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1

Analysis of a post-translational steroid induction system for GIGANTEA in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To investigate the link between the flowering time gene GIGANTEA (GI) and downstream genes, an inducible GI system was developed in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. Transgenic Arabidopsis plant lines were generated with a steroid-inducible post-translational control system for GI. The gene expression construct consisted of the coding region of the GI protein fused to that of the ligand binding

Markus Günl; Eric FungMin Liew; Karine David; Joanna Putterill

2009-01-01

2

Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

... steroids (say: STARE-oydz), they often mean illegal anabolic steroids. Anabolic steroids are artificially produced hormones that are the same ... these is testosterone (say: tes-TOSS-tuh-rone). Anabolic steroids can be taken in the form of pills, ...

3

Synergistic Induction of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone -Subunit Gene Expression by Gonadal Steroid Hormone  

E-print Network

Synergistic Induction of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone -Subunit Gene Expression by Gonadal Steroid Hormone Receptors and Smad Proteins Varykina G. Thackray and Pamela L. Mellon Departments of Reproductive by mediating steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. Gonadal ste- roid hormones influence gonadotropin production

Mellon, Pamela L.

4

Induction Heating Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Induction heating technology, a magnetic non-deforming process, was developed by Langley researchers to join plastic and composite components in space. Under NASA license, Inductron Corporation uses the process to produce induction heating systems and equipment for numerous applications. The Torobonder, a portable system, comes with a number of interchangeable heads for aircraft repair. Other developments are the E Heating Head, the Toroid Joining Gun, and the Torobrazer. These products perform bonding applications more quickly, safely and efficiently than previous methods.

1991-01-01

5

Steroids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many companies producing products that claim to give you the benefits and results of exercise without all the work. These products are hoaxes, or fakes. Steroid abuse can permanently and fatally damage your body and they should never be used unless prescribed by a doctor.

N/A N/A (Drug Enforcement Administration; )

2007-09-25

6

Steroids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Chemistry at Queen Mary University of London has provided an online version of this document from the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The IUPAC has provided numerous documents describing the nomenclature of organic compounds. This specific document issues recommendations for the nomenclature of steroids.

Moss, Gerard P.

7

Impact of steroid maintenance on the outcomes in first-time deceased donor kidney transplant recipients: Analysis by induction type  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze the impact of steroid maintenance on the outcomes in kidney transplant recipients stratified by induction agent received. METHODS: Patients who underwent first-time deceased donor kidney transplantation between 2000 and 2008 after receiving induction therapy with rabbit-antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG), alemtuzumab or an interleukin-2 receptor blocker (IL-2B) and discharged on a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)-regimen along with or without steroids were identified from the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network/United Network of Organ Sharing database. For each induction type, adjusted overall and death-censored graft as well as patient survivals were compared between patients discharged on steroid vs no steroid. Among r-ATG induced patients, analysis was repeated after splitting the group into low and high immune risk groups. RESULTS: Among the 37217 patients included in the analysis, 17863 received r-ATG (steroid = 13001, no-steroid = 4862), 3028 alemtuzumab (steroid = 852, no-steroid = 2176) and 16326 IL-2B (steroid = 15008, no-steroid = 1318). Adjusted overall graft survival was inferior (HR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.06-1.27, P = 0.002) with similar death-censored graft survival (HR = 0.99, 95%CI: 0.86-1.14, P = 0.86) for steroid vs no-steroid groups in r-ATG induced patients. Both adjusted overall and death-censored graft survivals for steroid vs no-steroid groups were similar in alemtuzumab (HR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.73-1.15, P = 0.47 and HR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.62-1.22, P = 0.43 respectively) and IL-2B (HR = 1.05, 95%CI: 0.91-1.21, P = 0.48 and HR = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.75-1.18, P = 0.60 respectively) induced groups. Adjusted patient survivals were inferior for steroid vs no-steroid groups in r-ATG induced (HR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.15-1.49, P < 0.001) but similar in alemtuzumab (HR = 1.02, 95%CI: 0.75-1.38, P = 0.92) and IL-2B (HR = 1.17, 95%CI: 0.97-1.40, P = 0.10) induced patients. Among the r-ATG induced group there were 4346 patients in the low immune risk and 13517 patients in the high immune risk group. Adjusted overall graft survivals were inferior for steroid vs no steroid groups in both low immune (HR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.09-1.64, P = 0.001) and high immune (HR = 1.18, 95%CI: 1.07-1.30, P = 0.005) risk groups. Adjusted death-censored graft survivals for steroid vs no steroid groups were similar in both low (HR = 1.06, 95%CI: 0.78-1.45, P = 0.70) and high (HR = 1.04, 95%CI: 0.98-1.20, P = 0.60) immune risk groups. Adjusted patient survivals were inferior for steroid vs no steroid groups in both low immune (HR = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.18-2.02, P < 0.001) and high immune (HR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.16-1.51, P = 0.002) risk groups. Overall, there were significantly higher deaths from infections and cardiovascular causes in patients maintained on steroids. CONCLUSION: Our study showed an association between steroid addition to a CNI/MMF-maintenance regimen and increased death with functioning graft in patients receiving r-ATG induction for first-time deceased donor kidney transplantation. PMID:25346892

Sureshkumar, Kalathil K; Hussain, Sabiha M; Thai, Ngoc L; Ko, Tina Y; Nashar, Khaled; Marcus, Richard J

2014-01-01

8

Effects of neuroactive steroids on myelin of peripheral nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral nervous system (PNS) possess both classical (e.g. progesterone receptor, PR, androgen receptor, AR) and non-classical (e.g. GABAA receptor) steroid receptors and consequently may represent a target for the action of neuroactive steroids. Our data have indicated that neuroactive steroids, like for instance, progesterone, dihydroprogesterone, tetrahydroprogesterone, dihydrotestosterone and 3?-diol, stimulate both in vivo and in vitro (Schwann cell cultures), the

R. C. Melcangi; M. Ballabio; I. Cavarretta; L. C. Gonzalez; E. Leonelli; S. Veiga; L. Martini; V. Magnaghi

2003-01-01

9

Role of Neuroactive Steroids in the Peripheral Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Several reviews have so far pointed out on the relevant physiological and pharmacological role exerted by neuroactive steroids in the central nervous system. In the present review we summarize observations indicating that synthesis and metabolism of neuroactive steroids also occur in the peripheral nerves. Interestingly, peripheral nervous system is also a target of their action. Indeed, as here reported neuroactive steroids are physiological regulators of peripheral nerve functions and they may also represent interesting therapeutic tools for different types of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:22654839

Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Giatti, Silvia; Pesaresi, Marzia; Calabrese, Donato; Mitro, Nico; Caruso, Donatella; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel

2011-01-01

10

Systemic Steroid Treatment for Severe Expanding Pneumococcal Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

The treatment of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is based on appropriate antibiotic therapy and supportive care such as intravenous fluids and supplemental oxygen. There is no available data regarding the use of steroids in CAP in children. We present an unusual case of a child with severe respiratory distress, on the brink of mechanical ventilation, due to a rapidly expanding pneumococcal pneumonia. The administration of systemic steroids resulted in a dramatic response with rapid improvement of clinical and radiological abnormalities followed by improvement of laboratory abnormalities. This case report should raise the awareness of the potential benefits of steroids in the treatment of severe pneumonia in children. Prospective randomized trials are needed to confirm the efficacy of steroids in this setting and to determine which patients would benefit most from this.

Lavi, Eran; Shoseyov, David; Simanovsky, Natalia; Brooks, Rebecca

2015-01-01

11

Effects of neuroactive steroids on myelin of peripheral nervous system.  

PubMed

Peripheral nervous system (PNS) possess both classical (e.g. progesterone receptor, PR, androgen receptor, AR) and non-classical (e.g. GABA(A) receptor) steroid receptors and consequently may represent a target for the action of neuroactive steroids. Our data have indicated that neuroactive steroids, like for instance, progesterone, dihydroprogesterone, tetrahydroprogesterone, dihydrotestosterone and 3alpha-diol, stimulate both in vivo and in vitro (Schwann cell cultures), the expression of two important proteins of the myelin of peripheral nerves, the glycoprotein Po (Po) and the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22). It is important to highlight that the mechanisms by which neuroactive steroids exert their effects on the expression of Po and PMP22 involve different kind of receptors depending on the steroid and on the myelin protein considered. In particular, at least in culture of Schwann cells, the expression of Po seems to be under the control of PR, while that of PMP22 needs the GABA(A) receptor. Because Po and PMP22 play an important physiological role for the maintenance of the multilamellar structure of the myelin of the PNS, the present observations might suggest the utilization of neuroactive steroids as new therapeutically approaches for the rebuilding of the peripheral myelin. PMID:12943718

Melcangi, R C; Ballabio, M; Cavarretta, I; Gonzalez, L C; Leonelli, E; Veiga, S; Martini, L; Magnaghi, V

2003-06-01

12

Micronucleus induction in V79 cells by the anabolic doping steroids desoxymethyltestosterone (madol) and 19-norandrostenedione  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abuse of anabolic steroids for doping raises concerns. Many of these compounds have never been examined for their toxicological properties. Aside from hormonal (androgenic) activity, anabolic steroids may also exert genotoxic effects. In the present study, we determined the potencies of the “designer steroid” madol (MAD) and the anabolic prohormone 19-norandrostenedione (NA) to induce micronuclei in V79 cells in

Susanne B. Dorn; Hermann M. Bolt; Mario Thevis; Patrick Diel; Gisela H. Degen

2008-01-01

13

The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers  

PubMed Central

The “endocannabinoid system (ECS)” comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed. PMID:24369462

Taylor, Anthony H.; Marczylo, Timothy H.; Willets, Jonathon M.; Konje, Justin C.

2013-01-01

14

Systemic effects of intranasal steroids: An endocrinologist’s perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intranasal steroids (INSs) are established as first-line treatment for allergic rhinitis. Extensive use of INSs with few reported adverse events supports the safety of these medications. Nevertheless, the prescription of more potent INSs for consistent and more prolonged use to younger and older patients, often in combination with inhaled corticosteroids, justifies the careful examination of their potential adverse systemic effects.

David B Allen

2000-01-01

15

Impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on neuropeptide systems.  

PubMed

The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is relatively widely spread and epidemiological studies in the western countries report a prevalence between 1-5 % among males. The impact of these steroids on the strength and muscle mass as well as many of the adverse physical effects that have been observed are well described. Several reports have also revealed severe psychological effects as results of the administration of AAS. Effects such as irritability, aggressiveness, anxiety and depression are reported to be associated with AAS abuse. The mechanistic rationales behind these effects are not well understood. Several systems are likely to be involved, including the monoamine and peptidergic systems. The aim of this review is to highlight the potential role of the neuropeptide systems in the brain with focus on how these systems are affected by repeated administration of AAS. PMID:21443512

Hallberg, M

2011-05-01

16

Successful treatment of transient acantholytic dermatosis with systemic steroids.  

PubMed

A sixty-year-old man, developed 2-5 mm sized, hyperemic, itchy papules, vesicles, erosions and crusts on hyperemic base on his chest, abdomen, back, gluteal region, and proximal sites of his upper and lower extremities. The direct and indirect immunoflurescence tests were negative. Histology revealed extensive acantholysis in the epidermis in the following forms: pemphigus vulgaris-like suprabasal acantholysis, Darier-like acantholytic dyskeratosis with corps ronds, Hailey-Hailey-like suprabasal clefts, and pemphigus foliaceus-like superficial acantholysis with spongiosis. Using systemic steroids, topical drying, and reepithelising therapy, the patient was cured. He was symptom-free the first, fourth, and thirteenth months after finishing steroid therapy. We review the literature and the new subdivision of the disease according to the histological and clinical features. PMID:9714982

Erös, N; Kovács, A; Károlyi, Z

1998-07-01

17

Comprehensive Comparison of Three Different Immunosuppressive Regimens for Liver Transplant Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Steroid-Free Immunosuppression, Induction Immunosuppression and Standard Immunosuppression  

PubMed Central

The different choices of immunosuppression (IS) regimens influenced the outcomes of liver transplantation. Steroid was applied as a standard IS to prevent and treat rejections. However, steroid-related complications were increasingly prominent. This study compared the efficacy and safety of standard IS regimens with the efficacy and safety of steroid-free IS regimen and induction IS regimen in Chinese liver transplantation recipients for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 329 patients who underwent liver transplantation from January 2008 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Three different groups of patients received standard triple-drug IS regimen of steroid, tacrolimus (TAC) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) (triple-drug regimen group; n=57), induction-contained IS regimen of basiliximab, steroid, TAC and MMF (BS group; n=241), and induction-contained and steroid-free regimen of basiliximab, TAC and MMF (SF group; n=31), respectively. There were no significant differences in terms of patient, tumor-free and graft survival rates. The acute rejection rate and rejection time were equivalent in different groups. But compared with BS group, higher incidences of biliary complications (11.52% vs. 30.77%, p=0.013) and graft dysfunction (0.48% vs. 13.64%, p=0.003) were observed in SF group. Furthermore, compared with the two groups, incidence of pleural effusion was also higher in SF group (15.79%, 11.96% vs. 45.45%, respectively, both p<0.01). And a trend towards less proportion of De novo diabetes was revealed in SF group. Although it was found that patient, tumor-free and graft survival rates were equivalent among three IS regimens, higher incidences of complications were demonstrated in steroid-free regimen in patients for HCC. These findings suggested that steroid-free IS regimen has no clear advantages in comparison with standard IS regimens for liver transplant recipients with HCC and the postoperative complications should be treated with concentrated attention. PMID:25816221

Fu, Xiao-Meng; Cui, Zhuang; Fan, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Shu; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Jun; Li, Guang; Shen, Zhong-Yang

2015-01-01

18

Steroid receptor induction of gene transcription: a two-step model.  

PubMed

Coactivators, such as steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1A) and CREB (cAMP response element binding protein)-binding protein (CBP), are required for efficient steroid receptor transactivation. Using an in vitro transcription assay, we found that progesterone receptor (PR)-driven transcription is inhibited by a dominant negative PR ligand-binding domain-interacting region of SRC-1A, indicating that SRC-1A is required for actual transcriptional processes. In addition, these coactivators also possess intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity and bind to each other and another HAT, p300/CBP-associated factor. Here we show that the human PR also interacts with p300/CBP-associated factor in vitro. Recruitment of multiple HATs to target promoters suggests an important role for chromatin remodeling in transcriptional activation of genes by steroid receptors. In transient transfection assays, we found that addition of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, strongly potentiated PR-driven transcription. In contrast, directing histone deacetylase-1 (HD1) to a promoter using the GAL4 DNA binding domain inhibited transcription. Furthermore, PR transactivation was repressed by recruiting HD1 into the PR-DNA complex by fusing HD1 to a PR ligand-binding domain-interacting portion of SRC-1. Collectively, these results suggest that targeted histone acetylation by recruited HAT cofactors and histone deacetylation are important factors affecting PR transactivation. Recruitment of coactivators and HATs by the liganded PR in vivo may result in (i) remodeling of transcriptionally repressed chromatin to facilitate assembly and (ii) enhanced stabilization of the preinitiation complex by the activation functions of coactivators and the liganded PR itself. PMID:9223281

Jenster, G; Spencer, T E; Burcin, M M; Tsai, S Y; Tsai, M J; O'Malley, B W

1997-07-22

19

Steroid receptor induction of gene transcription: A two-step?model  

PubMed Central

Coactivators, such as steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1A) and CREB (cAMP response element binding protein)-binding protein (CBP), are required for efficient steroid receptor transactivation. Using an in vitro transcription assay, we found that progesterone receptor (PR)-driven transcription is inhibited by a dominant negative PR ligand-binding domain-interacting region of SRC-1A, indicating that SRC-1A is required for actual transcriptional processes. In addition, these coactivators also possess intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity and bind to each other and another HAT, p300/CBP-associated factor. Here we show that the human PR also interacts with p300/CBP-associated factor in vitro. Recruitment of multiple HATs to target promoters suggests an important role for chromatin remodeling in transcriptional activation of genes by steroid receptors. In transient transfection assays, we found that addition of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, strongly potentiated PR-driven transcription. In contrast, directing histone deacetylase-1 (HD1) to a promoter using the GAL4 DNA binding domain inhibited transcription. Furthermore, PR transactivation was repressed by recruiting HD1 into the PR-DNA complex by fusing HD1 to a PR ligand-binding domain-interacting portion of SRC-1. Collectively, these results suggest that targeted histone acetylation by recruited HAT cofactors and histone deacetylation are important factors affecting PR transactivation. Recruitment of coactivators and HATs by the liganded PR in vivo may result in (i) remodeling of transcriptionally repressed chromatin to facilitate assembly and (ii) enhanced stabilization of the preinitiation complex by the activation functions of coactivators and the liganded PR itself. PMID:9223281

Jenster, Guido; Spencer, Thomas E.; Burcin, Mark M.; Tsai, Sophia Y.; Tsai, Ming-Jer; O’Malley, Bert W.

1997-01-01

20

Mobile inductively coupled plasma system  

DOEpatents

A system for sampling and analyzing a material located at a hazardous site. A laser located remote from the hazardous site is connected to an optical fiber, which directs laser radiation proximate the material at the hazardous site. The laser radiation abates a sample of the material. An inductively coupled plasma is located remotely from the material. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated particles to a plasma, where they are dissociated, atomized and excited to provide characteristic optical reduction of the elemental constituents of the sample. An optical spectrometer is located remotely from the site. A second optical fiber is connected to the optical spectrometer at one end and the plasma source at the other end to carry the optical radiation from the plasma source to the spectrometer.

D'Silva, Arthur P. (Ames, IA); Jaselskis, Edward J. (Ames, IA)

1999-03-30

21

Mobile inductively coupled plasma system  

DOEpatents

A system is described for sampling and analyzing a material located at a hazardous site. A laser located remotely from the hazardous site is connected to an optical fiber, which directs laser radiation proximate the material at the hazardous site. The laser radiation abates a sample of the material. An inductively coupled plasma is located remotely from the material. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated particles to a plasma, where they are dissociated, atomized and excited to provide characteristic optical reduction of the elemental constituents of the sample. An optical spectrometer is located remotely from the site. A second optical fiber is connected to the optical spectrometer at one end and the plasma source at the other end to carry the optical radiation from the plasma source to the spectrometer. 10 figs.

D`Silva, A.P.; Jaselskis, E.J.

1999-03-30

22

Steroid hormone receptors and steroid action in rat glial cells of the central and peripheral nervous system 1 1 Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium of the Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology “ Recent Advances in Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology” Monaco, 25–28 May 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nervous system is a target for sex steroid hormones which have profound actions on the growth, maturation, differentiation and functioning of brain cells. We found that some steroids, termed “neurosteroids”, are synthesized within the brain by glial cells. The term “neurosteroids” designates their site of synthesis — the nervous system, either de novo from cholesterol or from steroid hormone

I. Jung-Testas; E. E. Baulieu

1998-01-01

23

Simultaneous induction of multiple follicular development with gonadotrophins and steroid replacement for in-vitro fertilization.  

PubMed

Simultaneous administration of follicle stimulating hormone, oestradiol valerate and progesterone was employed in a patient with a possible enzymatic deficiency involving low production of oestradiol. The patient became pregnant after in-vitro fertilization. This case demonstrates that this treatment is useful in women with low oestradiol production and subsequent inadequate endometrial development; it also illustrates the role of oestradiol in follicular development and questions the importance of serum oestradiol measurements in the monitoring of ovulation induction. PMID:1639976

Pellicer, A; De los Santos, M J; Remohí, J

1992-05-01

24

Analysis of Steroid Hormones in a Typical Dairy Waste Disposal System  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The environmental loading of steroid hormones contained in dairy wastes may cause a potential adversely affect on the aquatic species. This work was to investigate the profile of steroid hormones in a typical dairy waste operation system and assess the potential risk of hormone contaminations result...

25

Detection of anabolic steroid abuse using a yeast transactivation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical analytical method for detection of anabolic steroid abuse is gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). However, even molecules with a chemical structure typical for this class of substances, are sometimes not identified in routine screening by GC\\/MS when their precise chemical structure is still unknown. A supplementary approach to identify anabolic steroid abuse could be a structure-independent

Oliver Zierau; Sylvi Lehmann; Günter Vollmer; Willhelm Schänzer; Patrick Diel

2008-01-01

26

Disseminated dermal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania siamensis in a systemic steroid therapy patient.  

PubMed

Leishmania siamensis infection was recently reported from Thailand. Clinical presentation of L. siamensis infections is generally related to human immunodeficiency virus infection. Herein, disseminated dermal L. siamensis infection in a systemic steroid therapy patient from Myanmar is described. PMID:25371495

Noppakun, Nopadon; Kraivichian, Kanyarat; Siriyasatien, Padet

2014-11-01

27

The steroid hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) breaks intranasally induced tolerance, when administered at time of systemic immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction of intranasal tolerance might be dependent on specific characteristics of mucosal, nose-draining lymph nodes. Such a specific characteristic might lie in the metabolism of the steroid hormone DHEA. Conversion of the prohormone DHEAS into DHEA is dependent on DHEAS-sulphatase activity in lymph nodes. This activity is low in mucosa-draining lymph nodes compared to peripheral lymph nodes, leading to

Danielle A. W Wolvers; Joost M Bakker; Wilma M Bagchus; Georg Kraal

1998-01-01

28

Development of nervous systems: neuroembryology, induction, patterning  

E-print Network

Development of nervous systems: neuroembryology, induction, patterning (cell identity nervous system involves: Friday, November 5, 2010 #12;Origin of Nervous Systems · What are the essential the Origin of The Nervous System Greg Miller Science 3 July 2009: Vol. 325. no. 5936, pp. 24 - 26 Friday

Alford, Simon

29

Inductive system detects level of conducting fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inductive system monitors the liquid level of a conductive fluid that is at a high temperature in a fully closed opaque container. The system is useful in any high temperature liquid-metal system. It shows fast response and is relatively insensitive to temperature fluctuations.

Roeske, P. W.

1966-01-01

30

Compact inductive energy storage pulse power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inductive energy storage pulse power system is being developed in BARC, India. Simple, compact, and robust opening switches, capable of generating hundreds of kV, are key elements in the development of inductive energy storage pulsed power sources. It employs an inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The energy stored in the capacitor bank is transferred to an air cored storage inductor in 5.5 ?s through wire fuses. By optimizing the exploding wire parameters, a compact, robust, high voltage pulse power system, capable of generating reproducibly 240 kV, is developed. This paper presents the full details of the system along with the experimental data.

K, Senthil; Mitra, S.; Roy, Amitava; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D. P.

2012-05-01

31

14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section... § 33.68 Induction system icing. Each engine, with all icing protection systems operating, must— ...without the accumulation of ice on the engine...

2011-01-01

32

14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section... § 33.68 Induction system icing. Each engine, with all icing protection systems operating, must— ...without the accumulation of ice on the engine...

2013-01-01

33

14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121...Requirements § 121.283 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air...

2013-01-01

34

14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181 Section 125...Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air...

2011-01-01

35

14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121...Requirements § 121.283 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air...

2014-01-01

36

14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181 Section 125...Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air...

2014-01-01

37

14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181 Section 125...Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air...

2012-01-01

38

14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121...Requirements § 121.283 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air...

2011-01-01

39

14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181 Section 125...Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air...

2013-01-01

40

14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121...Requirements § 121.283 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air...

2012-01-01

41

Magnetic induction systems to harvest energy from mechanical vibrations  

E-print Network

This thesis documents the design process for magnetic induction systems to harvest energy from mechanical vibrations. Two styles of magnetic induction systems - magnet-through-coil and magnet-across-coils - were analyzed. ...

Jonnalagadda, Aparna S

2007-01-01

42

Cybernetic systems based on inductive logic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work in the area of inductive logic suggests that cybernetics might be quantified and reduced to engineering practice. If so, then there are considerable implications for engineering, science, and other fields. This paper attempts to capture the essential ideas of cybernetics cast in the light of inductive logic. The described inductive logic extends conventional logic by adding a conjugate logical domain of questions to the logical domain of assertions intrinsic to Boolean Algebra with which most are familiar. This was first posited and developed by Richard Cox. Interestingly enough, these two logical domains, one of questions and the other of assertions, only exist relative to one another with each possessing natural measures of entropy and probability, respectively. Examples are given that highlight the utility of cybernetic approaches to neuroscience, algorithm design, system engineering, and the design and understanding of defensive and offensive systems. For example, the application of cybernetic approaches to defense systems suggests that these systems possess a wavefunction which like quantum mechanics, collapses when we ``look'' through the eyes of the system sensors such as radars and optical sensors. .

Fry, Robert L.

2001-05-01

43

ROLE OF STEROID HORMONES AND DECIDUAL INDUCTION IN THE REGULATION OF ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHORIBOSYL TRANSFERASE ACTIVITY IN RAT ENDOMETRIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

To assess the effect of ovarian steroid hormones on enzyme activity, adenosine diphosphoribosyl transferase (ADPRT) was measured in endometrial nuclei isolated on estrus and on d 4 from rats ovariectomized on estrus (d 0) and treated d 0-3 with (a) vehicle, (b) 1 ug estrone/d (E)...

44

Induction of steroid sulfatase expression by tumor necrosis factor-? through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

Steroid sulfatase (STS) is responsible for the hydrolysis of aryl and alkyl steroid sulfates and has a pivotal role in regulating the formation of biologically active estrogens. STS may be considered a new promising drug target for treating estrogen-mediated carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism of STS expression is not well-known. To investigate whether tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? is able to regulate gene transcription of STS, we studied the effect of TNF-? on STS expression in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that TNF-? significantly induced the expression of STS mRNA and protein in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Treatment with TNF-? resulted in a strong increase in the phosphorylation of Akt on Ser-473 and when cells were treated with phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase inhibitors such as LY294002 or wortmannin, or Akt inhibitor (Akt inhibitor IV), induction of STS mRNA expression by TNF-? was significantly prevented. Moreover, activation of Akt1 by expressing the constitutively active form of Akt1 increased STS expression whereas dominant-negative Akt suppressed TNF-?-mediated STS induction. We also found that TNF-? is able to increase STS mRNA expression in other human cancer cells such as LNCaP, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 as well as PC-3 cells. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that PI 3-kinase/Akt activation mediates induction of human STS gene expression by TNF-? in human cancer cells. PMID:21904110

Suh, Bo Young; Jung, Jin Joo; Park, Nahee; Seong, Cheul Hun; Im, Hee Jung; Kwon, Yeojung; Kim, Donghak; Chun, Young Jin

2011-11-30

45

Corneal Bee Sting Controlled with Early Surgical Intervention and Systemic High-Dose Steroid Therapy  

PubMed Central

A 34-year-old Asian woman presented with painful corneal bee sting. Examinations revealed severe corneal swelling with stinger stuck in deep stroma and endothelial cell loss. She was treated with early surgery including stinger removal and anterior chamber irrigation combined with systemic high-dose steroid therapy. Vision and corneal clarity was recovered in 5 days and no additional corneal endothelial damage was observed. This report suggests that early surgical intervention and high-dose steroid therapy appear to be a useful option in the treatment of corneal bee sting. PMID:25580326

Kim, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Moosang; Lee, Seung-Jun; Han, Sang Beom; Hyon, Joon Young

2014-01-01

46

Expression analysis of cyp11a1 during gonadal development, recrudescence and after hCG induction and sex steroid analog treatment in the catfish, Clarias batrachus.  

PubMed

In teleosts, the levels of steroids are critical for sexual development and hence, expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes and specific substrate availability are indispensable for gonadal steroidogenesis. Early stages of steroidogenesis specifically cholesterol to pregnenolone conversion by Cyp11a1 is crucial for estradiol and testosterone biosynthesis. Based on this, in this study, full length cDNA of cyp11a1 (2581bp) was cloned from catfish testis to investigate the importance of Cyp11a1 by analyzing the expression of cyp11a1 during gonadal development, seasonal reproductive cycle, after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) induction and sex steroid analog treatment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Cyp11a1 is more conserved across teleosts. Tissue distribution analysis showed that the cyp11a1 expression was higher in the testis followed by the brain, head kidney, muscle and ovary compared to other tissues analyzed. High expression of cyp11a1 in the head kidney and muscle revealed that Cyp11a1 could potentially regulate the extra-gonadal and/or circulating steroid levels in teleosts. Developing and mature testes showed higher expression of cyp11a1 than the ovary of corresponding age group. Further, cyp11a1 expression was found to be higher during pre-spawning and spawning phases of testicular cycle and was upregulated by hCG, in vivo and in vitro, which indicates the possible regulation by gonadotropin. Exposure of methyltestosterone (1?g/L) and ethinylestradiol (1?g/L) for 21days during catfish testicular development showed lower cyp11a1 expression levels in the testis and brain indicating a certain feedback intervention. These results suggest possible role for Cyp11a1 in the testis development and recrudescence. PMID:25107325

Rajakumar, Anbazhagan; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

2014-10-01

47

Anabolic Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

Print Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Anabolic Steroids DrugFacts: Anabolic Steroids Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2012 “Anabolic steroids” is the familiar name for synthetic variants of the male sex hormone testosterone. The proper ...

48

Sequent calculus proof systems for inductive definitions   

E-print Network

Inductive definitions are the most natural means by which to represent many families of structures occurring in mathematics and computer science, and their corresponding induction / recursion principles provide the ...

Brotherston, James

49

A computer simulation of an induction heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the design and analysis of induction heating systems is presented. The method entails the simulation of system performance using an equivalent circuit approach. Equivalent circuit models are obtained for the three parts of an induction heating system: the power source, the impedance matching circuit, and the load. These models are combined into a system model which is

Lawrence R. Egan; Edward P. Furlani

1991-01-01

50

A portable magnetic induction measurement system (PIMS).  

PubMed

For contactless monitoring of ventilation and heart activity, magnetic induction measurements are applicable. As the technique is harmless for the human body, it is well suited for long-term monitoring solutions, e.g., bedside monitoring, monitoring of home care patients, and the monitoring of persons in critical occupations. For such settings, a two-channel portable magnetic induction system has been developed, which is small and light enough to be fitted in a chair or bed. Because demodulation, control, and filtering are implemented on a front-end digital signal processor, a PC is not required (except for visualization/data storage during research and development). The system can be connected to a local area network (LAN) or wireless network (WiFi), allowing to connect several devices to a large monitoring system, e.g., for a residential home for the elderly or a hospital with low-risk patients not requiring standard ECG monitoring. To visualize data streams, a Qt-based (Qt-framework by Nokia, Espoo, Finland) monitoring application has been developed, which runs on Netbook computers, laptops, or standard PCs. To induce and measure the magnetic fields, external coils and amplifiers are required. This article describes the system and presents results for monitoring respiration and heart activity in a (divan) bed and for respiration monitoring in a chair. Planar configurations and orthogonal coil setups were examined during the measurement procedures. The measurement data were streamed over a LAN to a monitoring PC running Matlab (The MathWorks Inc, Natick, MA, USA). PMID:22505496

Cordes, Axel; Foussier, Jérôme; Pollig, Daniel; Leonhardt, Steffen

2012-04-01

51

INDUCTIVE SYSTEM HEALTH MONITORING WITH STATISTICAL METRICS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model-based reasoning is a powerful method for performing system monitoring and diagnosis. Building models for model-based reasoning is often a difficult and time consuming process. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS processes nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. In particular, a clustering algorithm forms groups of nominal values for sets of related parameters. This establishes constraints on those parameter values that should hold during nominal operation. During monitoring, IMS provides a statistically weighted measure of the deviation of current system behavior from the established normal baseline. If the deviation increases beyond the expected level, an anomaly is suspected, prompting further investigation by an operator or automated system. IMS has shown potential to be an effective, low cost technique to produce system monitoring capability for a variety of applications. We describe the training and system health monitoring techniques of IMS. We also present the application of IMS to a data set from the Space Shuttle Columbia STS-107 flight. IMS was able to detect an anomaly in the launch telemetry shortly after a foam impact damaged Columbia's thermal protection system.

Iverson, David L.

2005-01-01

52

Transport of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity across a swine lagoon/sprayfield system.  

PubMed

The inflow, transformation, and attenuation of natural steroid hormones and phytoestrogens and estrogenic activity were assessed across the lagoon/sprayfield system of a prototypical commercial swine sow operation. Free and conjugated steroid hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progesterone) were detected in urine and feces of sows across reproductive stages, with progesterone being the most abundant steroid hormone. Excreta also contained phytoestrogens indicative of a soy-based diet, particularly, daidzein, genistein, and equol. During storage in barn pits and the anaerobic lagoon, conjugated hormones dissipated, and androgens and progesterone were attenuated. Estrone and equol persisted along the waste disposal route. Following application of lagoon slurry to agricultural soils, all analytes exhibited attenuation within 2 days. However, analytes including estrone, androstenedione, progesterone, and equol remained detectable in soil at 2 months postapplication. Estrogenic activity in the yeast estrogen screen and T47D-KBluc in vitro bioassays generally tracked well with analyte concentrations. Estrone was found to be the greatest contributor to estrogenic activity across all sample types. This investigation encompasses the most comprehensive suite of natural hormone and phytoestrogen analytes examined to date across a livestock lagoon/sprayfield and provides global insight into the fate of these analytes in this widely used waste management system. PMID:25148584

Yost, Erin E; Meyer, Michael T; Dietze, Julie E; Williams, C Michael; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W

2014-10-01

53

Induction accelerators for the phase rotator system  

SciTech Connect

The principle of magnetic induction has been applied to the acceleration of high current beams in betatrons and a variety of induction accelerators. The linear induction accelerator (LIA) consists of a simple nonresonant structure where the drive voltage is applied to an axially symmetric gap that encloses a toroidal ferromagnetic material. The change in flux in the magnetic core induces an axial electric field that provides particle acceleration. This simple nonresonant (low Q) structure acts as a single turn transformer that can accelerate from hundreds of amperes to tens of kiloamperes, basically only limited by the drive impedance. The LIA is typically a low gradient structure that can provide acceleration fields of varying shapes and time durations from tens of nanoseconds to several microseconds. The efficiency of the LIA depends on the beam current and can exceed 50% if the beam current exceeds the magnetization current required by the ferromagnetic material. The acceleration voltage available is simply given by the expression V=A dB/dt. Hence, for a given cross section of material, the beam pulse duration influences the energy gain. Furthermore, a premium is put on minimizing the diameter, which impacts the total weight or cost of the magnetic material. The diameter doubly impacts the cost of the LIA since the power (cost) to drive the cores is proportional to the volume as well. The waveform requirements during the beam pulse makes it necessary to make provisions in the pulsing system to maintain the desired dB/dt during the useful part of the acceleration cycle. This is typically done two ways, by using the final stage of the pulse forming network (PFN) and by the pulse compensation network usually in close proximity of the acceleration cell. The choice of magnetic materials will be made by testing various materials both ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic. These materials will include the nickel-iron, silicon steel amorphous and various types of ferrites not only to determine the properties that are essential in this application but the energy losses in the magnetization process which directly impact the cost.

Reginato, Lou; Yu, Simon; Vanecek, Dave

2001-07-30

54

Psoriatic Erythroderma and Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis Suppression Due to Misuse of Systemic Steroid: Two Challenging Cases  

PubMed Central

Adding corticosteroid in homeopathic pills, self medication of steroid in the backdrop permanent cure in cases of psoriasis is not very uncommon in clinical practice in Indian subcontinent. First case a 52 year man, a known case of psoriasis vulgaris with psoriatic arthropathy of 15 years duration received multiple modalities of therapies without any satisfactory response. He was on self medication of tab prednisolone 10 mg daily with Cushingoid features. Second case a 22 year old boy, a known case of psoriasis from last 06 years was on Homeopathic treatment with Cushinoid features. Tapering of systemic steroid in first case and discontinuation of homeopathic drug in second case resulted in erythroderma and features of adrenal insufficiiency. Investigation revealed low morning cortisol and low cortisol following ACTH stimulation suggestive of HPA axis suppression. Planned withdrawal of steroid under the cover of short acting systemic steroid for short duration along with combination of immunosuppressants and supportive care gave an excellent result in both the cases.

Singh, Gautam K; Chatterjee, Manas

2015-01-01

55

Analytical equivalent impedance for a planar circular induction heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of analytical expressions is derived for the equivalent impedance in a planar circular induction heating system, used for example in home appliances. The induction system consists of an n-turn planar winding loaded by a conductive material. Expressions that describe the frequency dependence of impedance are provided. The influence of load conductivity, load permeability, and geometrical dimensions is also

J. Acero; R. Alonso; J. M. Burdio; L. A. Barragan; D. Puyal

2006-01-01

56

STEADY STATE ANALYSIS OF INDUCTION GENERATOR INFINITE BUS SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper conducts a fundamental analysis on the induction generator inflnite bus system which is a useful representation for a wind energy converter interfaced to a utility through a transmission line. A third order model is used to represent the induction generator and the resultant nonlinear system equations are analysed to derive a condition that guarantees the existence of equilibrium

Rajesh G. Kavasseri

2007-01-01

57

Inhaled Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

... flow results. You still may need a short burst of oral steroids when you have more severe ... symptoms, call your health care provider. A short burst of steroid pills given early may prevent the ...

58

Anabolic Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... from some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

59

Steroidal Saponins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

60

[Serotonine and sex steroids in the system of neuroendocrine regulation of amygdala functions].  

PubMed

This review contains modern information about the representation of serotoninergic system in the Amygdala with detailed characteristics of the localization of serotonine fibers and serotonine receptors in nuclear and paleocortical structures. These data indicate the joint participation of serotonine and sex steroids in the regulation of the neuroedocrine function of Amygdala, which have a modulating effect on the secretion and release gonadotropine centers and sexual behavior centers in the hypothalamic area of the brain. The survey also gives information about changes in the exchange of serotonine in the Amygdala's structures in the process of alimentary, maternal, aggressive-defensive and emotional behavior. Systematizes the data on the role of serotonin and sex steroids in the mechanisms involved in the stress response of Amygdala, and its participation in the formation of mood, emotions and the genesis of depression. Presented data on changes in morphometric characteristics of brain structures caused by polymorphic variants of genes of serotoninergic systems and data on the asymmetry of its content. PMID:25508091

2013-01-01

61

[Serotonine and sex steroids in the system of neuroendocrine regulation of amygdala functions].  

PubMed

This review contains modern information about the representation of serotoninergic system in the Amygdala with detailed characteristics of the localization of serotonine fibers and serotonine receptors in nuclear and paleocortical structures. These data indicate the joint participation of serotonine and sex steroids in the regulation of the neuroedocrine function of Amygdala, which have a modulating effect on the secretion and release gonadotropine centers and sexual behavior centers in the hypothalamic area of the brain. The survey also gives information about changes in the exchange of serotonine in the Amygdala's structures in the process of alimentary, maternal, aggressive-defensive and emotional behavior. Systematizes the data on the role of serotonin and sex steroids in the mechanisms involved in the stress response of Amygdala, and its participation in the formation of mood, emotions and the genesis of depression. Presented data on changes in morphometric characteristics of brain structures caused by polymorphic variants of genes of serotoninergic systems and data on the asymmetry of its content. PMID:25438560

Akhmadeev, A V; Kalimullina, L B

2013-01-01

62

EVALUATION OF AN INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA, MULTICHANNEL SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

An inductively coupled plasma, multielement atomic emission spectrometric analysis system has been evaluated with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency's need for a rapid method for determination of trace elemental concentrations in water. Data are presented on detection...

63

Inductive Power System for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater inductive coupling is used to recharge a lithium-ion battery pack for an underwater mooring profiler operating on a cabled deep-ocean mooring sensor network. The mooring profiler is a motor driven autonomous underwater vehicle that is attached to a vertical mooring cable suspended between the seafloor at 900 m and subsurface float structure at a depth of 160 m (to

T. McGinnis; C. P. Henze; K. Conroy

2007-01-01

64

From Steroid Receptors to Cytokines: The Thermodynamics of Self-Associating Systems  

PubMed Central

Since 1987, the Gibbs Conference on Biothermodynamics has maintained a focus on understanding the quantitative aspects of gene regulatory systems. These studies coupled rigorous techniques with exact theory to dissect the linked reactions associated with bacterial and lower eukaryotic gene regulation. However, only in the last ten years has it become possible to apply this approach to clinically relevant, human gene regulatory systems. Here we summarize our work on the thermodynamics of human steroid receptors and their interactions with multi-site promoter sequences, highlighting results not available from more traditional biochemical and structural approaches. Noting that the Gibbs Conference has also served as a vehicle to promote the broader use of thermodynamics in understanding biology, we then discuss collaborative work on the hydrodynamics of a cytokine implicated in tumor suppression, prostate derived factor (PDF). PMID:21696881

Connaghan, Keith D.; Moody, Amie D.; Robblee, James P.; Lambert, James R.; Bain, David L.

2011-01-01

65

Ovarian Steroid Regulation of the Midbrain CRF and UCN Systems in Macaques  

PubMed Central

A significant number of postmenopausal women report increased anxiety and vulnerablity to stress, which has been linked to decreased secretion of ovarian steroids. Communication between the serotonin system and the CRF system determines stress sensitivity or resilience. This study examines the effects of the ovarian steroids, estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) on the CRF system components that impact serotonin neurons in the midbrain of nonhuman primates. Ovariectomized rhesus macaques were treated with placebo, E alone for one month, or E supplemented with P for the last 2 weeks. Quantitative (q)RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry were employed. E±P treatment decreased CRF-R1 and increased CRF-R2 gene expression in hemi-midbrain blocks and in laser captured serotonin neurons. Also in hemi-midbrains, E treatment increased UCN1 and CRFBP gene expression, but supplemental P treatment reversed these effects. E±P suppressed the already very low UCN3 mRNA, but had no effect on UCN2 mRNA. E±P decreased CRF fiber density in the dorsal, interfascicular and median raphe nuclei and decreased CRF-R1 immunostaining in the dorsal raphe. E increased CRF-R2 immunostaining in the dorsal and median raphe. E±P increased UCN1 immunostaining in the cell bodies and increased UCN1 fiber density in the caudal linear nucleus. ER?, but not ER? was detected in the nucleus of UCN1-positive neurons. While the mechanism of ovarian hormone regulation of the midbrain CRF system requires further investigation, these studies clearly demonstrate another pathway by which ovarian hormones may have positive effects on anxiety and mood regulation. PMID:20833230

Sanchez, Rachel L.; Reddy, Arubala P.; Bethea, Cynthia L.

2010-01-01

66

Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)  

MedlinePLUS

You are here: Health Information > Medications > Asthma and Lung Diseases > Quick-Relief Medications > Oral Steroids Oral Steroids (Steroid ... often necessary for treating more severe episodes of lung disease. Common steroid pills and liquids include: Medicine name ...

67

A magnetic induction measurement system for adult vital sign monitoring: evaluation of capacitive and inductive effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic induction (MI) measurement technique could provide an unobtrusive contactless method for continuous monitoring of vital signs such as breathing and cardiac activity in bed. In this paper, we present a magnetic induction system to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring heart and lung activity and the preliminary measurement results. The excitation and detection coils are designed to be implemented in a single printed circuit board, allowing the use of the system in a bed with coils under the mattress. The electronic system is based on a 16 bit arbitrary waveform generator (PXI-5422, National instrument) operating at a sample rate of 200 MS/s for the excitation signal and the detected amplified signal is then, sampled at 100 MS/s by a 14 bit digitizer (PXI-5122, National Instruments). The preliminary results at 10 MHz show the ability of the system to detect solutions with different conductivities. However the capacitive effect is in the same order of magnitude as the inductive effect due to eddy currents. Safety of the system has been evaluated to be in accordance with the standards of human exposure to the magnetic fields.

Mahdavi, H.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.

2013-04-01

68

Steroid biotransformations in biphasic systems with Yarrowia lipolytica expressing human liver cytochrome P450 genes  

PubMed Central

Background Yarrowia lipolytica efficiently metabolizes and assimilates hydrophobic compounds such as n-alkanes and fatty acids. Efficient substrate uptake is enabled by naturally secreted emulsifiers and a modified cell surface hydrophobicity and protrusions formed by this yeast. We were examining the potential of recombinant Y. lipolytica as a biocatalyst for the oxidation of hardly soluble hydrophobic steroids. Furthermore, two-liquid biphasic culture systems were evaluated to increase substrate availability. While cells, together with water soluble nutrients, are maintained in the aqueous phase, substrates and most of the products are contained in a second water-immiscible organic solvent phase. Results For the first time we have co-expressed the human cytochromes P450 2D6 and 3A4 genes in Y. lipolytica together with human cytochrome P450 reductase (hCPR) or Y. lipolytica cytochrome P450 reductase (YlCPR). These whole-cell biocatalysts were used for the conversion of poorly soluble steroids in biphasic systems. Employing a biphasic system with the organic solvent and Y. lipolytica carbon source ethyl oleate for the whole-cell bioconversion of progesterone, the initial specific hydroxylation rate in a 1.5?L stirred tank bioreactor was further increased 2-fold. Furthermore, the product formation was significantly prolonged as compared to the aqueous system. Co-expression of the human CPR gene led to a 4-10-fold higher specific activity, compared to the co-overexpression of the native Y. lipolytica CPR gene. Multicopy transformants showed a 50-70-fold increase of activity as compared to single copy strains. Conclusions Alkane-assimilating yeast Y. lipolytica, coupled with the described expression strategies, demonstrated its high potential for biotransformations of hydrophobic substrates in two-liquid biphasic systems. Especially organic solvents which can be efficiently taken up and/or metabolized by the cell might enable more efficient bioconversion as compared to aqueous systems and even enable simple, continuous or at least high yield long time processes. PMID:22876969

2012-01-01

69

Psoriatic erythroderma and hypothalamus-pituitary axis suppression due to misuse of systemic steroid: two challenging cases.  

PubMed

Adding corticosteroid in homeopathic pills, self medication of steroid in the backdrop permanent cure in cases of psoriasis is not very uncommon in clinical practice in Indian subcontinent. First case a 52 year man, a known case of psoriasis vulgaris with psoriatic arthropathy of 15 years duration received multiple modalities of therapies without any satisfactory response. He was on self medication of tab prednisolone 10 mg daily with Cushingoid features. Second case a 22 year old boy, a known case of psoriasis from last 06 years was on Homeopathic treatment with Cushinoid features. Tapering of systemic steroid in first case and discontinuation of homeopathic drug in second case resulted in erythroderma and features of adrenal insufficiiency. Investigation revealed low morning cortisol and low cortisol following ACTH stimulation suggestive of HPA axis suppression. Planned withdrawal of steroid under the cover of short acting systemic steroid for short duration along with combination of immunosuppressants and supportive care gave an excellent result in both the cases. PMID:25814713

Singh, Gautam K; Chatterjee, Manas

2015-01-01

70

Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system  

DOEpatents

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

2012-10-23

71

Power factor control system for AC induction motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A power factor control system for use with ac induction motors was designed which samples lines voltage and current through the motor and decreases power input to the motor proportional to the detected phase displacement between current and voltage. This system provides, less power to the motor, as it is less loaded.

Nola, F. J. (inventor)

1977-01-01

72

Annual sex steroid profiles and effects of gender and season on cytochrome P450 mRNA induction in Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod)  

SciTech Connect

As a preliminary step in a 4-year biomonitoring program, sex steroid levels, gonad weights, and diameter of vitellogenic oocytes were measured in tomcod collected bimonthly from the Miramichi and Kouchibouguac rivers from September 1993 to September 1994. As well as the reproductive indices, hepatic levels of cytochrome P4501A mRNA (CYP1A mRNA) were also measured. The preparatory period for spawning began in September, with maximal steroid levels in November, and spawning took place from late December to January. The CYP1A mRNA levels in female tomcod appeared inversely related to plasma steroids, with the lowest amounts of CYP1A mRNA coinciding with maximal steroids. The CYP1A mRNA levels in male tomcod did not exhibit this relationship. River-river comparisons of female tomcod showed significantly smaller vitellogenic oocytes in the Miramichi, along with lower plasma testosterone, estradiol, and relative gonad weight. Miramichi CYP1A mRNA levels were higher than Kouchibouguac in the fall but lower in the spring sample. The CYP1A mRNA-sex steroid relationship observed in this study will facilitate meaningful interpretation of data collected during the full 4-year study.

Williams, P.J.; Courtenay, S.C. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, New Brunswick (Canada); Wilson, C.E. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Ocean Sciences Center

1998-08-01

73

An in-progress, open-label, multi-centre study (SAILOR) evaluating whether a steroid-free immunosuppressive protocol, based on ATG induction and a low tacrolimus dose, reduces the incidence of new onset diabetes after transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background Corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are included in renal transplantation immunosuppressive protocols around the world. Well-known side effects are associated with the use of these drugs, including new onset of diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). Long-term patient survival rates are lower among patients with NODAT. The optimal immunosuppressive protocol would therefore include not using corticosteroids and minimization of CNI use. Methods/Design This is a prospective, multi-centre, controlled, randomized, parallel group, open-label study involving kidney transplant patients. The study compares a steroid-free immunosuppressive protocol (study arm A), which is based on low-dose tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) maintenance therapy together with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) induction, with the conventional immunosuppressive protocol (study arm B), being based on low-dose tacrolimus, MMF and steroids together with interleukin-2 receptor (IL2-R) induction. The study is designed to include most normal-risk patients. It will exclude patients seen as at a high risk of rejection. The primary objective of the study is to assess the cumulative incidence of NODAT in the two study arms 12 months after transplantation using the American Diabetes Association type 2 diabetes diagnostic criteria. The composite measure of freedom from acute rejection, graft survival and patient survival will be evaluated. Renal function and chronic changes in the transplanted kidney will be assessed. Discussion If this study confirms conceptual expectations, namely decreased incidence of NODAT, the steroid-free study protocol could be used with all patients. The regimen could be especially beneficial for patients at a high risk of diabetes mellitus. Trial registration Trial registration: EudraCT 2012-000451-13. PMID:24959347

2014-01-01

74

Icing-Protection Requirements for Reciprocating-Engine Induction System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite the development of relatively ice-free fuel-metering systems, the widespread use of alternate and heated-air intakes, and the use of alcohol for emergency de-icing, icing of aircraft-engine induction systems is a serious problem. Investigations have been made to study and to combat all phases of this icing problem. From these investigations, criterions for safe operation and for design of new induction systems have been established. The results were obtained from laboratory investigations of carburetor-supercharger combinations, wind-tunnel investigations of air scoops, multicylinder-engine studies, and flight investigations. Characteristics of three forms of ice, impact, throttling, and fuel evaporation were studied. The effects of several factors on the icing characteristics were also studied and included: (1) atmospheric conditions, (2) engine and air-scoop configurations, including light-airplane system, (3) type fuel used, and (4) operating variables, such as power condition, use of a manifold pressure regulator, mixture setting, carburetor heat, and water-alcohol injection. In addition, ice-detection methods were investigated and methods of preventing and removing induction-system ice were studied. Recommendations are given for design and operation with regard to induction-system design.

Coles, Willard D; Rollin, Vern G; Mulholland, Donald R

1950-01-01

75

Fate and occurrence of steroids in swine and dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems.  

PubMed

Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (steroids via swine farms and human sources were mainly originated from wastewater into the receiving environments while those steroids via cattle farms were mainly from cattle feces. The total contributions of steroids to the environment in China are estimated to be 139, 65.8 and 60.7 t/year from swine, dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. PMID:22835499

Liu, Shan; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Zhou, Li-Jun; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng

2012-11-01

76

21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...configuration include cortisol, cortisone 11-desoxycortisol, desoxycorticosterone, and their tetrahydroderivatives. This group of hormones is synthesized by the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used...

2011-04-01

77

21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...configuration include cortisol, cortisone 11-desoxycortisol, desoxycorticosterone, and their tetrahydroderivatives. This group of hormones is synthesized by the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used...

2013-04-01

78

21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...configuration include cortisol, cortisone 11-desoxycortisol, desoxycorticosterone, and their tetrahydroderivatives. This group of hormones is synthesized by the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used...

2012-04-01

79

21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...configuration include cortisol, cortisone 11-desoxycortisol, desoxycorticosterone, and their tetrahydroderivatives. This group of hormones is synthesized by the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used...

2010-04-01

80

21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...configuration include cortisol, cortisone 11-desoxycortisol, desoxycorticosterone, and their tetrahydroderivatives. This group of hormones is synthesized by the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used...

2014-04-01

81

Systems modeling for heavy ion drivers - an induction linac example  

SciTech Connect

A source-to-target model for a induction linac driver for heavy ion fusion has been developed and is described here. Design features for a reference case driver that meets the requirements of one current target design are given, and the systems analyses supporting the point design are discussed. Directions for future work are noted.

Meier, W.R.; Bangerter, R.O.; Faltens, A.

1997-09-30

82

Induction Curing of Thiol-acrylate and Thiolene Composite Systems  

PubMed Central

Induction curing is demonstrated as a novel type of in situ radiation curing that maintains most of the advantages of photocuring while eliminating the restriction of light accessibility. Induction curing is utilized to polymerize opaque composites comprised of thiol-acrylate and thiol-ene resins, nanoscale magnetic particles, and carbon nanotubes. Nanoscale magnetic particles are dispersed in the resin and upon exposure to the magnetic field, these particles lead to induction heating that rapidly initiates the polymerization. Heat transfer profiles and reaction kinetics of the samples are modeled during the reactions with varying induction heater power, species concentration, species type and sample thickness, and the model is compared with the experimental results. Thiol-ene polymerizations achieved full conversion between 1.5 minutes and 1 hour, depending on the field intensity and the composition, with the maximum reaction temperature decreasing from 146 – 87 °C when the induction heater power was decreased from 8 – 3 kW. The polymerization reactions of the thiol-acrylate system were demonstrated to achieve full conversion between 0.6 and 30 minutes with maximum temperatures from 139 to 86 °C. The experimental behavior was characterized and the temperature profile modeled for the thiol-acrylate composite comprised of sub100nm nickel particles and induction heater power in the range of 32 to 20 kW. A 9°C average deviation was observed between the modeling and experimental results for the maximum temperature rise. The model also was utilized to predict reaction temperatures and kinetics for systems with varying thermal initiator concentration, initiator half-life, monomer molecular weight and temperature gradients in samples with varying thickness, thereby demonstrating that induction curing represents a designable and tunable polymerization method. Finally, induction curing was utilized to cure thiol-acrylate systems containing carbon nanotubes where 1 wt% carbon nanotubes resulted in systems where the storage modulus increased from 17.6 ± 0.2 to 21.6 ± 0.1 MPa and an electrical conductivity that increased from <10?7 to 0.33 ± 0.5 S/m. PMID:21765552

Ye, Sheng; Cramer, Neil B.; Stevens, Blake E.; Sani, Robert L.; Bowman, Christopher N.

2011-01-01

83

Induction Linac Systems Experiments for heavy ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory propose to build at LBL the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step toward the eventual goal of a heavy ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Though much smaller than a driver, ILSE will be at full driver scale in several important parameters. Nearly all accelerator components and beam manipulations required for a driver will be tested. It is expected that ILSE will be built in stages as funds and technical progress allow. The first stage, called Elise will include all of the electrostatic quadrupole focused parts of ILSE.

Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bangerter, R.O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Div.

1994-06-01

84

A Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting with an Acute Abdomen: Successful Treatment with Steroid  

PubMed Central

Abdominal pain continues to pose diagnostic challenges for emergency clinicians. A 56-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital due to severe abdominal pain which presented as occasional epigastric pain five months before and intermittent abdominal pain. She had a past history of ileus twice, for both of which laparotomy was performed without an alimentary tract resection. The wall thickening with marked three-wall structure from terminal ileum to sigmoid colon was seen and bladder wall was irregularly thick and enhanced irregularly. Among the differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen, autoimmune diseases were suspected, especially lupus erythematosus and Henoch-Schönlein purpura. On the second day of admission, abdominal pain worsened. The results of examinations of antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA antibody, ANCA, and the complements were not obtained at that time; however, we started 1-g steroid pulse treatment for three days with success. With the results obtained later, the patient was given a diagnosis of probable systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The present case shows that SLE can present with acute abdomen and should be included in the wide range of the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. PMID:25580129

Fukatsu, Haruka; Sugiyama, Koichi; Kasahara, Akinori; Matsumura, Tadashi

2014-01-01

85

Steroids (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... a number of health problems. Continue How Do Anabolic Steroids Work? Anabolic steroids are drugs that resemble the ... body can be harmful over time. Dangers of Anabolic Steroids Steroids are dangerous for two reasons: they are ...

86

A System for Induction of Oblique Decision Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a new system for induction of oblique decision trees. This system,OC1, combines deterministic hill-climbing with two forms of randomization to find a goodoblique split (in the form of a hyperplane) at each node of a decision tree. Oblique decisiontree methods are tuned especially for domains in which the attributes are numeric, althoughthey can be adapted to symbolic

Sreerama K. Murthy; Simon Kasif; Steven Salzberg

1994-01-01

87

A Complete Modeling and Simulation of Induction Generator Wind Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the modeling and simulation of wind power systems based on two different induction generators; the squirrel-cage induction generator (SCIG) and the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The techniques of direct grid integration of SCIG system and independent power control of DFIG system are discussed. Particularly, to solve the droop in distribution line voltage in SCIG system, a reactive

Yu Zou; M. Elbuluk; Y. Sozer

2010-01-01

88

Treatment of steroid-naive ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

The introduction of steroid therapy by Truelove and Witts in the 1950s revolutionized the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Corticosteroids are potent inhibitors of T-cell activation and proinflammatory cytokines and still represent the mainstay of therapy of patients with ulcerative colitis. About 15% of patients are resistant to steroids, and about a quarter of patients become dependent within 1 year of therapy. Steroid-related adverse events are numerous and occur frequently. So, new steroids with low systemic absorption and better safety profile have been studied, but they show an overall lower efficacy compared with traditional steroids. A new drug-delivery system based on the use of autologous erythrocytes loaded with dexamethasone 21-phosphate has been recently developed. Several studies have demonstrated its efficacy in steroid-dependent patients leading to complete withdrawal of oral steroids and disappearance of the most steroid-related adverse events. In this review we elaborate on the role of steroids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, focusing on the aspects related to the mechanisms of action and resistance to the steroids, and their secondary effects. Moreover, we analyse the alternatives to traditional systemic steroids such as the new steroids with low bioavailability and the steroids encapsulated into erythrocytes. PMID:19445560

Bossa, Fabrizio; Colombo, Elisabetta; Andriulli, Angelo; Annese, Vito

2009-06-01

89

Pulse Detonation Engine Air Induction System Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary mixed-compression inlet design concept for potential pulse-detonation engine (PDE) powered supersonic aircraft was defined and analyzed. The objectives of this research were to conceptually design and integrate an inlet/PDE propulsion system into a supersonic aircraft, perform time-dependent CFD analysis of the inlet flowfield, and to estimate the installed PDE cycle performance. The study was baselined to a NASA Mach 5 Waverider study vehicle in which the baseline over/under turboramjet engines were replaced with a single flowpath PDE propulsion system. As much commonality as possible was maintained with the baseline configuration, including the engine location and forebody lines. Modifications were made to the inlet system's external ramp angles and a rotating cowl lip was incorporated to improve off-design inlet operability and performance. Engines were sized to match the baseline vehicle study's ascent trajectory thrust requirement at Mach 1.2. The majority of this study was focused on a flight Mach number of 3.0. The time-dependent Navier Stokes CFD analyses of a two-dimensional approximation of the inlet was conducted for the Mach 3.0 condition. The Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems-developed FALCON CFD code with a two equation 'k-1' turbulence model was used. The downstream PDE was simulated by an array of four sonic nozzles in which the flow areas were rapidly varied in various opening/closing combinations. Results of the CFD study indicated that the inlet design concept operated successfully at the Mach 3.0 condition, satisfying mass capture, total pressure recovery, and operability requirements. Time-dependent analysis indicated that pressure and expansion waves from the simulated valve perturbations did not effect the inlet's operability or performance.

Pegg, R. J.; Hunter, L. G.; Couch, B. D.

1996-01-01

90

Real-Time System Verification by Kappa-Induction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the first formal verification of a reintegration protocol for a safety-critical, fault-tolerant, real-time distributed embedded system. A reintegration protocol increases system survivability by allowing a node that has suffered a fault to regain state consistent with the operational nodes. The protocol is verified in the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL), where bounded model checking and decision procedures are used to verify infinite-state systems by k-induction. The protocol and its environment are modeled as synchronizing timeout automata. Because k-induction is exponential with respect to k, we optimize the formal model to reduce the size of k. Also, the reintegrator's event-triggered behavior is conservatively modeled as time-triggered behavior to further reduce the size of k and to make it invariant to the number of nodes modeled. A corollary is that a clique avoidance property is satisfied.

Pike, Lee S.

2005-01-01

91

Disseminated nocardiosis during systemic steroid therapy for the prevention of esophageal stricture after endoscopic submucosal dissection.  

PubMed

An 85-year-old man underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for a large superficial esophageal epithelial neoplasm, which required removal of 95% of the circumference of the esophageal mucosa. Steroids were given orally to prevent esophageal stricture starting on day 3 postoperatively. In the 6th week of steroid treatment, he developed high fever without other symptoms. Chest computed tomography revealed a nodular lesion in the lung. Sputum sample showed Gram-positive, branching, filamentous bacteria, and a diagnosis of nocardiosis was suspected. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple focal lesions which indicated dissemination of nocardiosis. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was immediately started, which led to the disappearance of pulmonary and cerebral nocardiosis with alleviation of fever. Recently, oral steroid treatment has been widely used for the prevention of esophageal stricture. However, the present case indicates the risk of life-threatening infection and the importance of close monitoring of this treatment. PMID:24889691

Ishida, Tsukasa; Morita, Yoshinori; Hoshi, Namiko; Yoshizaki, Tetsuya; Ohara, Yoshiko; Kawara, Fumiaki; Tanaka, Sinwa; Yamamoto, Yuki; Matsuo, Hiroo; Iwata, Kentaro; Toyonaga, Takashi; Azuma, Takeshi

2015-03-01

92

Use of systemic steroid after successful macular surgery in eyes with epiretinal membrane: a randomized, controlled clinical study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the functional and morphological outcomes of postoperative systemic steroid therapy after successful macular surgery in eyes with macular edema due to idiopathic macular epiretinal membranes (ERMs). Design Prospective, randomized, investigator-masked, controlled clinical study. Methods Twenty-eight patients scheduled for 23-gauge vitrectomy combined with ERM and inner limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for macular edema due to ERM were included in this single center trial. Patients were randomized to receive oral steroid therapy (Prednisolone, 100?mg per day for 5 days) or no oral steroid (control group) after surgery. Main outcome measures included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA; Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study), central retinal thickness (CRT), retinal volume (RV), and macular morphology as determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, Cirrus). Examinations were carried out preoperatively and at week 1, at months 1 and 3, postoperatively. Results At month 3, mean BCVA improved to a eight-letter gain in each study group (P<0.01 compared with baseline for both groups), showing no statistically significant difference between both the groups (P=0.19). Morphologically, retinal surface folds resolved within 1 month after surgery in both treatment groups, followed by a progressive recovery of retinal layer integrity and a statistical significant (P<0.01) decrease in CRT and RV without significant differences between both groups (P=0.62, P=0.13, respectively, ANOVA between the groups). Conclusion The early postoperative use of systemic steroid treatment after successful vitrectomy combined with ERM and ILM peeling does not seem to improve significantly the anatomic and functional outcomes in eyes with ERM. PMID:21886189

Ritter, M; Sacu, S; Matt, G; Dunavölgyi, R; Bühl, W; Prünte, C; Schmidt-Erfurth, U

2011-01-01

93

Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

1982-01-01

94

Transistorized PWM Inverter-Induction Motor Drive System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a transistorized pulsewidth modulated (PWM) inverter-induction motor traction drive system is described. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and

Steven C. Peak; Allan B. Plunkett

1983-01-01

95

Doubly fed induction generator systems for wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows that adjustable speed generators for wind turbines are necessary when output power becomes higher than 1 MW. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) system presented in this article offers many advantages to reduce cost and has the potential to be built economically at power levels above 1.5 MW, e.g., for off-shore applications. A dynamic model of the

S. Muller; M. Deicke; R. W. De Doncker

2002-01-01

96

Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:24685768

Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

2014-07-01

97

Paracrine regulation of apoptosis by steroid hormones in the male and female reproductive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In males, androgens are essential in maintaining the integrity of the prostate. Androgen-ablation induces apoptosis of the prostatic epithelium. In females, ovariectomy induces apoptosis in uterine epithelium while progesterone inhibits this process. The objective of this study was to determine whether androgen and progesterone inhibit apoptosis, respectively, in mouse prostatic and uterine epithelia via steroid receptors in the epithelium or

T Kurita; Y Z Wang; A A Donjacour; C Zhao; J P Lydon; B W O'Malley; J T Isaacs; R Dahiya; G R Cunha

2001-01-01

98

Analysis of an induction linac driver system for inertial fusion  

SciTech Connect

A linear induction accelerator that produces a beam of energetic (5 to 20 GeV) heavy (130 to 210 amu) ions is a prime candidate as a driver for inertial fusion. Continuing developments in sources for ions with charge state greater than unity allow a potentially large reduction in the driver cost and an increase in the driver efficiency. The use of high undepressed tunes (sigma/sub 0/ approx. = 85/sup 0/) and low depressed tunes (sigma approx. = 8.5/sup 0/) also contributes to a potentially large reduction in the driver cost. The efficiency and cost of the induction linac system are discussed as a function of output energy and pulse repetition frequency for several ion masses and charge states. The cost optimization code LIACEP, including accelerating module alternatives, transport modules, and scaling laws, is presented. Items with large cost-leverage are identified as a guide to future research activities and development of technology that can yield substantial reductions in the accelerator system cost and improvement in the accelerator system efficiency. Finally, a cost-effective strategy using heavy ion induction linacs in a development scenario for inertial fusion is presented. 34 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

Hovingh, J.; Brady, V.O.; Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.; Lee, E.P.

1987-07-01

99

Steroid withdrawal or steroid avoidance in renal transplant recipients: focus on tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive regimens.  

PubMed

Steroid-induced adverse effects after transplantation include cosmetic, metabolic, and cardiovascular complications. Steroid withdrawal or avoidance with cyclosporine-based regimens have been hampered by an unacceptably high rate of acute rejections and increased rates of graft loss. Recently the results of several large, randomized trials of steroid withdrawal/avoidance with tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in renal transplant recipients became available. A review of these trials appeared to be of clinical interest. Data from the THOMAS trial clearly indicate that steroid withdrawal from a regimen of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), steroids after 3 months after transplantation is safe with regard to acute rejection rate and graft survival. If an induction therapy with daclizumab is used in combination with tacrolimus and MMF (CARMEN trial), even steroid avoidance is safe with regard to acute rejection rate and graft survival. Finally, in the ATLAS trial, steroid avoidance with basiliximab in combination with tacrolimus (resulting in tacrolimus monotherapy) or alternatively with tacrolimus and MMF both resulted in similar graft survival, but higher rates of acute rejection. In conclusion, steroid withdrawal is safe from a triple-drug regimen of tacrolimus, MMF, and steroids after 3 months after transplantation, and steroid use may completely be avoided with tacrolimus, and MMF combined with daclizumab induction. Tacrolimus monotherapy may be achieved using basiliximab induction at the price of higher rates of acute rejection, but with unaffected graft survival. Thus tacrolimus-based immunosuppression with or without interleukin-2 receptor antagonist induction has made steroid withdrawal or avoidance a realistic option in renal transplantation. PMID:15919467

Krämer, B K; Krüger, B; Mack, M; Obed, A; Banas, B; Paczek, L; Schlitt, H J

2005-05-01

100

Designer Steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anabolic steroids have been studied for over 50 years and during that time numerous compounds with a variety of functional\\u000a groups have been produced and many have been published. Of these only a small number have been introduced to the pharmaceutical\\u000a market. WADA has continued the work begun by the IOC banning the use of these agents within sport as

Ray Kazlauskas

101

Control system for an induction motor with energy recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A control circuit for an induction motor powered system is disclosed in which a power factor controlled servo loop is used to control, via the phase angle of firing of a triac, the power input to the motor, as a function of load placed on the motor by machinery of the powered system. Then, upon application of torque by this machinery to the motor, which tends to overspeed the motor, the firing angle of the triac is automatically set to a fixed, and relatively short, firing angle.

Nola, F. J. (inventor)

1983-01-01

102

A case of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis associated with polyarteritis nodosa, responding to systemic steroids  

PubMed Central

A patient with a known biopsy of polyarteritis nodosa diagnosis presented with cyclic fevers, acute kidney injury, and progression of rash from macular to pustular, worsening despite being on antibiotics, without evidence of infection on multiple cultures. The patient had a pathological diagnosis from a skin biopsy of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis syndrome, with a total resolution of rash, fevers, and acute kidney injury on treatment with pulse steroids. PMID:25846351

Alkhachroum, Ayham M.; Kazzaz, Nayef

2015-01-01

103

An induction Linac driven heavy-ion fusion systems model  

SciTech Connect

A computerized systems model of a heavy-ion fusion (HIF) reactor power plant is presented. The model can be used to analyze the behavior and projected costs of a commercial power plant using an induction linear accelerator (Linac) as a driver. Each major component of the model (targets, reactor cavity, Linac, beam transport, power flow, balance of plant, and costing) is discussed. Various target, reactor cavity, Linac, and beam transport schemes are examined and compared. The preferred operating regime for such a power plant is also examined. The results show that HIF power plants can compete with other advanced energy concepts at the 1000-MW(electric) power level (cost of electricity (COE) --50 mill/kW . h) provided that the cost savings predicted for Linacs using higher charge-state ions (+3) can be realized. The induction Linac driver is still a major component of the total capital cost (43%), but it no longer appears that large 4000-MW(electric), $5 billion (1984) power plants will be required to make the economics of HIF look favorable. More importantly, the results also indicate that there are several different combinations of target and reactor cavity options that lead to COEs within 10% of the overall minimum. The induction Linac's higher efficiency (>20%) is able to compensate for changes in target concept (gain) and cavity type with minimal change in COE. The potential cost reductions and apparent flexibility identified by this study together with the established performance data base from present-day accelerators are leading to renewed interest in induction Linacs for near-term target development applications.

Zuckerman, D.S.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Waganer, L.M.; Dudziak, D.J.

1988-02-01

104

Steroid hormones, receptors, and perceptual and cognitive sex differences in the visual system.  

PubMed

The actions of gonadal steroid hormones induce morphological sex differences in many tissues in the body, including brain. These occur either during development to organize tissues in a sex-specific pattern and/or in adulthood to activate specific cellular pathways. Cellular and morphological changes in the brain, induced by androgens and estrogens, underlie behavioral sex differences in both reproductive and non-reproductive behaviors, including visual perception. A growing body of evidence indicates that some sex differences related to visual perception arise as the result of the organizational actions of gonadal steroid hormones on cerebral cortical pathways involved in visual processing of objects and movement. This review addresses the influence of gonadal steroids on structural, biochemical and morphological changes in tissues in the brain and body. These effects are extended to consider how gonadal hormone effects may contribute to cognitive sex differences across species that are related to processing within the dorsal and ventral visual streams for motion and objects, respectively. Lastly, this review considers the question of how cognitive sex differences related to processing of movement and objects in humans may be reflective of two types of cognitive style that are only superficially related to gender. PMID:25153712

Handa, Robert J; McGivern, Robert F

2015-02-01

105

Investigation of inductively coupled ultrasonic transducer system for NDE.  

PubMed

Inductive coupling offers a simple solution to wirelessly probe ultrasonic transducers. This paper investigates the theory and feasibility of such an inductively coupled transducer system in the context of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications. The noncontact interface is based on electromagnetic coupling between three coils; one of the coils is physically connected to the transducer, the other two are in a separate probing unit, where they are connected to the transmit and receive channels of the instrumentation. The complete system is modeled as a three-port network with the measured impedance of a bonded piezoelectric ceramic disc representing a sensor attached to an arbitrary solid substrate. The developed transmission line model is a function of the physical parameters of the electromagnetic system, such as the number of turns and diameter of each coil, and their separation. This model provides immediate predictions of electrical input impedance and pulse-echo response. The model has been validated experimentally and a sensitivity analysis of the input parameters performed. This has enabled optimization of the various parameters. Inductively coupled transducer systems have been built for both bulk and guided wave examples. By using chirped excitation and baseline subtraction, inspection distance of up to 700 mm is achieved in single-shot, guided-wave pulse-echo mode measurements with a 5 mm separation between the probing coils and transducer coil on an aluminum plate structure. In the bulk wave example, a delamination in an 8.9-mm-thick carbon fiber composite specimen is successfully identified from the changes in the arrival time of a reflected pulse. PMID:25004474

Zhong, Cheng Huan; Croxford, Anthony J; Wilcox, Paul D

2013-06-01

106

14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fire zone. (e) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be...distance upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from burning through auxiliary power unit ducts and entering any...

2010-01-01

107

14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...by the air. (e) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be...distance upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from burning through auxiliary power unit ducts and entering any...

2010-01-01

108

Induction of potato steroidal glycoalkaloid biosynthetic pathway by overexpression of cDNA encoding primary metabolism HMG-CoA reductase and squalene synthase.  

PubMed

Potato steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are toxic secondary metabolites whose total content in tubers must be regulated. SGAs are biosynthesized by the sterol branch of the mevalonic acid/isoprenoid pathway. In a previous study, we showed a correlation between SGA levels and the abundance of transcript coding for HMG-CoA reductase 1 (HMG1) and squalene synthase 1 (SQS1) in potato tissues and potato genotypes varying in SGA content. Here, Solanum tuberosum cv. Desirée (low SGA producer) was transformed with a gene construct containing the coding region of either HMG1 or SQS1 of Solanum chacoense Bitt. clone 8380-1, a high SGA producer. SGA levels in transgenic HMG-plants were either greater than (in eight of 14 plants) or no different from untransformed controls, whereas only four of 12 SQS-transgenics had greater SGA levels than control, as determined by HPLC. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to estimate relative steady-state transcript levels of isoprenoid-, steroid-, and SGA-related genes in leaves of the transgenic plants compared to nontransgenic controls. HMG-transgenic plants exhibited increased transcript accumulation of SQS1, sterol C24-methyltransferase type1 (SMT1), and solanidine glycosyltransferase 2 (SGT2), whereas SQS-transgenic plants, had consistently lower transcript levels of HMG1 and variable SMT1 and SGT2 transcript abundance among different transgenics. HMG-transgenic plants exhibited changes in transcript accumulation for some sterol biosynthetic genes as well. Taken together, the data suggest coordinated regulation of isoprenoid metabolism and SGA secondary metabolism. PMID:22205426

Ginzberg, Idit; Thippeswamy, Muddarangappa; Fogelman, Edna; Demirel, Ufuk; Mweetwa, Alice M; Tokuhisa, James; Veilleux, Richard E

2012-06-01

109

Sex steroid-independent effects of photostimulation on the song-control system of white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis).  

PubMed

Brain nuclei within the song-control system of songbirds are seasonally plastic during adulthood. These nuclei are larger in birds exposed to long, spring-like days than short, winter-like days. There is overwhelming evidence that this effect is mediated by testosterone (T). However, castration studies have also demonstrated that photostimulation has gonad-independent effects on song-control system plasticity, but these studies rarely control for extra-gonadal sources of T. In this study, we used anti-androgen and anti-estrogen treatments in combination with castration to determine the sex steroid-independent effects of photostimulation on HVC size and doublecortin immunoreactivity in white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis). Birds were kept on short days or photostimulated for 1 month. Photostimulated birds were intact, castrated and treated with anti-androgens and anti-estrogens, or castrated and treated with T. HVC volumes of photostimulated birds were significantly larger than short-day birds. HVC volume of castrated birds given anti-androgens/-estrogens was significantly larger than short-day birds, indicating a sex steroid-independent effect of photostimulation. Similar results were observed for RA. The number of migrating neurons (immunoreactive for doublecortin) in HVC did not differ between treatment groups. Our data support the view that photostimulation alone can drive song-control system nuclei growth, and that concurrent exposure to T potentiates this growth. Moreover, these effects do not appear dependent on modulation of neuron migration. PMID:24818971

Robertson, Brian D; Hasstedt, Michael R; Vandermeer, Caitlin L; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

2014-08-01

110

Inverse System Decoupling Control for Induction Motor Based on Neural Network On-Line Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction motor is a MIMO, nonlinear and high coupling system. The reversibility of the induction motor is testified. Consequently, a pseudo-linear system is completed by constructing a neural network inverse (NNI) system and combining it with the motor system. The inverse can transform the MIMO nonlinear system into two SISO linear subsystems (i.e., rotor speed and flux subsystems). In

Ni Wei; Zhang Yu

2009-01-01

111

Steroid signaling activation and intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors  

PubMed Central

In addition to stimulating gene transcription, sex steroids trigger rapid, non-genomic responses in the extra-nuclear compartment of target cells. These events take place within seconds or minutes after hormone administration and do not require transcriptional activity of sex steroid receptors. Depending on cell systems, activation of extra-nuclear signaling pathways by sex steroids fosters cell cycle progression, prevents apoptosis, leads to epigenetic modifications and increases cell migration through cytoskeleton changes. These findings have raised the question of intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors mediating these responses. During the past years, increasing evidence has shown that classical sex steroid receptors localized in the extra-nuclear compartment or close to membranes of target cells induce these events. The emerging picture is that a process of bidirectional control between signaling activation and sex steroid receptor localization regulates the outcome of hormonal responses in target cells. This mechanism ensures cell cycle progression in estradiol-treated breast cancer cells, and its derangement might occur in progression of human proliferative diseases. These findings will be reviewed here together with unexpected examples of the relationship between sex steroid receptor localization, signaling activation and biological responses in target cells. We apologize to scientists whose reports are not mentioned or extensively discussed owing to space limitations. PMID:21234121

Giraldi, Tiziana; Giovannelli, Pia; Di Donato, Marzia; Migliaccio, Antimo; Auricchio, Ferdinando

2010-01-01

112

Topical Steroid-Damaged Skin  

PubMed Central

Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder. PMID:25284849

Abraham, Anil; Roga, Gillian

2014-01-01

113

Fasting increases aggression and differentially modulates local and systemic steroid levels in male zebra finches.  

PubMed

Aggression enables individuals to obtain and retain limited resources. Studies of the neuroendocrine regulation of aggression have focused on territorial and reproductive contexts. By contrast, little is understood concerning the neuroendocrine regulation of aggression over other resources, such as food. Here, we developed a paradigm to examine the role of steroids in food-related aggression. In groups of male zebra finches, a 6-hour fast decreased body mass and increased aggressive interactions among subjects that competed for a point source feeder. Fasting also dramatically altered circulating steroid levels by decreasing plasma testosterone but not estradiol (E2). By contrast, both plasma corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations were elevated with fasting. Interestingly, short-term access to food (15 minutes) after fasting normalized circulating steroid levels. Fasting increased corticosterone levels in a wide range of peripheral tissues but increased DHEA levels specifically in adrenal glands and liver; these effects were quickly normalized with refeeding. DHEA can be metabolized within specific brain regions to testosterone and E2, which promote the expression of aggression. We measured E2 in microdissected brain regions and found that fasting specifically increased local E2 levels in 3 regions: the periaqueductal gray, ventral tegmental area, and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. These regions are part of the vertebrate social behavior network and regulate the expression of aggression. Together, these data suggest that fasting stimulates secretion of DHEA from the adrenals and liver and subsequent conversion of DHEA to E2 within specific brain regions, to enable individuals to compete for limited food resources. PMID:23939990

Fokidis, H Bobby; Prior, Nora H; Soma, Kiran K

2013-11-01

114

The Detector System for the Stratospheric Kinetic Inductance Polarimeter ( Skip)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stratospheric kinetic inductance polarimeter is a proposed balloon-borne experiment designed to study the cosmic microwave background, the cosmic infrared background and Galactic dust emission by observing 1,133 deg of sky in the Northern Hemisphere with launches from Kiruna, Sweden. The instrument contains 2,317 single-polarization, horn-coupled, aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors ( Lekids). The Lekids will be maintained at 100 mK with an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The polarimeter operates in two configurations, one sensitive to a spectral band centered on 150 GHz and the other sensitive to 260 and 350 GHz bands. The detector readout system is based on the ROACH-1 board, and the detectors will be biased below 300 MHz. The detector array is fed by an F/2.4 crossed-Dragone telescope with a 500 mm aperture yielding a 15 arcmin FWHM beam at 150 GHz. To minimize detector loading and maximize sensitivity, the entire optical system will be cooled to 1 K. Linearly polarized sky signals will be modulated with a metal-mesh half-wave plate that is mounted at the telescope aperture and rotated by a superconducting magnetic bearing. The observation program consists of at least two, 5-day flights beginning with the 150 GHz observations.

Johnson, B. R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Araujo, D.; Bradford, K. J.; Chapman, D.; Day, P. K.; Didier, J.; Doyle, S.; Eriksen, H. K.; Flanigan, D.; Groppi, C.; Hillbrand, S.; Jones, G.; Limon, M.; Mauskopf, P.; McCarrick, H.; Miller, A.; Mroczkowski, T.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, B.; Smiley, B.; Sobrin, J.; Wehus, I. K.; Zmuidzinas, J.

2014-09-01

115

Sorption of steroid estrogens to soil and soil constituents in single- and multi-sorbate systems.  

PubMed

The sorptive behavior of 17 beta-estradiol (estradiol), estrone, and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) from aqueous solutions to four soil samples, two clay minerals, and sand was examined. The measured sorption isotherms were found to be nonlinear and soil isotherm data fit the Freundlich model. Alternatively, both the Langmuir and Freundlich models were used for the mineral samples. The sorption affinity of steroid estrogens was found to be greater for montmorillonite than kaolinite and the sand. The soil Freundlich coefficients (K(F)) for estradiol, estrone, and EE2 were observed to increase with organic carbon (OC) content, and resulting Freundlich coefficients that were normalized to the OC content (K(F)OC) were observed to be within the same range for estradiol and estrone but not for EE2. Sorption of steroid estrogens in soil appears to be governed by OC and expanding clay mineral content; thus, estimating sorption coefficients from physicochemical properties may underestimate sorption in soils or sediments that are rich in OC and smectitic clay minerals. Analysis of soils by solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance did not reveal any trends between sorption capacity and organic matter structure. Competitive sorption experiments revealed that the degree of competition varied with the OC and mineral content, further suggesting that specific soil properties are important for understanding sorption of estrogens in terrestrial environments. PMID:18020689

Bonin, Julia L; Simpson, Myrna J

2007-12-01

116

Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

2011-01-01

117

Implantable flexible pressure measurement system based on inductive coupling.  

PubMed

One of the currently available treatments for aortic aneurysms is endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). In spite of major advances in the operating techniques, complications still occur and lifelong surveillance is recommended. In order to reduce and even eliminate the commonly used surveillance imaging exams, as well as to reduce follow-up costs, new technological solutions are being pursued. In this paper, we describe the development, including design and performance characterization, of a flexible remote pressure measurement system based on inductive-coupling for post-EVAR monitoring purposes. The telemetry system architecture and operation are described and main performance characteristics discussed. The implantable sensor details are provided and its model is presented. Simulations with the reading circuit and the sensor's model were performed and compared with measurements carried out with air and a phantom as media, in order to characterize the telemetry system and validate the models. The transfer characteristic curve (pressure versus frequency) of the monitoring system was obtained with measurements performed with the sensor inside a controlled pressure vacuum chamber. Additional experimental results which proof the system functionality were obtained within a hydraulic test bench that emulates the aorta. Several innovative aspects, when compared to the state of the art, both in the sensor and in the telemetry system were achieved. PMID:25347867

Oliveira, Cristina C; Sepúlveda, Alexandra T; Almeida, Nuno; Wardle, Brian L; da Silva, José Machado; Rocha, Luís A

2015-02-01

118

Adolescent Steroid Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

119

Toroid Joining Gun. [thermoplastic welding system using induction heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Toroid Joining Gun is a low cost, self-contained, portable low powered (100-400 watts) thermoplastic welding system developed at Langley Research Center for joining plastic and composite parts using an induction heating technique. The device developed for use in the fabrication of large space sructures (LSST Program) can be used in any atmosphere or in a vacuum. Components can be joined in situ, whether on earth or on a space platform. The expanded application of this welding gun is in the joining of thermoplastic composites, thermosetting composites, metals, and combinations of these materials. Its low-power requirements, light weight, rapid response, low cost, portability, and effective joining make it a candidate for solving many varied and unique bonding tasks.

Buckley, J. D.; Fox, R. L.; Swaim, R J.

1985-01-01

120

Forward and reverse control system for induction motors  

DOEpatents

A control system for controlling the direction of rotation of a rotor of an induction motor includes an array of five triacs with one of the triacs applying a current of fixed phase to the windings of the rotor and four of the triacs being switchable to apply either hot ac current or return ac current to the stator windings so as to reverse the phase of current in the stator relative to that of the rotor and thereby reverse the direction of rotation of the rotor. Switching current phase in the stator is accomplished by operating the gates of pairs of the triacs so as to connect either hot ac current or return ac current to the input winding of the stator. 1 fig.

Wright, J.T.

1987-09-15

121

An induction Linac driven heavy-ion fusion systems model  

SciTech Connect

A computerized systems model of a heavy-ion fusion (HIF) reactor power plant is presented. The model can be used to analyze the behavior and projected costs of a commercial power plant using an induction linear accelerator (Linac) as a driver. Each major component of the model (targets, reactor cavity, Linac, beam transport, power flow, balance of plant, and costing) is discussed. Various target, reactor cavity, Linac, and beam transport schemes are examined and compared. The preferred operating regime for such a power plant is also examined. The results show that HIF power plants can compete with other advanced energy concepts at the 1000-MW (electric) power level (cost of electricity (COE) -- 50 mill/kW . h) provided that the cost savings predicted for Linacs using higher charge-state ions (+3) can be realized.

Zuckerman, D.S.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Waganer, L.M.; Dudziak, D.J.

1988-02-01

122

Birdsong and the neural production of steroids  

PubMed Central

The forebrain circuits involved in singing and audition (the ‘song system’) in songbirds exhibit a remarkable capacity to synthesize and respond to steroid hormones. This review considers how local brain steroid production impacts the development, sexual differentiation, and activity of song system circuitry. The songbird forebrain contains all of the enzymes necessary for the de novo synthesis of steroids - including neuroestrogens - from cholesterol. Steroid production enzymes are found in neuronal cell bodies, but they are also expressed in pre-synaptic terminals in the song system, indicating a novel mode of brain steroid delivery to local circuits. The song system expresses nuclear hormone receptors, consistent with local action of brain-derived steroids. Local steroid production also occurs in brain regions that do not express nuclear hormone receptors, suggesting a non-classical mode-of-action. Recent evidence indicates that local steroid levels can change rapidly within the forebrain, in a manner similar to traditional neuromodulators. Lastly, we consider growing evidence for modulatory interactions between brain-derived steroids and neurotransmitter/neuropeptide networks within the song system. Songbirds have therefore emerged as a rich and powerful model system to explore the neural and neurochemical regulation of social behavior. PMID:19589382

Remage-Healey, Luke; London, Sarah E.; Schinger, Barney A.

2009-01-01

123

Use of isothermal heat conduction microcalorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy for characterisation of crystals grown in steroid combination-containing transdermal drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined application of the steroids estradiol (E2) hemihydrate and norethindrone acetate (NEA) is desirable for hormone replacement therapy. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) enable a controlled delivery of these drugs to the skin. However, in order to attain high skin permeation rates the concentration of the dissolved drugs in the TDDSs has to be high. This often results in

Silvia Latsch; Torsten Selzer; Lothar Fink; Michael Horstmann; Jörg Kreuter

2004-01-01

124

Dendritic growth gated by a steroid hormone receptor underlies increases in activity in the developing Drosophila locomotor system  

PubMed Central

As animals grow, their nervous systems also increase in size. How growth in the central nervous system is regulated and its functional consequences are incompletely understood. We explored these questions, using the larval Drosophila locomotor system as a model. In the periphery, at neuromuscular junctions, motoneurons are known to enlarge their presynaptic axon terminals in size and strength, thereby compensating for reductions in muscle excitability that are associated with increases in muscle size. Here, we studied how motoneurons change in the central nervous system during periods of animal growth. We find that within the central nervous system motoneurons also enlarge their postsynaptic dendritic arbors, by the net addition of branches, and that these scale with overall animal size. This dendritic growth is gated on a cell-by-cell basis by a specific isoform of the steroid hormone receptor ecdysone receptor-B2, for which functions have thus far remained elusive. The dendritic growth is accompanied by synaptic strengthening and results in increased neuronal activity. Electrical properties of these neurons, however, are independent of ecdysone receptor-B2 regulation. We propose that these structural dendritic changes in the central nervous system, which regulate neuronal activity, constitute an additional part of the adaptive response of the locomotor system to increases in body and muscle size as the animal grows. PMID:24043825

Zwart, Maarten F.; Randlett, Owen; Evers, Jan Felix; Landgraf, Matthias

2013-01-01

125

Low Inductance pulser system drives a fast magnet at DARHT.  

SciTech Connect

The DARHT facility [Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test] uses bremsstrahlung radiation from focused electron beams to produce radiographs. To produce a smaller spot size and, thus, a higher quality radiograph, one must be able to control the emittance of the electron beam. To that end, it is necessary to measure emittance. Emittance is measured by focusing the electron beam to a small size, such that the size is dominated by the emittance, as opposed to the space charge. Our electron beam, at 2 kA, 18 MV and 2 ps, would destroy any imaging target, were the full beam to be focused to minimal spot size for the full beam duration. The solution is to focus the beam for a short duration, a few tens of nanoseconds, using a fast solenoid magnet. This paper reports details of the pulsed power system used to drive the segmented magnet. The system consists of twenty pulsers, driving 60 cables to feed two headers on the magnet. The magnet itself consists of 12 individual loops, each segmented in three parts, for inductance reduction. The system is designed to produce one kilogauss over a 15-cm diameter and 60-cm length. The pulsers incorporate spark gaps that produce the main pulse with a half sine period of 125 ns and also clip the tail of the pulse to prevent refocusing of the beam. A five-to-one ratio between the first and second current peaks has been demonstrated [same polarity peaks].

Rose, E. A. (Evan A.); Bartsch, R. R. (Robert Richard); Custer, D. M. (Daniel M.); Ekdahl, C. A. (Carl A.); Montoya, R. R. (Robert R.); Smith, J. R. (John R.)

2002-01-01

126

Development of magnetic shielding system for breast hyperthermia inductive heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the effect of cylindrical shield to heating area and location of induction heating for breast cancer hyperthermia treatment with hyperthermia inductive heating are presented. To determine heat distribution in the breast, which electric loss density is analyzed for various aperture sizes and radius of shielded cylindrical. It is a technique to control magnetic field intensity and relocate

Thanaset Thosdeekoraphat; Chanchai Thongsopa

2012-01-01

127

Module Eight: Induction; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The module covers in greater depth electromagnetic induction, its effects, and how it is used to advantage in electrical circuits; and the physical components, called inductors, designed to take advantage of the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. This module is divided into four lessons: electromagnetism; inductors and flux density, inducing…

Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

128

Novel approaches for the study of vertebrate steroid hormone receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Steroid hormones are essential for the normal function of most organ systems in vertebrates. Reproductive activities in females and males, such as the differentiation, growth and maintenance of the reproductive system, require signaling by sex steroid hormones. Although extensively studied in mammals and a few fish and bird species, the evolution and molecular mechanisms associated with the nuclear steroid

Satomi Kohno; Yoshinao Katsu; Taisen Iguchi; Louis J. Guillette Jr

2008-01-01

129

A New Strategy for Condition Monitoring of Adjustable Speed Induction Machine Drive Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new strategy for monitoring the condition of ad- justable speed induction machine drive systems is presented in this paper. The main concept of the new method is to use the inverter to perform off-line tests for quality assessment of the vulnerable components in the inverter, cable, and induction motor automat- ically whenever the motor is stopped. This new approach

Sang Bin Lee; Jinkyu Yang; Jongman Hong; Ji-Yoon Yoo; Byunghwan Kim; Kwanghwan Lee; Jangho Yun; Myungchul Kim; Kwang-Woon Lee; Ernesto J. Wiedenbrug; Subhasis Nandi

2011-01-01

130

A new monitoring system for wind turbines with doubly-fed induction generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

For modern large wind farms, it is interesting to design an efficient diagnosis system oriented to wind turbine generators based on doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM). Intensive research efforts have been focused on the signature analysis to predict or to detect electrical and mechanical faults in induction machines. Different signals can be used such as voltages, currents or stray flux. In

A. Yazidi; G. A. Capolino; F. Filippetti; D. Casadei

2006-01-01

131

Design and implementation of PLC-based monitoring control system for induction motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of a monitoring and control system for the induction motor based on programmable logic controller (PLC) technology is described. Also, the implementation of the hardware and software for speed control and protection with the results obtained from tests on induction motor performance is provided. The PLC correlates the operational parameters to the speed requested by the user and

Maria G. Ioannides

2004-01-01

132

Dynamic equivalence to induction generators and wind turbines for power system stability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing installation capacity and energy production, wind power plays more important role in power systems. In transient stability analysis, detailed modeling to each induction generator and wind turbine will introduce lots of calculation effort, which necessitates dynamic equivalence to induction generators and wind turbines in the same wind farm, or wind farms closely located. In this paper, weighted equivalence

Shenghu Li; Zhengkai Liu; Xinjie Hao; Shusen Jia

2010-01-01

133

Input power minimization at inverter fed induction motor drive system with FOC by field weakening  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cases where power resources are limited, the power consumption of an induction motor drive system is an essential question. With minimization of the size of the current's vectors in field-oriented control (FOC) of the induction motor, minimization of input power can be achieved. In the present paper, the minimization problem and procedure is shown and power savings are compared

Zarko CUCEJ; DuSan BOROJEVIC

1997-01-01

134

Distributed generation system based on single-phase grid, induction generator and solar photovoltaic panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies a distributed generation electrical system. It is composed of an induction generator with a prime mover, a single-phase utility grid and a solar panel. All energy sources are connected by using a reduced switch count AC-AC converters. A hydraulic power or an other power controlled source is adopted to drive the induction generator, operating as a prime

E. C. dos Santos; C. B. Jacobina; M. B. R. Correa; N. Rocha

2008-01-01

135

Pubertal exposure to anabolic androgenic steroids increases spine densities on neurons in the limbic system of male rats  

PubMed Central

Human studies show that the number of teenagers abusing anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is increasing. During adolescence, brain development is altered by androgen exposure, which suggests that AAS may potentially alter central nervous system development. The goal of the present study was to determine whether pubertal AAS exposure increased dendritic spine densities on neurons within the medial amygdala and the dorsal hippocampus. Pubertal gonadally intact male rats received the AAS testosterone propionate (5mg/kg) or vehicle for 5 days/week for four weeks. To determine the long-term implications of pubertal AAS use, another set of males received the same AAS treatment and were then withdrawn from AAS exposure for 4 weeks. Results showed that pubertal AAS exposure significantly increased spine densities on neurons in the anterior medial amygdala, posterodorsal medial amygdala, and the CA1 region of the hippocampus compared to gonadally intact control males. Spine densities returned to control levels within the anterior medial amygdala and the posterodorsal medial amygdala 4 weeks after withdrawal. However, spine densities remained significantly elevated after AAS withdrawal in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, suggesting that pubertal AAS exposure may have a long-lasting impact on CA1 hippocampal neuroanatomy. Since pubertal AAS exposure increased spine densities and most excitatory synapses in the central nervous system occur on dendritic spines, AAS may increase neuronal excitation. It is proposed that this increase in excitation may underlie the behavioral responses seen in pubertal AAS-treated male rats. PMID:17980492

Cunningham, Rebecca L.; Claiborne, Brenda J.; McGinnis, Marilyn Y.

2008-01-01

136

Stator field oriented control of doubly-excited induction machine in wind power generating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal operation of a wind power generating system is featured by the variable-speed constant-frequency mode in which maximum-power capturing from the wind turbine and constant-frequency interfacing with the power system are the primary concerns. A slip power recovery system with a doubly excited wound rotor induction machine is attractive in this situation. Field orientation control for doubly excited induction machines

Yifan Tang; Longya Xu

1992-01-01

137

NDCX-II PULSED POWER SYSTEM AND INDUCTION CELLS  

SciTech Connect

The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is currently finalizing the design of NDCX-II, the second phase of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, which will use an ion beam to explore Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target hydrodynamics. The ion induction accelerator will include induction cells and Blumleins from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A test stand has been built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test refurbished ATA induction cells and pulsed power hardware for voltage holding and ability to produce various compression and acceleration waveforms. The performance requirements, design modifications, and test results will be presented.

Waldron, W.L.; Reginato, L.L.; Leitner, M.

2009-06-01

138

[New insights in steroid diabetes].  

PubMed

Glucocorticoids (GC) are the cornerstone in the treatment of numerous chronic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. GC treatment is accompanied by significant metabolic adverse effects, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and diabetes, visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia and skeletal muscle atrophy. GCs are the most common cause of drug-induced diabetes mellitus. However, not everyone treated with glucocorticoids develops diabetes. Predictors of development of diabetes are age, weight, family history of diabetes mellitus, or personal history of gestational diabetes. There is evidence that patients with decreased insulin secretory reserve are much more likely to develop diabetes. Diabetes from topical steroid use is uncommon, but high-dose steroids have been associated with significant hyperglycemia, including development of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome and even diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Several mechanisms contribute to the development of hyperglycemia and steroid-induced diabetes, including decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity, increased hepatic glucose production, and inhibition of pancreatic insulin production and secretion. Physicians treating patients with GCs should be aware of the induction of metabolic disturbances and should not solely rely on fasting measurements. In addition, our review indicates that insulin therapy could be considered when treating patients on GC therapy. PMID:23814973

Kurir, Tina Ticinovi?; Bozi?, Josko; Markoti?, Anita; Novak, Anela

2012-10-01

139

Steroidal saponins from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.  

PubMed

Eleven steroidal saponins, along with seven known steroidal saponins, were isolated from rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and acid hydrolysis. Two of these compounds contained a spirostanol saponin aglycone, hitherto unknown in Nature. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic effects on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma epithelial (CNE) cells, and seven compounds displayed more potent inhibitory effects than cisplatin (the positive control). One compound with diosgenin and tetrasaccharide moieties possessed the strongest inhibitory effect on CNE cells through the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. PMID:22748777

Wu, Xia; Wang, Lei; Wang, Hui; Dai, Yi; Ye, Wen-Cai; Li, Yao-Lan

2012-09-01

140

Peripheral nerves: a target for the action of neuroactive steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral nervous system possesses both classical and non-classical steroid receptors and consequently may represent a target for the action of neuroactive steroids. The present review summarizes the state of art of this intriguing field of research reporting data which indicate that neuroactive steroids, like for instance progesterone, dihydroprogesterone, tetrahydroprogesterone, dihydrotestosterone and 3?-diol, stimulate the expression of two important proteins of

Roberto C. Melcangi; Ilaria T. R. Cavarretta; Marinella Ballabio; Emanuela Leonelli; Angelo Schenone; Inigo Azcoitia; Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura; Valerio Magnaghi

2005-01-01

141

Analysis of electromechanical interactions in a flywheel system with a doubly fed induction machine  

E-print Network

This paper analyzes the electromechanical inter-action in a flywheel system with a doubly fed induction machine, used for wind farm power smoothing or grid frequency response control. The grid-connected electrical machine ...

Ran, Li

142

Association of systemic steroids and mycophenolate mofetil as rescue therapy for uveitic choroidal neovascularization unresponsive to the traditional immunesuppressants: interventional case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the efficacy of systemic steroids (SS) associated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for the control of juxta\\/sub-foveal\\u000a uveitic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) unresponsive to the traditional immunosuppressive agents. Patients with juxta\\/sub-foveal\\u000a uveitic CNV unresponsive to the traditional immunesuppressive drugs were treated with SS and MMF. The study was designed as\\u000a a prospective, consecutive, open-label, interventional case series. Visual gain and

Piergiorgio Neri; Mara Manoni; Cinzia Fortuna; Marta Lettieri; Cesare Mariotti; Alfonso Giovannini

2010-01-01

143

Radio frequency power system for inductive heating in ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past large ion sources have been operated with filaments in conjunction with a high current arc. Tungsten filaments used in this application have a potential disadvantage of undesirable short life times, and they tend to contaminate the source with tungsten deposits. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory we have applied radio frequency (RF) induction to a multicusp negative ion source

J. W. Kwan; G. J. de Vries; G. D. Ackerman; M. D. Williams

1993-01-01

144

Stability analysis of nonlinear voltage inverter-induction motor system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper highlights the increased instability of the induction motor due to the nonlinearity introduced by the voltage inverter, nonlinearity produced by the dead time required for switching devices on the same phase. Voltage errors on phase and between phases against the load null are presented, as well as the fact that phase voltage error against load null is in

D. Stanciu; Adriana Florescu; D. A. Stoichescu

2008-01-01

145

Power factor control system for ac induction motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A power control circuit for an induction motor is disclosed in which a servo loop is used to control power input by controlling the power factor of motor operation. The power factor is measured by summing the voltage and current derived square wave signals.

Nola, F. J. (inventor)

1981-01-01

146

An Integrated System of Wound Rotor Induction Motor Soft Starting and Doubly-fed Speed Adjusting  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated system of wound rotor induction motor soft starting and doubly-fed speed adjusting was proposed. It consists of variable reactance converter, electronic power inverter, controller and wound rotor induction motor. The hardware design of the integrated system was illustrated in detail. When soft starting, variable reactor technique was adopted. While doubly-fed speed adjusting, double closed-loop controlling was applied to

Xiao Yi-ping; Yuan You-xin

2010-01-01

147

Optical system for the supervision of the operation of a induction motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present an optical system for the supervision of the operation of an induction motor. We used a Cyclic interferometer for the measurement of the vibrations produced by the motor motion and obtain a frequency spectrum via a Fourier transform of the signal. According to the spectrum, we can know the operation conditions of the induction motor. The optical system consists of a Cyclic Interferometer, a data acquisition board and virtual instrument.

Villanueva-Reyes, V. M.; Vazquez-Nava, R. A.

2011-10-01

148

Optical system for the supervision of the operation of an induction motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present an optical system for the supervision of the operation of an induction motor. We used a Mach- Zehnder interferometer and cyclic interferometer for the measurement of the vibrations produced by the motor motion and obtain a frequency spectrum via a Fourier transform of the signal. According to the spectrum, we can know the operation conditions of the induction motor. The optical system consist of the Interferometer, a data acquisition board and virtual instrument.

Villanueva-Reyes, V. M.; Vazquez-Nava, R. A.

2011-09-01

149

Systemic signalling in photosynthetic induction of Rumex?K-1 (Rumex patientia?×?Rumex tianschaious) leaves.  

PubMed

The rapid induction of photosynthesis is critical for plants under light-fleck environment. Most previous studies about photosynthetic induction focused upon single leaf, but they did not consider the systemic integrity of plant. Here, we verified whether systemic signalling is involved in photosynthetic induction. Rumex?K-1 (Rumex patientia?×?Rumex tianschaious) plants were grown under light-fleck condition. After whole night dark adaptation, different numbers of leaves (system leaf or SL) were pre-illuminated with light, and then the photosynthetic induction of other leaves (target leaf or TL) was investigated. This study showed that the pre-illumination of SL promoted photosynthetic induction in TL. This promotion was independent of the number of SL, the light intensity on SL and the distance between SL and TL, indicating that this systemic signalling is non-dose-dependent. More interestingly, the photosynthetic induction was promoted by only the pre-illumination of morphological upper leaf rather than the pre-illumination of morphological lower leaf, indicating that the transfer of this signal is directional. The results showed that the transfer of this systemic signalling depends upon the phloem. This systemic signalling helps plants to use light energy more efficiently under light flecks. PMID:25124181

Hou, Fei; Jin, Li-Qiao; Zhang, Zi-Shan; Gao, Hui-Yuan

2015-04-01

150

Power Control of New Wind Power Generation System with Induction Generator Excited by Voltage Source Converter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates advantages of new combination of the induction generator for wind power and the power electronic equipment. Induction generator is popularly used for the wind power generation. The disadvantage of it is impossible to generate power at the lower rotor speed than the synchronous speed. To compensate this disadvantage, expensive synchronous generator with the permanent magnets is sometimes used. In proposed scheme, the diode rectifier is used to convert the real power from the induction generator to the intermediate dc voltage, while only the reactive power necessary to excite the induction generator is supplied from the voltage source converter (VSC). This means that the rating of the expensive VSC is minimized and total cost of the wind power generation system is decreased compared to the system with synchronous generator. Simulation study to investigate the control strategy of proposed system is performed. The results show the reduction of the VSC rating is prospective.

Morizane, Toshimitsu; Kimura, Noriyuki; Taniguchi, Katsunori

151

Thermodynamic induction effects exhibited in nonequilibrium systems with variable kinetic coefficients.  

PubMed

A nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory demonstrating an induction effect of a statistical nature is presented. We have shown that this thermodynamic induction can arise in a class of systems that have variable kinetic coefficients (VKC). In particular if a kinetic coefficient associated with a given thermodynamic variable depends on another thermodynamic variable then we have derived an expression that can predict the extent of the induction. The amount of induction is shown to be proportional to the square of the driving force. The nature of the intervariable coupling for the induction effect has similarities with the Onsager symmetry relations, though there is an important sign difference as well as the magnitudes not being equal. Thermodynamic induction adds nonlinear terms that improve the stability of stationary states, at least within the VKC class of systems. Induction also produces a term in the expression for the rate of entropy production that could be interpreted as self-organization. Many of these results are also obtained using a variational approach, based on maximizing entropy production, in a certain sense. Nonequilibrium quantities analogous to the free energies of equilibrium thermodynamics are introduced. PMID:24580173

Patitsas, S N

2014-01-01

152

Electromagnetic levitation forces and effective inductance in axially symmetric systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is developed which expresses the average electromagnetic levitation force Fx on a spherical conductor in terms of the effective inductance L of the excitation coil. This force is given by Fx = ½ I02 (?L\\/?x) where I0 is the r.m.s. coil current and x is the separation of the coil and sphere.The result is interpreted by a circuit-theory

W E Smith

1965-01-01

153

ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY AND STEROID HORMONES IN SWINE WASTEWATER PROCESSED THROUGH A LAGOON CONSTRUCTED-WETLAND SYSTEM.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anaerobic lagoons and treatment wetlands are used world-wide to treat wastewater from dense livestock production facilities. However, there is very limited data on the hormonal activity of the wastewater effluent produced by these treatment systems. The objectives of this experiment were to measur...

154

Neuroprotection of Sex Steroids  

PubMed Central

Sex steroids are essential for reproduction and development in animals and humans, and sex steroids also play an important role in neuroprotection following brain injury. New data indicate that sex-specific responses to brain injury occur at the cellular and molecular levels. This review summarizes the current understanding of neuroprotection by sex steroids, particularly estrogen, androgen, and progesterone, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. Better understanding of the role of sex steroids under physiological and pathological conditions will help us to develop novel effective therapeutic strategies for brain injury. PMID:20595940

Liu, Mingyue; Kelley, Melissa H.; Herson, Paco S.; Hurn, Patricia D.

2011-01-01

155

Anabolic Steroid Abuse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched this month by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), this Website offers research about the abuse of anabolic steroids and provides support to educators and policymakers interested in educating the public, especially teenagers, about the problem. The site provides substantial medical information in layman's terms about the composition, use, and potentially harmful effects of steroids. The site also gives statistics from the Institute's Monitoring the Future Study that shows a "significant increase" in steroid use from 1998 to 1999 among middle school males. Links for further information and education strategies are also provided. The Website is part of NIDA's Education Initiative: Science, Steroids, and Youth.

156

Steroid-Resistant Autoimmune Thrombocytopenia in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Treated with Rituximab  

PubMed Central

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disorder characterized by production of numerous autoantibodies, some of which have pathogenic consequences and result in considerable morbidity. Herein, we present a case of 48-year-old female with SLE having autoimmune hemolytic anemia, autoimmune thrombocytopenia, renal involvement, and recurrent flares of skin manifestations. She did not respond to the conventional therapy and was controlled and treated with Rituximab, a chimeric, monoclonal antiCD20 antibody, which specifically depletes B lymphocytes. PMID:25657435

Sardesai, Vasudha V; Sardesai, Vidyadhar R; Agarwal, Trupti D

2015-01-01

157

Steroid-resistant autoimmune thrombocytopenia in systemic lupus erythematosus treated with rituximab.  

PubMed

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disorder characterized by production of numerous autoantibodies, some of which have pathogenic consequences and result in considerable morbidity. Herein, we present a case of 48-year-old female with SLE having autoimmune hemolytic anemia, autoimmune thrombocytopenia, renal involvement, and recurrent flares of skin manifestations. She did not respond to the conventional therapy and was controlled and treated with Rituximab, a chimeric, monoclonal antiCD20 antibody, which specifically depletes B lymphocytes. PMID:25657435

Sardesai, Vasudha V; Sardesai, Vidyadhar R; Agarwal, Trupti D

2015-01-01

158

Classic glucocorticoids versus non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor modulators: survival of the fittest regulator of the immune system?  

PubMed

The search for novel glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulators with similar anti-inflammatory properties as conventional steroids, but with a reduction in the number or severity of the side effects has been a long-standing goal, and still remains a challenge today. The quest for these so-called 'dissociated GR ligands' is mainly based on the hypothesis that the occurrence of undesirable side effects is mostly associated with GR-mediated transactivation, whereas transrepression of many pro-inflammatory genes (e.g. cytokines and enzymes involved in inflammatory processes) is more involved in GR-mediated anti-inflammatory effects. As glucocorticoids (GCs) can also enhance the transcription of anti-inflammatory genes, the GR-mediated activation-repression dissociation hypothesis has to be nuanced. However, an enhanced selectivity of GR-affected genes, while upholding the desired anti-inflammatory potential, is still believed to contribute to a more beneficial therapeutic profile with fewer side effects. The initial pharmacological focus on steroidal scaffolds as a basis to dissociate the functionalities of GR has, due to a lack of success, recently been shifted to a focus on non-steroidal ligands. The current work reviews recent advances on the characterization of a generation of novel non-steroidal GR ligands. PMID:20600811

De Bosscher, Karolien; Beck, Ilse M; Haegeman, Guy

2010-10-01

159

A study of carburetor/induction system icing in general aviation accidents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of the frequency and severity of carburetor/induction icing in general-aviation accidents was performed. The available literature and accident data from the National Transportation Safety Board were collected. A computer analysis of the accident data was performed. Between 65 and 90 accidents each year involve carburetor/induction system icing as a probable cause/factor. Under conditions conducive to carburetor/induction icing, between 50 and 70 percent of engine malfunction/failure accidents (exclusive of those due to fuel exhaustion) are due to carburetor/induction system icing. Since the evidence of such icing may not remain long after an accident, it is probable that the frequency of occurrence of such accidents is underestimated; therefore, some extrapolation of the data was conducted. The problem of carburetor/induction system icing is particularly acute for pilots with less than 1000 hours of total flying time. The severity of such accidents is about the same as any accident resulting from a forced landing or precautionary landing. About 144 persons, on the average, are exposed to death and injury each year in accidents involving carburetor/induction icing as a probable cause/factor.

Obermayer, R. W.; Roe, W. T.

1975-01-01

160

System modeling for the longitudinal beam dynamics control problem in heavy ion induction accelerators  

SciTech Connect

We address the problem of developing system models that are suitable for studying the control of the longitudinal beam dynamics in induction accelerators for heavy ions. In particular, we present the preliminary results of our efforts to devise a general framework for building detailed, integrated models of accelerator systems consisting of pulsed power modular circuits, induction cells, beam dynamics, and control system elements. Such a framework will permit us to analyze and design the pulsed power modulators and the control systems required to effect precise control over the longitudinal beam dynamics.

Payne, A.N.

1993-05-17

161

Acceleration units for the Induction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE)  

SciTech Connect

The design of a high current heavy ion induction linac driver for inertial confinement fusion is optimized by adjusting the acceleration units along the length of the accelerator to match the beam current, energy, and pulse duration at any location. At the low energy end of the machine the optimum is a large number of electrostatically focused parallel beamlets, whereas at higher energies the optimum is a smaller number of magnetically focused beams. ILSE parallels this strategy by using 16 electrostatically focused beamlets at the low end followed by 4 magnetically focused beams after beam combining. 3 refs., 2 figs.

Faltens, A.; Brady, V.; Brodzik, D.; Hansen, L.; Laslett, L.J.; Mukherjee, S.; Bubp, D.; Ravenscroft, D.; Reginato, L.

1989-03-01

162

Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

... Map Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series Anabolic Steroids Home / Educators / NIDA Teaching Guides / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Anabolic Steroids Print Anabolic steroids are artificial versions of a ...

163

Sensitivity of steroid enzyme immunoassays. Comparison of four label enzymes in an assay system using a monoclonal anti-steroid antibody.  

PubMed

The sensitivities of monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassays for 11-deoxycortisol using alkaline phosphatase (AP), horseradish peroxidase (HRP), beta-galactosidase (beta-GAL) and glucose oxidase (GOD) as labels were compared. The anti-11-deoxycortisol antibody used was that produced in ascites by inoculating antibody-secreting hybridoma cells into mice. Enzyme labeling of 11-deoxycortisol was carried out by the N-succinimidyl ester method. The activated ester of 4-(2-carboxyethylthio)-11-deoxycortisol was treated with each enzyme to give a homologous enzyme-labeled antigen. In the competitive immunoassay, the bound and free enzyme-labeled antigens were separated by a double antibody method and the enzymic activity of the immune precipitate was determined by colorimetric and fluorimetric methods. The AP activity was measured in three ways, using p-nitrophenyl phosphate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), and 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate as substrates. o-Nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside and 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-galactopyranoside were used for beta-GAL, and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (HPPA) for HRP. In the case of GOD, TMB and HPPA were used in combination with HRP. A dose-response curve with a high sensitivity was obtained in each 11-deoxycortisol assay system by the use of a minimum amount of the enzyme-labeled antigen at an appropriate dilution of monoclonal anti-11-deoxycortisol antibody (Ka = 2 x 10(10) M-1). The amounts of 11-deoxycortisol needed to displace 50% of the bound label ranged from 5 to 15 pg in the colorimetric methods, and 4-9 pg in the fluorimetric methods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2680124

Hosoda, H; Tsukamoto, R; Nambara, T

1989-07-01

164

Scaling and Systems Considerations in Pulsed Inductive Thrusters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance scaling in pulsed inductive thrusters is discussed in the context of previous experimental studies and modeling results. Two processes, propellant ionization and acceleration, are interconnected where overall thruster performance and operation are concerned, but they are separated here to gain physical insight into each process and arrive at quantitative criteria that should be met to address or mitigate inherent inductive thruster difficulties. The effects of preionization in lowering the discharge energy requirements relative to a case where no preionization is employed, and in influencing the location of the initial current sheet, are described. The relevant performance scaling parameters for the acceleration stage are reviewed, emphasizing their physical importance and the numerical values required for efficient acceleration. The scaling parameters are then related to the design of the pulsed power train providing current to the acceleration stage. The impact of various choices in pulsed power train and circuit topology selection are reviewed, paying special attention to how these choices mitigate or exacerbate switching, lifetime, and power consumption issues.

Polzin, Kurt A.

2007-01-01

165

Switching from systemic steroids to ciclesonide restores the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Treatment of difficult asthma with oral corticosteroids (OCS) may suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Aim In this study we have checked if the substitution of OCS with very high doses of ciclesonide may restore the adrenal function without losing the control of the disease. Material and methods In 5 patients with difficult, uncontrolled asthma despite treatment with OCS, inhaled and systemic glucocorticosteroids were replaced with very high doses of ciclesonide (1600–2400 µg/day). The symptoms of asthma and the lung function were assessed at baseline and on the 28th, 56th and 70th day of treatment, whereas the levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the morning were measured at baseline and on the 28th and the 56th day of treatment. Results In all patients, the control of asthma symptoms, measured with Asthma Control Test questionnaire, improved from the mean score of 9.4 to 19.8 in 70 days. In 4 subjects force expiratory volume in 1 s improved gradually through the entire study reaching a mean improvement of 585 ml in 70 days. The ACTH levels were normalized in 3 patients after 28 days of observation and in all patients after 56 days. The cortisol level was normalized in 4 patients after 28 days and in another subject after 56 days of treatment with ciclesonide. Conclusions Switching from prednisone to very high doses of ciclesonide normalized the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis function and also improved the disease control and the lung function in these 5 patients with difficult asthma. PMID:25097469

Ciebiada, Maciej; Górski, Pawe?

2014-01-01

166

Pharmacology of anabolic steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly,

A T Kicman

2008-01-01

167

Method and system for determining induction motor speed  

DOEpatents

A non-linear, semi-parametric neural network-based adaptive filter is utilized to determine the dynamic speed of a rotating rotor within an induction motor, without the explicit use of a speed sensor, such as a tachometer, is disclosed. The neural network-based filter is developed using actual motor current measurements, voltage measurements, and nameplate information. The neural network-based adaptive filter is trained using an estimated speed calculator derived from the actual current and voltage measurements. The neural network-based adaptive filter uses voltage and current measurements to determine the instantaneous speed of a rotating rotor. The neural network-based adaptive filter also includes an on-line adaptation scheme that permits the filter to be readily adapted for new operating conditions during operations.

Parlos, Alexander G.; Bharadwaj, Raj M.

2004-03-30

168

Dynamic Performance of Subway Vehicle with Linear Induction Motor System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The light rail vehicle with Linear Induction Motor (LIM) bogie, which is a new type of urban rail traffic tool, has the advantages of low costs, wide applicability, low noise, simple maintenance and better dynamic behavior. This kind of vehicle, supported and guided by the wheel and rail, is not driven by the wheel/rail adhesion force, but driven by the electromagnetic force between LIM and reaction plate. In this paper, three different types of suspensions and their characteristic are discussed with considering the interactions both between wheel and rail and between LIM and reaction plate. A nonlinear mathematical model of the vehicle with LIM bogie is set up by using the software SIMPACK, and the electromechanical model is also set up on Simulink roof. Then the running behavior of the LIM vehicle is simulated, and the influence of suspension on the vehicle dynamic performance is investigated.

Wu, Pingbo; Luo, Ren; Hu, Yan; Zeng, Jing

169

Efficient Antenna Design of Inductive Coupled RFID-Systems with High Power Demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to pure identification labels, passive inductive coupled RFID transponders with enhanced func- tionality have an increased power consumption. A non- optimized antenna design for high power transponders may lead to a poor efficiency and high magnetic field emissions. Therefore, in this work, the energy transmission of induc- tive coupled systems is investigated, enabling an optimized system design. The

Christian Reinhold; Peter Scholz; Werner John; Ulrich Hilleringmann

2007-01-01

170

Modeling and control of a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based Wind Conversion System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general modeling and an experimental validation of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind conversion system (WCS). The wind conversion system has been briefly presented. Then, the d q control of the grid side converter (GSC) has been detailed theoretically. Moreover, the decoupled active and reactive powers control of the DFIG has been presented. The

T. Ghennam; E. M. Berkouk; B. Francois

2009-01-01

171

Magnetic induction system for two-stage gun projectile velocity measurements  

SciTech Connect

A magnetic induction technique for measuring projectile velocities has been implemented on Sandia's two-stage light gas gun. The system has been designed to allow for projectile velocity measurements to an accuracy of approx. 0.2 percent. The velocity system has been successfully tested in a velocity range of 3.5 km/s to 6.5 km/s.

Moody, R L; Konrad, C H

1984-05-01

172

Mutual inductance Mutual induction  

E-print Network

Mutual inductance Mutual induction ­ current in one coil induces emf in other coil Distinguish from self-induction Mutual inductance, M21 of coil 2 with respect to coil 1 is 1 212 21 i N M = i N L B = #12;Mutual inductance Rearrange equation Vary i1 with time Faraday's law Induced emf in coil 2 due

Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

173

Sex-Steroid Derived Compounds Induce Sex-Specific Effects on Autonomic Nervous System Function in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological and psychological effects of 2 human sex-steroid derived compounds, 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and 1,3,5(10),16-estratetraen-3-ol (EST) were measured in 24 subjects who participated in a within-subjects, double-blind experiment. A dissociation was evident in the physiological effects of AND, in that it increased physiological arousal in women but decreased it in men. EST did not significantly affect physiological arousal in women

M. Bensafi; W. M. Brown; T. Tsutsui; J. D. Mainland; B. N. Johnson; E. A. Bremner; N. Young; I. Mauss; B. Ray; J. Gross; J. Richards; I. Stappen; R. W. Levenson; N. Sobel

2003-01-01

174

Classic glucocorticoids versus non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor modulators: Survival of the fittest regulator of the immune system?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for novel glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulators with similar anti-inflammatory properties as conventional steroids, but with a reduction in the number or severity of the side effects has been a long-standing goal, and still remains a challenge today. The quest for these so-called ‘dissociated GR ligands’ is mainly based on the hypothesis that the occurrence of undesirable side effects

Karolien De Bosscher; Ilse M. Beck; Guy Haegeman

2010-01-01

175

14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...system. (a) The fuel system of the engine must...minimize the danger of ice accretion in those...the use of a means for ice prevention. (c...filtering necessary for protection of the engine fuel system against foreign...

2012-01-01

176

14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...system. (a) The fuel system of the engine must...minimize the danger of ice accretion in those...the use of a means for ice prevention. (c...filtering necessary for protection of the engine fuel system against foreign...

2014-01-01

177

14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...system. (a) The fuel system of the engine must...minimize the danger of ice accretion in those...the use of a means for ice prevention. (c...filtering necessary for protection of the engine fuel system against foreign...

2010-01-01

178

14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...system. (a) The fuel system of the engine must...minimize the danger of ice accretion in those...the use of a means for ice prevention. (c...filtering necessary for protection of the engine fuel system against foreign...

2013-01-01

179

14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...system. (a) The fuel system of the engine must...minimize the danger of ice accretion in those...the use of a means for ice prevention. (c...filtering necessary for protection of the engine fuel system against foreign...

2011-01-01

180

Prophylaxis of the Occurrence of Hyperbilirubinemia in Relation to Maternal Oxytocin Infusion with Steroid Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate the steroid prevention on the occurrence and the severity of red blood cell destruction by the effect of oxytocin usage for labor induction. Venous cord blood was collected from the pregnancies who had oxytocin-induced or augmented labors (20), oxytocin-infused deliveries with steroid use (20), deliveries without oxytocin use (20) and cesarean sections (20).

Ozkan A. Leylek; Ayça Ergur; Feyza Senocak; Mehmet Sencan; Selda Songur

1998-01-01

181

A magnetic induction heating system with multi-cascaded coils and adjustable magnetic circuit for hyperthermia.  

PubMed

Abstract Based on the characteristics of cancer cells that cannot survive in an environment with temperature over 42?°C, a magnetic induction heating system for cancer treatment is developed in this work. First, the methods and analyses for designing the multi-cascaded coils magnetic induction hyperthermia system are proposed, such as internal impedance measurement of power generator, impedance matching of coils, and analysis of the system. Besides, characteristics of the system are simulated by a full-wave package for engineering optimization. Furthermore, by considering the safety factor of patients, a two-sectional needle is designed for hyperthermia. Finally, this system is employed to test the liver of swine in ex-vivo experiments, and through Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain and NADPH oxidase activity assay, the feasibility of this system is verified. PMID:25379959

Huang, Chi-Fang; Chao, Hsuan-Yi; Chang, Hsun-Hao; Lin, Xi-Zhang

2014-11-01

182

Evaluation of the use of induction in the development of a medical expert system.  

PubMed

In an earlier study, two medical expert systems for diagnosing thyroid disorders, developed by the application of induction on a sample of previously diagnosed cases and on expert-generated rules, diagnosed a set of test cases better than an expert system developed by the more traditional method of collaboration between a knowledge engineer and an expert. In this paper, an alternative measure of the accuracy of diagnosis of each system is used to evaluate the systems. Diagnoses for every distinct case represented by a combination of indicating factors are compared with diagnoses that the expert made. The induced systems provide diagnoses for many more distinct cases, but a much higher proportion of these diagnoses are incorrect. It is argued that generalizing to unseen cases is an inappropriate use of induction algorithms. The systematic development of a decision table is a more appropriate method for devising a medical expert system. PMID:7813201

File, P E; Dugard, P I; Houston, A S

1994-10-01

183

Hyperadrenocorticism associated with sex steroid excess.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of sex steroid excess or hyperadrenocorticism in dogs may be challenging. Unlike Cushing's disease, sex steroid excess may have a multitude of manifestations that differ from standard hyperadrenocorticism. In particular, the clinical scenario of a dog with sex steroid imbalance involves one of three systems: dermatologic, reproductive, or hepatic. The history of a dog with hyperadrenocorticism manifesting as sex steroid imbalance often lacks the classical clinical signs of polydipsia and polyuria. Dogs with sex steroid imbalance will often be of specific breeds such as miniature poodles and exhibit trunkal hair loss as the only sign. There is often involvement of the reproductive system, manifested as the growth of perianal adenomas in neutered male or female dogs. The most common laboratory findings consist of elevations in serum alkaline phosphatase and serum alanine transferase. The following article reviews the etiology, common signalment, clinical signs, and laboratory findings associated with atypical hyperadrenocorticism caused by sex steroid imbalance and then explores the medical, surgical, and radiation treatment options. PMID:17542192

Greco, Deborah S

2007-02-01

184

Inhaled Steroid Drugs  

MedlinePLUS

... evaluate and choose among them, Consumer Reports has analyzed the steroid inhalers based on their effectiveness, safety, ... can also learn about other drugs we’ve analyzed on this free Web site. Our independent evaluations ...

185

An On-line Distributed Induction Motor Monitoring System Based-on ARM and CAN Bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an on-line distributed induction motor monitoring system based-on the ARM (Advanced RISC Machines), which is integrated with the embedded and CAN (Controller Area Network) bus technologies. The hardware structure of the system with the ARM microprocessor S3C2410X and CAN bus controller MCP2510 is introduced; the accomplishment of software of motor on-line monitoring system is also described. Compared

Chenhui Wang; Yukun Liu; Liwei Guo; Yong Yue; Carsten Maple

2011-01-01

186

Microprocessor Control of a Three-Phase Inverter in Induction Motor Speed Control System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speed control of a three-phase induction motor using the Fairchild F8 microprocessor is described in this paper. In this system, the microprocessor computes the actual motor speed from the pulses received from a shaft encoder, compares the actual and desired speeds, and uses the difference to adjust the frequency of the inverter that feeds the motor. The microprocessor simultaneously

Vithal V. Athani; Sudhir M. Deshpande

1980-01-01

187

The suspension system design of Linear Induction Motor based on hybrid excitation principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levitation force is an important technical index of linear induction motor. This paper presents a kind of device which can supply suspension force for hybrid excitation electromagnetic actuators, and calculates the electromagnetic levitation force with 3D field finite element method. The optimization soft package iSIGHT-FD is used to design the structure of the system to gain the largest suspension force.

Feng Li; Hai Tao Yu; Ying Chao Zhuang; Qiang Gao; Ming Qiang Hu

2008-01-01

188

Development of a Native Escherichia coli Induction System for Ionic Liquid Tolerance  

E-print Network

Development of a Native Escherichia coli Induction System for Ionic Liquid Tolerance Marijke lignocellulose makes certain ionic liquids (ILs) very effective reagents for pretreating biomass prior to its for Ionic Liquid Tolerance. PLoS ONE 9(7): e101115. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101115 Editor: John R

Dunlop, Mary

189

Induction from Multi-Label Examples in Information Retrieval Systems: a Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information retrieval systems often use machine-learning techniques to induce classifiers capable of categorizing documents. Unfortunately, the circumstance that the same document may simultaneously belong to two or more categories has so far received inadequate attention, and induction techniques currently in use often suffer from prohibitive computational costs. In the case study reported in this article, we managed to reduce these

Kanoksri Sarinnapakorn; Miroslav Kubat

2008-01-01

190

End effect on magnetic damping force of superconducting inductive magnetic levitation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic damping force for the vertical motion of superconducting inductive levitation system is analyzed. The ground coil current induced by the vertical motion of vehicular coil generally takes a maximum value after the first vehicular coil has passed over the ground coil. At 500 km\\/h, for instance, this current takes the maximum value around when the second vehicular coil

Yoshifumi Amemiya; Shigeru Ohkuma

1977-01-01

191

Inductive instability in heterogeneous nonstationary systems Yu. Dolinsky* and T. Elperin  

E-print Network

Inductive instability in heterogeneous nonstationary systems Yu. Dolinsky* and T. Elperin The Pearlstone Center for Aeronautical Engineering Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben of the ponderomotive forces. In a case when the ponderomotive forces impede the motion of the interface the energy from

Elperin, Tov

192

Analysis of Electromechanical Interactions in a Flywheel System With a Doubly Fed Induction Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the electromechanical interac- tion in a flywheel system with a doubly fed induction machine, used for wind farm power smoothing or grid frequency response control. The grid-connected electrical machine is subject to power control, and this can cause it to produce negative damping to the shaft torsional vibration. Resonance must be prevented, and this paper proposes a

Li Ran; Dawei Xiang; James L. Kirtley

2011-01-01

193

Analysis, modeling and simulation of power and information transmission channel in an electromagnetic induction fuze setting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accepted models of power and information transmission channel in electromagnetic induction fuze setting systems are not accurate because the effects of eddy currents in the fuze body are not taken into account. This paper establishes an improved accuracy mathematical model that fully considers the influence of eddy currents on the system, and the model is consisted of mutual inductance model

Changsheng Li; He Zhang

2010-01-01

194

Analysis of Power Converter Losses in Vector Control System of a Self-Excited Induction Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides analysis of losses in the hysteresis-driven three-phase power converter with IGBTs and free-wheeling diodes. The converter under consideration is part of the self-excited induction generator (SEIG) vector control system. For the analysis, the SEIG vector control system is used in which the induction generator iron losses are taken into account. The power converter losses are determined by using a suitable loss estimation algorithm reported in literature. The chosen algorithm allows the power converter losses to be determined both by type (switching/conduction losses) and by converter component (IGBT/diode losses). The overall power converter losses are determined over wide ranges of rotor speed, dc-link voltage and load resistance, and subsequently used for offline correction of the overall control system's losses (efficiency) obtained through control system simulations with an ideal power converter. The control system's efficiency values obtained after the correction are compared with the measured values.

Baši?, Mateo; Vukadinovi?, Dinko; Poli?, Miljenko

2014-03-01

195

Inductive monitoring system constructed from nominal system data and its use in real-time system monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to an Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), its software implementations, hardware embodiments and applications. Training data is received, typically nominal system data acquired from sensors in normally operating systems or from detailed system simulations. The training data is formed into vectors that are used to generate a knowledge database having clusters of nominal operating regions therein. IMS monitors a system's performance or health by comparing cluster parameters in the knowledge database with incoming sensor data from a monitored-system formed into vectors. Nominal performance is concluded when a monitored-system vector is determined to lie within a nominal operating region cluster or lies sufficiently close to a such a cluster as determined by a threshold value and a distance metric. Some embodiments of IMS include cluster indexing and retrieval methods that increase the execution speed of IMS.

Iverson, David L. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

196

Mazda's new V-6 gasoline engine and its innovative induction system  

SciTech Connect

Mazda succeeded in the development of a new V-type 6-cylinder engine series comprising 2-liter JF naturally aspirated and turbocharged units and also a 3-liter JE naturally aspirated unit. This engine is 60-degree-banked and has 18 valves: two intake valves and one exhaust valve per cylinder. Various techniques, such as High Rigidity Cylinder Block and HLA, are adopted to upgrade quietness and smoothness. The Dynamic Charge Effects system, a combination of inertia and resonance charge effects, is modeled on the principle of two-degree-of-freedom system. The application of this principle helped develop the Induction system that is compatible with the three engine types. The turbocharger adopted on the JF engine is of a twin scroll type to considerably improve power response quality and increase torque at low speed. Triple Port Induction Control System is used to help improve fuel economy and running performance.

Hatamura, K.; Morishita, K.; Asanomi, K.; Shiraishi, H.

1987-01-01

197

Pharmacology of anabolic steroids  

PubMed Central

Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic–androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided. PMID:18500378

Kicman, A T

2008-01-01

198

Low frequency induction heating for the sealing of plastic microfluidic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfluidic systems are being used in many applications and the demand for such systems has been phenomenal in past decades.\\u000a To meet such high volume market needs, a cheap and rapid method for sealing these microfluidic platforms which is viable for\\u000a mass manufacture is highly desirable. Low frequency induction heating has been introduced as potential basis of a cost-effective,\\u000a rapid

Benedikt J. KnaufD; D. Patrick Webb; Changqing Liu; Paul P. Conway

2010-01-01

199

Microprocessor-Based Vector Control System for Induction Motor Drives with Rotor Time Constant Identification Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microprocessor-based high-performance vector control system for induction motor drives is discussed. In this system the high-performance current control method is employed, which can operate stably even when the saturation of a supplied voltage occurs. To estimate the rotor flux vector accurately, the powerful identification method of the rotor time constant is investigated, which does not require additional sensors for

Masato Koyama; Masao Yano; Isao Kamiyama; Sadanari Yano

1986-01-01

200

Evaluation of a closed loop inductive power transmission system on an awake behaving animal subject  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents in vivo experimental results for a closed loop wireless power transmission system to implantable devices on an awake behaving animal subject. In this system, wireless power transmission takes place across an inductive link, controlled by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. Induced voltage on the implantable secondary coil is

Mehdi Kiani; Ki Yong Kwon; Fei Zhang; Karim Oweiss; Maysam Ghovanloo

2011-01-01

201

Four Pulse Drive System for the Beam Induction Cells for DARHT Axis 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed drive system allows for the generation of up to four (4) high-quality radiographic pulses along one line-of-sight, having arbitrary pulse spacing (â¼500 ns), using demonstrated technologies. This concept uses a four-pulse drive system to drive both a 16-MeV ensemble of 250-kV, 4-kA induction cells and a four-pulse, 4-MeV injector. The key to this approach lies in the method

J. Downing; R. Carlson; J. Melton; J. Fockler

1999-01-01

202

A four pulse drive system for the beam induction cells and injector for DARHT Axis 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed drive system allows for the generation of up to four high-quality radiographic pulses along one line-of-sight, having arbitrary pulse spacing (≈ 500 ns). This concept uses a four-pulse drive system to drive both a 16 MeV ensemble of 250 kV, 4 kA induction cells and a four-pulse, 4 MeV injector. The key to this approach lies in the

J. Downing; R. Carlson; J. Melton; J. Fockler

1999-01-01

203

The effectiveness of steroid treatment in nasal polyposis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objectives of the management of nasal polyposis are to eliminate or reduce the size of polyps, reestablish nasal breathing, reduce symptoms of rhinitis, restore the sense of smell, and prevent the recurrence of nasal polyps. Local or systemic steroids have been used in the treatment of nasal polyps, but efficacy of combined (local and systemic) steroids in nasal

Ulku Tuncer; Levent Soylu; Barlas Aydogan; Fuat Karakus; Cagatay Akcali

2003-01-01

204

COMPARATIVE POLITICAL SYSTEMS, A BOOK OF READINGS FOR INDUCTIVE TEACHING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS COURSE WAS DEVELOPED AS PART OF AN INTEGRATED AND SEQUENTIAL, HIGH SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM FOR ABLE STUDENTS (UPPER 25 PERCENT). THE COURSE CONSISTS OF 9 UNITS OF STUDY, EACH UNIT CONTAINING A BRIEF STATEMENT OF A POLITICAL ISSUE AND SEVERAL READINGS ON THAT ISSUE. SOME ISSUES COVERED ARE (1) POLITICAL SYSTEMS OF PRIMITIVE SOCIETIES,…

Carnegie Inst. of Tech., Pittsburgh, PA.

205

Steroid-resistant idiopathic childhood nephrosis: overdiagnosed and undertreated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The rate of complete remission after induction therapy for steroid-resistant nephrotic syn- drome (SRNS) due to either focal segmental glomerulo- sclerosis (FSGS) or minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) has been reported to be <50%. The present retrospective study investigated 86 children with SRNS due to FSGS and MCNS and found improved rates of complete remission in children with idiopathic

Jochen H. H. Ehrich; Christoph Geerlings; Miroslav Zivicnjak; Doris Franke; Heinz Geerlings; Jutta Gellermann

206

Yolk Steroids Decline during Sexual Differentiation in the Alligator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leading explanation of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) in reptiles postulates that (1) ovarian differentiation is directed by estrogen and that (2) estrogen is synthesized in the developing gonad following induction of aromatase expression. However, the source of steroid substrate for aromatization has not yet been identified. In addition, sex ratios vary as a function of clutch, but such biases

A. J. Conley; P. Elf; C. J. Corbin; S. Dubowsky; A. Fivizzani; J. W. Lang

1997-01-01

207

Investigation of Icing Characteristics of Typical Light Airplane Engine Induction Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The icing characteristics of two typical light-airplane engine induction systems were investigated using the carburetors and manifolds of engines in the horsepower ranges from 65 to 85 and 165 to 185. The smaller system consisted of a float-type carburetor with an unheated manifold and the larger system consisted of a single-barrel pressure-type carburetor with an oil-jacketed manifold. Carburetor-air temperature and humidity limits of visible and serious Icing were determined for various engine power conditions. Several.methods of achieving ice-free induction systems are discussed along with estimates of surface heating requirements of the various induct ion-system components. A study was also made of the icing characteristics of a typical light-airplane air scoop with an exposed filter and a modified system that provided a normal ram inlet with the filter located in a position to Induce inertia separation of the free water from the charge air. The principle of operation of float-type carburetors is proved to make them inherently more susceptible to icing at the throttle plate than pressure-type carburetors.. The results indicated that proper jacketing and heating of all parts exposed to the fuel spray can satisfactorily reduce or eliminate icing in the float-type carburetor and the manifold. Pressure-type carburetors can be protected from serious Icing by proper location of the fuel-discharge nozzle combined with suitable application of heat to critical parts.

Coles, W. D.

1949-01-01

208

A Power-Efficient Wireless Capacitor Charging System Through an Inductive Link  

PubMed Central

A power-efficient wireless capacitor charging system for inductively powered applications has been presented. A bank of capacitors can be directly charged from an ac source by generating a current through a series charge injection capacitor and a capacitor charger circuit. The fixed charging current reduces energy loss in switches, while maximizing the charging efficiency. An adaptive capacitor tuner compensates for the resonant capacitance variations during charging to keep the amplitude of the ac input voltage at its peak. We have fabricated the capacitor charging system prototype in a 0.35-?m 4-metal 2-poly standard CMOS process in 2.1 mm2 of chip area. It can charge four pairs of capacitors sequentially. While receiving 2.7-V peak ac input through a 2-MHz inductive link, the capacitor charging system can charge each pair of 1 ?F capacitors up to ±2 V in 420 ?s, achieving a high measured charging efficiency of 82%. PMID:24678284

Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2014-01-01

209

Cost/performance analysis of an induction linac driver system for inertial fusion  

SciTech Connect

A linear induction accelerator that produces a beam of energetic (approx. =10 GeV) heavy (CAapprox.200) ions is a prime candidate as a driver for inertial fusion. Continuing developments in amorphous iron for use in accelerating modules represent a potentially large reduction in the driver cost and an increase in the driver efficiency. Additional insulator developments may also represent a potentially large reduction in the driver cost. The efficiency and cost of the induction linac system is discussed as a function of output energy and pulse repetition frequency for several beam charge states, numbers of beams and beam particle species. Accelerating modules and transport modules will be described. Large cost leverage items will be identified as a guide to future research activities and technology of development that can yield further substantial reductions in the accelerator system cost and improvement in the accelerator system efficiency. 13 refs., 2 figs.

Hovingh, J.; Brady, V.O.; Faltens, A.; Hoyer, E.H.; Lee, E.P.

1985-11-01

210

Marketing Intelligent Systems for consumer behaviour modelling by a descriptive induction approach based on Genetic Fuzzy Systems  

E-print Network

Marketing Intelligent Systems for consumer behaviour modelling by a descriptive induction approach of Marketing, Business Faculty, University of Granada, Granada, E-18071, Spain b Department of Computer Science in revised form 26 December 2007 Accepted 12 February 2008 Available online 14 April 2008 In its introduction

Casillas Barranquero, Jorge

211

Investigation of Shaft Voltage in Wind Turbine Systems with Induction Generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the analysis of shaft voltage in different configurations of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and an induction generator (IG) with a back-to-back inverter in wind turbine applications. Detailed high frequency model of the proposed systems have been developed based on existing capacitive couplings in IG & DFIG structures and common mode voltage sources. In this research work, several arrangements of DFIG based wind energy conversion systems (WES) are investigated in case of shaft voltage calculation and its mitigation techniques. Placements of an LC line filter in different locations and its effects on shaft voltage elimination are studied via Mathematical analysis and simulations. A pulse width modulation (PWM) technique and a back-to-back inverter with a bidirectional buck converter have been presented to eliminate the shaft voltage in a DFIG wind turbine.

Adabi, Jafar; Zare, Firuz

212

Dynamic Average-Value Modeling of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind energy conversion system, the rotor of a wound rotor induction generator is connected to the grid via a partial scale ac/ac power electronic converter which controls the rotor frequency and speed. In this research, detailed models of the DFIG wind energy conversion system with Sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulation (SPWM) scheme and Optimal Pulse-Width Modulation (OPWM) scheme for the power electronic converter are developed in detail in PSCAD/EMTDC. As the computer simulation using the detailed models tends to be computationally extensive, time consuming and even sometimes not practical in terms of speed, two modified approaches (switching-function modeling and average-value modeling) are proposed to reduce the simulation execution time. The results demonstrate that the two proposed approaches reduce the simulation execution time while the simulation results remain close to those obtained using the detailed model simulation.

Shahab, Azin

213

A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay amplified by biotin-streptavidin system for detecting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen.  

PubMed

A sensitive biotin-streptavidin-amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BA-ELISA) method was developed for detecting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen. Compared with traditional ELISA method, the sensitivity of proposed immunoassay was enhanced by the biotin-streptavidin system. Under the optimal condition, the median inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.25 ng mL(-1), with minor cross-reactivity to a number of structural analogs. This developed assay was successfully applied to detect the ketoprofen residues in different fish samples, and good recoveries (72.6-105.5%) were obtained. The results indicated that this immunoassay method could specifically detect trace ketoprofen residues and could be widely used for routine monitoring of food samples. PMID:24762178

Bu, Dan; Zhuang, Hui S; Yang, Guang X

2014-06-01

214

Principle of a multi-load\\/single converter system for low power induction heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction heating appliances used for cooking generally include two or four inductors and in the most common solution, a converter is connected to each inductor. The main aim of this paper is to suggest a way of building a multi-load\\/single converter system, based on the use of a series-resonant ZVS inverter supplying several resonant loads. The principle can be

F. Forest; E. Laboure; F. Costa; J. Y. Gaspard

2000-01-01

215

A microcontroller-based induction motor drive system using variable structure strategy with decoupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sliding-mode control concept is applied in the outer loop of a speed drive system utilizing a series-connected wound rotor induction machine (SCWRIM). A design procedure is outlined for the sliding-mode speed controller. The methods of decoupling and torque linearization for the SCWRIM are derived using the field-orientation as well as the torque angle control concepts. Sliding-mode control with cascaded

E. Y. Y. Ho; P. C. Sen

1990-01-01

216

Active Oxygen Species in the Induction of Plant Systemic Acquired Resistance by Salicylic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complementary DNA encoding a salicylic acid (SA)-binding protein has been cloned. Its properties suggest involvement in SA-mediated induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants. The sequence of the protein is similar to that of catalases and the protein exhibits catalase activity. Salicylic acid specifically inhibited the catalase activity in vitro and induced an increase in H_2O_2 concentrations in

Zhixiang Chen; Herman Silva; Daniel F. Klessig

1993-01-01

217

A new condition monitoring and fault diagnosis system of induction motors using artificial intelligence algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a condition monitoring and fault diagnosis system for induction motors is proposed by integrating artificial intelligence algorithms: principal component analysis (PCA), genetic algorithm (GA) and an artificial neural network (ANN). As main diagnosis media of fault motor, three-direction vibration signals and three-phase stator current signals are selected to measure. Multi-sensor measurement results in lots of data transfer

Tian Han; Bo-Suk Yang; Jong Moon Lee

2005-01-01

218

Inductively coupled plasma -- Atomic emission spectroscopy glove box assembly system at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inductively coupled plasma\\/atomic emission spectroscopy [ICP\\/AES (ICP)] system for elemental analyses in support of vitrification processing was first installed in 1986. The initial instrument was a Jobin Yvon (JY) Model JY-70 ICP that consisted of sequential and simultaneous spectrometers for analysis of nonradioactive samples as radioactive surrogates. The JY-70 ICP continued supporting nonradioactive testing during the Functional and Checkout

J. H. Marlow; K. M. McCarthy; N. R. Tamul

1999-01-01

219

Calculation of Fields, Forces, and Mutual Inductances of Current Systems by Elliptic Integrals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A minimum-ordered set of elliptic integral equations is given for magnetic vector potential, axial and radial fields, the mixed gradient ?B&rgr;??z for axially symmetric iron-free current systems, and for mutual inductance and force between coaxial units. The units may be circular loops, cylindrical or plane annular current sheets, or coils of thick section. With full use of correlations, six basic

Milan Wayne Garrett

1963-01-01

220

Passivity-based control strategies of doubly fed induction wind power generator systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear control strategies of variable speed constant frequency(VSCF) wind power generator systems, especially passivity-based control(PBC) methods, have been a focus in the literature. The main purpose of this paper is to develop a control algorithm that forces the wind driven doubly fed induction generator(DFIG) to track reference flux and speed trajectories with time-varying load torque. To achieve this, an adaptive

Qian Ping; Xu Bing

2010-01-01

221

An Elevator Speed-Control System Using Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronic control system with speed feedback to achieve excellent riding comfort and accurate floor-levelling in medium-speed elevators driven by squirrel-cage induction motors is described. Stepless control of both acceleration and deceleration of the elevator car is obtained, employing only two thyristors and two diodes in the power control circuit. Accurate floor levelling and smooth deceleration are achieved using a

K. Rajaraman; S. K. Nagaraja

1984-01-01

222

Conducted electromagnetic emissions in induction motor drive systems. II. Frequency domain models  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt.I see ibid., vol.13, no.4, p.757-67 (1998). Predicting conducted emissions in pulsewidth modulation (PWM) inverter induction motor drive systems requires various frequency-dependent effects to be considered. A frequency domain method has advantages in such cases compared to a time domain approach. Based on the modal analysis presented in Part I, this paper develops frequency domain models to evaluate the

L. Ran; S. Gokani; J. Clare; K. J. Bradley; C. Christopoulos

1998-01-01

223

Aerosol steroids for the treatment of peristomal mucocutaneous breakdown due to severe eczema  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION We describe a novel treatment of mucocutaneous peristomal junction breakdown in a patient with severe eczema using aerosol steroids, where conventional methods failed to achieve healing. PRESENTATION OF CASE Observation and photographic evidence showing resolution of severe peristomal eczema in a patient, in whom systemic steroids were contraindicated, using a topical aerosol steroid. We found complete resolution of peristomal eczema and symptoms within four weeks. DISCUSSION Topical aerosol steroids are better tolerated than alcohol based steroid preparations, achieve improved stoma appliance adherence in comparison to oil based steroid preparations and reduce systemic side effects in comparison to systemic oral steroids. CONCLUSION Aerosol steroids appear to be a safe and effective way to treat refractory peristomal eczema and may be of use in other peristomal inflammatory conditions including contact dermatitis. PMID:25437668

Nicholson, J.; Sriskandarajah, S.; Moore, J.; Clouston, H.; Telford, K.

2014-01-01

224

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2010-01-01

225

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2014-01-01

226

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2012-01-01

227

14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2011-01-01

228

14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2013-01-01

229

14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2014-01-01

230

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2011-01-01

231

14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2012-01-01

232

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2013-01-01

233

Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

234

Design in Arabidopsis thaliana of a synchronous system of floral induction by one long day.  

PubMed

A system of one-shot induction of flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana, ecotype Columbia, is described. Plants from vernalized seeds are grown for 2 months in 8 h short days at an irradiance of 48 mumol m-2 sec-1 (fluorescent light only). At that age they can be induced to flower by exposure to either a single long day or a single displaced short day. Non-induced plants stay vegetative for at least a further month. Synchrony of induction among the individuals of the population exposed to one long day is of the same order as in the best classical model plants, that is, the fastest individuals are only 6 h ahead of the slowest ones. A further advantage of this system is the large size of plants at the time of induction, allowing easy analysis of changes in leaves, leaf exudate and shoot meristem. The design of such a synchronous system will allow the timings of gene activations and deactivations to be established in the different plant parts, before flowers are initiated. PMID:8696370

Corbesier, L; Gadisseur, I; Silvestre, G; Jacqmard, A; Bernier, G

1996-06-01

235

Nongenomic actions of steroid hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroid hormones modulate many physiological processes. The effects of steroids that are mediated by the modulation of gene expression are known to occur with a time lag of hours or even days. Research that has been carried out mainly in the past decade has identified other responses to steroids that are much more rapid and take place in seconds or

Ralf Lösel; Martin Wehling

2003-01-01

236

Three-Year Outcomes in Kidney Transplant Patients Randomized to Steroid-Free Immunosuppression or Steroid Withdrawal, with Enteric-Coated Mycophenolate Sodium and Cyclosporine: The Infinity Study  

PubMed Central

In a six-month, multicenter, open-label trial, de novo kidney transplant recipients at low immunological risk were randomized to steroid avoidance or steroid withdrawal with IL-2 receptor antibody (IL-2RA) induction, enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS: 2160?mg/day to week 6, 1440?mg/day thereafter), and cyclosporine. Results from a 30-month observational follow-up study are presented. Of 166 patients who completed the core study on treatment, 131 entered the follow-up study (70 steroid avoidance, 61 steroid withdrawal). The primary efficacy endpoint of treatment failure (clinical biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) graft loss, death, or loss to follow-up) occurred in 21.4% (95% CI 11.8–31.0%) of steroid avoidance patients and 16.4% (95% CI 7.1–25.7%) of steroid withdrawal patients by month 36 (P = 0.46). BPAR had occurred in 20.0% and 11.5%, respectively (P = 0.19). The incidence of adverse events with a suspected relation to steroids during months 6–36 was 22.9% versus 37.1% (P = 0.062). By month 36, 32.4% and 51.7% of patients in the steroid avoidance and steroid withdrawal groups, respectively, were receiving oral steroids. In conclusion, IL-2RA induction with early intensified EC-MPS dosing and CNI therapy in de novo kidney transplant patients at low immunological risk may achieve similar three-year efficacy regardless of whether oral steroids are withheld for at least three months. PMID:24829794

Thierry, A.; Mourad, G.; Büchler, M.; Choukroun, G.; Toupance, O.; Kamar, N.; Villemain, F.; Le Meur, Y.; Legendre, C.; Merville, P.; Kessler, M.; Heng, A.-E.; Moulin, B.; Queré, S.; Di Giambattista, F.; Lecuyer, A.; Touchard, G.

2014-01-01

237

The gated induction system of a systemic floral inhibitor, antiflorigen, determines obligate short-day flowering in chrysanthemums  

PubMed Central

Photoperiodic floral induction has had a significant impact on the agricultural and horticultural industries. Changes in day length are perceived in leaves, which synthesize systemic flowering inducers (florigens) and inhibitors (antiflorigens) that determine floral initiation at the shoot apex. Recently, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) was found to be a florigen; however, the identity of the corresponding antiflorigen remains to be elucidated. Here, we report the identification of an antiflorigen gene, Anti-florigenic FT/TFL1 family protein (AFT), from a wild chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum seticuspe) whose expression is mainly induced in leaves under noninductive conditions. Gain- and loss-of-function analyses demonstrated that CsAFT acts systemically to inhibit flowering and plays a predominant role in the obligate photoperiodic response. A transient gene expression assay indicated that CsAFT inhibits flowering by directly antagonizing the flower-inductive activity of CsFTL3, a C. seticuspe ortholog of FT, through interaction with CsFDL1, a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor FD homolog of Arabidopsis. Induction of CsAFT was triggered by the coincidence of phytochrome signals with the photosensitive phase set by the dusk signal; flowering occurred only when night length exceeded the photosensitive phase for CsAFT induction. Thus, the gated antiflorigen production system, a phytochrome-mediated response to light, determines obligate photoperiodic flowering response in chrysanthemums, which enables their year-round commercial production by artificial lighting. PMID:24082137

Higuchi, Yohei; Narumi, Takako; Oda, Atsushi; Nakano, Yoshihiro; Sumitomo, Katsuhiko; Fukai, Seiichi; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu

2013-01-01

238

Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Paraná basin: a comparative study in a three-river system.  

PubMed

This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paraná River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guaçu River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17?-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guaçu River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish. PMID:23616136

Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Paschoalini, Alessandro Loureiro; Cruz, Cláudia Kelly Fernandes da; Rocha, Rita de Cássia Gimenes Alcântara de; Senhorini, José Augusto; Ribeiro, Dirceu Marzulo; Formagio, Paulo Sérgio; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

2013-12-01

239

Laser sampling system for an inductively-coupled atomic emission spectrometer. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A laser sampling system was attached to a Perkin Elmer Optima 3000 inductively-coupled plasma, atomic emission spectrometer that was already installed and operating in the Chemistry and Geochemistry Department at the Colorado School of Mines. The use of the spectrometer has been highly successful. Graduate students and faculty from at least four different departments across the CSM campus have used the instrument. The final report to NSF is appended to this final report. Appendices are included which summarize several projects utilizing this instrument: acquisition of an inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer for the geochemistry program; hydrogen damage susceptibility assessment for high strength steel weldments through advanced hydrogen content analysis, 1996 and 1997 annual reports; and methods for determination of hydrogen distribution in high strength steel welds.

NONE

1998-02-15

240

Control and performance of a doubly-fed induction machine intended for a flywheel energy storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-capacity low-speed flywheel energy storage system based on a doubly-fed induction machine basically consists of a wound-rotor induction machine, and a cycloconverter or a voltage-source pulse width modulation (PWM) rectifier-inverter which is used as an AC exciter. Adjusting the rotor speed makes the machine either release the kinetic energy to the power system or absorb it from the utility

Hirofumi Akagi; Hikaru Sato

2002-01-01

241

A low-cost system of variable-speed cascaded induction generators for small-scale hydroelectricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel variable-speed cascaded induction generator system is proposed for small-scale hydroelectric power plants, in which the second induction generator has double three-phase stator windings (or six-phase windings). The proposed low-cost system can provide a brushless, robust structure and less distorted currents without using an expensive PWM rectifier on the machine side and an expensive adjustable-blade water turbine. The simulated

Shinji Kato; N. Hoshi; K. Oguchi

2001-01-01

242

Steroid-Associated Hip Joint Collapse in Bipedal Emus  

PubMed Central

In this study we established a bipedal animal model of steroid-associated hip joint collapse in emus for testing potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of steroid-associated joint collapse in preclinical settings. Five adult male emus were treated with a steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) induction protocol using combination of pulsed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and methylprednisolone (MPS). Additional three emus were used as normal control. Post-induction, emu gait was observed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and blood was collected for routine examination, including testing blood coagulation and lipid metabolism. Emus were sacrificed at week 24 post-induction, bilateral femora were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. Asymmetric limping gait and abnormal MRI signals were found in steroid-treated emus. SAON was found in all emus with a joint collapse incidence of 70%. The percentage of neutrophils (Neut %) and parameters on lipid metabolism significantly increased after induction. Micro-CT revealed structure deterioration of subchondral trabecular bone. Histomorphometry showed larger fat cell fraction and size, thinning of subchondral plate and cartilage layer, smaller osteoblast perimeter percentage and less blood vessels distributed at collapsed region in SAON group as compared with the normal controls. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed poor mineral matrix and more osteo-lacunae outline in the collapsed region in SAON group. The combination of pulsed LPS and MPS developed in the current study was safe and effective to induce SAON and deterioration of subchondral bone in bipedal emus with subsequent femoral head collapse, a typical clinical feature observed in patients under pulsed steroid treatment. In conclusion, bipedal emus could be used as an effective preclinical experimental model to evaluate potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of ON-induced hip joint collapse in patients. PMID:24204675

Zheng, Li-Zhen; Liu, Zhong; Lei, Ming; Peng, Jiang; He, Yi-Xin; Xie, Xin-Hui; Man, Chi-Wai; Huang, Le; Wang, Xin-Luan; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Xiao, De-Ming; Wang, Da-Ping; Chen, Yang; Feng, Jian Q.; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Ge; Qin, Ling

2013-01-01

243

Steroid receptor expression in the fish inner earvaries with sex, social status, and reproductive state  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gonadal and stress-related steroid hormones are known to influence auditory function across vertebrates but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for steroid-mediated auditory plasticity at the level of the inner ear remain unknown. The presence of steroid receptors in the ear suggests a direct pathway for hormones to act on the peripheral auditory system, but little is known about

Karen P Maruska; Russell D Fernald

2010-01-01

244

Potential for the effects of anabolic steroid abuse in the immune and neuroendocrine axis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the effects that high-dose anabolic steroid abuse have and could have on the interactions between the immune and neuroendocrine systems are reviewed. Considering the past demonstrations on the actions of normal steroids on endocrine and immune responses, it is apparent that pharmacologically high doses of both normal and derivatized androgens (anabolic steroids) could have a significant effect. Indeed,

Thomas K. Hughes Jr; Peter L. Rady; Eric M. Smith

1998-01-01

245

An inductively powered telemetry system for temperature, EKG, and activity monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An implant telemetry system for the simultaneous monitoring of temperature, activity, and EKG from small animals, such as rats, has recently been designed with the novel feature that instead of a battery the system is energized by an inductive field. A 250 kHz resonant coil surrounds the cage (30 x 30 x 20 cm) and provides the approximately 100 microwatt of power required to operate the implant transmitter while allowing the animal unrestrained movement in the cage. The implant can also be battery operated if desired. RF transmission is in the 8-10 MHz band, which allows the use of a simple, essentially single IC chip, receiver.

Fryer, T. B.; Lund, G. F.; Williams, B. A.

1978-01-01

246

Systemic response to ultraviolet radiation involves induction of leukocytic IL-1? and inflammation in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet radiation is a pervasive stimulus with wide-ranging effects on all living forms. The effects of UV vary from physiological to pathological, depending on levels of exposure, but the immune response at the organismal level is not well understood. We use the zebrafish embryo and larva to study immune responses to UV stress in vivo. UV exposure causes inflammation characterized by systemic induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Leukocytes are an important component of this systemic response and upregulate IL-1? expression proportional to the dose of UV exposure. Increased levels of this proinflammatory cytokine counteract the lethal effect of high doses of UV. PMID:24965777

Banerjee, Sanjita; Leptin, Maria

2014-08-01

247

Heat-map visualization of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based quantitative signatures on steroid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormalities in steroid hormones are responsible for the development and prevention of endocrine diseases. Due to their biochemical\\u000a roles in endocrine system, the quantitative evaluation of steroid hormones is needed to elucidate altered expression of steroids.\\u000a Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) profiling of 70 urinary steroids, containing 22 androgens, 18 estrogens, 15\\u000a corticoids, 13 progestins, and 2 sterols, were validated and

Ju-Yeon Moon; Hyun-Jin Jung; Myeong Hee Moon; Bong Chul Chung; Man Ho Choi

2009-01-01

248

Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.  

PubMed

Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2?,3?,22?,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5?-furostan-3?,22?,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12?,22?,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5?-spirostan-3?,24?-diol-12-one-3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation. PMID:25172515

Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

2014-11-01

249

The synovial prostaglandin system in chronic inflammatory arthritis: differential effects of steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs  

PubMed Central

1 The present study was undertaken to characterize the spectrum of arachidonic acid metabolites present in synovial effusions of patients with rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis, and to compare changes in their concentration following a short-term treatment with 6?-methyl-prednisolone (6-MeP: 4-8 mg/day) or indoprofen (1.2 g/day), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with proven synovial prostaglandin inhibitory effect. 2 Measurements of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane (TX) B2, 6-keto-PGF1? and PGF2? were performed by radioimmunoassay techniques in synovial effusions obtained from 23 patients, and validated by thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the extracted immunoreactivity. 3 PGE2 and TXB2 accounted for more than 60% of the total immunoreactivity in untreated patients. The absence of any constant ratio between the different arachidonic acid metabolites detected in synovial fluid is consistent with a heterogeneous cellular origin of these compounds. 4 Indoprofen treatment was associated with a consistent reduction of synovial prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations, ranging from 36% in the case of 6-keto-PGF1? to 90% in the case of PGE2. 5 In contrast, 6-MeP caused opposite changes on different metabolites originating via the cyclo-oxygenase pathway. Thus, 6-keto-PGF1? concentrations were reduced by 35%, PGF2? concentrations were increased by 30%, while PGE2 and TXB2 were unchanged following 6-MeP. 6 Although the mechanism(s) underlying the failure of 6-MeP to reduce synovial PGE2 and TXB2 levels are uncertain, the results of the present study clearly indicate that therapeutic doses of steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cause quite distinct changes in arachidonic acid metabolism, which might be relevant to their specific therapeutic actions and side-effects. PMID:6895043

Bombardieri, S.; Cattani, P.; Ciabattoni, G.; Di Munno, O.; Pasero, G.; Patrono, C.; Pinca, E.; Pugliese, F.

1981-01-01

250

Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module  

PubMed Central

Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the ease of quantification and experimental manipulation, the zebra finch song system has great potential for use in undergraduate labs. Unfortunately, the underlying costs prohibit use of this system in undergraduate labs. Further, the time required to perform a developmental study renders such undertakings unrealistic within a single academic term. We have overcome these barriers by creating digital tools, including an image library of song nuclei from zebra finch brains. Students using this library replicate and extend a published experiment examining the dose of estradiol required to masculinize the female zebra finch brain. We have used this library for several terms, and students not only obtain significant experimental results but also make gains in understanding content, experimental controls, and inferential statistics (analysis of variance and post hoc tests). We have provided free access to these digital tools at the following website: http://mdcune.psych.ucla.edu/modules/birdsong. PMID:21633071

Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; McCauley, Lisa M. Beck; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

2011-01-01

251

Using digital images of the zebra finch song system as a tool to teach organizational effects of steroid hormones: a free downloadable module.  

PubMed

Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the ease of quantification and experimental manipulation, the zebra finch song system has great potential for use in undergraduate labs. Unfortunately, the underlying costs prohibit use of this system in undergraduate labs. Further, the time required to perform a developmental study renders such undertakings unrealistic within a single academic term. We have overcome these barriers by creating digital tools, including an image library of song nuclei from zebra finch brains. Students using this library replicate and extend a published experiment examining the dose of estradiol required to masculinize the female zebra finch brain. We have used this library for several terms, and students not only obtain significant experimental results but also make gains in understanding content, experimental controls, and inferential statistics (analysis of variance and post hoc tests). We have provided free access to these digital tools at the following website: http://mdcune.psych.ucla.edu/modules/birdsong. PMID:21633071

Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A; McCauley, Lisa M Beck; Pham, Anh P; Ruiz, Maureen L; Fong, Michelle C; Cui, Xinran

2011-01-01

252

Steroids and the Management of Macular Edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macular edema (ME) is a condition which is usually secondary to an underlying disease process. It is most commonly seen following venous occlusive disease, diabetic retinopathy and posterior segment inflammatory disease. The treatment of ME varies, depending upon the underlying etiology, and has led to varying degrees of success. Traditionally, the main treatment options have included topical and systemic steroids,

Shani Golan; Anat Loewenstein

2010-01-01

253

Arabinose-induction of lac-derived promoter systems for penicillin acylase production in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Arabinose was shown to serve as an effective inducer for induction of the lac-derived promoters in Escherichia coli using penicillin acylase (PAC) as a model protein. Upon the induction with a conventional inducer, isopropyl-beta-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), for pac overexpression, which is regulated by the trc or (DE3)/T7 promoter, the production of PAC was limited by the accumulation of PAC precursors (proPAC) as inclusion bodies. Negative cellular responses, such as growth inhibition and cell lysis, were frequently observed, resulting in a low pac expression level and poor culture performance. Interestingly, these technical hurdles can be overcome simply through the use of arabinose as an inducer. The results indicate that arabinose not only induced the lac-derived promoter systems (i.e., trc and (DE3)/T7) for pac (or LL pac) overexpression but also facilitated the posttranslational processing of proPAC for maturation. However, the arabinose-inducibility appears to be host-dependent and becomes less observable in the strains with a mutation in the ara operon. The arabinose-inducibility was also investigated in the expression system with the coexistence of the trc promoter system regulating pac expression and another arabinose-inducible promoter system of araB regulating degP coexpression. PMID:16739941

Narayanan, Niju; Hsieh, Ming-Yi; Xu, Yali; Chou, C Perry

2006-01-01

254

Steroid hormones as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in wildlife  

SciTech Connect

Xenobiotic compounds introduced into the environment by human activity have been shown to adversely affect the endocrine system of wildlife. Various species exhibit abnormalities of (1) plasma sex steroid hormones, (2) altered steroid synthesis form the gonad in vitro and (3) altered steroidogenic enzyme function. These endpoints are sensitive and relatively easy to measure quantitatively with reliability and precision. These observations have led to the conclusion that sex steroid hormones could be markers of exposure to, and altered function from, endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs). However, there are serious limitations in the use of steroid hormones as generalized markers of EDC exposure. Steroid hormones exhibit seasonal, ontogenetic, gender and species-specific variation. Moreover, the regulation of sex steroid plasma concentrations is a relatively complex phenomenon capable of short-term (minutes-hours) alteration due to environmental inputs, such as acute stress--an activational response. Alterations in steroids synthesis and degradation also can be a response to altered embryonic development due to EDC exposure--an organizational response. If steroid hormones are to be used as biomarkers, then closely controlled, well designed sampling has to be performed. Additionally, an appreciation of the variation possible in endocrine responses among the species to be studied must be obtained.

Guillette, L.J. Jr.; Rooney, A.A.; Crain, D.A.; Orlando, E.F.

1999-07-01

255

Induction of the Yersinia Type 3 Secretion System As an All-or-None Phenomenon  

PubMed Central

Summary Pathogenic Yersinia spp. possess a protein secretion system, designated as type 3, that plays a clear role in promoting their survival vis-à-vis the macrophage. Inductive expression of the Yersinia type 3 secretion system (T3SS), triggered either by host cell contact, or, in the absence of host cells, by a reduction in extracellular calcium ion levels, is accompanied by a withdrawal from the bacterial division cycle. Here we analyzed Ca2+-dependent induction of the T3SS at the single cell level to understand how Yersinia coordinate their pro-survival and growth-related activities. We utilized a novel high-throughput quantitative microscopy approach as well as flow cytometry to determine how Ca2+ levels, T3SS expression, and cellular division are interrelated. Our analysis showed that there is a high degree of homogeneity in terms of T3SS expression levels among a population of Y. pseudotuberculosis cells following the removal of Ca2+ and that T3SS expression appear to be independent of the cellular division cycle. Unexpectedly, our analysis showed that Ca2+ levels are inversely related to the initiation of inductive T3SS expression, and not to the intensity of activation once initiated, thus providing a basis for the seemingly graded response of T3SS activation observed in bulk-level analyses. The properties of the system described here display both similarities and differences with that of the lac operon first described 50 years ago by Novick and Weiner. PMID:17825321

Wiley, David J.; Rosqvist, Roland; Schesser, Kurt

2007-01-01

256

Steroid receptors and their ligands: effects on male gamete functions.  

PubMed

In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. PMID:25062984

Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca

2014-11-01

257

Complexity Characterization in a Probabilistic Approach to Dynamical Systems Through Information Geometry and Inductive Inference  

E-print Network

Information geometric techniques and inductive inference methods hold great promise for solving computational problems of interest in classical and quantum physics, especially with regard to complexity characterization of dynamical systems in terms of their probabilistic description on curved statistical manifolds. In this article, we investigate the possibility of describing the macroscopic behavior of complex systems in terms of the underlying statistical structure of their microscopic degrees of freedom by use of statistical inductive inference and information geometry. We review the Maximum Relative Entropy (MrE) formalism and the theoretical structure of the information geometrodynamical approach to chaos (IGAC) on statistical manifolds. Special focus is devoted to the description of the roles played by the sectional curvature, the Jacobi field intensity and the information geometrodynamical entropy (IGE). These quantities serve as powerful information geometric complexity measures of information-constrained dynamics associated with arbitrary chaotic and regular systems defined on the statistical manifold. Finally, the application of such information geometric techniques to several theoretical models are presented.

S. A. Ali; C. Cafaro; A. Giffin; D. -H. Kim

2012-02-07

258

Sexual functioning of male anabolic steroid abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of anabolic steroid use on male sexual behavior were assessed using a structured clinical interview administered to male body builders currently using steroids, and to two comparison groups (body builders with a past but not current history of steroid use, and a group of “natural” body builders who had never used steroids). Current anabolic steroid users had a

Howard B. Moss; George L. Panzak; Ralph E. Tarter

1993-01-01

259

The anti-lung cancer activities of steroidal saponins of P. polyphylla Smith var. chinensis (Franch.) Hara through enhanced immunostimulation in experimental Lewis tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice and induction of apoptosis in the A549 cell line.  

PubMed

P. polyphylla Smith var. chinensis (Franch.) Hara (PPSCFH) has been used as medicinal Paris for the prevention and treatment of cancers in China for thousands of years. Its main components, steroidal saponins (PRS), have been confirmed to inhibit tumor growth. In the present study, the immunostimulation of PRS was investigated in Lewis bearing-C57BL/6 mice while the induction of apoptosis in A549 cells was also studied. The treatment with PRS (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg) significantly inhibited tumor, volume, and weight in the C57BL/6 mice. The rates of inhibition of PRS (at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg) were 26.49 ± 17.30%, 40.32 ± 18.91% and 54.94 ± 16.48%, respectively. The spleen and thymus indexes were increased remarkably, while the levels of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-?, IL-8 and IL-10 in serum were decreased according to ELISA assays. For A549 cells, Hoechst 33342 staining and annexin V/PI by flow cytometry showed that PRS (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mg/mL) induced nuclear changes of A549 cells with DNA condensation and fragmentations of chromatin, as well as inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, PRS could also attenuate the over-generation of intracellular ROS. Western blotting analysis showed a significant decrease on the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines MCP-1, IL-6 and TGF-?1, as well as cell adhesion molecule ICAM-1, by treatment with PRS. Our results demonstrated that the inhibition of PRS on tumor growth might be associated with the amelioration of inflammation responses, induction of apoptosis, as well as the decrease of ROS. These results suggested that PRS implied a potential therapeutic effect in the lung cancer treatment. PMID:24141243

Li, Yu; Gu, Jun-Fei; Zou, Xi; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Jiang, Jun; Qin, Dong; Zhou, Jin-Yong; Liu, Bao-Xin-Zi; Zhu, Yun-Tao; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Feng, Liang; Wang, Rui-Ping

2013-01-01

260

Hybrid renewable energy system using doubly-fed induction generator and multilevel inverter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed hybrid system generates AC power by combining solar and wind energy converted by a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The DFIG, driven by a wind turbine, needs rotor excitation so the stator can supply a load or the grid. In a variable-speed wind energy system, the stator voltage and its frequency vary with wind speed, and in order to keep them constant, variable-voltage and variable-frequency rotor excitation is to be provided. A power conversion unit supplies the rotor, drawing power either from AC mains or from a PV panel depending on their availability. It consists of a multilevel inverter which gives lower harmonic distortion in the stator voltage. Maximum power point tracking techniques have been implemented for both wind and solar power. The complete hybrid renewable energy system is implemented in a PSIM-Simulink interface and the wind energy conversion portion is realized in hardware using dSPACE controller board.

Ahmed, Eshita

261

Inductive displacement sensors with a Notch filter for an active magnetic bearing system.  

PubMed

Active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems support rotating shafts without any physical contact, using electromagnetic forces. Each radial AMB uses two pairs of electromagnets at opposite sides of the rotor. This allows the rotor to float in the air gap, and the machine to operate without frictional losses. In active magnetic suspension, displacement sensors are necessary to detect the radial and axial movement of the suspended object. In a high-speed rotating machine equipped with an AMB, the rotor bending modes may be limited to the operating range. The natural frequencies of the rotor can cause instability. Thus, notch filters are a useful circuit for stabilizing the system. In addition, commercial displacement sensors are sometimes not suitable for AMB design, and cannot filter the noise caused by the natural frequencies of rotor. Hence, implementing displacement sensors based on the AMB structure is necessary to eliminate noises caused by natural frequency disturbances. The displacement sensor must be highly sensitive in the desired working range, and also exhibit a low interference noise, high stability, and low cost. In this study, we used the differential inductive sensor head and lock-in amplifier for synchronous demodulation. In addition, an active low-pass filter and a notch filter were used to eliminate disturbances, which caused by natural frequencies. As a consequence, the inductive displacement sensor achieved satisfactory linearity, high sensitivity, and disturbance elimination. This sensor can be easily produced for AMB applications. A prototype of these displacement sensors was built and tested. PMID:25029281

Chen, Seng-Chi; Le, Dinh-Kha; Nguyen, Van-Sum

2014-01-01

262

Inductive Displacement Sensors with a Notch Filter for an Active Magnetic Bearing System  

PubMed Central

Active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems support rotating shafts without any physical contact, using electromagnetic forces. Each radial AMB uses two pairs of electromagnets at opposite sides of the rotor. This allows the rotor to float in the air gap, and the machine to operate without frictional losses. In active magnetic suspension, displacement sensors are necessary to detect the radial and axial movement of the suspended object. In a high-speed rotating machine equipped with an AMB, the rotor bending modes may be limited to the operating range. The natural frequencies of the rotor can cause instability. Thus, notch filters are a useful circuit for stabilizing the system. In addition, commercial displacement sensors are sometimes not suitable for AMB design, and cannot filter the noise caused by the natural frequencies of rotor. Hence, implementing displacement sensors based on the AMB structure is necessary to eliminate noises caused by natural frequency disturbances. The displacement sensor must be highly sensitive in the desired working range, and also exhibit a low interference noise, high stability, and low cost. In this study, we used the differential inductive sensor head and lock-in amplifier for synchronous demodulation. In addition, an active low-pass filter and a notch filter were used to eliminate disturbances, which caused by natural frequencies. As a consequence, the inductive displacement sensor achieved satisfactory linearity, high sensitivity, and disturbance elimination. This sensor can be easily produced for AMB applications. A prototype of these displacement sensors was built and tested. PMID:25029281

Chen, Seng-Chi; Le, Dinh-Kha; Nguyen, Van-Sum

2014-01-01

263

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 {+-} 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 {+-} 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 {+-} 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 {+-} 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and {beta}-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of {sup 13}C{sup +} with {sup 12}C{sup 1}H{sup +} comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or {beta}-cyclodextrin.

Luong, E.

1999-05-10

264

Using a Computer Algebra System to Facilitate the Learning of Mathematical Induction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical induction is one of the major proof techniques taught to mathematics students in the first years of their undergraduate degrees. In addition to its importance to mathematics, induction is also required for computer science and related disciplines. However, even if the concepts of a proof by induction are taught and understood, many…

McAndrew, Alasdair

2010-01-01

265

Significance of neonatal testicular sex steroids to defeminize anteroventral periventricular kisspeptin neurons and the GnRH/LH surge system in male rats.  

PubMed

The brain mechanism regulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) release is sexually differentiated in rodents. Kisspeptin neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) have been suggested to be sexually dimorphic and involved in the GnRH/LH surge generation. The present study aimed to determine the significance of neonatal testicular androgen to defeminize AVPV kisspeptin expression and the GnRH/LH surge-generating system. To this end, we tested whether neonatal castration feminizes AVPV kisspeptin neurons and the LH surge-generating system in male rats and whether neonatal estradiol benzoate (EB) treatment suppresses the kisspeptin expression and the LH surge in female rats. Immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and quantitative real-time RT-PCR were performed to investigate kisspeptin and Kiss1 mRNA expressions. Male rats were castrated immediately after birth, and females were treated with EB on postnatal Day 5. Neonatal castration caused an increase in AVPV kisspeptin expression at peptide and mRNA levels in the genetically male rats, and the animals showed surge-like LH release in the presence of the preovulatory level of estradiol (E2) at adulthood. On the other hand, neonatal EB treatment decreased the number of AVPV kisspeptin neurons and caused an absence of E2-induced LH surge in female rats. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that neonatal steroidal manipulation affects Kiss1 expression but does not significantly affect gene expressions of neuropeptides (neurotensin and galanin) and enzymes or transporter for neurotransmitters (gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and dopamine) in the AVPV, suggesting that the manipulation specifically affects Kiss1 expressions. Taken together, our present results provide physiological evidence that neonatal testicular androgen causes the reduction of AVPV kisspeptin expression and failure of LH surge in genetically male rats. Thus, it is plausible that perinatal testicular androgen causes defeminization of the AVPV kisspeptin system, resulting in the loss of the surge system in male rats. PMID:19684332

Homma, Tamami; Sakakibara, Mototsugu; Yamada, Shunji; Kinoshita, Mika; Iwata, Kinuyo; Tomikawa, Junko; Kanazawa, Tetsuhiro; Matsui, Hisanori; Takatsu, Yoshihiro; Ohtaki, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Uenoyama, Yoshihisa; Maeda, Kei-Ichiro; Tsukamura, Hiroko

2009-12-01

266

Teens and Steroids: A Dangerous Combo  

MedlinePLUS

... PDF (198 K) En Español The abuse of anabolic steroids can cause both temporary and permanent injury to ... the dangers of steroid use. Q: What are anabolic steroids and how many teens use them? A: They ...

267

Use of X-ray crystallography for the characterization of single crystals grown in steroid containing transdermal drug delivery systems 1 Presented in part at the 11th AAPS meeting, San Diego, CA, USA, November 6–10, 1994. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Target of the study was to characterize crystals which had grown in steroid-containing matrix patches during short-term storage and to thereby establish a rationale for the inhibition of crystal formation in those patches in general. Matrix type transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) containing either 2.2% gestodene or 3.3% estradiol were free of crystals directly after their production. However, crystals of

Ralph Lipp; Anke Müller-Fahrnow

1999-01-01

268

Development of a dental implant mobility measurement system using an inductive sensor.  

PubMed

Estimation of dental implant stability is an important factor for diagnosis of implant treatment. In this study, we have developed a new system for measuring dental implant mobility. Movement of the implant was measured by an inductive sensor and an amplification adaptor was developed to multiply movement of the implant. Impulse response signal of the implant was acquired and power spectrum analysis was applied for the signal. Various implant-tissue interfacial conditions were simulated in an in vitro experiment and average peak frequency of the power spectrum was calculated for each condition. Artificial implantation model of acryl was fabricated and holes of different levels of depth and diameter were drilled. Two types of impression materials were used to fix the dental implant into the hole. The peak frequency showed linear relationship (P-value<0.01) with the depth and the diameter of the hole. Differentiability of the system was evaluated by ANOVA test. PMID:22254323

Kim, Dae-Seung; Lee, Woo-Jin; Choi, Soon-Chul; Lee, Sam-Sun; Heo, Min-Suk; Heo, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin

2011-01-01

269

A Testbed of Magnetic Induction-based Communication System for Underground Applications  

E-print Network

Wireless underground sensor networks (WUSNs) can enable many important applications such as intelligent agriculture, pipeline fault diagnosis, mine disaster rescue, concealed border patrol, crude oil exploration, among others. The key challenge to realize WUSNs is the wireless communication in underground environments. Most existing wireless communication systems utilize the dipole antenna to transmit and receive propagating electromagnetic (EM) waves, which do not work well in underground environments due to the very high material absorption loss. The Magnetic Induction (MI) technique provides a promising alternative solution that could address the current problem in underground. Although the MI-based underground communication has been intensively investigated theoretically, to date, seldom effort has been made in developing a testbed for the MI-based underground communication that can validate the theoretical results. In this paper, a testbed of MI-based communication system is designed and implemented in a...

Tan, Xin; Akyildiz, Ian F

2015-01-01

270

Simulation study for a new magnetic induction tomography coil system with weakly perturbing in conducting background.  

PubMed

Biomedical magnetic induction tomography (MIT) aims to reconstruct the passive electrical properties within biological tissues, especially the electrical conductivity. A weak perturbation inside a conducting object is put in the improved MIT coil system which uses the two-arm Archimedean spiral coil as the excitation coil and the circular coil as the receiver coil. The forward problem for this model is calculated by three-dimension electromagnetic simulation experiments. Under the different simulation conditions, the phase shift of voltage induced in the receiver coil is compared with that for the common model using the circular coil as the excitation and receiver coil. The results show that the sensitivity to the improved model is much higher than that to the common model except for the case that the perturbation appears in y-axis, which effectively confirms the previous conclusions and indicates that the improved coil system has the potential advantage for MIT image reconstruction. PMID:25570161

Ziyi Zhang; Peiguo Liu; Dongming Zhou; Liang Zhang; Hengdong Lei

2014-08-01

271

Induction of the homologous recombination system by hexavalent chromium in Rhizobium etli.  

PubMed

Induction of homologous recombination in Rhizobium etli to repair the DNA damage caused by hexavalent chromium (Cr) was evaluated. Mutants in recombination genes such as addA, recF, recA, ruvB, recG, and a double mutant ruvBrecG showed different sensitivity levels to Cr. As expected, the recA mutant showed the highest susceptibility, while complementation restored the Cr-resistant phenotype, similar to the wild-type strain. Small plasmid recombination increased up to 30-fold in the presence of Cr (0.05 mM) in the wild-type strain, while no change was observed in the recA mutant. A 20-fold increase in small plasmid recombination was also observed in the addA mutant in the presence of Cr. In addition, the ruvB mutant showed similar increases with Cr exposure to the wild-type strain, suggesting that other genetic elements may substitute its important role during recombination. Interestingly, continuous Cr exposure (0.05 mM) clearly induced the genetic expression of addA, recA, and ruvB genes. Finally, recombination mutants also showed susceptibility to other DNA-damaging agents such as tellurite and selenite. Together, these results confirm the induction and significance of the R. etli homologous recombination system to repair DNA damage caused by hexavalent Cr. PMID:24985093

Santoyo, Gustavo; Orozco-Mosqueda, Montserrat; Valdez-Martínez, Gabriela; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma Del Carmen

2015-01-01

272

Sex Steroids Modify Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last ten years, numerous mechanisms by which sex steroids modify cortical function have been described. For example, estrogen replacement improves verbal memory in women, and animal studies have shown effects of estrogen on hippocampal synaptogenesis and function. Little is known about sex steroid effects on other aspects of memory, such as frontal lobe-mediated working memory. We examined the

Jeri S. Janowsky; Bambi Chavez; Eric Orwoll

2000-01-01

273

Crystallization of steroids in gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crystal growth and characterization of certain steriods, viz., cholesterol, cholesteryl acetate, ?-sitosterol, progesterone and testosterone, in a silica gel medium is discussed. The present study shows that the single test tube diffusion method can be used to grow crystals of steroids in a silica gel medium by the reduction of steroid solubility.

Kalkura, S. Narayana; Devanarayanan, S.

1991-03-01

274

The safety of intranasal steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of intranasal steroids in the management of allergic rhinitis reflects their efficacy, tolerability, and safety. However, issues related to the safety of intranasal steroids continue to generate debate and confusion among clinicans. Consequently, there is often reluctance and uncertainty in prescribing these effective agents for the treatment of perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis. Issues of particular concern

Michael S Benninger; Nadir Ahmad; Bradley F Marple

2003-01-01

275

Post-LASIK interface fluid syndrome caused by steroid drops  

PubMed Central

Interface fluid syndrome after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a rare but visually threatening postoperative complication. In this case series we present 8 post-LASIK eyes that developed interface fluid syndrome after prolonged steroid use. Patients presented with signs mimicking diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) that worsened with steroid treatment. Slit-lamp examination revealed corneal haze and an optically clear fluid-filled space between the flap and stroma. The IOP was high in all cases. Topical steroids were stopped and replaced with topical and systemic anti-glaucoma medications resulting in a dramatic improvement in visual acuity. PMID:24227974

Bamashmus, Mahfouth A.; Saleh, Mahmoud F.

2013-01-01

276

FPGA-BASED COMPUTATION OF THE INDUCTANCE OF COILS USED FOR THE MAGNETIC STIMULATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM  

E-print Network

stimulation of the human nervous system is now a common technique in modern medicine [1]. A difficultyFPGA-BASED COMPUTATION OF THE INDUCTANCE OF COILS USED FOR THE MAGNETIC STIMULATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Ionu Trestian, Octavian Cre, Laura Cre, Lucia Vcariu, Radu Tudoran Computer Science Department

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

278

Induction motors in electromechanical systems with a periodical moment of inertia — Analytical calculation of forced oscillations and test. Part 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents Induction motors driving mechanical multibody systems with periodical motion (i.e. mechanisms, looms etc.) are subjected to a forced oscillation. This is due to the resulting moment of inertia and the imposed torque: Both of them are periodical functions of the rotation angle. The oscillation is approximated by a finite Fourier series satisfying a linearized system of equations. The comparison

T. Vikopoulos

1985-01-01

279

Induction motors in electromechanical systems with a periodical moment of inertia — Analytical calculation of forced oscillations and test. Part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents Induction motors driving mechanical multibody systems with periodical motion (i.e. mechanisms, looms etc.) are subjected to a forced oscillation. This is due to the resulting moment of inertia and the imposed torque: Both of them are periodical functions of the rotation angle. The oscillation is approximated by a finite Fourier series satisfying a linearized system of equations. The comparison

T. Vikopoulos

1985-01-01

280

Inductively coupled plasma -- Atomic emission spectroscopy glove box assembly system at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy [ICP/AES (ICP)] system for elemental analyses in support of vitrification processing was first installed in 1986. The initial instrument was a Jobin Yvon (JY) Model JY-70 ICP that consisted of sequential and simultaneous spectrometers for analysis of nonradioactive samples as radioactive surrogates. The JY-70 ICP continued supporting nonradioactive testing during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) using the full-scale melter with ``cold'' (nonradioactive) testing campaigns. As a result, the need for another system was identified to allow for the analysis of radioactive samples. The Mass Spec (Spectrometry) Lab was established for the installation of the modified ICP system for handling radioactive samples. The conceptual setup of another ICP was predicated on the use of a hood to allow ease of accessibility of the torch, nebulizer, and spray chamber, and the minimization of air flow paths. However, reconsideration of the radioactive sample dose rate and contamination levels led to the configuration of the glovebox system with a common transfer interface box for the ICP and the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) glovebox assemblies. As a result, a simultaneous Model JY-50P ICP with glovebox was installed in 1990 as a first generation ICP glovebox system. This was one of the first ICP glovebox assemblies connected with an ICP-MS glovebox system. Since the economics of processing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) required the availability of an instrument to operate 24 hours a day throughout the year without any downtime, a second generation ICP glovebox assembly was designed, manufactured, and installed in 1995 using a Model JY-46P ICP. These two ICP glovebox systems continue to support vitrification of the HLW into canisters for storage. The ICP systems have been instrumental in monitoring vitrification batch processing. To date, remote sample preparation and compositional analysis of key parameters, i.e., greater than 0.5% weight percent metal oxides, during batch processing (waste initials, glass formers, waste plus glass formers, and glass) has verified the composition to be within the acceptance criteria and generated the necessary data for the Waste Qualification Report.

Marlow, J.H.; McCarthy, K.M.; Tamul, N.R.

1999-12-17

281

Peripheral nerves: a target for the action of neuroactive steroids.  

PubMed

Peripheral nervous system possesses both classical and non-classical steroid receptors and consequently may represent a target for the action of neuroactive steroids. The present review summarizes the state of art of this intriguing field of research reporting data which indicate that neuroactive steroids, like for instance progesterone, dihydroprogesterone, tetrahydroprogesterone, dihydrotestosterone and 3alpha-diol, stimulate the expression of two important proteins of the myelin of peripheral nerves, the glycoprotein P0 (P0) and the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22). Interestingly, the mechanisms by which neuroactive steroids exert their effects involve classical steroid receptors, like for instance progesterone and androgen receptors, in case of P0 and non-classical steroid receptors, like GABA(A) receptor, in case of PMP22. Moreover, neuroactive steroids not only control the expression of these specific myelin proteins, but also influence the morphology of myelin sheaths and axons suggesting that these molecules may represent an interesting new therapeutic approach to maintain peripheral nerve integrity during neurodegenerative events. PMID:15850671

Melcangi, Roberto C; Cavarretta, Ilaria T R; Ballabio, Marinella; Leonelli, Emanuela; Schenone, Angelo; Azcoitia, Inigo; Miguel Garcia-Segura, Luis; Magnaghi, Valerio

2005-04-01

282

Systemic Induction of the Small Antibacterial Compound in the Leaf Exudate During Benzothiadiazole-elicited Systemic Acquired Resistance in Pepper.  

PubMed

Plants protect themselves from diverse potential pathogens by induction of the immune systems such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Most bacterial plant pathogens thrive in the intercellular space (apoplast) of plant tissues and cause symptoms. The apoplastic leaf exudate (LE) is believed to contain nutrients to provide food resource for phytopathogenic bacteria to survive and to bring harmful phytocompounds to protect plants against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we employed the pepper-Xanthomonas axonopodis system to assess whether apoplastic fluid from LE in pepper affects the fitness of X. axonopodis during the induction of SAR. The LE was extracted from pepper leaves 7 days after soil drench-application of a chemical trigger, benzothiadiazole (BTH). Elicitation of plant immunity was confirmed by significant up-regulation of four genes, CaPR1, CaPR4, CaPR9, and CaCHI2, by BTH treatment. Bacterial fitness was evaluated by measuring growth rate during cultivation with LE from BTH- or water-treated leaves. LE from BTH-treatment significantly inhibited bacterial growth when compared to that from the water-treated control. The antibacterial activity of LE from BTH-treated samples was not affected by heating at 100°C for 30 min. Although the antibacterial molecules were not precisely identified, the data suggest that small (less than 5 kDa), heat-stable compound(s) that are present in BTH-induced LE directly attenuate bacterial growth during the elicitation of plant immunity. PMID:25288963

Lee, Boyoung; Park, Yong-Soon; Yi, Hwe-Su; Ryu, Choong-Min

2013-09-01

283

Multiphysics Modeling of an Annular Linear Induction Pump With Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An annular linear induction pump (ALIP) that could be used for circulating liquid-metal coolant in a fission surface power reactor system is modeled in the present work using the computational COMSOL Multiphysics package. The pump is modeled using a two-dimensional, axisymmetric geometry and solved under conditions similar to those used during experimental pump testing. Real, nonlinear, temperature-dependent material properties can be incorporated into the model for both the electrically-conducting working fluid in the pump (NaK-78) and structural components of the pump. The intricate three-phase coil configuration of the pump is implemented in the model to produce an axially-traveling magnetic wave that is qualitatively similar to the measured magnetic wave. The model qualitatively captures the expected feature of a peak in efficiency as a function of flow rate.

Kilbane, J.; Polzin, K. A.

2014-01-01

284

Photon echo without a free induction decay in a double-? system.  

PubMed

We have characterized a novel photon-echo pulse sequence for a double-?-type energy level system where the input and rephasing transitions are different from the applied ? pulses. We show that, despite having imperfect ?-pulses associated with large coherent emission due to free induction decay (FID), the noise added in the echo mode is only 0.2 ± 0.1 photons per shot, compared to 4 × 10? photons in the FID modes. Using this echo pulse sequence in the "rephased amplified spontaneous emission" (RASE) scheme [Phys. Rev. A 81, 012301 (2010)] will allow for generation of entangled photon pairs that are in different frequency, temporal, and potentially spatial modes to any bright driving fields. The coherence and efficiency properties of this sequence were characterized in a Pr(3+):Y?SiO? crystal. PMID:21479055

Beavan, Sarah E; Ledingham, Patrick M; Longdell, Jevon J; Sellars, Matthew J

2011-04-01

285

Photon echo without a free induction decay in a double-Lambda system  

E-print Network

We have characterized a novel photon-echo pulse sequence for a double-$\\Lambda$ type energy level system where the input and rephasing transitions are different to the applied $\\pi$-pulses. We show that despite having imperfect $\\pi$-pulses (associated with large coherent emission due to free induction decay), the noise added is only 0.019$\\pm$0.001 relative to the shot noise in the spectral mode of the echo. Using this echo pulse sequence in the `rephased amplified spontaneous emission' (RASE) scheme \\cite{Ledingham2010} will allow for generation of entangled photon pairs that are in different frequency, temporal, and potentially spatial modes to any bright driving fields. The coherence and efficiency properties of this sequence were characterized in a Pr:YSO crystal.

Sarah E. Beavan; Patrick M. Ledingham; Jevon J. Longdell; Matthew J. Sellars

2011-02-16

286

Measurement of the target current by inductive probe during laser interaction on terawatt laser system PALS  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the return-current flowing through a solid target irradiated with the sub-nanosecond kJ-class Prague Asterix Laser System is reported. A new inductive target probe was developed which allows us measuring the target current derivative in a kA/ns range. The dependences of the target current on the laser pulse energy for cooper, graphite, and polyethylene targets are reported. The experiment shows that the target current is proportional to the deposited laser energy and is strongly affected by the shot-to-shot fluctuations. The corresponding maximum target charge exceeded a value of 10 ?C. A return-current dependence of the electromagnetic pulse produced by the laser-target interaction is presented.

Cikhardt, J.; Klír, D.; ?ezá?, K. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, 166 27 Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Krása, J.; De Marco, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Velyhan, A.; Krouský, E. [Institute of Physics AS CR, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Cikhardtová, B.; Kubeš, P.; Kravárik, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, 166 27 Prague (Czech Republic); Ullschmied, J.; Skála, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

2014-10-15

287

Measurement of the target current by inductive probe during laser interaction on terawatt laser system PALS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the return-current flowing through a solid target irradiated with the sub-nanosecond kJ-class Prague Asterix Laser System is reported. A new inductive target probe was developed which allows us measuring the target current derivative in a kA/ns range. The dependences of the target current on the laser pulse energy for cooper, graphite, and polyethylene targets are reported. The experiment shows that the target current is proportional to the deposited laser energy and is strongly affected by the shot-to-shot fluctuations. The corresponding maximum target charge exceeded a value of 10 ?C. A return-current dependence of the electromagnetic pulse produced by the laser-target interaction is presented.

Cikhardt, J.; Krása, J.; De Marco, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Velyhan, A.; Krouský, E.; Cikhardtová, B.; Klír, D.; ?ezá?, K.; Ullschmied, J.; Skála, J.; Kubeš, P.; Kravárik, J.

2014-10-01

288

Neuroactive Steroids in Brain and Relevance to Mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression and anxiety often affect women in relation to reproductive events like menarche, premenstrual periods, post-partum\\u000a and perimenopause. A prominent example of the interaction between mood, neuroactive-steroids and the GABA system is premenstrual\\u000a dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Severe premenstrual negative mood symptoms occur in 3–8% of women. Sex and stress hormones are\\u000a metabolized to neuroactive steroids with effects on brain function

Torbjörn Bückström; Lotta Andréen; Marie Bixo; Inger Björn; Guillén Fernández; Inga-Maj Johansson; Per Lundgren; Magnus Löfgren; Sigrid Nyberg; Gianna Ragagnin; Inger Sundström-Poromaa; Jessica Strömberg; Frank van Broekhoven; Guido van Wingen; Ming-De Wang

289

CLIPPERS: chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids. Review of an increasingly recognized entity within the spectrum of inflammatory central nervous system disorders  

PubMed Central

Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a recently defined inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) disorder, prominently involving the brainstem and in particular the pons. The condition features a combination of clinical symptoms essentially referable to brainstem pathology and a characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance with punctate and curvilinear gadolinium enhancement ‘peppering’ the pons. The radiological distribution is focused in the pons and adjacent rhombencephalic structures such as the cerebellar peduncles, cerebellum, medulla and the midbrain. While the lesion burden with a perivascular pattern is typically most dense in these pontine and peripontine regions, enhancing lesions may additionally extend into the spinal cord and supratentorial structures such as the thalamus, basal ganglia, capsula interna, corpus callosum and the cerebral white matter. Another core feature is clinical and radiological responsiveness to glucocorticosteroid (GCS)-based immunosuppression. As withdrawal of GCS treatment results commonly in disease exacerbation, long-term immunosuppressive therapy appears to be mandatory for sustained improvement. Diagnosis of CLIPPERS is challenging, and requires careful exclusion of alternative diagnoses. A specific serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker for the disorder is currently not known. Pathogenesis of CLIPPERS remains poorly understood, and the nosological position of CLIPPERS has still to be established. Whether CLIPPERS represents an independent, actual new disorder or a syndrome that includes aetiologically heterogeneous diseases and/or their prestages remains a debated and not finally clarified issue. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of this condition and its differential diagnoses, given that CLIPPERS constitutes a treatable condition and that patients may benefit from an early introduction of GCS ensued by long-term immunosuppression. Based on previous reports in literature?–?currently encompassing more than 50 reported cases of CLIPPERS?–?this review addresses clinical features, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses and therapeutic management of this peculiar disorder. PMID:24028073

Dudesek, A; Rimmele, F; Tesar, S; Kolbaske, S; Rommer, P S; Benecke, R; Zettl, U K

2014-01-01

290

Evaluation of a closed loop inductive power transmission system on an awake behaving animal subject.  

PubMed

This paper presents in vivo experimental results for a closed loop wireless power transmission system to implantable devices on an awake behaving animal subject. In this system, wireless power transmission takes place across an inductive link, controlled by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. Induced voltage on the implantable secondary coil is rectified, digitized by a 10-bit analog to digital converter, and transmitted back to the primary via back telemetry. Transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) circuitry were mounted on the back of an adult rat with a nominal distance of ~7 mm between their coils. Our experiments showed that the closed loop system was able to maintain the Rx supply voltage at the designated 3.8 V despite changes in the coils' relative distance and alignment due to animal movements. The Tx power consumption changed between 410 ~ 560 mW in order to deliver 27 mW to the receiver. The open loop system, on the other hand, showed undesired changes in the Rx supply voltage while the Tx power consumption was constant at 660 mW. PMID:22256112

Kiani, Mehdi; Kwon, Ki Yong; Zhang, Fei; Oweiss, Karim; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2011-01-01

291

Evaluation of a Closed Loop Inductive Power Transmission System on an Awake Behaving Animal Subject  

PubMed Central

This paper presents in vivo experimental results for a closed loop wireless power transmission system to implantable devices on an awake behaving animal subject. In this system, wireless power transmission takes place across an inductive link, controlled by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. Induced voltage on the implantable secondary coil is rectified, digitized by a 10-bit analog to digital converter, and transmitted back to the primary via back telemetry. Transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) circuitry were mounted on the back of an adult rat with a nominal distance of ~7 mm between their coils. Our experiments showed that the closed loop system was able to maintain the Rx supply voltage at the designated 3.8 V despite changes in the coils’ relative distance and alignment due to animal movements. The Tx power consumption changed between 410 ~ 560 mW in order to deliver 27 mW to the receiver. The open loop system, on the other hand, showed undesired changes in the Rx supply voltage while the Tx power consumption was constant at 660 mW. PMID:22256112

Kiani, Mehdi; Kwon, Ki Yong; Zhang, Fei; Oweiss, Karim; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2011-01-01

292

Injection of steroids intralesional in central giant cell granuloma cases (giant cell tumor): Is it free of systemic complications or not? A case report  

PubMed Central

Central giant tumors commonly occur in long bones. In the oral and maxillofacial region, a counterpart coined with the term Central giant cell granuloma exists. Choung and Kaban classified central giant cell granulomas based on clinical and radiographic findings. The classification includes aggressive and non-aggressive variants. However, to date there has been no molecular method of distinguishing the variants. Different lines of treatment had been reported. The aggressive form showed high recurrence rates with conservative surgical treatment. Intra-lesional steroid, calcitonin, interferon, bisphosphonates and denosumab; have been administered as a treatment lines. Several reports support the injection of intra lesional steroids and its successful outcome. An Egyptian, nine years old female presented with a facial swelling affecting lower left side of the mandible. Biopsy confirmed it to be a CGCG. The treatment plan was intralesional steroid injections to avoid resection of the mandible. The treatment showed acceptable progress but was associated with cushinoid appearance of patient. This forced the operating team to halt the steroid injections and resolute to adjunctive surgical curettage yet sparing the mandible from resection. One-year follow up showed no recurrence, however, the patient still suffers mild cushinoid appearance. PMID:25699662

El Hadidi, Yasser Nabil; Ghanem, Amr Amin; Helmy, Iman

2015-01-01

293

Pulsed IR inductive lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed inductive discharge is a new alternative method of pumping active gas laser media. The work presents results of experimental investigations of near, mid, and far IR inductive gas lasers (H2, HF, and CO2) operating at different transitions of atoms and molecules with different mechanisms of formation of inversion population. The excitation systems of a pulsed inductive cylindrical discharge (pulsed inductively coupled plasma) and pulsed RF inductive discharge in the gases are developed. Various gas mixtures including H2, N2, He, Ne, F2, NF3, and SF6 are used. Characteristics of near IR H2 laser radiation are investigated. Maximal pulse peak power of 7?kW is achieved. The possibility of using a pulsed inductive discharge as a new method of pumping HF laser active medium is demonstrated. The pulsed RF inductive CO2 laser is created and a total efficiency of 17% is achieved.

Razhev, A. M.; Churkin, D. S.; Kargapol’tsev, E. S.

2014-07-01

294

Motivations for Anabolic Steroid use Among Bodybuilders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroid use is increasing, in parallel with rising concerns about body image. This study aimed to uncover bodybuilders’ motivations for using steroids using 135 questionnaires completed by readers of two bodybuilding magazines. The analyses reveal a polarization of beliefs about steroids between users and non-users. Steroid users were less likely to be concerned about the physical side effects, and many

Sam Wright; Sarah Grogan; Geoff Hunter

2000-01-01

295

Use of orbital floor steroids in the management of patients with uniocular non-necrotising scleritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most cases of non-necrotising scleritis can be successfully treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. If these are ineffective, then high-dose systemic corticosteroids, with all their attendant side-effects, are usually required. We have used orbital floor injections of depot steroid in the management of nine patients with non-necrotising scleritis in an attempt to avoid the use of systemic steroids, or to allow

K N Hakin; J Ham; S L Lightman

1991-01-01

296

A sensorless vector control system for induction motors using q-axis flux with stator resistance identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a sensorless vector control system for general-purpose induction motors, which is based on the observer theory and the adaptive control theories. The proposed system includes a rotor speed estimator using a q-axis flux and stator resistance identifier using the d-axis flux. The advantages of the proposed system are simplicity and avoidance of problems caused by using only

Mineo Tsuji; Shuo Chen; Katsuhiro Izumi; Eiji Yamada

2001-01-01

297

System-level power loss sensitivity to various control variables in vector-controlled induction motor drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vector-controlled induction motor drives include several design and control variables that affect power losses. Flux may be weakened to reduce machine losses; switching and conduction losses in the inverter are reduced by adjusting the flux ripple and current hysteresis bands. This paper combines the machine and inverter to investigate the effects of various control variables on the total system power

Ali M. Bazzi; Veysel T. Buyukdegirmenci; Philip T. Krein

2012-01-01

298

Abstract--The use of doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) in large wind energy conversion systems (WECS) has  

E-print Network

1 Abstract--The use of doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) in large wind energy conversion systems (WECS) has significantly increased during the last few years. The DFIG is interfaced to the AC to the AC grid during disturbances. The sensitivity of DFIGs to external faults has motivated researchers

Pota, Himanshu Roy

299

LQR with integral action applied to a wind energy conversion system based on doubly fed induction generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) with Integral action (LQRI) applied to a wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). The controller is used to achieve speed regulation for maximum power extraction from the wind turbine, DC bus voltage regulation, to make the machine draw its magnetizing current only from

Bachir Kedjar; Kamal Al-Haddad

2011-01-01

300

The effect of acid digestion technique on the performance of nebulization systems used in inductively coupled plasma spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pneumatic nebulization systems used in inductively coupled plasma spectrometry generally consist of a concentric glass (Meinhard type) or v?groove (Babington principle) nebulizer in combination with a cyclonic, cone or Scott double pass cloud chamber. The characteristic mode of action of each nebulizer produces an aerosol, the droplet size distribution of which depends on the solution matrix. Before reaching the

Bernhard A. Zarcinas; Michael J. McLaughlin; Michelle K. Smart

1996-01-01

301

Vitrification of high level nuclear waste inside ambient temperature disposal containers using inductive heating: The SMILE system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach, termed SMILE (Small Module Inductively Loaded Energy), for the vitrification of high level nuclear wastes (HLW) is described. Present vitrification systems liquefy the HLW solids and associated frit material in large high temperature melters. The molten mix is then poured into small (â¼1 m³) disposal canisters, where it solidifies and cools. SMILE eliminates the separate, large high

J. Powell; M. Reich; R. Barletta

1996-01-01

302

Inductive and magnetic field inspection systems for rebar visualization and corrosion estimation in reinforced and pre-stressed concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inductive and magnetic field inspection systems are becoming increasing popular for the nondestructive imaging and condition assessment of reinforcing components, such as steel reinforcing bars (rebars) and tendons in reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. In this article, we review the principles of this nascent technology, the research and commercial instruments that are now available, and the directions of future research.

P. Gaydecki; B. Fernandes; S. Quek; D. Benitez; G. Miller; M. Zaid

2007-01-01

303

The magnetic field, force and inductance of the system consisting of a thin ellipsoidal coil and a ferromagnetic ellipsoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of separation of variables has been applied to determine the magnetic field of the system consisting of a thin\\u000a ellipsoidal coil and a ferromagnetic ellipsoid of revolution. The inductance and the force acting between the coil and the\\u000a ellipsoid are also examined.

Jan Purczynski; Pawel Rolicz; Ryszard Sikora

1975-01-01

304

EFFI: a code for calculating the electromagnetic field, force, and inductance in coil systems of arbitrary geometry. User's manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

EFFI calculates magnetic flux lines, fields, forces, and inductance for an arbitrary system of coils made from circular arc and\\/or straight segments of rectangular cross section conductor. The preparation of input to the code and the output options available are described. Several examples, including the magnet design for MFTF and a divertor design for a Tokamak are used for illustration.

1977-01-01

305

A novel variable-speed wind energy system using induction generator and six-switch AC\\/AC converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays using of the wind energy has a growing trend in the world due to their numerous advantages. The wind energy is free, inexhaustible and it produces no waste or greenhouse gases. Furthermore, it is a good method of supplying energy to remote areas. In this paper, a new variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) with a squirrel cage induction

M. Heydari; A. Yazdian Varjani; M. Mohamadian

2012-01-01

306

Convergence of Multiple Mechanisms of Steroid Hormone Action  

PubMed Central

Steroid hormones modulate a wide array of physiological processes including development, metabolism, and reproduction in various species. It is generally believed that these biological effects are predominantly mediated by their binding to specific intracellular receptors resulting in conformational change, dimerization, and recruitment of coregulators for transcription-dependent genomic actions (classical mechanism). In addition, to their cognate ligands, intracellular steroid receptors can also be activated in a “ligand-independent” manner by other factors including neurotransmitters. Recent studies indicate that rapid, nonclassical steroid effects involve extranuclear steroid receptors located at the membrane, which interact with cytoplasmic kinase signaling molecules and G-proteins. The current review deals with various mechanisms that function together in an integrated manner to promote hormone-dependent actions on the central and sympathetic nervous systems. PMID:22454239

Mani, S. K.; Mermelstein, P. G.; Tetel, M. J.; Anesetti, G.

2013-01-01

307

Manchester code telemetry system for well logging using quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance method is proposed to improve the recovery of MIL-STD-1553 Manchester code with several frequency components from attenuated, distorted, and drifted signal for data telemetry in well logging, and corresponding telemetry system is developed. Required resonant frequency and quality factor are derived, and the quasi-parallel LC resonant circuit is established at the receiving end of the logging cable to suppress the low-pass filtering effect caused by the distributed capacitance of the cable and provide balanced pass for all the three frequency components of the Manchester code. The performance of the method for various encoding frequencies and cable lengths at different bit energy to noise density ratios (Eb/No) have been evaluated in the simulation. A 5 km single-core cable used in on-site well logging and various encoding frequencies were employed to verify the proposed telemetry system in the experiment. Results obtained demonstrate that the telemetry system is feasible and effective to improve the code recovery in terms of anti-attenuation, anti-distortion, and anti-drift performances, decrease the bit error rate, and increase the reachable transmission rate and distance greatly.

Xu, Lijun; Chen, Jianjun; Cao, Zhang; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

2014-07-01

308

Steroid Assays in Paediatric Endocrinology  

PubMed Central

Most steroid disorders of the adrenal cortex come to clinical attention in childhood and in order to investigate these problems, there are many challenges to the laboratory which need to be appreciated to a certain extent by clinicians. The analysis of sex steroids in biological fluids from neonates, over adrenarche and puberty present challenges of specificities and concentrations often in small sample sizes. Different reference ranges are also needed for interpretations. For around 40 years, quantitative assays for the steroids and their regulatory peptide hormones have been possible using immunoassay techniques. Problems are recognised and this review aims to summarise the benefits and failings of immunoassays and introduce where tandem mass spectrometry is anticipated to meet the clinical needs for steroid analysis in paediatric endocrine investigations. It is important to keep a dialogue between clinicians and the laboratory, especially when any laboratory result does not make sense in the clinical investigation. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274330

2010-01-01

309

Systemic Bud Induction and Retinoic Acid Signaling Underlie Whole Body Regeneration in the Urochordate Botrylloides leachi  

PubMed Central

Regeneration in adult chordates is confined to a few model cases and terminates in restoration of restricted tissues and organs. Here, we study the unique phenomenon of whole body regeneration (WBR) in the colonial urochordate Botrylloides leachi in which an entire adult zooid is restored from a miniscule blood vessel fragment. In contrast to all other documented cases, regeneration is induced systemically in blood vessels. Multiple buds appear simultaneously in newly established regeneration niches within vasculature fragments, stemming from composites of pluripotent blood cells and terminating in one functional zooid. We found that retinoic acid (RA) regulates diverse developmental aspects in WBR. The homologue of the RA receptor and a retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-related gene were expressed specifically in blood cells within regeneration niches and throughout bud development. The addition of RA inhibitors as well as RNA interference knockdown experiments resulted in WBR arrest and bud malformations. The administration of all-trans RA to blood vessel fragments resulted in doubly accelerated regeneration and multibud formation, leading to restored colonies with multiple zooids. The Botrylloides system differs from known regeneration model systems by several fundamental criteria, including epimorphosis without the formation of blastema and the induction of a “multifocal regeneration niche” system. This is also to our knowledge the first documented case of WBR from circulating blood cells that restores not only the soma, but also the germ line. This unique Botrylloides WBR process could serve as a new in vivo model system for regeneration, suggesting that RA signaling may have had ancestral roles in body restoration events. PMID:17341137

Rinkevich, Yuval; Paz, Guy; Rinkevich, Baruch; Reshef, Ram

2007-01-01

310

Investigation of Aerodynamic and Icing Characteristics of a Flush Alternate Inlet Induction System Air Scoop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been made in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel to determine the aerodynamic and icing characteristics of a full-scale induction-system air-scoop assembly incorporating a flush alternate inlet. The flush inlet was located immediately downstream of the offset ram inlet and included a 180 deg reversal and a 90 deg elbow in the ducting between inlet and carburetor top deck. The model also had a preheat-air inlet. The investigation was made over a range of mass-air- flow ratios of 0 to 0.8, angles of attack of 0 and 4 deg airspeeds of 150 to 270 miles per hour, air temperatures of 0 and 25 F various liquid-water contents, and droplet sizes. The ram inlet gave good pressure recovery in both clear air and icing but rapid blockage of the top-deck screen occurred during icing. The flush alternate inlet had poor pressure recovery in both clear air and icing. The greatest decreases in the alternate-inlet pressure recovery were obtained at icing conditions of low air temperature and high liquid-water content. No serious screen icing was observed with the alternate inlet. Pressure and temperature distributions on the carburetor top deck were determined using the preheat-air supply with the preheat- and alternate-inlet doors in various positions. No screen icing occurred when the preheat-air system was operated in combination with alternate-inlet air flow.

Lewis, James P.

1953-01-01

311

The induction of macrophage spreading by factor B of the properdin system.  

PubMed

Unstimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages attached to a glass substratum responded to activated human factor B (Bb) of the properdin system but not to native factor B with rapid spreading and a concomitant increase in their apparent surface area. Excellent correlation of the distribution of Bb protein and cell-spreading activity was found upon purification of Bb by ion-exchange and molecular seive chromatography and alkaline polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 1.6 microgram of purified Bb was sufficient to induce spreading in 50% of 5 x 10(4) glass attached macrophages within 1-2 h at 37 degrees C. Treatment of Bb with di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate indicated that the intact catalytic site of the serine-proteinase Bb was required for the initiation of macrophage spreading. The involvement of factor B in the induction of rapid cell spreading could also be indirectly demonstrated in an autologous system in which F(ab')2 fragments of an antiserum to mouse B prevented mouse macrophages from spreading in response to complement-activated mouse serum. These experiments suggest a role for factor B and the alternative pathway of complement fixation in the localization of mononuclear phagocytes to areas of inflammation. PMID:570212

Götze, O; Bianco, C; Cohn, Z A

1979-02-01

312

Increase in tacrolimus trough levels after steroid withdrawal.  

PubMed

Although there are experimental reports of cytochrome P450 3A4 iso-enzyme (CYP3A4) induction by glucocorticoids, there are no clinical reports about an interaction between tacrolimus and steroids. Therefore, tacrolimus trough level and dose were compared after dose-normalization before and after withdrawal of prednisolone. After withdrawal of 5 mg prednisolone, the median tacrolimus dose-normalized level increased by 14% in the retrospective ( n=54), and by 11% in the prospective ( n=8) part of the study. After withdrawal of 10 mg, this increase was 33% ( n=30) and 36% ( n=14), respectively. An additional pharmacokinetic part of the study ( n=8) revealed an 18% increase in AUC ( P=0.05) after withdrawal of 5 mg prednisolone, which is compatible with a reduced metabolism after steroid withdrawal. The significant increase in tacrolimus exposure after steroid withdrawal may on the one hand counteract the reduction in immunosuppression intended by steroid withdrawal, and, on the other hand, may result in an increase of serum creatinine which could be misinterpreted as rejection. PMID:12827231

van Duijnhoven, Elly M; Boots, Johannes M M; Christiaans, Maarten H L; Stolk, Leo M L; Undre, Nasrullah A; van Hooff, Johannes P

2003-10-01

313

Dehydroepiandrosterone: a neuroactive steroid.  

PubMed

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate bound form (DHEAS) are important steroids of mainly adrenal origin. They are produced also in gonads and in the brain. Dehydroepiandrosterone easily crosses the brain-blood barrier and in part is also produced locally in the brain tissue. In the brain, DHEA exerts its effects after conversion to either testosterone and dihydrotestosterone or estradiol via androgen and estrogen receptors present in the most parts of the human brain, through mainly non-genomic mechanisms, or eventually indirectly via the effects of its metabolites formed locally in the brain. As a neuroactive hormone, DHEA in co-operation with other hormones and transmitters significantly affects some aspects of human mood, and modifies some features of human emotions and behavior. It has been reported that its administration can increase feelings of well-being and is useful in ameliorating atypical depressive disorders. It has neuroprotective and antiglucocorticoid activity and modifies immune reactions, and some authors have also reported its role in degenerative brain diseases. Here we present a short overview of the possible actions of dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate in the brain, calling attention to various mechanisms of their action as neurosteroids and to prospects for the knowledge of their role in brain disorders. PMID:24704258

Stárka, Luboslav; Dušková, Michaela; Hill, Martin

2015-01-01

314

A novel hybrid isolated generating system based on PV fed inverter-assisted wind-driven induction Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated renewable energy systems based on hybrid wind-solar sources are considered as feasible and reliable options instead of wind-diesel systems. An isolated hybrid scheme employing a simple three-phase square-wave inverter to integrate a photovoltaic array with a wind-driven induction generator has been proposed for the first time. A dynamic mathematical model of the hybrid scheme with variables expressed in d-q

S. Arul Daniel; N. AmmasaiGounden

2004-01-01

315

Influence of sex steroid hormones on cerebrovascular function.  

PubMed

The cerebral vasculature is a target tissue for sex steroid hormones. Estrogens, androgens, and progestins all influence the function and pathophysiology of the cerebral circulation. Estrogen decreases cerebral vascular tone and increases cerebral blood flow by enhancing endothelial-derived nitric oxide and prostacyclin pathways. Testosterone has opposite effects, increasing cerebral artery tone. Cerebrovascular inflammation is suppressed by estrogen but increased by testosterone and progesterone. Evidence suggests that sex steroids also modulate blood-brain barrier permeability. Estrogen has important protective effects on cerebral endothelial cells by increasing mitochondrial efficiency, decreasing free radical production, promoting cell survival, and stimulating angiogenesis. Although much has been learned regarding hormonal effects on brain blood vessels, most studies involve young, healthy animals. It is becoming apparent that hormonal effects may be modified by aging or disease states such as diabetes. Furthermore, effects of testosterone are complicated because this steroid is also converted to estrogen, systemically and possibly within the vessels themselves. Elucidating the impact of sex steroids on the cerebral vasculature is important for understanding male-female differences in stroke and conditions such as menstrual migraine and preeclampsia-related cerebral edema in pregnancy. Cerebrovascular effects of sex steroids also need to be considered in untangling current controversies regarding consequences of hormone replacement therapies and steroid abuse. PMID:16794020

Krause, Diana N; Duckles, Sue P; Pelligrino, Dale A

2006-10-01

316

Esteróides anabolizantes: mecanismos de ação e efeitos sobre o sistema cardiovascular Anabolic steroids: action mechanisms and effects on the cardiovascular system Esteroides anabólicos: mecanismos de acción y efecto sobre el sistema cardiovascular  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anabolic androgenic steroids are ergogenic aids commonly used by athletes in search of better performances. However, the use of these substances by individuals who are not athletes with aesthetic aims is becoming an increasing problem in fitness and sport centers. This behavior has favored the indiscriminate and abusive use of these steroids, exposing their users to health risks. Anabolic steroids

Fernando Lima Rocha; Fernanda Roberta Roque; Edilamar Menezes de Oliveira

317

Two-level system noise reduction for Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise performance is one of the most crucial aspects of any detector. Superconducting Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) have an "excess" frequency noise that shows up as a small time dependent jitter of the resonance frequency characterized by the frequency noise power spectrum measured in units of Hz2/Hz. Recent studies have shown that this noise almost certainly originates from a surface layer of two-level system (TLS) defects on the metallization or substrate. Fluctuation of these TLSs introduces noise in the resonator due to coupling of the TLS electric dipole moments to the resonator's electric field. Motivated by a semi-empirical quantitative theory of this noise mechanism, we have designed and tested new resonator geometries in which the high-field "capacitive" portion of the CPW resonator is replaced by an interdigitated capacitor (IDC) structure with 10-20 ?m electrode spacing, as compared to the 2 ?m spacing used for our more conventional CPW resonators. Measurements show that this new IDC design has dramatically lower TLS noise, currently by about a factor of ˜29 in terms of the frequency noise power spectrum, corresponding to an improvement of about a factor of ?29 in NEP. These new devices are replacing the CPW resonators in our next design iteration in progress for MKIDCam. Opportunities and prospects for future reduction of the TLS noise will be discussed.

Noroozian, Omid; Gao, Jiansong; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; LeDuc, Henry G.; Mazin, Benjamin A.

2009-12-01

318

Induction of Systemic Resistance against Cucumber mosaic virus in Arabidopsis thaliana by Trichoderma asperellum SKT-1  

PubMed Central

Trichoderma asperellum SKT-1 is a microbial pesticide that is very effective against various diseases. Our study was undertaken to evaluate T. asperellum SKT-1 for induction of resistance against yellow strain of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-Y) in Arabidopsis plants. Disease severity was rated at 2 weeks post inoculation (WPI). CMV titre in Arabidopsis leaves was determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 2 WPI. Our results demonstrated that among all Arabidopsis plants treated with barley grain inoculum (BGI) of SKT-1 NahG and npr1 plants showed no significant reduction in disease severity and CMV titre as compared with control plants. In contrast, disease severity and CMV titre were significantly reduced in all Arabidopsis plants treated with culture filtrate (CF) of SKT-1 as compared with control plants. RT-PCR results showed increased expression levels of SA-inducible genes, but not JA/ET-inducible genes, in leaves of BGI treated plants. Moreover, expression levels of SA- and JA/ET-inducible genes were increased in leaves of CF treated plants. In conclusion, BGI treatment induced systemic resistance against CMV through SA signaling cascade in Arabidopsis plants. While, treatment with CF of SKT-1 mediated the expression of a majority of the various pathogen related genes, which led to the increased defense mechanism against CMV infection. PMID:25288946

Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi; Takahashi, Hideki; Ozaki, Kouichi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2013-01-01

319

Influence of steroid maintenance on the outcomes in deceased donor kidney transplant recipients experiencing delayed graft function.  

PubMed

Delayed graft function (DGF) is a risk factor for poor long-term graft and patient survival after kidney transplantation. The aim of our study was to explore the beneficial effect of steroid maintenance on outcomes in deceased donor kidney (DDK) transplant recipients with DGF. Using organ procurement and transplant network/United network of organ sharing (OPTN/UNOS) database, we identified adult patients who developed DGF following DDK transplantation performed between January 2000 and December 2008. They received induction with rabbit antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG), alemtuzumab or an interluekin-2 receptor blocker (IL-2B) and were discharged on a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)/mycophenolate (MMF) based immunosuppression with or without steroids. Adjusted graft and patient survivals were compared between steroid versus no steroid groups for each induction modality. Median follow-up was 29.6 months for the 10,058 patients who developed DGF. There were 5624 patients in r-ATG (steroid, n = 4569, no steroid, n = 1055), 819 in alemtuzumab (steroid, n = 301, no steroid, n = 518) and 3615 in IL-2B (steroid, n = 3380, no steroid, n = 235) groups. Adjusted graft survivals were similar for steroid versus no-steroid groups in patients who received r-ATG (HR: 0.98, 95% CI 0.85-1.13, P = 0.75), alemtuzumab (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.65-1.19, P = 0.41), and IL-2B (HR 1.01, 95%CI 0.78-1.30, P = 0.96) inductions. The adjusted patient survivals were also similar in r-ATG (HR: 1.19, 95% CI 0.96-1.46, P = 0.19), alemtuzumab (HR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.57-1.39, P = 0.96), and IL-2R (HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.77-1.49, P = 0.96) groups. Our study failed to show any significant graft or patient survival benefits associated with steroid addition to CNI/MMF regimen in DDK recipients with DGF. This may be related to the early immunogenic and non-immunogenic allograft damage from DGF with long-term consequences that are unaltered by steroids. PMID:24339515

Tangirala, B; Marcus, R J; Hussain, S M; Sureshkumar, K K

2013-11-01

320

Induced lactation in cows and heifers by short-term treatment with steroid hormones  

E-print Network

Induced lactation in cows and heifers by short-term treatment with steroid hormones C. DELOUIS J la Lactation, 1. N. R. A. 78350 Jouy en Josas, France * Station de Physiologie de la Reproduction, 1, Gainesville, Florida, 32611, U. S. A. Summary. Induction of lactation following administration of estradiol-17

Boyer, Edmond

321

Effects of voltage unbalance and system harmonics on the performance of doubly fed induction wind generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inherent difficulties in management of electric power in the presence of an increasing demand for more energy, non-conventional loads such as digital appliances, and non-sustainable imported fossil fuels has initiated a multi-folded effort by many countries to restructure the way electric energy is generated, dispatched, and consumed. Smart power grid is the manifestation of many technologies that would eventually transforms the existing power grid into a more flexible, fault resilient, and intelligent system. Integration of distributed renewable energy sources plays a central role in successful implementation of this transformation. Among the renewable options, wind energy harvesting offers superior engineering and economical incentives with minimal environmental impacts. Doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) have turned into a serious contender for wind energy generators due to their flexibility in control of active and reactive power with minimal silicon loss. Significant presence of voltage unbalance and system harmonics in finite inertia transmission lines can potentially undermine the reliability of these wind generators. The present dissertation has investigated the impacts of system unbalances and harmonics on the performance of the DFIG. Our investigation indicates that these effects can result in an undesirable undulation in the rotor shaft which can potentially invoke mechanical resonance, thereby causing catastrophic damages to the installations and the power grid. In order to remedy the above issue, a control solution for real time monitoring of the system unbalance and optimal excitation of the three phase rotor currents in a DFIG is offered. The optimal rotor currents will create appropriate components of the magneto-motive force in the airgap that will actively compensate the undesirable magnetic field originated by the stator windings. Due to the iterative nature of the optimization procedure, field reconstruction method has been incorporated. Field reconstruction method provides high precision results at a considerably faster pace as compared to finite element method. Our results indicate that by just-in-time detection of the system unbalance and employment of the optimal rotor currents damaging torque pulsation can be effectively eliminated. The side effects of the proposed method in changing the core, copper, and silicon losses are minor and well justified when reliability of the wind generation units are considered.

Kiani, Morgan Mozhgan

322

Steroid-free and steroid withdrawal protocols in heart transplantation: the review of literature  

PubMed Central

Corticosteroids (CSs) are still the mainstay of induction, rescue, and maintenance in heart transplantation (HTx). However, their use is associated with significant and well-documented side effects usually related to the dose administered and the duration of therapy. Moreover, CSs interfere with the recipient's quality of life and with the active process of graft tolerance. Physicians have been exploring ways to avoid or reduce CSs in association with other immunosuppressive drugs, minimizing side effects and costs. The regimens are classifiedassteroid-freeorsteroid withdrawal protocols. The studies analyzed in this review come to similar conclusions as benefits and adverse consequences: steroid-freeprotocols should be advisable and mandatory in pediatric patients, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), presence of infection, familial metabolic disorders/obesity, severe osteoporosis, and in the elderly. On the other hand, steroid withdrawalcan be successfully achieved in 50–80%, with late better than early withdrawal, no increase in rejection-related mortality, no adverse impact on survival, and probably a better quality of live. Safety and efficacy can certainly be improved by an individualized approach to the transplant recipient. PMID:24617420

Baraldo, Massimo; Gregoraci, Giorgia; Livi, Ugolino

2014-01-01

323

Inductive countersupport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The basic idea by means of which Popper and Miller proved the non-existence of inductive probabilistic support in 1983\\/1985\\/1987, is used to prove that inductive probabilistic countersupport does exist. So it seems that after falsification has won over verification on the deductive side of science, countersupport wins over support on the inductive side.

Georg J. W. Dorn

1995-01-01

324

Allergy to ethylenediamine and steroid.  

PubMed

Intravenous preparations combining aminophylline and a steroid are used frequently in the treatment of bronchial asthma attacks. However, anaphylactoid reactions to such preparations have been rarely observed. We report the case of a 31-year-old man with aminophylline and steroid allergy. Aminophylline is the ethylenediamine salt of theophylline. In our patient, aminophylline, ethylenediamine and various steroids were found to be positive in the intradermal test. The challenge test with intravenous aminophylline was positive, while that with oral theophylline was negative. Ethylenediamine is used in everyday products such as shellacs and rubber products. In the case of our patient, his asthma worsened following the remodelling of his restaurant. Occupational asthma due to exposure to ethylenediamine is also discussed. PMID:11206939

Asakawa, H; Araki, T; Yamamoto, N; Imai, I; Yamane, M; Tsutsumi, Y; Kawakami, F

2000-01-01

325

Development of a novel wind turbine simulator for wind energy conversion systems using an inverter-controlled induction motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wind turbine simulator for wind energy conversion systems has been developed with a view to design, evaluate, and test of actual wind turbine drive trains including generators, transmissions, power-electronic converters and controllers. The simulator consists of a 10-hp induction motor (IM) which drives a generator and is driven by a 10-kW variable speed drive inverter and real-time control software.

Hossein Madadi Kojabadi; Liuchen Chang; Tobie Boutot

2004-01-01

326

A cage induction generator using back to back PWM converters for variable speed grid connected wind energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new control scheme of a variable speed grid connected wind energy generation system is presented. The scheme uses a cage induction generator driven by an emulated wind turbine with two back-to-back voltage-fed PWM inverters to interface the generator and the grid. The machine currents are controlled using an indirect vector control technique. The generator torque is controlled to drive

R. Pena; Roberto Cardenas; R. Blasco; G. Asher; J. Clare

2001-01-01

327

Use of the p-Si--SiOâ system with surface inductive channels as a nuclear radiation detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a dielectric -semiconductor structure, prepared on the base ; of high-ohm ceramic of the p-type, was proposed for the detection of nuclear ; radiation. p-Si with surface inductive channels developed on the basis of the p-; Si--SiOâ system was used in the detector. The study, made on the ²⁴²; Cm alpha source with energy of 5.8 MeV,

L. I. Barabash; A. P. Gorban; V. G. Litovchenko; P. G. Litovchenko; S. V. Chala

1973-01-01

328

Study of Bacterial Determinants Involved in the Induction of Systemic Resistance in Bean by Pseudomonas putida BTP1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Pseudomonas putida BTP1 to induce resistance in bean to Botrytis cinerea was demonstrated in soil experiments on plants pre-inoculated at the root level with the bacteria before challenge with the leaf pathogen. As a first step to characterize the molecules from BTP1 responsible for induction of systemic resistance in bean, heat-killed cells and supernatant from culture in

Marc Ongena; Amélie Giger; Philippe Jacques; Jacques Dommes; Philippe Thonart

2002-01-01

329

EFFI: A code for calculating the electromagnetic field, force, and inductance in coil systems of arbitrary geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EFFI code calculates the electromagnetic field and vector potential in coil systems of arbitrary geometry. The coils are made from circular arc and\\/or straight segments of rectangular cross-section conductor. EFFI can also calculate magnetic flux lines, magnetic force, and inductance. The methods used for the calculations are based on a combination of analytical and numerical integration of the Biot-Savart

S. J. Sackett

1978-01-01

330

Cross-induction of systemic induced resistance between an insect and a fungal pathogen in Austrian pine over a fertility gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for cross-induction of systemic resistance or susceptibility in plant–fungus–herbivore interactions is mostly derived\\u000a from herbaceous model systems and not perennial woody plants. Furthermore, the effects of environmental variables such as\\u000a soil fertility on these tripartite interactions are generally unknown. This study examined cross-induction of systemic resistance\\u000a in Pinus nigra (Austrian pine) to infection by Sphaeropsis sapinea (a fungal pathogen),

Alieta Eyles; Rodrigo Chorbadjian; Chris Wallis; Robert Hansen; Don Cipollini; Dan Herms; Pierluigi Bonello

2007-01-01

331

The Maltodextrin System of Escherichia coli: Glycogen-Derived Endogenous Induction and Osmoregulation  

PubMed Central

Strains of Escherichia coli lacking MalQ (maltodextrin glucanotransferase or amylomaltase) are endogenously induced for the maltose regulon by maltotriose that is derived from the degradation of glycogen (glycogen-dependent endogenous induction). A high level of induction was dependent on the presence of MalP, maltodextrin phosphorylase, while expression was counteracted by MalZ, maltodextrin glucosidase. Glycogen-derived endogenous induction was sensitive to high osmolarity. This osmodependence was caused by MalZ. malZ, the gene encoding this enzyme, was found to be induced by high osmolarity even in the absence of MalT, the central regulator of all mal genes. The osmodependent expression of malZ was neither RpoS nor OmpR dependent. In contrast, the malPQ operon, whose expression was also increased at a high osmolarity, was partially dependent on RpoS. In the absence of glycogen, residual endogenous induction of the mal genes that is sensitive to increasing osmolarity can still be observed. This glycogen-independent endogenous induction is not understood, and it is not affected by altering the expression of MalP, MalQ, and MalZ. In particular, its independence from MalZ suggests that the responsible inducer is not maltotriose. PMID:16321937

Dippel, Renate; Bergmiller, Tobias; Böhm, Alex; Boos, Winfried

2005-01-01

332

Green Light for Steroid Hormones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. In his Perspective, D. Russell describes two papers--one in this week's issue of Science (Li et al., p. 398) and one in the 19 April issue of Cell (M. Szekeres et al.)--which report on two enzymes that synthesize steroid hormones cloned from Arabidopsis. These enzymes, DET2 and CPD, are in the biosynthetic pathway for brassinolides, steroids that seem to participate in the regulation of gene expression by light.

David W. Russell (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; Department of Molecular Genetics)

1996-04-19

333

Induction linacs  

SciTech Connect

The principle of linear induction acceleration is described, and examples are given of practical configurations for induction linacs. These examples include the Advanced Technology Accelerator, Long Pulse Induction Linac, Radial Line Accelerator (RADLAC), and Magnetically-Insulated Electron-Focussed Ion Linac. A related concept, the auto accelerator, is described in which the high-current electron-beam technology in the sub-10 MeV region is exploited to produce electron beams at energies perhaps as high as the 100 to 1000 MeV range. Induction linacs for ions are also discussed. The efficiency of induction linear acceleration is analyzed. (LEW)

Keefe, D.

1986-07-01

334

Steroids/Nutritional Supplements/Antibiotics  

MedlinePLUS

... of creatine and Duchenne continue. back to top Anabolic steroids These, which act to build tissues in the ... loss. A pilot study of oxandrolone, a synthetic anabolic steroid, showed some promise in preserving muscle strength. Anabolic ...

335

Steroids for Treating Cancer (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... and the health risks they incur from abusing anabolic steroids — drugs that were originally intended for people with ... that he or she will not be taking anabolic steroids, but rather corticosteroids . Corticosteroids are made from a ...

336

Hypochlorite Oxidation of Select Androgenic Steroids  

EPA Science Inventory

Steroid hormones are vital for regulation of various biological functions including sexual development. Elevated concentrations of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids have been shown to adversely affect normal development in indigenous aqueous species. Androgens and their s...

337

A multifrequency magnetic induction tomography system using planar gradiometers: data collection and calibration.  

PubMed

We developed a 14-channel multifrequency magnetic induction tomography system (MF-MIT) for biomedical applications. The excitation field is produced by a single coil and 14 planar gradiometers are used for signal detection. The object under measurement was rotated (16 steps per turn) to obtain a full data set for image reconstruction. We make measurements at frequencies from 50 kHz to 1 MHz using a single frequency excitation signal or a multifrequency signal containing several frequencies in this range. We used two acquisition boards giving a total of eight synchronous channels at a sample rate of 5 MS s(-1) per channel. The real and imaginary parts of DeltaB/B(0) were calculated using coherent demodulation at all injected frequencies. Calibration, averaging and drift cancellation techniques were used before image reconstruction. A plastic tank filled with saline (D = 19 cm) and with conductive and/or paramagnetic perturbations was measured for calibration and test purposes. We used a FEM model and an eddy current solver to evaluate the experimental results and to reconstruct the images. Measured equivalent input noise voltage for each channel was 2 nV Hz(-1/2). Using coherent demodulation, with an integration time of 20 ms, the measured STD for the magnitude was 7 nV(rms) (close to the theoretical value only taking into account the amplifier's thermal noise). For long acquisition times the drift in the signal produced a bigger effect than the input noise (typical STD was 10 nV with a maximum of 35 nV at one channel) but this effect was reduced using a drift cancellation technique based on averaging. We were able to image a 2 S m(-1) agar sphere (D = 4 cm) inside the tank filled with saline of 1 S m(-1). PMID:16636418

Rosell-Ferrer, J; Merwa, R; Brunner, P; Scharfetter, H

2006-05-01

338

The benefits of steroids versus steroids plus antivirals for treatment of Bell’s palsy: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether steroids plus antivirals provide a better degree of facial muscle recovery in patients with Bell’s palsy than steroids alone. Design Meta-analysis. Data sources PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies published in all languages from 1984 to January 2009. Additional studies were identified from cited references. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared steroids with the combination of steroids and antivirals for the treatment of Bell’s palsy were included in this study. At least one month of follow-up and a primary end point of at least partial facial muscle recovery, as defined by a House-Brackmann grade of at least 2 (complete palsy is designated a grade of 6) or an equivalent score on an alternative recognised scoring system, were required. Review methods Two authors independently reviewed studies for methodological quality, treatment regimens, duration of symptoms before treatment, length of follow-up, and outcomes. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated and pooled using a random effects model. Results Six trials were included, a total of 1145 patients; 574 patients received steroids alone and 571 patients received steroids and antivirals. The pooled odds ratio for facial muscle recovery showed no benefit of steroids plus antivirals compared with steroids alone (odds ratio 1.50, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 2.69; P=0.18). A one study removed analysis showed that the highest quality studies had the greatest effect on the lack of difference between study arms shown by the odds ratio. Subgroup analyses assessing causes of heterogeneity defined a priori (time from symptom onset to treatment, length of follow-up, and type of antiviral studied) showed no benefit of antivirals in addition to that provided by steroids. Conclusions Antivirals did not provide an added benefit in achieving at least partial facial muscle recovery compared with steroids alone in patients with Bell’s palsy. This study does not, therefore, support the routine use of antivirals in Bell’s palsy. Future studies should use improved herpes virus diagnostics and newer antivirals to assess whether combination therapy benefits patients with more severe facial paralysis at study entry. PMID:19736282

2009-01-01

339

Female reproductive steroids and neuronal excitability.  

PubMed

Oestrogen and progesterone have specific receptors in the central nervous system and are able to regulate neuronal development and plasticity, neuronal excitability, mitochondrial energy production, and neurotransmitter synthesis, release, and transport. On neuronal excitability, estradiol and progesterone seem to have an opposite effect, with estradiol being excitatory and progesterone and its derivative allopregnanolone being inhibitory. Estradiol augments N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated glutamate receptor activity, while progesterone enhances gamma-aminobutyric acid-mediated chloride conductance. Sex steroid regulation of the balance of neuroexcitatory and neuroinhibitory activities may have a role in modulating clinical susceptibility to different neurological conditions such as migraine, catamenial epilepsy, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and premenstrual syndrome. PMID:21533709

Finocchi, C; Ferrari, M

2011-05-01

340

Roles of sex and gonadal steroids in mammalian pheromonal communication.  

PubMed

A brain circuit (the accessory olfactory system) that originates in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and includes the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) plus additional forebrain regions mediates many of the effects of pheromones, typically comprised of a variety of non-volatile and volatile compounds, on aspects of social behavior. A second, parallel circuit (the main olfactory system) that originates in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and includes the main olfactory bulb (MOB) has also been shown to detect volatile pheromones from conspecifics. Studies are reviewed that point to specific roles of several different steroids and their water-soluble metabolites as putative pheromones. Other studies are reviewed that establish an adult, 'activational' role of circulating sex hormones along with sex differences in the detection and/or processing of non-steroidal pheromones by these two olfactory circuits. Persisting questions about the role of sex steroids in pheromonal processing are posed for future investigation. PMID:23872334

Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

2013-10-01

341

Adolescents and Steroids: A User Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anabolic-androgenic steroids ("steroids") are synthetic derivatives of the natural male hormone testosterone. They were first used non-medically by elite athletes seeking to improve performance. More recently, however, steroid use has filtered down to high school and junior high school levels. The purpose of this study was to describe adolescent…

Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

342

Sex Differences and Steroid Hormone Receptors  

E-print Network

Sex Differences and Steroid Hormone Receptors NEUS 501 October 24, 2014 #12;Sexual Differentiation of the Brain · Genetic sex determination · Steroid hormones · Sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior · Steroid hormone receptors and behavior · New genetic approaches to studying sexual differentiation

Alford, Simon

343

Behavioural Manifestations of Anabolic Steroid Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

muscle mass is relatively common among certain subpopulations, including athletes, bodybuilders, adolescents and young adults. Adverse physical effects associated with steroid abuse are well documented, but more recently, increased attention has been given to the adverse psychiatric effects of these compounds. Steroids may be used in oral, 17?-alkylated, or intramuscular, 17?-esterified, preparations. Commonly, steroid users employ these agents at levels

Adam J. Trenton; Glenn W. Currier

2005-01-01

344

Systemic induction and role of mitochondrial alternative oxidase and nitric oxide in a compatible tomato-Tobacco mosaic virus interaction.  

PubMed

The role of mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) and the relationship between AOX and nitric oxide (NO) in virus-induced systemic defense to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) were investigated in susceptible tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. TMV inoculation to the lower leaves induced a rapid NO synthesis and AOX activation in upper uninoculated leaves as early as 0.5 day postinoculation. Application of exogenous potassium cyanide (KCN, a cytochrome pathway inhibitor) at nonlethal concentrations and NO donor diethylamine NONOate (DEA/NO) to the upper uninoculated leaves greatly induced accumulation of AOX transcript, reduced TMV viral RNA accumulation, and increased the leaf photochemical quantum yield at photosystem II. Pretreatment with NO scavenger almost completely blocked TMV-induced AOX induction and substantially increased TMV susceptibility. Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, an AOX inhibitor) pretreatment reduced the DEA/NO-induced cyanide-resistant respiration and partially compromised induced resistance to TMV. Conversely, KCN and SHAM pretreatment had very little effect on generation of NO, and pretreatment with NO scavenger did not affect KCN-induced AOX induction and TMV resistance. These results suggest that TMV-induced NO generation acts upstream and mediates AOX induction which, in turn, induces mitochondrial alternative electron transport and triggers systemic basal defense against the viral pathogen. PMID:19958137

Fu, Li-Jun; Shi, Kai; Gu, Min; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Dong, De-Kun; Liang, Wu-Sheng; Song, Feng-Ming; Yu, Jing-Quan

2010-01-01

345

Combined cardiac effects of cocaine and the anabolic steroid, nandrolone, in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite reports of an increase in the incidence of simultaneous cocaine and anabolic steroid abuse, potential adverse interactions between these two drugs on the cardiovascular system are largely unquantified. Cocaine has been reported to induce coronary vasoconstriction, cardiac arrhythmias and conduction delays. Anabolic steroids have been associated with cardiac hypertrophy and hypertension. Utilising both in vivo (radiotelemetry) and in vitro

Benjamin D. Phillis; Rodney J. Irvine; Jennifer A. Kennedy

2000-01-01

346

Steroid and sterol hormone action  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 21 selections. Some of the titles are: Estrogen control of vitellogenin gene transcription and mRNA stability; Inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor conversion to the DNA-binding state and inhibition of subunit dissociation; Steroid regulation of rRNA synthesis; Messenger RNA-S14 as a model of thyroid hormone action at the hepatocellular level; and The oxysterol receptor.

Spelsberg, T.C.; Kumar, R.

1987-01-01

347

Steroidal alkaloids from Veratrum album  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new steroidal alkaloids, veramanine and neojerminalanine, have been isolated from the rhizomes of Veratrum album, along with the known glycoalkaloid, pseudojervine, whose NMR spectral data are reported for the first time. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic investigations.

Atta-ur-Rahman; Rahat A. Ali; M. Ashraf; M. Iqbal Choudhary; Bilge Sener; Songul Turkoz

1996-01-01

348

Techniques of intranasal steroid use  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe effectiveness of topical intranasal steroids (INS) sprays for the treatment of allergic and nonallergic rhinitis may be limited by lack of instruction in the optimal spray technique. To determine whether the technique used affects the efficacy and safety of the product, this review of evidence had the goal of identifying and establishing a preferred method of applying INS sprays.

Michael S Benninger; James A Hadley; J. David Osguthorpe; Bradley F Marple; Donald A Leopold; M. Jennifer Derebery; Maureen Hannley

2004-01-01

349

Proposed system model and simulation for three phase induction motor operation with single PV panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this paper is the design and integration of a series of power electronics converters in order to make an induction motor work with a single photovoltaic panel as efficiently as possible. The power electronics converters that we intend to design are a Buck-Boost Converter and a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Three-Phase Inverter. The integration of a

Eliud Ortiz-Perez; Ricardo Maldonado; Harry O'Neill; Eduardo I. Ortiz-Rivera

2011-01-01

350

A comparison of load commutated inverter systems for induction heating and melting applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative analysis of a current source inverter and a voltage source inverter suitable for induction heating and melting applications is presented. Both power supplies considered operate on the principle of load commutation. The comparison is based on criteria such as input power factor, component ratings, maximum and minimum operating frequencies, operation under varying load conditions, inverter starting capability, and

Francis P. Dawson; Praveen Jain

1991-01-01

351

The design of low inductance electrical circuits for slapper detonator systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flying plate generators (FPG) are used to study the shock properties of various materials. This report investigates the theoretical electrical properties of the flat, parallel conductors that are currently used in the construction of FPGs. The design of these conductors can greatly effect the efficiency of FPGs by varying the high frequency capacitance and inductance of the electrical circuit, and

Don D. Richardson; Ross Kummer

1989-01-01

352

Loss Minimizing Operation of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Generation Systems  

E-print Network

Grid Code Technical Regulations TF 3.2.6 [2]. Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based Wind of its advantages such as high energy controllability, reduced power converter rating, etc., DFIG has in order to derive the optimal rotor reactive current. However, it only analyzed the condition when DFIGs

Hu, Weihao

353

Improved Condition Monitoring System for Induction Machines Using a Model-Based Fault Detection Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to their reliability, robustness and simple construction squirrel-cage induction motors are widely used in industry. However, faults like broken rotor bars, rotor eccentricity, bearing and winding faults can occur during normal operation of the motor. Techniques for the detection of these faults have been researched since more than ten years. Although hundreds of papers are published year by year

Loránd SZABÓ; Károly Ágoston BIRÓ; Dénes FODOR

354

An inductive reasoning approach for building system safety risk models of aviation accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inductive reasoning approach is employed to develop a prototype hybrid decision support tool whose main objective is to build probabilistic causal models representing the safety risk involved in aviation accidents. In this context, 15 aircraft accidents representative of five major accident types are selected to build an initial seed for the case?base of the prototype tool. Consequently, within each

Ahmet E. Oztekin; James T. Luxhøj

2010-01-01

355

Facilitated Intranasal Induction of Mucosal and Systemic Immunity to Mutans Streptococcal Glucosyltransferase Peptide Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic peptide vaccines which are derived from functional domains of Streptococcus mutans glucosyltrans- ferases (GTF) have been shown to induce protective immunity in Sprague-Dawley rats after subcutaneous injection in the salivary gland region. Since mucosal induction of salivary immunity would be preferable in humans, we explored methods to induce mucosal antibody in the rat to the GTF peptide vaccines HDS

DANIEL J. SMITH; WILLIAM F. KING; LEIGH A. BARNES; DEBRA TRANTOLO; DONALD L. WISE; MARTIN A. TAUBMAN

2001-01-01

356

High performance VOC-FOC based wind generator system with induction machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a high performance wind generator with induction machine. A back-to-back configuration with two voltage source converters has been considered, one on the machine side and the other on the grid side. Each converter has been controlled with a high performance vector control technique, respectively Field Oriented Control (FOC) and Voltage Oriented Control (VOC). A test setup has

Marcello Pucci; G. Vitale

2009-01-01

357

Electrochemical and electrical aspects of low-frequency electromagnetic current induction in biological systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of electromagnetic current induction to modulate cell and tissue behavior via cell surface electrochemistry is considered in detail. It is shown that a strong correlation exists between electrochemical kinetic phenomena at cell surfaces, observable via transient impedance measurements, and the choice of induced current waveform parameters. In particular, the current pathway involving specific adsorption, such as that of

Arthur A. Pilla; Philippe Sechaud; Bruce R. McLeod

1983-01-01

358

Perioral dermatitis -- the role of nasal steroids.  

PubMed

We present two patients with allergic rhinitis who developed perioral dermatitis (PD) after initiating intranasal steroid spray. Both patients had been previously misdiagnosed as having contact or seborrheic dermatitis, and therefore inappropriately and unsuccessfully treated with topical steroids. Physicians should be aware of this potential side effect of intranasal steroids to avoid incorrect therapeutic measures. In the setting of nasal steroids use, PD probably is an under-reported and commonly misdiagnosed condition that should be thought when a patient treated with nasal steroids present with small erythematous papules, papulovesicles, and papulopustules occurring against a background of redness, beginning in the nasolabial areas and spreading rapidly to the perioral zone. PMID:21995785

Peralta, Lígia; Morais, Paulo

2012-06-01

359

The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), beyond xenobiotic metabolism  

PubMed Central

The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) (also known as pregnane X receptor or PXR) is a nuclear hormone receptor activated by a diverse array of endogenous hormones, dietary steroids, pharmaceutical agents, and xenobiotic compounds. SXR has an enlarged, flexible, hydrophobic ligand binding domain (LBD) which is remarkably divergent across mammalian species and SXR exhibits considerable differences in its pharmacology among mammals. The broad response profile of SXR has led to the development of "the steroid and xenobiotic sensor hypothesis". SXR has been established as a xenobiotic sensor that coordinately regulates xenobiotic clearance in the liver and intestine via induction of genes involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. In the past few years, research has revealed new and mostly unsuspected roles for SXR in modulating inflammation, bone homeostasis, vitamin D metabolism, lipid homeostasis, energy homeostasis and cancer. The identification of SXR as a xenobiotic sensor has provided an important tool for studying new mechanisms through which diet, chemical exposure, and environment ultimately impact health and disease. The discovery and pharmacological development of new PXR modulators might represent an interesting and innovative therapeutic approach to combat various diseases. PMID:19240808

Zhou, Changcheng; Verma, Suman; Blumberg, Bruce

2009-01-01

360

Vitrification of high level nuclear waste inside ambient temperature disposal containers using inductive heating: The SMILE system  

SciTech Connect

A new approach, termed SMILE (Small Module Inductively Loaded Energy), for the vitrification of high level nuclear wastes (HLW) is described. Present vitrification systems liquefy the HLW solids and associated frit material in large high temperature melters. The molten mix is then poured into small ({approximately}1 m{sup 3}) disposal canisters, where it solidifies and cools. SMILE eliminates the separate, large high temperature melter. Instead, the BLW solids and frit melt inside the final disposal containers, using inductive heating. The contents then solidify and cool in place. The SMILE modules and the inductive heating process are designed so that the outer stainless can of the module remains at near ambient temperature during the process cycle. Module dimensions are similar to those of present disposal containers. The can is thermally insulated from the high temperature inner container by a thin layer of refractory alumina firebricks. The inner container is a graphite crucible lined with a dense alumina refractory that holds the HLW and fiit materials. After the SMILE module is loaded with a slurry of HLW and frit solids, an external multi-turn coil is energized with 30-cycle AC current. The enclosing external coil is the primary of a power transformer, with the graphite crucible acting as a single turn ``secondary.`` The induced current in the ``secondary`` heats the graphite, which in turn heats the HLW and frit materials. The first stage of the heating process is carried out at an intermediate temperature to drive off remnant liquid water and water of hydration, which takes about 1 day. The small fill/vent tube to the module is then sealed off and the interior temperature raised to the vitrification range, i.e., {approximately}1200C. Liquefaction is complete after approximately 1 day. The inductive heating then ceases and the module slowly loses heat to the environment, allowing the molten material to solidify and cool down to ambient temperature.

Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Barletta, R.

1996-03-01

361

Co-induction of beta-galactosidase and the lactose-P-enolpyruvate phosphotransferase system in Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus mutans.  

PubMed Central

The addition of lactose, galactose, or isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) to glucose-grown cells of Streptococcus salivarius 25975 resulted in the co-induction of both the lactose-P-enolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (lactose-PTS) and beta-galactosidase, with the latter the predominant metabolic system. With various strains of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis 10556, on the other hand, the lactose-PTS was the major metabolic pathway with beta-galactosidase induced either to low or negligible levels. In all cases, induction of the lactose-PTS resulted in the concomitant induction of 6-P-beta-galactosidase. The induction by lactose of both the lactose-PTS and beta-galactosidase in all strains was repressed by glucose and other catabolites, notably, fructose. Induction of beta-galactosidase in S. salivarius 25975 by IPTG was, however, relatively resistant to glucose repression. Induction experiments with IPTG and lactose suggested that a cellular metabolite of lactose metabolism was a repressor of enzyme activity. Exogenous cAMP was shown to reverse the transient repression by glucose of beta-galactosidase induction in cells of S. salivarius 25975 receiving lactose, provided the cells were grown with small amounts of toluene to overcome the permeability barrier to this nucleotide, cAMP, was however, unable to overcome the permanent repression of beta-galactosidase activity to a significant extent under these conditions. PMID:214423

Hamilton, I R; Lo, G C

1978-01-01

362

Gender-Specific Steroid Metabolism in Neural Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Both the neuroendocrine system and the brain mechanisms underlying gender-specific behavior are known to be organized by steroid sex hormones, androgen and estrogen, during specific sensitive phases of early fetal and perinatal development. The factors that control these phasic effects of the hormones on brain development are still not understood. Processes of masculinizati on and defeminization are thought to

John B. Hutchison

1997-01-01

363

Steroids and endocrine disruptors-History, recent state of art and open questions.  

PubMed

This introductory chapter provides an overview of the levels and sites at which endocrine disruptors (EDs) affect steroid actions. In contrast to the special issue of Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology published three years ago and devoted to EDs as such, this paper focuses on steroids. We tried to point to more recent findings and opened questions. EDs interfere with steroid biosynthesis and metabolism either as inhibitors of relevant enzymes, or at the level of their expression. Particular attention was paid to enzymes metabolizing steroid hormones to biologically active products in target cells, such as aromatase, 5?-reductase and 3?-, 11?- and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. An important target for EDs is also steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR), responsible for steroid precursor trafficking to mitochondria. EDs influence receptor-mediated steroid actions at both genomic and non-genomic levels. The remarkable differences in response to various steroid-receptor ligands led to a more detailed investigation of events following steroid/disruptor binding to the receptors and to the mapping of the signaling cascades and nuclear factors involved. A virtual screening of a large array of EDs with steroid receptors, known as in silico methods (computer simulation), is another promising approach for studying quantitative structure activity relationships and docking. New data may be expected on the effect of EDs on steroid hormone binding to selective plasma transport proteins, namely transcortin and sex hormone-binding globulin. Little information is available so far on the effects of EDs on the major hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal axes, of which the kisspeptin/GPR54 system is of particular importance. Kisspeptins act as stimulators for hormone-induced gonadotropin secretion and their expression is regulated by sex steroids via a feed-back mechanism. Kisspeptin is now believed to be one of the key factors triggering puberty in mammals, and various EDs affect its expression and function. Finally, advances in analytics of EDs, especially those persisting in the environment, in various body fluids (plasma, urine, seminal fluid, and follicular fluid) are mentioned. Surprisingly, relatively scarce information is available on the simultaneous determination of EDs and steroids in the same biological material. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Endocrine disruptors & steroids'. PMID:24816231

Hampl, Richard; Kubátová, Jana; Stárka, Luboslav

2014-05-01

364

Alcoholic Hepatitis: Steroids vs. Pentoxifylline  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) remains a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality in the United States and is actually increasing in certain areas of Europe. Thus, there is a pressing need for new therapies/approaches. Major barriers for reducing morbidity, mortality, and costs of care include: lack of translational animal and human studies of new therapies for AH; limited trials of combination therapies in AH targeted at specific disease mechanisms (e.g., gut permeability, cytokines, oxidative stress); limited studies on non-invasive, non-mortality end points; few studies on mechanisms of steroid non-responsiveness; and inadequate prognostic indicators, to name only a few. In spite of these gaps, we have made major advances in understanding mechanisms for AH and appropriate therapies for AH. This article reviews mechanisms and rationale for use of steroids and pentoxifylline in AH and future directions in therapy. PMID:23750115

Smart, Laura; Gobejishvili, Leila; Crittenden, Neil; Barve, Shirish; McClain, Craig J.

2013-01-01

365

Plasma power measurement and hysteresis in the E-H transition of a rf inductively coupled plasma system  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation of the argon plasma behavior near the E-H transition in an inductively coupled Gaseous Electronics Conference reference cell is reported. Electron density and temperature, ion density, argon metastable density, and optical emission measurements have been made as function of input power and gas pressure. When plotted versus plasma power, applied power corrected for coil and hardware losses, no hysteresis is observed in the measured plasma parameter dependence at the E-H mode transition. This suggests that hysteresis in the E-H mode transition is due to ignoring inherent power loss, primarily in the matching system.

Daltrini, A. M.; Moshkalev, S. A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Unicamp, Center for Semiconductor Components, P.O. Box 6061, Campinas SP 13083-870 (Brazil); Morgan, T. J. [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06457 (United States); Piejak, R. B.; Graham, W. G. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queen's University Belfast BT 7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2008-02-11

366

Steroidal saponins from Asparagus acutifolius.  

PubMed

Six new steroidal saponins (1-6) were isolated from the roots of A. acutifolius L., together with a known spirostanol glycoside (7). Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D NMR, FABMS and HRESIMS). Compounds 4-7 demonstrated antifungal activity against the human pathogenic yeasts C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis with MICs values between 12.5 and 100 microg/ml. PMID:17449075

Sautour, Marc; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

2007-10-01

367

Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are mainly used to treat androgen deficiency syndromes and, more recently, catabolic states\\u000a such as AIDS-associated wasting. There is no evidence in the reviewed literature that AAS abuse or dependence develops from\\u000a the therapeutic use of AAS. Conversely, 165 instances of AAS dependence have been reported among weightlifters and bodybuilders\\u000a who, as part of their weight training

Kirk J. Brower

2002-01-01

368

High-Frequency Modeling of the Long-Cable-Fed Induction Motor Drive System Using TLM Approach for Predicting Overvoltage Transients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction motor drive systems fed with cables are widely used in many industrial applications. Accurate prediction of motor terminal overvoltage, caused by impedance mismatch between the long cable and the motor, plays an important role for motor dielectric insulation and optimal design of dv\\/dt filters. In this paper, a novel modeling methodology for the investigation of long-cable-fed induction motor drive

Liwei Wang; Carl Ngai-Man Ho; Francisco Canales; Juri Jatskevich

2010-01-01

369

Analysis and characterization of eight estradiol inducible genes and a strong promoter from the steroid degrading marine bacterial strain S19-1.  

PubMed

Buttiauxella strain S19-1 is a new marine bacterium, isolated from the Baltic Sea, which can degrade steroids. In this report, a meta-genomic approach was used to isolate estradiol inducible genes from S19-1. SalI-fragments from the chromosomal DNA of S19-1 were ligated into plasmid pKEGFP2 bearing an EGFP gene as the reporter system. All resulting plasmids harboring SalI-fragments were transformed into Escherichia coli HB101 to measure the relative fluorescent units (RFU). E. coli cells showing higher RFU after estradiol induction than those without estradiol induction, were selected and the respective plasmids were sequenced. Sequences of 8 positive plasmids were analyzed and aligned by BLAST. Among the predicted genes we found similarities to the major facilitator superfamily, glycerol dehydratase activator, formate acetyltransferase activating enzyme, histidinol-phosphate/aromatic aminotransferase, ABC-transporter, transcriptional regulator nadR, lipoate-protein ligase A, and alcohol phosphatidyl-transferase. Interestingly, one of the E. coli cell clones (containing plasmid p302) showed up in green color by normal light microscopy, which indicated that a strong promoter was present in this plasmid. Sequencing and deletion-mutagenesis revealed that the putative promoter comprises a 108 bp DNA fragment within p302, from which the putative -10 and -35 regions are TTTGAT and TTGGTT, respectively. The promoter might be used to construct S19-1 mutants in which steroid degradation occurs at high levels. PMID:23232150

Zhang, Tingdi; Xiong, Guangming; Maser, Edmund

2013-02-25

370

Inhalational Steroids and Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome.  

PubMed

Bronchial asthma (BA) and Allergic rhinitis (AR) are common clinical problems encountered in day to day practice, where inhalational corticosteroids (ICS) or intranasal steroids (INS) are the mainstay of treatment. Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome (CS) is a well known complication of systemic steroid administration. ICS /INS were earlier thought to be safe, but now more and more number of case reports of Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome have been reported, especially in those who are taking cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) inhibitors. Comparing to the classical clinical features of spontaneous Cushing syndrome, iatrogenic Cushing syndrome is more commonly associated with osteoporosis, increase in intra-ocular pressure, benign intracranial hypertension, aseptic necrosis of femoral head and pancreatitis, where as hypertension, hirsuitisum and menstrual irregularities are less common. Endocrine work up shows low serum cortisol level with evidence of HPA (hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal) axis suppression. In all patients with features of Cushing syndrome with evidence of adrenal suppression always suspect iatrogenic CS. Since concomitant administration of cytochrome P450 inhibitors in patients on ICS/INS can precipitate iatrogenic CS, avoidance of CYP450 inhibitors, its dose reduction or substitution of ICS are the available options. Along with those, measures to prevent the precipitation of adrenal crisis has to be taken. An update on ICS-/INS- associated iatrogenic CS and its management is presented here. PMID:25674177

A V, Raveendran

2014-01-01

371

In vivo detection of fluctuating brain steroid levels in zebra finches.  

PubMed

This protocol describes a method for the in vivo measurement of steroid hormones in brain circuits of the zebra finch. A guide cannula is surgically implanted into the skull, microdilysate is collected through a microdialysis probe that is inserted into the cannula, and steroid concentrations in the microdialysate are determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In some cases, the steroids measured are derived locally (e.g., neural estrogens in males), whereas in other cases, the steroids measured reflect systemic circulating levels and/or central conversion (e.g., the primary androgen testosterone and the primary glucocorticoid corticosterone). A reverse-microdialysis ("retrodialysis") method that can be used to deliver pharmacological agents into the brain to influence local steroid neurochemistry as well as behavior is also discussed. PMID:25342066

Ikeda, Maaya; Rensel, Michelle A; Schlinger, Barney A; Remage-Healey, Luke

2014-12-01

372

Neuroactive steroids: A therapeutic approach to maintain peripheral nerve integrity during neurodegenerative events.  

PubMed

It is now well known that peripheral nerves are a target for the action of neuroactive steroids. This review summarizes observations obtained so far, indicating that through the interaction with classical and nonclassical steroid receptors, neuroactive steroids (e.g., progesterone, testosterone and their derivatives, estrogens, etc.) are able to influence several parameters of the peripheral nervous system, particularly its glial compartment (i.e., Schwann cells). Interestingly, some of these neuroactive steroids might be considered as promising neuroprotective agents. They are able to counteract neurodegenerative events of rat peripheral nerves occurring after experimental physical trauma, during the aging process, or in hereditary demyelinating diseases. On this basis, the hypothesis that neuroactive steroids might represent a new therapeutic strategy for peripheral neuropathy is proposed. PMID:16632876

Leonelli, Emanuela; Ballabio, Marinella; Consoli, Antonio; Roglio, Ilaria; Magnaghi, Valerio; Melcangi, Roberto C

2006-01-01

373

Linear induction accelerator  

DOEpatents

A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

1988-06-21

374

Doubly fed induction machine  

DOEpatents

An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

2005-10-11

375

Inductive Inference: Theory and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a great deal of theoretical and experimental work in computer science on inductive inference systems, that is, systems that try to infer general rules from examples. However, a complete and applicable theory of such systems is still a distant goal. This survey highlights and explains the main ideas that have been developed in the study of inductive

Dana Angluin; Carl H. Smith

1983-01-01

376

Low Curie temperature material for induction heating self-temperature controlling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents low Curie temperature magnetic materials for induction heating. These materials are alloys based on SUS430. The magnetization decreases with increasing amount of additives. In order to increase the saturation magnetization, while keeping the Curie temperature constant, rare earth materials were added in this study. The compositions of alloys were investigated to realize a suitable Curie temperature. The temperature self-controlling function was also investigated in measurement of temperature distribution by using thermograph apparatus. Furthermore, thermoelectromagnetic field analysis was carried out as a numerical examination.

Todaka, Takashi; Kishino, Tomoyasu; Enokizono, Masato

377

Induction voidmeter  

DOEpatents

An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge circuit, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

Anderson, Thomas T. (Downers Grove, IL); Roop, Conard J. (Lockport, IL); Schmidt, Kenneth J. (Midlothian, IL); Brewer, John (Oak Lawn, IL)

1986-01-01

378

Induction voidmeter  

DOEpatents

An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; means for applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and means for detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

Anderson, T.T.; Roop, C.J.; Schmidt, K.J.; Brewer, J.

1983-12-21

379

Induction of decision trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology for building knowledge-based systems by inductive inference from examples has been demonstrated successfully in several practical applications. This paper summarizes an approach to synthesizing decision trees that has been used in a variety of systems, and it describes one such system, ID3, in detail. Results from recent studies show ways in which the methodology can be modified to

J. Ross Quinlan

1986-01-01

380

The mismatch repair system modulates curcumin sensitivity through induction of DNA strand breaks and activation of G2/M checkpoint  

PubMed Central

The highly conserved mismatch (MMR) repair system corrects post-replicative errors and modulates cellular responses to genotoxic agents. Here, we show that the MMR system strongly influences cellular sensitivity to curcumin. Compared to MMR-proficient cells, isogenically-matched MMR-deficient cells displayed enhanced sensitivity to curcumin. Similarly, cells suppressed for MLH1 or MSH2 expression by RNA-interference displayed increased curcumin sensitivity. Curcumin treatment generated comparable levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the mutagenic adduct 8-oxo-G in MMR-proficient and deficient cells; however, accumulation of ?H2AX foci, a marker for DNA double strand breaks, occurred only in MMR-positive cells in response to curcumin treatment. Additionally, MMR-positive cells showed activation of Chk1 and induction of G2/M cell-cycle checkpoint following curcumin treatment and inhibition of Chk1 by UCN-01 abrogated Chk1 activation and heightened apoptosis in MMR-proficient cells. These results indicate that curcumin triggers accumulation of DNA DSB and induction of a checkpoint response through a MMR-dependent mechanism. Conversely, in MMR-compromised cells, curcumin-induced DSB is significantly blunted, and as a result, cells fail to undergo cell-cycle arrest, enter mitosis and die via mitotic catastrophe. The results have potential therapeutic value, especially in the treatment of tumors with compromised MMR function. PMID:20145018

Jiang, Zhihua; Jin, ShunQian; Yalowich, Jack C.; Brown, Kevin D.; Baskaran, R.

2010-01-01

381

Induction of atypical EAE mediated by transgenic production of IL-6 in astrocytes in the absence of systemic IL-6.  

PubMed

Interleukin (IL)-6 is crucial for the induction of many murine models of autoimmunity including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. While IL-6-deficient mice (IL-6 KO) are resistant to EAE, we showed previously that in transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted production of IL-6-restricted to the cerebellum (GFAP-IL6), EAE induced with MOG(35-55) was redirected away from the spinal cord to the cerebellum. To further establish the importance of IL-6 produced in the central nervous system, we have generated mice producing IL-6 essentially only in the brain by crossing the GFAP-IL6 mice with IL-6 KO mice. Interestingly, GFAP-IL6-IL-6 KO mice showed a milder but almost identical phenotype as the GFAP-IL6 mice, which correlated with a lower load of inflammatory cells and decreased microglial reactivity. These results indicate that not only is cerebellar IL-6 production and eventual leakage into the peripheral compartment the dominating factor controlling this type of EAE but that it can also facilitate induction of autoimmunity in the absence of normal systemic IL-6 production. PMID:23322593

Giralt, Mercedes; Ramos, Raquel; Quintana, Albert; Ferrer, Beatriz; Erta, Maria; Castro-Freire, Marco; Comes, Gemma; Sanz, Elisenda; Unzeta, Mercedes; Pifarré, Paula; García, Agustina; Campbell, Iain L; Hidalgo, Juan

2013-04-01

382

PLANT SCIENCES: Plant Genes on Steroids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Plants, like animals, use steroid hormones to regulate their development. However, in plants, the steroid hormone is bound by a receptor at the cell surface instead of a nuclear receptor. In a Perspective, Sablowski and Harberd discuss studies published here (He et al.) and elsewhere that provide the missing link between binding of the steroid by its receptor and changes in the expression of target genes.

Robert Sablowski (John Innes Centre; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology)

2005-03-11

383

Sex steroids and their receptors in lampreys.  

PubMed

The use of steroids and their receptors as ligand-gated transcription factors is thought to be an important step in vertebrate evolution. The lamprey is the earliest-evolving vertebrate to date in which sex steroids and their receptors have been demonstrated to have hormonal roles similar to those found in jawed vertebrates. Sex steroids and their receptors have been examined in several lamprey species, and the majority of studies have focused on the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. While classical steroids appear to be present in lampreys, their function, concentrations, and synthesis have not been determined conclusively. The only classical steroid that is thought to act as a hormone in both males and females is estradiol. Recent research has established that lampreys produce and circulate 15alpha-hydroxylated steroids, and that these steroids respond to upstream stimulation within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In particular, 15alpha-hydroxyprogesterone is highly sensitive and responds in great magnitude to stimulation, and is likely a hormone. Lampreys also appear to use androstenedione, a precursor to vertebrate androgens, as their main androgen, and a receptor for androstenedione has recently been described. Non-classical steroids are prevalent in many aquatic vertebrates, and the non-classical steroids found in the sea lamprey may represent an evolutionary artifact, or alternatively may be a way to avoid endocrine disruption when ingesting the body fluids of host fish. The lamprey will continue to be an interesting model for examining the evolution of steroid hormones, steroid receptors, and steroid function. PMID:17931674

Bryan, Mara B; Scott, Alexander P; Li, Weiming

2008-01-01

384

Intra-arterial methylprednisolone for severe steroid refractory gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease.  

PubMed

Acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a significant complication of bone marrow transplantation with approximately half of patients being refractory to steroids. There are numerous second-line systemic immunosuppressive treatments but the overall prognosis is poor and these therapies are associated with high mortality due to infection. An alternative approach to systemic treatment for GVHD is targeted delivery of immunosuppression. We present two pediatric cases with steroid-refractory gastrointestinal GVHD who clinically responded to intra-arterial steroid administration. We also review the literature regarding this treatment modality with a particular emphasis in children. PMID:25053422

Bhuller, Kaljit S; Heran, Manraj K S; Wu, John K M; Rassekh, S Rod

2014-12-01

385

The role of enzyme compartmentalization on the regulation of steroid synthesis.  

PubMed

Steroidogenic enzymes can be compartmentalized at different levels, some by virtue of being membrane bound in specific intra-cellular compartments. Although both 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/?(5)-?(4) isomerase (3?-HSD) and 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase cytochrome P450 (P450c17) are expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, these proteins may still be spatially separated within this membrane system. Side chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc) is anchored to the inner mitochondrial membrane and this organelle is the major source of pregnenolone (P5) feeding steroidogenesis. Furthermore, steroidogenic enzymes can also be partitioned in different cells. Although well recognized, the effect of enzyme compartmentalization on the rate of steroid production and the balance of different steroids is unclear. This study uses mathematical modeling to investigate the effect of enzyme compartmentalization on steroid synthesis in a human-ovine-bovine model of steroid synthesis. The study shows that the spatial separation of steroidogenic enzymes within the ER has a minimal effect on the rate of steroid synthesis. The compartmentalization of the enzymes into different organelles of a cell creates cellular steroid gradients and can affect the balance of the different steroid products. The partitioning of steroidogenic enzymes in different cells reduces the rate of steroid synthesis. The greater is the distance between the cells that contain different enzymes, the more the rate of steroid synthesis is reduced. Additionally, when 3?-HSD is not in the same cell with P450scc (the P5 source) and P450c17, the ratio of the ?(5)-pathway products' concentrations to the ?(4)-pathway products' concentrations is increased. However, none of these levels of compartmentalization of steroidogenic enzymes alter the qualitative behaviors of steroid synthesis in response to variation in an enzyme activity or P5 supply. PMID:23639404

Nguyen, Phuong T T; Conley, Alan J; Sneyd, James; Lee, Rita S F; Soboleva, Tanya K; Shorten, Paul R

2013-09-01

386

Steroids, triterpenoids and molecular oxygen  

PubMed Central

There is a close connection between modern-day biosynthesis of particular triterpenoid biomarkers and presence of molecular oxygen in the environment. Thus, the detection of steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons far back in Earth history has been used to infer the antiquity of oxygenic photosynthesis. This prompts the question: were these compounds produced similarly in the past? In this paper, we address this question with a review of the current state of knowledge surrounding the oxygen requirement for steroid biosynthesis and phylogenetic patterns in the distribution of steroid and triterpenoid biosynthetic pathways. The hopanoid and steroid biosynthetic pathways are very highly conserved within the bacterial and eukaryotic domains, respectively. Bacteriohopanepolyols are produced by a wide range of bacteria, and are methylated in significant abundance at the C2 position by oxygen-producing cyanobacteria. On the other hand, sterol biosynthesis is sparsely distributed in distantly related bacterial taxa and the pathways do not produce the wide range of products that characterize eukaryotes. In particular, evidence for sterol biosynthesis by cyanobacteria appears flawed. Our experiments show that cyanobacterial cultures are easily contaminated by sterol-producing rust fungi, which can be eliminated by treatment with cycloheximide affording sterol-free samples. Sterols are ubiquitous features of eukaryotic membranes, and it appears likely that the initial steps in sterol biosynthesis were present in their modern form in the last common ancestor of eukaryotes. Eleven molecules of O2 are required by four enzymes to produce one molecule of cholesterol. Thermodynamic arguments, optimization of function and parsimony all indicate that an ancestral anaerobic pathway is highly unlikely. The known geological record of molecular fossils, especially steranes and triterpanes, is notable for the limited number of structural motifs that have been observed. With a few exceptions, the carbon skeletons are the same as those found in the lipids of extant organisms and no demonstrably extinct structures have been reported. Furthermore, their patterns of occurrence over billion year time-scales correlate strongly with environments of deposition. Accordingly, biomarkers are excellent indicators of environmental conditions even though the taxonomic affinities of all biomarkers cannot be precisely specified. Biomarkers are ultimately tied to biochemicals with very specific functional properties, and interpretations of the biomarker record will benefit from increased understanding of the biological roles of geologically durable molecules. PMID:16754609

Summons, Roger E; Bradley, Alexander S; Jahnke, Linda L; Waldbauer, Jacob R

2006-01-01

387

21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of...

2013-04-01

388

21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of...

2012-04-01

389

21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of...

2014-04-01

390

21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of...

2011-04-01

391

21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of...

2010-04-01

392

CONTAMINANT INTERACTIONS WITH STEROID RECEPTORS: EVIDENCE FOR RECEPTOR BINDING.  

EPA Science Inventory

Steroid receptors are important determinants of endocrine disrupter consequences. As the most frequently proposed mechanism of endocrine-disrupting contaminant (EDC) action, steroid receptors are not only targets of natural steroids but are also commonly sites of nonsteroidal com...

393

Control of a wind park with doubly fed induction generators in support of power system stability in case of grid faults  

E-print Network

Control of a wind park with doubly fed induction generators in support of power system stability connected wind power plants based on conventional technology. 1 Introduction Due to the increasing penetration of wind power the power system operators are revising nowa- days the grid codes in several

394

Steroids and 5-aminosalicylic acids in moderate ulcerative colitis: addressing the dilemma  

PubMed Central

Steroids have been a mainstay of ulcerative colitis (UC) therapy for many years, based on a thoroughly established efficacy profile for the induction of remission. However, in light of the considerable side effects and negative perceptions they carry, it is important to ensure such treatments are used as effectively as possible. For severe UC, the need for steroids is rarely questioned, and rightly so; it is for moderate UC that the role of steroids should be considered. Both patients and clinicians place a high importance on rapid, effective resolution of symptoms, yet at the same time wish to avoid unnecessary side effects. Through consideration of the available evidence, it becomes clear that both steroids and high-dose 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) are supported by robust trials demonstrating their efficacy. Indeed, both therapies have been shown to give rise to resolution of symptoms after 2 weeks in many patients. However, a paucity of head-to-head comparisons makes conclusive interpretation challenging. This paper therefore presents a practical approach, which builds on the available evidence and is developed from informed discussions with patients. This approach involves initiating therapy with high-dose 5-ASA, followed by a review of symptom improvements after 2–3 weeks. Steroids can then be introduced, when needed, with minimal delay. In this way, symptoms can be resolved rapidly, yet many patients may avoid unpleasant side effects. PMID:23320048

2013-01-01

395

Estrogenic Steroid Hormones in Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

It is becoming increasingly clear that steroid hormones are involved in the biology of many organs outside the reproductive system. Evidence has been accumulating since the mid-1990’s that the lung contains receptors for both estrogen and progesterone and that these hormones have some role in lung development, pulmonary inflammation, and lung cancer. The estrogen receptor ? (ER?) is the major ER expressed in lung tissues, while inflammatory cells capable of infiltrating the lung are reported to express both ER? and ER?. Although there is evidence in animals of preferential effects of ER? in the lungs of females, human lung tumors from males also contain ER? positive cells and express aromatase, the enzyme that converts testosterone to estrogens. This review will discuss current literature findings on the role of the ERs and the progesterone receptor (PR) as well CYP19 (aromatase), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of estrogen, in lung cancer. PMID:24565577

Siegfried, Jill M.; Stabile, Laura P.

2014-01-01

396

[Administration route of natural sex steroids (estradiol, progesterone, testosterone) (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The natural sex steroids (E2, T, P) may be used in therapeutics. Estradiol and testosterone esters (decanoate and undecanoate) may be administered orally. A local effect always follows the percutaneous application of sex steroids, and this is usually accompanied by a systemic effect. But because of the very important metabolism of progesterone by the skin, it is necessary to administer it by other routes (intravaginal, intrarectal) in order to obtain a systemic effect. PMID:7355099

Bercovici, J P; Darragon, T

1980-01-12

397

Regulation of the Nur77 orphan steroid receptor in activation-induced apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated apoptosis in immature thymocytes and T-cell hybridomas is calcium de- pendent and can be inhibited by cyclosporin A (CsA). Induction of the orphan steroid receptor Nur77 (NGFI-B) is required for activation-induced apoptosis. Here, we examined the regulation of Nur77 expression, in response to apoptotic TCR signals, which consists of kinase C and calcium pathways. We show that

JOHN D. WORONICZ; ANDREA LINA; BARBARA J. CALNAN; SHANNAN SZYCHOWSKI; LAURENCE CHENG; ANDASTAR WINOTO

1995-01-01

398

Irinotecan induces steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) signaling to detoxification pathway in colon cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Resistance to chemotherapy remains one of the principle obstacles to the treatment of colon cancer. In order to identify the\\u000a molecular mechanism of this resistance, we investigated the role of the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) in the induction\\u000a of drug resistance. Indeed, this nuclear receptor plays an important role in response to xenobiotics through the upregulation\\u000a of detoxification genes.

Agnes Basseville; Laurence Preisser; Sophie de Carné Trécesson; Michèle Boisdron-Celle; Erick Gamelin; Olivier Coqueret; Alain Morel

2011-01-01

399

The 5 ?-reductase in the central nervous system: expression and modes of control 1 1 Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium of the Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology “ Recent Advances in Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology” Monaco 25–28 May 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper will summarize two important aspects of the interactions between steroids and the brain, which have recently been studied in the authors' laboratory. In particular the paper will consider data on: (1) the significance of the two isoforms of the 5?-R during brain ontogenesis and development, and (2) the cross-talk between glial and neuronal elements, particularly in relation

Roberto C Melcangi; Angelo Poletti; Ilaria Cavarretta; Fabio Celotti; Alessandra Colciago; Valerio Magnaghi; Marcella Motta; Paola Negri-Cesi; Luciano Martini

1998-01-01

400

Rituximab efficiency in children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most patients with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) respond to steroid treatment, development of steroid dependency\\u000a may require a long-term multidrug therapy including steroid and calcineurin inhibitor. Rituximab was shown to allow a reduction\\u000a of the doses of steroid and immunosuppressive drugs in those patients. In the present series, 22 patients with steroid-sensitive,\\u000a but steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome were treated with

Anne-Laure Sellier-Leclerc; Marie-Alice Macher; Chantal Loirat; Valérie Guérin; Hervé Watier; Michel Peuchmaur; Véronique Baudouin; Georges Deschênes

2010-01-01

401

Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

... Your Home Prescription Drug Abuse True Stories VIDEO: Marijuana—The Facts and Fiction Consequences How Drugs Alter ... and Affect Teens The Negative Health Effects of Marijuana Use Legal Consequences of Drug Use Treatment and ...

402

Cyanobacterial Bioamarkers: Triterpenoids plus Steroids?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructing the biomarker record of the early Earth requires us to make assumptions about the constancy and specificity of lipid biosynthetic pathways through geological time and rests upon our knowledge of the lipid composition of extant organisms.\\x90\\x90 For example, the three domains of extant life Eukarya, Archaea and Bacteria were present in Archean ecosystems if we are to believe the record of chemical fossils that have been found in rocks as old as 2700Ma.\\x90 However, the validity of the steroid signature as an indicator for Eukarya has questioned because of some reports of Ophytosterol, biosynthesis in cyanobacteria and we examined this issue in some new experiments with cyanobacteria grown in culture.\\x90 After initial cultures of Phormidium and Chlorogloeopsis proved to contain sterols, in addition to the expected complement of hopanoid and 2-methylhopanoid, we hypothesized that these might be the result of fungal contamination.\\x90 Subsequent cultures grown after repeated sub-culturing in the presence of cycloheximide proved to be devoid of sterol. Our results are therefore consistent with the notion that sterol biosynthesis is, with very few exceptions, a primary characteristic of Eukarya.\\x90 Consequently, the steroid hydrocarbons that are found in ancient sediments are most likely the remains of algae and other eukaryotes.\\x90

Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.; Cullings, K. W.; Logan, G. A.

2001-12-01

403

Stress, Ethanol, and Neuroactive Steroids  

PubMed Central

Neurosteroids play a crucial role in stress, alcohol dependence and withdrawal, and other physiological and pharmacological actions by potentiating or inhibiting neurotransmitter action. This review article focuses on data showing that the interaction among stress, ethanol, and neuroactive steroids may result in plastic molecular and functional changes of GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission. The molecular mechanisms by which stress-ethanol-neuroactive steroids interactions can produce plastic changes in GABAA receptors have been studied using different experimental models in vivo and in vitro in order to provide useful evidence and new insights into the mechanisms through which acute and chronic ethanol and stress exposure modulate the activity of GABAergic synapses. We show detailed data on a) the effect of acute and chronic stress on peripheral and brain neurosteroid levels and GABAA receptor gene expression and function; b) ethanol-stimulated brain steroidogenesis; c) plasticity of GABAA receptor after acute and chronic ethanol exposure. The implications of these new mechanistic insights to our understanding of the effects of ethanol during stress are also discussed. The understanding of these neurochemical and molecular mechanisms may shed new light on the physiopathology of diseases, such as anxiety, in which GABAergic transmission play a pivotal role. These data may also lead to the need for new anxiolytic, hypnotic and anticonvulsant selective drugs devoid of side effects. PMID:17555824

Biggio, Giovanni; Concas, Alessandra; Follesa, Paolo; Sanna, Enrico; Serra, Mariangela

2010-01-01

404

Steroids: To Test or to Educate?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In February 2005, The Dallas Morning News published a multipart series on steroid use among high school students in Texas. The paper's four-month investigation was wide-ranging, but shined a particular spotlight upon alleged abuses in the 13,700-student Grapevine-Colleyville Independent School District, north of Dallas. Use of steroids and other…

LaFee, Scott

2006-01-01

405

Anabolic steroid accelerated multicompartment syndrome following trauma  

PubMed Central

The case is reported of a 23 year old male body builder who was involved in a road traffic accident after taking anabolic steroids. The resulting trauma caused a severe life threatening acute multicompartment syndrome resulting in the need for urgent multiple fasciotomies. Key Words: anabolic steroids; body builder; trauma; multicompartment syndrome PMID:10953907

Bahia, H; Platt, A; Hart, N; Baguley, P

2000-01-01

406

Hyperhomocysteinemia in bodybuilders taking anabolic steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been accepted as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. In recent years, several reports have appeared in the literature linking the use of anabolic steroids with acute vascular events in bodybuilders. In this study, we investigated whether hyperhomocysteinemia could contribute to the high vascular risk in bodybuilders taking anabolic steroids. Methods and results: Twenty-three bodybuilders

C. F. Ebenbichler; S. Kaser; J. Bodner; R. Gander; M. Lechleitner; M. Herold; J. R. Patsch

2001-01-01

407

Behavioural manifestations of anabolic steroid use.  

PubMed

The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) for gains in strength and muscle mass is relatively common among certain subpopulations, including athletes, bodybuilders, adolescents and young adults. Adverse physical effects associated with steroid abuse are well documented, but more recently, increased attention has been given to the adverse psychiatric effects of these compounds. Steroids may be used in oral, 17alpha-alkylated, or intramuscular, 17beta-esterified, preparations. Commonly, steroid users employ these agents at levels 10- to 100-fold in excess of therapeutic doses and use multiple steroids simultaneously, a practice known as 'stacking'. Significant psychiatric symptoms including aggression and violence, mania, and less frequently psychosis and suicide have been associated with steroid abuse. Long-term steroid abusers may develop symptoms of dependence and withdrawal on discontinuation of AAS. Treatment of AAS abusers should address both acute physical and behavioural symptoms as well as long-term abstinence and recovery. To date, limited information is available regarding specific pharmacological treatments for individuals recovering from steroid abuse. This paper reviews the published literature concerning the recognition and treatment of behavioural manifestations of AAS abuse. PMID:15984895

Trenton, Adam J; Currier, Glenn W

2005-01-01

408

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Suppression and Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome as a Complication of Epidural Steroid Injections  

PubMed Central

Epidural steroid injections are well accepted as a treatment for radicular back pain in appropriate candidates. While overall incidence of systemic side effects has not been well established, at least five biochemically proven cases of iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome have been reported as complications of epidural steroid treatment. We present an additional case of iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome and adrenal suppression in a middle-aged woman who received three epidural steroid injections over a four-month period. We review this case in the context of previous cases and discuss diagnostic and management issues. PMID:23991341

2013-01-01

409

Tests with a line-commutated converter as a variable inductive load on the Bonneville Power Administration transmission system  

SciTech Connect

A twelve-pulse, line-commutated converter, with a steady-state rating of 2.5 kV and 5.5 kA, formerly used for charging and discharging a superconducting magnet, was reconfigured as a static reactive power load. Tests staged at the Tacoma, WA, substation of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) revealed that the converter could be used as a variable inductive load, provided a stable current controller was installed. The unit was modulated as a variable VAR load following a sinusoidal VAR demand signal with an amplitude up to 14.8 MVAR. The total losses at maximum VAR output were 370 kW. This paper explains the necessary modifications of the converter to operate as a variable reactive load. Measured current waveshapes are analyzed. The effects of such a load on the BPA transmission system are presented.

Boenig, H.J.; Hauer, J.F.; Nielsen, R.G.

1986-01-01

410

Ribosomal Alteration-Derived Signals for Cytokine Induction in Mucosal and Systemic Inflammation: Noncanonical Pathways by Ribosomal Inactivation  

PubMed Central

Ribosomal inactivation damages 28S ribosomal RNA by interfering with its functioning during gene translation, leading to stress responses linked to a variety of inflammatory disease processes. Although the primary effect of ribosomal inactivation in cells is the functional inhibition of global protein synthesis, early responsive gene products including proinflammatory cytokines are exclusively induced by toxic stress in highly dividing tissues such as lymphoid tissue and epithelia. In the present study, ribosomal inactivation-related modulation of cytokine production was reviewed in leukocyte and epithelial pathogenesis models to characterize mechanistic evidence of ribosome-derived cytokine induction and its implications for potent therapeutic targets of mucosal and systemic inflammatory illness, particularly those triggered by organellar dysfunctions. PMID:24523573

Moon, Yuseok

2014-01-01

411

Ribosomal alteration-derived signals for cytokine induction in mucosal and systemic inflammation: noncanonical pathways by ribosomal inactivation.  

PubMed

Ribosomal inactivation damages 28S ribosomal RNA by interfering with its functioning during gene translation, leading to stress responses linked to a variety of inflammatory disease processes. Although the primary effect of ribosomal inactivation in cells is the functional inhibition of global protein synthesis, early responsive gene products including proinflammatory cytokines are exclusively induced by toxic stress in highly dividing tissues such as lymphoid tissue and epithelia. In the present study, ribosomal inactivation-related modulation of cytokine production was reviewed in leukocyte and epithelial pathogenesis models to characterize mechanistic evidence of ribosome-derived cytokine induction and its implications for potent therapeutic targets of mucosal and systemic inflammatory illness, particularly those triggered by organellar dysfunctions. PMID:24523573

Moon, Yuseok

2014-01-01

412

Performance of an Annular Linear Induction Pump with Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of performance testing of an annular linear induction pump are presented. The pump electromagnetically pumps liquid metal through a circuit specially designed to allow for quantification of the performance. Testing was conducted over a range of conditions, including frequencies of 33, 36, 39, and 60 Hz, liquid metal temperatures from 125 to 525 C, and input voltages from 5 to 120 V. Pump performance spanned a range of flow rates from roughly 0.16 to 5.7 L/s (2.5 to 90 gpm), and pressure head less than 1 to 90 kPa (less than 0.145 to 13 psi). The maximum efficiency measured during testing was slightly greater than 6%. The efficiency was fairly insensitive to input frequency from 33 to 39 Hz, and was markedly lower at 60 Hz. In addition, the efficiency decreased as the NaK temperature was raised. The performance of the pump operating on a variable frequency drive providing 60 Hz power compared favorably with the same pump operating on 60 Hz power drawn directly from the electrical grid.

Polzin, Kurt A.; Schoenfeld, Michael; Pearson, J. Boise; Webster, Kenneth; Godfroy, Thomas; Adkins, Harold E., Jr.; Werner, James E.

2010-01-01

413

Maximum Efficiency Operation of a Single Stage Inverter Fed Induction Motor PV Water Pumping System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photovoltaic (PV) water pumping systems have been increasingly popular in remote areas where grid is not accessible or is too costly to install. These systems are mostly used for agriculture and household purposes. Generally, such systems use permanent magnet dc motors because of their simple circuit configuration and control strategy. However these systems require frequent maintenance. On the other hand,

A. B. Raju; S. Ramesh Karnik; Rohini Jyoti

2008-01-01

414

Polyamines Are Critical for the Induction of the Glutamate Decarboxylase-dependent Acid Resistance System in Escherichia coli *  

PubMed Central

As part of our studies on the biological functions of polyamines, we have used a mutant of Escherichia coli that lacks all the genes for polyamine biosynthesis for a global transcriptional analysis on the effect of added polyamines. The most striking early response to the polyamine addition is the increased expression of the genes for the glutamate-dependent acid resistance system (GDAR) that is important for the survival of the bacteria when passing through the acid environment of the stomach. Not only were the two genes for glutamate decarboxylases (gadA and gadB) and the gene for glutamate-?-aminobutyrate antiporter (gadC) induced by the polyamine addition, but the various genes involved in the regulation of this system were also induced. We confirmed the importance of polyamines for the induction of the GDAR system by direct measurement of glutamate decarboxylase activity and acid survival. The effect of deletions of the regulatory genes on the GDAR system and the effects of overproduction of two of these genes were also studied. Strikingly, overproduction of the alternative ? factor rpoS and of the regulatory gene gadE resulted in very high levels of glutamate decarboxylase and almost complete protection against acid stress even in the absence of any polyamines. Thus, these data show that a major function of polyamines in E. coli is protection against acid stress by increasing the synthesis of glutamate decarboxylase, presumably by increasing the levels of the rpoS and gadE regulators. PMID:24097985

Chattopadhyay, Manas K.; Tabor, Herbert

2013-01-01

415

An adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller for sensorless vector-controlled induction motor drive systems.  

PubMed

This paper presents the implementation of an adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller (FCMAC) in the speed sensorless vector control of an induction motor (IM) drive system. The proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC comprised a supervisory controller, integral sliding surface, and an adaptive FCMAC. The integral sliding surface was employed to eliminate steady-state errors and enhance the responsiveness of the system. The adaptive FCMAC incorporated an FCMAC with a compensating controller to perform a desired control action. The proposed controller was derived using the Lyapunov approach, which guarantees learning-error convergence. The implementation of three intelligent control schemes-the adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC, adaptive sliding FCMAC, and adaptive sliding CMAC-were experimentally investigated under various conditions in a realistic sensorless vector-controlled IM drive system. The root mean square error (RMSE) was used as a performance index to evaluate the experimental results of each control scheme. The analysis results indicated that the proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC substantially improved the system performance compared with the other control schemes. PMID:25815450

Wang, Shun-Yuan; Tseng, Chwan-Lu; Lin, Shou-Chuang; Chiu, Chun-Jung; Chou, Jen-Hsiang

2015-01-01

416

3-Dimensional Modeling of Capacitively and Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low temperature plasmas are widely used for thin film etching during micro and nano-electronic device fabrication. Fluid and hybrid plasma models were developed 15-20 years ago to understand the fundamentals of these plasmas and plasma etching. These models have significantly evolved since then, and are now a major tool used for new plasma hardware design and problem resolution. Plasma etching is a complex physical phenomenon, where inter-coupled plasma, electromagnetic, fluid dynamics, and thermal effects all have a major influence. The next frontier in the evolution of fluid-based plasma models is where these models are able to self-consistently treat the inter-coupling of plasma physics with fluid dynamics, electromagnetics, heat transfer and magnetostatics. We describe one such model in this paper and illustrate its use in solving engineering problems of interest for next generation plasma etcher design. Our 3-dimensional plasma model includes the full set of Maxwell equations, transport equations for all charged and neutral species in the plasma, the Navier-Stokes equation for fluid flow, and Kirchhoff's equations for the lumped external circuit. This model also includes Monte Carlo based kinetic models for secondary electrons and stochastic heating, and can take account of plasma chemistry. This modeling formalism allows us to self-consistently treat the dynamics in commercial inductively and capacitively coupled plasma etching reactors with realistic plasma chemistries, magnetic fields, and reactor geometries. We are also able to investigate the influence of the distributed electromagnetic circuit at very high frequencies (VHF) on the plasma dynamics. The model is used to assess the impact of azimuthal asymmetries in plasma reactor design (e.g., off-center pump, 3D magnetic field, slit valve, flow restrictor) on plasma characteristics at frequencies from 2 -- 180 MHz. With Jason Kenney, Ankur Agarwal, Ajit Balakrishna, Kallol Bera, and Ken Collins.

Rauf, Shahid

2008-10-01

417

Genotoxicity of industrial dyes under the inductive effect of ethanol on monooxygenase system in mice.  

PubMed

The genotoxic effects of triarylmethane (Acid Green 16, C.I.44025) and arylmonoazo (Basic Orange 28, developed by Boruta Pigment Plant, Poland, C.I. undisclosed) dyes, were evaluated in Balb/C mice. Animals were fed for 6 days nutritionally adequate Portagen liquid diet (1 kcal/ml) or isocaloric alcoholic diet containing 5% (w/v) ethanol (36% of total calories) in order to induce the cytochrome P-4502E1 monooxygenase. Dye compounds were administered intraperitoneally 30 h before the test at doses: 90 mg/kg of Acid Green 16 and 70 mg/kg of Basic Orange 28. Bone marrow micronucleus test was used for evaluation of genotoxicity of the dyes. Ethanol caused an increase of the level of cytochrome P-450 by 200% and activities of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) by 650%, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) by 460% and glutathione (GSH)-S-transferase by 60% in the liver. Both dyes exerted genotoxic effect as inferred from a 3-fold increase of frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow, and a further increase (2-fold) was caused by ethanol liquid diet combined with Acid Green 16 treatment. Basic Orange 28 genotoxicity remained unaffected by ethanol. It is concluded that: (1) enhancement of genotoxic effect of Acid Green 16 by ethanol is caused by induction of cytochrome P-4502E1 monooxygenases resulting in an increased bioactivation of the dye; (2) lack of enhancement of the genotoxic effect of Basic Orange 28 by ethanol probably results from the dye- and ethanol-mediated stimulation of GSH-S-transferase, bypassing the cytochrome P-4502E1 bioactivation step. PMID:9294022

Wro?ska-Nofer, T; Wi?niewska-Knypl, J; Wyszy?ska, K; Dziuba?towska, E

1997-08-14

418

Torsional Vibration Effects on Induction Machine Current and Torque Signatures in Gearbox-Based Electromechanical System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring of heavy-duty electromechanical systems is crucial for their preventive maintenance planning. In these systems, the mechanical anomalies such as load troubles, great torque dynamic variations, and torsional oscillations lead to shaft fatigue and aging of other mechanical parts such as bearings and gearboxes. In this paper, a gearbox-based electromechanical system is investigated. Initially, a simple gearbox dynamic model

Shahin Hedayati Kia; Humberto Henao; GÉrard-AndrÉ Capolino

2009-01-01

419

Vector control strategies for single-phase induction motor drive systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses vector control strategies for single-phase motor drive systems operating with two windings. A model is proposed and used to derive control laws for single-phase motor drive systems. Such model is also employed to introduce the double-sequence controller. Simulation and experimental results are provided to illustrate the operation of the proposed drive systems.

M. B. de Rossiter Correa; C. B. Jacobina; E. R. C. da Silva; A. M. N. Lima

2004-01-01

420

A survey of testing and monitoring methods for stator insulation systems in induction machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A breakdown of the electrical insulation system causes catastrophic failure of the electrical machine and brings large process downtime losses. To determine the conditions of the stator insulation system of motor drive systems, various testing and monitoring methods have been developed. This paper presents an in-depth literature review of more than 20 existing methods, including the most common methods to

S. Grubic; J. M. Aller; B. Lu; T. G. Habetler

2008-01-01

421

Adaptive Observers for a Class of Nonlinear Systems with Application to Induction Motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an adaptive observer for a class of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear systems. These systems are linear in unknown parameters, and system nonlinearities satisfy Lipschitz conditions. The implementation of observer does not require any coordinate transformation. However, the estimation convergence analysis is dependent on a nonlinear filtered coordinate transformation. Sufficient conditions for stability are derived in terms of

Purnaprajna Mangsuli; N. J. Rao

2006-01-01

422

The Rule Induction System LERS—A Version for Personal Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the system LERS (Learning from Examples based on Rough Sets), a version for personal computers, which induces a set of rules from a decision table and classifies new examples using the set of rules induced previously by the system. The system may quantize numeric values of attributes and may handle two kinds of uncertainty: missing values of

Michal R. Chmielewski; Jerzy W. Grzymala-Busse; Neil W. Peterson; Soe Than

1993-01-01

423

INDUCTION OF ARYL HYDROCARBON (BENZO[a]PYRENE) HYDROXYLASE AND TYROSINE AMINOTRANSFERASE IN HEPATOMA CELLS IN CULTURE  

PubMed Central

In the Reuber (H35) hepatoma cell strain, microsomal aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase is induced 25-fold by the polycyclic hydrocarbon benz[a]anthracene but is not induced by the steroid hormone dexamethasone. Soluble tyrosine aminotransferase is induced sixfold by dexamethasone and twofold by benz[a]anthracene. Each enzyme requires similar inducer concentrations for induction, and their induction kinetics are similar. The induction of each enzyme requires RNA and protein synthesis; in each case the transcriptional and translational steps can occur independently. The two induction systems are differentially sensitive to inhibitors of macromolecular synthesis. Simultaneous exposure to both inducers produces increases in both enzyme activities that are greater than those produced by either inducer alone. Each inducer acts at a pretranslational level to produce this synergistic effect. The results suggest that the requirements for macromolecular synthesis are similar for the induction of each enzyme, but that the turnover of enzyme-specific macromolecules may differ for each. PMID:4153658

Whitlock, James P.; Miller, Haruko; Gelboin, Harry V.

1974-01-01

424

Characterization of a novel non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist  

SciTech Connect

Selective antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are desirable for the treatment of hypercortisolemia associated with Cushing's syndrome, psychic depression, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and glaucoma. NC3327, a non-steroidal small molecule with potent binding affinity to GR (K{sub i} = 13.2 nM), was identified in a high-throughput screening effort. As a full GR antagonist, NC3327 greatly inhibits the dexamethasone (Dex) induction of marker genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, but has a minimal effect on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a GR responsive pro-inflammatory gene. Interestingly, the compound recruits neither coactivators nor corepressors to the GR complex but competes with glucocorticoids for the interaction between GR and a coactivator peptide. Moreover, NC3327 does not trigger GR nuclear translocation, but significantly blocks Dex-induced GR transportation to the nucleus, and thus appears to be a 'competitive' GR antagonist. Therefore, the non-steroidal compound, NC3327, may represent a new class of GR antagonists as potential therapeutics for a variety of cortisol-related endocrine disorders.

Li, Qun-Yi; Zhang, Meng [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China) [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Hallis, Tina M.; DeRosier, Therese A. [Cell Systems Division, Invitrogen, Madison, WI (United States)] [Cell Systems Division, Invitrogen, Madison, WI (United States); Yue, Jian-Min; Ye, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Mais, Dale E. [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China) [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); MPI Research, Mattawan, MI (United States); Wang, Ming-Wei, E-mail: wangmw@mail.shcnc.ac.cn [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China) [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

2010-01-15

425

Transcriptional regulation of steroid hydroxylase genes by corticotropin.  

PubMed Central

Maintenance of optimal steroidogenic capacity in the adrenal cortex is the result of a cAMP-dependent response to the peptide hormone corticotropin (ACTH). The molecular mechanism of this action of ACTH has been examined by using five recombinant DNA clones specific for enzymes of the steroidogenic pathway (P-450scc, P-45011 beta, P-450C21, P-45017 alpha, and adrenodoxin). The presence of nuclear precursors in steady-state RNA samples derived from cultured bovine adrenocortical cells and moderate increases in the number of RNA chain initiations, as determined by in vitro nuclear run-off assays, indicate that ACTH controls the expression of the gene(s) for each of these proteins at the transcriptional level. The ACTH-mediated increase in accumulation of transcripts specific for steroid hydroxylases in nuclear RNA can be specifically blocked by inhibiting protein synthesis in bovine adrenocortical cell cultures. The steady-state concentrations of nuclear RNA for control genes show no decrease upon cycloheximide treatment. These studies suggest that a primary action of ACTH in the adrenal cortex is to activate (via cAMP) the synthesis of rapidly turning over protein factors that in turn mediate increased initiation of transcription of steroid hydroxylase genes. We propose that these protein factors impart specificity of induction to genes encoding components of this pathway in steroidogenic tissues. Images PMID:3014507

John, M E; John, M C; Boggaram, V; Simpson, E R; Waterman, M R

1986-01-01

426

Space shuttle main engine anomaly data and inductive knowledge based systems: Automated corporate expertise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported on the development of SCOTTY, an expert knowledge-based system to automate the analysis procedure following test firings of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The integration of a large-scale relational data base system, a computer graphics interface for experts and end-user engineers, potential extension of the system to flight engines, application of the system for training of newly-hired engineers, technology transfer to other engines, and the essential qualities of good software engineering practices for building expert knowledge-based systems are among the topics discussed.

Modesitt, Kenneth L.

1987-01-01

427

Successful treatment of collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with a combination of rituximab, steroids and ciclosporin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of a 2-year-old boy with steroid- and ciclosporin (CsA)-resistant collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis\\u000a (FSGS) who went into complete remission with a combination of IV rituximab and methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPT) while\\u000a receiving oral CsA. He was initially treated with steroids including MPT, CsA, and plasmapheresis, but his massive proteinuria\\u000a and severe systemic edema persisted. We treated

Hiroshi Kaito; Koichi Kamei; Eriko Kikuchi; Masao Ogura; Kentaro Matsuoka; Michio Nagata; Kazumoto Iijima; Shuichi Ito

2010-01-01

428

In 14th IEEE Symposium on Computer Based Medical Systems (CBMS'2001), 26-27 July, Bethesda A Case for Supplementing Evidence Base Medicine with Inductive  

E-print Network

in making decisions about the care of individuals patients. The practice of evidence based medicine means). A Case for Supplementing Evidence Base Medicine with Inductive Clinical Knowledge: Towards a Technology Technology-- within traditional Evidence Based Medicine systems to derive all-encompassing clinical evidence

Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

429

CLASSIFICATION OF BINARY MASS SPECTRA OF TOXIC COMPOUNDS WITH AN INDUCTIVE EXPERT SYSTEM AND COMPARISON WITH SIMCA CLASS MODELING (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of an inexpensive, inductive rule-building expert system, 1ST CLASS, using the ID3 algorithm was compared to that of SIMCA class modeling in classifying the binary mass spectra of 78 toxic and related compounds. The compressed mass spectra consisted of 17 masses c...

430

The relationship of intranasal steroids to intraocular pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intranasal corticosteroids have become a gold standard in therapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. A direct relationship\\u000a between topical and systemic corticosteroids and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) has been recognized for more than 50\\u000a years. However, this steroid-induced response is highly variable. Glaucoma is an eye disease caused by an increase in IOP\\u000a and results in optic nerve cell death and vision

Joseph Bergmann; Matthew T. Witmer; Charles B. Slonim

2009-01-01

431

Non-contact multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy system for industrial-scale bio-impedance measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological tissues have a complex impedance, or bio-impedance, profile which changes with respect to frequency. This is caused by dispersion mechanisms which govern how the electromagnetic field interacts with the tissue at the cellular and molecular level. Measuring the bio-impedance spectra of a biological sample can potentially provide insight into the sample’s properties and its cellular structure. This has obvious applications in the medical, pharmaceutical and food-based industrial domains. However, measuring the bio-impedance spectra non-destructively and in a way which is practical at an industrial scale presents substantial challenges. The low conductivity of the sample requires a highly sensitive instrument, while the demands of industrial-scale operation require a fast high-throughput sensor of rugged design. In this paper, we describe a multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy (MIS) system suitable for industrial-scale, non-contact, spectroscopic bio-impedance measurement over a bandwidth of 156 kHz–2.5 MHz. The system sensitivity and performance are investigated using calibration and known reference samples. It is shown to yield rapid and consistently sensitive results with good long-term stability. The system is then used to obtain conductivity spectra of a number of biological test samples, including yeast suspensions of varying concentration and a range of agricultural produce, such as apples, pears, nectarines, kiwis, potatoes, oranges and tomatoes.

O'Toole, M. D.; Marsh, L. A.; Davidson, J. L.; Tan, Y. M.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.

2015-03-01

432

Mixtures of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for induction of systemic resistance against multiple plant diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of induced systemic resistance using strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have concentrated on the use of individual PGPR as inducers against multiple diseases of a single crop. To date, few reports have examined the potential of PGPR strain mixtures to induce systemic resistance against diseases of several different plant hosts. The objective of this study was to select

Kanchalee Jetiyanon; Joseph W Kloepper

2002-01-01

433

FPGA implementation of Induction Motor Vector Control using Xilinx System Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechatronic systems are complex interdisciplinary products where many parts are present that overlap each other; electronic control board, electromechanical machines, and power drives. With FPGAs, their control can run faster as multiple operations are executed in parallel. A simulation tool that facilitates the direct translation into hardware of mechatronic control algorithms is desirable. The Xilinx System Generator (XSG), a high-level

Jean-Gabriel Mailloux; Stéphane Simard; Rachid Beguenane

434

Experimental system, and its evaluation for the control of surgically inducted infections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect is reported to design, fabricate, test and evaluate a prototype experimental system for the control of surgically induced infections. The purpose is to provide the cleanest possible environment within a hospital surgery room and eliminate contamination sources that could cause infections during surgery. The system design is described. The system provides for a portable laminar flow clean room, a full bubble helmet system with associated communications and ventilation subsystems for operating room personnel, and surgical gowns that minimize the migration of bacteria. The development test results consisting of portability, laminar flowrate, air flow pattern, electrostatic buildup, noise level, ventilation, human factors, electrical and material compatibility tests are summarized. The conclusions are that the experimental system is effective in reducing the airborne and wound contamination although the helmets and gowns may not be a significant part of this reduction. Definitive conclusions with regard to the infection rate cannot be made at this time.

Tevebaugh, M. D.; Nelson, J. P.

1972-01-01

435

Characteristics of Steroid Users in an Adolescent School Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined rates of steroid use among Ontario adolescent students. Findings from 3,892 students revealed that 1.1 percent reported using steroids over past year. Steroid users were significantly more likely to use stimulants, caffeine, and relaxants than were nonsteroid users. Demographically, steroid users were significantly more likely to be male…

Adlaf, Edward M.; Smart, Reginald G.

1992-01-01

436

Novel steroid constituents of the soft coral Sinularia dissecta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical examination of the soft coral Sinularia dissecta furnished five steroids (1–5), which include four new polyhydroxy steroids (2–5). The structures of new compounds have been established by the study of their spectral data. Steroid 5 was a novel polyoxygenated epoxy steroid.

Patnam Ramesh; Yenamandra Venkateswarlu

1999-01-01

437

Use of nasal steroids in managing allergic rhinitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intranasal steroids are highly effective drugs for treating patients with allergic rhinitis. First-line use of intranasal steroids is becoming increasingly common, and intranasal steroids can be used alone or in combination with other therapies to achieve optimal improvement in rhinitis symptoms. The major adverse effect of intranasal steroids is local irritation. This article reviews the mechanism of action of corticosteroids,

Craig LaForce

1999-01-01

438

Partial characterization of a biologically active steroid glycoside isolated from the starfish Marthasterias glacialis  

PubMed Central

1. A steroid glycoside (M2), which induces avoidance and other reactions in the mollusc Buccinum undatum, has been isolated from extracts of the starfish Marthasterias glacialis by ion-exchange chromatography. 2. The steroid glycoside was homogeneous by t.l.c. and contained glucose, quinovose, fucose and sulphate in the molar proportions 1:2:1:1, in addition to a water-insoluble aglycone. 3. The aglycone was identified as a cholestane derivative containing an unusual ?24-23-ketone system, two secondary hydroxyl groups and an olefinic double bond, and had the molecular formula C27H42O3. 4. The rates of release of sugars and sulphate suggested that fucose was at the non-reducing end of the oligosaccharide, with glucose glycosidically linked to the steroid. The sulphate group appeared to be linked to the other hydroxyl group of the steroid. PMID:5419749

Mackie, A. M.; Turner, A. B.

1970-01-01

439

From molecule to market: steroid hormones and financial risk-taking  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the role of the endocrine system in financial decision-making. Here, we survey research on steroid hormones and their cognitive effects, and examine potential links to trader performance in the financial markets. Preliminary findings suggest that cortisol codes for risk and testosterone for reward. A key finding of this endocrine research is the different cognitive effects of acute versus chronic exposure to hormones: acutely elevated steroids may optimize performance on a range of tasks; but chronically elevated steroids may promote irrational risk-reward choices. We present a hypothesis suggesting that the irrational exuberance and pessimism observed during market bubbles and crashes may be mediated by steroid hormones. If hormones can exaggerate market moves, then perhaps the age and sex composition among traders and asset managers may affect the level of instability witnessed in the financial markets. PMID:20026470

Coates, John M.; Gurnell, Mark; Sarnyai, Zoltan

2010-01-01

440

Symptomatic Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis After a Single Local Epidural Steroid Injection  

SciTech Connect

Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder that can manifest with progressive neurological deficits. It is characterized by abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated epidural fat commonly associated with the administration of exogenous steroids associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies, and Cushing syndrome (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). Occasionally, spinal epidural lipomatosis may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or in patients with endocrinopathies, primarily in obese individuals (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). However, spinal lumbar epidural lipomatosis resulting from local steroid injection has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 45-year-old diabetic man with claudication that was probably due to symptomatic lumbar spinal lipomatosis resulting from a single local epidural steroid injection.

Tok, Chung Hong, E-mail: rogertok@gmail.com; Kaur, Shaleen [University of Malaya, Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine (Malaysia); Gangi, Afshin [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Radiology B (France)

2011-02-15

441

Quantitative determination of 26 steroids in eggs from various species using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for analyzing 26 types of steroids in egg matrix was developed. The method used liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in electrospray ionization mode (ESI). The procedure involved extraction with acetonitrile and removal of phospholipids by zinc chloride (ZnCl?) followed by SPE cleanup with a Plexa cartridge. The effect of ZnCl? on phospholipid removal was directly observed using the post column infusion procedure. The SPE washing and elution conditions were optimized using a shallow gradient procedure. The free and conjugated steroids forms were determined using enzyme hydrolysis. The developed method resulted in satisfactory precision (RSD?15%), and the limits of quantification were between 0.05 and 25 ng/g depending on the steroid types. The recoveries ranged from 63.2% to 121.5%. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to compare the steroids in eggs from different species (i.e., hen, duck, quail and pigeon eggs) or different raising system (i.e., normal vs. organic eggs). The steroids can be clearly clustered according to species and raising system. The hierarchical clustering analysis indicated similarity of the steroids among the species. The developed method is sensitive and useful for detection and quantification of steroids in eggs and can be used for residue control programs. In addition, the observed steroid content will provide a fundamental reference for food risk assessment analysis. PMID:25017396

Mi, Xiaoxia; Li, Sicong; Li, Yanhua; Wang, Kaiqiang; Zhu, Dan; Chen, Gang

2014-08-22

442

New therapies in steroid-sensitive and steroid-resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) respond initially to steroid therapy, repeated courses for\\u000a patients with relapses often cause significant steroid toxicity. Patients with frequent relapses who develop steroid dependency\\u000a thus require alternative treatment. The first such options have been considered to be cyclophosphamide or levamisole, although\\u000a the latter is no longer available in many countries. There is

Michael van Husen; Markus J. Kemper

2011-01-01

443

Long-term steroid treatment and growth: a study in steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveHigh-dose steroid therapy in children is known to impair growth. What is unknown is the level of steroid therapy at which children continue to grow normally. This study was designed to deduce a dosage of prednisolone compatible with normal growth.Patients and designThe growth of 41 children (age 1.92–13.2 years) with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) was studied using recordings from clinic

Jacob Simmonds; Nicholas Grundy; Richard Trompeter; Kjell Tullus

2010-01-01

444

Induction synchrotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel proton synchrotron employing induction cells instead of radio frequency cavities is proposed. The major feature of the barrier bucket acceleration, where acceleration and longitudinal focusing are independently achieved is theoretically discussed with the help of multi-particle simulations. It is proved that barrier bucket acceleration allows ultimate use of longitudinal phase-space and is quite effective to substantially increase the beam intensity in synchrotrons. Engineering aspects of key devices to realize the novel synchrotron, a ferri/ferro-magnetic material loaded induction cell and a modulator being rapidly switched in synchronization with beam acceleration are described in detail. The idea is applied to an existing machine (the KEK 12 GeV-PS) and high-intensity proton rings such as JHF, ESS, and SNS and their predicted improvement in machine performance is given with numerical values for each case.

Takayama, Ken; Kishiro, Junichi

2000-08-01

445

Environmental Assessment for the proposed Induction Linac System Experiments in Building 51B at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), (DOE/EA-1087) evaluating the proposed action to modify existing Building 51B at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to install and conduct experiments on a new Induction Linear Accelerator System. LBNL is located in Berkeley, California and operated by the University of California (UC). The project consists of placing a pre-fabricated building inside Building 51B to house a new 10 MeV heavy ion linear accelerator. A control room and other support areas would be provided within and directly adjacent to Building 51B. The accelerator system would be used to conduct tests, at reduced scale and cost, many features of a heavy-ion accelerator driver for the Department of Energy`s inertial fusion energy program. Based upon information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

NONE

1995-08-01

446

Improved direct torque control of an induction generator used in a wind conversion system connected to the grid.  

PubMed

This paper presents a modulated hysteresis direct torque control (MHDTC) applied to an induction generator (IG) used in wind energy conversion systems (WECs) connected to the electrical grid through a back-to-back converter. The principle of this strategy consists in superposing to the torque reference a triangular signal, as in the PWM strategy, with the desired switching frequency. This new modulated reference is compared to the estimated torque by using a hysteresis controller as in the classical direct torque control (DTC). The aim of this new approach is to lead to a constant frequency and low THD in grid current with a unit power factor and a minimum voltage variation despite the wind variation. To highlight the effectiveness of the proposed method, a comparison was made with classical DTC and field oriented control method (FOC). The obtained simulation results, with a variable wind profile, show an adequate dynamic of the conversion system using the proposed method compared to the classical approaches. PMID:23615169

Abdelli, Radia; Rekioua, Djamila; Rekioua, Toufik; Tounzi, Abdelmounaïm

2013-07-01

447

Sorption of steroidal hormones by electrodialysis membranes   

E-print Network

The mechanisms of sorption of four steroidal hormones – estradiol, estrone, progesterone and testosterone – to electrodialysis (ED) membranes were investigated as a function of solution pH and presence of humic acid (HA). Hormone-membrane partition...

Banasiak, Laura Joan; Schäfer, Andrea

2010-01-01

448

Topical steroid addiction in atopic dermatitis  

PubMed Central

The American Academy of Dermatology published a new guideline regarding topical therapy in atopic dermatitis in May 2014. Although topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome had been mentioned as possible side effects of topical steroids in a 2006 review article in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, no statement was made regarding this illness in the new guidelines. This suggests that there are still controversies regarding this illness. Here, we describe the clinical features of topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome, based on the treatment of many cases of the illness. Because there have been few articles in the medical literature regarding this illness, the description in this article will be of some benefit to better understand the illness and to spur discussion regarding topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome. PMID:25378953

Fukaya, Mototsugu; Sato, Kenji; Sato, Mitsuko; Kimata, Hajime; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Dozono, Haruhiko; Yoshizawa, Jun; Minaguchi, Satoko

2014-01-01

449

Steroids: Pharmacology, Complications, and Practice Delivery Issues  

PubMed Central

Background Since their identification nearly 80 years ago, steroids have played a prominent role in the treatment of many disease states. Many of the clinical roles of steroids are related to their potent antiinflammatory and immune-modulating properties. Methods This review summarizes the basic pharmacology, complications, and practice delivery issues regarding steroids. Results Clinically relevant side effects of steroids are common and problematic. Side effects can occur at a wide range of doses and vary depending on the route of administration. The full spectrum of side effects can be present even in patients taking low doses. Conclusions Practitioners must be aware that these drugs might exacerbate a preexisting condition or present a new medical condition. Knowledge of the clinical implications of prescribing these agents is critical. PMID:24940130

Ericson-Neilsen, William; Kaye, Alan David

2014-01-01

450

Steroid Injections for the Carpal Tunnel Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... to have surgery compared with those who received placebo. Who was studied? 111 patients aged 18 to ... knew whether methylprednisolone (a form of steroid) or placebo was being injected. The researchers followed patients for ...

451

Physiological concentrations of anabolic steroids in human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doping with endogenous anabolic steroids is one of the most serious issues in sports today. The measurement of anabolic steroid levels in human hair is necessary in order to distinguish between pharmaceutical steroids and natural steroids. This is the first investigation into the physiological concentrations of anabolic steroids in human hair in Chinese subjects. A gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS\\/MS)

Min Shen; Ping Xiang; Baohua Shen; Jun Bu; Mengye Wang

2009-01-01

452

Laboratory Investigation of Ice Formation and Elimination in the Induction System of a Large Twin-engine Cargo Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The icing characteristics, the de-icing rate with hot air, and the effect of impact ice on fuel metering and mixture distribution have been determined in a laboratory investigation of that part of the engine induction system consisting of a three-barrel injection-type carburetor and a supercharger housing with spinner-type fuel injection from an 18-cylinder radial engine used on a large twin-engine cargo airplane. The induction system remained ice-free at carburetor-air temperatures above 36 F regardless of the moisture content of the air. Between carburetor-air temperatures of 32 F and 36 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious throttling ice formed in the carburetor because of expansion cooling of the air; at carburetor-air temperatures below 32 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious impact-ice formations occurred, Spinner-type fuel injection at the entrance to the supercharger and heating of the supercharger-inlet elbow and the guide vanes by the warn oil in the rear engine housing are design features that proved effective in eliminating fuel-evaporation icing and minimized the formation of throttling ice below the carburetor. Air-flow recovery time with fixed throttle was rapidly reduced as the inlet -air wet -bulb temperature was increased to 55 F; further temperature increase produced negligible improvement in recovery time. Larger ice formations and lower icing temperatures increased the time required to restore proper air flow at a given wet-bulb temperature. Impact-ice formations on the entrance screen and the top of the carburetor reduced the over-all fuel-air ratio and increased the spread between the over-all ratio and the fuel-air ratio of the individual cylinders. The normal spread of fuel-air ratio was increased from 0.020 to 0.028 when the left quarter of the entrance screen was blocked in a manner simulating the blocking resulting from ice formations released from upstream duct walls during hot-air de-icing.

Colis, William D

1947-01-01

453

Development of Volume-Reduction System for Ion Exchange Resin Using Inductively Coupled Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spent ion exchange resin generated as radioactive waste in water purifying system at nuclear power stations or related facilities of nuclear power has been stored in the site, and its volume has been increasing year by year. We had developed a full-scale system of IC plasma volume-reduction system for the spent resin, and have performed basic performance test using some samples imitating the spent resin. As the results, the imitation of the resin can be reduced in volume by more than 90% so that the processing performance in actual scale was proved to be effective. In addition, it was clarified that the residuum after volume-reduction process is easy to mix with cement, and solidity containing 30wt% residuum provides high strength of 68MPa. Therefore, we evaluate the application of this process to stabilization of the disposal to be very effective.

Fujisawa, Morio; Katagiri, Genichi

454

Development of a native Escherichia coli induction system for ionic liquid tolerance.  

PubMed

The ability to solubilize lignocellulose makes certain ionic liquids (ILs) very effective reagents for pretreating biomass prior to its saccharification for biofuel fermentation. However, residual IL in the aqueous sugar solution can inhibit the growth and function of biofuel-producing microorganisms. In E. coli this toxicity can be partially overcome by the heterologous expression of an IL efflux pump encoded by eilA from Enterobacter lignolyticus. In the present work, we used microarray analysis to identify native E. coli IL-inducible promoters and develop control systems for regulating eilA gene expression. Three candidate promoters, PmarR', PydfO', and PydfA', were selected and compared to the IPTG-inducible PlacUV5 system for controlling expression of eilA. The PydfA' and PmarR' based systems are as effective as PlacUV5 in their ability to rescue E. coli from typically toxic levels of IL, thereby eliminating the need to use an IPTG-based system for such tolerance engineering. We present a mechanistic model indicating that inducible control systems reduce target gene expression when IL levels are low. Selected-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry analysis revealed that at high IL concentrations EilA protein levels were significantly elevated under the control of PydfA' and PmarR' in comparison to the other promoters. Further, in a pooled culture competition designed to determine fitness, the strain containing pPmarR'-eilA outcompeted strains with other promoter constructs, most significantly at IL concentrations above 150 mM. These results indicate that native promoters such as PmarR' can provide effective systems for regulating the expression of heterologous genes in host engineering and simplify the development of industrially useful strains. PMID:24983352

Frederix, Marijke; Hütter, Kimmo; Leu, Jessica; Batth, Tanveer S; Turner, William J; Rüegg, Thomas L; Blanch, Harvey W; Simmons, Blake A; Adams, Paul D; Keasling, Jay D; Thelen, Michael P; Dunlop, Mary J; Petzold, Christopher J; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

2014-01-01

455

Development of a Native Escherichia coli Induction System for Ionic Liquid Tolerance  

PubMed Central

The ability to solubilize lignocellulose makes certain ionic liquids (ILs) very effective reagents for pretreating biomass prior to its saccharification for biofuel fermentation. However, residual IL in the aqueous sugar solution can inhibit the growth and function of biofuel-producing microorganisms. In E. coli this toxicity can be partially overcome by the heterologous expression of an IL efflux pump encoded by eilA from Enterobacter lignolyticus. In the present work, we used microarray analysis to identify native E. coli IL-inducible promoters and develop control systems for regulating eilA gene expression. Three candidate promoters, PmarR’, PydfO’, and PydfA’, were selected and compared to the IPTG-inducible PlacUV5 system for controlling expression of eilA. The PydfA’ and PmarR’ based systems are as effective as PlacUV5 in their ability to rescue E. coli from typically toxic levels of IL, thereby eliminating the need to use an IPTG-based system for such tolerance engineering. We present a mechanistic model indicating that inducible control systems reduce target gene expression when IL levels are low. Selected-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry analysis revealed that at high IL concentrations EilA protein levels were significantly elevated under the control of PydfA’ and PmarR’ in comparison to the other promoters. Further, in a pooled culture competition designed to determine fitness, the strain containing pPmarR’-eilA outcompeted strains with other promoter constructs, most significantly at IL concentrations above 150 mM. These results indicate that native promoters such as PmarR’ can provide effective systems for regulating the expression of heterologous genes in host engineering and simplify the development of industrially useful strains. PMID:24983352

Frederix, Marijke; Hütter, Kimmo; Leu, Jessica; Batth, Tanveer S.; Turner, William J.; Rüegg, Thomas L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Adams, Paul D.; Keasling, Jay D.; Thelen, Michael P.; Dunlop, Mary J.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

2014-01-01

456

Control system design and small-signal analysis of a phase-shift-controlled series-resonant inverter for induction heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phase-shift-controlled series-resonant inverter operating at zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) is used as the power supply for an induction heating system. This system has two control loops: the phase-shift control loop regulates the output power; and the frequency control loop ensures ZVS for all load conditions. The design and implementation of these control loops are explained. The complete closed-loop small-signal model is

L. Grajales; F. C. Lee

1995-01-01

457

Control strategies for enhanced power smoothing in wind energy systems using a flywheel driven by a vector-controlled induction machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel control strategy for power smoothing in wind energy applications, especially those feeding a stand-alone load. The system is based on a vector-controlled induction machine driving a flywheel and addresses the problem of regulating the DC-link system voltage against both input power surges\\/sags from a wind turbine or sudden changes in load demand. The control is

Roberto Cárdenas; Rubén Peña; Greg Asher; Jon Clare

2001-01-01

458

A Scroll Compressor With a High-Performance Sensorless Induction Motor Drive for the Air Management of a PEMFC System for Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop experimental rig for testing a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) driving an electrical vehicle. The PEMFC includes an air-management system with a scroll compressor driven by a high-performance sensorless induction motor drive. The sensorless technique is based on a neural-network-based speed observer, i.e., the total least-squares EXIN full-order observer. The whole system is driven

Benjamin Blunier; Marcello Pucci; Giansalvo Cirrincione; Maurizio Cirrincione; Abdellatif Miraoui

2008-01-01

459

Development of vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for wide measurement range of number density using a dual-tube inductively coupled plasma light source  

SciTech Connect

A vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for a wide measurement range of atomic number densities is developed. Dual-tube inductively coupled plasma was used as a light source. The probe beam profile was optimized for the target number density range by changing the mass flow rate of the inner and outer tubes. This system was verified using cold xenon gas. As a result, the measurement number density range was extended from the conventional two orders to five orders of magnitude.

Kuwahara, Akira; Matsui, Makoto; Yamagiwa, Yoshiki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-4 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561, Shizuoka (Japan)

2012-12-15

460

The current status of epidural steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caudal, lumbar, and cervical epidural steroid injections (ESI) have been used for a number of years. A suspension of methylprednisolone\\u000a acetate or triamcinolone diacetate is injected with a diluent of normal saline or local anesthetic. Steroids are used to decrease\\u000a nerve root inflammation and suppress neuronal discharge. Response to lumbar ESI has been correlated with herniated disk, nerve\\u000a root irrigation,

Robert E. Molloy; Honorio T. Benzon

1997-01-01

461

Sox and Drugs: Baseball, Steroids and Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sports world is in an uproar over performance-enhancing drugs. In the United States steroids in baseball have received the most attention, in part because the purported effects are much more dramatic than in any other sport. From 1995-2003 a few players hit home runs at rates 20-50% higher than the best sluggers of the preceding century. Could steroids really

Roger Tobin

2008-01-01

462

Transformation of steroids by actinobacteria: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of pharmaceutical industry is currently aimed at introducing biotechnological processes on a large-scale and thereby\\u000a replacing multiple-stage chemical syntheses. Actinobacteria are efficient biocatalysts of many processes involving steroid\\u000a bioconversion, which hold considerable importance for the synthesis of hormonal drugs. The potential to catalyze the conversion\\u000a of a broad spectrum of steroid substrates makes it possible to expect efficient utilization

M. V. Donova

2007-01-01

463

Polyhydroxylated steroidal glycosides from Paris polyphylla.  

PubMed

Three new steroidal saponins, parisyunnanosides G-I (1-3), one new C(21) steroidal glycoside, parisyunnanoside J (4), and three known compounds, padelaoside B (5), pinnatasterone (6), and 20-hydroxyecdyson (7), were isolated from the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis. Compounds 1 and 3 have unique trisdesmoside structures that include a C-21 ?-d-galactopyranose moiety. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human CCRF leukemia cells. PMID:22663190

Kang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yi-Xun; Eichhorn, Tolga; Dapat, Else; Yu, He-shui; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Liu, Chao; Efferth, Thomas; Ma, Bai-Ping

2012-06-22

464

Inhibition of wound healing by topical steroids.  

PubMed

A new animal model was used to study the effect of topical agents on wound healing. A weak- (hydrocortisone cream 1%) and medium-strength (fluocinolone acetonide ointment 0.025%) steroid and their vehicles were applied to full-thickness skin wounds placed on the backs of female Syrian hamsters. Wound healing was significantly retarded by both steroids when compared to their vehicles. Fluocinolone had a greater inhibitory effect than hydrocortisone. PMID:6619384

Marks, J G; Cano, C; Leitzel, K; Lipton, A

1983-10-01

465

Review of Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

An area that has been overlooked within personnel security evaluations is employee use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Current drug testing within the federal government does not include testing for anabolic steroids, and the difficulties to implement such testing protocols-not to mention the cost involved-make AAS testing highly improbable. The basis of this report is to bring to the forefront the

T. Borges; G. Eisele; C. Byrd

2001-01-01

466

An Improved SF6 System for the FXR Induction Linac Blumlein Switches  

SciTech Connect

The now-mature FXR (Flash X-Ray) radiographic facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will be briefly described with emphasis on its pulsed power system. The heart of each accelerating cell's pulse forming Blumlein is it's sulfur hexafluoride-based triggered closing switch. FXR's recent upgrade to a recirculating SF{sub 6} gas reclamation system will be described and the resulting accelerator performance and reliability improvements documented. This was accompanied by a detailed switch breakdown study on FXR's Test Stand and the recent analysis of the resulting statistics will be shown.

DeHope, W; Kihara, R; Griffin, K L; Ong, M; Ross, T

2007-06-16

467

Systemic, genotype-specific induction of two herbivore-deterrent iridoid glycosides in Plantago lanceolata L. in response to fungal infection by Diaporthe adunca (Rob.) Niessel.  

PubMed

Iridoid glycosides are a group of terpenoid secondary plant compounds known to deter generalist insect herbivores. In ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), the iridoid glycosides aucubin and catalpol can be induced following damage by insect herbivores. In this study, we investigated whether the same compounds can be induced following infection by the fungal pathogen Diaporthe adunca, the causal agent of a stalk disease in P. lanceolata. Significant induction of aucubin and catalpol was observed in two of the three plant genotypes used in this study following inoculation with the pathogen. In one of the genotypes, induction occurred within 6 hr after inoculation, and no decay was observed within 8 days. The highest level of induction was observed in reproductive tissues (spikes and stalks) where infection took place. In these tissues, iridoid glycoside levels in infected plants were, on average, 97% and 37% higher than the constitutive levels in the corresponding control plants, respectively. Significant induction was also observed in leaves (24%) and roots (17%). In addition to significant genotypic variation in the level of induction, we found genetic variation for the tissue-specific pattern of induction, further broadening the scope for evolutionary fine-tuning of induced responses. Recent studies have revealed a negative association between iridoid glycoside levels in P. lanceolata genotypes and the amount of growth and reproduction of D. adunca that these genotypes support. However, for the three genotypes used in the present study, differences in resistance were not related to their constitutive or induced levels of iridoid glycosides, suggesting that additional resistance mechanisms are important in this host-pathogen system. We conclude that iridoid glycosides in P. lanceolata can be induced both by arthropods and pathogenic micro-organisms. Pathogen infection could, therefore, potentially enhance resistance to generalist insect herbivores in this species. PMID:12564791

Marak, Hamida B; Biere, Arjen; Van Damme, Jos M M

2002-12-01

468

Neural induction: toward a unifying mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural induction constitutes the initial step in the generation of the vertebrate nervous system. In attempting to understand the principles that underlie this process, two key issues need to be resolved. When is neural induction initiated, and what is the cellular source and molecular nature of the neural inducing signal(s)? Currently, these aspects of neural induction seem to be very

Sara I. Wilson; Thomas Edlund

2001-01-01

469

A methodology for two-dimensional finite element analysis of electromagnetically driven flow in induction stirring systems  

SciTech Connect

Induction technologies are extensively used for stirring of molten metal by means of electromagnetic forces generated from the interaction between induced currents in the melt and the associated magnetic field. The range of applications extends from scrap melting in induction furnaces to melt stirring in continuous casting. This paper describes an integral closure approach for 2-D analysis of electromagnetically driven flow in inductively coupled molten metal using the finite-element method. This methodology, which restricts the solution domain to the conduction region(s), was demonstrated for flows generated by complex electromagnetic fields, and computed results were found to be in good agreement with measurements.

Natarajan, T.T. (USS Steel Technical Center, Monroeville, PA (United States)); El-Kaddah, N. (Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States))

1999-05-01

470

Smart pitch control strategy for wind generation system using doubly fed induction generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A smart pitch control strategy for a variable speed doubly fed wind generation system is presented in this thesis. A complete dynamic model of DFIG system is developed. The model consists of the generator, wind turbine, aerodynamic and the converter system. The strategy proposed includes the use of adaptive neural network to generate optimized controller gains for pitch control. This involves the generation of controller parameters of pitch controller making use of differential evolution intelligent technique. Training of the back propagation neural network has been carried out for the development of an adaptive neural network. This tunes the weights of the network according to the system states in a variable wind speed environment. Four cases have been taken to test the pitch controller which includes step and sinusoidal changes in wind speeds. The step change is composed of both step up and step down changes in wind speeds. The last case makes use of scaled wind data collected from the wind turbine installed at King Fahd University beach front. Simulation studies show that the differential evolution based adaptive neural network is capable of generating the appropriate control to deliver the maximum possible aerodynamic power available from wind to the generator in an efficient manner by minimizing the transients.

Raza, Syed Ahmed

471

Deductive Error Diagnosis and Inductive Error Generalization for Intelligent Tutoring Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the deductive approach to error diagnosis for intelligent tutoring systems. Topics covered include the principles of the deductive approach to diagnosis; domain-specific heuristics to solve the problem of generalizing error patterns; and deductive diagnosis and the hypertext-based learning environment. (Contains 26 references.) (JLB)

Hoppe, H. Ulrich

1994-01-01

472

Induction of systemic resistance in rice against sheath blight disease by Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Pseudomonas fluorescens strains viz., PF1 and FP7 which inhibited the mycelial growth of sheath blight fungus Rhizoctonia solani and increased the seedling vigour of rice plants in vitro were selected for assessing induced systemic resistance (ISR) against R. solani in rice. The Pseudomonas application as a bacterial suspension or a talc-based formulation through seed, root, soil and foliar application

R Nandakumar; S Babu; R Viswanathan; T Raguchander; R Samiyappan

2001-01-01

473

Induction of Systemic Resistance Against Bacterial Wilt in Eucalyptus urophylla by Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of selected strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. to cause induced systemic resistance (ISR) in Eucalyptus urophylla against bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum was investigated. Four of the five strains used can produce salicylic acid (SA) in vitro and, therefore, chemical SA, that is known to induce resistance in many plant species, was used as a reference treatment.

L. X. Ran; Z. N. Li; G. J. Wu; L. C. van Loon; P. A. H. M. Bakker

2005-01-01

474

Adaptive Observer for MIMO nonlinear systems: Real time Implementation for an induction Motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a global exponential adaptive observer for a class of uniformly observable nonlinear systems. This observer, based on techniques of high gain, is applied to jointly estimate missing states (rotor flux components) and unknown constant parameters incorporating in their expres- sions different electric parameters of an asynchronous motor. Finally, the feasi- bility of the proposed methodology

Sinda Aloui; Tarak Maatoug; Yassine Koubaa

475

New steroid derivative with hypoglycemic activity  

PubMed Central

Data indicates that some steroid derivatives may induce changes on glucose levels; nevertheless, data are very confusing. Therefore, more pharmacological data are needed to characterize the activity induced by the steroid derivatives on glucose levels. The aim of this study was to synthesize a new steroid derivative for evaluate its hypoglycemic activity. The effects of steroid derivative on glucose concentration were evaluated in a diabetic animal model using glibenclamide and metformin as controls. In addition, the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate was bound to Tc-99m using radioimmunoassay methods, to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the steroid derivative over time. The results showed that the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate induces changes on the glucose levels in similar form than glibenclamide. Other data showed that the biodistribution of Tc-99m-steroid derivativein brain was higher in comparison with spleen, stomach, intestine liver and kidney. In conclusion, the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate exerts hypoglycemic activity and this phenomenon could depend of its physicochemical properties which could be related to the degree of lipophilicity of the steroidderivative. PMID:25550906

Lauro, Figueroa-Valverde; Francisco, Díaz-Cedillo; Lenin, Hau-Heredia; Elodia, García-Cervera; Eduardo, Pool-Gómez; Marcela, Rosas-Nexticapa; Bety, Sarabia-Alcocer

2014-01-01

476

Antenatal steroids: can we optimize the dose?  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The beneficial effects of antenatal steroids in women at risk of preterm birth are evident. A dose of 24?mg appears sufficient, but there are insufficient data to recommend betamethasone or dexamethasone, a single steroid dose, the optimal interval between doses and repeated courses, the gestational age at which treatment is beneficial and the long-term effects of steroid treatment. This review addresses these aspects of antenatal steroid treatment. Recent findings Although the 12-h and 24-h dosing intervals are equivalent with respect to prevention of respiratory distress syndrome, the former enables the completion of treatment in 50% more neonates delivered prematurely. Reducing the single steroid dose in patients at risk for premature birth reduces the associated maternal side effects. An inverse relationship has been demonstrated between the number of corticosteroid courses and foetal growth. The reduced size of exposed foetuses has been attributed to birth at earlier gestational ages and decreased foetal growth. Evidence suggests that antenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids in term-born children has long-lasting effects, which may have important implications in the recommendation of steroids before elective caesarean at term. Summary The short-term and long-term effects of the dosage regimen on the pregnant mother and foetus remain unclear. PMID:24463225

Romejko-Wolniewicz, Ewa; Teliga-Czajkowska, Justyna; Czajkowski, Krzysztof

2014-01-01

477

Steroidal saponins from Dioscorea preussii.  

PubMed

Three new steroidal saponins, named diospreussinosides A-C (1-3), along with two known ones (4, 5) were isolated from rhizomes of Dioscorea preussii. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry as (25S)-17?,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), (25S)-17?,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), and (24S,25R)-17?,24,25-trihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (3). The spirostane-type skeleton of compound 3 possessing an unusual dihydroxylation pattern on the F-ring is reported for the first time. Cytotoxicity of compounds 2-5 was evaluated against two human colon carcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and HCT 116). PMID:24928475

Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Tanaka, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

2014-09-01

478

Anabolic androgenic steroids and suicide.  

PubMed

Eight medicolegally examined cases of suicide, in 21- to 33-year-old males, with a history of current or discontinued use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are described, five of which were approached by means of systematic interviews with survivors. Five suicides were committed during current use of AAS, and two following 2 and 6 months of AAS withdrawal. In one case it was unclear whether the suicide was committed during current use or after recent discontinuation. In five cases family members had noted depressive symptoms associated with AAS withdrawal. After prolonged use, four persons had developed depressive syndromes. Two subjects exhibited hypomania-like symptoms during the time immediately preceding the suicide. Four subjects had recently committed acts of violence while using AAS. In some cases these acts exacerbated the subjects' problems in personal relationships or at work, which in turn seem to have precipitated the suicides. Only one of them had experienced suicidal ideation before starting to use AAS. In all cases examined by psychological autopsy, risk factors of suicidality likely to be independent of the use of AAS were present. In conclusion, this study presents data suggesting that psychiatric symptoms and conflicts resulting from long-term use of AAS may contribute to completed suicide in certain predisposed individuals. PMID:10596737

Thiblin, I; Runeson, B; Rajs, J

1999-12-01

479

p53 Induction is Associated with Neuronal Damage in the Central Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The p53 tumor-suppressor gene encodes a growth-regulatory protein that has been implicated in programmed cell death. To investigate the possible role of p53 in neuronal death, we studied p53 expression associated with excitotoxicity in the adult rat brain. Within hours of systemic administration of the glutamate analogue kainic acid, p53 mRNA levels were increased in neurons exhibiting morphological features of

Shahin Sakhi; Annadora Bruce; Ning Sun; Georges Tocco; Michel Baudry; Steven S. Schreiber

1994-01-01

480

TLR-dependent and TLR-independent pathways of type I interferon induction in systemic autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formulate a two-phase paradigm of autoimmunity associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, the archetypal autoimmun