4.72% for FP males and from 2.39 to 11.05% for WB0 males. The mean distance traveled for WB0 males was significantly higher than for FP males; no difference was observed between the dispersal distance measured for the males recaptured on human host versus males recaptured while swarming. No further increase of the dispersal occurred during the postrelease period investigated (from day 4 to day 7 after release). The mean survival rate at the release was 0.51 for FP-marked males and 0.81 for WB0 males. The data obtained are discussed for their significance in planning sterile insect technique programs against Ae. albopictus. PMID:21175057

Bellini, Romeo; Albieri, Alessandro; Balestrino, Fabrizio; Carrieri, Marco; Porretta, Daniele; Urbanelli, Sandra; Calvitti, Maurizio; Moretti, Riccardo; Maini, Stefano

2010-11-01

199

GABA in regulation of communicative activity and sexual motivation of male mice with different psychoemotional status.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of drugs modulating GABA content in the brain on communicative activity and sexual motivation of male mice. The effects of the drug depended on animal genotype and initial psychoemotional status. Aminooxyacetic acid elevating GABA content did not modulate communicative activity of intact males, reduced it in aggressive animals, restored in anxious animals, and promoted exhaustion of sexual motivation in anxious animals. Thiosemicarbazide reducing GABA level produced an anxiogenic effect and destabilized sexual motivation in intact males. PMID:17970208

Amikishieva, A V

2007-02-01

200

Integrating medication, realistic expectations, and therapeutic interventions in the treatment of male sexual dysfunction.  

PubMed

Male sexuality in adolescence and early adulthood is characterized by autonomous, predictable erections. As males age, however, their arousal becomes less predictable and more dependent on partner interaction. This transition can produce anxiety. Many males view this change as a medical dysfunction requiring pharmacologic treatment or specialist intervention. New medical interventions, including Viagra, have been developed promising to return males to their automatic erections. A medical approach, however, fails to address the multidimensional nature of male sexuality and reinforces sex as intercourse performance. This article outlines a biopsychosocial approach to the assessment, treatment, and relapse prevention of male sexual dysfunction. PMID:16020149

McCarthy, Barry W; Fucito, Lisa M

2005-01-01

201

Endocrine regulation of male sexual behavior in rough-skinned newts, Taricha granulosa : role of neurohormones.  

E-print Network

??To determine whether a homologous neurohormone, arginine vasotocin (AVT), can elevate the occurrence of clasping behavior in male rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa), intact, sexually inactive… (more)

Zoeller, Robert T.

1979-01-01

202

Proteome Analysis of the Wild and YX-1 Male Sterile Mutant Anthers of Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.)  

PubMed Central

Pollen development is disturbed in the early tetrad stage of the YX-1 male sterile mutant of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.). The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed anther proteins and to reveal their possible roles in pollen development and male sterility. To address this question, the proteomes of the wild-type (WT) and YX-1 mutant were compared. Approximately 1760 protein spots on two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) gels were detected. A number of proteins whose accumulation levels were altered in YX-1 compared with WT were identified by mass spectrometry and the NCBInr and Viridiplantae EST databases. Proteins down-regulated in YX-1 anthers include ascorbate peroxidase (APX), putative glutamine synthetase (GS), ATP synthase subunits, chalcone synthase (CHS), CHS-like, putative callose synthase catalytic subunit, cysteine protease, 5B protein, enoyl-ACP reductase, 14-3-3 protein and basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3). Meanwhile, activities of APX and GS, RNA expression levels of apx and atp synthase beta subunit were low in YX-1 anthers which correlated with the expression of male sterility. In addition, several carbohydrate metabolism-related and photosynthesis-related enzymes were also present at lower levels in the mutant anthers. In contrast, 26S proteasome regulatory subunits, cysteine protease inhibitor, putative S-phase Kinase association Protein 1(SKP1), and aspartic protease, were expressed at higher levels in YX-1 anthers relative to WT anthers. Regulation of wolfberry pollen development involves a complex network of differentially expressed genes. The present study lays the foundation for future investigations of gene function linked with wolfberry pollen development and male sterility. PMID:22860020

Zheng, Rui; Sijun Yue; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jianyu; Xu, Qing; Wang, Xiaolin; Han, Lu; Yu, Deyue

2012-01-01

203

Proteome analysis of the wild and YX-1 male sterile mutant anthers of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.).  

PubMed

Pollen development is disturbed in the early tetrad stage of the YX-1 male sterile mutant of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.). The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed anther proteins and to reveal their possible roles in pollen development and male sterility. To address this question, the proteomes of the wild-type (WT) and YX-1 mutant were compared. Approximately 1760 protein spots on two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) gels were detected. A number of proteins whose accumulation levels were altered in YX-1 compared with WT were identified by mass spectrometry and the NCBInr and Viridiplantae EST databases. Proteins down-regulated in YX-1 anthers include ascorbate peroxidase (APX), putative glutamine synthetase (GS), ATP synthase subunits, chalcone synthase (CHS), CHS-like, putative callose synthase catalytic subunit, cysteine protease, 5B protein, enoyl-ACP reductase, 14-3-3 protein and basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3). Meanwhile, activities of APX and GS, RNA expression levels of apx and atp synthase beta subunit were low in YX-1 anthers which correlated with the expression of male sterility. In addition, several carbohydrate metabolism-related and photosynthesis-related enzymes were also present at lower levels in the mutant anthers. In contrast, 26S proteasome regulatory subunits, cysteine protease inhibitor, putative S-phase Kinase association Protein 1(SKP1), and aspartic protease, were expressed at higher levels in YX-1 anthers relative to WT anthers. Regulation of wolfberry pollen development involves a complex network of differentially expressed genes. The present study lays the foundation for future investigations of gene function linked with wolfberry pollen development and male sterility. PMID:22860020

Zheng, Rui; Sijun Yue; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jianyu; Xu, Qing; Wang, Xiaolin; Han, Lu; Yu, Deyue

2012-01-01

204

The Male-Sterility Polymorphism of Silene vulgaris: Analysis of Genetic Data From Two Populations and Comparison With Thymus vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are given of genetic studies of male sterility using plants from two natural populations from Sussex, England. Both populations have substantial frequencies of females, z0.25 in population 1 and 0.60 in population 3. As in the few other gynodioecious populations studied in detail, many genetic factors are present. In population 1, there are at least two, and more likely

D. Charlesworth; Valerie Laporte

205

Analysis of combining ability of two-types of male sterile and four restorer lines of Zinnia elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight cross combinations of Zinnia elegans were made using two recessive nuclear male sterile lines crossed with four restorers using the North Carolina Design II statistical\\u000a method. Heterosis, combining ability and heritability was analysed using 12 horticultural traits and these demonstrated the\\u000a advantage of heterosis in hybrid breeding of Zinnia elegans. Heterosis served to increase the number of whorls of

Xue-Yuan Lou; Qiu-Shi Hu; Man-Zhu Bao; Yao-Mei Ye

2010-01-01

206

Reversible male sterility in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) by artificial microRNA-mediated silencing of general transcription factor genes.  

PubMed

Since decades, plant male sterility is considered a powerful tool for biological containment to minimize unwanted self-pollination for hybrid seed production. Furthermore, prevention of pollen dispersal also answers to concerns regarding transgene flow via pollen from Genetically Modified (GM) crops to traditional crop fields or wild relatives. We induced male sterility by suppressing endogenous general transcription factor genes, TAFs, using anther-specific promoters combined with artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology (Schwab et al., 2006). The system was made reversible by the ethanol inducible expression of an amiRNA-insensitive form of the target gene. We provide proof of concept in eggplant, a cultivated crop belonging to the Solanaceae family that includes many important food crops. The transgenic eggplants that we generated are completely male sterile and fertility can be fully restored by short treatments with ethanol, confirming the efficiency but also the reliability of the system in view of open field cultivation. By combining this system with induced parthenocarpy (Rotino et al., 1997), we provide a novel example of complete transgene containment in eggplant, which enables biological mitigation measures for the benefit of coexistence or biosafety purposes for GM crop cultivation. PMID:20955179

Toppino, Laura; Kooiker, Maarten; Lindner, Matias; Dreni, Ludovico; Rotino, Giuseppe L; Kater, Martin M

2011-08-01

207

The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult male sexual dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present study investigated the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual dysfunction in men. In addition, the investigation compared sexually abused men and women on the characteristics of the sexual abuse.Method: Subjects were 359 men who sought sexual dysfunction treatment. Thirty men reported a history of sexual abuse. Characteristics of the sexual abuse experienced by these men

Isiaah Crawford; Joseph A. Durlak

1997-01-01

208

Condition-dependent signaling affects male sexual attractiveness in field crickets,  

E-print Network

Condition-dependent signaling affects male sexual attractiveness in field crickets, Gryllus of male field crickets, Gryllus campestris, under field conditions. Food availability was manipulated condition. Key words: body condition, calling behavior, condition dependence, field cricket, Gryllus

Richner, Heinz

209

The Relationship Among Sexual Compulsivity, Internalized Homophobia, and HIV At-Risk Sexual Behavior in Gay and Bisexual Male Users of Internet Chat Rooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods in which gay and bisexual males are developing sexual networks have changed due to the anonymity and accessibility of the Internet. In this article, the relationship among sexual compulsivity, internalized homophobia, and HIV at-risk sexual behavior in non-heterosexual male users of Internet chat rooms is examined. The Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory was used to trichotomize the sample (n =

Brian J. Dew; Michael P. Chaney

2005-01-01

210

Sexual Assault on the College Campus: The Role of Male Peer Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book links research on two topics--sexual assault on North American college and university campuses and the role played by male peer support in such assaults. Disputing the notion that college campuses are safe havens from crime, the first chapter defines sexual assault, notes the incidence and prevalence of campus sexual assault, and…

Schwartz, Martin D.; DeKeseredy, Walter S.

211

Are Males and Females Sexually Abused As Children Socially Anxious Adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well documented that childhood sexual abuse is associated with deleterious outcomes in the areas of anxiety, depression, and sexual functioning. However, very little research has been conducted to specifically investigate childhood sexual abuse's relationship to adult social anxiety in both males and females. Participants included 250 undergraduate students from a large metropolitan university. Results indicated that almost one-third

Ariz Rojas; Bill N. Kinder

2009-01-01

212

Sexpectations: Male College Students' Views about Displayed Sexual References on Females' Social Networking Web Sites  

PubMed Central

Study Objective Sexual reference display on a social networking web site (SNS) is associated with self-reported sexual intention; females are more likely to display sexually explicit content on SNSs. The purpose of this study was to investigate male college students' views towards sexual references displayed on publicly available SNSs by females. Design Focus groups Setting One large state university Participants Male college students age 18–23 Interventions All tape recorded data was fully transcribed, then discussed to determine thematic consensus. Main Outcome Measures A trained male facilitator asked participants about views on sexual references displayed on SNSs by female peers and showed examples of sexual references from female's SNS profiles to facilitate discussion. Results A total of 28 heterosexual male participants participated in 7 focus groups. Nearly all participants reported using Facebook to evaluate potential female partners. Three themes emerged from our data. First, participants reported that displays of sexual references on social networking web sites increased sexual expectations. Second, sexual reference display decreased interest in pursuing a dating relationship. Third, SNS data was acknowledged as imperfect but valuable. Conclusion Females who display sexual references on publicly available SNS profiles may be influencing potential partners' sexual expectations and dating intentions. Future research should examine females' motivations and beliefs about displaying such references, and educate women about the potential impact of these sexual displays. PMID:21190872

Moreno, Megan A.; Swanson, Michael J.; Royer, Heather; Roberts, Linda J.

2011-01-01

213

Comparing Female and Male Perpetrators' Modus OperandiVictims' Reports of Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a sizable percentage of all sexual abuse in the United States is perpetrated by females, until recently the subject of sexual offending by this population has been largely overlooked. In this study, reports of child sexual abuse by 53 victims of female perpetrators were compared with reports by a group of 53 victims of male perpetrators. Victims were matched

KEITH L. KAUFMAN; ANNE M. WALLACE; CHARLES FELZEN JOHNSON; MARK LESLEY REEDER

1995-01-01

214

Sexual coercion in a territorial salamander: males punish socially polyandrous female partners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clutton-Brock & Parker (1995, Animal Behaviour, 49, 1345–1365) proposed that sexual coercion is a third component of sexual selection, along with intrasexual competition for mates and intersexual mate choice. They stated that sexual coercion occurs when males subject females to forced copulation, harassment, or intimidation, and that aggression towards females may occur even when females merely associate (not mate) with

Robert G. Jaeger; Jennifer R. Gillette; Robert C. Cooper

2002-01-01

215

Masculinity Scripts and the Sexual Vulnerability of Male Youth in Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates contextually rich talk about sex and sexual activity among Malawian male youth. While their sexual ideologies have a potential to prompt them into risky practices, a more urgent driver of their vulnerability is their sexual scripts which constitute masculinity as very fragile and in need of constant protection, making the boys wary both of female partners who

Chimaraoke O. Izugbara; Chi-Chi Undie

2008-01-01

216

Adolescent Heterosexual Males Talk About the Role of Male Peer Groups in Their Sexual Decision-Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research draws on in-depth, one-on-one interviews with a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 17 adolescent males,\\u000a both virgins and non-virgins, to explore how they use talk to construct their sexual selves and present themselves as sexual\\u000a decision-makers. The emphasis here is how some of the boys (n = 8) drew upon a particular discourse in their self-productions and implicated male

Mark Cohan

2009-01-01

217

Opioid kappa-receptor agonists suppress sexual behaviors in male rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa).  

PubMed

Four experiments were performed to evaluate a possible opioid involvement in the regulation of sexual behavior (amplectic clasping of a female) in intact adult male rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) during the breeding season. It was found that an ip injection of bremazocine, a kappa-receptor opiate agonist, can markedly reduce sexual activity and that an ip injection of naloxone can reverse this inhibition in a dose-dependent fashion. In contrast, in male newts that were sexually inactive before treatment, injections of naloxone failed to induce sexual behavior, suggesting that opioid mechanisms do not normally exert a tonic inhibition of amphibian sexual behavior. In addition, an injection of ethylketocyclazocine (another kappa-receptor agonist), but not morphine (a mu-receptor agonist) suppressed sexual behaviors of male newts. These results indicate that opioid mechanisms that include kappa-type opioid receptors may contribute to the regulation of sexual behavior in nonmammalian vertebrates. PMID:2822565

Deviche, P; Moore, F L

1987-09-01

218

Examining the characteristics of male sexual assault targets in a Southern maximum-security prison.  

PubMed

Studies concerning inmate-on-inmate sexual assaults within male correctional facilities are sparse in the sociological and correctional literatures. Only a few studies have specifically examined the characteristics of male inmate sexual assault targets. The current research sought to address this gap by providing an examination of factors related to victimization likelihood. Using data gathered in March 2000 from 142 inmates (18% return rate) in one Southern maximum-security prison, the authors examined demographic and behavioral characteristics of male inmate sexual targets. Based on inmates' self-reports of sexual victimization--threatened and/or forced sexual assault encounters--correlates of victimization were identified. Approximately 18% of the inmates reported inmate-on-inmate sexual threats, and 8.5% reported that they had been sexually assaulted by another inmate while incarcerated. PMID:15851535

Hensley, Christopher; Koscheski, Mary; Tewksbury, Richard

2005-06-01

219

Cytological and Comparative Proteomic Analyses on Male Sterility in Brassica napus L. Induced by the Chemical Hybridization Agent Monosulphuron Ester Sodium  

PubMed Central

Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA) is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES), a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility. PMID:24244648

Li, Zhanjie; Cui, Jianmin; Hu, Shengwu; Zhao, Huixian; Chen, Mingshun

2013-01-01

220

"I Keep That Hush-Hush": Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse and the Challenges of Disclosure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disclosure is a prominent variable in child sexual abuse research, but little research has examined male disclosure experiences. Sixteen male survivors of childhood sexual abuse were interviewed regarding experiences of disclosure. Analytic techniques included a grounded theory approach to coding and the use of conceptually clustered matrices.…

Sorsoli, Lynn; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Grossman, Frances K.

2008-01-01

221

Male and female differences in reaction to erotic stimuli as related to sexual adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred male and 100 female undergraduate students viewed erotic slides depicting a wide range of human sexual behaviors. Each subject rated the stimuli on three criteria: sexual stimulation, liking for the slide, and extremeness of the behavior portrayed. Following the rating session, subjects completed Thorne's Sex Inventory, which theoretically measures psychosexual adjustment. Results indicated that males and females reported

Daniel G. Steele; C. Eugene Walker

1974-01-01

222

Accuracy and Awareness in the Perception and Categorization of Male Sexual Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For clear and unambiguous social categories, person perception occurs quite accurately from minimal cues. This article addresses the perception of an ambiguous social category (male sexual orientation) from minimal cues. Across 5 studies, the authors examined individuals' actual and self-assessed accuracy when judging male sexual orientation from faces and facial features. Although participants were able to make accurate judgments from

Nicholas O. Rule; Nalini Ambady; Reginald B. Adams Jr; C. Neil Macrae

2008-01-01

223

Relational Challenges and Recovery Processes in Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Male survivors of childhood sexual abuse face challenges resolving sexual victimization experiences with the ideals of masculinity, often experiencing intimacy problems, emotional discomfort, alienation, and anger. Little attention has been paid to how male survivors learn to develop long-term connections, disclose emotions in relationship…

Kia-Keating, Maryam; Sorsoli, Lynn; Grossman, Frances K.

2010-01-01

224

Theoretical Perspectives of Male Sexual Abuse: Conceptualization of a Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the traumatic impact that sexual abuse can have on a young male's development by addressing mediating dispositions that can render a child vulnerable to the effects of sexual abuse. Consideration is given to three different theoretical perspectives that are not exclusive to male victims but shed light…

Diamanduros, Terry; Cosentino, Clare E.; Tysinger, P. Dawn; Tysinger, Jeffrey A.

2012-01-01

225

Letting Go of Restrictive Notions of Manhood: Male Sexuality, Disability and Chronic Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I share my personal story and professional perspectives on the impact of disability on male sexuality. Because disability is experienced in the context of gender, I have integrated literature on concepts of male socialization and learning about sex. I explore how acquiring a disability may affect sexuality and create treatment concerns. Finally, I make treatment suggestions for

Mitchell S. Tepper

1999-01-01

226

Vulnerable Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Prevention Knowledge among Ethnic Tribal Male Youth in Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among minority ethnic male youth of Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered questionnaire on 800 young males aged 15-24 years in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in 2009. Of the respondents, almost one-third were sexually active and of them…

Kamal, S. M. Mostafa

2012-01-01

227

Attachment and personality predicts engagement in sexual harassment by male and female college students.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine a trait model of personality (Five-Factor Model) as a mediator of the relationship between attachment styles and sexually harassing behavior in a sample of male (N = 148) and female (N = 278) college students. We found that gender (male) and low Agreeableness predicted engaging in sexual harassment and all three of its subtypes; gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. Further, low Conscientiousness predicted overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and unwanted sexual attention. Personality traits mediated the relationship between insecure attachment styles (Preoccupation with Relationships and Relationships as Secondary) and sexually harassing behaviors. Thus, factors beyond gender can help predict students' propensity to sexually harass others. PMID:21287966

Mènard, Kim S; Shoss, Naomi E; Pincus, Aaron L

2010-01-01

228

Sexual behavior and AIDS knowledge of young male prostitutes in Manhattan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their presumed high risk for AIDS, there are almost no sexual behavior data available which are sufficient for the development and assessment of intervention programs for male prostitutes. This study was designed to obtain such data. Fifty 14–27?year?old male prostitutes in Manhattan were interviewed using structured instruments to assess sexual orientation, sexual behavior, knowledge of AIDS, and substance abuse.

Richard R. Pleak

1990-01-01

229

Measurement of Sexual Arousal in Postoperative Male-to-Female Transsexuals Using Vaginal Photoplethysmography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mens sexual arousal patterns are category-specific: Men typically display significantly greater physiological responses to sexual stimuli depicting members of their preferred gender category. Category-specific patterns of sexual arousal have not been consistently reported in natal women. We used vaginal photoplethysmography to examine patterns of sexual arousal in 11 male-to-female (MtF) transsexuals following sex reassignment surgery (SRS) and in 72 natal

Anne A. Lawrence; Elizabeth M. Latty; Meredith L. Chivers; J. Michael Bailey

2005-01-01

230

Rethinking sexual initiation: pathways to identity formation among gay and bisexual Mexican male youth.  

PubMed

The topic of same-sex sexual initiation has generally remained understudied in the literature on sexual identity formation among sexual minority youth. This article analyzes the narratives of same-sex sexual initiation provided by 76 gay and bisexual Mexican immigrant men who participated in interviews for the Trayectos Study, an ethnographic study of sexuality and HIV risk. These participants were raised in a variety of locations throughout Mexico, where they also realized their same-sex attraction and initiated their sexual lives with men. We argue that Mexican male same-sex sexuality is characterized by three distinct patterns of sexual initiation--one heavily-based on gender roles, one based on homosociality, and one based on object choice--which inform the men's interpretations regarding sexual roles, partner preferences, and sexual behaviors. We analyzed the social factors and forms of cultural/sexual socialization that lead sexual minority youth specifically to each of these three patterns of sexual initiation. Our findings confirm the importance of studying same-sex sexual initiation as a topic in its own right, particularly as a tool to gain a greater understanding of the diversity of same-sex sexual experiences and sexual identities within and among ethnic/cultural groups. PMID:20838869

Carrillo, Héctor; Fontdevila, Jorge

2011-12-01

231

Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) roots on the sexual behavior of male rats  

PubMed Central

Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control) were administered 10 mL?kg body weight distilled water (vehicle), group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra), while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3). Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Results Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p < 0.05). The latencies of mount and intromission were significantly reduced and ejaculation latency was prolonged. Administration of the extract also reduced the post-ejaculatory interval. The standard drug (Viagra) was more effective than the extract. The extract significantly increased the frequencies of all components of penile reflexes as well as serum testosterone levels, compared with the distilled water controls. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results thus support the traditional use of Arctium lappa L. root extract for treating impotence and sterility. PMID:22296876

2012-01-01

232

Personal and perceived peer attitudes supporting sexual aggression as predictors of male college students' willingness to intervene against sexual aggression.  

PubMed

Male college students ( N = 395) completed anonymous surveys to report personal attitudes supporting sexual aggression and estimated the attitudes of their peers. Participants also indicated their willingness to intervene against a peer if they witnessed sexual aggression. Although both personal and peer attitudes were correlated with willingness to intervene, in regression analyses only perceived peer attitudes emerged as a significant predictor of willingness to intervene. Results suggest that personal attitudes supporting sexual aggression are not as relevant to men's willingness to intervene against sexual aggression as are perceived peer norms regarding sexual aggression. Findings are relevant to sexual assault prevention education with men, suggesting that attempts to encourage bystander intervention may be best presented in the context of challenging perceived norms. PMID:19401602

Brown, Amy L; Messman-Moore, Terri L

2010-03-01

233

Comparing Indicators of Sexual Sadism as Predictors of Recidivism among Adult Male Sexual Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: In this longitudinal study, the predictive validity of a psychiatric diagnosis of sexual sadism was compared with three behavioral indicators of sadism: index sexual offense violence, sexual intrusiveness, and phallometrically assessed sexual arousal to depictions of sexual or nonsexual violence. Method: Five hundred and eighty six…

Kingston, Drew A.; Seto, Michael C.; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M.

2010-01-01

234

The role of male sexual arousal in rape: Six models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines men's sexual arousal to rape cues and its possible role in sexual assault. The article presents six different models that have been described in the literature to account for men's sexual arousal to descriptions of rape. The models are divided into two broad categories, response control models and stimulus control models, and are further divided into models

Howard E. Barbaree; William L. Marshall

1991-01-01

235

Sexual Behavior among Employed Male Rural Migrants in Shanghai, China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of sexual behavior in migrant men was conducted in construction sites, markets, and factories in Shanghai, the largest city in China. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was completed by the migrants. Among 986 sexually active men, 14% had had more than one sexual partner in their lifetime, 31% premarital sex, 3.3% oral sex, and…

He, Na; Detels, Roger; Chen, Zheng; Jiang, Qingwu; Zhu, Jinde; Dai, Yiqun; Wu, Min; Zhong, Xing; Fu, Chaowei; Gui, Dexin

2006-01-01

236

Estradiol Increases Female Sexual Initiation Independent of Male Responsiveness  

E-print Network

for estrogen as the critical steroid increas- ing female sexual motivation in primates. © 1998 Academic Press the ovarian cycle, suggesting that female hormonal condition influences female sexual motivation in rhesus monkeys. However, the effects of hormones on female sexual motivation are difficult to identify because

Maestripieri, Dario

237

Premarital Sexual Behavior among male college students of Kathmandu, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Nepal, as in other Asian countries, the issue of sexuality still remains a taboo. Despite this fact, an increasing number of sexual activities is being reported by Nepalese students. This trend warrants serious and timely attention. Due to the sensitivity of the topic of premarital sexuality, youth receive inadequate education, guidance and services on reproductive health. The main

Ramesh Adhikari; Jyotsna Tamang

2009-01-01

238

Alterations of Mitochondrial Protein Assembly and Jasmonic Acid Biosynthesis Pathway in Honglian (HL)-type Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Rice*  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that the mitochondrial chimeric gene orfH79 is the cause for abortion of microspores in Honglian cytoplasmic male sterile rice, yet little is known regarding its mechanism of action. In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics strategy to compare the mitochondrial proteome between the sterile line Yuetai A and its fertile near-isogenic line Yuetai B. We discovered a reduced quantity of specific proteins in mitochondrial complexes in Yuetai A compared with Yuetai B, indicating a defect in mitochondrial complex assembly in the sterile line. Western blotting showed that ORFH79 protein and ATP1 protein, an F1 sector component of complex V, are both associated with large protein complexes of similar size. Respiratory complex activity assays and transmission electron microscopy revealed functional and morphological defects in the mitochondria of Yuetai A when compared with Yuetai B. In addition, we identified one sex determination TASSELSEED2-like protein increased in Yuetai A, leading to the discovery of an aberrant variation of the jasmonic acid pathway during the development of microspores. PMID:23027867

Liu, Gai; Tian, Han; Huang, Yun-Qing; Hu, Jun; Ji, Yan-Xiao; Li, Shao-Qing; Feng, Yu-Qi; Guo, Lin; Zhu, Ying-Guo

2012-01-01

239

Clinical Evaluation of Non-surgical Sterilization of Male Cats with Single Intra-testicular Injection of Calcium Chloride  

PubMed Central

Background Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic. Results At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected and showed complete testicular necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue; very low sperm counts; and reduction of serum testosterone by at least 70% in 20% dose. Androgenic enzyme activities and their expressions were also reduced in all the treated groups along with intra-testicular testosterone concentration was also low. Increased testicular lipid peroxidation, with reduced antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential, were evident following calcium chloride treatments. However, there were no apparent changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, or total serum protein following calcium chloride injection, suggesting that this method of sterilization is not associated with any general stress response. Conclusion Calcium chloride solution demonstrates potential for androgenesis-eliminating nonsurgical sterilization of male cats in addition to its proven efficacy in dogs and other mammals. PMID:21774835

2011-01-01

240

Core Sexual/Reproductive Health Care to Deliver to Male Adolescents: Perceptions of Clinicians Focused on Male Health  

PubMed Central

Purpose Male adolescents experience adverse sexual/reproductive health (SRH) outcomes, yet few providers deliver male SRH care. Given the lack of evidence base for male SRH care, the purpose of this study was to examine perceived importance in delivering SRH care to male adolescents among clinicians focused on male health. Methods Seventeen primary care clinicians focused on male health, representing pediatricians, family physicians, internists, and nurse practitioners, were individually queried about male adolescents’ SRH needs and perceived importance to screen/assess for 13 male SRH services using a case-scenario approach varying by visit type and allotted time. Results Participants were highly consistent in identifying a scope of 10 SRH services to deliver to male adolescents during a longer annual visit and a core set of 6 SRH services during a shorter annual visit including 1) counseling on sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency (STI/HIV) risk reduction including testing/treatment; and assessing for 2) pubertal growth/development; 3) substance abuse/mental health; 4) non-STI/HIV genital abnormalities; 5) physical/sexual abuse; and 6) male pregnancy prevention methods. Participants did not agree whether SRH care should be delivered during non-annual acute visits. Conclusions Despite lack of data for male SRH care, clinicians focused on male health strongly agreed upon male SRH care to deliver during annual visits that varied by visit type and allotted time. Study findings provide a foundation for much needed clinical guidelines for male adolescents’ SRH care and have implications for education and training health professionals at all levels and the organization and delivery of male SRH services. PMID:22727075

Marcell, Arik V.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

2011-01-01

241

Molecular and biological studies on male-sterile cytoplasm in the Cruciferae. I. The origin and distribution of Ogura male-sterile cytoplasm in Japanese wild radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) revealed by PCR-aided assay of their mitochondrial DNAs.  

PubMed

Ogura male-sterile cytoplasm was surveyed in common Japanese radish cultivars and in wild radishes growing in various localities in Japan. Mitochondrial (mt) DNA rearrangement involving the atp6 gene was used as a molecular marker. To detect the mtDNA rearrangement, polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were designed to amplify the upstream region of the atp6 gene. The oligonucleotides homologous to the following three regions were synthesized: (1) trnfM, (2) ORF105 and (3) atp6. PCRs were conducted with a pair of the first and the third primers to detect normal mtDNA, and with the second and the third primers for Ogura-type mtDNA. All 15 Japanese cultivars yielded an amplification product which was the same as that of normal mtDNA, whereas some wild radishes gave the product specific to Ogura mtDNA. Twenty-four populations of wild radish were classified into three groups according to the frequency of Ogura-type mtDNA: (1) in ten populations, all four plants analyzed per population had normal type mtDNA, (2) in five populations, only plants with Ogura-type mtDNA were found, and (3) nine populations included both normal and Oguratype mtDNAs. There were no geographical restrictions and no cline in the distribution of the plants with Ogura-type mtDNA. These results suggested that the Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm originated in wild radishes. PMID:24190534

Yamagishi, H; Terachi, T

1994-03-01

242

The Earliest Case of Extreme Sexual Display with Exaggerated Male Organs by Two Middle Jurassic Mecopterans  

PubMed Central

Background Many extant male animals exhibit exaggerated body parts for display, defense or offence in sexual selection, such as male birds of paradise showing off colorful and elegant feathers and male moose and reindeers bearing large structured antlers. For insects, male rhinoceros and stag beetles have huge horn-like structure for fighting and competition and some male Leptopanorpa scorpionflies have very long abdominal terminal segments for sexual display and competition. Fossil records of insects having exaggerated body parts for sexual display are fairly rare. One example is two male holcorpids with elongate abdominal segments from sixth (A6) to eighth (A8) and enlarged male genitalia from Eocene, suggesting evolution of these characters occurred fairly late. Principal Findings We document two mecopterans with exaggerated male body parts from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in northeastern China. Both have extremely extended abdominal segments from A6 to A8 and enlarged genitalia, which might have been used for sexual display and, to less extent, for fighting with other males in the competition for mates. Although Fortiholcorpa paradoxa gen. et sp. nov. and Miriholcorpa forcipata gen. et sp. nov. seem to have affinities with Holcorpidae, we deem both as Family Incertae sedis mainly due to significant differences in branching pattern of Media (M) veins and relative length of A8 for F. paradoxa, and indiscernible preservation of 5-branched M veins in hind wing for M. forcipata. Conclusions/Significance These two new taxa have extended the records of exaggerated male body parts of mecopterans for sexual display and/or selection from the Early Eocene to the late Middle Jurassic. The similar character present in some Leptopanorpa of Panorpidae suggests that the sexual display and/or sexual selection due to extremely elongated male abdominal and sexual organs outweigh the negative impact of bulky body and poor mobility in the evolutionary process. PMID:23977031

Wang, Qi; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

2013-01-01

243

‘Most of Us Guys are Raring to Go Anytime, Anyplace, Anywhere’: Male and Female Sexuality in Cleo and Cosmo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women’s magazines are a popular site for analysis of socio-cultural messages about gender, sex, and sexuality. We analyzed six consecutive issues of Cosmopolitan and Cleo to identify the ways in which they construct and represent male and female sexuality. Overall, male sexuality was prioritised, ‘real’ heterosex was depicted as penetrative, and orgasm was given precedence. Two main accounts of male

Panteá Farvid; Virginia Braun

2006-01-01

244

Sexual selection for male dominance reduces opportunities for female mate choice in the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual selection involves two main mechanisms: intrasexual competition for mates and intersexual mate choice. We experimentally separated intrasexual (male-male interference competition) and intersexual (female choice) components of sexual selection in a freshwater fish, the European bitterling ( Rhodeus sericeus ). We compared the roles of multiple morphological and behavioural traits in male success in both components of sexual com- petition,

M. REICHARD; J. BRYJA; M. ONDRACKOVA; M. DAVIDOVA; P. KANIEWSKA; C. SMITH

2005-01-01

245

Predictors of Sexual Bother in a Population of Male North American Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence and associations of sexual bother in male medical students has not been extensively studied. Aims The aim of this study is to analyze predictors of sexual bother in a survey of male North American medical students. Methods Students enrolled in allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in North America between February 2008 and July 2008 were invited to participate in an internet-based survey of sexuality and sexual function. Main Outcome Measures The principle outcome measure was a single-item question inquiring about global satisfaction with sexual function. The survey also consisted of a questionnaire that included ethnodemographic factors, student status, sexual history, and a validated scale for the assessment of depression. Respondents completed the International Index of Erectile Function, the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool, and the Self-Esteem and Relationship Quality survey (SEAR). Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and multivariable logistic regression were utilized to analyze responses. Results There were 480 male subjects (mean age 26.3 years) with data sufficient for analysis. Forty-three (9%) reported sexual bother. Sexual bother was significantly more common in men with erectile dysfunction (ED), high risk of premature ejaculation (HRPE), depressive symptoms, and lower sexual frequency. However, after multivariate analysis including SEAR scores, ED, and HRPE were no longer independently predictive of sexual bother. Higher scores for all domains of the SEAR were associated with lower odds of sexual bother. Conclusions ED and HRPE are associated with sexual bother in this young and presumably healthy population. However, after controlling for relationship factors neither ED nor HRPE independently predicted sexual bother. It is plausible to hypothesize that sexual dysfunction from organic causes is rare in this population and is seldom encountered outside of relationship perturbations. Attention to relationship and psychological factors is likely of key importance in addressing sexual concerns in this population. PMID:21951580

Smith, James F.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Shindel, Alan W.

2013-01-01

246

[The role of seminal vesicles in male reproduction and sexual function].  

PubMed

The present review is intended to give an outlook on the relationship between male reproduction and seminal vesicles, which are an important subsidiary gonad of males and play a key role in male fertility process. Seminal vesicle secretion is important for semen coagulation and may promote sperm motility, increase stability of sperm chromatin, and suppress the immune activity in the female reproductive tract. Furthermore, the sexual function of males is closely related to the swelling degree of seminal vesicles. The abnormal function of seminal vesicles may give rise to sexual dysfunction and infertility of males. PMID:18284063

Zhang, Xin-Dong; Jin, Bao-Fang

2007-12-01

247

Sexually Coercive Behavior in Male Youth: Population Survey of General and Specific Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about risk\\/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish\\u000a school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables\\u000a across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general\\u000a and specific risk\\/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth,

Cecilia Kjellgren; Gisela Priebe; Carl Göran Svedin; Niklas Långström

2010-01-01

248

Male Sexual Polymorphism, Alternative Reproductive Tactics, and Androgens in Combtooth Blennies (Pisces: Blenniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In species in which intense intermale competition for the access to females is present males of lower competitive ability may adopt alternative reproductive tactics (ART) to get access to mates. These ART translate in many cases into male sexual polymorphism, with individuals following distinctly different tactics. Usually two alternative male morphs can be recognized in species with ART: (1) bourgeois

Rui F. Oliveira; Adelino V. M. Canario; Matthew S. Grober

2001-01-01

249

Avoidance of Relatively Aggressive Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) by Sexually Experienced Conspecific Females  

E-print Network

Avoidance of Relatively Aggressive Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) by Sexually Experienced are potentially harmful to females, females keep away from relatively aggressive males in order to avoid of males she had just seen engaging in aggressive interaction. If female quail avoid relatively aggressive

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

250

Isolation, sorting, and characterization of uni- and binucleate tapetal protoplasts from anthers of normal and Texas cytoplasmic male-sterile Zea mays L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A cytological study of Texas cytoplasmic male sterile (Tcms) and normal (N) anther tapetal protoplasts ofZea mays was undertaken to determine whether there were any differences prior to Tcms male cell abortion not noted in previous published studies. Squash preparations, tapetal protoplast separation via flow cytometry, image analysis, and electron microscopy were utilized. Chemically preserved tapetal protoplasts from both

H. T. Horner; Vickie L. Hall; M. A. Vargas-Olvera

1993-01-01

251

Cytological Characterization and Allelism Testing of Anther Developmental Mutants Identified in a Screen of Maize Male Sterile Lines  

PubMed Central

Proper regulation of anther differentiation is crucial for producing functional pollen, and defects in or absence of any anther cell type result in male sterility. To deepen understanding of processes required to establish premeiotic cell fate and differentiation of somatic support cell layers a cytological screen of maize male-sterile mutants has been conducted which yielded 42 new mutants including 22 mutants with premeiotic cytological defects (increasing this class fivefold), 7 mutants with postmeiotic defects, and 13 mutants with irregular meiosis. Allelism tests with known and new mutants confirmed new alleles of four premeiotic developmental mutants, including two novel alleles of msca1 and single new alleles of ms32, ms8, and ocl4, and two alleles of the postmeiotic ms45. An allelic pair of newly described mutants was found. Premeiotic mutants are now classified into four categories: anther identity defects, abnormal anther structure, locular wall defects and premature degradation of cell layers, and/or microsporocyte collapse. The range of mutant phenotypic classes is discussed in comparison with developmental genetic investigation of anther development in rice and Arabidopsis to highlight similarities and differences between grasses and eudicots and within the grasses. PMID:23390600

Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Skibbe, David S.; Lee, Sidae; Golubovskaya, Inna; Wang, Rachel; Harper, Lisa; Walbot, Virginia; Cande, William Zacheus

2013-01-01

252

The Arabidopsis male-sterile mutant, opr3, lacks the 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase required for jasmonate synthesis  

PubMed Central

Jasmonic acid (JA) and its precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid (OPDA) act as plant growth regulators and mediate responses to environmental cues. To investigate the role of these oxylipins in anther and pollen development, we characterized a T-DNA-tagged, male-sterile mutant of Arabidopsis, opr3. The opr3 mutant plants are sterile but can be rendered fertile by exogenous JA but not by OPDA. Cloning of the mutant locus indicates that it encodes an isozyme of 12-oxophytodienoate reductase, designated OPR3. All of the defects in opr3 are alleviated by transformation of the mutant with an OPR3 cDNA. Our results indicate that JA and not OPDA is the signaling molecule that induces and coordinates the elongation of the anther filament, the opening of the stomium at anthesis, and the production of viable pollen. Just as importantly, our data demonstrate that OPR3 is the only isoform of OPR capable of reducing the correct stereoisomer of OPDA to produce JA required for male gametophyte development. PMID:10973494

Stintzi, Annick; Browse, John

2000-01-01

253

The Effect of Amantadine on Clomipramine Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Male Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective Several studies have reported that Clomipramine has the ability to suppress male rat sexual behavior. Literature indicates that the activation of brain D2 receptors causes facilitation of penile erection, and a number of reports have indicated dopamine’s involvement in sexual function. Hence this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Amantadine, a dopamine agonists on the Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction. Methods The study subjects involved a total of 48 males and 48 females, 4 months old Sprague-Dawley albino rats, all housed in a group of six males and females separately in plexi glass cages in an acclimatized colony room (25±0.50C) maintained on a 12/12 hr light/dark cycle. The male rats were randomly divided into four groups of 12 male rats each. Group I served as controls. Group II, III, and IV were treated with Amantadine (9 mg/kg body weight, p.o) 30 min, prior to the treatment with 13.5 mg/kg, 27 mg/Kg and 54 mg/Kg bodyweight p.o of Clomipramine respectively for 60 days. The control group received vehicle 1 ml / kg p.o. The sexual behavior of the male rats was observed to determine the following parameters: mount latency, intromission latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory pause, and intromission frequency. As well as the sexual behavior; serum testosterone and histopathology of the testes were also investigated in this study. Results The results indicate that Amantadine in all aspects failed to antagonize Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction in male rats. Even the sexual competence of male rats treated with ½ therapeutic dose (TD) of Clomipramine failed to regain their sexual competence in the presence of Amantadine. Testicular damage and decline in testosterone levels continued in the presence of Amantadine. Conclusion Overall, the results suggest that Amantadine could not be a safe antidote to antagonize Clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction. PMID:22253948

Devaangam, Sheshadri Shekar; Kumar, Ashok

2011-01-01

254

Competing dwarf males: sexual selection in an orb-weaving spider.  

PubMed

Hypotheses for the adaptive significance of extreme female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) generally assume that in dimorphic species males rarely interfere with each other. Here we provide the first multivariate examination of sexual selection because of male-male competition over access to females in a species with 'dwarf' males, the orb-weaving spider Argiope aurantia. Male A. aurantia typically try to mate opportunistically during the female's final moult when she is defenceless. We show that, contrary to previous hypotheses, the local operational sex ratio (males per female on the web) is male-biased most of the season. Both interference and scramble competition occur during opportunistic mating, the former leading to significant selection for large male body size. Male condition and leg length had no effect on mating success independent of size. We discuss these findings in the context of the evolution of extreme female-biased SSD in this clade. PMID:15842492

Foellmer, M W; Fairbairn, D J

2005-05-01

255

Beta-blocker effects on sexual function in normal males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the antihypertensives currently in use, the sympatholytic drugs (e.g., central alpha-agonists, beta-blockers) and diuretics are most commonly associated with sexual side effects. Previous reports of sexual dysfunction associated with these drugs have been based entirely on retrospective and selfreport data. This is the first study to date to investigate beta-blocker effects on sexual function by means of physiological (NPT),

Raymond C. Rosen; John B. Kostis; Albert W. Jekelis

1988-01-01

256

Self-awareness of the male sexual response after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of spinal cord injury on men's sexual motivation, through the sexual desire self-assessment, and the sexual arousal and orgasm physiological responses. This research consisted of a descriptive, nonprobabilistic and comparative study, designed to outline the target population characteristics to compare the studied variables. Forty spinal cord injured male patients and a control group composed of 50 able-bodied male individuals filled in a questionnaire that assessed sexual behaviour, functioning and satisfaction. Comparing the control group with the injured group in the postinjury period, there was no significant difference in the sexual desire; however, in relation to sexual arousal and the orgasm intensity, there was a significant difference. The same results were found when comparing the injured participants' preinjury and postinjury period reports. It was clear that the injury significantly reduced sexual arousal among quadriplegic participants and orgasm intensity among both quadriplegic and paraplegic men. The spinal cord injury had a significant impact on sexual arousal and orgasm physiological response, although the sexual desire perception was not significantly altered, indicating that spinal cord injury affects these men's sexual behaviour in terms of sexual performance and body sensitivity. PMID:19011580

Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Savall, Ana Carolina R; Mendes, Aline K

2009-12-01

257

Exposure to odors of rivals enhances sexual motivation in male giant pandas.  

PubMed

Males will alter their mating behavior to cope with the presence of their competitors. Even exposure to odors from potential competitors can greatly increase male ejaculate expenditure in a variety of animals including insects, fishes, birds and rodents. Major efforts have been made to examine males' plastic responses to sperm competition and its fitness benefits. However, the effects of competitor absence on male's sexual motivation and behaviors remain unclear, which has been proposed to be one of the causes for the poor sexual performance of some captive mammals. This study revealed that sexual motivation can be greatly enhanced in captive male giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) by exposure to chemosensory cues from either one or three conspecifics males. It had been shown that potential rivals' odors increased males' chemosensory investigation behavior, as well as their observing, following and sniffing behaviors towards estrous females. Behaviors changed regardless of the number of rivals (one or three). Our results demonstrate the effects of potential competition on male giant pandas' sexual motivation and behavioral coping strategy. We anticipate that our research will provide a fresh insight into the mechanisms underlying poor sexual performance in male captive mammals, and valuable information for the practical management and ex situ conservation of endangered species. PMID:23940532

Bian, Xiaoxing; Liu, Dingzhen; Zeng, Hua; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Hou, Rong

2013-01-01

258

AYDINÕDA ERKEKLERDE CÜNSEL ÜSTÜSMAR Male sexual abuse in AydÝn  

Microsoft Academic Search

sanÝk, demografik bulgular. SUMMARY To determine the properties of sexual abuse amony males in AydÝn, 25 cases sent to Adnan Menderes University Depart- ment of Forensic Medicine, between 01.01.2003-31.12.2003 with claim of exposure to sexual abuse were evaluated with a questiannere were examined. The average age of victims was 16.1±7.7, the average age of first exposure to sexual abuse was

Raziye Didem; TUNCER PINARBAÞILI; Mustafa Selim; Ufuk KATKICI; Musa DÜRLÜK

259

Sexual victimization in female and male college students: examining the roles of alcohol use, alcohol expectancies, and sexual sensation seeking.  

PubMed

Alcohol and alcohol expectancies relate to sexual victimization. The present study examined these links in a sample of 407 predominantly Hispanic male and female college students, along the Mexico-US border. The study also examined the independent contribution of sexual sensation seeking to the prediction of victimization. Results showed that victimization was associated with alcohol risk, alcohol consumption-related problems, and positive alcohol expectancies. Importantly, sexual sensation seeking independently predicted victimization and did so after controlling for alcohol risk and expectancies. Our results suggest that associations among victimization, alcohol risk, and expectancies generalize to Hispanic women and men. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:20388010

Monks, Stormy M; Tomaka, Joe; Palacios, Rebecca; Thompson, Sharon E

2010-11-01

260

Investigation of the mechanism for phthalate-induced toxicity during male sexual differentiation in the rat  

EPA Science Inventory

Male rats exposed to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation (GDI4-GDI8) display various developmental abnormalities of the reproductive tract that are manifested later in adult life. Induction of these malformations is associated with declines in fetal testicular testoste...

261

DISTURBED SEXUAL CHARACTERISITCS IN MALE MOSQUITOFISH (GAMBUSIA HOLBROOKI) FROM A LAKE CONTAMINATED WITH ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Previous laboratory studies have demonstrated that estrogenic and antiandrogenic chemicals can alter several sexual characteristics in male poeciliid fishes. Whether similar disturbances occur under field conditions remains to be confirmed. Lake Apopka, Florida, is contaminated w...

262

Male Juveniles with Sexual Behavior Problems: Are There Differences among Racial Groups?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used archival data on a sample of 186,492 referrals from a southwestern state Juvenile Probation Commission to compare the characteristics of 5,439 male Black, Hispanic, and White juveniles with sexual behavior problems on the five most common sexual offenses in the data set. The characteristics of 181,053 juveniles of the three races…

Ikomi, Philip A.; Rodney, H. Elaine; McCoy, Tana

2009-01-01

263

Sexual isolation between Drosophila melanogaster females and Drosophila simulans males. I -Relation between  

E-print Network

Sexual isolation between Drosophila melanogaster females and Drosophila simulans males. I, mating success, sexual maturity, Drosophila melanogaster, Droso- phila simulans. Résumé Isolement sexuel entre femelles Drosophila melanogaster et mâles Drosophila simulans : . relation entre réussites d

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

264

Gender Differences in Experiences of Sexual Harassment: Data from a Male-Dominated Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this investigation was to examine gender differences in experiences of sexual harassment during military service and the negative mental health symptoms associated with these experiences. Female (n = 2,319) and male (n = 1,627) former reservists were surveyed about sexual harassment during their military service and current mental…

Street, Amy E.; Gradus, Jaimie L.; Stafford, Jane; Kelly, Kacie

2007-01-01

265

Heterogeneity in male horn growth and longevity in a highly sexually dimorphic ungulate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In sexually dimorphic ungulates, sexual selection favoring rapid horn growth in males may be counterbalanced by a decrease in longevity if horns are costly to produce and maintain. Alternatively, if early horn growth varied with individual quality, it may be positively correlated with longevity. We studied Alpine ibex Capra ibex in the Gran Paradiso National Park, Italy, to test these

P. Bergeron; M. Festa-Bianchet; A. von Hardenberg; B. Bassano

2008-01-01

266

Factors Related to Childhood Sexual Abuse among Gay/Bisexual Male Internet Escorts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory investigation examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and related psychosocial characteristics and sexual behaviors among 46 gay/bisexual male escorts who advertise via the Internet. More than a quarter of men (28.3%) reported some history of CSA. Men reporting CSA were more likely to be from an ethnic…

Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Bimbi, David S.; Koken, Juline A.; Halkitis, Perry N.

2005-01-01

267

A Male Poecillid's Sexually Dimorphic Body Plan, Behavior, and Nervous System  

E-print Network

SYMPOSIUM A Male Poecillid's Sexually Dimorphic Body Plan, Behavior, and Nervous System Nydia L's sexually dimorphic body plan, behavior, and nervous system, including work dating from the mid 1800s movements. Recent work on the nervous system demonstrated dye-coupling between motor neurons

Lauder, George V.

268

State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory Scores of Male Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) was administered to 137 male sexual offenders. The sample was heterogeneous regarding the type of sexual offense. With the exception of slightly higher-state anger at the time of testing, scores of this group were very similar to those of \\

John E. Dalton; Gerald H. Blain; Brian Bezier

1998-01-01

269

Child Support Enforcement and Sexual Activity of Male Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Strong child support enforcement requires fathers to take financial responsibility for their children and may also encourage more responsible sexual behavior. Using the 1997-2001 waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 4,272), this article examines the association between child support enforcement and the sexual activity of…

Huang, Chien-Chung; Han, Wen-Jui

2007-01-01

270

In search of animal models for male sexual dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around half of all men have sexual problems. The main complaints and prevalence are orgasmic disorders (10%), premature ejaculation (PE) (27%), and erectile difficulties (10%). These statistics do not include the sexual side effects of medications such as antidepressants. Research experiments in humans can be very time consuming or unethical. The present thesis deals with the development of an animal

J. S. W. Chan

2010-01-01

271

Sexually dimorphic neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus govern mating in both sexes and aggression in males  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Sexual dimorphisms in the brain underlie behavioral sex differences, but the function of individual sexually dimorphic neuronal populations is poorly understood. Neuronal sexual dimorphisms typically represent quantitative differences in cell number, gene expression, or other features, and it is unknown if these dimorphisms control sex-typical behavior in one sex exclusively or in both sexes. The progesterone receptor (PR) controls female sexual behavior, and we find many sex differences in number, distribution, or projections of PR-expressing neurons in the adult mouse brain. We have ablated one such PR-expressing neuronal population located in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) using a novel genetic strategy. Ablation of these neurons in females greatly diminishes sexual receptivity. Strikingly, the corresponding ablation in males reduces mating and aggression. Our findings reveal the functions of a molecularly-defined, sexually dimorphic neuronal population in the brain. Moreover we show that sexually dimorphic neurons can control distinct sex-typical behaviors in both sexes. PMID:23663785

Yang, Cindy F.; Chiang, Michael; Gray, Daniel C.; Prabhakaran, Mahalakshmi; Alvarado, Maricruz; Juntti, Scott A.; Unger, Elizabeth K.; Wells, James A.; Shah, Nirao M.

2013-01-01

272

Excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus paragigantocellularis facilitate male sexual behavior but attenuate female sexual behavior in rats  

PubMed Central

Little is known regarding the descending inhibitory control of genital reflexes such as ejaculation and vaginal contractions. The brainstem nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) projects bilaterally to the lumbosacral motoneuron pools that innervate the genital musculature of both male and female rats. Electrolytic nPGi lesions facilitate ejaculation in males, leading to the hypothesis that the nPGi is the source of descending inhibition to genital reflexes. However, the function of the nPGi in female sexual behavior remains to be elucidated. To this end, male and female rats received bilateral excitotoxic fiber-sparing lesions of the nPGi, and sexual behavior and sexual behavior-induced Fos expression were examined. In males, nPGi lesions facilitated copulation, supporting the hypothesis that the nPGi, and not fibers-of-passage, is the source of descending inhibition of genital reflexes in male rats. nPGi lesions in males did not alter sexual behavior-induced Fos expression in any brain region examined. nPGi-lesioned females spent significantly less time mating with stimulus males and had significantly longer ejaculation-return latencies compared to baseline. These results did not significantly differ from control females, but this trend warranted further analysis of the reinforcing value of sexual behavior. Both lesioned and non-lesioned females formed a conditioned place preference (CPP) for artificial vaginocervical stimulation (aVCS). However, post-reinforcement, nPGi-lesioned females did not differ in the percentage of time in spent in the non-reinforced chamber versus the reinforced chamber, suggesting a weakened CPP for aVCS. nPGi lesions in females reduced sexual behavior-induced Fos expression throughout the hypothalamus and amygdala. Taken together, these results suggest that while nPGi lesions in males facilitate copulation, such lesions in females attenuate several aspects of sexual behavior resulting in a reduction in the rewarding value of copulation that may be mediated by nPGi control of genital reflexes. This work has important implications for the understanding and treatment of sexual dysfunction in people including delayed/premature ejaculation, involuntary vaginal spasms, and pain during intercourse. PMID:21144886

Normandin, Joseph J.; Murphy, Anne Z.

2010-01-01

273

Sexual selection, male morphology, and the efficacy of courtship signalling in two wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males of the brush-legged wolf spider, Schizocosa ocreata (Araneae: Lycosidae), possess a conspicuous male secondary sexual character: dark pigmentation and tufts of bristles on the\\u000a tibiae of their forelegs. We tested several hypotheses relating to the role of this conspicuous trait in sexual selection.\\u000a Triad mating experiments suggest that the tufts do not play an obvious role in the operation

S. J. Scheffer; G. W. Uetz; G. E. Stratton

1996-01-01

274

Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal\\u000a honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration\\u000a of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen

Pilar López; Marianne Gabirot; José Martín

2009-01-01

275

Effects of Housing Conditions and 5HT2A Activation on Male Rat Sexual Behavior1  

Microsoft Academic Search

BROTTO, L. A., B. B. GORZALKA AND L. A. HANSON.Effect of housing conditions and 5-HT 2A activation on male rat sexual behavior. PHYSIOL BEHAV 63(4) 475- 479, 1998.—Adult male rats were housed individually or in groups for a period of 39 days. In Experiment 1, the effects of housing conditions on sexual behavior and concurrent spontaneous ''wet dog shaking'' (WDS)

LORI A. BROTTO; BORIS B. GORZALKA; LAURA A. HANSON

276

Sequence analysis on the mitochondrial orfB locus in normal and Ogura male-sterile cytoplasms from wild and cultivated radishes.  

PubMed

In order to gain a better understanding of the origin and evolution of Ogura male-sterile cytoplasm in radish, sequence analysis was conducted for the mitochondrial locus, orfB, using wild and cultivated radishes. The nucleotide sequence of the entire coding and flanking regions of orfB (approximately 1 kb) was determined for six radishes with normal and Ogura cytoplasm and they were classified into three types (types 1-3). The sequence of the 5' flanking region of orfB was further analyzed in 40 additional plants. Irrespective of the category of radish, plants with Ogura male-sterile cytoplasm contained only the type 1 sequence, whereas plants with normal cytoplasm had either type 2 or type 3. The results suggested that the mutational event, which led to the association of orfB with the male-sterile gene orf138, had occurred only once in the history of radishes. PMID:11795848

Terachi, T; Yamaguchi, K; Yamagishi, H

2001-12-01

277

Comprehensive Analysis of Genic Male Sterility-Related Genes in Brassica rapa Using a Newly Developed Br300K Oligomeric Chip  

PubMed Central

To identify genes associated with genic male sterility (GMS) that could be useful for hybrid breeding in Chinese cabbage (Brassicarapa ssp. pekinensis), floral bud transcriptome analysis was carried out using a B. rapa microarray with 300,000 probes (Br300K). Among 47,548 clones deposited on a Br300K microarray with seven probes of 60 nt length within the 3' 150 bp region, a total of 10,622 genes were differentially expressed between fertile and sterile floral buds; 4,774 and 5,848 genes were up-regulated over 2-fold in fertile and sterile buds, respectively. However, the expression of 1,413 and 199 genes showed fertile and sterile bud-specific features, respectively. Genes expressed specifically in fertile buds, possibly GMS-related genes, included homologs of several Arabidopsis male sterility-related genes, genes associated with the cell wall and synthesis of its surface proteins, pollen wall and coat components, signaling components, and nutrient supplies. However, most early genes for pollen development, genes for primexine and callose formation, and genes for pollen maturation and anther dehiscence showed no difference in expression between fertile and sterile buds. Some of the known genes associated with Arabidopsis pollen development showed similar expression patterns to those seen in this study, while others did not. BrbHLH89 and BrMYP99 are putative GMS genes. Additionally, 17 novel genes identified only in B. rapa were specifically and highly expressed only in fertile buds, implying the possible involvement in male fertility. All data suggest that Chinese cabbage GMS might be controlled by genes acting in post-meiotic tapetal development that are different from those known to be associated with Arabidopsis male sterility. PMID:24039743

Dong, Xiangshu; Feng, Hui; Xu, Ming; Lee, Jeongyeo; Kim, Yeon Ki; Lim, Yong Pyo; Piao, Zhongyun; Park, Young Doo; Ma, Hong; Hur, Yoonkang

2013-01-01

278

Sequence analysis and expression of orf224 gene associated with two types of cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassica napus L.  

PubMed

Polima and Shaan 2A are the two most widely used forms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in the utilization of heterosis of rapeseed (Brassica napus) in China. A previous study indicated that the mitochondrial gene, orf224, was the only gene with a differential expression pattern among the normal, sterile and fertility-restored lines in rapeseed. DNA sequences of orf224, including coding sequences from Shaan 2A and Polima CMS, were then amplified and analyzed. DNA sequence alignment indicated both the coding sequences were 675 bp in length and had 99.9 and 99% homology in nucleotides and amino acids, respectively, and shared certain similarity to homologues from other Brassica spp. and Arabidopsis thaliana. The probable promoter regions of orf224 were conserved between B. napus and A. thaliana, but the upstream regions of probable promoter regions were completely divergent from each other. Additionally, analysis of the primary and secondary structure of the proteins encoded by orf224 from the two lines predicted that the proteins contain a a-helix, extended strand, and random coil. After cloning a in vitro experiment showed that these two proteins could be expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. PMID:20653243

Liu, Jianmin; Li, Maoteng; Wang, Hao; Yu, Longjiang; Li, Dianrong

2010-01-01

279

Sexual systems and dwarf males in barnacles: integrating life history and sex allocation theories.  

PubMed

Barnacles, which are sedentary marine crustaceans, have diverse sexual systems that include simultaneous hermaphroditism, androdioecy (coexistence of hermaphrodites and males) and dioecy (females and males). In dioecious and androdioecious species, the males are very small and are thus called dwarf males. These sexual systems are defined by two factors: sex allocation of non-dwarf individuals and the presence or absence of dwarf males. We constructed an ESS model treating sex allocation and life history simultaneously to explain sexual systems in barnacles. We analyzed the evolutionarily stable size-dependent resource allocation strategy to male reproductive function, female reproductive function and growth in non-dwarf barnacles, and the ESS proportion of dwarf males, under conditions of varying mortality and food availability. Sex allocation in non-dwarf individuals (hermaphrodites or females) is affected by mate availability and the proportion of dwarf males. When hermaphrodites appear, all hermaphrodites become protandric simultaneous hermaphrodites. Furthermore, high mortality and poor resource availability favor dwarf males because of their early maturation and weakened sperm competition. In conclusion, we showed that combining sex allocation and life history theories is a useful way to understand various sexual systems in barnacles and perhaps in other organisms as well. PMID:23238283

Yamaguchi, Sachi; Yusa, Yoichi; Sawada, Kota; Takahashi, Satoshi

2013-03-01

280

The Development of Conventional Sexual Partner Trajectories among African American Male Adolescents  

PubMed Central

African American male youth disproportionately report involvement with multiple sexual partners, which increases their risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and initiation of unplanned pregnancies. Little is known about the developmental precursors of sexual partner trajectories among African American male youth. Moreover, few studies focus on the many African American youth who evince highly conventional sexual partner trajectories, i.e., youth who have only one partner or abstain from sexual activity across time. Using four waves of data from a longitudinal study, we hypothesized that an accumulation of social and economic disadvantages in early adolescence would negatively influence youths’ conventional sexual partner trajectories in late adolescence. We expected these disadvantages to affect youths’ receipt of protective family processes and their reports of a set of intrapersonal processes (self-regulation, hope, and low levels of anger) linked to generally conventional behavior. Hypotheses were tested with data from 315 African American male youth from 11 to 18.5 years of age and their primary caregivers. Our results supported the hypotheses. Socioeconomic disadvantages during preadolescence predicted less involvement in conventional sexual partner trajectories from ages 16 to 18.5 years. This association was mediated by protective family processes and a set of interrelated intrapersonal protective processes. Preventive interventions designed to promote protective parenting and intrapersonal processes can be expected to promote sexual behavior trajectories characterized by abstinence or relations with very few partners. PMID:23150103

Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H.; Allen, Kimberly A.

2012-01-01

281

Male “Menopause,” aging, and sexual function: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, attention has been given to clarifying and understanding whether a phenomenon occurs among men similar to\\u000a the biological and psychological aspects of menopause in women. This article reviews the primary literature, summarizes basic\\u000a physiological and psychological features of aging for men, and discusses the implications for sexuality and sexual function.\\u000a We conclude that while there is no

Michael E. Metz; Michael H. Miner

1995-01-01

282

Traumagenic Dynamics in Adult Women Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse vs. Adolescent Male Sex Offenders with Similar Histories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Female childhood sexual abuse survivors and adolescent male sexual offenders with a history of childhood sexual abuse were assessed using the Trauma-Related Beliefs Questionnaire. Results suggested that male sex offenders hold high levels of traumagenic beliefs common in females, especially related to trust and betrayal. (Author)

Edwards, Carla; Hendrix, Rebecca

2001-01-01

283

Exploring the Overlap in Male Juvenile Sexual Offending and General Delinquency: Trauma, Alcohol Use, and Masculine Beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite Burton and Meezan's (2004) finding that sexually aggressive youth are three to four times more likely to recidivate nonsexually than sexually, there is little to no research to date that explores this overlap in criminality. With a sample of 290 male sexually violent adjudicated and incarcerated youth, this study was able to successfully predict those who are exclusively sexually

Adam Brown; David L. Burton

2010-01-01

284

Social and psychological perspectives on voluntary sterilization: a review.  

PubMed

This paper reviews social science research on the antecedents and consequences of voluntary sterilization. The major conclusions are that socioeconomic status has little impact on the decision to be sterilized and that sterilizations are rare among those without sons and among male non-whites. Significant others are important sources of encouragement and information, and good marital relations increase the likelihood of having the procedure performed. Most acceptors experience no change in sexual activity, quality of marital relationships, or work-related behavior, and few regret their choice. Negative consequences are more likely among those in India, those coerced into having a sterilization, those who did not understand the consequences of the procedure, those with health complications after sterilization, and those couples who have unstable marriages or who disagree about sterilization. PMID:3983979

Philliber, S G; Philliber, W W

1985-01-01

285

Induction of sexual behavior in male fish (Rhodeus ocellatus ocellatus) by amino acids.  

PubMed

A new function of amino acid in fish behavior was found. Amino acids induced sexual behavior in male rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus ocellatus). Two types of sexual behavior which were pecking and sperm release were observed. Amino acids are known as feeding stimulants in some fish. The pecking behavior of male fish induced by amino acids is similar to the feeding behavior but it was sexual. Only male bitterling showed pecking and sperm release but the female showed no response to the amino acids. 10 out of 20 amino acids induced sexual behavior and both pecking and sperm release were induced by the same amino acids. These two kinds of behavior changed alternately depending on the light conditions. It is of interest that non-specific material such as some amino acids function like sex pheromone. PMID:24190703

Kawabata, K

1993-10-01

286

Mating experience and juvenile hormone enhance sexual signaling and mating in male Caribbean fruit flies.  

PubMed

Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a ratio of 2.5:1. Extracts from mated males contained 3-fold more juvenile hormone than did extracts from virgins. Enhancement of sexual signaling, pheromone release, and mating was induced by topical application of juvenile hormone, methoprene, or fenoxycarb. Newly eclosed adult males treated with juvenoids engaged in sexual signaling, released pheromone, and mated at significantly earlier ages than control males. We conclude that juvenile hormone mediated a positive feedback system that imparted a competitive advantage, guaranteeing that males who mated at an early age would out-compete virgins of the same age for mating opportunities. Additionally, the results support the hypothesis that juvenile hormone is a pivotal hormone coordinating the development of sexual signaling and reproductive maturity in these flies. PMID:10706642

Teal, P E; Gomez-Simuta, Y; Proveaux, A T

2000-03-28

287

Heterosexuals' Attitudes toward Lesbianism and Male Homosexuality: Their Affective Orientation toward Sexuality and Sex Guilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine if there was a relationship between heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbianism and male homosexuality and their affective orientation toward sexuality (erotophiliaerotophobia) and sex guilt. Subjects were 72 male and 57 female heterosexual college undergraduates. A self-report questionnaire was administered in a health education class and mailed to campus dormitories. The variables were measured by four scales:

William L. Yarber; Bernadette Yee

1983-01-01

288

Female preference for apparently symmetrical male sexual ornaments in the barn swallow Hirundo rustica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The outermost tail feathers of barn swallows Hirundo rustica apparently reliably signal the quality of males, because individuals with the longest tails have the lowest degree of fluctuating asymmetry (random deviations from symmetry in the otherwise symmetrical tail trait) despite the size of their secondary sexual character. I experimentally tested whether females preferred males with symmetrical tails without altering

Anders Pape Møller

1993-01-01

289

Male sexual attractiveness and parental effort in blue tits: a test of the differential allocation hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the reproductive value of a breeding attempt is related to attributes of the breeding partner, an individual is expected to allocate more resources to parental care when mated to a high-quality partner. We tested predictions of the differential allocation hypothesis, by experimentally increasing and decreasing male blue tit, Parus caeruleus, sexual attractiveness and recording subsequent measures of male and

Arild Johnsen; Kaspar Delhey; Emmi Schlicht; Anne Peters; Bart Kempenaers

2005-01-01

290

Characterization of male killer whale ( Orcinus orca) sexual maturation and reproductive seasonality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longitudinal serum testosterone concentrations (n=10 males) and semen production (n=2 males) in killer whales were evaluated to: (1) characterize fluctuations in serum testosterone concentrations with respect to reproductive maturity and season; (2) compare morphologic changes to estimated age of sexual maturity, based on changes in serum testosterone concentrations; and (3) evaluate seasonal changes in sperm production. Classification of reproductive status

T. R. Robeck; S. L. Monfort

2006-01-01

291

Prevalence and correlates of sexual risk among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviours among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, the busiest border crossing area on the US – Mexico border, analysing survey data from a purposive, cross-sectional sample of male and female sex workers who worked in a range of indoor and outdoor settings. Logistic regression was used to determine factors

Yasmina Katsulis; Alesha Durfee

2012-01-01

292

SEXUAL SIZE DIMORPHISM AND SURVIVAL OF MALE AND FEMALE BLACKBIRDS (ICTERIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a between-species comparison of icterids, male survival decreases relative to female survival as the degree of sexual size dimorphism increases. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that male size is limited by survival selection in icterids; the degree of size dimor- phism is known to correlate with the degree of polygyny in icterids, however, so the decreased relative

WILLIAM A. SEARCY; KEN YASUKAWA

293

Sexual Attitudes among Hispanic College Students: Differences between Males and Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual attitudes were studied in 59 Hispanic university students, at a university in deep South Texas, near the Mexican border. Males and females rated their level of agreement to 42 items on a l-to-5 scale. There were 31 items that showed statistically significant sex differences at the .05 level or better. For 13 items, males were more likely than females

M. L. Dantzker; Russell Eisenman

2003-01-01

294

Male Readership Differences in Liquor Magazine Ads Employing Nonsensical and Sexual Humor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the attention getting value of nonsensical and sexual humor used in liquor advertisements to determine if one was more effective than the other in attracting male magazine readers. Thirty-two Starch-scored liquor ads taken from 1976 and 1977 issues of "Time,""Newsweek," and "Sports Illustrated" were analyzed by three male readers.…

Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

295

Mating experience and juvenile hormone enhance sexual signaling and mating in male Caribbean fruit flies  

PubMed Central

Young mated male Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)] have greater sexual prowess than their virgin counterparts. After mating for the first time, 6- to 7-day-old males released twice as much sex pheromone and acquired another mate in less than half the time required by virgin males of the same age. Mass spectroscopic analysis of extracts of hemolymph from mated and virgin 7-day-old males resulted in identification of juvenile hormone III bisepoxide and juvenile hormone III in a ratio of 2.5:1. Extracts from mated males contained 3-fold more juvenile hormone than did extracts from virgins. Enhancement of sexual signaling, pheromone release, and mating was induced by topical application of juvenile hormone, methoprene, or fenoxycarb. Newly eclosed adult males treated with juvenoids engaged in sexual signaling, released pheromone, and mated at significantly earlier ages than control males. We conclude that juvenile hormone mediated a positive feedback system that imparted a competitive advantage, guaranteeing that males who mated at an early age would out-compete virgins of the same age for mating opportunities. Additionally, the results support the hypothesis that juvenile hormone is a pivotal hormone coordinating the development of sexual signaling and reproductive maturity in these flies. PMID:10706642

Teal, P. E. A.; Gomez-Simuta, Y.; Proveaux, A. T.

2000-01-01

296

Circumstances Surrounding Male Sexual Assault and Rape: Findings from the National Violence against Women Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much work in the area of male sexual assault and rape relies on small clinical samples. From these samples, researchers reported that most male victims were physically injured during the attack and that penetration occurred. This work rests on a subsample of 219 men from the 1994-1996 Violence and Threats of Violence Against Women and Men in the…

Light, David; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

297

Male sexual harassment and female schooling behaviour in the eastern mosquitofish  

E-print Network

8 December 2004; published online 21 June 2005; MS. number: 8207) Among poeciliid fish, male sexual that maximizes the reproductive success of one sex is detri- mental to the other sex (Parker 1979). A typical activity of males is costly to the female in terms of conspicuousness to predators (Magurran & Seghers 1994

Pilastro, Andrea

298

Intrapersonal and Familial Effects of Child Sexual Abuse on Female Partners of Male Survivors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intrapersonal and familial effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) were investigated by interviewing 10 female partners of male survivors. Consensual qualitative research analysis (C. Hill, B. Thompson, & E. Nutt Williams, 1997) yielded 13 domains describing male partner, female partner, couple, and family functioning. Findings concerning…

Jacob, Christine M. Anderson; Veach, Patricia McCarthy

2005-01-01

299

Construction of Male Sexuality and Gender Roles in Puerto Rican Heterosexual College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we explored the contextual elements that influence the construction of male gender roles and sexuality among Puerto Rican heterosexual male college students. We conducted three focus groups with students of the University of Puerto Rico. Sessions were transcribed and content analyzed. Participants believed that gender roles are prescribed mainly through mass media and family. The mass media

David Pérez-Jiménez; Ineke Cunningham; Irma Serrano-García; Blanca Ortiz-Torres

2007-01-01

300

Sexual conflict. The evolution of infanticide by males in mammalian societies.  

PubMed

Male mammals often kill conspecific offspring. The benefits of such infanticide to males, and its costs to females, probably vary across mammalian social and mating systems. We used comparative analyses to show that infanticide primarily evolves in social mammals in which reproduction is monopolized by a minority of males. It has not promoted social counterstrategies such as female gregariousness, pair living, or changes in group size and sex ratio, but is successfully prevented by female sexual promiscuity, a paternity dilution strategy. These findings indicate that infanticide is a consequence, rather than a cause, of contrasts in mammalian social systems affecting the intensity of sexual conflict. PMID:25395534

Lukas, Dieter; Huchard, Elise

2014-11-14

301

Effects of pre-irradiation conditioning of Medfly pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): Hypoxia and quality of sterile males  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation of pupae in sterile insect technique (SIT) projects is usually undertaken in hypoxic atmospheres, which have been shown to lessen the deleterious effects of irradiation on the quality of adult sterile flies. Although this is the accepted technology in most mass-rearing and sterilization facilities, to date no information has been generated on the actual levels of oxygen (O{sub 2}) in pupae-packing containers during irradiation. The present study utilized recently-developed technology to investigate the O{sub 2} level inside bags in which pupae of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) are packed prior to irradiation, the ability of pupae to create hypoxic environments in these bags, and the effect of O{sub 2} atmospheres on the quality of irradiated males. Pupae, 1 d before adult emergence, were shown to deplete the O{sub 2} level in sealed bags in approximately 1 h. The rate of O{sub 2} consumption was dependent upon pupal age and incubation temperature. Incubation temperature did not significantly affect the quality of pupae or mating capacity of resultant adult males if pupae were irradiated under maximal hypoxic conditions inside packing bags. In contrast, mating competitiveness drastically decreased when pupae were irradiated under ambient O{sub 2} conditions, with the packing bag open. There was no difference in the mating capacity of males when pupae were irradiated in sealed bags under either 10% or 2% O{sub 2} levels, or under maximal hypoxia. Normal doses of fluorescent dye, applied to pupae to mark sterile flies, did not affect the ability of pupae to create hypoxic conditions inside packing bags, nor the quality control parameters of either pupae or adults. Current practices in mass-rearing facilities are discussed in the light of these results. (author) [Spanish] La irradiacion de pupas en proyectos de mosca esteril usualmente se hace bajo condiciones de hipoxia. Esta condicion ha demostrado ser menos detrimente a la calidad de las moscas que la irradiacion en atmosferas con proporcion normal de oxigeno. Aunque esta ha sido por mucho tiempo parte del protocolo de irradiacion en plantas de produccion de mosca esteril, hasta ahora no se ha medido el contenido de oxigeno dentro de los recipientes de empaque de pupa durante la irradiacion. El presente estudio investigo los contenidos de O{sub 2} en los contenedores de pupas de la mosca de las frutas del Mediterraneo (Ceratitis capitata Wiedeman), la habilidad de pupas de crear hipoxia dentro de los contenedores, y los efectos del contenido de O{sub 2} durante la irradiacion del contenedor en la calidad y capacidad de apareamiento de moscas esteriles. Pupas de un dia antes de emerger como adultos crearon atmosferas de maxima hipoxia dentro del empaque en aproximadamente una hora. La proporcion de consumo de O{sub 2} en contenedores sellados es dependiente de la edad de la pupa, y de la temperatura de incubacion. La temperatura de incubacion no afecto significativamente la calidad ni la capacidad de apareamiento de machos derivados de pupas irradiadas bajo condiciones de hipoxia. Sin embargo, la capacidad de apareamiento de machos irradiados como pupas en contenedores abiertos y en condiciones oxigenadas fue drasticamente afectada. En comparacion a los resultados anteriores, atmosferas de 2% y 10% O{sub 2} durante la irradiacion no afectaron la capacidad de apareamiento de moscas esteriles. Polvo fluorescente, aplicado a pupas para marcar las moscas esteriles, no tuvo efectos sobre la capacidad de las pupas de crear hipoxia. Los resultados de este estudio se discuten en base a las practicas actuales de produccion e irradiacion. (author)

Nestel, D.; Nemny-Lavy, E. [Department of Entomology, Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, 50250 Beit-Dagan (Israel); Islam, S.M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Caceres, C. [Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency's Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

2007-03-15

302

Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

2009-01-01

303

Evidence for GABA involvement in stress-induced inhibition of male amphibian sexual behavior.  

PubMed

The behavioral effects of GABA analogs were investigated to determine whether GABAergic neurotransmission is involved in the stress-induced inhibition of masculine sexual behaviors in rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa). Injections of bicuculline, a GABA antagonist, stimulated male sexual behaviors in a dose-dependent fashion, and the minimum effective dose was 40-fold less when administered centrally rather than systemically, suggesting a central nervous system site of action. Injections of muscimol, a GABA agonist, suppressed reproductive behaviors in male newts, and this inhibition lasted at least 5 hr and was proportional to the dose of muscimol administered. The inhibitory effects of muscimol on newt sexual behaviors could be reversed by a single 100-microgram ip injection of arginine vasotocin. The inhibitory effects of confinement stress or corticosterone (CS) injections on newt sexual behaviors were blocked by pretreatment of newts with mercaptopropionic acid, a blocker of GABA synthesis. As well, bicuculline prevented the inhibition of sexual behavior induced by CS injection. These results support the conclusion that, in a male amphibian, the GABAergic system is involved in the inhibitory mechanisms regulating sexual behaviors and that CS mediates the stress-induced inhibition of sexual behaviors through the GABAergic system. PMID:2158482

Boyd, S K; Moore, F L

1990-03-01

304

Age-Concordant and Age-Discordant Sexual Behavior Among Gay and Bisexual Male Adolescents  

PubMed Central

There is evidence that risks for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among adolescent females are higher for those with older male sexual partners. Yet, little empirical research has been conducted with male adolescents who engage in sexual activity with older men. In this article, we summarize in a number of ways the range of sexual activity reported by an ethnically diverse sample of 200 gay and bisexual male youth (15–22 years old) in Chicago and Miami. A general pattern of progression from oral sex with men to both receptive and insertive anal sex with men appeared to characterize the sample during their adolescence. Further, there appeared to be a high degree of “versatile” positioning among the sexually active gay and bisexual young men, in both age-discrepant and age-concordant dyads. Risk analysis revealed having primarily age-concordant partners to be a significant predictor of sexual risk behavior. HIV risk among young gay and bisexual men engaging in sexual activity with older men may occur not only within a distinct biological context from their heterosexual counterparts, but also in a social context that may not as rigidly bound to traditional assumptions about age, gender, and power. The significant associations among participants with partners who were the same age and the risk behavior measures in this analysis have implications for HIV prevention efforts. PMID:21290255

Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel; Jamil, Omar B.

2011-01-01

305

Female-induced sexual arousal in male mice and rats: behavioral and testosterone response.  

PubMed

Exposure of a male mouse to a female mouse separated from it by a holed partition induced specific behavior and an increase in blood testosterone in the male. The male made more approaches to the partition and spent more time at it. The time spent by the male mouse over the first 10 min at the partition, behind which an estrus female was placed, was increased sixfold compared to the time spent by a male mouse exposed to the vacant neighboring compartment; and 1.5-fold compared to that spent by a male mouse exposed to a nonreceptive female or a male. Increased blood testosterone level was detected at 20 min of exposure to a receptive female in winter and at 40 min in summer. No variation in blood testosterone levels in the male mouse exposed to a nonreceptive female or a male was observed. Similar response to a receptive female placed in the neighboring compartment was shown in a male rat. The time spent by the male rat at the partition was 12 times higher when there was an estrus female behind it than in control. Blood testosterone in the male rat increased in response to a female rat and did not change in response to a male rat indicating female-induced motivation. It was concluded that the partition time might serve as a quantitative measure of sexual motivation in the males and that the model of female-induced sexual arousal used was suitable for studying both motivational and hormonal components of sexual arousal in male mice and rats. PMID:15555495

Amstislavskaya, Tamara G; Popova, Nina K

2004-12-01

306

Sexually dimorphic male horns and their use in agonistic behaviors in the horn-headed cricket Loxoblemmus doenitzi (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual dimorphism, the difference between the sexes in secondary sexual characters, is in general driven by processes of sexual\\u000a selection. The horn-headed cricket, Loxoblemmus doenitzi, exhibits sexual dimorphism in head shape. Males have flat heads and triangular horns on both sides of their heads, whereas\\u000a females have rounded heads and no horns. We hypothesized that male horns have evolved due

Hokyung Kim; Yikweon Jang; Jae C. Choe

307

Male satin bowerbirds ( Ptilonorhynchus violaceus ) compensate for sexual signal loss by enhancing multiple display features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have focussed on the relationship between female choice and the multiple exaggerated sexual traits of males.\\u000a However, little is known about the ability of males to actively enhance specific components of their display in response to\\u000a the loss of one component. We investigated the capacity of male satin bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus) to respond to the loss of one

Benjamin D. Bravery; Anne W. Goldizen

2007-01-01

308

The design of complex sexual traits in male barn swallows: associations between signal attributes.  

PubMed

Variation in the expression of sexually selected traits among individuals is widely investigated on the premise that these traits evolved to signal male quality. Significant repeatabilities of sexual signals and their associations with condition, mating success, survivorship and age may be the signatures of sexual selection. However, little is known about the relationship between these sexual attributes. Here we studied 28 acoustic and visual traits in the barn swallow, Hirundo rustica, that may potentially function in sexual selection. Based on effect sizes calculated at the between-individual level, we assessed the relationship between repeatability, condition-dependence, attractiveness, age-dependence and viability indicator value of sexual traits using sexual signals as the units of analyses. Those traits that showed high within-year repeatability also showed high between-year repeatability, indicating that between-individual variation is consistent within and among seasons. In addition, age-dependence of traits, probably causing between-year variation, was negatively related to between-year repeatability. Condition-dependence was negatively correlated with effect sizes for the extent to which traits predicted viability. Therefore, traits that are positively related to immediate condition are those that are negatively related to survival, which may be the signature of a trade-off between current and future reproductive success ultimately reflecting signal reliability. No other significant relationship was found between trait attributes. We conclude that multiple sexual signals reflect different aspects of male quality in the barn swallow. PMID:17040402

Garamszegi, L Z; Hegyi, G; Heylen, D; Ninni, P; de Lope, F; Eens, M; Møller, A P

2006-11-01

309

lnduction of Male Sterility in Wheat by Meiotic-Stage Water Deficit 1s Preceded by a Decline in Invertase Activity and Changes in Carbohydrate Metabolism in Anthers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water deficit during meiosis in pollen mother cells of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) induces male sterility, which can reduce grain set by 40 to 50%. In plants stressed during meiosis and then rewatered, division of pollen mother cells proceeds normally but subsequent pollen development is arrested 3 or 4 d later. An inhi- bition of starch accumulation within the pollen

Sonia Dorion; Sylvie Lalonde; Hargurdeep S. Saini

310

The production of male-sterile wheat plants through split barnase expression is promoted by the insertion of introns and flexible peptide linkers.  

PubMed

The successful use of transgenic plants depends on the strong and stable expression of the heterologous genes. In this study, three introns (PSK7-i1 and PSK7-i3 from Petunia and UBQ10-i1 from Arabidopsis) were tested for their ability to enhance the tapetum-specific expression of a split barnase transgene. We also analyzed the effects of introducing multiple copies of flexible peptide linkers that bridged the fusion domains of the assembled protein. The barnase fragments were assembled into a functional cytotoxin via intein-mediated trans-splicing, thus leading to male sterility through pollen ablation. A total of 14 constructs carrying different combinations of introns and peptide linkers were transformed into wheat plants. The resulting populations (between 41 and 301 independent plants for each construct) were assayed for trait formation. Depending on which construct was used, there was an increase of up to fivefold in the proportion of plants exhibiting male sterility compared to the populations harboring unmodified constructs. Furthermore, the average barnase copy number in the plants displaying male sterility could be reduced. The metabolic profiles of male-sterile transgenic plants and non-transgenic plants were compared using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The profiles generated from leaf tissues displayed no differences, thus corroborating the anther specificity of barnase expression. The technical advances achieved in this study may be a valuable contribution for future improvement of transgenic crop systems. PMID:23720222

Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Riewe, David; Gils, Mario

2013-12-01

311

Early sexual behavior in adult homosexual and heterosexual males  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 50 men, 28 overt homosexuals and 22 heterosexuals, completed a Life History Questionnaire and an MMPI. The questionnaire contained items on education, occupation, physical and mental health, marital status, and sexual development and current functioning. The 5s were obtained from nonclinical and nonprison populations and were fairly well matched. The homosexual group was significantly higher than the

Martin Manosevitz

1970-01-01

312

Sexual activity and plasma testosterone levels in hypertensive males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare sexual activity and plasma testosterone levels of hypertensive men with those of healthy normotensive controls. We investigated 110 newly diagnosed, never treated hypertensive (blood pressure [BP] ?140\\/95 mm Hg) men and 110 healthy normotensive (diastolic BP <90 mm Hg) men. All of them were aged 40 to 49 years, married, without any

Roberto Fogari; Annalisa Zoppi; Paola Preti; Andrea Rinaldi; Gianluigi Marasi; Alessandro Vanasia; Amedeo Mugellini

2002-01-01

313

Male sexual arousal with repeated exposure to erotic stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four men were exposed to erotic material of matched content across five sessions, each separated by 24 hours or more. The stimulation within a session consisted of eight 12-minute episodes depicting heterosexual activities. Both penile circumference and subjective sexual arousal varied significantly across the segments within a session. However, neither response measure showed habituation across sessions. Participation in the study

Elise Julien; Ray Over

1984-01-01

314

Sexual Experience Modulates Neuronal Activity in Male Japanese Quail  

PubMed Central

After an initial increase, repeated exposure to a particular stimulus or familiarity with an event results in lower immediate early gene expression levels in relevant brain structures. We predicted that similar effects would occur in Japanese quail after repeated sexual experience within brain areas involved in sexual behavior, namely, the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), and the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala (TnA), an avian homolog of medial amygdala. High experience subjects copulated with a female once on each of 16 consecutive days, whereas low experience subjects were allowed to copulate either once or twice. Control subjects were never exposed to a female. High experience subjects were faster to initiate sexual interaction, performed more cloacal contacts, and completed each cloacal contact faster than low experience subjects. Low experience subjects showed an increase in egr-1 (ZENK) expression, an immediate early gene product used as marker of neural activation in birds, in the areas of interest. In contrast, in high experience animals, egr-1 expression in the POM, BST and the periaqueductal gray (PAG) was not different than the level of expression in unmated controls. These results show that experience modulates the level of immediate early gene expression in the case of sexual behavior. Our results also indicate that immediate early gene expression in specific brain areas is not necessarily related to behavioral output, but depends on the behavioral history of the subjects. PMID:17826778

Can, Adem; Domjan, Michael; Delville, Yvon

2008-01-01

315

Sexual Concerns of Male Spouses of Female Alzheimer's Disease Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents case study which highlights attendant cognitive changes that occur in Alzheimer's patient, presenting caregiver with challenges to couple's sexual functioning. Describes man who reported erectile dysfunction directly stemming from stressful changes that had occurred in his relationship to his wife who had Alzheimer's disease. General…

Litz, Brett T.; And Others

1990-01-01

316

Behavior patterns and sexual identity of bisexual males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bisexuality may be measured in terms of bisexual behavior or bisexual self?identity. The relationship between the two is poorly understood. Data from a 1982 survey of readers of Playboy magazine are used to examine the identity and behavior of 6,982 men who acknowledged adult sexual experiences with both men and women. Of these, 29 percent described themselves as bisexual, 2

Janet Lever; David E. Kanouse; William H. Rogers; Sally Carson; Rosanna Hertz

1992-01-01

317

Sexual Behavior in Male Adolescents with Autism and Its Relation to Social-Sexual Skills in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to identify common sexual behavior among adolescents with autism, where parents and teachers of sixty-one male adolescents from twelve to twenty-one years of age were recruited from three cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They were asked to respond to a sexual behavior questionnaire, and a social-sexual skills…

Huwaidi, Mohamed A.; Daghustani, Wid H.

2013-01-01

318

Male-sterile and cleistogamous phenotypes in tall fescue induced by chimeric repressors of SUPERWOMAN1 and OsMADS58.  

PubMed

Since tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is an anemophilous (wind-pollinated) grass species, male sterility is strongly desired for transgenic tall fescue to prevent pollen dispersal. To create male-sterile tall fescue, we applied Chimeric REpressor gene-Silencing Technology (CRES-T) based on rice APETALA3 (AP3) and AGAMOUS (AG) orthologues that specify the formation of stamens. We fused the coding regions of rice AP3 orthologue SUPERWOMAN1 (SPW1), and rice AG orthologues, Os12g0207000, Os01g0886200 and OsMADS58, respectively with the artificial sequence encoding the modified EAR-like motif repression domain (SRDX). We first introduced Os12g0207000SRDX, Os01g0886200SRDX and OsMADS58SRDX into rice for evaluation of their abilities to induce male sterility. The transgenic rice expressing OsMADS58SRDX had reiterated formation of lodicule-like organs instead of stamens and carpel, a typical phenotype of ag mutant. Thus, we found that OsMADS58SRDX was most suitable for our purpose. Next, we introduced SPW1SRDX and OsMADS58SRDX into tall fescue. Although the transgenic tall fescue did not have the stamen alterations seen in SPW1SRDX and OsMADS58SRDX rice, they either produced no pollen or produced immature pollen; thus, the anthers were not dehiscent and the plants were male-sterile. In addition to the male sterility, SPW1SRDX tall fescue showed a cleistogamous (closed) phenotype in which anthers were not observed outside the glumes, with thin, abnormally elongated lodicules. Some lines of OsMADS58SRDX tall fescue showed a cleistogamous phenotype in which the lodicules were homeotically transformed into lemma-like organs. In both cases, cleistogamous phenotype was associated with morphological changes to the lodicules. We also obtained a mild phenotype of OsMADS58SRDX tall fescue, which exhibited only the male sterility. In this study, we produced novel male-sterile phenotypes using chimeric repressors and thus suggest CRES-T as a tool for transgenic improvement of forage and turf grasses. PMID:22195592

Sato, Hiroko; Yoshida, Kouki; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Takamizo, Tadashi

2012-02-01

319

The male sterility and histoincompatibility ( mshi) mutation in mice is a natural variant of microtubule-associated protein 7 ( Mtap7)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males homozygous for the mouse male sterility and histoincompatibility (mshi) mutation exhibit small testes and produce no sperm. In addition, mshi generates an “antigen-loss” histoincompatibility barrier, such that homozygous mutants reject skin grafts from wild type co-isogenic BALB\\/cByJ donors. To facilitate the molecular characterization of the pleiotropic mshi mutation, we genetically mapped mshi into a 0.68 megabasepair region which contains

D. R. Magnan; D. V. Spacek; N. Ye; Y.-C. Lu; T. R. King

2009-01-01

320

Overexpression of mitochondrial genes in alloplasmic common wheat with a cytoplasm of wheatgrass (Agropyron trichophorum) showing depressed vigor and male sterility  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alloplasmic hybrid (nucleus-cytoplasm hybrid) of common wheat (Triticum aestivum) with a cytoplasm of wheatgrass (Agropyron trichophorum) shows highly depressed vigor and complete male sterility. The presence of one short-arm telocentric homeologous group 1 chromosome (telosome) of the cytoplasm donor, however, restores normal vigor and male fertility of the hybrid. To study role(s) of the telosome on vigor\\/fertility restoration, mitochondrial

Tohru Suzuki; Chiharu Nakamura; Naoki Mori; Chukichi Kaneda

1995-01-01

321

Properties of the linear N1 and N2 plasmid-like DNAs from mitochondria of cytoplasmic male-sterile Sorghum bicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear N1 and N2 plasmid-like DNAs were recovered from mitochondria of the IS1112C line of cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) Sorghum bicolor (S. bicolor). Molecular clones containing internal sequences of these plasmids were constructed. These clones were used to probe Southern blots of mitochondrial genomes from six CMS and five male-fertile (MF) lines of S. bicolor, as well as Southern blots

Christine D. Chase; Daryl R. Pring

1986-01-01

322

Regulation of cell divisions and differentiation by MALE STERILITY32 is required for anther development in maize  

PubMed Central

Summary Male fertility in flowering plants relies on proper division and differentiation of cells in the anther, a process that gives rise to four somatic layers surrounding central germinal cells. The maize gene male sterility32 (ms32) encodes a basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factor, which functions as an important regulator of both division and differentiation during anther development. After the four somatic cell layers are generated properly through successive periclinal divisions, in the ms32 mutant, tapetal precursor cells fail to differentiate, and, instead, undergo additional periclinal divisions to form extra layers of cells. These cells become vacuolated and expand, and lead to failure in pollen mother cell development. ms32 expression is specific to the pre-meiotic anthers and is distributed initially broadly in the four lobes, but as the anther develops, its expression becomes restricted to the innermost somatic layer, the tapetum. The ms32-ref mac1-1 double mutant is unable to form tapetal precursors and also exhibits excessive somatic proliferation leading to numerous, disorganized cell layers, suggesting a synergistic interaction between ms32 and mac1. Altogether, our results show that MS32 is a major regulator in maize anther development that promotes tapetum differentiation and inhibits periclinal division once a tapetal cell is specified. PMID:24033746

Moon, Jihyun; Skibbe, David; Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Rachel Wang, Chung-Ju; Kelliher, Timothy; Kremling, Karl; Walbot, Virginia; Zacheus Cande, William

2014-01-01

323

Social cognitions about adult male victims of female sexual assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although men are far less likely than women to be victims of heterosexual assault, such cases have been reported with increasing frequency in recent years. We compared social judgments about male and female victims of heterosexual and homosexual rape and tested hypotheses concerning social cognitions that are assumed to underlie a male rape mythology. In a 2 × 2 ×

Ronald E. Smith; Charles J. Pine; Mark E. Hawley

1988-01-01

324

Transcriptome Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Maintenance in JA-CMS Cotton  

PubMed Central

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is the failure to produce functional pollen, which is inherited maternally. And it is known that anther development is modulated through complicated interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in sporophytic and gametophytic tissues. However, an unbiased transcriptome sequencing analysis of CMS in cotton is currently lacking in the literature. This study compared differentially expressed (DE) genes of floral buds at the sporogenous cells stage (SS) and microsporocyte stage (MS) (the two most important stages for pollen abortion in JA-CMS) between JA-CMS and its fertile maintainer line JB cotton plants, using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. A total of 709 (1.8%) DE genes including 293 up-regulated and 416 down-regulated genes were identified in JA-CMS line comparing with its maintainer line at the SS stage, and 644 (1.6%) DE genes with 263 up-regulated and 381 down-regulated genes were detected at the MS stage. By comparing the two stages in the same material, there were 8 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JA-CMS line and 29 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated DE genes in JB maintainer line at the MS stage. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate 7 randomly selected DE genes. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that genes involved in reduction-oxidation reactions and alpha-linolenic acid metabolism were down-regulated, while genes pertaining to photosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis were up-regulated in JA-CMS floral buds compared with their JB counterparts at the SS and/or MS stages. All these four biological processes play important roles in reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, which may be an important factor contributing to the sterile trait of JA-CMS. Further experiments are warranted to elucidate molecular mechanisms of these genes that lead to CMS. PMID:25372034

Yang, Peng; Han, Jinfeng; Huang, Jinling

2014-01-01

325

Differential Mitochondrial Electron Transport through the Cyanide-Sensitive and Cyanide-Insensitive Pathways in Isonuclear Lines of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile, Male Fertile, and Restored Petunia1  

PubMed Central

Three pairs of isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and fertile Petunia cells (Petunia hybrida [Hook] Vilm. and Petunia parodii L.S.M.) grown in suspension culture were examined for sensitivity to inhibitors of respiratory electron transport at time-points after transfer into fresh media. Cells from CMS lines differed from cells of fertile lines in their utilization of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase pathway. Under our culture regime, after approximately 3 days of culture cells from the CMS lines exhibited much lower cyanide-insensitive, salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive respiration than cells from the fertile lines. This respiratory difference was shown to be specific to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway by using other characteristic inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport in experiments with isolated mitochondria. Immature anthers from CMS plants also showed lower alternative oxidase activity relative to anthers from male fertile plants, but no such difference was detected in leaf tissue, ovary or perianth tissue, or anthers collected just prior to anthesis. A cell line from a fertile plant carrying a nuclear fertility restorer gene and the CMS cytoplasm exhibited increased activity of the alternative pathway compared with the CMS lines. PMID:16667667

Connett, Marie B.; Hanson, Maureen R.

1990-01-01

326

Childhood Sexual Abuse in Males and Subsequent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Potential Alcohol-Use Pathway  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As…

Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

2010-01-01

327

Without women: Masculinities, gay male sexual culture and sexual behaviors in Miami, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have reported alarmingly high rates of HIV infection and risky sexual behaviors among gay men in Miami, Florida. Previous research has suggested that the risky sexual behaviors of many gay men reflect the pursuit of intimacy and love, and that barriers to intimate relationships among gay men may stem from traditional masculinity norms. This dissertation examines the meanings

Steven Peter Kurtz

1999-01-01

328

Carotenoids, immune response and the expression of sexual ornaments in male greenfinches ( Carduelis chloris )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allocation trade-offs of carotenoids between their use in the immune system and production of sexual ornaments have been suggested\\u000a as a proximate mechanism maintaining honesty of sexual signals. To test this idea, we experimentally examined whether carotenoid\\u000a availability in the diet was related to variation in antibody response to novel antigens in male greenfinches (Carduelis chloris aurantiiventris), a species with

Eduardo Aguilera; Juan A. Amat

2007-01-01

329

Individual, Family, Peer, and Academic Characteristics of Male Juvenile Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the individual functioning, interpersonal relations, and academic performance of 115 male juveniles who\\u000a were divided into 5 demographically matched groups (sexual offenders with peer\\/adult victims, sexual offenders with child\\u000a victims, violent nonsexual offenders, nonviolent nonsexual offenders, and nondelinquent youths). Parents and youths completed\\u000a self-report instruments, behavior rating inventories, and a videorecorded interaction task, and teachers completed a

Scott T. Ronis; Charles M. Borduin

2007-01-01

330

Sexuality Before and After Male-to-Female Sex Reassignment Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sexual behaviors and attitudes of male-to-female (MtF) transsexuals have not been investigated systematically. This study presents information about sexuality before and after sex reassignment surgery (SRS), as reported by 232 MtF patients of one surgeon. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. The mean age of participants at time of SRS was 44 years (range, 18–70 years). Before SRS, 54%

Anne A. Lawrence

2005-01-01

331

Sexual Identity Development of Female-to-Male Transgender Individuals: A Grounded Theory Inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a grounded theory study of the sexual identity development of 11 female-to-male (FTM) transgender people. Data collection included semistructured interviews with participants. A three-member research team conducted axial and selective coding to identify salient interactions between participants’ gender identity and sexual identity development. A model of these interactions is provided, in addition to thick descriptions of participant

lore m. dickey; Theodore R. Burnes; Anneliese A. Singh

2012-01-01

332

Male-Specific Fruitless Isoforms Target Neurodevelopmental Genes to Specify a Sexually Dimorphic Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Summary Background In Drosophila, male courtship behavior is regulated in large part by the gene fruitless (fru). fru encodes a set of putative transcription factors that promote male sexual behavior by controlling the development of sexually dimorphic neuronal circuitry. Little is known about how Fru proteins function at the level of transcriptional regulation or the role that isoform diversity plays in the formation of a male-specific nervous system. Results To characterize the roles of sex-specific Fru isoforms in specifying male behavior, we generated novel isoform-specific mutants and used a genomic approach to identify direct Fru isoform targets during development. We demonstrate that all Fru isoforms directly target genes involved in the development of the nervous system, with individual isoforms exhibiting unique binding specificities. We observe that fru behavioral phenotypes are specified by either a single isoform or a combination of isoforms. Finally, we illustrate the utility of these data for the identification of novel sexually dimorphic genomic enhancers and novel downstream regulators of male sexual behavior. Conclusions These findings suggest that Fru isoform diversity facilitates both redundancy and specificity in gene expression, and that the regulation of neuronal developmental genes may be the most ancient and conserved role of fru in the specification of a male-specific nervous system. PMID:24440396

Neville, Megan C.; Nojima, Tetsuya; Ashley, Elizabeth; Parker, Darren J.; Walker, John; Southall, Tony; Van de Sande, Bram; Marques, Ana C.; Fischer, Bettina; Brand, Andrea H.; Russell, Steven; Ritchie, Michael G.; Aerts, Stein; Goodwin, Stephen F.

2014-01-01

333

Male juveniles with sexual behavior problems: are there differences among racial groups?  

PubMed

This study used archival data on a sample of 186,492 referrals from a southwestern state Juvenile Probation Commission to compare the characteristics of 5,439 male Black, Hispanic, and White juveniles with sexual behavior problems on the five most common sexual offenses in the data set. The characteristics of 181,053 juveniles of the three races without sexual behavior problems were also compared on the basis of the seven most common nonsexual offenses. The bases of comparison were the seven variables: reported incidence of sexual offenses, the primary caregivers or living arrangements, age, suspected sexual abuse, suspected emotional abuse, suspected physical abuse, and special education status, on which racial differences were found. Prevention and treatment implications of findings are discussed. PMID:19306204

Ikomi, Philip A; Rodney, H Elaine; McCoy, Tana

2009-01-01

334

Genetic biases for showy males: Are some genetic systems especially conducive to sexual selection?  

PubMed Central

Male secondary sexual characters (conspicuous ornaments, signals, colors) are among nature's most striking features. Yet, it is unclear why certain groups of organisms are more likely than others to evolve these traits. One explanation for such taxonomic biases is that some genetic systems may be especially conducive to sexual selection. Here, we present theory and simulation results demonstrating that rare alleles encoding either male ornaments or female preferences for those ornaments are better protected against random loss in species with ZZ/ZW or ZZ/ZO sex chromosome systems (male homogamety) than in species with XX/XY or XX/XO systems (male heterogamety). Moreover, this protection is much stronger in diploid than haplodiploid species. We also present empirical data showing that male secondary sexual characters are better developed in diploid than haplodiploid species and in diploid species with male homogamety than in those with male heterogamety. Thus, taxonomic biases for showy males may stem from differences in sex chromosome systems. PMID:12540829

Reeve, Hudson Kern; Pfennig, David W.

2003-01-01

335

High Fetal Estrogen Concentrations: Correlation with Increased Adult Sexual Activity and Decreased Aggression in Male Mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the house mouse (Mus musculus), fetuses may develop in utero next to siblings of the same or opposite sex. The amniotic fluid of the female fetuses contains higher concentrations of estradiol than that of male fetuses. Male fetuses that developed in utero between female fetuses had higher concentrations of estradiol in their amniotic fluid than males that were located between other male fetusesw during intrauterine development. They were also more sexually active as adults, less aggressive, and had smaller seminal vesicles than males that had developed between other male fetuses in utero. These findings raise the possibility that during fetal life circulating estrogens may interact with circulating androgens both in regulating the development of sex differences between males and females and in producing variation in phenotype among males and among females.

Vom Saal, Frederick S.; Grant, William M.; McMullen, Carol W.; Laves, Kurt S.

1983-06-01

336

Sexual affordances, perceptual-motor invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics: sexually deviant and non-deviant patterns in male subjects.  

PubMed

Sexual arousal and gaze behavior dynamics are used to characterize deviant sexual interests in male subjects. Pedophile patients and non-deviant subjects are immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features. Gaze behavior dynamics as indexed from correlation dimensions (D2) appears to be fractal in nature and significantly different from colored noise (surrogate data tests and recurrence plot analyses were performed). This perceptual-motor fractal dynamics parallels sexual arousal and differs from pedophiles to non-deviant subjects when critical sexual information is processed. Results are interpreted in terms of sexual affordance, perceptual invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics. PMID:20887690

Renaud, Patrice; Goyette, Mathieu; Chartier, Sylvain; Zhornitski, Simon; Trottier, Dominique; Rouleau, Joanne-L; Proulx, Jean; Fedoroff, Paul; Bradford, John-P; Dassylva, Benoit; Bouchard, Stephane

2010-10-01

337

Women's Beliefs about Male Circumcision, HIV Prevention, and Sexual Behaviors in Kisumu, Kenya  

PubMed Central

It is important to understand how women's sexual practices may be influenced by male circumcision (MC) as an HIV prevention effort. Women's beliefs about MC and sexual behaviour will likely influence the scale-up and uptake of medical MC. We conducted qualitative interviews with 30 sexually active women in Kisumu, Kenya. Women discussed MC related to perceived health benefits, condom use, sexual behaviour, knowledge of susceptibility to HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), circumcision preference, and influence on circumcision uptake. Respondents had a good understanding of the partial protection of MC for acquisition of HIV for men. Women perceived circumcised men as cleaner, carrying fewer diseases, and taking more time to reach ejaculation. Male's circumcision status is a salient factor for women's sexual decision making, including partner choice, and condom use. It will be important that educational information affirms that MC provides only partial protection against female to male transmission of HIV and some STIs; that other HIV and STI prevention methods such as condoms need to be used in conjunction with MC; that MC does not preclude a man from having HIV; and that couples should develop plans for not having sex while the man is healing. PMID:24844845

Riess, Thomas H.; Achieng', Maryline M.; Bailey, Robert C.

2014-01-01

338

Women's beliefs about male circumcision, HIV prevention, and sexual behaviors in Kisumu, Kenya.  

PubMed

It is important to understand how women's sexual practices may be influenced by male circumcision (MC) as an HIV prevention effort. Women's beliefs about MC and sexual behaviour will likely influence the scale-up and uptake of medical MC. We conducted qualitative interviews with 30 sexually active women in Kisumu, Kenya. Women discussed MC related to perceived health benefits, condom use, sexual behaviour, knowledge of susceptibility to HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), circumcision preference, and influence on circumcision uptake. Respondents had a good understanding of the partial protection of MC for acquisition of HIV for men. Women perceived circumcised men as cleaner, carrying fewer diseases, and taking more time to reach ejaculation. Male's circumcision status is a salient factor for women's sexual decision making, including partner choice, and condom use. It will be important that educational information affirms that MC provides only partial protection against female to male transmission of HIV and some STIs; that other HIV and STI prevention methods such as condoms need to be used in conjunction with MC; that MC does not preclude a man from having HIV; and that couples should develop plans for not having sex while the man is healing. PMID:24844845

Riess, Thomas H; Achieng', Maryline M; Bailey, Robert C

2014-01-01

339

Demographic and clinical correlates of sexual dysfunction among Nigerian male outpatients on conventional antipsychotic medications  

PubMed Central

Background In psychotic disorders, early intervention with antipsychotic medications increases the likelihood of favourable long-term course. However, the pharmacologic management especially with conventional antipsychotic medications is complicated by a high rate of adverse effects including sexual dysfunction. This study aims to determine the demographic and clinical factors associated with sexual dysfunction among male psychiatric outpatients on conventional antipsychotic medications in South-western Nigeria. Methods Two hundred and seventy five consecutive male outpatients with psychotic disorders on conventional antipsychotic medications were interviewed. Data was collected on demographic characteristics, illness-related and medication-related variables. Illness severity was assessed with the Brief psychiatric rating scale. The International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire was used to assess for sexual dysfunctions. Results A total of 111 (40.4%) respondents had one or more forms of sexual dysfunction. Sexual desire dysfunction was present in 47 (17.1%) of respondents, erectile dysfunction in 95 (34.5%), orgasmic dysfunctions in 51 (18.5%), intercourse dissatisfaction in 72 (26.2%) and overall dissatisfaction in 64 (23.3%). Sexual dysfunction was significantly associated with employment status, age, marital status, haloperidol use, medication dosage, and presence of psychopathology. Unemployment was the only significant independent correlate of sexual dysfunction, with unemployed respondents twice more likely to have sexual dysfunction compared with those employed (Wald?=?3.865, Odds Ratio?=?2.033, 95% confidence interval?=?1.002 - 4.124, p?=?0.049). Conclusions The high prevalence of sexual dysfunction found in this study suggests a need among clinicians for increased awareness and recognition of the sexual side effects in patients taking conventional antipsychotic medications. This knowledge should guide conventional antipsychotic medication prescription in the at-risk population to improve treatment adherence. PMID:22676295

2012-01-01

340

Genetic dissection of hybrid incompatibilities between Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana. I. Differential accumulation of hybrid male sterility effects on the X and autosomes.  

PubMed Central

The genetic basis of hybrid incompatibility in crosses between Drosophila mauritiana and D. simulans was investigated to gain insight into the evolutionary mechanisms of speciation. In this study, segments of the D. mauritiana third chromosome were introgressed into a D. simulans genetic background and tested as homozygotes for viability, male fertility, and female fertility. The entire third chromosome was covered with partially overlapping segments. Many segments were male sterile, while none were female sterile or lethal, confirming previous reports of the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility (HMS). A statistical model was developed to quantify the HMS accumulation. In comparison with previous work on the X chromosome, we estimate that the X has approximately 2.5 times the density of HMS factors as the autosomes. We also estimate that the whole genome contains approximately 15 HMS "equivalents"-i.e., 15 times the minimum number of incompatibility factors necessary to cause complete sterility. Although some caveats for the quantitative estimate of a 2.5-fold density difference are described, this study supports the notion that the X chromosome plays a special role in the evolution of reproductive isolation. Possible mechanisms of a "large X" effect include selective fixation of new mutations that are recessive or partially recessive and the evolution of sex-ratio distortion systems. PMID:12930747

Tao, Yun; Chen, Sining; Hartl, Daniel L; Laurie, Cathy C

2003-01-01

341

Sexual hazards, life experiences and social circumstances among male sex workers in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The sexual health and rights needs of male sex workers in Nigeria remain poorly understood and served. Men who sell sex are at high risk of discrimination and violation because of laws criminalising same-sex activity and sex work. This paper examines the experiences, social circumstances, vulnerabilities and sexual hazards experienced by male sex workers in Nigeria. In-depth interviews were used to explore the experiences of six male sex workers who were selected by means of convenience sampling from among those who came for counselling. Findings reveal that economic disadvantage drives some men to engage in sex work and risky sexual behaviour. Subsequently, sex work may put their lives and health at risk as a result of violation by the police and clients, including ritual murder. Men's extreme vulnerability points to the need for appropriate interventions to improve well-being. Sexual health and rights programmes must identify ways of making male sex workers less vulnerable to abuse, and devise strategies for protecting their health and human rights, while empowering them economically to reduce their dependency on often risky sexual behaviour for livelihoods. PMID:23252939

Okanlawon, Kehinde; Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Titilayo, Ayotunde

2013-01-01

342

Experimental evolution exposes female and male responses to sexual selection and conflict in Tribolium castaneum.  

PubMed

Between-individual variance in potential reproductive rate theoretically creates a load in reproducing populations by driving sexual selection of male traits for winning competitions, and female traits for resisting the costs of multiple mating. Here, using replicated experimental evolution under divergent operational sex ratios (OSR, 9:1 or 1:6 ?:?) we empirically identified the parallel reproductive fitness consequences for females and males in the promiscuous flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Our results revealed clear evidence that sexual conflict resides within the T. castaneum mating system. After 20 generations of selection, females from female-biased OSRs became vulnerable to multiple mating, and showed a steep decrease in reproductive fitness with an increasing number of control males. In contrast, females from male-biased OSRs showed no change in reproductive fitness, irrespective of male numbers. The divergence in reproductive output was not explained by variation in female mortality. Parallel assays revealed that males also responded to experimental evolution: individuals from male-biased OSRs obtained 27% greater reproductive success across 7-day competition for females with a control male rival, compared to males from the female-biased lines. Subsequent assays suggest that these differences were not due to postcopulatory sperm competitiveness, but to precopulatory/copulatory competitive male mating behavior. PMID:21091981

Michalczyk, ?ukasz; Millard, Anna L; Martin, Oliver Y; Lumley, Alyson J; Emerson, Brent C; Gage, Matthew J G

2011-03-01

343

Sexual Dimorphism of the Zebra Finch Syrinx Indicates Adaptation for High Fundamental Frequencies in Males  

PubMed Central

Background In many songbirds the larger vocal repertoire of males is associated with sexual dimorphism of the vocal control centers and muscles of the vocal organ, the syrinx. However, it is largely unknown how these differences are translated into different acoustic behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that the sound generating structures of the syrinx, the labia and the associated cartilaginous framework, also display sexual dimorphism. One of the bronchial half rings that position and tense the labia is larger in males, and the size and shape of the labia differ between males and females. The functional consequences of these differences were explored by denervating syringeal muscles. After denervation, both sexes produced equally low fundamental frequencies, but the driving pressure generally increased and was higher in males. Denervation strongly affected the relationship between driving pressure and fundamental frequency. Conclusions/Significance The syringeal modifications in the male syrinx, in concert with dimorphisms in neural control and muscle mass, are most likely the foundation for the potential to generate an enhanced frequency range. Sexually dimorphic vocal behavior therefore arises from finely tuned modifications at every level of the motor cascade. This sexual dimorphism in frequency control illustrates a significant evolutionary step towards increased vocal complexity in birds. PMID:20614010

Riede, Tobias; Fisher, John H.; Goller, Franz

2010-01-01

344

Male rats that differ in novelty exploration demonstrate distinct patterns of sexual behavior  

PubMed Central

High versus low novelty exploration predicts a variety of behavioral differences. For example, rats selectively-bred for high novelty exploration (bred High Responders, bHR) exhibit exaggerated aggression, impulsivity, and proclivity to addictive behaviors compared to low novelty-reactive rats (bred Low Responders, bLRs), which are characterized by a high anxiety/depressive-like phenotype. Since bHR/bLR rats exhibit differences in dopaminergic circuitry and differential response to rewarding stimuli (i.e., psychostimulants, food), the present study examined whether they also differ in another key hedonic behavior – sex. Thus, adult bHR/bLR males were given five 30-min opportunities to engage in sexual activity with a receptive female. Sexual behavior and motivation were examined and compared between the groups. The bHR/bLR phenotype affected both sexual motivation and behavior, with bLR males demonstrating reduced motivation for sex compared with bHR males (i.e., fewer animals copulated, longer latency to engage in sex). The bHR males required more intromissions at a faster pace per ejaculation than did bLR males. Thus, neurobiological differences that affect motivation for drugs of abuse, aggression, and impulsivity in rats also affect sexual motivation and performance. PMID:23398441

Cummings, Jennifer A.; Clinton, Sarah M.; Perry, Adam N.; Akil, Huda; Becker, Jill B.

2014-01-01

345

Taurine enhances the sexual response and mating ability in aged male rats.  

PubMed

It has been demonstrated that taurine is abundant in male reproductive organs, and can be biosynthesized by testis, but the taurine concentration will reduce with aging. The levels of serum LH, T, NOS, and NO were found to be obviously increased by taurine supplementation in aged rats in our previous study. In addition, aging will result in a significant decline in sexual response and function, which may be attributed to the androgen deficiency. Furthermore, NO has been proposed as a crucial mediator of penile erection. That makes us hypothesize that there is potential relationship between taurine decline and erection dysfunction in aged males. So the primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of taurine on male sexuality in rats. Taurine was offered in water to male aged (20 months old) rats for 110 days. The effects of taurine on the sexual response, mating ability, levels of serum reproductive hormones, and penile NOS and NO levels were investigated. The results showed that taurine can significantly reduce the EL and ML; obviously increase the ERF, MF, IF, and EJF; stimulate the secretion of GnRH, LH, and T; and elevate penis NOS and NO level in aged rats. The results indicated that taurine can enhance the sexual response and mating ability in aged male rats by increasing the level of testosterone and NO, but the exact mechanism of which needs to be further investigated. PMID:23392896

Yang, Jiancheng; Lin, Shumei; Feng, Ying; Wu, Gaofeng; Hu, Jianmin

2013-01-01

346

Is Sexual Ornamentation an Honest Signal of Male Quality in the Chinese Grouse (Tetrastes sewerzowi)?  

PubMed Central

We examined the variation in sexual ornamentation of male Chinese grouse (Tetrastes sewerzowi) in the Gansu Province, China, seeking to identify factors involved in whether ornament size and brightness are honest signals of male quality. Compared to unmated males, mated males had significantly larger and redder combs and, although they did not have significantly larger territories, they defended them more vigorously. Mated males had significantly higher blood carotenoid and testosterone levels, significantly better body condition, and significantly lower parasite loads than unmated males. Our findings are thus consistent with the hypothesis that comb size and color are honest signals of better male quality in the grouse, mediated through lower parasite loads and/or higher testosterone levels. PMID:24386132

Yang, Chen; Wang, Jie; Fang, Yun; Sun, Yue-Hua

2013-01-01

347

Transgenic mice with inactive alleles for procollagen N-proteinase (ADAMTS-2) develop fragile skin and male sterility.  

PubMed Central

Transgenic mice were prepared with inactive alleles for procollagen N-proteinase (ADAMTS-2; where ADAMTS stands for a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin repeats). Homozygous mice were grossly normal at birth, but after 1-2 months they developed thin skin that tore after gentle handling. Although the gene was inactivated, a large fraction of the N-propeptides of type I procollagen in skin and the N-propeptides of type II procollagen in cartilage were cleaved. Therefore the results suggested the tissues contained one or more additional enzymes that slowly process the proteins. Electron microscopy did not reveal any defects in the morphology of collagen fibrils in newborn mice. However, in two-month-old mice, the collagen fibrils in skin were seen as bizarre curls in cross-section and the mean diameters of the fibrils were approx. half of the controls. Although a portion of the N-propeptides of type II procollagen in cartilage were not cleaved, no defects in the morphology of the fibrils were seen by electron microscopy or by polarized-light microscopy. Female homozygous mice were fertile, but male mice were sterile with a marked decrease in testicular sperm. Therefore the results indicated that ADAMTS-2 plays an essential role in the maturation of spermatogonia. PMID:11284712

Li, S W; Arita, M; Fertala, A; Bao, Y; Kopen, G C; Langsjo, T K; Hyttinen, M M; Helminen, H J; Prockop, D J

2001-01-01

348

Intraspecific variation in mitochondrial genome sequence, structure, and gene content in Silene vulgaris, an angiosperm with pervasive cytoplasmic male sterility.  

PubMed

In angiosperms, mitochondrial-encoded genes can cause cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), resulting in the coexistence of female and hermaphroditic individuals (gynodioecy). We compared four complete mitochondrial genomes from the gynodioecious species Silene vulgaris and found unprecedented amounts of intraspecific diversity for plant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Remarkably, only about half of overall sequence content is shared between any pair of genomes. The four mtDNAs range in size from 361 to 429 kb and differ in gene complement, with rpl5 and rps13 being intact in some genomes but absent or pseudogenized in others. The genomes exhibit essentially no conservation of synteny and are highly repetitive, with evidence of reciprocal recombination occurring even across short repeats (< 250 bp). Some mitochondrial genes exhibit atypically high degrees of nucleotide polymorphism, while others are invariant. The genomes also contain a variable number of small autonomously mapping chromosomes, which have only recently been identified in angiosperm mtDNA. Southern blot analysis of one of these chromosomes indicated a complex in vivo structure consisting of both monomeric circles and multimeric forms. We conclude that S. vulgaris harbors an unusually large degree of variation in mtDNA sequence and structure and discuss the extent to which this variation might be related to CMS. PMID:23009072

Sloan, Daniel B; Müller, Karel; McCauley, David E; Taylor, Douglas R; Storchová, Helena

2012-12-01

349

Post-copulatory sexual selection and sexual conflict in the evolution of male pregnancy  

E-print Network

to be mediated by a strategy of cryptic choice in which males increase rates of offspring abortion in pregnancies from unattractive mothers to retain resources for future reproductive opportunities. Hence, the male

Sorenson, Michael

350

An Initial Validation of a Measure of Personal and Social Perceptions of the Sexual Abuse of Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective/Method: The Sexual Abuse of Males Perceptions Scale (SAMPS) is a measure designed to assess an individual's personal and projected social perceptions of myths about the sexual abuse of boys and men. Myths are rigid, stereotypical beliefs that invalidate the experiences and minimize the profound effects of sexual abuse on boys and men.…

Nalavany, Blace A.; Abell, Neil

2004-01-01

351

Males make poor meals: a comparison of nutrient extraction during sexual cannibalism and predation.  

PubMed

Cannibalism is hypothesized to have evolved as a way to obtain a high-quality meal. We examined the extraction of lipid and protein by female wolf spiders, Hogna helluo, during sexual cannibalism of males and predation of crickets. Most food-limited females did not cannibalize males but immediately consumed a size-matched cricket. When consuming male H. helluo and crickets, female H. helluo only consumed 51% of the male body while they consumed 72% of the cricket body. While males had higher protein content in their bodies than crickets and other insects, female H. helluo ingested similar amounts of protein from male H. helluo and crickets. Female H. helluo extracted 47% of the protein present in male H. helluo and 67% of the protein present in crickets. Females were able to extract nearly all of the lipid present in male H. helluo and crickets. However, crickets and other insects had almost 4 times higher lipid content than male H. helluo. The ratio of lipid to protein consumed from crickets appeared more similar to the nutritional requirements of egg production than that of males. Taken together, female hesitancy to engage in cannibalism, low extraction of nutrients from males and a low ratio of lipid to protein in the food extracted from males suggest that males may be poor-quality prey items compared to common insects such as crickets. PMID:19960354

Wilder, Shawn M; Rypstra, Ann L

2010-03-01

352

Effects of sexual reinforcement upon the performance of male rats in a straight runway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between running speed and copulatory behavior in 90-day-old male hooded rats was studied. Running to a sexually receptive female, and tested at 3-4 day intervals, the males showed ready acquisition of the running habit. Castration produced a marked slowing in running speed, but daily injections of testosterone propionate quickly restored rapid running. It was noted that running speed

Frank A. Beach; Lisbeth Jordan

1956-01-01

353

The dopamine autoreceptor agonist BHT 920 markedly stimulates sexual behavior in male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary B-HT 920, a selective agonist at dopamine (DA) autoreceptors, strongly increased the incidence of penile erections (PE) in male rats, an effect which was dose-related and antagonized by haloperidol. B-HT 920 at 100 and 200 ?g\\/kg i.p. significantly altered the copulatory pattern of sexually active male rats, reducing the number of mounts and intromissions as well as the latency

F. Ferrari; G. Baggio; V. Mangiafico

1985-01-01

354

Effect of royal jelly on sexual efficiency in adult male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was designed to investigate the efficacy of treating the adult male rats with royal jelly (1g\\/kg B. Wt. orally) for one month with or without hydrogen peroxide (0.5%) in drinking water on sexual efficiency, glutathione and malondialdehyde tissue testis levels. The current study demonstrated that male rats receiving hydrogen peroxide caused a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the sperm

A. A. Hassan

355

Social Norms and Beliefs Regarding Sexual Risk and Pregnancy Involvement among Adolescent Males Treated for Dating Violence Perpetration  

PubMed Central

The present study explored perceived sexual norms and behaviors related to sexual risk and pregnancy involvement among adolescent males (ages 13 to 20) participating in programs for perpetrators of dating violence. The purpose of this study was to generate hypotheses regarding the contexts and mechanisms underlying the intersection of adolescent dating violence, sexual risk and pregnancy. Six focus groups were conducted (N = 34 participants). A number of major themes emerged: 1) male norm of multiple partnering, 2) perceived gain of male social status from claims of sexual activity, 3) perception that rape is uncommon combined with belief that girls claiming to be raped are liars, 4) perception that men rationalize rapes to avoid responsibility, 5) condom non-use in the context of rape and sex involving substance use, 6) beliefs that girls lie and manipulate boys in order to become pregnant and trap them into relationships, and 7) male avoidance of responsibility and negative responses to pregnancy. The combination of peer-supported norms of male multiple partnering and adversarial sexual beliefs appear to support increased male sexual risk, lack of accountability for sexual risk, and rationalization of rape and negative responses to pregnancy. Further research focused on the context of male sexual risk and abusive relationship behaviors is needed to inform intervention with young men to promote sexual health and prevent rape, dating violence, and adolescent pregnancy. PMID:16845498

Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Rothman, Emily F.; Hathaway, Jeanne E.; Raj, Anita; Miller, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

356

Sexual selection for male dominance reduces opportunities for female mate choice in the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus).  

PubMed

Sexual selection involves two main mechanisms: intrasexual competition for mates and intersexual mate choice. We experimentally separated intrasexual (male-male interference competition) and intersexual (female choice) components of sexual selection in a freshwater fish, the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus). We compared the roles of multiple morphological and behavioural traits in male success in both components of sexual competition, and their relation to male reproductive success, measured as paternity of offspring. Body size was important for both female choice and male-male competition, though females also preferred males that courted more vigorously. However, dominant males often monopolized females regardless of female preference. Subordinate males were not excluded from reproduction and sired some offspring, possibly through sneaked ejaculations. Male dominance and a greater intensity of carotenoid-based red colouration in their iris were the best predictors of male reproductive success. The extent of red iris colouration and parasite load did not have significant effects on female choice, male dominance or male reproductive success. No effect of parasite load on the expression of red eye colouration was detected, though this may have been due to low parasite prevalence in males overall. In conclusion, we showed that even though larger body size was favoured in both intersexual and intrasexual selection, male-male interference competition reduced opportunities for female choice. Females, despite being choosy, had limited control over the paternity of their offspring. Our study highlights the need for reliable measures of male reproductive success in studies of sexual selection. PMID:15813791

Reichard, M; Bryja, J; Ondracková, M; Dávidová, M; Kaniewska, P; Smith, C

2005-04-01

357

Female mate preferences for male body size and shape promote sexual isolation in threespine sticklebacks.  

PubMed

Female mate preferences for ecologically relevant traits may enhance natural selection, leading to rapid divergence. They may also forge a link between mate choice within species and sexual isolation between species. Here, we examine female mate preference for two ecologically important traits: body size and body shape. We measured female preferences within and between species of benthic, limnetic, and anadromous threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus species complex). We found that mate preferences differed between species and between contexts (i.e., within vs. between species). Within species, anadromous females preferred males that were deep bodied for their size, benthic females preferred larger males (as measured by centroid size), and limnetic females preferred males that were more limnetic shaped. In heterospecific mating trials between benthics and limnetics, limnetic females continued to prefer males that were more limnetic like in shape when presented with benthic males. Benthic females showed no preferences for size when presented with limnetic males. These results show that females use ecologically relevant traits to select mates in all three species and that female preference has diverged between species. These results suggest that sexual selection may act in concert with natural selection on stickleback size and shape. Further, our results suggest that female preferences may track adaptation to local environments and contribute to sexual isolation between benthic and limnetic sticklebacks. PMID:23919161

Head, Megan L; Kozak, Genevieve M; Boughman, Janette W

2013-07-01

358

Variation in a female sexual attractiveness pheromone controls male mate choice in garter snakes.  

PubMed

Male red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) display a courtship preference for larger females during the breeding season. Utilizing behavioral experiments and chemical analyses, we tested the hypothesis that males can discriminate among females of varying size solely by means of the sexual attractiveness pheromone, a previously characterized sex pheromone composed of a homologous series of long-chain saturated and omega-9 cis-unsaturated methyl ketones contained in the skin lipids of females. When presented with skin lipid extracts from large and small females, a greater proportion of males displayed courtship behaviors to large female extracts. This demonstrates that there is an intrinsic property of the female skin lipids that allows males to differentiate among large and small females. Analysis of the sexual attractiveness pheromone revealed that the necessary variation exists for this pheromone to function as a reliable indicator to males of female body size. Specifically, we observed a strong correlation between female snout-vent length and the relative concentration of saturated and omega-9 cis-unsaturated methyl ketones composing the pheromone; smaller females expressed pheromone profiles higher in saturated methyl ketones. while larger females expressed pheromone profiles dominated by unsaturated methyl ketones. The results of this study suggest that male red-sided garter snakes utilize compositional variation in the female sexual attractiveness pheromone to differentiate among potential mates of varying size. PMID:12184402

LeMaster, Michael P; Mason, Robert T

2002-06-01

359

Effects of egg testosterone on female mate choice and male sexual behavior in the pheasant.  

PubMed

Evidence is accumulating that sex steroids in the eggs, besides affecting progeny phenotype and behavior in the short term, also have enduring effects until adulthood, when they may translate into differences in reproductive strategies and success. Maternal steroids transfer may therefore affect both agonistic behavior and mate choice decisions, either through the promotion of body size and condition or through a priming effect on the neuroendocrine system. However, owing to the prevalence of a short-term perspective, relevance of maternal transfer of sex steroids to sexual selection processes has been seldom studied. Here we investigate the effects of an experimental increase in egg testosterone on male dominance and copulation success in the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus, a polygynous galliform with multiple male ornamental traits, in captivity. We found that females from testosterone (T) injected eggs copulated less than control females. Males from T-injected eggs obtained more copulations than control males, specifically with control females. The effect of male 'ordinary' and secondary sexual traits on either dominance or copulation frequency did not depend on early exposure to T, nor did T treatment affect male dominance. Present results demonstrate that variation in the early hormonal environment set up by mothers affects sexual behavior of the offspring, which might translate into fitness differences. PMID:21029735

Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Matteo, Angelo; Ambrosini, Roberto; Rubolini, Diego; Romano, Maria; Caprioli, Manuela; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Baratti, Mariella; Saino, Nicola

2011-01-01

360

Sexually Intrusive Behavior among alleged CSA male victims: a prospective study.  

PubMed

Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) is one widely cited risk factor for Sexually Intrusive Behavior (SIB) among boys. To identify variables that moderate the early onset of SIB in a sample of boys, alleged victims of sexual abuse, the current study involved a prospective examination of all investigations of male CSA victims and those of boys aged under 14 who were suspected of committing SIBs on other children in Israel over a 10-year period. Comparing victims with and without SIB records revealed differences on personal and family factors as well as on the characteristics of abuse. A regression model controlling for age and family factors correctly classified over three quarters of the subjects based on reported experiences of abuse. The data help identify characteristics of the abuse that facilitate the early onset of SIB among male victims of CSA. PMID:23698743

Hershkowitz, Irit

2014-06-01

361

A qualitative study of sexual behavior change and risk compensation following adult male circumcision in urban Swaziland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male circumcision has been shown to reduce the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV infection in men by up to 60% in three randomized controlled trials. Less is known, however, about sexual behavior change in men who have been circumcised and whether male circumcision's protective effect leads to riskier sexual behaviors. This study used qualitative in-depth interviews to understand men's

Jonathan M. Grund; Monique M. Hennink

2011-01-01

362

A qualitative study of sexual behavior change and risk compensation following adult male circumcision in urban Swaziland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male circumcision has been shown to reduce the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV infection in men by up to 60% in three randomized controlled trials. Less is known, however, about sexual behavior change in men who have been circumcised and whether male circumcision's protective effect leads to riskier sexual behaviors. This study used qualitative in-depth interviews to understand men's

Jonathan M. Grund; Monique M. Hennink

2012-01-01

363

Pre- and postnatal influence of an estrogen antagonist and an androgen antagonist on differentiation of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in male and female rats.  

PubMed

The volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus in the preoptic area (SDN-POA) of the rat brain is severalfold larger in adult male rats than in adult females. This sex difference in brain structure was previously shown to develop under the influence of androgenic and estrogenic hormones during the perinatal period. We tried to clarify the differential role played by androgens and estrogens during development and differentiation of the SDN-POA by treating male and female rats during an extended pre- and postnatal period either with the estrogen antagonist tamoxifen or with the androgen antagonist cyproterone acetate. Treatment with tamoxifen did not alter serum levels of testosterone in male rats during the perinatal period, but it inhibited development and differentiation of the SDN-POA. Pre- and postnatal treatment of male rats with cyproterone acetate resulted in female phenotypic appearance, but it had no influence on differentiation of the SDN-POA. Perinatal treatment of female rats with tamoxifen resulted in permanent anovulatory sterility, but did not influence SDN-POA differentiation. Treatment of female rats with cyproterone acetate had no influence on SDN-POA differentiation or on the capacity to ovulate. Since pre- and postnatal treatment of male rats with cyproterone acetate is known from previous studies to femenize sexual behavior patterns and to retain the mode for cyclic gonadotropin release, and since the same treatment did not influence differentiation of the SDN-POA in the present study, it may be concluded that the SDN-POA is not directly involved in the control of female sexual behavior and in the control of the gonadotropic hormone release pattern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2939360

Döhler, K D; Coquelin, A; Davis, F; Hines, M; Shryne, J E; Sickmöller, P M; Jarzab, B; Gorski, R A

1986-01-01

364

Heterosexuals' Attitudes toward Lesbianism and Male Homosexuality: Their Affective Orientation toward Sexuality and Sex Guilt.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study sought to determine if a relationship existed between heterosexual college students' attitudes toward lesbianism and male homosexuality and their feelings about their own sexuality, including sex guilt. High sex guilt proved to be related to negative attitudes toward homosexuals of both sexes. (Authors/PP)

Yarber, William L.; Yee, Bernadette

1983-01-01

365

Sexual dimorphism of male face shape, partnership status and the temporal context  

E-print Network

Sexual dimorphism of male face shape, partnership status and the temporal context of relationship men's attractiveness for long-term relationships, but not when judging men's attractiveness for short-term relationships. Moreover, unpartnered women's preferences for direct gaze from feminine men were stronger

Little, Tony

366

Sexual Health Among Male College Students in the United States and the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To assess differences in sexual health behaviors, outcomes, and potential sociocultural determinants among male college students in the United States and the Netherlands. Methods: Survey data were collected from random samples of students from both national cultures. Results: American men were more likely to report inadequate…

Dodge, Brian; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Yarber, William L.; de Wit, John

2005-01-01

367

Investigation of the mechanism for phthalate-induced toxicity during male sexual differentiation in the rat.  

EPA Science Inventory

Male rats exposed to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation (GDI4-GDI8) display various reproductive developmental abnormalities later in adult life which are associated with declines in fetal testicular testosterone (T) production and insulin-like three hormone (lnsl-3...

368

The Adolescent Male Prostitute and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV and AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescent male prostitutes have variable backgrounds; blend of different psychological, behavioral, social, and economic factors. Study of these factors forms basis for understanding potential risks they may be exposed to, including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Reported high incidence…

Markos, A. R.; And Others

1994-01-01

369

Male and Female Patterns in the Discovery of Sexuality During Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obtained data from 603 questionnaires and 60 interviews from male and female Italian adolescents on awareness of physical maturation, heterosexual relationships, motivation for early sexual experiences, and effects on personal identity. Found significant differences concerning sex and level of schooling with regard to elaboration of one's…

Zani, Bruna

1991-01-01

370

Hombre Seguro (Safe Men): a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of female sex workers  

PubMed Central

Background Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted a two-arm randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods/Design Male clients of FSWs who were at least 18, were HIV-negative at baseline, and reported recent unprotected sex with FSWs were randomized to the Hombre Seguro sexual risk reduction intervention, or a time-attention didactic control condition. Each condition lasted approximately one hour. Participants underwent interviewer-administered surveys and testing for HIV and other STIs at baseline, and at 4, 8, and 12 month follow-ups. Combined HIV/STI incidence and unprotected vaginal and anal sex acts with FSWs were the primary outcomes. Discussion A total of 400 participants were randomized to one of the two conditions. Analyses indicated that randomization was successful; there were no significant differences between the participants in the two conditions at baseline. Average follow-up was 84% across both conditions. This is the first study to test the efficacy of a sexual risk reduction intervention for male clients of FSWs using the rigor of a randomized controlled trial. Trial registration NCT01280838, Date of registration: January 19, 2011. PMID:24885949

2014-01-01

371

Author's personal copy Learning in the context of sexual behaviour and danger in female and male  

E-print Network

the ecological and evolutionary aspects of such learning (e.g. Dukas 2005a, 2009). Briefly, in three fruit flyAuthor's personal copy Learning in the context of sexual behaviour and danger in female and male pseudoobscura female fruit fly learning speciation Learning in the context of mate choice is important because

Dukas, Reuven

372

THE TREATMENT OF DISSOCIATION IN AN HIV-INFECTED, SEXUALLY ABUSED ADOLESCENT MALE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a case study of a 16-year-old adolescent male with a history of childhood sexual trauma who became infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). In addition to a history of posttraumatic stress and substance abuse, the clinician diagnosed the client as suffering from depersonalization disorder. The authors present an overview of dissociation in children and adolescents, a

Christopher T. Allers; Joanna F. White; Fran Mullis

1997-01-01

373

The frequency, sources, and correlates of sexual harassment among women in traditional male occupations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual harassment has increasingly come to be recognized as a major problem confronting working women. Utilizing the results of a survey of women in traditional male occupations (N=160), this paper summarizes some new data on the amount, type, and sources of harassment experienced by this group. Interpreting these findings within the content of the larger theory of patriarchy, it also

Edward Lafontaine; Leslie Tredeau

1986-01-01

374

Male gender roles and sexuality: Implications for women's AIDS risk and prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of prevention of the heterosexual AIDS epidemic in the U.S. has been on women. The role of men in sexual decision making has not been emphasized in AIDS prevention approaches. As a result, the heterosexual epidemic for women continues unabated because of the lack of attention to the behavior of male sex partners. This article describes a profile

Carole A. Campbell

1995-01-01

375

Adolescents' preferences for sexual dimorphism are influenced by relative exposure to male and female faces  

E-print Network

Keywords: Facial attractiveness, Facial sexual dimorphism Femininity Individual differences Masculinity significantly stronger preferences for facial femininity in both male and female faces. Boys at single-sex compared with mixed-sex schools demonstrated mar- ginally stronger preferences for facial masculinity

Little, Tony

376

A Neutral Odor May Become a Sexual Incentive through Classical Conditioning in Male Rats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A neutral olfactory stimulus was employed as CS in a series of experiments with a sexually receptive female as UCS and the execution of an intromission as the UCR. Each experimental session lasted until the male ejaculated. The time the experimental subject spent in a zone adjacent to the source of the olfactory stimulus during the 10 s of CS…

Kvitvik, Inger-Line; Berg, Kristine Marit; Agmo, Anders

2010-01-01

377

A Gale Force Wind: Meaning Making by Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This in-depth qualitative study explores how 16 resilient male survivors of serious childhood sexual abuse, representing a range of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds, made meaning from their abuse experiences. Three main types of meaning making styles were identified in the narratives: meaning making through action, using cognitive strategies, and engaging spirituality. Meaning making through action included helping others and

Maryam Kia-Keating

2006-01-01

378

Testosterone Induction of Male-Typical Sexual Behavior Is Associated with Increased Preoptic  

E-print Network

Testosterone Induction of Male-Typical Sexual Behavior Is Associated with Increased Preoptic NADPH dependent on gonadal sex steroids such as testosterone, and it is thought that the mecha- nism by which, testosterone induces an up-regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the preoptic area, increas- ing nitric

Crews, David

379

Maternal testosterone and sexual differentiation of the male guinea-pig foetus  

E-print Network

Maternal testosterone and sexual differentiation of the male guinea-pig foetus Nicole RIGAUDI�RE, G, Université de Clermont-Ferrand Il, B.P. 45, 63170 Aubière, France. Summary. The part of foetal testosterone 32 of gestation. Using cons- tant intravenous infusion of tritiated testosterone in the maternal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

380

Sexual selection, genital morphology, and copulatory behavior in male Galagos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in penile morphology among galago species are pronounced and complex. Comparative studies of galagos and other\\u000a primate species show that elongation of the baculum (os penis)is associated with copulatory patterns involving a prolonged period of intromission. The enlarged penile “spines” of male\\u000a galagos may be important in maintaining a genital “lock” during copulation. In primate species where females mate

A. F. Dixson

1989-01-01

381

Male circumcision and prevention of HIV and sexually transmitted infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three randomized trials in Africa have shown that adult male circumcision reduces HIV acquisition in men by approximately\\u000a 60%. It is biologically plausible that circumcision reduces HIV risk in men because the inner mucosa of the foreskin is lightly\\u000a keratinized and has a high density of dendritic cells and other HIV target cells, making it vulnerable to HIV infection. Also,

Ronald H. Gray; Maria J. Wawer; Chelsea B. Polis; Godfrey Kigozi; David Serwadda

2008-01-01

382

Characterization of a Novel Bile Alcohol Sulfate Released by Sexually Mature Male Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)  

PubMed Central

A sulphate-conjugated bile alcohol, 3,12-diketo-4,6-petromyzonene-24-sulfate (DKPES), was identified using bioassay-guided fractionation from water conditioned with sexually mature male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). The structure and relative stereochemistry of DKPES was established using spectroscopic data. The electro-olfactogram (EOG) response threshold of DKPES was 10?7 Molar (M) and that of 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3 KPZS; a known component of the male sea lamprey sex pheromone) was 10?10 M. Behavioural studies indicated that DKPES can be detected at low concentrations by attracting sexually mature females to nests when combined with 3 KPZS. Nests baited with a mixture of DKPES and 3 KPZS (ratio 1?29.8) attracted equal numbers of sexually mature females compared to an adjacent nest baited with 3 KPZS alone. When DKPES and 3 KPZS mixtures were applied at ratios of 2?29.8 and 10?29.8, the proportion of sexually mature females that entered baited nests increased to 73% and 70%, respectively. None of the sexually mature females released were attracted to nests baited with DKPES alone. These results indicated that DKPES is a component of the sex pheromone released by sexually mature male sea lamprey, and is the second biologically active compound identified from this pheromone. DKPES represents the first example that a minor component of a vertebrate pheromone can be combined with a major component to elicit critical sexual behaviors. DKPES holds considerable promise for increasing the effectiveness of pheromone-baited trapping as a means of sea lamprey control in the Laurentian Great Lakes. PMID:23874530

Li, Ke; Brant, Cory O.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Kruckman, Hanna G.; Li, Weiming

2013-01-01

383

Male victims of sexual violence in rural Malawi: the overlooked association with HIV infection.  

PubMed

In sub-Saharan Africa, research on intimate partner violence (IPV) has largely failed to consider men's experiences as victims by female perpetrators - particularly within ongoing heterosexual relationships such as marriage. The objectives of this study were to document the prevalence of sexual coercion among men, to describe the characteristics of male victims, and to test for an association between sexual coercion and HIV positivity. In 2010, cross-sectional data on HIV risk behaviors, HIV status, and IPV were collected from a sample of 684 mostly married men in rural Malawi. Bivariate analyses were used to examine differences in HIV risk characteristics between victims and nonvictims of sexual coercion. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between sexual coercion and HIV positivity. Over one-tenth (10.4%) of men reported being a victim of sexual coercion. Male victims of sexual coercion were more likely to be married (p < 0.05), older than 24 years (p < 0.05), physically abused by a female partner (p < 0.001), believed their partners were at higher risk for HIV (p < 0.05), and had consumed alcohol in the past month (p < 0.01). After controlling for potential confounders, the odds of being HIV positive were 7.2 times higher among men who had experienced sexual coercion (p < 0.000). In sub-Saharan Africa, research on men's experience of violence as victims is long overdue. More formative research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which men experience violence and how to appropriately measure IPV among male victims. While the data are cross-sectional and cannot evaluate causality, the strength of the association with HIV positivity merits further attention. PMID:24992179

Conroy, Amy A; Chilungo, Abdallah

2014-12-01

384

Environmentally Realistic Exposure to the Herbicide Atrazine Alters Some Sexually Selected Traits in Male Guppies  

PubMed Central

Male mating signals, including ornaments and courtship displays, and other sexually selected traits, like male-male aggression, are largely controlled by sex hormones. Environmental pollutants, notably endocrine disrupting compounds, can interfere with the proper functioning of hormones, thereby impacting the expression of hormonally regulated traits. Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, can alter sex hormone levels in exposed animals. I tested the effects of environmentally relevant atrazine exposures on mating signals and behaviors in male guppies, a sexually dimorphic freshwater fish. Prolonged atrazine exposure reduced the expression of two honest signals: the area of orange spots (ornaments) and the number of courtship displays performed. Atrazine exposure also reduced aggression towards competing males in the context of mate competition. In the wild, exposure levels vary among individuals because of differential distribution of the pollutants across habitats; hence, differently impacted males often compete for the same mates. Disrupted mating signals can reduce reproductive success as females avoid mating with perceptibly suboptimal males. Less aggressive males are at a competitive disadvantage and lose access to females. This study highlights the effects of atrazine on ecologically relevant mating signals and behaviors in exposed wildlife. Altered reproductive traits have important implications for population dynamics, evolutionary patterns, and conservation of wildlife species. PMID:22312428

Shenoy, Kausalya

2012-01-01

385

Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed) behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions

Sarah A Roberts; Deborah M Simpson; Stuart D Armstrong; Amanda J Davidson; Duncan H Robertson; Lynn McLean; Robert J Beynon; Jane L Hurst

2010-01-01

386

Disturbed sexual characteristics in male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) from a lake contaminated with endocrine disruptors.  

PubMed Central

Previous laboratory studies have demonstrated that estrogenic and antiandrogenic chemicals can alter several sexual characteristics in male poeciliid fishes. Whether similar disturbances occur under field conditions remains to be confirmed. Lake Apopka, Florida, is contaminated with numerous chemicals, some of which possess endocrine-disrupting activity. Male mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were collected monthly from December 2000 through May 2001 from Lake Apopka and two nearby reference lakes, Orange Lake and Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge. Selected sexual characteristics were compared temporally and among lakes during the collection period. Male fish from Lake Apopka had slightly shorter gonopodia and on average 32 and 47% fewer sperm cells per milligram testis, when compared with the fish collected from Orange Lake and Lake Woodruff, respectively. The testes weights increased markedly during spring, with significantly smaller testes in fish from Lake Apopka than from Orange Lake, but surprisingly, the smallest testes occurred in males obtained from the Lake Woodruff population. The highest liver weights were found in the Lake Apopka population. Whole-body concentrations of testosterone and estradiol varied among months; the peak testosterone concentration occurred in January and was significantly lower in male fish from Lake Apopka compared with Orange Lake. The intensity of male courtship behavior was highly correlated to body testosterone concentration, but no statistically significant differences in sexual behavior among the lakes were found. We conclude that sexual characteristics of relevance to male reproductive capacity are altered in the Lake Apopka mosquitofish population, and we discuss the presence of chemicals with antiandrogenic effects in Lake Apopka as a possible cause of the observed alterations. PMID:12727596

Toft, Gunnar; Edwards, Thea M; Baatrup, Erik; Guillette, Louis J

2003-01-01

387

Effects of pesticides used on citrus grown in Spain on the mortality of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Vienna-8 strain sterile males.  

PubMed

Vienna-8 sterile males are currently released in Spain to reduce wild populations of the medfly. Because pesticides are required to maintain populations of some citrus key pests below economic thresholds, there is a need to evaluate the effects of pesticides commonly used in citrus on Vienna-8 males. Males were exposed to differently aged residues of eight pesticides. Abamectin, etofenprox, etoxazole, petroleum spray oil, pymetrozine, and pyriproxyfen resulted harmless to Vienna-8 males. However, fresh residues of chlorpyrifos and spinosad caused high mortalities and had residual effects until 21 and 28 d after treatment, respectively. Following the same method, the lethal effects of chlorpyrifos and spinosad on Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) wild-type (wt) males were determined. Surprisingly, these pesticides resulted more toxic for wt than for Vienna-8 males. To determine whether these results could be attributed to intrinsic characteristics of the pesticides or to behavioral differences among Vienna-8 and wt males, a topical application trial was conducted. Vienna-8 males were twice as susceptible to chlorpyrifos as wt males, whereas their susceptibility to spinosad was slightly lower. These results in intrinsic toxicity did not directly explain the differences observed in the extended-laboratory tests with these pesticides. We hypothesize that the lower flight activity ofVienna-8 males relative to wt conspecifics can explain the lower risk observed for Vienna-8 males in the residual tests. Our results should be taken into account when planning area-wide Sterile Insect Technique programs against C. capitata especially in those areas where treatments with chlorpyrifos are approved. PMID:23865187

Juan-Blasco, María; Sabatier-Muñoz, Beatriz; Argilés, Rafael; Jacas, Josep A; Ortego, Félix; Urbaneja, Alberto

2013-06-01

388

Pleiotropic effects of the male sterile33 ( ms33 ) mutation in Arabidopsis are associated with modifications in endogenous gibberellins, indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier, we reported that mutation in the Male Sterile33 ( MS33) locus in Arabidopsis thaliana causes inhibition of stamen filament growth and a defect in the maturation of pollen grains [Fei and Sawhney (1999) Physiol Plant 105:165–170; Fei and Sawhney (2001) Can J Bot 79:118–129]. Here we report that the ms33 mutant has other pleiotropic effects, including aberrant growth of

Houman Fei; Ruichuan Zhang; Richard P. Pharis; Vipen K. Sawhney

2004-01-01

389

Molecular and biological studies on male-sterile cytoplasm in the Cruciferae. III. Distribution of Ogura-type cytoplasm among Japanese wild radishes and Asian radish cultivars.  

PubMed

The distribution of Ogura male-sterile cytoplasm among Japanese wild radish populations and Asian cultivated radishes was studied by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-aided assays using mitochondrial atp6 and orf138 loci as molecular markers. Three separate PCR experiments were performed to amplify the target sequences in normal-type atp6, Ogura-type atp6, and Ogura-specific orf138, and the cytoplasm of each plant was classified as either normal or Ogura. Among 217 wild radish plants, 93 had both Ogura-type atp6 and orf138 (or its modified form), whereas 124 had normal-type atp6. Of the 93 plants with Ogura-type cytoplasm, only a single plant showed male sterility. A complete linkage between Ogura-type atp6 and orf138 loci was found in Japanese wild radishes, confirming our findings that Ogura-type cytoplasm is distributed widely among Japanese wild radish populations. A modified form of orf138 (orf138-S) was identified in a few wild radish populations in a limited area of Japan, and the nucleotide sequence of the orf138-S revealed a 39-bp deletion shared in common with 'Kosena' male-sterile cytoplasm. Among the 44 Asian cultivars analyzed, 40 were determined to have normal cytoplasm since all 4 plants tested in each cultivar showed the same PCR amplification profiles as that of 'Uchiki-Gensuke', a reference cultivar with normal cytoplasm. The plants with Ogura-type cytoplasm (or its modified form) were found in 1, 1, and 2 cultivars from Tibet, Japan, and Taiwan, respectively. Except for 1 cultivar from Taiwan, those with Ogura-type cytoplasm included a few plants having male sterility. The multiple and independent introduction of Ogura-type cytoplasm from the wild radish in Asia into these cultivars is suggested. PMID:24162287

Yamagishi, H; Terachi, T

1996-08-01

390

Development of two new molecular markers specific to cytoplasmic male sterility in tuber mustard ( Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen et Lee)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel and stable cytoplasmic male sterility CMS line of tuber mustard has been bred by subsequent backcrosses for 10 years.\\u000a Two specific markers atpA and orf220 were cloned and partially characterized in our previous study (Zhang et al. 2003). In this study, two new molecular markers, orf256 and orf305\\/orf324, have been isolated and identified. The orf256 gene size was found to

Xiao-lin Yu; Qiu-bin Xiao; Jia-shu Cao; Zhu-jun Chen; Yutaka Hirata

2009-01-01

391

The mitochondrial genome of a cytoplasmic male sterile line of perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) contains an integrated linear plasmid-like element  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitochondrial genome of a cytoplasmic male sterile line of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was shown to contain a 9.6 kb element, LpCMSi, that is absent in the mitochondrial genome of fertile lines. LpCMSi contains\\u000a the previously described chimeric gene orfC9, and three additional open reading frames (orfs) encoding a unique 45 kDa predicted protein of unknown function, a family\\u000a B-like

Paul McDermott; Vincent Connolly; Tony A. Kavanagh

2008-01-01

392

Mental Health and Sexual Identity in a Sample of Male Sex Workers in the Czech Republic  

PubMed Central

Background Previous qualitative research has examined male sex workers in the Czech Republic, but this mapping study is the first to investigate male sex work in a quantitative research design and focus on the mental health of these sex workers. This study also examines male sex workers’ mental health problems in relation to their sexual identity or orientation. Material/Methods A sample of Czech male sex workers (N=40) were examined on a range of sexual and psychological variables using a quantitative survey administered face-to-face. The study employed locally validated versions of Beck’s Depression Inventory and Zung’s Self-Report Anxiety Scale. Results The results indicate that for homosexuals, working as a male sex worker is not related to any serious mental health problems. However, those identifying as heterosexual and bisexual more frequently reported symptoms of depression and bisexuals showed significantly more anxiety. Conclusions These findings suggest sexual identity is an important issue to consider when addressing the mental health needs of this population. PMID:25239091

Bar-Johnson, Michael; Weiss, Petr

2014-01-01

393

Female condition influences preferences for sexual dimorphism in faces of male humans (Homo sapiens).  

PubMed

In some species, female condition correlates positively with preferences for male secondary sexual traits. Women's preferences for sexually dimorphic characteristics in male faces (facial masculinity) have recently been reported to covary with self-reported attractiveness. As women's attractiveness has been proposed to signal reproductive condition, the findings in human (Homo sapiens) and other species may reflect similar processes. The current study investigated whether the covariation between condition and preferences for masculinity would generalize to 2 further measures of female attractiveness: other-rated facial attractiveness and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Women with high (unattractive) WHR and/or relatively low other-rated facial attractiveness preferred more "feminine" male faces when choosing faces for a long-term relationship than when choosing for a short-term relationship, possibly reflecting diverse tactics in female mate choice. PMID:14498802

Penton-Voak, I S; Little, A C; Jones, B C; Burt, D M; Tiddeman, B P; Perrett, D I

2003-09-01

394

Baculum morphology predicts reproductive success of male house mice under sexual selection  

PubMed Central

Background Diversity in penile morphology is characterised by extraordinary variation in the size and shape of the baculum (penis bone) found in many mammals. Although functionally enigmatic, diversity in baculum form is hypothesised to result from sexual selection. According to this hypothesis, the baculum should influence the outcome of reproductive competition among males within promiscuous mating systems. However, a test of this key prediction is currently lacking. Results Here we show that baculum size explains significant variation in the reproductive success of male house mice under competitive conditions. After controlling for body size and other reproductive traits, the width (but not length) of the house mouse baculum predicts both the mean number of offspring sired per litter and total number of offspring sired. Conclusions By providing the first evidence linking baculum morphology to male reproductive success, our results support the hypothesis that evolutionary diversity in baculum form is driven by sexual selection. PMID:23800051

2013-01-01

395

Sexual selection on cuticular hydrocarbons of male sagebrush crickets in the wild.  

PubMed

Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) play an essential role in mate recognition in insects but the form and intensity of sexual selection on CHCs has only been evaluated in a handful of studies, and never in a natural population. We quantified sexual selection operating on CHCs in a wild population of sagebrush crickets, a species in which nuptial feeding by females imposes an unambiguous phenotypic marker on males. Multivariate selection analysis revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface, suggesting a complex interplay between the total abundance of CHCs and specific CHC combinations in their influence on female choice. The fitness surface resulting from two axes of disruptive selection reflected a trade-off between short- and long-chained CHCs, suggesting that males may be sacrificing some level of desiccation resistance in favour of increased attractiveness. There was a significant correlation between male body size and total CHC abundance, suggesting that male CHCs provide females with a reliable cue for maximizing benefits obtained from males. Notwithstanding the conspicuousness of males' acoustic signals, our results suggest that selection imposed on males via female mating preferences may be far more complex than previously appreciated and operating in multiple sensory modalities. PMID:24197415

Steiger, Sandra; Ower, Geoffrey D; Stökl, Johannes; Mitchell, Christopher; Hunt, John; Sakaluk, Scott K

2013-12-22

396

Apilarnil reduces fear and advances sexual development in male broilers but has no effect on growth.  

PubMed

1. An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of stimulating sexual development at an early age in male and female broiler chickens by administration of apilarnil, a natural bee product, in the pre-pubertal period. 2. From 28 to 55 d of age, birds were given apilarnil orally. The effects of low (2.5 g/bird) and high (7.5 g/bird) doses of apilarnil on growth performance, testicular weight, secondary sexual characteristics, blood lipids, testosterone and fearful behaviour were evaluated. 3. Apilarnil administration did not cause a positive effect on growth performance of male and female broilers suggesting that apilarnil did not have an anabolic effect. 4. Apilarnil administration suppressed blood glucose and cholesterol. 5. Birds receiving apilarnil remained immobile for a shorter period in a tonic imobiliy test and showed less home-cage avoidance responses suggesting a lower level of fearfulness. 6. Increases in testicular weight, testosterone concentration and comb growth in males receiving apilarnil implied that it stimulates the sexual maturation at an early age. However, a similar stimulation of secondary sexual characteristics was not observed in females. PMID:23796118

Altan, O; Yücel, B; Açikgöz, Z; Seremet, C; Köso?lu, M; Turgan, N; Ozgönül, A M

2013-06-01

397

High sexual signalling rates of young individuals predict extended life span in male Mediterranean fruit flies  

PubMed Central

In a laboratory study, we monitored the lifetime sexual signalling (advertisement) of wild male Mediterranean fruit flies, and we tested the hypothesis that high lifetime intensity of sexual signalling indicates high survival probabilities. Almost all males exhibited signalling and individual signalling rates were highly variable from the beginning of the adults’ maturity and throughout their life span (average life span 62.3 days). Sexual signalling rates after day 10 (peak maturity) were consistently high until about 1 week before death. There was a positive relationship between daily signalling rates and life span, and an increase in signalling level by one unit over all times was associated with an approximately 50% decrease in mortality rate. Signalling rates early in adult life (day 6–20) were higher in the longest-lived than in the shortest-lived flies. These results support the hypothesis that intense sexual signalling indicates longer life span. We discuss the importance of age-specific behavioural studies for understanding the evolution of male life histories. PMID:14576929

Katsoyannos, Byron I.; Kouloussis, Nikos A.; Carey, James R.; Muller, Hans-Georg; Zhang, Ying

2008-01-01

398

Same-sex sexual behaviors among male migrants in a context of male "marriage squeeze": results from an exploratory survey in urban Xi'an, China.  

PubMed

The male marriage squeeze in China may increase the prevalence of male same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried male migrants who lack stable female sexual partners. The same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried male migrants appear to be at high risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly because of a lack of knowledge of these diseases. Using data from the "Survey on Reproductive Health and Family Life of Migrant Male Bachelors in Urban Areas" conducted in Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, in December 2009 and January 2010, this study compares same-sex sexual behaviors of unmarried with that of married male migrants (including married but separated men who are migrating without their spouse or partner and cohabitating men who are migrating with their spouse or partner). It is reported that the prevalence of same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried males reaches 11%, more than twice the 5.1% reported by married but separated men and thrice the 3.8% reported by cohabitating men. It also appears that the same-sex sexual behaviors is significantly associated with men's attitudes toward same-sex sexual behaviors (odds ratio = 1.59, p < .001), toward life-long bachelorhood (odds ratio = 1.35, p < .01), and with marital status (odds ratio = 0.37, p < .01). The frequency of condom use appears to be higher among unmarried men than among men who are married, whether or not they migrated with their wives, and is significantly associated with scores on knowledge about HIV/AIDS (estimated coefficient = .12, p < .001) and STIs (estimated coefficient = .22, p < .01). It is also associated with the likelihood of same-sex sexual behaviors (estimated coefficients = .83, p < .01) and marital status (estimated coefficients for married but separated = -.50, p < .05; estimated coefficients for cohabitating = -.77, p < .001). PMID:22782362

Yang, Xueyan; Attané, Isabelle; Li, Shuzhuo; Yang, Bo

2012-11-01

399

Extra-marital sexual partnerships and male friendships in rural Malawi  

PubMed Central

Extra-marital sexual partnerships (EMSPs) are a major route of HIV/AIDS transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we investigate the roles of two types of male friendships – best friends and friends with whom they talk about AIDS – in determining whether men have EMSPs. Using data from men in rural Malawi, we find that men's current extra-marital sexual behavior is most closely correlated with their best friends', but that the behaviors of both types of friends are associated with men's subsequent EMSPs. These findings suggest that men's friendships could be used to help combat the AIDS epidemic. PMID:20531977

Clark, Shelley

2010-01-01

400

[Nursing care in males with spinal cord injury and sexual dysfunction].  

PubMed

The impact of spinal cord injury and its sequels requires important efforts of adaptation. In several studies, people with spinal cord injury claim to have covered most of their needs at physical, emotional and social level, but they are not yet fully satisfied with their sexual life. Sexual function is usually impaired in men with spinal cord injuries, and is sometimes related to problems of erection, ejaculation and/or orgasm. This issue is not a priority in the first phase, but it appears over the subsequent periods when patients often ask for a solution to this problem. A case-study is presented of a 25 year old male with chronic complete spinal cord injury (ASIA A), L4-L5 level, who reported sexual dysfunction and attended an annual review in the National Hospital for Paraplegics. After performing a nursing assessment using the functional health patterns of Gordon, the team proposed a nursing care plan according to the taxonomy of NANDA (North American Nursing Association), NOC (Nursing Outcome Classification) and NIC (Nursing Intervention Classification). Nurses are the healthcare professionals who have more direct and continuous contact with these patients. Specific programs need to be designed to provide them with the sexual education, which should contain adequate emotional and sexual information. We believe that an appropriate and systematic assessment of patient's sexuality, as well as the application of the (NANDA, NOC, NIC) nurse methodology, may be very helpful in improving the outcomes of these specific interventions. PMID:23746665

Cobo-Cuenca, Ana Isabel; Martín-Espinosa, Noelia M; Píriz Campos, Rosa M

2013-01-01

401

Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed. PMID:19594249

Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

2010-01-01

402

Effects of Chlorophytum borivilianum on sexual behaviour and sperm count in male rats.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the aphrodisiac and spermatogenic potential of the aqueous extract of dried roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum (CB) in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Rats were orally treated with (1) CONTROL GROUP: distilled water; (2) CB 125 mg/kg/day; (3) CB 250 mg/kg/day; and (4) Viagra((R)) group: 4 mg/kg/day sildenafil citrate and their sexual behaviour was monitored 3 h later using a receptive female. Their sexual behaviour was evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of treatment by pairing with a pro-oestrous female rat. For sperm count the treatment was continued further in all groups except the Viagra((R)) group for 60 days. At 125 mg/kg, CB had a marked aphrodisiac action, increased libido, sexual vigor and sexual arousal. Similarly, at the higher dose (250 mg/kg) all the parameters of sexual behaviour were enhanced, but showed a saturation effect after day 14. On day 60 the sperm count increased significantly in both the CB groups, 125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, in a dose dependent manner. Thus, roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum can be useful in the treatment of certain forms of sexual inadequacies, such as premature ejaculation and oligospermia. PMID:18412148

Kenjale, Rakesh; Shah, Riddhi; Sathaye, Sadhana

2008-06-01

403

Unmarried male migrants and sexual risk behavior: a cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Background In China, there is increasing concern because of the rapid increase in HIV infection recorded over recent years. Migrant workers are recognized as one of the groups most affected. In this study, HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among unmarried migrant workers in Shanghai are investigated, with the aim of providing critical information for policy makers and sex educators to reinforce sexual health services and sex health education targeting the behavior and sexual health of unmarried male migrants. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among unmarried male migrant workers in Shanghai, China’s largest city and housing the most migrants. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was used to collect information on knowledge, attitudes, and behavior associated with increased risk of HIV/AIDS. Results A total of 2254 subjects were questioned, with a response rate of 91.3%. Among those interviewed, 63.5% reported sexual activities. Misconceptions regarding HIV transmission, poor perception of HIV infection, and low use of condoms were not uncommon. Among those who had sexual intercourse, 73.7% had not used condoms in their last sexual intercourse, and 28.6% reported having engaged in sexual risk behavior (defined as having at least one non-regular partner). Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified several indicators of sexual risk behavior, including younger age at first sexual intercourse (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.31–0.91 for older age at first sexual intercourse), more cities of migration (OR: 2.91, 95% CI: 2.17–3.81 for high level; OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06–1.29 for medium level), poor perception of acquiring HIV/AIDS (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.33–1.96 for unlikely; OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.61–3.70 for impossible), frequent exposure to pornography (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.11–0.43 for never; OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.60–1.81 for less frequently), not knowing someone who had or had died of HIV/AIDS and related diseases (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.70–2.53 for no), and having peers who engaged in sex with a non-regular sex partner (OR: 4.40, 95% CI: 3.37–5.56 for yes). Conclusions Today, it is necessary to reinforce sex health education among unmarried migrants and sexual health services should target vulnerable migrant young people. PMID:24321180

2013-01-01

404

Hypothalamus, sexual arousal and psychosexual identity in human males: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.  

PubMed

In a recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study, a complex neural circuit was shown to be involved in human males during sexual arousal [A. Ferretti et al. (2005) Neuroimage, 26, 1086]. At group level, there was a specific correlation between penile erection and activations in anterior cingulate, insula, amygdala, hypothalamus and secondary somatosensory regions. However, it is well known that there are remarkable inter-individual differences in the psychological view and attitude to sex of human males. Therefore, a crucial issue is the relationship among cerebral responses, sexual arousal and psychosexual identity at individual level. To address this issue, 18 healthy male subjects were recruited. Their deep sexual identity (DSI) was assessed following the construct revalidation by M. Olivetti Belardinelli [(1994) Sci. Contrib. Gen. Psychol., 11, 131] of the Franck drawing completion test, a projective test providing, according to this revalidation, quantitative scores on 'accordance/non-accordance' between self-reported and psychological sexual identity. Cerebral activity was evaluated by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging during hard-core erotic movies and sport movies. Results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between the blood oxygen level-dependent signal in bilateral hypothalamus and the Franck drawing completion test score during erotic movies. The higher the blood oxygen level-dependent activation in bilateral hypothalamus, the higher the male DSI profile. These results suggest that, in male subjects, inter-individual differences in the DSI are strongly correlated with blood flow to the bilateral hypothalamus, a dimorphic brain region deeply implicated in instinctual drives including reproduction. PMID:18588532

Brunetti, M; Babiloni, C; Ferretti, A; Del Gratta, C; Merla, A; Olivetti Belardinelli, M; Romani, G L

2008-06-01

405

Interaction between temperature and male pheromone in sexual isolation in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

In Drosophila, female hydrocarbons are known to be involved in premating isolation between different species and pheromonal races. The role of male-specific hydrocarbon polymorphism is not as well documented. The dominant cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) in male D. melanogaster is usually 7-tricosene (7-T), with the exception of African populations, in which 7-pentacosene (7-P) is dominant. Here, we took advantage of a population from the Comoro Islands (Com), in which males fell on a continuum of low to high levels of 7-T, to perform temperature selection and selection on CHCs’ profiles. We conducted several experiments on the selected Com males to study the plasticity of their CHCs in response to temperature shift, their role in resistance to desiccation and in sexual selection. We then compared the results obtained for selected lines to those from three common laboratory strains with different and homogenous hydrocarbon profiles: CS, Cot and Tai. Temperature selection modified the CHC profiles of the Com males in few generations of selection. We showed that the 7-P/7-T ratio depends on temperature with generally more 7-P at higher temperatures and observed a relationship between chain length and resistance to desiccation in both temperature- and phenotypically selected Com lines. There was partial sexual isolation between the flies with clear-cut phenotypes within the phenotypically selected lines and the laboratory strains. These results indicate that the dominant male pheromones are under environmental selection and may have played a role in reproductive isolation. PMID:23944628

Bontonou, G; Denis, B; Wicker-Thomas, C

2013-01-01

406

Interaction between temperature and male pheromone in sexual isolation in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

In Drosophila, female hydrocarbons are known to be involved in premating isolation between different species and pheromonal races. The role of male-specific hydrocarbon polymorphism is not as well documented. The dominant cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) in male D. melanogaster is usually 7-tricosene (7-T), with the exception of African populations, in which 7-pentacosene (7-P) is dominant. Here, we took advantage of a population from the Comoro Islands (Com), in which males fell on a continuum of low to high levels of 7-T, to perform temperature selection and selection on CHCs' profiles. We conducted several experiments on the selected Com males to study the plasticity of their CHCs in response to temperature shift, their role in resistance to desiccation and in sexual selection. We then compared the results obtained for selected lines to those from three common laboratory strains with different and homogenous hydrocarbon profiles: CS, Cot and Tai. Temperature selection modified the CHC profiles of the Com males in few generations of selection. We showed that the 7-P/7-T ratio depends on temperature with generally more 7-P at higher temperatures and observed a relationship between chain length and resistance to desiccation in both temperature- and phenotypically selected Com lines. There was partial sexual isolation between the flies with clear-cut phenotypes within the phenotypically selected lines and the laboratory strains. These results indicate that the dominant male pheromones are under environmental selection and may have played a role in reproductive isolation. PMID:23944628

Bontonou, G; Denis, B; Wicker-Thomas, C

2013-09-01

407

A cause for concern: male couples' sexual agreements and their use of substances with sex.  

PubMed

Substance use is strongly associated with HIV risk among gay men. Many gay couples establish sexual agreements. However, little is known about gay couples' use of substances with sex, and whether substance use is associated with couples' agreements. The present study assessed whether gay couples' use of substances with sex was associated with their establishment of, type of, and adherence to, a sexual agreement. Dyadic data from 275 HIV-negative US gay couples were collected online in a nation-wide, cross-sectional study, and analyzed at the couple-level. Findings revealed that couples with an established agreement, and a recently broken agreement, were more likely to have used amyl nitrates and marijuana with sex within their relationship. This same trend was also noted, but for alcohol use with sex outside of couples' relationships. Further research is urgently needed to examine the fluidity of HIV-negative gay male couples' sexual agreements and substance use with sex. PMID:24584415

Mitchell, Jason W; Boyd, Carol; McCabe, Sean; Stephenson, Rob

2014-07-01

408

Evolution of male life histories and age-dependent sexual signals under female choice.  

PubMed

Sexual selection theory models evolution of sexual signals and preferences using simple life histories. However, life-history models predict that males benefit from increasing sexual investment approaching old age, producing age-dependent sexual traits. Age-dependent traits require time and energy to grow, and will not fully mature before individuals enter mating competition. Early evolutionary stages pose several problems for these traits. Age-dependent traits suffer from strong viability selection and gain little benefit from mate choice when rare. Few males will grow large traits, and they will rarely encounter choosy females. The evolutionary origins of age-dependent traits therefore remain unclear. I used numerical simulations to analyze evolution of preferences, condition (viability) and traits in an age-structured population. Traits in the model depended on age and condition ("good genes") in a population with no genetic drift. I asked (1) if age-dependent indicator traits and their preferences can originate depending on the strength of selection and the size of the trait; (2) which mode of development (age-dependent versus age-independent) eventually predominates when both modes occur in the population; and (3) if age-independent traits can invade a population with age-dependent traits. Age-dependent traits evolve under weaker selection and at smaller sizes than age-independent traits. This result held in isolation and when the types co-occur. Evolution of age-independent traits depends only on trait size, whereas evolution of age-dependent traits depends on both strength of selection and growth rate. Invasion of age-independence into populations with established traits followed a similar pattern with age-dependence predominating at small trait sizes. I suggest that reduced adult mortality facilitates sexual selection by favoring the evolution of age-dependent sexual signals under weak selection. PMID:24392289

Adamson, Joel J

2013-01-01

409

Evolution of male life histories and age-dependent sexual signals under female choice  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection theory models evolution of sexual signals and preferences using simple life histories. However, life-history models predict that males benefit from increasing sexual investment approaching old age, producing age-dependent sexual traits. Age-dependent traits require time and energy to grow, and will not fully mature before individuals enter mating competition. Early evolutionary stages pose several problems for these traits. Age-dependent traits suffer from strong viability selection and gain little benefit from mate choice when rare. Few males will grow large traits, and they will rarely encounter choosy females. The evolutionary origins of age-dependent traits therefore remain unclear. I used numerical simulations to analyze evolution of preferences, condition (viability) and traits in an age-structured population. Traits in the model depended on age and condition (“good genes”) in a population with no genetic drift. I asked (1) if age-dependent indicator traits and their preferences can originate depending on the strength of selection and the size of the trait; (2) which mode of development (age-dependent versus age-independent) eventually predominates when both modes occur in the population; and (3) if age-independent traits can invade a population with age-dependent traits. Age-dependent traits evolve under weaker selection and at smaller sizes than age-independent traits. This result held in isolation and when the types co-occur. Evolution of age-independent traits depends only on trait size, whereas evolution of age-dependent traits depends on both strength of selection and growth rate. Invasion of age-independence into populations with established traits followed a similar pattern with age-dependence predominating at small trait sizes. I suggest that reduced adult mortality facilitates sexual selection by favoring the evolution of age-dependent sexual signals under weak selection. PMID:24392289

2013-01-01

410

Prior sexual assault reported by male attenders at a department of genitourinary medicine.  

PubMed

One-hundred-and-fifty male patients who attended the department of genitourinary medicine (GUM) completed a questionnaire which enquired into a past history of sexual assault and asked certain details about the assault and various sequelae of such an experience. Twenty-one men gave a history of sexual assault, 11 of whom had been abused before the age of 16, 7 afterwards and 3 in both age groups. Victims of such an assault were more likely to be homosexual or bisexual than heterosexual. The substantial majority i.e. 104 (81%) of the 129 patients who had not been assaulted in the past had been brought up by both natural parents. However, of the 21 males who reported a history of previous sexual abuse only 11 (52%) had been raised by both natural parents alone and 9 of the remaining 10 who divulged such information had been brought up in other circumstances. The association between not being raised entirely by both natural parents and a history of previous sexual assault was significant (P < 0.01). Overall, physical contact of a sexual nature was the most commonly reported type of abuse, followed by anal and then by oral penetration. All of the perpetrators of assault were male except in one instance. Only 3 cases of assault were reported to the police or other agencies. Those who had been abused as minors were more likely to acknowledge subsequent psychological difficulties and to have obtained professional counselling. This problem is a significant one which goes largely undetected in GUM departments and elsewhere.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7779938

Keane, F E; Young, S M; Boyle, H M; Curry, K M

1995-01-01

411

"I connect with the ringleader:" health professionals' perspectives on promoting the sexual health of adolescent males.  

PubMed

In-depth interviews with nine professionals in adolescent health were used to identify perceived barriers, facilitators, and innovative strategies to reach, engage, and serve adolescent males for sexual and reproductive health care. Barriers included stigma, embarrassment, and lack of social norms around sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing for men. Facilitators included crisis situations and partner support. Clinic-based approaches to reach and engage young men included developing authentic staff-youth engagement and ensuring that access to services is easy and appealing. To be innovative, providers should become part of the real-world context of adolescent males. Technology (e.g., text messaging) and social media can be utilized to target and eliminate barriers to health care among young men. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25354398

Garcia, Carolyn M; Ptak, Stephanie J; Stelzer, E Brooke; Harwood, Eileen M; Brady, Sonya S

2014-12-01

412

What Is so Special about Male Adolescent Sexual Offending? A Review and Test of Explanations through Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested special and general explanations of male adolescent sexual offending by conducting a meta-analysis of 59 independent studies comparing male adolescent sex offenders (n = 3,855) with male adolescent non-sex offenders (n = 13,393) on theoretically derived variables reflecting general delinquency risk factors (antisocial tendencies),…

Seto, Michael C.; Lalumiere, Martin L.

2010-01-01

413

Increased vigilance of paired males in sexually dimorphic species: distinguishing between alternative explanations in wintering Eurasian wigeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In animal pairs, males are often more vigilant than females. This is generally assumed to result from mate guarding (either against predators or other males). However, when males have conspicuous secondary sexual characteristics, they could be constrained to be more vigilant because of a higher predation risk than females. We attempted to distinguish between the \\

Matthieu Guillemain; Richard W. G. Caldow; Kathy H. Hodder; John D. Goss-Custard

2003-01-01

414

Is elytral color polymorphism in sweetpotato weevil (Coleoptera: Brentidae) a visible marker for sterile insect technique? Comparison of male mating behavior.  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is widely used for suppressing or eradicating target pest insect populations. In the eradication programs using the SIT, a large number of sterile insects are marked and released in the field. In Japan, Cylas fonnrmicarius (F.) group (Coleoptera: Brentidae) weevils are marked with a fluorescent powder dye to monitor the progress of such programs. However, this monitoring technique is not fully effective because of the disappearance or contamination of the dye. Therefore, an alternative marking method is required. Currently, a rare color morph such as piceous elytra (PE) is used for visible marking of C. formicarius group weevils. A PE-monomorphic strain has previously been established by artificial selection from a small locally distributed population; this can lead to reduced survival and genetic changes in behavioral traits due to inbreeding depression. In this study, we evaluated the survival rate and mating behavior of PE males of C. formicarius group. The characteristics of the PE males were similar to those of the wild strain (WS) males. Thus, we considered that PE males were suitable for visible marking in the eradication programs using the SIT. PMID:21510188

Shiromoto, Keiko; Kumano, Norikuni; Kuriwada, Takashi; Haraguchi, Dai

2011-04-01

415

Sexually explicit media on the internet: a content analysis of sexual behaviors, risk, and media characteristics in gay male adult videos.  

PubMed

Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men. Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex performers that were posted to five highly trafficked adult-oriented websites. Findings revealed that gay male SEM on the Internet features a variety of conventional and nonconventional sexual behaviors. There was a substantial prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (34 %) and was virtually the same as the prevalence of anal sex with a condom (36 %). The presence of UAI was not associated with video length, amateur production, number of video views, favorability, or website source. However, the presence of other potentially high-risk behaviors (e.g., ejaculation in the mouth, and ejaculation on/in/rubbed into the anus) was associated with longer videos, more views, and group sex videos (three or more performers). The findings of high levels of sexual risk behavior and the fact that there was virtually no difference in the prevalence of anal sex with and without a condom in gay male SEM have important implications for HIV prevention efforts, future research on the role of SEM on sexual risk taking, and public health policy. PMID:23733156

Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn

2014-05-01

416

Parent-child relationships and sexual identity in male and female homosexuals and heterosexuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducted 2 studies of reported parent-child relations and sexual identity: one of a population of 84 white, well-educated female homosexuals and their 94 matched heterosexual controls and the other of a group of 127 similarly well-educated, white male homosexuals and their 123 heterosexual matched controls. Female homosexuals reported having had more negative relations with their fathers in childhood than female

Norman L. Thompson; David M. Schwartz; Boyd R. McCandless; David A. Edwards

1973-01-01

417

HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors and Multi-Level Determinants Among Male Labor Migrants from Tajikistan  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate HIV risk behaviors and their multilevel determinants in male labor migrants from Tajikistan to Moscow. In Russia and Central Asia, where AIDS rates are amongst the world’s highest, conditions in both sending and receiving countries pose serious challenges to HIV prevention. A survey of Tajik married male seasonal labor migrants in Moscow was completed by 200 workers from 4 bazaars and 200 workers from 18 construction sites as part of a mixed method study. The quantitative results indicated that male labor migrants were at risk for HIV due to higher sexual behaviors including sexual relations with sex workers (92%), multiple partnering in the past month (86%), unprotected sex with sex workers (33%), and reduced frequency of condom use while drinking alcohol (57%). Multivariate tests indicated the multilevel factors that increased HIV sexual risks including: pre-migration factors (e.g. used sex workers in Tajikistan); migrant work and lifestyle factors (e.g. greater number of times visited Moscow); migrant sexual and relational factors (e.g. regular partner in Moscow); and migrant health and mental health factors (e.g. increased frequency of alcohol use). Qualitative findings from longitudinal ethnographic interviews and observations of a subset of 40 purposively sampled Tajik male migrants demonstrated how these multilevel pre-migration and migration factors account for HIV risk and protective behaviors in context. These findings underscore the seriousness of HIV risk for labor migrants and call both for multilevel approaches to prevention and for further study. PMID:23054537

Weine, Stevan; Bahromov, Mahbat; Loue, Sana; Owens, Linda

2013-01-01

418

Sexually disrupting effects of nonylphenol and diethylstilbestrol on male silver carp ( Carassius auratus) in aquatic microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on detected nonylphenol (NP) levels in aquaculture water, this study investigated sexually disrupting effects in mature male silver carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to NP and a positive control diethylstilbestrol (DES). The combined evidences of steroid hormone (17?-estradiol, estrone and testosterone) levels and hispathological pictures showed that NP (?10?g\\/L) and DES could exert estrogenic effects through indirect mechanisms [i.e. increased

Lihua Yang; Li Lina; Shaoping Weng; Zhiqin Feng; Tiangang Luan

2008-01-01

419

Dynamics of male sexual arousal: distinct components of brain activation revealed by fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peripheral mechanisms of male sexual arousal are well known. Recently, neuroimaging techniques, such as PET or fMRI, allowed the investigation of the subjacent cerebral mechanisms. In ten healthy subjects, we have simultaneously recorded fMRI images of brain activation elicited by viewing erotic scenes, and the time course of penile tumescence by means of a custom-built MRI-compatible pneumatic cuff. We

Antonio Ferretti; Massimo Caulo; Cosimo Del Gratta; Rosalia Di Matteo; Arcangelo Merla; Francesco Montorsi; Vittorio Pizzella; Paolo Pompa; Patrizio Rigatti; Paolo Maria Rossini; Andrea Salonia; Armando Tartaro; Gian Luca Romani

2005-01-01

420

Male-like sexual behavior of female mouse lacking fucose mutarotase  

PubMed Central

Background Mutarotases are recently characterized family of enzymes that are involved in the anomeric conversions of monosaccharides. The mammalian fucose mutarotase (FucM) was reported in cultured cells to facilitate fucose utilization and incorporation into protein by glycosylation. However, the role of this enzyme in animal has not been elucidated. Results We generated a mutant mouse specifically lacking the fucose mutarotase (FucM) gene. The FucM knockout mice displayed an abnormal sexual receptivity with a drastic reduction in lordosis score, although the animals were fertile due to a rare and forced intromission by a typical male. We examined the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPv) of the preoptic region in brain and found that the mutant females showed a reduction in tyrosine hydoxylase positive neurons compared to that of a normal female. Furthermore, the mutant females exhibited a masculine behavior, such as mounting to a normal female partner as well as showing a preference to female urine. We found a reduction of fucosylated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in a mutant embryo relative to that of a wild-type embryo. Conclusions The observation that FucM-/- female mouse exhibits a phenotypic similarity to a wild-type male in terms of its sexual behavior appears to be due to the neurodevelopmental changes in preoptic area of mutant brain resembling a wild-type male. Since the previous studies indicate that AFP plays a role in titrating estradiol that are required to consolidate sexual preference of female mice, we speculate that the reduced level of AFP in FucM-/- mouse, presumably resulting from the reduced fucosylation, is responsible for the male-like sexual behavior observed in the FucM knock-out mouse. PMID:20609214

2010-01-01

421

Violence and HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Female Sex Partners of Male Drug Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Violence and HIV are emerging as interconnected public health hazards among drug users and their families. The purposes of this study are to (1) determine the prevalence of sexual and physical abuse of non-drug-using female sex partners of male drug users, and (2) ascertain the association between such violence and HIV-related risk behaviors. Methods: From 11\\/93 to 11\\/95, 208

Haiou He; H. Virginia McCoy; Sally J. Stevens; Michael J. Stark

1998-01-01

422

Comparison of the Effects of Sexual Abuse on Male and Female Latency-Aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychological impact of childhood sexual abuse on latency-aged children was investigated by the combined use of self-report instruments and parent\\/caretaker reports. In the study, 20 males and 20 females who were in treatment at clinics in two large Southeastern cities comprised the abused groups, and a matched number of children from the same areas comprised a control group. The

RODNEY E. YOUNG; THOMAS A. BERGANDI; THOMAS G. TITUS

1994-01-01

423

Circumstances surrounding male sexual assault and rape: findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey.  

PubMed

Much work in the area of male sexual assault and rape relies on small clinical samples. From these samples, researchers reported that most male victims were physically injured during the attack and that penetration occurred. This work rests on a subsample of 219 men from the 1994-1996 Violence and Threats of Violence Against Women and Men in the United States Survey. Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAW) show that the vast majority of male sexual assault victims reported that they were not physically injured during the assault, that a weapon was not used, that there was no substance use at the time of the assault, and that penetration did not occur. Only 29% of male respondents in the NVAW sought medical or psychological help after the assault. Prior work may have overrepresented men who reported being physically injured and/or penetrated. An analysis is presented of how those who presented for help in the NVAW differ from the whole sample. Results show that men who presented for help were more likely to have reported being physically injured during the assault and that penetration occurred. Thus, findings from prior work make sense; however, they may not be representative of male assault victims as a whole. PMID:18981191

Light, David; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth

2009-11-01

424

Vasotocinergic innervation of sexually dimorphic medial preoptic nucleus of the male Japanese quail: influence of testosterone.  

PubMed

The distribution of vasotocin (VT)-immunoreactive (IR) fibers was described in the preoptic and septal regions of the male quail brain. The density of VT-IR fibers was measured in the sexually dimorphic preoptic nucleus (POM) and lateral septum (SL) of adult male quail (Coturnix japonica) by means of quantitative image analysis. Experimental manipulations of the hor