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1

Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

... a good idea to avoid them. What Are Steroids? "Steroids" has more than one meaning. Your body ... are still on the market. Continue Dangers of Steroids Anabolic steroids cause many different types of problems. ...

2

Synergistic Induction of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone -Subunit Gene Expression by Gonadal Steroid Hormone  

E-print Network

Synergistic Induction of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone -Subunit Gene Expression by Gonadal Steroid Hormone Receptors and Smad Proteins Varykina G. Thackray and Pamela L. Mellon Departments of Reproductive by mediating steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. Gonadal ste- roid hormones influence gonadotropin production

Mellon, Pamela L.

3

Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

... National Prescription Take Back Day Sept. 27, 2014 Steroids Last Updated: Monday, August 4, 2014 Print Share ... heart disease, liver damage Addiction Read More about Steroids Be Informed. Search for information about a drug ...

4

Micronucleus induction in V79 cells by the anabolic doping steroids desoxymethyltestosterone (madol) and 19-norandrostenedione.  

PubMed

The abuse of anabolic steroids for doping raises concerns. Many of these compounds have never been examined for their toxicological properties. Aside from hormonal (androgenic) activity, anabolic steroids may also exert genotoxic effects. In the present study, we determined the potencies of the "designer steroid" madol (MAD) and the anabolic prohormone 19-norandrostenedione (NA) to induce micronuclei in V79 cells in vitro. CREST analysis was used to differentiate between aneugenic and clastogenic mechanisms of micronucleus induction. Cytotoxicity of the steroids and their influence on the cell cycle were assessed in parallel. In addition, the ability of MAD and NA to increase production of reactive oxygen species and to induce apoptosis were studied. Both agents caused a concentration-dependent increase in the rates of micronuclei in V79 cells, exceeding a doubling of the background micronucleus rates of untreated controls, which was evident at 27microM and 29microM for MAD and NA, respectively. The steroid-induced micronuclei were predominantly kinetochor (CREST)-negative, pointing to a clastogenic mode of action. As cytotoxicity of both compounds is weak (IC(20) value of 300microM for NA and IC(10) of 100microM for MAD), cytotoxicity was unlikely to contribute to their genotoxicity. The observed genotoxicity of both compounds was due neither to apoptosis induction nor to production of reactive oxygen species. However, the ability of both steroids to induce micronuclei appears related to their lipophilicity. Therefore, a "non-specific" chromosomal genotoxicity of MAD and NA, based on hydrophobic interactions, appears likely. This could well result in biologically relevant increases in chromosomal damage as soon as critical concentrations of the agents are reached in vivo. Regarding the current misuse of the steroids for doping, the uncontrolled administration of very high doses must be considered. Therefore it cannot be ruled out that MAD and NA present genotoxic hazards under current misuse conditions by athletes in sports or in body building. PMID:18951961

Dorn, Susanne B; Bolt, Hermann M; Thevis, Mario; Diel, Patrick; Degen, Gisela H

2008-12-15

5

Steroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If a radioimmunoassay, a protein binding method, or a colorimetric assay for the assessment of a steroid level is replaced by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the cost for the determination of a steroid level increases at least initially because one must acquire the new HPLC equipment. Therefore, if an older method provides the same results as the new, "advanced" HPLC method, the only advantage resulting from the introduction of a high performance chromatographic assay is that gained by the manufacturer in terms of greater sales. Thus, justification for the assessment of steroids by HPLC is only obtained if the quality and/or quantity of information gained is significantly increased as compared to that provided by the conventional methods. But this evidential relation, that more and better information justifies a higher price in any case, is no longer true in health care, with the birth some years ago of the categoric imperative for the reduction of costs in the medical sector. That is, each new technology introduced for health maintenance should demonstrate at least a stabilizing impact on total medical expenditures. Therefore, after reviewing the presently available HPLC methods for the clinically important steroids, we will consider whether HPLC analyses for these steroids can be recommended without violating this vox populi.

Frey, Felix J.; Frey, Brigitte M.; Benet, Leslie Z.

6

Steroids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many companies producing products that claim to give you the benefits and results of exercise without all the work. These products are hoaxes, or fakes. Steroid abuse can permanently and fatally damage your body and they should never be used unless prescribed by a doctor.

N/A N/A (Drug Enforcement Administration;)

2007-09-25

7

Induction of steroidal hydroxylase activity by plant defence compounds in the filamentous fungus Cochliobolus lunatus  

PubMed

We investigated the hypothesis that the endogenous role of the commercially important inducible steroid hydroxylase cytochrome P450s of fungi was in defense against plant toxophores/secondary metabolites. Two plant defense compounds, the aglycones tomatidine and solanidine, the steroidal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine and the triterpene saponin beta-escin were tested as inducers of 11beta/14alpha-steroid hydroxylase in the filamentous fungus Cochliobolus lunatus. The extracts of saponins from the roots of Primula veris and green oat leaves were also tested as inducers of 11beta/14alpha-hydroxylation activity in progesterone biotransformation with the same fungus. Induction of steroid hydroxylase and inhibition of activity in some cases support our hypothesis that their endogenous function is in biochemical defence against secondary metabolites. 4-Pregnene-3,11,20-trione was added as a substrate for biotransformation with C. lunatus. We isolated from culture broth 14alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnene-3,11,20-trione, and the hitherto unreported compounds, 7alpha,14alpha-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,11,20-trione and 7alpha-hydroxy-pregna-4,8(14)-diene-3,11,20-trione. PMID:10903116

Vitas; Smith; Plavec; Kesselmeier; Pajic; Ferlan; Zigon; Kelly; Komel

1999-02-01

8

Impact of steroid maintenance on the outcomes in first-time deceased donor kidney transplant recipients: Analysis by induction type  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze the impact of steroid maintenance on the outcomes in kidney transplant recipients stratified by induction agent received. METHODS: Patients who underwent first-time deceased donor kidney transplantation between 2000 and 2008 after receiving induction therapy with rabbit-antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG), alemtuzumab or an interleukin-2 receptor blocker (IL-2B) and discharged on a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)-regimen along with or without steroids were identified from the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network/United Network of Organ Sharing database. For each induction type, adjusted overall and death-censored graft as well as patient survivals were compared between patients discharged on steroid vs no steroid. Among r-ATG induced patients, analysis was repeated after splitting the group into low and high immune risk groups. RESULTS: Among the 37217 patients included in the analysis, 17863 received r-ATG (steroid = 13001, no-steroid = 4862), 3028 alemtuzumab (steroid = 852, no-steroid = 2176) and 16326 IL-2B (steroid = 15008, no-steroid = 1318). Adjusted overall graft survival was inferior (HR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.06-1.27, P = 0.002) with similar death-censored graft survival (HR = 0.99, 95%CI: 0.86-1.14, P = 0.86) for steroid vs no-steroid groups in r-ATG induced patients. Both adjusted overall and death-censored graft survivals for steroid vs no-steroid groups were similar in alemtuzumab (HR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.73-1.15, P = 0.47 and HR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.62-1.22, P = 0.43 respectively) and IL-2B (HR = 1.05, 95%CI: 0.91-1.21, P = 0.48 and HR = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.75-1.18, P = 0.60 respectively) induced groups. Adjusted patient survivals were inferior for steroid vs no-steroid groups in r-ATG induced (HR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.15-1.49, P < 0.001) but similar in alemtuzumab (HR = 1.02, 95%CI: 0.75-1.38, P = 0.92) and IL-2B (HR = 1.17, 95%CI: 0.97-1.40, P = 0.10) induced patients. Among the r-ATG induced group there were 4346 patients in the low immune risk and 13517 patients in the high immune risk group. Adjusted overall graft survivals were inferior for steroid vs no steroid groups in both low immune (HR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.09-1.64, P = 0.001) and high immune (HR = 1.18, 95%CI: 1.07-1.30, P = 0.005) risk groups. Adjusted death-censored graft survivals for steroid vs no steroid groups were similar in both low (HR = 1.06, 95%CI: 0.78-1.45, P = 0.70) and high (HR = 1.04, 95%CI: 0.98-1.20, P = 0.60) immune risk groups. Adjusted patient survivals were inferior for steroid vs no steroid groups in both low immune (HR = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.18-2.02, P < 0.001) and high immune (HR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.16-1.51, P = 0.002) risk groups. Overall, there were significantly higher deaths from infections and cardiovascular causes in patients maintained on steroids. CONCLUSION: Our study showed an association between steroid addition to a CNI/MMF-maintenance regimen and increased death with functioning graft in patients receiving r-ATG induction for first-time deceased donor kidney transplantation.

Sureshkumar, Kalathil K; Hussain, Sabiha M; Thai, Ngoc L; Ko, Tina Y; Nashar, Khaled; Marcus, Richard J

2014-01-01

9

Inductive System Health Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS uses nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. IMS is able to monitor the system by comparing real time operational data with these classes. We present a description of learning and monitoring method used by IMS and summarize some recent IMS results.

Iverson, David L.

2004-01-01

10

Methotrexate for steroid-resistant systemic lupus erythematosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We here report two patients with steroid-resistant systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who were successfully treated with methotrexate (MTX). In both cases, a steroid resistant high fever, associated with mild myositis and pancytopenia were the main common findings, and all these symptoms were alleviated within a few days either by 7.5 mg or 5 mg MTX per week. The number of

M. Hashimoto; S. Nonaka; E. Furuta; T. Wada; Y. Suenaga; M. Yasuda; M. Shingu; M. Nobunaga

1994-01-01

11

Single-center experience in pediatric renal transplantation using thymoglobulin induction and steroid minimization.  

PubMed

Our center has offered thymoglobulin induction with steroid minimization to our pediatric renal transplant patients for the last 10 yr. Steroid minimization or avoidance has shown favorable results in survival, kidney function, and growth in previous studies of pediatric patients. We report our experience with this protocol over the past 10 yr with respect to patient/graft survival, acute rejection episodes, renal function, linear growth, bone density, cardiovascular risk factors, and opportunistic infections. A retrospective chart review was performed for pediatric renal transplant patients on the steroid-minimized protocol between January 2002 and December 2011 on an intention to treat basis. Patient demographics, height, weight, serum creatinine, iGFR, biopsies, and survival data were collected. Height and weight z-scores were calculated with EpiInfo 7, using the CDC 2000 growth charts. Survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. eGFR was calculated using the original and modified Schwartz equations. Forty-four pediatric patients were identified, aged 13 months to 19 yr. Five-yr survival was 95.5% for males and 94.4% for females. Only five patients had biopsy-proven ACR, two of which were at more than 12 months post-transplantation. Height delta z-scores from transplant to one, three, and five yr were 0.34, 0.38, and 0.79, respectively. Weight delta z-scores from transplant to one, three, and five yr were 0.87, 0.79, and 0.84, respectively. Mean original Schwartz eGFR was 84.3 ± 15.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , modified Schwartz eGFR was 59.3 ± 11.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , and iGFR was 64.2 ± 8.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at three yr. Of 18 subjects who had a bone density exam, none had a z-score less than -2 on DEXA exam at one-yr post-transplantation. Fifty-one percent of patients were on antihypertensives at the time of transplant compared with 43% at one-yr post-transplantation. Three yr post-transplantation, the average LDL was <100 mg/dL, and average total cholesterol was <200 mg/dL. There were no clinical episodes of EBV or CMV infection. A steroid-minimized protocol with thymoglobulin induction is safe and provides favorable improvement in linear growth, stable graft function, stable or improved cardiovascular risk factors, and normal bone density in pediatric renal transplant patients. PMID:25311592

Warejko, Jillian K; Hmiel, S Paul

2014-12-01

12

The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers  

PubMed Central

The “endocannabinoid system (ECS)” comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed. PMID:24369462

Taylor, Anthony H.; Marczylo, Timothy H.; Willets, Jonathon M.; Konje, Justin C.

2013-01-01

13

Effects of sex steroid hormones on the neuroendocrine system.  

PubMed

Estrogen and progesterone are the most important ovarian steroid hormones regulating female fertility. They have a profound effect on the central nervous system. Target functions of sex steroids in the brain are: pituitary and hypothalamic hormone release, thermoregulatory and cardiocirculatory activities and behavior and mood changes. Furthermore, several studies have shown a correlation between brain neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and sex steroid hormones: they influence synthesis and release of norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, gonadotropin releasing hormone, beta-endorphin, corticotropin releasing factor and prolactin. Thus, oral hormone contraceptives inhibit the ovulatory process by blocking the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. This inhibitory effect seems to be due to the action of both estrogens and progestins. PMID:9678110

Genazzani, A R; Lucchesi, A; Stomati, M; Catarsi, S; Genazzani, A D; Criscuolo, M; Petraglia, F

1997-03-01

14

Modulation of steroid action in the central and peripheral nervous systems by nuclear receptor  

E-print Network

Modulation of steroid action in the central and peripheral nervous systems by nuclear receptor. Introduction Steroid hormones act throughout the body, including the central and peripheral nervous systems and corepressors, are critical in modulating the transcriptional activity of these steroid receptors, as well

15

14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system ducts. 23.1103 Section 23.1103 Aeronautics...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1103 Induction system ducts. (a) Each induction system...

2014-01-01

16

Mutations of glucocorticoid receptor differentially affect AF2 domain activity in a steroid-selective manner to alter the potency and efficacy of gene induction and repression†  

PubMed Central

The transcriptional activity of steroid hormones is intimately associated with their structure. Deacylcortivazol (DAC) contains several features that were predicted to make it an inactive glucocorticoid. Nevertheless, gene induction and repression by complexes of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) with DAC occurs with greater potency (lower EC50) than, and equal efficacy (maximal activity, or Amax) to, the very active and smaller synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex). Guided by a recent x-ray structure of DAC bound to the GR ligand binding domain (LBD), we now report that several point mutants in the LBD have little effect on the binding of either agonist steroid. However, these same mutations dramatically alter the Amax and/or EC50 of exogenous and endogenous genes in a manner that depends on steroid structure. In some cases, Dex is no longer a full agonist. These properties appear to result from a preferential inactivation of the AF2 activation domain in the GR LBD of Dex-, but not DAC-, bound receptors. The Dex-bound receptors display normal binding to, but greatly reduced response to, the coactivator TIF2, thus indicating a defect in the transmission efficiency of GR-steroid complex information to the coactivator TIF2. In addition, all GR mutants that are active in gene induction with either Dex or DAC have greatly reduced activity in gene repression. This contrasts with the reports of GR mutations preferentially suppressing GR-mediated induction. The properties of these GR mutants in gene induction support the hypothesis that the Amax and EC50 of GR-controlled gene expression can be independently modified, indicate that the receptor can be modified to favor activity with a specific agonist steroid, and suggest that new ligands with suitable substituents may be able to affect the same LBD conformational changes and thereby broaden the therapeutic applications of glucocorticoid steroids PMID:18578507

Tao, Yong-guang; Xu, Yong; Xu, H. Eric; Simons, S. Stoney

2009-01-01

17

Modulation of steroid action in the central and peripheral nervous systems by nuclear receptor coactivators  

PubMed Central

Steroid hormones act in the central and peripheral nervous systems to regulate a variety of functions, including development, cell proliferation, cognition and behavior. Many of these effects of steroid hormones are mediated by their respective receptors, which are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcriptional activators. A variety of cell culture studies reveal that nuclear receptor coactivators are recruited to the steroid receptor complex and are critical in modulating steroid-dependent transcription. Thus, in addition to the availability of the hormone and its receptor, the expression of nuclear receptor coactivators is essential for modulating steroid receptor mediated transcription. This review will discuss the significance of nuclear receptor coactivators in modulating steroid-dependent gene expression in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the regulation of behavior. PMID:19541426

Tetel, Marc J.

2009-01-01

18

Induction of estradiol dehydrogenase activity in human uterine endometrium by synthetic steroids.  

PubMed

The effects of P and six synthetic steroids (MPA, ENT, CAP, R2323, DL and EEL) on estradiol dehydrogenase (E2DH) activity were studied in normal human uterine endometrium in vitro. The mean value of E2DH activity in the proliferative endometrium was 1.5 +/- 0.2 nmol/mg protein/h and that in the secretory endometrium was 10.2 +/- 1.1 nmol/mg protein/h. There was a 7-fold increase in the secretory phase. E2DH activity in the uterine endometrium was stable during the culture period of up to 72 h. In the proliferative endometrium, P, MPA and ENT (approximately 10(-6)M) induced E2DH activity during a 24-h incubation. CAP and R2323 had no significant effect. EEL and DL had negligible effects. In contrast, E2DH activity in the secretory endometrium was not induced further by the steroids. Therefore, in the proliferative endometrium, the elevation of E2DH activity is attributable to the progestational activity and, in the secretory endometrium, E2DH activity is not increased further by the progestational agents because it has been already activated fully by P. PMID:2460516

Kitawaki, J; Yamamoto, T; Okada, H

1988-05-01

19

Structure and function of steroid receptor AF1 transactivation domains: induction of active conformations  

PubMed Central

Steroid hormones are important endocrine signalling molecules controlling reproduction, development, metabolism, salt balance and specialized cellular responses, such as inflammation and immunity. They are lipophilic in character and act by binding to intracellular receptor proteins. These receptors function as ligand-activated transcription factors, switching on or off networks of genes in response to a specific hormone signal. The receptor proteins have a conserved domain organization, comprising a C-terminal LBD (ligand-binding domain), a hinge region, a central DBD (DNA-binding domain) and a highly variable NTD (N-terminal domain). The NTD is structurally flexible and contains surfaces for both activation and repression of gene transcription, and the strength of the transactivation response has been correlated with protein length. Recent evidence supports a structural and functional model for the NTD that involves induced folding, possibly involving ?-helix structure, in response to protein–protein interactions and structure-stabilizing solutes. PMID:16238547

2005-01-01

20

Predictors of clinical response to systemic steroids in active ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed

Although systemic steroids remain as the gold standard for the treatment of acute moderate to severe active ulcerative colitis (UC), 15-57% of patients do not achieve clinical remission. We sought to identify clinical, biological, or radiologic predictive factors of response to steroid treatment in acute UC attacks. The medical records of 39 consecutive patients admitted for an acute attack of UC and treated with systemic steroids, were reviewed. Epidemiologic, demographic, and clinical data at baseline and clinical data 3 days after starting steroid treatment were registered. Treatment failure was defined as the need of IV cyclosporine or colectomy before hospital discharge. Twenty-four patients (62%) responded to systemic steroids. Thirteen out of the 15 nonresponders, were treated with IV cyclosporine, avoiding colectomy in 7 cases (54%). More than six bowel movements per day at the third day of treatment, blood in stools in the third day of therapy, extensive UC, and the presence of malnutrition were associated with steroid treatment failure, but only blood in stools (P=.04), and more than six movements per day (P=.012) after 3 days of treatment, were found to be independent predictive factors of steroid refractoriness. In conclusion, clinical evaluation 3 days after starting systemic steroids seems to be the best tool to assess short-term prognosis. PMID:16868820

Bernal, Isabel; Mañosa, Míriam; Domènech, Eugeni; Garcia-Planella, Esther; Navarro, Mercè; Lorenzo-Zúñiga, Vicente; Cabré, Eduard; Gassull, Miquel Angel

2006-08-01

21

Inhaled Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids What are some common inhaled steroids? How are ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...

22

14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 27.1093 Section...STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a)...

2011-01-01

23

14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 27.1093 Section...STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a)...

2013-01-01

24

14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 27.1093 Section...STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a)...

2012-01-01

25

Panic Induction with Cholecystokinin-Tetrapeptide (CCK4) Increases Plasma Concentrations of the Neuroactive Steroid 3?, 5? Tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (3?, 5?-THDOC) in Healthy Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

3?-reduced neuroactive steroids such as 3?, 5?-tetrahydroprogesterone (3?, 5?-THP) and 3?, 5?-tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (3?, 5?-THDOC) are potent positive allosteric modulators of ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors and display pronounced anxiolytic activity in animal models. Experimental panic induction with cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4) and sodium lactate is accompanied by a decrease in 3?, 5?-THP concentrations in patients with panic disorder, but not in

Daniela Eser; Flavia di Michele; Peter Zwanzger; Augusto Pasini; Thomas C Baghai; Cornelius Schüle; Rainer Rupprecht; Elena Romeo

2005-01-01

26

Disseminated Dermal Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania siamensis in a Systemic Steroid Therapy Patient.  

PubMed

Leishmania siamensis infection was recently reported from Thailand. Clinical presentation of L. siamensis infections is generally related to human immunodeficiency virus infection. Herein, disseminated dermal L. siamensis infection in a systemic steroid therapy patient from Myanmar is described. PMID:25371495

Noppakun, Nopadon; Kraivichian, Kanyarat; Siriyasatien, Padet

2014-11-01

27

INDUCTIVE SYSTEM HEALTH MONITORING WITH STATISTICAL METRICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model-based reasoning is a powerful method for performing system monitoring and diagnosis. Building models for model-based reasoning is often a difficult and time consuming process. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer

David L. Iverson

28

Widespread Capacity for Steroid Synthesis in the Avian Brain and Song System  

PubMed Central

Steroids exert powerful effects on the brains and behavior of many species, but measures and manipulations of endocrine physiology in songbirds often reveal unexplained connections between steroids and the brain. The zebra finch song system, a sensorimotor neural circuit sensitive to steroids throughout life, organizes and functions largely in apparent independence from gonadally derived steroids. We tested the hypothesis that the zebra finch brain has the capacity for de novo steroidogenesis and that neurally synthesized steroids, neurosteroids, may impact the song system. Using multiple techniques, we demonstrate that the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (CYP11A1), and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/?5-?4 isomerase, the first three factors in the steroidogenic pathway, are expressed in both developing and adult zebra finch brain. Detailed expression mapping at posthatch d 20 (P20) and adult reveals widespread area-specific expression and coexpression patterns for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, CYP11A1, and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/?5-?4 isomerase, which suggest neurosteroids may modulate multiple brain functions, including sensory and motor systems. Notably, whereas expression of other steroidogenic genes such as aromatase has been essentially absent from the song system, each of the major song nuclei express at least a subset of steroidogenic genes described here, establishing the song system as a potential steroidogenic circuit. PMID:16935847

London, Sarah E.; Monks, D. Ashley; Wade, Juli; Schlinger, Barney A.

2010-01-01

29

NADP Regulates the Yeast GAL Induction System  

SciTech Connect

Transcriptional regulation of the galactose-metabolizing genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on three core proteins: Gal4p, the transcriptional activator that binds to upstream activating DNA sequences (UASGAL); Gal80p, a repressor that binds to the carboxyl terminus of Gal4p and inhibits transcription; and Gal3p, a cytoplasmic transducer that, upon binding galactose and adenosine 5'-triphosphate, relieves Gal80p repression. The current model of induction relies on Gal3p sequestering Gal80p in the cytoplasm. However, the rapid induction of this system implies that there is a missing factor. Our structure of Gal80p in complex with a peptide from the carboxyl-terminal activation domain of Gal4p reveals the existence of a dinucleotide that mediates the interaction between the two. Biochemical and in vivo experiments suggests that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) plays a key role in the initial induction event.

Kumar,P.; Yao, Y.; Sternglanz, R.; Johnston, S.; Joshua-Tor, L.

2008-01-01

30

The efficiency of intratympanic dexamethasone injection as a sequential treatment after initial systemic steroid therapy for sudden sensorineural hearing loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of intratympanic steroid injection is controversial as salvage or initial treatment option for sudden sensorineural\\u000a hearing loss (SSNHL) and almost unknown if it is consecutively to use after initial systemic steroids. This study aimed to\\u000a analyze the efficiency of intratympanic dexamethasone injection (ITDI) as a sequential treatment in the patients who failed\\u000a initial systemic steroid treatments for SSNHL.

Jong Bin Lee; Seong Jun Choi; Hun Yi Park; Oak-Sung Choo; Yun-Hoon Choung

2011-01-01

31

14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system ducts and air duct systems. 25.1103...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1103 Induction system ducts and air duct systems....

2013-01-01

32

14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system ducts and air duct systems. 25.1103...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1103 Induction system ducts and air duct systems....

2012-01-01

33

14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ducts and air duct systems. 25.1103...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1103 Induction system ducts and air duct systems....

2010-01-01

34

Magnetic induction systems to harvest energy from mechanical vibrations  

E-print Network

This thesis documents the design process for magnetic induction systems to harvest energy from mechanical vibrations. Two styles of magnetic induction systems - magnet-through-coil and magnet-across-coils - were analyzed. ...

Jonnalagadda, Aparna S

2007-01-01

35

Androgenic anabolic steroid abuse and the cardiovascular system.  

PubMed

Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been linked to a variety of different cardiovascular side effects. In case reports, acute myocardial infarction is the most common event presented, but other adverse cardiovascular effects such as left ventricular hypertrophy, reduced left ventricular function, arterial thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and several cases of sudden cardiac death have also been reported. However, to date there are no prospective, randomized, interventional studies on the long-term cardiovascular effects of abuse of AAS. In this review we have studied the relevant literature regarding several risk factors for cardiovascular disease where the effects of AAS have been scrutinized:(1) Echocardiographic studies show that supraphysiologic doses of AAS lead to both morphologic and functional changes of the heart. These include a tendency to produce myocardial hypertrophy (Fig. 3), a possible increase of heart chamber diameters, unequivocal alterations of diastolic function and ventricular relaxation, and most likely a subclinically compromised left ventricular contractile function. (2) AAS induce a mild, but transient increase of blood pressure. However, the clinical significance of this effect remains modest. (3) Furthermore, AAS confer an enhanced pro-thrombotic state, most prominently through an activation of platelet aggregability. The concomitant effects on the humoral coagulation cascade are more complex and include activation of both pro-coagulatory and fibrinolytic pathways. (4) Users of AAS often demonstrate unfavorable measurements of vascular reactivity involving endothelial-dependent or endothelial-independent vasodilatation. A degree of reversibility seems to be consistent, though. (5) There is a comprehensive body of evidence documenting that AAS induce various alterations of lipid metabolism. The most prominent changes are concomitant elevations of LDL and decreases of HDL, effects that increase the risk of coronary artery disease. And finally, (6) the use of AAS appears to confer an increased risk of life-threatening arrhythmia leading to sudden death, although the underlying mechanisms are still far from being elucidated. Taken together, various lines of evidence involving a variety of pathophysiologic mechanisms suggest an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in users of anabolic androgenic steroids. PMID:20020375

Vanberg, Paul; Atar, Dan

2010-01-01

36

Administration of Steroids in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: Impact on Clinical Outcome and Systemic Inflammatory Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with a systemic inflammatory response. Pre-bypass steroid administration may modulate the inflammatory response, resulting in improved postoperative recovery. We performed a prospective study in the departments of cardiovascular surgery and pediatric intensive care medicine of two university hospitals that included 50 infants who underwent heart surgery. Patients received either prednisolone (30 mg\\/kg) added to the

P. Gessler; V. Hohl; T. Carrel; J. Pfenninger; E. R. Schmid; O. Baenziger; R. Prètre

2005-01-01

37

Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)  

MedlinePLUS

... Lung Diseases > Quick-Relief Medications > Oral Steroids Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups) How are steroid pills and ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

38

Pulse power systems using inductive energy storage  

SciTech Connect

For the last 10-15 years Efremov Institute has been involved in research and development activities in the field of pulse power inductive storages (IS). The wide range of problems associated with IS-systems (Inductor Storage System) has been investigated: storage system, magnets energy transfer network, etc. Different charging sources have been designed using synchronous generators, high-power thyristor converters, homopolar generators. Magnet systems were optimized for different requirements. As a result of these studies inductive storages up to 9 {center dot} 10{sup 8} J have been designed and constructed. Different options of energy transfer networks are investigated and realized. The wide range of single-shot and multi-shot switches (breakers and closers) with peak currents up to 300 kA and voltage up to 40 kV have been tested, some of them are working on different installations. In this paper three types of pulse power systems using IS and their main performances are given. Besides the design features of different switches are described.

Druzhinin, A.S.; Kuchinsky, V.G.; Larionov, B.A.; Roshal, A.G.; Silin, V.P.; Soikin, V.F. (D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Inst. of Electrophysical Apparatus, Leningrad (SU))

1992-01-01

39

Steroid resistant asthma.  

PubMed

Inspite of very safe and effective treatment, Bronchial asthmatics do not respond well in 5-10% of cases which are labelled as Refractory Asthma. Besides compliance, presence of psychogenic and trigger factors and comorbid illness, steroid insensitiveness or resistance may play a significant role in the poorly controlled/responding asthmatics. Type I Steroid resistance is due to lack of binding affinity of steroids to glucocorticoid receptors and may respond to higher doses of steroids while type II steroid resistance is because of reduced number of cells with glucocorticoid receptors, which is very rare and do not respond to even higher doses of systemic steroids and these cases require alternative/novel therapies. Future treatment of steroid resistant and severe refractory asthma is likely to be targeted towards cytokines and Bronchial Thermoplasty. PMID:25327059

Luhadia, S K

2014-03-01

40

Contactless inductive power pickup system for Maglev applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a newly developed contactless inductive power pickup system for Maglev applications. The system consists of a loosely coupled transformer and two high-frequency power converters. Furthermore, the proposed inductive system was verified through various simulations and experiments. System performances such as magnetic coupling, energy efficiency, and power factor correction effects are included.

Byeong-Mun Song; Robert Kratz; Sam Gurol

2002-01-01

41

A computer simulation of an induction heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the design and analysis of induction heating systems is presented. The method entails the simulation of system performance using an equivalent circuit approach. Equivalent circuit models are obtained for the three parts of an induction heating system: the power source, the impedance matching circuit, and the load. These models are combined into a system model which is

Lawrence R. Egan; Edward P. Furlani

1991-01-01

42

Flow cytometry analysis of glucocorticoid receptor expression and binding in steroid-sensitive and steroid-resistant patients with systemic lupus erythematosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is the main treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, some patients are resistant to these agents. Abnormalities of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) seem to be related to steroid resistance. This study evaluated GRs in T lymphocytes and monocytes of SLE patients by flow cytometry (FCM) using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) and FITC-Dex probes. METHODS: Thirty-five patients

Juan Du; Min Li; Denghai Zhang; Xiaoyan Zhu; Weiwei Zhang; Wei Gu; Yinglu Feng; Xiaofeng Zhai; Changquan Ling

2009-01-01

43

INDUCTIVE SYSTEM HEALTH MONITORING WITH STATISTICAL METRICS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model-based reasoning is a powerful method for performing system monitoring and diagnosis. Building models for model-based reasoning is often a difficult and time consuming process. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS processes nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. In particular, a clustering algorithm forms groups of nominal values for sets of related parameters. This establishes constraints on those parameter values that should hold during nominal operation. During monitoring, IMS provides a statistically weighted measure of the deviation of current system behavior from the established normal baseline. If the deviation increases beyond the expected level, an anomaly is suspected, prompting further investigation by an operator or automated system. IMS has shown potential to be an effective, low cost technique to produce system monitoring capability for a variety of applications. We describe the training and system health monitoring techniques of IMS. We also present the application of IMS to a data set from the Space Shuttle Columbia STS-107 flight. IMS was able to detect an anomaly in the launch telemetry shortly after a foam impact damaged Columbia's thermal protection system.

Iverson, David L.

2005-01-01

44

Multi-system mitochondrial disorder with recurrent steroid-responsive eosinophilia.  

PubMed

Though mitochondrial disorders due to a respiratory chain defect may manifest with haematological abnormalities such as anaemia, neutropenia, or thrombocytopenia, recurrent steroid-responsive eosinophilia has not been reported as a manifestation of a mitochondrial disorder. In a polymorbid 65-year old female recurrent erythema, asthma, chronic bronchitis, gastritis with eosinophilic granuloma, recurrent episodes of hypereosinophilia, and polyarthralgia suggested Churg–Strauss syndrome, which was excluded upon absence of eosinophilic vasculitis on any of the biopsies. However, corticosteroids were effective for hypereosinophilia. In addition to the hypereosinophilic syndrome a mitochondrial disorder with multi-system affection was diagnosed upon the clinical presentation and a muscle biopsy indicative of a mitochondrial disorder. Hypereosinophilia was interpreted as a manifestation of the mitochondrial disorder after exclusion of various differentials. Mitochondrial disease may go along with marked eosinophilia mimicking Churg–Strauss syndrome. Steroids may be useful to resolve episodic eosinophilia but may be ineffective for other features of mitochondrial disorders. PMID:19370352

Finsterer, Josef; Höger, Franz

2009-11-01

45

Transport of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity across a swine lagoon/sprayfield system.  

PubMed

The inflow, transformation, and attenuation of natural steroid hormones and phytoestrogens and estrogenic activity were assessed across the lagoon/sprayfield system of a prototypical commercial swine sow operation. Free and conjugated steroid hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progesterone) were detected in urine and feces of sows across reproductive stages, with progesterone being the most abundant steroid hormone. Excreta also contained phytoestrogens indicative of a soy-based diet, particularly, daidzein, genistein, and equol. During storage in barn pits and the anaerobic lagoon, conjugated hormones dissipated, and androgens and progesterone were attenuated. Estrone and equol persisted along the waste disposal route. Following application of lagoon slurry to agricultural soils, all analytes exhibited attenuation within 2 days. However, analytes including estrone, androstenedione, progesterone, and equol remained detectable in soil at 2 months postapplication. Estrogenic activity in the yeast estrogen screen and T47D-KBluc in vitro bioassays generally tracked well with analyte concentrations. Estrone was found to be the greatest contributor to estrogenic activity across all sample types. This investigation encompasses the most comprehensive suite of natural hormone and phytoestrogen analytes examined to date across a livestock lagoon/sprayfield and provides global insight into the fate of these analytes in this widely used waste management system. PMID:25148584

Yost, Erin E; Meyer, Michael T; Dietze, Julie E; Williams, C Michael; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W

2014-10-01

46

14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. 29.1103...Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. ...unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from burning through auxiliary...resulting from the entry of hot gases. The...

2013-01-01

47

14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. 29.1103...Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. ...unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from burning through auxiliary...resulting from the entry of hot gases. The...

2010-01-01

48

14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. 29.1103...Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. ...unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from burning through auxiliary...resulting from the entry of hot gases. The...

2012-01-01

49

Analytical equivalent impedance for a planar circular induction heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of analytical expressions is derived for the equivalent impedance in a planar circular induction heating system, used for example in home appliances. The induction system consists of an n-turn planar winding loaded by a conductive material. Expressions that describe the frequency dependence of impedance are provided. The influence of load conductivity, load permeability, and geometrical dimensions is also

J. Acero; R. Alonso; J. M. Burdio; L. A. Barragan; D. Puyal

2006-01-01

50

Systemic Steroid Exposure Is Associated with Differential Methylation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Systemic glucocorticoids are used therapeutically to treat a variety of medical conditions. Epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation may reflect exposure to glucocorticoids and may be involved in mediating the responses and side effects associated with these medications. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that differences in DNA methylation are associated with current systemic steroid use. Methods: We obtained DNA methylation data at 27,578 CpG sites in 14,475 genes throughout the genome in two large, independent cohorts: the International COPD Genetics Network (ndiscovery = 1,085) and the Boston Early Onset COPD study (nreplication = 369). Sites were tested for association with current systemic steroid use using generalized linear mixed models. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 511 sites demonstrated significant differential methylation by systemic corticosteroid use in all three of our primary models. Pyrosequencing validation confirmed robust differential methylation at CpG sites annotated to genes such as SLC22A18, LRP3, HIPK3, SCNN1A, FXYD1, IRF7, AZU1, SIT1, GPR97, ABHD16B, and RABGEF1. Functional annotation clustering demonstrated significant enrichment in intrinsic membrane components, hemostasis and coagulation, cellular ion homeostasis, leukocyte and lymphocyte activation and chemotaxis, protein transport, and responses to nutrients. Conclusions: Our analyses suggest that systemic steroid use is associated with site-specific differential methylation throughout the genome. Differentially methylated CpG sites were found in biologically plausible and previously unsuspected pathways; these genes and pathways may be relevant in the development of novel targeted therapies. PMID:23065012

Qiu, Weiliang; Baccarelli, Andrea; Carey, Vincent J.; Bacherman, Helene; Rennard, Stephen I.; Agusti, Alvar; Anderson, Wayne H.; Lomas, David A.; DeMeo, Dawn L.

2012-01-01

51

Anabolic Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

52

Availability of Preoperative Systemic Steroids on Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyposis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze the outcome of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) after preoperative systemic steroid (PSS) treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyposis (NP) and to investigate and compare clinicopathological factors associated with the outcome. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of 468 patients with CRS with NP who underwent primary ESS between January 2005 and October 2011. 124 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included. Beginning from 2008, our clinic administered steroid preoperatively in patients of CRS with NP, thus there were 84 patients with preoperative systemic steroid (PSS group) and another 40 patients without such regimen (no PSS group). To evaluate the outcome after ESS, poor outcome and complication were analyzed according to the following parameters: age, sex, follow-up duration, eosinophilic infiltration, atopy, asthma, Lund-Mackay score, and polyp grade. Results There was no significant difference in poor outcome rates between the PSS and no PSS group (35.0% vs. 47.6%, p=0.185). There was no significant difference in complication rates between the PSS and no PSS group (10% vs. 6%, p=0.468). As with the multivariate analysis of the clincopathological factors to the poor outcome rate, presence of asthma and eosinophilic infiltration were significantly related (odds ratio as 6.555 and 4.505, respectively), whereas PSS was confirmed as less likely related (odds ratio 0.611). Conclusion Low dose PSS administration does not seem to have an effect on the outcome after ESS in patients who have CRS with NP. Eosinophilic infiltration and presence of asthma are important predictors of surgical outcome. PMID:25323909

Hong, Seok Jin; Lee, Jong Kyu; Lee, Hyun Sub; Lee, Jung Yup; Pyo, Jung Soo

2014-01-01

53

Steroidal Saponins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

54

Two clinical trials of an intraocular steroid delivery system for cataract surgery.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To determine the safety and efficacy of an intraocular dexamethasone drug delivery system (Surodex) in the treatment of inflammation following cataract surgery. METHODS: Surodex is a biodegradable polymer that releases dexamethasone for 7 to 10 days after placement in the anterior segment. Study 1 was a prospective, randomized, double-masked Phase II clinical trial of 90 cataract surgical patients that compared treatment with Surodex to treatment with a placebo drug delivery system and to no anti-inflammatory drug treatment at all. Study 2 was a separate prospective, randomized, double-masked study of 60 cataract surgical patients that compared treatment with Surodex to topical dexamethasone (eye drop) therapy. RESULTS: In the first study, Surodex was superior to placebo in suppressing postsurgical inflammation throughout the 60-day postoperative period, as judged by masked-evaluator, slit-lamp grading of cell and flare. The differences were statistically significant from postoperative day 3 through postoperative week 3. The majority of Surodex patients did not require topical steroid by 2 weeks after surgery (93%) or by 2 months after surgery (88%). In the second study, Kowa laser flare meter readings were lower in Surodex patients throughout the 90-day postoperative period. The results were statistically significant at 4, 8, and 15 days following surgery. There were no significant adverse complications of Surodex in either study. CONCLUSION: Surodex was safe and effective in suppressing postcataract surgery inflammation and appears to be a promising alternative to topical steroids. PMID:10703128

Chang, D F; Wong, V

1999-01-01

55

14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from burning through...created by the entry of the hot gases; (3) Constructed...by a surge or reverse-flow condition. (f) Induction system ducts that supply air to a cabin...

2013-01-01

56

Combination Therapy with Systemic Steroids, an Antiviral Agent, Anticoagulants, and Stellate Ganglion Block for Treatment of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is commonly defined as a loss of at least 30 dB in three contiguous frequencies occurring within 3 days. Systemic steroid administration has become the most widely accepted treatment option for SSNHL. Since viral infection and vascular compromise are considered specific causes of SSNHL, antiviral agents, anticoagulants, and stellate ganglion block have been used for its treatment, although the evidence of their effectiveness is weak. The present study evaluated the hearing recovery rate in the combination therapy group (systemic steroids, antiviral agent, anticoagulants, and stellate ganglion block) in comparison with patients treated with systemic steroids alone. Subjects and Methods A total of 85 patients diagnosed with SSNHL were treated with combination therapy (group A, 46 patients) or systemic steroids only (group B, 39 patients). Hearing improvement was defined as a hearing gain of more than slight improvement using Siegel's criteria. All patients were treated with a 10-day course of systemic steroids (10-mg dexamethasone for 5 days, followed by tapering for 5 days). Acyclovir, heparin, and stellate ganglion block were included in the group A treatment regimen. Results The overall rate of hearing improvement was 60.9% (28/46 patients) in group A, which was significantly higher than that (38.5%, 15/39 patients) in group B. The distribution of prognostic factors was not significantly different between the two groups with the exception of the degree of initial hearing loss, which was more severe in group A. Upon analysis according to prognostic factors, group A showed a better hearing improvement recovery rate than group B in patients with hearing loss >70 dB, age >41 years, dizziness, and early treatment (<1 week). Conclusions Thus SSNHL patients treated with combination therapy have a higher likelihood of hearing improvement than those treated with systemic steroids alone. PMID:24653874

Lee, Chi-Kyou; Lee, Jong Dae; Park, Moo Kyun; Lee, Byung Don

2012-01-01

57

The efficiency of intratympanic dexamethasone injection as a sequential treatment after initial systemic steroid therapy for sudden sensorineural hearing loss.  

PubMed

The effect of intratympanic steroid injection is controversial as salvage or initial treatment option for sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) and almost unknown if it is consecutively to use after initial systemic steroids. This study aimed to analyze the efficiency of intratympanic dexamethasone injection (ITDI) as a sequential treatment in the patients who failed initial systemic steroid treatments for SSNHL. Forty-six patients with SSNHL who did not respond to initial systemic steroids were prospectively included in the study. The patients were randomly classified into two groups; the ITDI group (21 patients) did not take four sequential ITDI within 2 weeks after systemic steroids, and the control group (25 patients) took any more medications. Hearing improvement was defined as a 10 dB or more decrease in the pure tone average (PTA) of the four-frequencies (0.5, 1, 2, and 3 kHz). Hearing improvement was observed in 10 (47.6%) of 21 ITDI patients and in 4 (16.0%) of 25 control patients (P = 0.027). An improvement of the mean PTA was 11.4 dB in the ITDI group and 1.7 dB in the control group (P = 0.004). The ITDI group showed significant hearing improvement at low frequency (500 Hz) than the control group. The patients with 70 or more dB in PTA before ITDI showed significant hearing improvement than the other patients with better PTAs (P = 0.038). The sequential ITDI, which is performed immediately after initial systemic steroid therapy, may be a simple, effective second-line treatment of choice for the patients who show poor response to initial treatments for SSNHL. PMID:21221620

Lee, Jong Bin; Choi, Seong Jun; Park, Keehyun; Park, Hun Yi; Choo, Oak-Sung; Choung, Yun-Hoon

2011-06-01

58

Sex-Steroid Derived Compounds Induce Sex-Specific Effects on Autonomic Nervous System Function in Humans  

E-print Network

Sex-Steroid Derived Compounds Induce Sex-Specific Effects on Autonomic Nervous System Function (Lehrner, Eckersberger, Walla, Potsch, & Deecke, 2000) and autonomic nervous system function (Alaoui in Humans M. Bensafi, W. M. Brown, T. Tsutsui, J. D. Mainland, B. N. Johnson, E. A. Bremner, and N. Young

Gross, James J.

59

The GM High-Performance Induction Motor Drive System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent advances in the power handling capacity of semiconductor devices make it possible to replace dc and ac commutator machines for variable-speed applications by high-speed, lightweight, squirrel-cage induction motors. This paper describes a controlled slip-frequency system which eliminates the low-starting torque, low-power factor, and the low efficiency at lower speeds, normally associated with induction motors. The development program at

PAUL D. AGARWAL

1969-01-01

60

A Three-Phase Inductively Coupled Power Transfer System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the development of a new three phase bipolar inductively coupled power transfer (ICPT) system for improving the power profile across the width of a roadway surface for automatic guided vehicles (AGVs) and people mover systems. A prototype system was constructed that supplies 40 Amperes per phase into a thirteen meter long track to supply power to a

G. A. Covic; J. T. Boys; H. G. Lu

2006-01-01

61

Effect of systemic steroids on ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Long-term steroid therapy predisposes to postsurgical complications, especially in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to determine incidence of early septic complications after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (TPAA) in patients who are undergoing prolonged steroid therapy. METHODS: We reviewed charts of 692 patients undergoing restorative proctocolectomy and IPAA to treat ulcerative colitis. Incidence of early (within

Yehiel Ziv; James M. Church; Victor W. Fazio; Tai-Ming King; Ian C. Lavery

1996-01-01

62

A magnetic induction measurement system for adult vital sign monitoring: evaluation of capacitive and inductive effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic induction (MI) measurement technique could provide an unobtrusive contactless method for continuous monitoring of vital signs such as breathing and cardiac activity in bed. In this paper, we present a magnetic induction system to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring heart and lung activity and the preliminary measurement results. The excitation and detection coils are designed to be implemented in a single printed circuit board, allowing the use of the system in a bed with coils under the mattress. The electronic system is based on a 16 bit arbitrary waveform generator (PXI-5422, National instrument) operating at a sample rate of 200 MS/s for the excitation signal and the detected amplified signal is then, sampled at 100 MS/s by a 14 bit digitizer (PXI-5122, National Instruments). The preliminary results at 10 MHz show the ability of the system to detect solutions with different conductivities. However the capacitive effect is in the same order of magnitude as the inductive effect due to eddy currents. Safety of the system has been evaluated to be in accordance with the standards of human exposure to the magnetic fields.

Mahdavi, H.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.

2013-04-01

63

Induction generator based system providing regulated voltage with constant frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PWM voltage-source inverter is used in order to improve the electrical characteristics of an isolated induction generator. The electronic converter allows achievement of a better system behavior in many aspects: voltage regulation, frequeney stabilization and reactive power compensation. The PWM inverter DC voltage is the control variable of the generator speed governor, therefore the system power balance and the

E. G. Marra; J. A. Pomilio

1999-01-01

64

Wind energy conversion system simulator using variable speed induction motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional synchronous generator in wind energy conversion system are now getting replaced by variable speed induction generator to extract maximum power with wide range of wind speed limit. The design and performance of such system are required a simplified digital simulator, especially for development of optimal control solutions. The proposed work is to make a prototype of an variable

S. W. Mohod; M. V. Aware

2010-01-01

65

Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system  

SciTech Connect

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

2012-10-23

66

Anabolic Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

... treat hormone problems in men, delayed puberty, and muscle loss from some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes may use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance, often taking doses much ...

67

Icing-Protection Requirements for Reciprocating-Engine Induction System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite the development of relatively ice-free fuel-metering systems, the widespread use of alternate and heated-air intakes, and the use of alcohol for emergency de-icing, icing of aircraft-engine induction systems is a serious problem. Investigations have been made to study and to combat all phases of this icing problem. From these investigations, criterions for safe operation and for design of new induction systems have been established. The results were obtained from laboratory investigations of carburetor-supercharger combinations, wind-tunnel investigations of air scoops, multicylinder-engine studies, and flight investigations. Characteristics of three forms of ice, impact, throttling, and fuel evaporation were studied. The effects of several factors on the icing characteristics were also studied and included: (1) atmospheric conditions, (2) engine and air-scoop configurations, including light-airplane system, (3) type fuel used, and (4) operating variables, such as power condition, use of a manifold pressure regulator, mixture setting, carburetor heat, and water-alcohol injection. In addition, ice-detection methods were investigated and methods of preventing and removing induction-system ice were studied. Recommendations are given for design and operation with regard to induction-system design.

Coles, Willard D; Rollin, Vern G; Mulholland, Donald R

1950-01-01

68

Fate and occurrence of steroids in swine and dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems.  

PubMed

Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (steroids via swine farms and human sources were mainly originated from wastewater into the receiving environments while those steroids via cattle farms were mainly from cattle feces. The total contributions of steroids to the environment in China are estimated to be 139, 65.8 and 60.7 t/year from swine, dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. PMID:22835499

Liu, Shan; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Zhou, Li-Jun; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng

2012-11-01

69

21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...configuration include cortisol, cortisone 11-desoxycortisol, desoxycorticosterone, and their tetrahydroderivatives. This group of hormones is synthesized by the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used...

2013-04-01

70

21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...configuration include cortisol, cortisone 11-desoxycortisol, desoxycorticosterone, and their tetrahydroderivatives. This group of hormones is synthesized by the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used...

2011-04-01

71

An in-progress, open-label, multi-centre study (SAILOR) evaluating whether a steroid-free immunosuppressive protocol, based on ATG induction and a low tacrolimus dose, reduces the incidence of new onset diabetes after transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background Corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are included in renal transplantation immunosuppressive protocols around the world. Well-known side effects are associated with the use of these drugs, including new onset of diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). Long-term patient survival rates are lower among patients with NODAT. The optimal immunosuppressive protocol would therefore include not using corticosteroids and minimization of CNI use. Methods/Design This is a prospective, multi-centre, controlled, randomized, parallel group, open-label study involving kidney transplant patients. The study compares a steroid-free immunosuppressive protocol (study arm A), which is based on low-dose tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) maintenance therapy together with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) induction, with the conventional immunosuppressive protocol (study arm B), being based on low-dose tacrolimus, MMF and steroids together with interleukin-2 receptor (IL2-R) induction. The study is designed to include most normal-risk patients. It will exclude patients seen as at a high risk of rejection. The primary objective of the study is to assess the cumulative incidence of NODAT in the two study arms 12 months after transplantation using the American Diabetes Association type 2 diabetes diagnostic criteria. The composite measure of freedom from acute rejection, graft survival and patient survival will be evaluated. Renal function and chronic changes in the transplanted kidney will be assessed. Discussion If this study confirms conceptual expectations, namely decreased incidence of NODAT, the steroid-free study protocol could be used with all patients. The regimen could be especially beneficial for patients at a high risk of diabetes mellitus. Trial registration Trial registration: EudraCT 2012-000451-13. PMID:24959347

2014-01-01

72

Design and Construction of Induction Motor Thermal Monitoring System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotor and stator temperature rise in induction motors is considered to be a major cause of motor insulation degradation and motor failures. In most cases, it is necessary to monitor rotor bars and stator windings to make sure that their temperature remains below the allowable limits. In this paper, design and implementation of a temperature measuring system suitable for three-phase

H. Hafezi; A. Jalilian

2006-01-01

73

Bidirectional power electronic transformer for induction heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new bi-directional power electronic transformer (PET) for induction heating applications is described. Proposed PET contains primary bi-directional cycloconverter switches, high frequency isolation transformer, matching coil and a parallel resonant heating system. Switching routine is applied in such a way that the output voltage regulation is achieved in the full load variations, even at asymmetrical utility conditions. Simulations are obtained

S. H. Hosseini; M. B. Sharifian; M. Sabahi; A. Yazdanpanah; G. H. Gharehpetian

2008-01-01

74

Metastatic intratesticular alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma discovered after induction of systemic chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is an aggressive cancer that can metastasize to a variety of organs. We present what we believe to be the first reported case of metastatic intratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma in a patient presenting with testicular pain shortly after the induction of systemic chemotherapy. The published data regarding this unusual condition are reviewed. PMID:17482950

Cannon, Glenn M; Polsky, Ethan G; Bellinger, Mark F

2007-05-01

75

Induction Linac Systems Experiments for heavy ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory propose to build at LBL the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step toward the eventual goal of a heavy ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Though much smaller than a driver, ILSE will be at full driver scale in several important parameters. Nearly all accelerator components and beam manipulations required for a driver will be tested. It is expected that ILSE will be built in stages as funds and technical progress allow. The first stage, called Elise will include all of the electrostatic quadrupole focused parts of ILSE.

Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bangerter, R.O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Div.

1994-06-01

76

Induction generators for stand-alone micro-hydro systems  

SciTech Connect

Micro-hydro schemes have an output of less than 100 kW. They are usually installed to supply electricity to small communities in remote areas which the grid fails to reach. Most micro-hydro schemes are located in the mountainous regions of developing countries, such as the Andes and Himalaya. By using appropriate designs, local skills and local manufacture these schemes can be more cost-effective than large hydro projects. By using self-excited induction generators rather than synchronous generators cost savings and reliability improvements can be achieved, due to the simple construction and inherent robustness of cage induction machines. However, until recently the extra cost and complexity of the voltage and frequency control equipment has more than offset the advantages of using stand-alone induction generators. This paper describes a new approach to controlling induction generators on stand-alone micro-hydro systems. The turbine power-speed characteristic and the relatively high magnetic saturation of modern induction machines are used to reduce the control equipment required. The implementation of the control approach is described along with considerations regarding generator selection and efficiency.

Smith, N.P.A. [Nottingham Trent Univ. (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

77

Internal combustion engine with dual induction system and with EGR system  

SciTech Connect

A spark ignition reciprocatory internal combustion engine with dual induction system and with EGR system is provided in which under engine operating conditions when only a primary throttle valve opens, a fluid charge from a primary induction system will swirl around the cylinder axis, while, under engine operating condition when both the primary and secondary throttle valves open, a fluid charge from a secondary induction system will impede and reduce swirling motion of fluid charge from the primary induction system. With the EGR system, the recirculation of exhaust gas is effected through the primary induction system under the engine operating condition with low and intermediate loads. At high loads, the recirculation of exhaust gas is effected not only through the primary induction system but also through the secondary induction system. For this end the EGR system includes a load responsive valve which will permit admission of exhaust gas into the secondary induction system at a position downstream of the secondary throttle valve in response to loads of the engine.

Etoh, Y.; Tanaka, T.

1980-05-06

78

Control of cascaded induction generator systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report documents an investigation of the stability and control of cascaded doubly fed machines (CDFM). These machines are brushless variable speed constant frequency electric power generators with potential for application in aircraft. A previous analytical study indicated the CDFM system would be controllable in the subsynchronous operating mode with a passive RL load. The present study contains two steps. First is an investigation of the machine operation in the supersynchronous mode. The second step is an investigation of machine operation with output capacitors providing excitation VARs for the machine and load. Step 1 results show that the machines exhibit stability characteristics in the supersynchronous mode similar to those observed in the subsynchronous mode. Step 2 results show that output capacitors degrade the system performance, particularly at light loads. The results show that output current feedback can be employed to improve the system performance.

Ortmeyer, T. H.

1984-12-01

79

Structure of steroids and their diffusion through blood vessel walls in a counter-current system  

SciTech Connect

Several substances including prostaglandin F2 alpha, progesterone and /sup 85/krypton have been shown to be transferred from the venous side to the arterial side of the circulation in the ovarian vascular pedicle. Experiments were therefore carried out to study the transfer of three pairs of steroids (progesterone and 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone, C-21; androstenedione and testosterone, C-19; and estrone and estradiol-17 beta, C-18) in which each member of a pair differed by one hydroxyl group. Each pair of steroids, one labeled with /sup 3/H and the other with /sup 14/C, were infused in sequence for 30 minutes into a side branch of an ovarian vein near the hilus of the ovary with a rest period of 90 minutes between infusions. An increase in radioactivity in ovarian arterial plasma compared to the radioactivity in an equal volume of aortic plasma sampled simultaneously was used as the index for a direct transfer of steroids from the ovarian vein to the adjacent ovarian artery. All six steroids showed such a transfer which began 3 to 6 minutes after the start of each infusion and decreased rapidly after the infusion was stopped. The results of this study also showed that a larger quantity of the less polar (ketonic) form of each steroid pair examined was transferred than its hydroxyl counterpart.

McCracken, J.A.; Schramm, W.; Einer-Jensen, N.

1984-03-01

80

Pulse Detonation Engine Air Induction System Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary mixed-compression inlet design concept for potential pulse-detonation engine (PDE) powered supersonic aircraft was defined and analyzed. The objectives of this research were to conceptually design and integrate an inlet/PDE propulsion system into a supersonic aircraft, perform time-dependent CFD analysis of the inlet flowfield, and to estimate the installed PDE cycle performance. The study was baselined to a NASA Mach 5 Waverider study vehicle in which the baseline over/under turboramjet engines were replaced with a single flowpath PDE propulsion system. As much commonality as possible was maintained with the baseline configuration, including the engine location and forebody lines. Modifications were made to the inlet system's external ramp angles and a rotating cowl lip was incorporated to improve off-design inlet operability and performance. Engines were sized to match the baseline vehicle study's ascent trajectory thrust requirement at Mach 1.2. The majority of this study was focused on a flight Mach number of 3.0. The time-dependent Navier Stokes CFD analyses of a two-dimensional approximation of the inlet was conducted for the Mach 3.0 condition. The Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems-developed FALCON CFD code with a two equation 'k-1' turbulence model was used. The downstream PDE was simulated by an array of four sonic nozzles in which the flow areas were rapidly varied in various opening/closing combinations. Results of the CFD study indicated that the inlet design concept operated successfully at the Mach 3.0 condition, satisfying mass capture, total pressure recovery, and operability requirements. Time-dependent analysis indicated that pressure and expansion waves from the simulated valve perturbations did not effect the inlet's operability or performance.

Pegg, R. J.; Hunter, L. G.; Couch, B. D.

1996-01-01

81

A System for Induction of Oblique Decision Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a new system for induction of oblique decision trees. This system,OC1, combines deterministic hill-climbing with two forms of randomization to find a goodoblique split (in the form of a hyperplane) at each node of a decision tree. Oblique decisiontree methods are tuned especially for domains in which the attributes are numeric, althoughthey can be adapted to symbolic

Sreerama K. Murthy; Simon Kasif; Steven Salzberg

1994-01-01

82

Steroids (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... your child isn't at risk. What Are Steroids? Drugs commonly referred to as "steroids" are classified ... number of health problems. Continue How Do Anabolic Steroids Work? Anabolic steroids are drugs that resemble the ...

83

Real-Time System Verification by Kappa-Induction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the first formal verification of a reintegration protocol for a safety-critical, fault-tolerant, real-time distributed embedded system. A reintegration protocol increases system survivability by allowing a node that has suffered a fault to regain state consistent with the operational nodes. The protocol is verified in the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL), where bounded model checking and decision procedures are used to verify infinite-state systems by k-induction. The protocol and its environment are modeled as synchronizing timeout automata. Because k-induction is exponential with respect to k, we optimize the formal model to reduce the size of k. Also, the reintegrator's event-triggered behavior is conservatively modeled as time-triggered behavior to further reduce the size of k and to make it invariant to the number of nodes modeled. A corollary is that a clique avoidance property is satisfied.

Pike, Lee S.

2005-01-01

84

Performances of Induction System for Nanosecond Mode Operation  

SciTech Connect

An induction system comprises an array of single turn pulse transformers. Ferromagnetic cores of transformers are toroids that are stacked along the longitudinal core axis. Another name for this array is a fraction transformer or an adder. The primary and secondary windings of such a design have one turn. The step up mode is based on the number of primary pulse sources. The secondary windings are connected in series. Performances of such a system for the nanosecond range mode operation are different in comparison to the performances of traditional multi-turn pulse transformers, which are working on a 100+ nanosecond mode operation. In this paper, the author discusses which aspects are necessary to take into account for the high power nanosecond fractional transformer designs. The engineering method of the nanosecond induction system design is presented.

Krasnykh, Anatoly; /SLAC

2006-05-16

85

Use of systemic steroid after successful macular surgery in eyes with epiretinal membrane: a randomized, controlled clinical study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the functional and morphological outcomes of postoperative systemic steroid therapy after successful macular surgery in eyes with macular edema due to idiopathic macular epiretinal membranes (ERMs). Design Prospective, randomized, investigator-masked, controlled clinical study. Methods Twenty-eight patients scheduled for 23-gauge vitrectomy combined with ERM and inner limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for macular edema due to ERM were included in this single center trial. Patients were randomized to receive oral steroid therapy (Prednisolone, 100?mg per day for 5 days) or no oral steroid (control group) after surgery. Main outcome measures included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA; Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study), central retinal thickness (CRT), retinal volume (RV), and macular morphology as determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, Cirrus). Examinations were carried out preoperatively and at week 1, at months 1 and 3, postoperatively. Results At month 3, mean BCVA improved to a eight-letter gain in each study group (P<0.01 compared with baseline for both groups), showing no statistically significant difference between both the groups (P=0.19). Morphologically, retinal surface folds resolved within 1 month after surgery in both treatment groups, followed by a progressive recovery of retinal layer integrity and a statistical significant (P<0.01) decrease in CRT and RV without significant differences between both groups (P=0.62, P=0.13, respectively, ANOVA between the groups). Conclusion The early postoperative use of systemic steroid treatment after successful vitrectomy combined with ERM and ILM peeling does not seem to improve significantly the anatomic and functional outcomes in eyes with ERM. PMID:21886189

Ritter, M; Sacu, S; Matt, G; Dunavolgyi, R; Buhl, W; Prunte, C; Schmidt-Erfurth, U

2011-01-01

86

Steroid hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steroid hormones that play major roles in the neuroimmune regulatory network include glucocorticoids, aldosterone, estrogens, androgens and vitamin D. These hormones have cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors, which are transcription factors that directly regulate gene expression. Glucocorticoids are produced in the adrenal gland as well as the thymus and are fundamental to immune function. Physiological levels are required for the

Istvan Berczi; Eva Nagy; Edward Baral; Andor Szentivanyi

2003-01-01

87

The Noise Level Optimization for Induction Magnetometer of SEP System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Surface Electromagnetic Penetration (SEP) System, subsidized by the SinoProbe Plan in China, is designed for 3D conductivity imaging in geophysical mineral exploration, underground water distribution exploration, oil and gas reservoir exploration. Both the Controlled Source Audio Magnetotellurics (CSAMT) method and Magnetotellurics (MT) method can be surveyed by SEP system. In this article, an optimization design is introduced, which can minimize the noise level of the induction magnetometer for SEP system magnetic field's acquisition. The induction magnetometer transfers the rate of the magnetic field's change to voltage signal by induction coil, and amplified it by Low Noise Amplifier The noise parts contributed to the magnetometer are: the coil's thermal noise, the equivalent input voltage and current noise of the pre-amplifier. The coil's thermal noise is decided by coil's DC resistance. The equivalent input voltage and current noise of the pre-amplifier depend on the amplifier's type and DC operation condition. The design here optimized the DC operation point of pre-amplifier, adjusted the DC current source, and realized the minimum of total noise level of magnetometer. The calculation and test results show that: the total noise is about 1pT/?Hz, the thermal noise of coils is 1.7nV/?Hz, the preamplifier equivalent input voltage and current noise is 3nV/ ?Hz and 0.1pA/?Hz, the weight of the magnetometer is 4.5kg and meet the requirement of SEP system.

Zhu, W.; Fang, G.

2011-12-01

88

Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

1982-01-01

89

Transistorized PWM Inverter-Induction Motor Drive System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a transistorized pulsewidth modulated (PWM) inverter-induction motor traction drive system is described. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and

Steven C. Peak; Allan B. Plunkett

1983-01-01

90

Doubly fed induction generator systems for wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows that adjustable speed generators for wind turbines are necessary when output power becomes higher than 1 MW. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) system presented in this article offers many advantages to reduce cost and has the potential to be built economically at power levels above 1.5 MW, e.g., for off-shore applications. A dynamic model of the

S. Muller; M. Deicke; R. W. De Doncker

2002-01-01

91

Transtympanic steroids for treatment of sudden hearing loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine whether transtympanic steroid administration may be an effective treatment for sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) in patients for whom systemic steroid treatment has failed or who were not candidates for systemic steroids. Methods: The standard medical regimen for SSNHL usually involves systemic steroid therapy. Unfortunately, some patients do not respond successfully to or are poorly tolerant

Gerard J. Gianoli; John C. Li

2001-01-01

92

Are Steroids Worth the Risk?  

MedlinePLUS

... facts. Here's the scoop on steroids. What Are Steroids? Steroids, sometimes referred to as "roids" or "juice" ... laws controlling steroid distribution. Continue How Do Anabolic Steroids Work? Anabolic steroids stimulate muscle tissue to grow ...

93

Designer Steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anabolic steroids have been studied for over 50 years and during that time numerous compounds with a variety of functional\\u000a groups have been produced and many have been published. Of these only a small number have been introduced to the pharmaceutical\\u000a market. WADA has continued the work begun by the IOC banning the use of these agents within sport as

Ray Kazlauskas

94

Control system for an induction motor with energy recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A control circuit for an induction motor powered system is disclosed in which a power factor controlled servo loop is used to control, via the phase angle of firing of a triac, the power input to the motor, as a function of load placed on the motor by machinery of the powered system. Then, upon application of torque by this machinery to the motor, which tends to overspeed the motor, the firing angle of the triac is automatically set to a fixed, and relatively short, firing angle.

Nola, F. J. (inventor)

1983-01-01

95

Surface moisture measurement system electromagnetic induction probe calibration technique  

SciTech Connect

The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) is designed to measure the moisture concentration near the surfaces of the wastes located in the Hanford Site tank farms. This document describes a calibration methodology to demonstrate that the Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) moisture probe meets relevant requirements in the `Design Requirements Document (DRD) for the Surface Moisture Measurement System.` The primary purpose of the experimental tests described in this methodology is to make possible interpretation of EMI in-tank surface probe data to estimate the surface moisture.

Crowe, R.D., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-08

96

Control system for an induction motor with energy recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A control circuit for an induction motor powered system is disclosed in which a power factor controlled servo loop is used to control, via the phase angle of firing of a triac, the power input to the motor, as a function of load placed on the motor by machinery of the powered system. Then, upon application of torque by this machinery to the motor, which tends to overspeed the motor, the firing angle of the triac is automatically set to a fixed, and relatively short, firing angle.

Nola, F. J.

1983-11-01

97

Fasting increases aggression and differentially modulates local and systemic steroid levels in male zebra finches.  

PubMed

Aggression enables individuals to obtain and retain limited resources. Studies of the neuroendocrine regulation of aggression have focused on territorial and reproductive contexts. By contrast, little is understood concerning the neuroendocrine regulation of aggression over other resources, such as food. Here, we developed a paradigm to examine the role of steroids in food-related aggression. In groups of male zebra finches, a 6-hour fast decreased body mass and increased aggressive interactions among subjects that competed for a point source feeder. Fasting also dramatically altered circulating steroid levels by decreasing plasma testosterone but not estradiol (E2). By contrast, both plasma corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations were elevated with fasting. Interestingly, short-term access to food (15 minutes) after fasting normalized circulating steroid levels. Fasting increased corticosterone levels in a wide range of peripheral tissues but increased DHEA levels specifically in adrenal glands and liver; these effects were quickly normalized with refeeding. DHEA can be metabolized within specific brain regions to testosterone and E2, which promote the expression of aggression. We measured E2 in microdissected brain regions and found that fasting specifically increased local E2 levels in 3 regions: the periaqueductal gray, ventral tegmental area, and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. These regions are part of the vertebrate social behavior network and regulate the expression of aggression. Together, these data suggest that fasting stimulates secretion of DHEA from the adrenals and liver and subsequent conversion of DHEA to E2 within specific brain regions, to enable individuals to compete for limited food resources. PMID:23939990

Fokidis, H Bobby; Prior, Nora H; Soma, Kiran K

2013-11-01

98

The avian embryo: a powerfil model system for studying neural induction  

E-print Network

The avian embryo: a powerfil model system for studying neural induction CLAUDIO 1). STERN, New York 10032, USA 0892-6638/94/0008-0687/$01 .50. © FASEB 687 ABSTRACT Neural induction induction studies. Another advantage of the avian embryo is that it possesses a peripheral extraembryonic

Stern, Claudio

99

The Detector System for the Stratospheric Kinetic Inductance Polarimeter ( Skip)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stratospheric kinetic inductance polarimeter is a proposed balloon-borne experiment designed to study the cosmic microwave background, the cosmic infrared background and Galactic dust emission by observing 1,133 deg of sky in the Northern Hemisphere with launches from Kiruna, Sweden. The instrument contains 2,317 single-polarization, horn-coupled, aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors ( Lekids). The Lekids will be maintained at 100 mK with an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The polarimeter operates in two configurations, one sensitive to a spectral band centered on 150 GHz and the other sensitive to 260 and 350 GHz bands. The detector readout system is based on the ROACH-1 board, and the detectors will be biased below 300 MHz. The detector array is fed by an F/2.4 crossed-Dragone telescope with a 500 mm aperture yielding a 15 arcmin FWHM beam at 150 GHz. To minimize detector loading and maximize sensitivity, the entire optical system will be cooled to 1 K. Linearly polarized sky signals will be modulated with a metal-mesh half-wave plate that is mounted at the telescope aperture and rotated by a superconducting magnetic bearing. The observation program consists of at least two, 5-day flights beginning with the 150 GHz observations.

Johnson, B. R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Araujo, D.; Bradford, K. J.; Chapman, D.; Day, P. K.; Didier, J.; Doyle, S.; Eriksen, H. K.; Flanigan, D.; Groppi, C.; Hillbrand, S.; Jones, G.; Limon, M.; Mauskopf, P.; McCarrick, H.; Miller, A.; Mroczkowski, T.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, B.; Smiley, B.; Sobrin, J.; Wehus, I. K.; Zmuidzinas, J.

2014-09-01

100

Topical Steroid-Damaged Skin  

PubMed Central

Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder.

Abraham, Anil; Roga, Gillian

2014-01-01

101

Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

2011-01-01

102

Forward and reverse control system for induction motors  

DOEpatents

A control system for controlling the direction of rotation of a rotor of an induction motor includes an array of five triacs with one of the triacs applying a current of fixed phase to the windings of the rotor and four of the triacs being switchable to apply either hot ac current or return ac current to the stator windings so as to reverse the phase of current in the stator relative to that of the rotor and thereby reverse the direction of rotation of the rotor. Switching current phase in the stator is accomplished by operating the gates of pairs of the triacs so as to connect either hot ac current or return ac current to the input winding of the stator. 1 fig.

Wright, J.T.

1987-09-15

103

Uptake and depletion of plasma 17alpha-methyltestosterone during induction of masculinization in muskellunge, Esox masquinongy: effect on plasma steroids and sex reversal.  

PubMed

Oral administration of 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) was used to induce masculinization of sexually undifferentiated muskellunge, Esox masquinongy. Three groups of muskellunge (mean weight, 2.5 +/- 0.6 g) were submitted to MT treatment (15 mg of MT/kg) for 60 days. An additional one group was used as a control (hormone-free diet). Food was distributed over a 10-h period by using automatic belt feeders. Blood was sampled in both control and treated fish at different intervals during and after feeding: before (0 h), at 3 h, 6 h, and cessation of feeding (10 h), and after a fast of 22 h (32 h). MT had no significant effect on growth and survival in muskellunge 6 months after the treatment. Concentrations of plasma MT increased during the feeding period and reached their maximum levels 6 or 10 h after starting feeding. This rapid increase of MT indicated a rapid absorption of this steroid. Plasma MT levels then declined and reached a radir by 22 h after cessation of feeding, suggesting that MT is rapidly metabolized and excreted. The profiles of plasma testosterone during the MT treatment did not differ significantly between control and MT-treated groups. During and after the MT treatment, the concentration of plasma testosterone did not differ significantly between control and MT-treated groups. Moreover, no sexual dimorphism of testosterone levels was observed. Six months after treatment, the sex ratio in MT-treated groups (33% males, 62% females, and 5% intersex) was opposite to control (70% and 30%, respectively) and differed significantly. This suggests that at 15 mg of MT/kg over 60 days, a paradoxical feminization took place. PMID:10493596

Rinchard, J; Dabrowski, K; Garcia-Abiado, M A; Ottobre, J

1999-08-01

104

The effects of aging on the central nervous system steroid profiles and myelin basic protein in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aging on the central nervous system steroid and myelin basic protein (MBP) profiles. Forty-seven male Sprague-Dawley rats (newborn, 1, 6, 12 and 24-monthsold) were studied. Tissues were obtained from the cerebellum and parietal, frontal, temporal cortex of the central nervous system of the rats for steroid extraction. The estradiol, progesteron, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The average levels of estradiol (pg/g), progesteron (ng/g), DHEA (ng/g) and testosterone (ng/g) in the brain tissues were respectively 24.29, 4.59, 0.27, 0.92 in the newborn-rats; 4.18 ± 1.10, 1.54 ± 0.30, 0.28 ± 0.01, 0.57 ± 0.10 in the 1 month-old-rats; 11.02 ± 1.10, 2.96 ± 0.30, 0.27 ± 0.01, 0.61 ± 0.10 in the 6 month-old-rats; 15.80 ± 1.10, 4.80 ± 0.30, 0.28 ± 0.10, 0.67 ± 0.10 in the 12 monthold- rats; 20.07 ± 1.10, 4.12 ± 0.30, 0.28 ± 0.01, 0.55±0.10 in the 24 month-old-rats. The myelin basic protein levels were determined by immunohistochemical staining and an elevation was observed in conjunction with the aging process. The results of the study indicate that the alterations in MBP, DHEA, progesterone, testosterone and estrodiol concentrations in the central nervous system of the rats during aging can be considered fundamental for future animal and human studies. PMID:21464608

Ciftci, Gulay; Yarim, Gul Fatma; Yarim, Murat; Karayigit, Mehmet Onder; Cenesiz, Sena; Nisbet, Cevat; Gultiken, Murat Erdem

2012-04-01

105

Dendritic growth gated by a steroid hormone receptor underlies increases in activity in the developing Drosophila locomotor system  

PubMed Central

As animals grow, their nervous systems also increase in size. How growth in the central nervous system is regulated and its functional consequences are incompletely understood. We explored these questions, using the larval Drosophila locomotor system as a model. In the periphery, at neuromuscular junctions, motoneurons are known to enlarge their presynaptic axon terminals in size and strength, thereby compensating for reductions in muscle excitability that are associated with increases in muscle size. Here, we studied how motoneurons change in the central nervous system during periods of animal growth. We find that within the central nervous system motoneurons also enlarge their postsynaptic dendritic arbors, by the net addition of branches, and that these scale with overall animal size. This dendritic growth is gated on a cell-by-cell basis by a specific isoform of the steroid hormone receptor ecdysone receptor-B2, for which functions have thus far remained elusive. The dendritic growth is accompanied by synaptic strengthening and results in increased neuronal activity. Electrical properties of these neurons, however, are independent of ecdysone receptor-B2 regulation. We propose that these structural dendritic changes in the central nervous system, which regulate neuronal activity, constitute an additional part of the adaptive response of the locomotor system to increases in body and muscle size as the animal grows. PMID:24043825

Zwart, Maarten F.; Randlett, Owen; Evers, Jan Felix; Landgraf, Matthias

2013-01-01

106

Birdsong and the neural production of steroids  

PubMed Central

The forebrain circuits involved in singing and audition (the ‘song system’) in songbirds exhibit a remarkable capacity to synthesize and respond to steroid hormones. This review considers how local brain steroid production impacts the development, sexual differentiation, and activity of song system circuitry. The songbird forebrain contains all of the enzymes necessary for the de novo synthesis of steroids - including neuroestrogens - from cholesterol. Steroid production enzymes are found in neuronal cell bodies, but they are also expressed in pre-synaptic terminals in the song system, indicating a novel mode of brain steroid delivery to local circuits. The song system expresses nuclear hormone receptors, consistent with local action of brain-derived steroids. Local steroid production also occurs in brain regions that do not express nuclear hormone receptors, suggesting a non-classical mode-of-action. Recent evidence indicates that local steroid levels can change rapidly within the forebrain, in a manner similar to traditional neuromodulators. Lastly, we consider growing evidence for modulatory interactions between brain-derived steroids and neurotransmitter/neuropeptide networks within the song system. Songbirds have therefore emerged as a rich and powerful model system to explore the neural and neurochemical regulation of social behavior. PMID:19589382

Remage-Healey, Luke; London, Sarah E.; Schinger, Barney A.

2009-01-01

107

Effects of adrenocortical steroids on long-term potentiation in the limbic system: Basic mechanisms and behavioral consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hippocampal structures are a major target for adrenal steroid hormones, and hence these neural regions are some of the most likely mediators of the effects of adrenocortical steroids on behavior. Memory disturbance, in particular biasing toward negative contents, are part of the symptomatology presented by depressive patients. In turn, a sizeable subset of depression also presents with hypercortisolemia. Adrenocortical hormones

B. Dubrovsky; K. Gijsbers; D. Filipini; M. K. Birmingham

1993-01-01

108

Module Eight: Induction; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The module covers in greater depth electromagnetic induction, its effects, and how it is used to advantage in electrical circuits; and the physical components, called inductors, designed to take advantage of the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. This module is divided into four lessons: electromagnetism; inductors and flux density, inducing…

Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

109

Variation in steroid hormone levels among Caribbean Anolis lizards: endocrine system convergence?  

PubMed

Variation in aggression among species can be due to a number of proximate and ultimate factors, leading to patterns of divergent and convergent evolution of behavior among even closely related species. Caribbean Anolis lizards are well known for their convergence in microhabitat use and morphology, but they also display marked convergence in social behavior and patterns of aggression. We studied 18 Anolis species across six ecomorphs on four different Caribbean islands to test four main hypotheses. We hypothesized that species differences in aggression would be due to species differences in circulating testosterone (T), a steroid hormone implicated in numerous studies across vertebrate taxa as a primary determinant of social behavior; more aggressive species were expected to have higher baseline concentrations of T and corticosterone. We further hypothesized that low-T species would increase T and corticosterone levels during a social challenge. Within three of the four island assemblages studied we found differences in T levels among species within an island that differ in aggression, but in the opposite pattern than predicted: more aggressive species had lower baseline T than the least aggressive species. The fourth island, Puerto Rico, showed the pattern of baseline T levels among species we predicted. There were no patterns of corticosterone levels among species or ecomorphs. One of the two species tested increased T in response to a social challenge, but neither species elevated corticosterone. Our results suggest that it is possible for similarities in aggression among closely related species to evolve via different proximate mechanisms. PMID:24662425

Husak, Jerry F; Lovern, Matthew B

2014-04-01

110

Development of a Native Escherichia coli Induction System for Ionic Liquid Tolerance  

E-print Network

Development of a Native Escherichia coli Induction System for Ionic Liquid Tolerance Marijke the growth and function of biofuel-producing microorganisms. In E. coli this toxicity can be partially J, Batth TS, Turner WJ, et al. (2014) Development of a Native Escherichia coli Induction System

Dunlop, Mary

111

Transport phenomena in an aluminum nitride induction heating sublimation growth system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an integrated model considering induction heating, thermal system design, mass transport and growth kinetics has been developed to study temperature distribution in an aluminum nitride (AlN) growth system and evolution of the crystal interface and source surface. The electromagnetic field and induction heat generation are calculated by the Maxwell equations. Temperature distribution in the growth chamber is

Bei Wu; Hui Zhang

2004-01-01

112

Operational Limits of a Commercial Gate Turn-Off Thyristor for Inductive-Store Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the testing of a commercially avail- able gate turn-off thyristor (GTO) for application in inductive- store power supplies. GTOs have been used as a component of inductive-store systems directly and as part of compound switches. These GTOs are generally available commercially and typically have extensive datasheets. However, the inductive-store applica- tion differs significantly from conventional switching applications,

A. Sitzman; D. Surls; J. Mallick; E. Dierks

2011-01-01

113

Role of steroids in the maturation of ovine oocytes Institute of Animal Physiology, Animal Research Station  

E-print Network

Role of steroids in the maturation of ovine oocytes R. M. MOOR Institute of Animal Physiology of oocytes in sheep. Steroid function during the inductive phase is characterized by (i) elevated levels of progesterone (0.4 and 0.8 nmol/ml in vitro and in vivo respectively). Steroid support is not required

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 100 (2006) 317 Effects of acetylation, polymerase phosphorylation, and DNA  

E-print Network

Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 100 (2006) 3­17 Effects of acetylation, Yunguang Suna, Carson Chowb, Yves G. Pommierc, S. Stoney Simons Jr.a, a Steroid Hormones Section, NIDDK 2006 Abstract Varying the concentration of selected factors alters the induction properties of steroid

115

Design and implementation of PLC-based monitoring control system for induction motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of a monitoring and control system for the induction motor based on programmable logic controller (PLC) technology is described. Also, the implementation of the hardware and software for speed control and protection with the results obtained from tests on induction motor performance is provided. The PLC correlates the operational parameters to the speed requested by the user and

Maria G. Ioannides

2004-01-01

116

Inhaled Steroid Drugs  

MedlinePLUS

... One is a class of drugs called inhaled steroids. There are six medicines in this class. To ... choose among them, Consumer Reports has analyzed the steroid inhalers based on their effectiveness, safety, dosing convenience, ...

117

NDCX-II PULSED POWER SYSTEM AND INDUCTION CELLS  

SciTech Connect

The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is currently finalizing the design of NDCX-II, the second phase of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, which will use an ion beam to explore Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target hydrodynamics. The ion induction accelerator will include induction cells and Blumleins from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A test stand has been built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test refurbished ATA induction cells and pulsed power hardware for voltage holding and ability to produce various compression and acceleration waveforms. The performance requirements, design modifications, and test results will be presented.

Waldron, W.L.; Reginato, L.L.; Leitner, M.

2009-06-01

118

Space fabrication demonstration system. [beam builder and induction fastening  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development effort on the composite beam cap fabricator was completed within cost and close to abbreviated goals. The design and analysis of flight weight primary and secondary beam builder structures proceeded satisfactorily but remains curtailed until further funding is made available to complete the work. The induction fastening effort remains within cost and schedule constraints. Tests of the LARC prototype induction welder is continuing in an instrumented test stand comprised of a Dumore drill press (air over oil feed for variable applied loads) and a dynamometer to measure actual welding loads. Continued testing shows that the interface screening must be well impregnated with resin to ensure proper flow when bonding graphite-acrylic lap shear samples. Specimens prepared from 0.030 inch thick graphite-polyethersulfone are also available for future induction fastening evaluation.

1980-01-01

119

Induction-generator-based system providing regulated voltage with constant frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical characteristics of an isolated induction-generator-based system are improved through the association with a voltage-source pulsewidth modulation (PWM) inverter. The electronic converter allows the achievement of a better system behavior in many aspects: voltage regulation, frequency stabilization, and reactive power compensation. The system operation strategy consists of maintaining constant synchronous frequency at the induction generator via an association with

Enes Gonçalves Marra; José Antenor Pomilio

2000-01-01

120

Power factor control system for ac induction motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A power control circuit for an induction motor is disclosed in which a servo loop is used to control power input by controlling the power factor of motor operation. The power factor is measured by summing the voltage and current derived square wave signals.

Nola, F. J. (inventor)

1981-01-01

121

21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1385 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic...

2014-04-01

122

Steroids as ?-secretase modulators  

PubMed Central

Aggregation and accumulation of A?42 play an initiating role in Alzheimer's disease (AD); thus, selective lowering of A?42 by ?-secretase modulators (GSMs) remains a promising approach to AD therapy. Based on evidence suggesting that steroids may influence A? production, we screened 170 steroids at 10 ?M for effects on A?42 secreted from human APP-overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary cells. Many acidic steroids lowered A?42, whereas many nonacidic steroids actually raised A?42. Studies on the more potent compounds showed that A?42-lowering steroids were bonafide GSMs and A?42-raising steroids were inverse GSMs. The most potent steroid GSM identified was 5?-cholanic acid (EC50=5.7 ?M; its endogenous analog lithocholic acid was virtually equipotent), and the most potent inverse GSM identified was 4-androsten-3-one-17?-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (EC50=6.25 ?M). In addition, we found that both estrogen and progesterone are weak inverse GSMs with further complex effects on APP processing. These data suggest that certain endogenous steroids may have the potential to act as GSMs and add to the evidence that cholesterol, cholesterol metabolites, and other steroids may play a role in modulating A? production and thus risk for AD. They also indicate that acidic steroids might serve as potential therapeutic leads for drug optimization/development.—Jung, J. I., Ladd, T. B., Kukar, T., Price, A. R., Moore, B. D., Koo, E. H., Golde, T. E., Felsenstein, K. M. Steroids as ?-secretase modulators. PMID:23716494

Jung, Joo In; Ladd, Thomas B.; Kukar, Thomas; Price, Ashleigh R.; Moore, Brenda D.; Koo, Edward H.; Golde, Todd E.; Felsenstein, Kevin M.

2013-01-01

123

Steroid metabolizing enzymes in pluripotential progenitor central nervous system cells: Effect of differentiation and maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel in vitro system which allows extensive culturing of multipotential stem cells from mouse brain has made it possible to test whether enzymes that metabolize androgens and progestagens are present in undifferentiated central nervous system progenitor cells. Embryonic day 14 striatal cells were grown in the presence of either 20 ng\\/ml of epidermal growth factor (which prevents cell differentiation),

R. C. Melcangi; P. Froelichsthal; L. Martini; A. L. Vescovi

1996-01-01

124

One-pot organocatalytic enantioselective Michael-Michael-aldol-Henry reaction cascade. A facile entry to the steroid system with six contiguous stereogenic centers.  

PubMed

An expedited method has been developed for the enantioselective synthesis of highly functionalized steroid systems containing six contiguous stereogenic centers with high enantioselectivities (99% ee). The one-pot methodology comprises a cascade of organocatalytic Michael-Michael-aldol-Henry reactions of 7-nitrohept-3-en-2-one and 5-(1-methyl-2,5-dioxocyclopentyl)pent-2-enal. The structure and absolute configuration of the products were confirmed by X-ray analyses of appropriate products. PMID:24796861

Jhuo, Dai-Huei; Hong, Bor-Cherng; Chang, Chun-Wei; Lee, Gene-Hsiang

2014-05-16

125

Analysis of electromechanical interactions in a flywheel system with a doubly fed induction machine  

E-print Network

This paper analyzes the electromechanical inter-action in a flywheel system with a doubly fed induction machine, used for wind farm power smoothing or grid frequency response control. The grid-connected electrical machine ...

Ran, Li

126

Steroid response in refractory asthmatics.  

PubMed

Inhaled glucocorticosteroids are currently the most effective anti-inflammatory controller medications for treating persistent asthma. The efficacies of glucocorticoids include reducing asthma symptoms, reducing exacerbation frequency, improving quality of life, improving lung function, decreasing airway hyperresponsiveness, controlling airway inflammation, and reducing mortality. However, the treatment response to glucocorticosteroids in asthmatics varies, and certain subtypes of asthma, such as refractory asthma, respond poorly to high-dose inhaled glucocorticoid and systemic steroids. The medical costs of treating refractory asthmatics represent about 50% of the total healthcare cost for asthma. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms of glucocorticoid action, patient responses to glucocorticoids, and steroid resistance observed in refractory asthmatics is necessary for the targeted development of therapeutic drugs. This review discusses the characteristics of severe refractory asthmatics and the mechanisms of steroid response and resistance in asthma treatment. PMID:22707883

Jang, An-Soo

2012-06-01

127

Steroid Response in Refractory Asthmatics  

PubMed Central

Inhaled glucocorticosteroids are currently the most effective anti-inflammatory controller medications for treating persistent asthma. The efficacies of glucocorticoids include reducing asthma symptoms, reducing exacerbation frequency, improving quality of life, improving lung function, decreasing airway hyperresponsiveness, controlling airway inflammation, and reducing mortality. However, the treatment response to glucocorticosteroids in asthmatics varies, and certain subtypes of asthma, such as refractory asthma, respond poorly to high-dose inhaled glucocorticoid and systemic steroids. The medical costs of treating refractory asthmatics represent about 50% of the total healthcare cost for asthma. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms of glucocorticoid action, patient responses to glucocorticoids, and steroid resistance observed in refractory asthmatics is necessary for the targeted development of therapeutic drugs. This review discusses the characteristics of severe refractory asthmatics and the mechanisms of steroid response and resistance in asthma treatment. PMID:22707883

2012-01-01

128

A multilevel inverter system for an induction motor with open-end windings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a multilevel inverter system for an open-end winding induction motor drive is described. Multilevel inversion is achieved by feeding an open-end winding induction motor with two two-level inverters in cascade (equivalent to a three-level inverter) from one end and a single two-level inverter from the other end of the motor. The combined inverter system with open-end winding

V. T. Somasekhar; K. Gopakumar; M. R. Baiju; Krishna K. Mohapatra; L. Umanand

2005-01-01

129

Iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism during topical steroid therapy: assessment of systemic effects by metabolic criteria.  

PubMed

Systemic absorption of topically applied glucocorticoids in quantities sufficient to replace endogenous production is not uncommon. However, iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome resulting from the use of topical corticosteroids is very rare. Thus the possibility that systemic absorption may cause hyperglucocorticism has been deemphasized and examined only sporadically. We have studied changes in carbohydrate metabolism induced by topical glucocorticoids in a psoriatic patient who had developed Cushing's syndrome from topical desoximetasone (Topicort). The results indicated that (1) fasting hyperglycemia and increased insulin-glucose ratios could be induced within 24 hours of administration of topical glucocorticoids, (2) insulin resistance accompanied abnormal carbohydrate tolerance, and (3) fluctuations in circulating leukocytes paralleled the changes in carbohydrate metabolism. The findings suggest that metabolic indexes of glucocorticoid action action may provide useful parameters for assessing systemic absorption of topical glucocorticoids. glucose relationship as one such index to assess the risk of treatment of extensive chronic skin disease with potent topical glucocorticoids. PMID:7047591

Cook, L J; Freinkel, R K; Zugerman, C; Levin, D L; Radtke, R

1982-06-01

130

Lead and Cadmium Co-exposure Mediated Toxic Insults on Hepatic Steroid Metabolism and Antioxidant System of Adult Male Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The redox status and steroid metabolism of liver of adult male rat exposed to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) either alone or in\\u000a co-exposure (0.025 mg\\/kg body weight intraperitoneally\\/15 days) was studied. Pb and Cd significantly accumulated in the liver.\\u000a The activity of steroid metabolizing enzymes 17-?hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase and uridine diphosphate–glucuronyltransferase\\u000a were decreased in experimental animals. 17-?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was reduced to 33%,

Chirayu D. Pandya; Prakash P. Pillai; Sarita S. Gupta

2010-01-01

131

The intermediary role of a steroid 8,14-dien-3?-ol system in ergosterol biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

1. A mechanism for the removal of the 14?-methyl group in ergosterol biosynthesis that involves the intermediacy of an 8,14-diene system is outlined. 2. In accordance with the requirements of this scheme, it is shown that 5?-ergosta-8,14-dien-3?-ol is converted into ergosterol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:5378375

Akhtar, M.; Brooks, W. A.; Watkinson, I. A.

1969-01-01

132

Systemic absorption of topical steroids. Metabolic effects as an index of mild hypercortisolism.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine whether the commonly used treatment of psoriasis with potent topical glucocorticoids results in hypercortisolism and whether metabolic changes might provide a means for monitoring pharmacologic effects of excessive systemic absorption of glucocorticoids. Plasma cortisol, glucose, and insulin and circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes were assessed under controlled conditions in five otherwise healthy patients with psoriasis (40% to 85% involvement) treated with topical desoximetasone, without occlusion. In all patients, there were rapid and sustained suppression of endogenous cortisol production, twofold to threefold increases in fasting insulin levels indicating insulin resistance, and elevated levels of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Two patients also experienced reduced glucose tolerance. These findings suggest that application of potent corticosteroids to large areas of diseased skin results in sufficient systemic absorption to cause not only adrenal suppression but some degree of hypercortisolism with greater frequency and rapidity than has been suggested. Prospective monitoring of insulin-glucose relationships as a sensitive index of the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids may provide a means of assessing excess systemic absorption that is not predictable on the basis of adrenal suppression or circulating levels of the drug. Such prediction could have particular relevance in anticipating adverse clinical effects in the treatment of chronic skin disorders with potent topical glucocorticoids. PMID:3527074

Garden, J M; Freinkel, R K

1986-09-01

133

Bibliography on the application of induction generators in nonconventional energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction generators are increasingly being used in nonconventional energy systems such as wind, mini\\/micro-hydro, biogas, etc. The advantages of using an induction generator instead of synchronous generator are well known. Some of them are reduced unit cost and size, ruggedness, absence of separate DC source, ease of maintenance, self-protection against severe overloads and short circuits, etc. An attempt is made

R. C. Bansal; T. S. Bhatti; D. P. Kothari

2003-01-01

134

Age-Related Cochlear Cytokine Gene Expression in the BALB/cJ Mouse with Systemic versus Intra-tympanic Dosing of Steroid Drugs  

PubMed Central

Conclusion Age-related differences in the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the inner ear may contribute to the development of age-related hearing loss. Objectives Age-related hearing loss is characterized by tissue remodeling, ischemia, ion homeostasis, and inflammation. Steroid therapy is an otoprotective strategy that likely acts by reducing inflammation. We examined age-related changes in cytokine gene expression in the cochlea of the BALB/cJ mouse model of premature age-related hearing loss after systemic or intra-tympanic steroid delivery. Methods “Young” (2.5-3 months) and “Old” (5-9 months) mice were treated with dexamethasone or fludrocortisone administered either orally or intra-tympanically. Cytokine gene expression in cochlear RNA was analyzed using prefabricated cDNA arrays. Old groups were compared to Young to identify age-related changes. Results Down-regulation of a cytokine associated with bone remodeling (SPP1) was observed in the untreated Old group. Numerous genes were up- or down-regulated by more than two-fold by steroid treatment, including pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-16) and anti-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:23768053

Tokarz, Sara A.; Pang, Jiaqing; Grosz, Anna; Kempton, J. Beth; Trune, Dennis R.; Pillers, De-Ann M.

2014-01-01

135

[Gender and the effects of steroid hormones in the central nervous system].  

PubMed

Degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, the incidence and prevalence of which vary between men and women, often manifest in the hippocampus. Neurosteroids are hormones that are synthesized in the CNS, and it is here that they exert their influence. Estrogen and testosterone are examples of neurosteroid hormones. In the hippocampus, an area of the brain closely associated with learning and memory, the local synthesis of estrogen in females, but not in males, is essential for the plasticity and stability of the synapses. The inhibition of estrogen synthesis in the female hippocampus causes a reduction in long-term potentiation (LTP), an electrophysiological parameter of learning and memory, thus resulting in a significant loss of synapses. In light of this, the fact that estrogen has been attributed with many neuroprotective functions in degenerative diseases of the CNS suggests that therapeutic concepts involving the use of estrogen are possibly only effective in women, but not in men. These findings similarly provide a basis for explaining the gender dimorphism that has been found in certain degenerative illnesses of the CNS. PMID:25091372

Brandt, N; Vierk, R; Fester, L; Zhou, L; Imholz, P; Rune, G M

2014-09-01

136

Switching from systemic steroids to ciclesonide restores the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Treatment of difficult asthma with oral corticosteroids (OCS) may suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Aim In this study we have checked if the substitution of OCS with very high doses of ciclesonide may restore the adrenal function without losing the control of the disease. Material and methods In 5 patients with difficult, uncontrolled asthma despite treatment with OCS, inhaled and systemic glucocorticosteroids were replaced with very high doses of ciclesonide (1600–2400 µg/day). The symptoms of asthma and the lung function were assessed at baseline and on the 28th, 56th and 70th day of treatment, whereas the levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the morning were measured at baseline and on the 28th and the 56th day of treatment. Results In all patients, the control of asthma symptoms, measured with Asthma Control Test questionnaire, improved from the mean score of 9.4 to 19.8 in 70 days. In 4 subjects force expiratory volume in 1 s improved gradually through the entire study reaching a mean improvement of 585 ml in 70 days. The ACTH levels were normalized in 3 patients after 28 days of observation and in all patients after 56 days. The cortisol level was normalized in 4 patients after 28 days and in another subject after 56 days of treatment with ciclesonide. Conclusions Switching from prednisone to very high doses of ciclesonide normalized the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis function and also improved the disease control and the lung function in these 5 patients with difficult asthma. PMID:25097469

Ciebiada, Maciej; Gorski, Pawel

2014-01-01

137

System modeling for the longitudinal beam dynamics control problem in heavy ion induction accelerators  

SciTech Connect

We address the problem of developing system models that are suitable for studying the control of the longitudinal beam dynamics in induction accelerators for heavy ions. In particular, we present the preliminary results of our efforts to devise a general framework for building detailed, integrated models of accelerator systems consisting of pulsed power modular circuits, induction cells, beam dynamics, and control system elements. Such a framework will permit us to analyze and design the pulsed power modulators and the control systems required to effect precise control over the longitudinal beam dynamics.

Payne, A.N.

1993-05-17

138

ent-Steroids: Novel Tools for Studies of Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Membrane receptors are often modulated by steroids and it is necessary to distinguish the effects of steroids at these receptors from effects occurring at nuclear receptors. Additionally, it may also be mechanistically important to distinguish between direct effects caused by binding of steroids to membrane receptors and indirect effects on membrane receptor function caused by steroid perturbation of the membrane containing the receptor. In this regard, ent-steroids, the mirror images of naturally occurring steroids, are novel tools for distinguishing between these various actions of steroids. The review provides a background for understanding the different actions that can be expected of steroids and ent-steroids in biological systems, references for the preparation of ent-steroids, a short discussion about relevant forms of stereoisomerism and the requirements that need to be fulfilled for the interaction between two molecules to be enantioselective. The review then summarizes results of biophysical, biochemical and pharmacological studies published since 1992 in which ent-steroids have been used to investigate the actions of steroids in membranes and/or receptor-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:19103212

Covey, Douglas F.

2008-01-01

139

Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

... Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series Anabolic Steroids Home / Educators / NIDA Teaching Guides / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Anabolic Steroids Print Anabolic steroids are artificial versions of a ...

140

Induction motor control system with voltage controlled oscillator circuit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A voltage controlled oscillator circuit is reported in which there are employed first and second differential amplifiers. The first differential amplifier, being employed as an integrator, develops equal and opposite slopes proportional to an input voltage, and the second differential amplifier functions as a comparator to detect equal amplitude positive and negative selected limits and provides switching signals which gate a transistor switch. The integrating differential amplifier is switched between charging and discharging modes to provide an output of the first differential amplifier which upon the application of wave shaping provides a substantially sinusoidal output signal. A two phased version with a second integrator provides a second 90 deg phase shifted output for induction motor control.

Nola, F. J.; Currie, J. R.; Reid, H., Jr. (inventors)

1973-01-01

141

Deposition Of Materials Using A Simple Planar Coil Radio Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasma System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A planar coil RF inductively coupled plasma (PC-RFICP) systems is set up for the purpose of thin film deposition. The system is powered by a 13.56 MHz, 550 W, 50 ? RF generator. The RF power is transferred to the plasma via a planar induction coil. The impedance matching unit consists of an air core step-down transformer and a tunable vacuum capacitor. This system is used for the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film on silicon substrate, and hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) film.

Ng, K. H.; Wong, C. S.; Yap, S. L.; Gan, S. N.

2009-07-01

142

COX isoforms in the cardiovascular system: understanding the activities of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the formation of prostanoids by the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX). Work in the past 15 years has shown that COX exists in two forms: COX1, which is largely associated with physiological functions, and COX2, which is largely associated with pathological functions. Heated debate followed the introduction of selective COX2 inhibitors around 5 years ago: do these

Jane A. Mitchell; Timothy D. Warner

2006-01-01

143

Design and simulation of a photovoltaic induction motor coupled water pumping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficiency is the sense of energy saving is a main issue in photovoltaic pumping. The objective of this work is to design and simulate an efficient battery less pumping system powered from photovoltaic panels, comprising a new push-pull converter with Induction Motor. In a photovoltaic pump-storage system, solar energy is stored, when sunlight is available as potential energy in water

2012-01-01

144

Magnetic levitation and propulsion system by single-sided linear induction motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic levitation and propulsion systems have been studied and the gap length control and propulsion control characteristics are clarified. The voltage equation for the single-sided linear induction motor (SLIM) is derived with consideration of the gap length dependence. Also, the transfer function of the control system is obtained by the state variable method to clarify the characteristics of the gap

Shigeru Tanaka; Susumu Tadakuma

1980-01-01

145

Rail Brake System Using a Linear Induction Motor for Dynamic Braking  

Microsoft Academic Search

One type of braking system for railway vehicles is the eddy current brake. Because this type of brake has the problem of rail heating, it has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of a linear induction motor (LIM) for dynamic braking in eddy current brake systems. The LIM reduces rail heating and uses

Yasuaki Sakamoto; Takayuki Kashiwagi; Minoru Tanaka; Hitoshi Hasegawa; Takashi Sasakawa; Nobuo Fujii

2009-01-01

146

Steady-State Analysis of Multimachine System with Self-Excited Induction Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an attempt has been made to analyze a multimachine system composed of a number of self-excited induction generators (SEIG). A simple model has been proposed to carry out the steady state analysis of the system. The model results in a single equation for terminal voltage in contrast to a number of equations as obtained by many other

K. S. Sandhu

2006-01-01

147

About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases > Long-Term Control Medications > About Steroids About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids) What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’) ... considerations when your dosage changes? What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’)? Corticosteroids (steroids) are medicines that are used to ...

148

Mutual inductance Mutual induction  

E-print Network

Mutual inductance Mutual induction � current in one coil induces emf in other coil Distinguish from self-induction Mutual inductance, M21 of coil 2 with respect to coil 1 is 1 212 21 i N M = i N L B = #12;Mutual inductance Rearrange equation Vary i1 with time Faraday's law Induced emf in coil 2 due

Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

149

New steroid haptens for radioimmunoasiay: synthesis of steroids  

E-print Network

New steroid haptens for radioimmunoasiay: synthesis of steroids substituted with thioether or ester with antibodies directed uguinst Za-ulkyl bridged steroid huptens ure expected to be highly speci$c due to greater topogruphicul exposure und similurity in conf~wmution to the nutive steroid. The Za-ulkyl bridged huptens were

Desai, Umesh R

150

Formal Mathematical Systems including a Structural Induction Principle  

E-print Network

mathematical logic. #15; The recursive systems are directely embedded into formal mathematical systems, i and Pudlak [15]. 1 #12; #15; The most common formal systems of mathematical logic are covered in mathematical logic and will enable us to generate in a simple and comfortable way many recursively enumerable

Magdeburg, Universität

151

The evolution of a linear induction motor people mover system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 1975 the WEDway PeopleMover system was introduced in the Tomorrowland section of the Walt Disney World Theme Park culminating the development of a transportation concept which began with a system which was designed by Disney to transport guests thru the Ford pavilion at the 1964 New York World's Fair. A first generation WEDway PeopleMover system at Disneyland employed

W. Watkins; M. Black

1978-01-01

152

Lead and cadmium co-exposure mediated toxic insults on hepatic steroid metabolism and antioxidant system of adult male rats.  

PubMed

The redox status and steroid metabolism of liver of adult male rat exposed to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) either alone or in co-exposure (0.025 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally/15 days) was studied. Pb and Cd significantly accumulated in the liver. The activity of steroid metabolizing enzymes 17-betahydroxysteroid oxidoreductase and uridine diphosphate-glucuronyltransferase were decreased in experimental animals. 17-beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was reduced to 33%, 38%, and 24% on treatment of Pb, Cd, and co-exposure (Pb + Cd). Furthermore, the activity of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase was significantly reduced to 27% (Pb exposure), 36% (Cd exposure), and 25% (co-exposure of Pb + Cd). Cd exposure exhibited more toxic effect than Pb, while co-exposure demonstrated the least. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase decreased and glutathione peroxidase increased in mitochondrial and post-mitochondrial fractions. The level of lipid peroxidation increased, and cellular glutathione concentration decreased. Hepatic DNA was decreased, whereas RNA content and the activity of alanine transaminase remained unchanged. Histological studies revealed that only Cd-exposed groups exhibited cytotoxic effect. These results suggest that when Pb and Cd are present together in similar concentrations, they exhibited relatively decreased toxic effect when compared to lead and cadmium in isolation with regard to decreased steroid metabolizing and antioxidant enzyme activities. This seems that the toxic effect of these metals is antagonized by co-exposure due to possible competition amongst Pb and Cd for hepatic accumulation. PMID:19652923

Pandya, Chirayu D; Pillai, Prakash P; Gupta, Sarita S

2010-06-01

153

Characteristics of inductive magnetic levitation system with monopolar train loops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of the monopolar vehicular coil-type superconducting levitation system is analyzed by the steady-state periodic solution method. It is shown that this system behaves in the same way as the conventional system as regards lift force, drag force, and lift-to-drag ratio. It is also shown that the magnetic force is always positive and sufficiently strong (larger than damping time

Shigeru Okuma; Yoshifumi Amemiya

1978-01-01

154

A Three-Phase Inductive Power Transfer System for Roadway-Powered Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a new three-phase bipolar inductive power transfer system that provides power across the entire width of a roadway surface for automatic guided vehicles and people mover systems is described. A prototype system was constructed to verify the feasibility of the design for a number of moving loads (toy cars). Here, 40 A\\/phase is supplied at 38.4 kHz

Grant A. Covic; John T. Boys; Michael L. G. Kissin; Howard G. Lu

2007-01-01

155

Loss Minimizing Operation of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Generation Systems  

E-print Network

method. Keywords--wind power generation; energy efficiency; reactive power control; doubly fed induction genertaor I. INTRODUCTION Due to the increased integration of wind energy into the power system, reactive of its advantages such as high energy controllability, reduced power converter rating, etc., DFIG has

Hu, Weihao

156

Various control strategies of power converters and their effects on induction drive systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficient and safe control of electric power forms part of the key technologies of modern automated production. The proposed complete system approach takes implicit account of a very detailed converter circuit representation with discrete electronic devices and an extensive 3D squirrel cage induction modeling by finite elements. The performed time-domain analysis allows for a novel and deeper insight into

C. Grabner

2006-01-01

157

Cellular Inductive Powering System for Weakly-Linked Resonant Rodent Implants  

E-print Network

a requirement for all live rodent studies. II. THEORY A. Mutual Inductive Coupling Two inductors are mutually to Faraday's law, in the mutually coupled system of Fig. 2, the voltage induced into the far inductor, V21 coupled when they are in the reactive near-field of one another, as shown in Fig. 2. A portion

Genov, Roman

158

Induction of Fuzzy Classification Systems Using Evolutionary ACO-Based Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we have proposed an evolutionary algorithm to induct fuzzy classification rules. The algorithm uses an ant colony optimization based local searcher to improve the quality of final fuzzy classification system. The proposed algorithm is performed on intrusion detection as a high-dimensional classification problem. Results show that the implemented evolutionary ACO-Based algorithm is capable of producing a reliable

Mohammad Saniee Abadeh; Jafar Habibi; Emad Soroush

2007-01-01

159

Inductive-Deductive Systems: A mathematical logic and statistical learning perspective  

E-print Network

Inductive-Deductive Systems: A mathematical logic and statistical learning perspective Nicolas when the latter exists in the language are studied, by combining results from mathematical logic- tially undecidable theories could be considered instead of this. From a mathematical logic perspective

160

Analysis of Electromechanical Interactions in a Flywheel System With a Doubly Fed Induction Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the electromechanical interac- tion in a flywheel system with a doubly fed induction machine, used for wind farm power smoothing or grid frequency response control. The grid-connected electrical machine is subject to power control, and this can cause it to produce negative damping to the shaft torsional vibration. Resonance must be prevented, and this paper proposes a

Li Ran; Dawei Xiang; James L. Kirtley

2011-01-01

161

Analysis of Electromechanical Interactions in a Flywheel System with a Doubly Fed Induction Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the electromechanical inter-action in a flywheel system with a doubly fed induction machine, used for wind farm power smoothing or grid frequency response control. The grid-connected electrical machine is subject to power control and this can cause it to produce negative damping to the shaft torsional vibration. Resonance must be prevented and the study proposes a solution

Li Ran; Dawei Xiang; James L. Kirtley Jr

2010-01-01

162

Possible Role of DNA Methylation in the Induction of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies on epigenetics, including DNA methylation and its regulatory enzymes, seem to contribute to elucidation of the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), although the rela- tionship between DNA methylation and SLE has long been the subject of investigation. To obtain a deeper understanding of the role of DNA methylation in the induction of SLE,

Iwao Sekigawa; Mikiko Kawasaki; Hitoshi Ogasawara; Hiroshi Kaneko; Yoshinari Takasaki; Hiroshi Hashimoto; Hideoki Ogawa

2007-01-01

163

On-Line System for Fault Detection in Induction Machines Based on Wavelet Convolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor current signature analysis has been successfully used in induction machines for fault diagnosis. The method however does not always achieve good results when the load torque is not constant. For proper results temporal analysis on determined frequency harmonics is needed. This paper proposes an automatic system for fault analysis based on wavelet functions, which allows on-line fault detection on

J. Cusido; J. A. Rosero; M. Cusido; A. Garcia; J. A. Ortega; L. Romeral

2007-01-01

164

Misoprostol vaginal insert for induction of labor: a delivery system with accurate dosing and rapid discontinuation.  

PubMed

Labor induction and cervical ripening are widely utilized and new methods are constantly being investigated. Prostaglandins have been shown to be effective labor induction agents and, in particular, were compared with other prostaglandin preparations; vaginal misoprostol used off-label was associated with reduced failure to achieve vaginal delivery. The challenge is to provide this medication with the correct dosing for this indication and with the ability to discontinue the medication if needed, all while ensuring essential maternal and neonatal safety. The misoprostol vaginal insert initiates cervical ripening using a delivery system that controls misoprostol release and can be rapidly removed. This article reviews the development, safety and efficacy of the misoprostol vaginal insert for induction of labor and cervical ripening, and will focus on vaginally administered prostaglandins. PMID:24328596

Stephenson, Megan L; Hawkins, J Seth; Powers, Barbara L; Wing, Deborah A

2014-01-01

165

Analysis of Power Converter Losses in Vector Control System of a Self-Excited Induction Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides analysis of losses in the hysteresis-driven three-phase power converter with IGBTs and free-wheeling diodes. The converter under consideration is part of the self-excited induction generator (SEIG) vector control system. For the analysis, the SEIG vector control system is used in which the induction generator iron losses are taken into account. The power converter losses are determined by using a suitable loss estimation algorithm reported in literature. The chosen algorithm allows the power converter losses to be determined both by type (switching/conduction losses) and by converter component (IGBT/diode losses). The overall power converter losses are determined over wide ranges of rotor speed, dc-link voltage and load resistance, and subsequently used for offline correction of the overall control system's losses (efficiency) obtained through control system simulations with an ideal power converter. The control system's efficiency values obtained after the correction are compared with the measured values.

Baši?, Mateo; Vukadinovi?, Dinko; Poli?, Miljenko

2014-03-01

166

Microprocessor control system with rotor-flux estimator for PWM current source inverter feeding an induction machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents simulation results of an induction motor-fed PWM current source inverter (CSI), control system. This system has an estimator whose principal function is to perform contemporary calculations of rotor flux magnitude and induction machine load angle. The assumption made was that the estimator would be realized with the aid of a 16-bit microprocessor. Machine rotor flux observation error

A. Dakir; R. Barlik; M. Nowalk; P. Grochal

1996-01-01

167

Analysis, modeling and simulation of power and information transmission channel in an electromagnetic induction fuze setting system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accepted models of power and information transmission channel in electromagnetic induction fuze setting systems are not accurate because the effects of eddy currents in the fuze body are not taken into account. This paper establishes an improved accuracy mathematical model that fully considers the influence of eddy currents on the system, and the model is consisted of mutual inductance model

Changsheng Li; He Zhang

2010-01-01

168

The Natural Induction System AQ21 and Its Application to Data Describing Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: Initial Results  

E-print Network

The Natural Induction System AQ21 and Its Application to Data Describing Patients with Metabolic describes the AQ21 learning system that implements a simple form of natural induction, an approach to learning that generates hypotheses in forms resembling natural language descriptions, and by that easy

Michalski, Ryszard S.

169

Induction of systemic TNFalpha in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

The mRNA expression of eight different cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 19 individuals with multiple sclerosis was determined at baseline and after 6 months of open-label treatment with natalizumab. Cellular expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) mRNA and number of cells secreting TNFalpha and interferon gamma protein significantly increased over the 6 months. Kurtzke EDSS scores improved because of the resolution of relapses, but not fatigue severity scores. The observed increases in systemic proinflammatory cytokines by natalizumab treatment are discussed in relation to fatigue and systemic immunity. PMID:18190511

Khademi, M; Stol, D; Olsson, T; Wallström, E

2008-03-01

170

SALT segmented primary mirror: commissioning capacitive edge sensing system and performance comparison with inductive sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAMS (Segment Alignment Measurement System) is a capacitance-based edge sensing solution for the active alignment of the 10m SALT segmented primary mirror. Commissioning and calibrating the system has been an ongoing task in an attempt to counteract the unfavourable response of the sensors to high humidity conditions and high dust levels. Several solutions were implemented and tested including real-time feedback systems and the application of corrective functions. In parallel with the continuing efforts to improve the performance of the capacitive sensors, we have also been testing a prototype inductive sensor developed by Fogale Nanotech that is of a very similar flexible plate construction. In this paper we present the results obtained and performance gains achieved thus far with the capacitive edge-sensing system as well as a performance comparison of the Fogale inductive sensor to the capacitive edge sensor.

Buous, Sebastien; Menzies, John; Gajjar, Hitesh

2008-07-01

171

Knowledge Based Discovery in Systems Biology Using CF-Induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell is an entity composed of several thousand types of interacting proteins. Our goal is to comprehend the biological\\u000a system using only the revelent information which means that we will be able to reduce or to indicate the main metabolites\\u000a necessary to measure. In this paper, it is shown how the Artificial Intelligence description method functioning on the basis

Andrei Doncescu; Katsumi Inoue; Yoshitaka Yamamoto

2007-01-01

172

Transient performance of parallel operated wind driven self excited induction generator system  

SciTech Connect

The transient performance of an isolated network containing a number of parallel connected SEIGs [Self Excited Induction Generators] is studied when loaded by a single motor. The control technique used to switch on or off any of the system machines is explained. For motor starting, two different techniques are studied employing starting capacitors or soft starting method. The system performance during and after the switching action takes place is investigated.

Sakkoury, K.S. [Electronics Research Inst., Giza (Egypt)

1995-12-31

173

Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4{prime}-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit {sup 3}H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations.

Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E. (Georgetown Univ. School of Medicine, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-12-01

174

Pharmacology of anabolic steroids  

PubMed Central

Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic–androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided. PMID:18500378

Kicman, A T

2008-01-01

175

Pharmacology of anabolic steroids.  

PubMed

Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic-androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided. PMID:18500378

Kicman, A T

2008-06-01

176

Impact of nandrolone decanoate on gene expression in endocrine systems related to the adverse effects of anabolic androgenic steroids.  

PubMed

Elite athletes, body builders and adolescents misuse anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) in order to increase muscle mass or to enhance physical endurance and braveness. The high doses misused are associated with numerous adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic supratherapeutic AAS treatment on circulating hormones and gene expression in peripheral tissues related to such adverse effects. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure expression levels of in total 37 genes (including peptide hormones, cell membrane receptors, nuclear receptors, steroid synthesising enzymes and other enzymes) in the pituitary, testes, adrenals, adipose tissue, kidneys and liver of male Sprague-Dawley rats after 14-day administration of the AAS nandrolone decanoate, 3 or 15 mg/kg. Plasma glucose and levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), adiponectin, corticosterone, ghrelin, insulin and leptin were also measured. We found several expected effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, while the treatment also caused a number of other not previously identified changes in circulating factors and gene transcription levels such as the dose-dependent reduction of the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor in adipose tissue, reduction of both circulating and mRNA levels of adiponectin, up-regulation of both hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo synthesis of cholesterol, and the receptor for ACTH in the adrenals. The results provide evidence for wide ranging effects of AAS on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, adipose tissue and substrates of the renal control of blood pressure. PMID:19549128

Alsiö, Johan; Birgner, Carolina; Björkblom, Lars; Isaksson, Pernilla; Bergström, Lena; Schiöth, Helgi B; Lindblom, Jonas

2009-11-01

177

Severe and Steroid-Resistant Crohn’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with moderate-to-severe disease and patients with steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent disease differ in their management, as the latter two groups usually involve patients whose condition is less acute. Systemic corticosteroids represent the mainstay of the management of moderate-to-severe disease and remain the first-line therapy in this setting. Anti-TNF agents represent choice alternatives for patients who do not respond to steroids

Pierre Michetti; Christian Mottet; Pascal Juillerat; Valérie Pittet; Christian Felley; John-Paul Vader; Jean-Jacques Gonvers; Florian Froehlich

2007-01-01

178

A Power-Efficient Wireless Capacitor Charging System Through an Inductive Link  

PubMed Central

A power-efficient wireless capacitor charging system for inductively powered applications has been presented. A bank of capacitors can be directly charged from an ac source by generating a current through a series charge injection capacitor and a capacitor charger circuit. The fixed charging current reduces energy loss in switches, while maximizing the charging efficiency. An adaptive capacitor tuner compensates for the resonant capacitance variations during charging to keep the amplitude of the ac input voltage at its peak. We have fabricated the capacitor charging system prototype in a 0.35-?m 4-metal 2-poly standard CMOS process in 2.1 mm2 of chip area. It can charge four pairs of capacitors sequentially. While receiving 2.7-V peak ac input through a 2-MHz inductive link, the capacitor charging system can charge each pair of 1 ?F capacitors up to ±2 V in 420 ?s, achieving a high measured charging efficiency of 82%. PMID:24678284

Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2014-01-01

179

Determination of induction period and crystal growth mechanism of dexamethasone sodium phosphate in methanol–acetone system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction period of dexamethasone sodium phosphate at different supersaturation was experimentally determined in a methanol–acetone system. The laser monitoring observation technique was used to determine the appearance of the first nucleus in solution. The effect of solution composition on induction period was discussed. Based on classical homogeneous nucleation theory, the solid–liquid interfacial tension and surface entropy factor were calculated

Hongxun Hao; Jingkang Wang; Yongli Wang

2005-01-01

180

Development of a Respiratory Inductive Plethysmography Module Supporting Multiple Sensors for Wearable Systems  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present an RIP module with the features of supporting multiple inductive sensors, no variable frequency LC oscillator, low power consumption, and automatic gain adjustment for each channel. Based on the method of inductance measurement without using a variable frequency LC oscillator, we further integrate pulse amplitude modulation and time division multiplexing scheme into a module to support multiple RIP sensors. All inductive sensors are excited by a high-frequency electric current periodically and momentarily, and the inductance of each sensor is measured during the time when the electric current is fed to it. To improve the amplitude response of the RIP sensors, we optimize the sensing unit with a matching capacitor parallel with each RIP sensor forming a frequency selection filter. Performance tests on the linearity of the output with cross-sectional area and the accuracy of respiratory volume estimation demonstrate good linearity and accurate lung volume estimation. Power consumption of this new RIP module with two sensors is very low. The performance of respiration measurement during movement is also evaluated. This RIP module is especially desirable for wearable systems with multiple RIP sensors for long-term respiration monitoring. PMID:23201991

Zhang, Zhengbo; Zheng, Jiewen; Wu, Hao; Wang, Weidong; Wang, Buqing; Liu, Hongyun

2012-01-01

181

Marketing Intelligent Systems for consumer behaviour modelling by a descriptive induction approach based on Genetic Fuzzy Systems  

E-print Network

Marketing Intelligent Systems for consumer behaviour modelling by a descriptive induction approach and Artificial Intelligence, Computer and Telecommunication Engineering School, University of Granada, Granada, E-18071, Spain a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t Article history: Received 2 March 2007 Received

Casillas Barranquero, Jorge

182

Use of fuzzy inference system for condition monitoring of induction motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three phase induction motors are commonly used in industry due to its robustness, simplicity of its construction and high reliability. The tasks performed by these motors grow increasingly complex because of modern industries hence there is a need to determine the faults. Early detection of faults will reduce an unscheduled machine downtime that can upset production deadlines and may cause heavy financial losses. This paper is focused in developing a computer based system using Fuzzy Inference system's membership function. An unusual increase in vibration of the motor could be an indicator of faulty condition hence the vibration of the motor of an induction motor was used as an input, whereas the output is the motor condition. An inference system of the Fuzzy Logic was created to classify the vibration characteristics of the motor which is called vibration analysis. The system classified the motor of the gas distribution pump condition as from 'acceptable' to 'monitor closely'. The early detection of unusual increase in vibration of the induction motor is an important part of a predictive maintenance for motor driven machinery.

Janier, Josefina B.; Zaim Zaharia, M. F.; Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abd.

2012-09-01

183

Effects of Induction-System Icing on Aircraft-Engine Operating Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted on a multicylinder aircraft engine on a dynamometer stand to determine the effect of induction-system icing on engine operating characteristics and to compare the results with those of a previous laboratory investigation in which only the carburetor and the engine-stage supercharger assembly from the engine were used. The experiments were conducted at simulated glide power, low cruise power, and normal rated power through a range of humidity ratios and air temperatures at approximately sea-level pressure. Induction-system icing was found to occur within approximately the same limits as those established by the previous laboratory investigation after making suitable allowances for the difference in fuel volatility and throttle angles. Rough operation of the engine was experienced when ice caused a marked reduction in the air flow. Photographs of typical ice formations from this investigation indicate close similarity to icing previously observed in the laboratory.

Stevens, Howard C., Jr.

1947-01-01

184

Steroids/Nutritional Supplements/Antibiotics  

MedlinePLUS

Steroids/Nutritional Supplements/Antibiotics There are multiple steroid/supplemental treatments for Duchenne although there is little agreement ( ... Deflazacort Albuterol Creatine Anabolic Steroids Calcium blockers Gentamycin Prednisone This is a catabolic steroid that slows the ...

185

Carbon Nano-Flakes Produced by an Inductively Coupled Thermal Plasma System for Catalyst Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon material was produced using an inductively coupled thermal plasma torch system of 35 kW and a conical shape reactor.\\u000a The carbon nanopowders were obtained by plasma decomposition of methane at various flow rates and show a uniform microstructure\\u000a throughout the reactor. The product has a crystalline graphitic structure, with a stacking of between 6 and 16 planes and\\u000a a nano-flake

Ramona Pristavita; Jean-Luc Meunier; Dimitrios Berk

2011-01-01

186

A unified global self-consistent model of a capacitively and inductively coupled plasma etching system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the concept of independent control of ion flux and ion-bombardment energy, a global selfconsistent model was proposed\\u000a for etching in a high-density plasma reactor. This model takes account of the effect on the plasma behavior of separate rf\\u000a chuck power in an Inductively Coupled Plasma etching system. Model predictions showed that the chuck power controls the ion\\u000a bombardment

Yoon-Bong Hahn; Stephen J. Pearton

2000-01-01

187

Inductively coupled plasma -- Atomic emission spectroscopy glove box assembly system at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inductively coupled plasma\\/atomic emission spectroscopy [ICP\\/AES (ICP)] system for elemental analyses in support of vitrification processing was first installed in 1986. The initial instrument was a Jobin Yvon (JY) Model JY-70 ICP that consisted of sequential and simultaneous spectrometers for analysis of nonradioactive samples as radioactive surrogates. The JY-70 ICP continued supporting nonradioactive testing during the Functional and Checkout

J. H. Marlow; K. M. McCarthy; N. R. Tamul

1999-01-01

188

An Intelligent Monitoring System of Medium-Frequency Induction Furnace Based on Fuzzy Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at the problem such as slowly-varying, pure-lag and low accuracy in the temperature control process of medium-frequency induction furnace, designed an intelligent monitoring system based on fuzzy control. The major hardware is composed of Program Logic Controller and its special expansion modules, the algorithm of fuzzy controller is completely realized via software programming. In order to improve the resolution

Zhang Zheng; Wan Guocheng; Liu Xiaowei

2010-01-01

189

Multiplexed electrothermal vaporization sample introduction system for inductively coupled plasma spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplexed electrothermal vaporization (ETV) system for sample introduction into an inductively coupled plasma was designed in an effort to increase sample turn-around time. Tungsten filaments (300 W), originally designed for overhead projectors, were chosen for use as ETVs to avoid the high power requirements associated with other ETV devices, e.g. graphite furnaces (2–3 kW). In short, we have multiplexed

John D Venable; Michael Detwiler; James A Holcombe

2001-01-01

190

Principle of a multi-load\\/single converter system for low power induction heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction heating appliances used for cooking generally include two or four inductors and in the most common solution, a converter is connected to each inductor. The main aim of this paper is to suggest a way of building a multi-load\\/single converter system, based on the use of a series-resonant ZVS inverter supplying several resonant loads. The principle can be

F. Forest; E. Laboure; F. Costa; J. Y. Gaspard

2000-01-01

191

The gated induction system of a systemic floral inhibitor, antiflorigen, determines obligate short-day flowering in chrysanthemums  

PubMed Central

Photoperiodic floral induction has had a significant impact on the agricultural and horticultural industries. Changes in day length are perceived in leaves, which synthesize systemic flowering inducers (florigens) and inhibitors (antiflorigens) that determine floral initiation at the shoot apex. Recently, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) was found to be a florigen; however, the identity of the corresponding antiflorigen remains to be elucidated. Here, we report the identification of an antiflorigen gene, Anti-florigenic FT/TFL1 family protein (AFT), from a wild chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum seticuspe) whose expression is mainly induced in leaves under noninductive conditions. Gain- and loss-of-function analyses demonstrated that CsAFT acts systemically to inhibit flowering and plays a predominant role in the obligate photoperiodic response. A transient gene expression assay indicated that CsAFT inhibits flowering by directly antagonizing the flower-inductive activity of CsFTL3, a C. seticuspe ortholog of FT, through interaction with CsFDL1, a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor FD homolog of Arabidopsis. Induction of CsAFT was triggered by the coincidence of phytochrome signals with the photosensitive phase set by the dusk signal; flowering occurred only when night length exceeded the photosensitive phase for CsAFT induction. Thus, the gated antiflorigen production system, a phytochrome-mediated response to light, determines obligate photoperiodic flowering response in chrysanthemums, which enables their year-round commercial production by artificial lighting. PMID:24082137

Higuchi, Yohei; Narumi, Takako; Oda, Atsushi; Nakano, Yoshihiro; Sumitomo, Katsuhiko; Fukai, Seiichi; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu

2013-01-01

192

Steroids. A Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

193

Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Paraná basin: a comparative study in a three-river system.  

PubMed

This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paraná River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guaçu River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17?-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guaçu River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish. PMID:23616136

Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Paschoalini, Alessandro Loureiro; Cruz, Cláudia Kelly Fernandes da; Rocha, Rita de Cássia Gimenes Alcântara de; Senhorini, José Augusto; Ribeiro, Dirceu Marzulo; Formagio, Paulo Sérgio; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

2013-12-01

194

Cationic influenza virosomes as an adjuvanted delivery system for CTL induction by DNA vaccination.  

PubMed

DNA vaccines have emerged as an attractive approach to induce CTL responses against cancer and infectious agents in recent years. Although CTL induction by DNA vaccination would be a valuable strategy for controlling viral infections, increasing the potency of DNA vaccines is mandatory before DNA vaccines can make it to the clinic. In this study, we developed and characterized a new and safe adjuvanted delivery system for DNA vaccination using cationic influenza virosomes (CIV). CIV were produced by reconstitution of detergent-solubilized influenza virus membranes in the presence of cationic lipids. Plasmid DNA (pDNA) mixed with these virosomes was efficiently transfected into cells of a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW-Blue cells). Moreover, the cells were effectively activated as demonstrated by production of an NF?B/AP-1-inducible reporter enzyme. Following three intradermal immunizations, CIV-delivered epitope-encoding pDNA induced equal numbers of IFN?- and granzyme B-producing T cells than a 10-fold higher dose of naked pDNA. Virosomes without cationic lipids also improved induction of cellular immunity by pDNA but to a significantly lower extent than CIV. These findings suggest that pDNA-CIV complexes could be an efficacious delivery system suitable for CTL induction by DNA vaccination. PMID:22981929

Jamali, Abbas; Holtrop, Marijke; de Haan, Aalzen; Hashemi, Hamidreza; Shenagari, Mohammad; Memarnejadian, Arash; Roohvand, Farzin; Sabahi, Farzaneh; Kheiri, Masumeh Tavassoti; Huckriede, Anke

2012-01-01

195

The electron-optical system of the LIU-2 induction accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron-optical system (EOS) of an induction accelerator for generation of an electron beam with an energy of 2 MeV, a current of 2 kA, an impulse duration of 2 × 10-7 s, and a geometric output emittance not exceeding the thermal value of it is described. The EOS consists of two parts. The first part is a diode gun with a perveance of 2 × 10-6 A/B3/2 and a cathode-anode voltage of 1 MeV. The second part is an accelerating tube with uniform distribution of the same accelerating voltage. A beam is transported at a distance of about 4 m from the cathode and focused on a spot with a diameter of about 1 mm. The compliance tests results of the linear-induction accelerator precisely conform to the calculated design parameters.

Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A.

2014-09-01

196

14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2012-01-01

197

14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2014-01-01

198

14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2011-01-01

199

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2010-01-01

200

14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2010-01-01

201

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2013-01-01

202

14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2013-01-01

203

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2014-01-01

204

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2012-01-01

205

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2011-01-01

206

The synovial prostaglandin system in chronic inflammatory arthritis: differential effects of steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs  

PubMed Central

1 The present study was undertaken to characterize the spectrum of arachidonic acid metabolites present in synovial effusions of patients with rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis, and to compare changes in their concentration following a short-term treatment with 6?-methyl-prednisolone (6-MeP: 4-8 mg/day) or indoprofen (1.2 g/day), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with proven synovial prostaglandin inhibitory effect. 2 Measurements of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane (TX) B2, 6-keto-PGF1? and PGF2? were performed by radioimmunoassay techniques in synovial effusions obtained from 23 patients, and validated by thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the extracted immunoreactivity. 3 PGE2 and TXB2 accounted for more than 60% of the total immunoreactivity in untreated patients. The absence of any constant ratio between the different arachidonic acid metabolites detected in synovial fluid is consistent with a heterogeneous cellular origin of these compounds. 4 Indoprofen treatment was associated with a consistent reduction of synovial prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations, ranging from 36% in the case of 6-keto-PGF1? to 90% in the case of PGE2. 5 In contrast, 6-MeP caused opposite changes on different metabolites originating via the cyclo-oxygenase pathway. Thus, 6-keto-PGF1? concentrations were reduced by 35%, PGF2? concentrations were increased by 30%, while PGE2 and TXB2 were unchanged following 6-MeP. 6 Although the mechanism(s) underlying the failure of 6-MeP to reduce synovial PGE2 and TXB2 levels are uncertain, the results of the present study clearly indicate that therapeutic doses of steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cause quite distinct changes in arachidonic acid metabolism, which might be relevant to their specific therapeutic actions and side-effects. PMID:6895043

Bombardieri, S.; Cattani, P.; Ciabattoni, G.; Di Munno, O.; Pasero, G.; Patrono, C.; Pinca, E.; Pugliese, F.

1981-01-01

207

Nonprescription Steroids on the Internet  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular websites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March and June, 2006 revealed that approximately half of the websites advocated their “safe” use, and roughly one-third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The websites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the websites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment and policy are discussed. PMID:22080724

McDonald, Christen L.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Patapis, Nicholas S.; Festinger, David S.; Forman, Robert F.

2008-01-01

208

An inductively powered telemetry system for temperature, EKG, and activity monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An implant telemetry system for the simultaneous monitoring of temperature, activity, and EKG from small animals, such as rats, was designed with the feature that instead of a battery the system is energized by an inductive field. A 250 kHz resonant coil surrounds the cage (30 x 30 x 20 cm) and provides the approximately 100 microns of power required to operate the implant transmitter while allowing the animal unrestrained movement in the cage. The implant can also be battery operated if desired. RF transmission is in the 8-10 MHz band, which allows the use of a simple, essentially single IC chip, receiver.

Fryer, T. B.; Lund, G. F.; Williams, B. A.

1978-01-01

209

Integrated design method of MR damper and electromagnetic induction system for structural control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are one of the most advantageous control devices for civil engineering applications to natural hazard mitigation due to many good features such as small power requirement, reliability, and low price to manufacture. To reduce the responses of a structural system by using MR dampers, a control system including a power supply, control algorithm, and sensors is needed. The control system becomes complex, however, when a lot of MR dampers are applied to large-scale civil structures, such as cable-stayed bridges and high-rise buildings. Thus, it is difficult to install and/or maintain the MR damper-based control system. To overcome the above difficulties, a smart passive system was proposed, which is based on an MR damper system. The smart passive system consists of an MR damper and an electromagnetic induction (EMI) system that uses a permanent magnet and a coil. According to the Faraday law of induction, the EMI system that is attached to the MR damper can produce electric energy and the produced energy is applied to the MR damper to vary the damping characteristics of the damper. Thus, the smart passive system does not require any power at all. Besides the output of electric energy is proportional to input loads such as earthquakes, which means the smart passive system has adaptability by itself without any controller or sensors. In this paper, the integrated design method of a large-scale MR damper and Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) system is presented. Since the force of an MR damper is controllable by altering the input current generated from an EMI part, it is necessary to design an MR damper and an EMI part simultaneously. To do this, design parameters of an EMI part consisting of permanent magnet and coil as well as those of an MR damper consisting of a hydraulic-type cylinder and a magnetic circuit that controls the magnetic flux density in a fluid-flow path are considered in the integrated design procedure. As an example, a smart passive control system for reducing stay cable responses is considered in this investigation and it will be fabricated and tested through experiment in the future.

Lee, Heon-Jae; Moon, Seok-Jun; Jung, Hyung-Jo; Huh, Young-Cheol; Jang, Dong-Doo

2008-03-01

210

Development and drift-analysis of a modular electromagnetic induction system for shallow ground conductivity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic induction (EMI) is used for fast near surface mapping of the electrical conductivity (EC) for a wide range of geophysical applications. Recently, enhanced methods were developed to measure depth-dependent EC by inverting quantitative multi-configuration EMI data, which increases the demand for a suitable multi-channel EMI measurement system. We have designed a novel EMI system that enables the use of modular transmitter/receiver (TX/RX) units, which are connected to a central measurement system and are optimized for flexible setups with coil separations of up to 1.0 m. Each TX/RX-unit contains a coil, which is specifically adjusted for transmitting or receiving magnetic fields. All units enable impedance measurements at the coils, which are used to simulate its electrical circuit and analyze temperature-induced drift effects. A laboratory drift analysis at 8 kHz showed that 88% of the drift in the measured data is due to the change in the electrical transmitter coil resistance. The remaining 12% is due to changes in the transmitter coil inductance and capacitance, the receiver impedance and drifts in the amplification circuit. A measurement under field conditions proved that the new EMI system is able to detect a water-filled swimming pool with 50 mS m-1, using a coil separation of 0.3 m. In addition, the system allows in-field ambient noise spectra measurements in order to select optimal low-noise measurement frequencies.

Mester, A.; Zimmermann, E.; Van der Kruk, J.; Vereecken, H.; Van Waasen, S.

2014-05-01

211

Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.  

PubMed

Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2?,3?,22?,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5?-furostan-3?,22?,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12?,22?,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5?-spirostan-3?,24?-diol-12-one-3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation. PMID:25172515

Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

2014-11-01

212

Nongenomic Steroid-Triggered Oocyte Maturation: Of Mice and Frogs  

PubMed Central

Luteinizing hormone (LH) mediates many important processes in ovarian follicles, including cumulus cell expansion, changes in gap junction expression and activity, sterol and steroid production, and the release of paracrine signaling molecules. All of these functions work together to trigger oocyte maturation (meiotic progression) and subsequent ovulation. Many laboratories are interested in better understanding both the extra-oocyte follicular processes that trigger oocyte maturation, as well as the intra-oocyte molecules and signals that regulate meiosis. Multiple model systems have been used to study LH-effects in the ovary, including fish, frogs, mice, rats, pigs, and primates. Here we provide a brief summary of oocyte maturation, focusing primarily on steroid-triggered meiotic progression in frogs and mice. Furthermore, we present new studies that implicate classical steroid receptors rather than alternative non-classical membrane steroid receptors as the primary regulators of steroid-mediated oocyte maturation in both of these model systems. PMID:19071151

Deng, James; Carbajal, Liliana; Evaul, Kristen; Rasar, Melissa; Jamnongjit, Michelle; Hammes, Stephen R

2009-01-01

213

The minimization of the extraneous electromagnetic fields of an inductive power transfer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of inductive wireless power transfer (IPT) systems has been extensively studied. However, the electromagnetic compatibility of such systems is at least as important as the efficiency and has received much less attention. We consider the net magnetic dipole moment of the system as a figure of merit. That is, we seek to minimize the magnitude of the net dipole moment in order to minimize both the near magnetic fields and the radiated power. A 20 kHz, 3.3 kW, IPT system, representative of typical wireless vehicular battery charging systems, is considered and it is seen that one particular value of load impedance minimizes the net dipole moment while another, distinct, value maximizes efficiency. Thus, efficiency must be traded off, at least to some extent, in order to minimize extraneous electromagnetic fields.

McLean, James; Sutton, Robert

2013-04-01

214

Lack of sensorial innervation in the newborn female rats affects the activity of hypothalamic monoaminergic system and steroid hormone secretion during puberty.  

PubMed

There is evidence that sensory innervation plays a role regulating ovarian functions, including fertility.Since sensory denervation by means of capsaicin in newborn female rats results in a lower response togonadotropins, the present study analyzed the effects that sensory denervation by means of capsaicin in neonatal rats has on the concentration of monoamines in the anterior(AH) and medium (MH) hypothalamus, and on steroid hormone levels in serum. Groups of newborn female rats were injected subcutaneously with capsaicin and killed at 10, 20, and 30 days of age and on the first vaginal estrous.The concentrations of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin(5-HT), and their metabolites in the AH and MH were measured using HPLC, and the levels of estradiol (E),progesterone (P), testosterone (T), FSH, and luteinizing hormone using radioimmunoanalysis. The results show thatat 20 days of age, capsaicin-treated rats have lowernoradrenergic and serotonergic activities in the AH, and that the dopaminergic activity was lower in the MH. These results suggest that the sensorial system connections within the monoaminergic systems of the AH and MH are different.Capsaicin-treated animals had lower T, E, and P levels than in the control group, suggesting that the lower activity in the AH monoaminergic system and lower hormonesecretion could be explained by the blockade of information mediated by the sensory innervation (probably substance P), mainly between the ovary and the AH. PMID:24122121

Quiróz, Ubaldo; Morales-Ledesma, Leticia; Morán, Carolina; Trujillo, Angélica; Domínguez, Roberto

2014-06-01

215

Steroid receptor expression in the fish inner earvaries with sex, social status, and reproductive state  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gonadal and stress-related steroid hormones are known to influence auditory function across vertebrates but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for steroid-mediated auditory plasticity at the level of the inner ear remain unknown. The presence of steroid receptors in the ear suggests a direct pathway for hormones to act on the peripheral auditory system, but little is known about

Karen P Maruska; Russell D Fernald

2010-01-01

216

Steroid resistance in leukemia  

PubMed Central

There are several types of leukemia which are characterized by the abnormal growth of cells from the myeloid or lymphoid lineage. Because of their lympholytic actions, glucocorticoids (GCs) are included in many therapeutic regimens for the treatment of various forms of leukemia. Although a significant number of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients respond well to GC treatment during initial phases; prolonged treatments sometimes results in steroid-resistance. The exact mechanism of this resistance has yet not been completely elucidated, but a correlation between functional GC receptor expression levels and steroid-resistance in patients has been found. In recent years, several other mechanisms of action have been reported that could play an important role in the development of such drug resistances in leukemia. Therefore, a better understanding of how leukemic patients develop drug resistance should result in drugs designed appropriately to treat these patients. PMID:24520542

Shah, Darshan S; Kumar, Raj

2013-01-01

217

Behaviour of a desolvation system based on microwave radiation heating for use in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper describes the preliminary results obtained with a desolvation system for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry that incorporates a heating unit based on microwave (MW) radiation. This system has been called Microwave Desolvation System (MWDS). The results have proved that MW radiation can be considered as a good choice for aerosol heating in a sample introduction system.

Luis Gras; Juan Mora; José L. Todolí; Vicente Hernandis; Antonio Canals

1997-01-01

218

Chemiluminescence of the reaction system Ce(IV)-non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs containing europium(III) ions and its application to the determination of naproxen in pharmaceutical preparations and urine.  

PubMed

The chemiluminescence (CL) of oxidation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by Ce(IV) ions, was recorded in the presence and absence europium(III) ions, in solution of pH ~ 4 of solution. Kinetic curves and CL emission spectra of the all studied systems were discussed. CL of measurable intensity was observed in the Ce(IV)-NP-Eu(III) reaction system only in acidic solutions. The CL spectrum rcegistered for this system shows emission bands, typical of Eu(III) ions, with maximum at ? ~ 600 nm. The chemiluminescent method, based on Eu(III) emission in reaction system of NP-Ce(IV)-Eu(III) in acid solution was therefore used for the determination of naproxen in mixture of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:21750890

Kaczmarek, Ma?gorzata

2011-11-01

219

Reduced models of doubly fed induction generator system for wind turbine simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article compares three reduced models with a detailed model of a doubly fed induction generator system for wind turbine applications. The comparisons are based on simulations only. The main idea is to provide reduced generator models which are appropriate to simulate normal wind turbine operation in aeroelastic wind turbine models, e.g. for control system design or structural design of the wind turbine. The electrical behaviour such as grid influence will therefore not be considered. The work presented in this article shows that with an ideal, undisturbed grid the dynamics of the doubly fed induction generator system is very well represented by the dynamics due to the generator inertia and the generator control system, whereas the electromagnetic characteristics of the generator can be represented by the steady state relations. The parameters for the proposed models are derived from parameters typically available from the generator data sheet and from the controller settings. Thus the models are simple to apply in any case where the generator data sheet is available. Copyright

Sørensen, P.; Hansen, A. D.; Lund, T.; Bindner, H.

2006-07-01

220

Development of a plasma coating system for induction melting zirconium in a graphite crucible  

SciTech Connect

A plasma coating system has been developed for induction melting zirconium at 1900 C using a graphite crucible. This laminated coating system consists of plasma spraying the following materials onto the graphite: (1) molybdenum or tungsten, (2) a 50% blend by weight of the metal powder and calcia-stabilized zirconium oxide, and (3) calcia-stabilized zirconia followed by painting a final coating of nonstabilized zirconia on top of the plasma-sprayed coating system. Zirconium was melted in argon using both laminating systems without any degradation of the graphite crucible and with only a minimal amount of carbon absorption. This novel approach that is being proposed as an alternative method of melting zirconium alloys offers substantial cost savings over the standard practice of electric arc melting using a consumable electrode.

Bird, E.L.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

1993-05-26

221

Effect of composting on the fate of steroids in beef cattle manure.  

PubMed

In this study, the fate of steroid hormones in beef cattle manure composting is evaluated. The fate of 16 steroids and metabolites was evaluated in composted manure from beef cattle administered growth promotants and from beef cattle with no steroid hormone implants. The fate of estrogens (primary detected as estrone), androgens, progesterone, and the fusarium metabolite and implant ?-zearalanol was monitored in manure compost piles. First-order decay rates were calculated for steroid half-lives in compost and ranged from 8 d for androsterone to 69 d for 4-androstenedione. Other steroid concentration data could not be fit to first-order decay models, which may indicate that microbial processes may result in steroid production or synthesis in composting systems. We demonstrate that composting is an effective strategy to remove steroid hormones from manure. Total steroid hormone removal in composted beef cattle manure ranged from 79 to 87%. PMID:24216367

Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Devivo, Shannon; Johnson, Leslie; Snow, Daniel D; Kranz, William L; Mader, Terry L; Shapiro, Charles A; van Donk, Simon J; Shelton, David P; Tarkalson, David D; Zhang, Tian C

2013-07-01

222

Inductive Reactance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discusses the methods of compensating for power losses in inductors. Defines inductive reactance. Presents the formula for computing inductive reactance, and gives examples of solving. Discusses how frequency and inductance affect inductive reactance.

1994-01-01

223

Development of a Variable-Speed Wind Energy Conversion System Based on Doubly-Fed Induction Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variable-speed constant-frequency (VSCF) doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) system using a back-to-back PWM converter connected between the generator rotor circuit and the power grid is investigated by the authors. By using a stator-voltage oriented vector control scheme, the independent control of the active and reactive power generated by the induction machine is achieved, based on which, the control principle for

S. Y. Yang; X. Zhang; C. W. Zhang; L. Chang

2007-01-01

224

Steroid hormones as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in wildlife  

SciTech Connect

Xenobiotic compounds introduced into the environment by human activity have been shown to adversely affect the endocrine system of wildlife. Various species exhibit abnormalities of (1) plasma sex steroid hormones, (2) altered steroid synthesis form the gonad in vitro and (3) altered steroidogenic enzyme function. These endpoints are sensitive and relatively easy to measure quantitatively with reliability and precision. These observations have led to the conclusion that sex steroid hormones could be markers of exposure to, and altered function from, endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs). However, there are serious limitations in the use of steroid hormones as generalized markers of EDC exposure. Steroid hormones exhibit seasonal, ontogenetic, gender and species-specific variation. Moreover, the regulation of sex steroid plasma concentrations is a relatively complex phenomenon capable of short-term (minutes-hours) alteration due to environmental inputs, such as acute stress--an activational response. Alterations in steroids synthesis and degradation also can be a response to altered embryonic development due to EDC exposure--an organizational response. If steroid hormones are to be used as biomarkers, then closely controlled, well designed sampling has to be performed. Additionally, an appreciation of the variation possible in endocrine responses among the species to be studied must be obtained.

Guillette, L.J. Jr.; Rooney, A.A.; Crain, D.A.; Orlando, E.F.

1999-07-01

225

Rail Brake System Using a Linear Induction Motor for Dynamic Braking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One type of braking system for railway vehicles is the eddy current brake. Because this type of brake has the problem of rail heating, it has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of a linear induction motor (LIM) for dynamic braking in eddy current brake systems. The LIM reduces rail heating and uses an inverter for self excitation. In this paper, we estimated the performance of an LIM from experimental results of a fundamental test machine and confirmed that the LIM generates an approximately constant braking force under constant current excitation. At relatively low frequencies, this braking force remains unaffected by frequency changes. The reduction ratio of rail heating is also approximately proportional to the frequency. We also confirmed that dynamic braking resulting in no electrical output can be used for drive control of the LIM. These characteristics are convenient for the realization of the LIM rail brake system.

Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Minoru; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

226

Four Pulse Drive System for the Beam Induction Cells for DARHT Axis 2  

SciTech Connect

The proposed drive system allows for the generation of up to four (4) high-quality radiographic pulses along one line-of-sight, having arbitrary pulse spacing ({approximately}500 ns), using demonstrated technologies. This concept uses a four-pulse drive system to drive both a 16-MeV ensemble of 250-kV, 4-kA induction cells and a four-pulse, 4-MeV injector. The key to this approach lies in the method used to combine four pulses from different generators in a manner that does not compromise the voltage flatness requirement of {+-} 1%. The induction cells use core material for only a single pulse. A simple reverse bias circuit is used to reset the cores between pulses, and the insulator has been redesigned to withstand the reverse reset voltage. This approach can be installed in stages so that the facility can be used for dual axis radiography while implementing the multi-pulsing capability. A dual double-pulse format has been identified which provides a sequence of two pulses along one line-of-sight within a 2-{micro}sec window. The 2-{micro}sec windows can be separated by arbitrary time intervals of 2- to 10-{micro}sec.

Downing, J.; Carlson, R.; Melton, J.; Fockler, J.

1999-06-28

227

Inductive displacement sensors with a Notch filter for an active magnetic bearing system.  

PubMed

Active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems support rotating shafts without any physical contact, using electromagnetic forces. Each radial AMB uses two pairs of electromagnets at opposite sides of the rotor. This allows the rotor to float in the air gap, and the machine to operate without frictional losses. In active magnetic suspension, displacement sensors are necessary to detect the radial and axial movement of the suspended object. In a high-speed rotating machine equipped with an AMB, the rotor bending modes may be limited to the operating range. The natural frequencies of the rotor can cause instability. Thus, notch filters are a useful circuit for stabilizing the system. In addition, commercial displacement sensors are sometimes not suitable for AMB design, and cannot filter the noise caused by the natural frequencies of rotor. Hence, implementing displacement sensors based on the AMB structure is necessary to eliminate noises caused by natural frequency disturbances. The displacement sensor must be highly sensitive in the desired working range, and also exhibit a low interference noise, high stability, and low cost. In this study, we used the differential inductive sensor head and lock-in amplifier for synchronous demodulation. In addition, an active low-pass filter and a notch filter were used to eliminate disturbances, which caused by natural frequencies. As a consequence, the inductive displacement sensor achieved satisfactory linearity, high sensitivity, and disturbance elimination. This sensor can be easily produced for AMB applications. A prototype of these displacement sensors was built and tested. PMID:25029281

Chen, Seng-Chi; Le, Dinh-Kha; Nguyen, Van-Sum

2014-01-01

228

Control of a wind-driven self-excited induction generator water-pumping system for maximum utilization efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This paper analyzes a stand-alone water-pumping system consisting of a motor-pump set supplied by a wind-driven self-excited induction generator. In order to achieve maximum utilization efficiency, the system designer is interested in optimally matching the system components together so that maximum energy available from the wind is absorbed and utilized all the time. Unfortunately, this optimal matching is speed-dependent and hence no single matching is valid for all wind speeds. Therefore the operating point of the system must vary with wind speed. In this paper, a control strategy is formulated which properly adjust the operating point of the system to coincide with the maximum power operating condition. The self-excited induction generator (SEIG) is basically an induction machine which is driven by a prime mover such as a wind turbine while a capacitor is connected across its stator terminals. The SEIG supplies an induction motor which is coupled to a water pump. The system need not operate continuously and water can be used directly for drinking and irrigation or it can be collected in a storage tank for later use. Due to the high cost of the wind turbine and equipment, the system designer is interested in maximizing the amount of pumped water per day. This can be achieved by proper selection and matching of the system components. However, proper matching of the system components together is not sufficient to guarantee maximum utilization since matching is dependent on wind speed. Therefore, certain system components must be controlled according to wind speed, such that matching is achieved all the time. This paper presents a control strategy to control the excitation capacitance of the induction generator such that its generated terminal voltage, which is applied to the induction motor, is kept constant as the rotor speed varies with wind speed.

Alghuwainem, S.M.

1998-07-01

229

Significance of neonatal testicular sex steroids to defeminize anteroventral periventricular kisspeptin neurons and the GnRH/LH surge system in male rats.  

PubMed

The brain mechanism regulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) release is sexually differentiated in rodents. Kisspeptin neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) have been suggested to be sexually dimorphic and involved in the GnRH/LH surge generation. The present study aimed to determine the significance of neonatal testicular androgen to defeminize AVPV kisspeptin expression and the GnRH/LH surge-generating system. To this end, we tested whether neonatal castration feminizes AVPV kisspeptin neurons and the LH surge-generating system in male rats and whether neonatal estradiol benzoate (EB) treatment suppresses the kisspeptin expression and the LH surge in female rats. Immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and quantitative real-time RT-PCR were performed to investigate kisspeptin and Kiss1 mRNA expressions. Male rats were castrated immediately after birth, and females were treated with EB on postnatal Day 5. Neonatal castration caused an increase in AVPV kisspeptin expression at peptide and mRNA levels in the genetically male rats, and the animals showed surge-like LH release in the presence of the preovulatory level of estradiol (E2) at adulthood. On the other hand, neonatal EB treatment decreased the number of AVPV kisspeptin neurons and caused an absence of E2-induced LH surge in female rats. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that neonatal steroidal manipulation affects Kiss1 expression but does not significantly affect gene expressions of neuropeptides (neurotensin and galanin) and enzymes or transporter for neurotransmitters (gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and dopamine) in the AVPV, suggesting that the manipulation specifically affects Kiss1 expressions. Taken together, our present results provide physiological evidence that neonatal testicular androgen causes the reduction of AVPV kisspeptin expression and failure of LH surge in genetically male rats. Thus, it is plausible that perinatal testicular androgen causes defeminization of the AVPV kisspeptin system, resulting in the loss of the surge system in male rats. PMID:19684332

Homma, Tamami; Sakakibara, Mototsugu; Yamada, Shunji; Kinoshita, Mika; Iwata, Kinuyo; Tomikawa, Junko; Kanazawa, Tetsuhiro; Matsui, Hisanori; Takatsu, Yoshihiro; Ohtaki, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Uenoyama, Yoshihisa; Maeda, Kei-Ichiro; Tsukamura, Hiroko

2009-12-01

230

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 {+-} 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 {+-} 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 {+-} 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 {+-} 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and {beta}-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of {sup 13}C{sup +} with {sup 12}C{sup 1}H{sup +} comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or {beta}-cyclodextrin.

Luong, E.

1999-05-10

231

Using a Computer Algebra System to Facilitate the Learning of Mathematical Induction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical induction is one of the major proof techniques taught to mathematics students in the first years of their undergraduate degrees. In addition to its importance to mathematics, induction is also required for computer science and related disciplines. However, even if the concepts of a proof by induction are taught and understood, many…

McAndrew, Alasdair

2010-01-01

232

Renal transplantation using belatacept without maintenance steroids or calcineurin inhibitors.  

PubMed

Kidney transplantation remains limited by toxicities of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and steroids. Belatacept is a less toxic CNI alternative, but existing regimens rely on steroids and have higher rejection rates. Experimentally, donor bone marrow and sirolimus promote belatacept's efficacy. To investigate a belatacept-based regimen without CNIs or steroids, we transplanted recipients of live donor kidneys using alemtuzumab induction, monthly belatacept and daily sirolimus. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive unfractionated donor bone marrow. After 1 year, patients were allowed to wean from sirolimus. Patients were followed clinically and with surveillance biopsies. Twenty patients were transplanted, all successfully. Mean creatinine (estimated GFR) was 1.10 ± 0.07 mg/dL (89 ± 3.56 mL/min) and 1.13 ± 0.07 mg/dL (and 88 ± 3.48 mL/min) at 12 and 36 months, respectively. Excellent results were achieved irrespective of bone marrow infusion. Ten patients elected oral immunosuppressant weaning, seven of whom were maintained rejection-free on monotherapy belatacept. Those failing to wean were successfully maintained on belatacept-based regimens supplemented by oral immunosuppression. Seven patients declined immunosuppressant weaning and three patients were denied weaning for associated medical conditions; all remained rejection-free. Belatacept and sirolimus effectively prevent kidney allograft rejection without CNIs or steroids when used following alemtuzumab induction. Selected, immunologically low-risk patients can be maintained solely on once monthly intravenous belatacept. PMID:24684552

Kirk, A D; Guasch, A; Xu, H; Cheeseman, J; Mead, S I; Ghali, A; Mehta, A K; Wu, D; Gebel, H; Bray, R; Horan, J; Kean, L S; Larsen, C P; Pearson, T C

2014-05-01

233

Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

234

Abstract--In doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind energy conversion systems (WECS), the DFIG is interfaced to the  

E-print Network

a popular candidate in the wind energy conversion systems (WECS) due to its advantages [2-5]. When comparedAbstract--In doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind energy conversion systems (WECS of wind energy is growing rapidly and it is expected to provide ten percent of the global electricity

Pota, Himanshu Roy

235

Computer simulations for two angular-speed-control systems of a current source inverter feeding an induction machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the simulation results of two types of control system for an induction machine, fed by a PWM current source inverter with a capacitive output filter. The vector control scheme was applied in both cases. In one system, control of stator phase current vector takes place through an intermediate signal of the stator current frequency. This signal is

A. Dakir; R. Barlik; M. Nowak; P. Grochal

1996-01-01

236

MR damper-based semiactive control system using electromagnetic induction device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetorheological (MR) damper-based semiactive control systems can be considered as one of the most advantageous control systems for natural hazard mitigation in the field of civil engineering because MR dampers have many good features such as small power requirement, reliability, and low price to manufacture. Those systems require feedback control and power supply parts to efficiently reduce the structural responses. The control system becomes complex when a lot of MR dampers are applied to large-scale civil structures, such as cable-stayed bridges and high-rise buildings, resulting in difficulties in its implementation and maintenance. To overcome the above difficulties, a new-class MR damper-based control system was recently proposed by replacing feedback control and power supply parts with an electromagnetic induction (EMI) part consisting of permanent magnets and a coil. According to the Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, an EMI part produces electrical energy (i.e., electromotive force or induced voltage) from mechanical energy (i.e., reciprocal motions of an MR damper), which is proportional to the rate of the change of the movement of a damper. From this characteristic of an EMI part, it might be used as a response sensing device as well as an alternative power supply. In addition, some control algorithms used in the MR damper-based semiactive control systems require the measurement information on the response related to the relative velocity of the damper. In this study, the sensing capability of an EMI part is preliminarily examined for an application to the MR damper-based semiactive control system. To this end, experimental tests are carried out using the real-scale stay cable employing an MR damper with an EMI part. It is demonstrated from the tests that an EMI part could exactly extract the dynamic characteristics of the stay cable so that it might be used as a sensing device for estimating the tension force of the stay cable. In addition, numerical simulations are performed to verify the control performance of the MR damper-based semiactive control system adopting an EMI part as a power supply as well as a velocity sensor and the maximum energy dissipation algorithm, which requires the information on the relative velocity, as a control algorithm. The numerical result validates that the proposed control system can reduce the vibration of the stay cable effectively.

Jung, Hyung-Jo; Jang, Dong-Doo; Koo, Jeong-Hoi

2009-03-01

237

Inductively coupled plasma -- Atomic emission spectroscopy glove box assembly system at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy [ICP/AES (ICP)] system for elemental analyses in support of vitrification processing was first installed in 1986. The initial instrument was a Jobin Yvon (JY) Model JY-70 ICP that consisted of sequential and simultaneous spectrometers for analysis of nonradioactive samples as radioactive surrogates. The JY-70 ICP continued supporting nonradioactive testing during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) using the full-scale melter with ``cold'' (nonradioactive) testing campaigns. As a result, the need for another system was identified to allow for the analysis of radioactive samples. The Mass Spec (Spectrometry) Lab was established for the installation of the modified ICP system for handling radioactive samples. The conceptual setup of another ICP was predicated on the use of a hood to allow ease of accessibility of the torch, nebulizer, and spray chamber, and the minimization of air flow paths. However, reconsideration of the radioactive sample dose rate and contamination levels led to the configuration of the glovebox system with a common transfer interface box for the ICP and the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) glovebox assemblies. As a result, a simultaneous Model JY-50P ICP with glovebox was installed in 1990 as a first generation ICP glovebox system. This was one of the first ICP glovebox assemblies connected with an ICP-MS glovebox system. Since the economics of processing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) required the availability of an instrument to operate 24 hours a day throughout the year without any downtime, a second generation ICP glovebox assembly was designed, manufactured, and installed in 1995 using a Model JY-46P ICP. These two ICP glovebox systems continue to support vitrification of the HLW into canisters for storage. The ICP systems have been instrumental in monitoring vitrification batch processing. To date, remote sample preparation and compositional analysis of key parameters, i.e., greater than 0.5% weight percent metal oxides, during batch processing (waste initials, glass formers, waste plus glass formers, and glass) has verified the composition to be within the acceptance criteria and generated the necessary data for the Waste Qualification Report.

Marlow, J.H.; McCarthy, K.M.; Tamul, N.R.

1999-12-17

238

Systemic Induction of the Small Antibacterial Compound in the Leaf Exudate During Benzothiadiazole-elicited Systemic Acquired Resistance in Pepper  

PubMed Central

Plants protect themselves from diverse potential pathogens by induction of the immune systems such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Most bacterial plant pathogens thrive in the intercellular space (apoplast) of plant tissues and cause symptoms. The apoplastic leaf exudate (LE) is believed to contain nutrients to provide food resource for phytopathogenic bacteria to survive and to bring harmful phytocompounds to protect plants against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we employed the pepper-Xanthomonas axonopodis system to assess whether apoplastic fluid from LE in pepper affects the fitness of X. axonopodis during the induction of SAR. The LE was extracted from pepper leaves 7 days after soil drench-application of a chemical trigger, benzothiadiazole (BTH). Elicitation of plant immunity was confirmed by significant up-regulation of four genes, CaPR1, CaPR4, CaPR9, and CaCHI2, by BTH treatment. Bacterial fitness was evaluated by measuring growth rate during cultivation with LE from BTH- or water-treated leaves. LE from BTH-treatment significantly inhibited bacterial growth when compared to that from the water-treated control. The antibacterial activity of LE from BTH-treated samples was not affected by heating at 100°C for 30 min. Although the antibacterial molecules were not precisely identified, the data suggest that small (less than 5 kDa), heat-stable compound(s) that are present in BTH-induced LE directly attenuate bacterial growth during the elicitation of plant immunity.

Lee, Boyoung; Park, Yong-Soon; Yi, Hwe-Su; Ryu, Choong-Min

2013-01-01

239

Systemic Induction of the Small Antibacterial Compound in the Leaf Exudate During Benzothiadiazole-elicited Systemic Acquired Resistance in Pepper.  

PubMed

Plants protect themselves from diverse potential pathogens by induction of the immune systems such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Most bacterial plant pathogens thrive in the intercellular space (apoplast) of plant tissues and cause symptoms. The apoplastic leaf exudate (LE) is believed to contain nutrients to provide food resource for phytopathogenic bacteria to survive and to bring harmful phytocompounds to protect plants against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we employed the pepper-Xanthomonas axonopodis system to assess whether apoplastic fluid from LE in pepper affects the fitness of X. axonopodis during the induction of SAR. The LE was extracted from pepper leaves 7 days after soil drench-application of a chemical trigger, benzothiadiazole (BTH). Elicitation of plant immunity was confirmed by significant up-regulation of four genes, CaPR1, CaPR4, CaPR9, and CaCHI2, by BTH treatment. Bacterial fitness was evaluated by measuring growth rate during cultivation with LE from BTH- or water-treated leaves. LE from BTH-treatment significantly inhibited bacterial growth when compared to that from the water-treated control. The antibacterial activity of LE from BTH-treated samples was not affected by heating at 100°C for 30 min. Although the antibacterial molecules were not precisely identified, the data suggest that small (less than 5 kDa), heat-stable compound(s) that are present in BTH-induced LE directly attenuate bacterial growth during the elicitation of plant immunity. PMID:25288963

Lee, Boyoung; Park, Yong-Soon; Yi, Hwe-Su; Ryu, Choong-Min

2013-09-01

240

Parallel algorithms for inductance extraction  

E-print Network

generalized approach for inductance extraction requires the solution of a large, dense, complex linear system that models mutual inductive effects among circuit elements. Iterative methods are used to solve the system without explicit computation of the system...

Mahawar, Hemant

2007-09-17

241

Measurement of the target current by inductive probe during laser interaction on terawatt laser system PALS.  

PubMed

Measurements of the return-current flowing through a solid target irradiated with the sub-nanosecond kJ-class Prague Asterix Laser System is reported. A new inductive target probe was developed which allows us measuring the target current derivative in a kA/ns range. The dependences of the target current on the laser pulse energy for cooper, graphite, and polyethylene targets are reported. The experiment shows that the target current is proportional to the deposited laser energy and is strongly affected by the shot-to-shot fluctuations. The corresponding maximum target charge exceeded a value of 10 ?C. A return-current dependence of the electromagnetic pulse produced by the laser-target interaction is presented. PMID:25362393

Cikhardt, J; Krása, J; De Marco, M; Pfeifer, M; Velyhan, A; Krouský, E; Cikhardtová, B; Klír, D; Rezá?, K; Ullschmied, J; Skála, J; Kubeš, P; Kravárik, J

2014-10-01

242

Electrical engineering and nontechnical design variables of multiple inductive loop systems for auditoriums.  

PubMed

This research analyzed both engineering and nontechnical issues involved in the use of Induction Loop Amplification (ILA) devices in auditoriums or large gathering places for hard-of-hearing individuals. A variety of parameters need to be taken into account to determine an optimal shape/configuration for the ILA device. In many cases, an optimal configuration is different from those proposed for classroom use (Ross, 1969; Hodgson, 1986; Clevenger, 1992). Experimental results were obtained for a double-loop configuration in such a setting (a university gymnasium/auditorium in this case). The results demonstrate that a double-loop configuration is a viable possibility for auditorium use. Several variables using this configuration were examined, and experimentation was done. Various implications, including consequent nontechnical issues specific to this application, are discussed as well. Technical and nontechnical aspects of the ILA configuration need to be examined together when designing an optimal system. PMID:15304441

Alterovitz, Gil

2004-01-01

243

Spatial variation of plasma parameters and ion acceleration in an inductive plasma system  

SciTech Connect

Plasma parameters of inductively coupled plasma system with an annular plasma source have been studied experimentally. At low pressures (about 1 mTorr), electron temperature inside the plasma source is rather high (8-13 eV) and is much greater than in the diffusion (main) chamber (4-5 eV). The plasma potential inside the source is also much higher than in the main chamber. There is a rapid drop of the electron temperature and plasma potential at the boundary between the plasma source and the main chamber. The drop of the plasma potential at the boundary (about 20 V) means the existence of a strong axial electric field, which retards the electrons inside the plasma source and accelerates the ions from the source into the main chamber. Measurements of ion energy distributions in the main chamber volume reveal the existence of ions with kinetic energies about 15 eV.

Volynets, V.N.; Park, Wontaek; Tolmachev, Yu.N.; Pashkovsky, V.G.; Yoo, Jinwoo [Mechatronics and Manufacturing Technology Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., 416 Maetan-3Dong, Suwon City, Kyunggi-do 443-742 (Korea, Republic of); Nano Fabrication Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), Kihung-Eup, Yongin City, Kyunggi-do 449-712 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-02-15

244

Control and analysis of ion species in inductively coupled nitration plasma using a grid system  

SciTech Connect

We control the ion density ratio of [N{sup +}]/[N{sub 2}{sup +}] with the voltage-biased grid system in inductively coupled nitration plasma. The ion density ratio is controlled from 0.39 to 0.04 with decreasing grid-biased voltage. We try to analyze the variation of the ion density ratio using the measured plasma parameters and particle balance equation. The important factor determining the ion ratio is the plasma potential difference between the source region--where plasma is generated--and the diffusion region--where the electron temperature is controlled. When the plasma potential is higher in the source region than in diffusion region, the ion density ratio is determined by the electron temperature in Region I. Inversely, the ion density ratio is determined by the electron temperature in Region II, when the plasma potential is higher in Region II than in Region I.

Bai, K.H.; Chang, H.Y. [Process Development Team, Memory Division, Semiconductor Business, Samsung Electronics, San No. 24 Nongseo-Ri, Giheung-Eup, Yongin-City, Gyeonggi-Do, 449-711 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-09-19

245

Multiphysics Modeling of an Annular Linear Induction Pump With Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An annular linear induction pump (ALIP) that could be used for circulating liquid-metal coolant in a fission surface power reactor system is modeled in the present work using the computational COMSOL Multiphysics package. The pump is modeled using a two-dimensional, axisymmetric geometry and solved under conditions similar to those used during experimental pump testing. Real, nonlinear, temperature-dependent material properties can be incorporated into the model for both the electrically-conducting working fluid in the pump (NaK-78) and structural components of the pump. The intricate three-phase coil configuration of the pump is implemented in the model to produce an axially-traveling magnetic wave that is qualitatively similar to the measured magnetic wave. The model qualitatively captures the expected feature of a peak in efficiency as a function of flow rate.

Kilbane, J.; Polzin, K. A.

2014-01-01

246

Measurement of the target current by inductive probe during laser interaction on terawatt laser system PALS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the return-current flowing through a solid target irradiated with the sub-nanosecond kJ-class Prague Asterix Laser System is reported. A new inductive target probe was developed which allows us measuring the target current derivative in a kA/ns range. The dependences of the target current on the laser pulse energy for cooper, graphite, and polyethylene targets are reported. The experiment shows that the target current is proportional to the deposited laser energy and is strongly affected by the shot-to-shot fluctuations. The corresponding maximum target charge exceeded a value of 10 ?C. A return-current dependence of the electromagnetic pulse produced by the laser-target interaction is presented.

Cikhardt, J.; Krása, J.; De Marco, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Velyhan, A.; Krouský, E.; Cikhardtová, B.; Klír, D.; ?ezá?, K.; Ullschmied, J.; Skála, J.; Kubeš, P.; Kravárik, J.

2014-10-01

247

Multiplexed electrothermal vaporization sample introduction system for inductively coupled plasma spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiplexed electrothermal vaporization (ETV) system for sample introduction into an inductively coupled plasma was designed in an effort to increase sample turn-around time. Tungsten filaments (300 W), originally designed for overhead projectors, were chosen for use as ETVs to avoid the high power requirements associated with other ETV devices, e.g. graphite furnaces (2-3 kW). In short, we have multiplexed the thermal stages have been multiplexed such that a vaporization event can take place every 20 s. This represents a significant increase in the throughput typically associated with ETV-ICPMS, which is normally approximately 20-30 samples/h. Evaluated with respect to common figure of merit criteria, the performance of the multiplexed ETV system is similar to that seen with conventional graphite furnace ETV systems. However, several mass spectral interferences can be introduced by the presence of W into the plasma, which hinder the analysis of certain metals (Hg, Mo, etc.). Thus, other low power vaporizers (e.g. Re, Ta) should be considered for use in future systems.

Venable, John D.; Detwiler, Michael; Holcombe, James A.

2001-09-01

248

Induction in a Modular Learner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a theory of inductive learning--Autonomous Induction Theory--a form of induction that takes place within the autonomous and modular representational systems of the language faculty. Argues that Autonomous Induction Theory is constrained enough to be taken seriously as a plausible approach to explaining second language acquisition.…

Carroll, Susanne E.

2002-01-01

249

Severe and Steroid-Resistant Crohn’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with moderate to severe disease and patients with steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent disease differ in their management, as the latter groups usually include patients with less acute situations. Systemic corticosteroids represent the mainstay of the management of moderate to severe disease and remain the first-line therapy in this setting. Infliximab is the choice alternative for patients who do not respond

Pierre Michetti; Christian Mottet; Pascal Juillerat; Christian Felley; John-Paul Vader; Bernard Burnand; Jean-Jacques Gonvers; Florian Froehlich

2005-01-01

250

Development of steroid sulfatase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Hydrolysis of biologically inactive steroid sulfates to unconjugated steroids by steroid sulfatase (STS) is strongly implicated in rendering estrogenic stimulation to hormone-dependent cancers such as those of the breast. Considerable progress has been made in the past two decades with regard to the discovery, design and development of STS inhibitors. We outline historical aspects of their development, cumulating in the discovery of the first clinical trial candidate STX64 (BN83495, Irosustat) and other sulfamate-based inhibitors. The development of reversible STS inhibitors and the design of dual inhibitors of both aromatase and STS is also discussed. PMID:21238537

Woo, L W Lawrence; Purohit, Atul; Potter, Barry V L

2011-07-01

251

Manchester code telemetry system for well logging using quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance method is proposed to improve the recovery of MIL-STD-1553 Manchester code with several frequency components from attenuated, distorted, and drifted signal for data telemetry in well logging, and corresponding telemetry system is developed. Required resonant frequency and quality factor are derived, and the quasi-parallel LC resonant circuit is established at the receiving end of the logging cable to suppress the low-pass filtering effect caused by the distributed capacitance of the cable and provide balanced pass for all the three frequency components of the Manchester code. The performance of the method for various encoding frequencies and cable lengths at different bit energy to noise density ratios (Eb/No) have been evaluated in the simulation. A 5 km single-core cable used in on-site well logging and various encoding frequencies were employed to verify the proposed telemetry system in the experiment. Results obtained demonstrate that the telemetry system is feasible and effective to improve the code recovery in terms of anti-attenuation, anti-distortion, and anti-drift performances, decrease the bit error rate, and increase the reachable transmission rate and distance greatly.

Xu, Lijun; Chen, Jianjun; Cao, Zhang; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

2014-07-01

252

Manchester code telemetry system for well logging using quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive resonance.  

PubMed

In this paper, a quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance method is proposed to improve the recovery of MIL-STD-1553 Manchester code with several frequency components from attenuated, distorted, and drifted signal for data telemetry in well logging, and corresponding telemetry system is developed. Required resonant frequency and quality factor are derived, and the quasi-parallel LC resonant circuit is established at the receiving end of the logging cable to suppress the low-pass filtering effect caused by the distributed capacitance of the cable and provide balanced pass for all the three frequency components of the Manchester code. The performance of the method for various encoding frequencies and cable lengths at different bit energy to noise density ratios (Eb/No) have been evaluated in the simulation. A 5 km single-core cable used in on-site well logging and various encoding frequencies were employed to verify the proposed telemetry system in the experiment. Results obtained demonstrate that the telemetry system is feasible and effective to improve the code recovery in terms of anti-attenuation, anti-distortion, and anti-drift performances, decrease the bit error rate, and increase the reachable transmission rate and distance greatly. PMID:25085159

Xu, Lijun; Chen, Jianjun; Cao, Zhang; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

2014-07-01

253

Vectorial Command of Induction Motor Pumping System Supplied by a Photovoltaic Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the continuous decrease of the cost of solar cells, there is an increasing interest and needs in photovoltaic (PV) system applications following standard of living improvements. Water pumping system powered by solar-cell generators are one of the most important applications. The fluctuation of solar energy on one hand, and the necessity to optimise available solar energy on the other, it is useful to develop new efficient and flexible modes to control motors that entrain the pump. A vectorial control of an asynchronous motor fed by a photovoltaic system is proposed. This paper investigates a photovoltaic-electro mechanic chain, composed of a PV generator, DC-AC converter, a vector controlled induction motor and centrifugal pump. The PV generator is forced to operate at its maximum power point by using an appropriate search algorithm integrated in the vector control. The optimization is realized without need to adding a DC-DC converter to the chain. The motor supply is also ensured in all insolation conditions. Simulation results show the effectiveness and feasibility of such an approach.

Makhlouf, Messaoud; Messai, Feyrouz; Benalla, Hocine

2011-01-01

254

A novel variable-speed wind energy system using induction generator and six-switch AC\\/AC converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays using of the wind energy has a growing trend in the world due to their numerous advantages. The wind energy is free, inexhaustible and it produces no waste or greenhouse gases. Furthermore, it is a good method of supplying energy to remote areas. In this paper, a new variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) with a squirrel cage induction

M. Heydari; A. Yazdian Varjani; M. Mohamadian

2012-01-01

255

Abstract--The use of doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) in large wind energy conversion systems (WECS) has  

E-print Network

candidate in the wind energy conversion systems (WECS) due to its advantages [2- 5]. When compared to fixed1 Abstract--The use of doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) in large wind energy conversion-Through, STATCOM, LVRT, VSC, RSC, GSC, Grid codes. I. INTRODUCTION HE use of wind energy is growing rapidly

Pota, Himanshu Roy

256

FPGA-BASED COMPUTATION OF THE INDUCTANCE OF COILS USED FOR THE MAGNETIC STIMULATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM  

E-print Network

stimulation of the human nervous system is now a common technique in modern medicine [1]. A difficulty.de.Dinechin@ens-lyon.org ABSTRACT In the last years the interest for magnetic stimulation of the human nervous tissue has increasedFPGA-BASED COMPUTATION OF THE INDUCTANCE OF COILS USED FOR THE MAGNETIC STIMULATION OF THE NERVOUS

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

257

THE INDUCTION OF MENTAL STRUCTURES WHILE LEARNING TO USE SYMBOLIC SYSTEMS T. G. Bever and Ralph E. Hansen  

E-print Network

. Hansen University of Rochester ABSTRACT Subjects learned to map phrase-structure-defined strings onto geTHE INDUCTION OF MENTAL STRUCTURES WHILE LEARNING TO USE SYMBOLIC SYSTEMS T. G. Bever and Ralph E the structure dramatically faster than other subJects. This suggests that natural acquisition of structure

Bever, Thomas G.

258

Apparatus and method for reducing inductive coupling between levitation and drive coils within a magnetic propulsion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method is disclosed for reducing inductive coupling between levitation and drive coils within a magnetic levitation system. A pole array has a magnetic field. A levitation coil is positioned so that in response to motion of the magnetic field of the pole array a current is induced in the levitation coil. A first drive coil having a

Post; Richard F

2001-01-01

259

The effect of acid digestion technique on the performance of nebulization systems used in inductively coupled plasma spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pneumatic nebulization systems used in inductively coupled plasma spectrometry generally consist of a concentric glass (Meinhard type) or v?groove (Babington principle) nebulizer in combination with a cyclonic, cone or Scott double pass cloud chamber. The characteristic mode of action of each nebulizer produces an aerosol, the droplet size distribution of which depends on the solution matrix. Before reaching the

Bernhard A. Zarcinas; Michael J. McLaughlin; Michelle K. Smart

1996-01-01

260

Inverter supplied voltage control system for an isolated induction generator driven by a wind turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a technique to control the voltage generated from an isolated three-phase induction generator excited by an inverter and a single DC capacitor for use in a remote area power supply. The speed of the wind turbine that drives the induction generator could be regulated or unregulated. During the voltage build up process there is a variation

D. Seyoum; M. F. Rahman; C. Grantham

2003-01-01

261

Motivations for Anabolic Steroid use Among Bodybuilders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroid use is increasing, in parallel with rising concerns about body image. This study aimed to uncover bodybuilders’ motivations for using steroids using 135 questionnaires completed by readers of two bodybuilding magazines. The analyses reveal a polarization of beliefs about steroids between users and non-users. Steroid users were less likely to be concerned about the physical side effects, and many

Sam Wright; Sarah Grogan; Geoff Hunter

2000-01-01

262

Steroids in Athletics: One University's Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an account of one university's experience in conducting an investigation into possible steroid use by student athletes and the development of a program to deal with the problem. Discusses why athletes use steroids and how steroids are taken. Concludes it is likely many steroid-related deaths of athletes go undetected. (Author/ABL)

Lopez, Mike

1990-01-01

263

Effect of Age and Early Intervention with a Systemic Steroid, Intravenous Immunoglobulin or Amniotic Membrane Transplantation on the Ocular Outcomes of Patients with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose This retrospective observational case series of fifty-one consecutive patients referred to the eye clinic with acute-stage Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) from 1995 to 2011 examines the effect of early treatment with a systemic corticosteroid or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) on the ocular outcomes in patients with SJS or TEN. Methods All patients were classified by age (?18 years vs. >18 years) and analyzed by treatment modality and early intervention with systemic corticosteroids (?5 days), IVIG (?6 days), or amniotic membrane graft transplantation (AMT) (?15 days). The main outcomes were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) and ocular involvement scores (OIS, 0-12), which were calculated based on the presence of superficial punctate keratitis, epithelial defect, conjunctivalization, neovascularization, corneal opacity, keratinization, hyperemia, symblepharon, trichiasis, mucocutaneous junction involvement, meibomian gland involvement, and punctal damage. Results The mean logMAR and OIS scores at the initial visit were not significantly different in the pediatric group (logMAR = 0.44, OIS = 2.76, n = 17) or the adult group (logMAR = 0.60, OIS = 2.21, n = 34). At the final follow-up, the logMAR and OIS had improved significantly in the adult group (p = 0.0002, p = 0.023, respectively), but not in the pediatric group. Early intervention with IVIG or corticosteroids significantly improved the mean BCVA and OIS in the adult group (p = 0.043 and p = 0.024, respectively for IVIG; p = 0.002 and p = 0.034, respectively for corticosteroid). AMT was found to be associated with a significantly improved BCVA or OIS in the late treatment group or the group with a better initial OIS (p = 0.043 and p = 0.043, respectively for BCVA; p = 0.042 and p = 0.041, respectively for OIS). Conclusions Our findings suggest that patients with SJS or TEN who are aged 18 years or less have poorer ocular outcomes than older patients and that early treatment with steroid or immunoglobulin therapy improves ocular outcomes. PMID:24082770

Kim, Kyeong Hwan; Park, Sung Wook; Wee, Won Ryang

2013-01-01

264

Convergence of Multiple Mechanisms of Steroid Hormone Action  

PubMed Central

Steroid hormones modulate a wide array of physiological processes including development, metabolism, and reproduction in various species. It is generally believed that these biological effects are predominantly mediated by their binding to specific intracellular receptors resulting in conformational change, dimerization, and recruitment of coregulators for transcription-dependent genomic actions (classical mechanism). In addition, to their cognate ligands, intracellular steroid receptors can also be activated in a “ligand-independent” manner by other factors including neurotransmitters. Recent studies indicate that rapid, nonclassical steroid effects involve extranuclear steroid receptors located at the membrane, which interact with cytoplasmic kinase signaling molecules and G-proteins. The current review deals with various mechanisms that function together in an integrated manner to promote hormone-dependent actions on the central and sympathetic nervous systems. PMID:22454239

Mani, S. K.; Mermelstein, P. G.; Tetel, M. J.; Anesetti, G.

2013-01-01

265

A multi-channel magnetic induction tomography measurement system for human brain model imaging.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a multi-channel magnetic induction tomography measurement system for biological conductivity imaging in a human brain model. A hemispherical glass bowl filled with a salt solution is used as the human brain model; meanwhile, agar blocks of different conductivity are placed in the solution to simulate the intracerebral hemorrhage. The excitation and detection coils are fixed co-axially, and the axial gradiometer is used as the detection coil in order to cancel the primary field. On the outer surface of the glass bowl, 15 sensor units are arrayed in two circles as measurement parts, and a single sensor unit for cancelling the phase drift is placed beside the glass bowl. The phase sensitivity of our system is 0.204 degrees /S m(-1) with the excitation frequency of 120 kHz and the phase noise is in the range of -0.03 degrees to +0.05 degrees . Only the coaxial detection coil is available for each excitation coil; therefore, 15 phase data are collected in each measurement turn. Finally, the two-dimensional images of conductivity distribution are obtained using an interpolation algorithm. The frequency-varying experiment indicates that the imaging quality becomes better as the excitation frequency is increased. PMID:19491435

Xu, Zheng; Luo, Haijun; He, Wei; He, Chuanhong; Song, Xiaodong; Zahng, Zhanglong

2009-06-01

266

Non-steroidal drug-induced glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Numerous systemically used drugs are involved in drug-induced glaucoma. Most reported cases of non-steroidal drug-induced glaucoma are closed-angle glaucoma (CAG). Indeed, many routinely used drugs that have sympathomimetic or parasympatholytic properties can cause pupillary block CAG in individuals with narrow iridocorneal angle. The resulting acute glaucoma occurs much more commonly unilaterally and only rarely bilaterally. CAG secondary to sulfa drugs is a bilateral non-pupillary block type and is due to forward movement of iris–lens diaphragm, which occurs in individuals with narrow or open iridocorneal angle. A few agents, including antineoplastics, may induce open-angle glaucoma. In conclusion, the majority of cases with glaucoma secondary to non-steroidal medications are of the pupillary block closed-angle type and preventable if the at-risk patients are recognized and treated prophylactically. PMID:21637303

Razeghinejad, M R; Pro, M J; Katz, L J

2011-01-01

267

Prolonged Alterations in the Serotonin Neural System Following the Cessation of Adolescent Anabolic–Androgenic Steroid Exposure in Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) exposure during adolescence facilitates offensive aggression that is modulated, in part, by serotonin (5-HT) signaling and development and by signaling and expression of 5-HT1B receptors. To examine whether these effects are persistent or reversible, the authors administered AAS to hamsters, then examined them for aggression at 1, 4, 11, 18, or 25 days

Jill M. Grimes; Richard H. Melloni Jr

2006-01-01

268

A novel hybrid isolated generating system based on PV fed inverter-assisted wind-driven induction Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated renewable energy systems based on hybrid wind-solar sources are considered as feasible and reliable options instead of wind-diesel systems. An isolated hybrid scheme employing a simple three-phase square-wave inverter to integrate a photovoltaic array with a wind-driven induction generator has been proposed for the first time. A dynamic mathematical model of the hybrid scheme with variables expressed in d-q

S. Arul Daniel; N. AmmasaiGounden

2004-01-01

269

A low-power area efficient voltage reference and data generation unit for inductively powered implant system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a low-power sensor signal processing and load shift keying (LSK) telemetry scheme for an inductively powered implant system. The entire system manifests a voltage reference (VR), a potentiostat, and a current controlled oscillator (CCO). All of the functional blocks are designed using subthreshold MOSFETs to achieve ultra-low-power consumption. Relatively simpler architecture of the VGR saves area and

M. Roknsharifi; M. R. Haider; S. K. Islam

2011-01-01

270

Development of a Tunable Wide-Range Gene Induction System Useful for the Study of Streptococcal Toxin-Antitoxin Systems  

PubMed Central

Despite the plethora of genetic tools that have been developed for use in Streptococcus mutans, the S. mutans genetic system still lacks an effective gene induction system exhibiting low basal expression and strong inducibility. Consequently, we created two hybrid gene induction cassettes referred to as Xyl-S1 and Xyl-S2. Both Xyl-S cassettes are xylose inducible and controlled by the Bacillus megaterium xylose repressor. The Xyl-S cassettes each demonstrated >600-fold-increased reporter activity in the presence of 1.2% (wt/vol) xylose. However, the Xyl-S1 cassette yielded a much higher maximum level of gene expression, whereas the Xyl-S2 cassette exhibited much lower uninduced basal expression. The cassettes also performed similarly in Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii, which suggests that they are likely to be useful in a variety of streptococci. We demonstrate how both Xyl-S cassettes are particularly useful for the study of toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules using both the previously characterized S. mutans mazEF TA module and a previously uncharacterized HicAB TA module in S. mutans. HicAB TA modules are widely distributed among bacteria and archaea, but little is known about their function. We show that HicA serves as the toxin component of the module, while HicB serves as the antitoxin. Our results suggest that, in contrast to that of typical TA modules, HicA toxicity in S. mutans is modest at best. The implications of these results for HicAB function are discussed. PMID:23934493

Xie, Zhoujie; Qi, Fengxia

2013-01-01

271

Development of a tunable wide-range gene induction system useful for the study of streptococcal toxin-antitoxin systems.  

PubMed

Despite the plethora of genetic tools that have been developed for use in Streptococcus mutans, the S. mutans genetic system still lacks an effective gene induction system exhibiting low basal expression and strong inducibility. Consequently, we created two hybrid gene induction cassettes referred to as Xyl-S1 and Xyl-S2. Both Xyl-S cassettes are xylose inducible and controlled by the Bacillus megaterium xylose repressor. The Xyl-S cassettes each demonstrated >600-fold-increased reporter activity in the presence of 1.2% (wt/vol) xylose. However, the Xyl-S1 cassette yielded a much higher maximum level of gene expression, whereas the Xyl-S2 cassette exhibited much lower uninduced basal expression. The cassettes also performed similarly in Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii, which suggests that they are likely to be useful in a variety of streptococci. We demonstrate how both Xyl-S cassettes are particularly useful for the study of toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules using both the previously characterized S. mutans mazEF TA module and a previously uncharacterized HicAB TA module in S. mutans. HicAB TA modules are widely distributed among bacteria and archaea, but little is known about their function. We show that HicA serves as the toxin component of the module, while HicB serves as the antitoxin. Our results suggest that, in contrast to that of typical TA modules, HicA toxicity in S. mutans is modest at best. The implications of these results for HicAB function are discussed. PMID:23934493

Xie, Zhoujie; Qi, Fengxia; Merritt, Justin

2013-10-01

272

An Inductively Powered Scalable 32-Channel Wireless Neural Recording System-on-a-Chip for Neuroscience Applications.  

PubMed

We present an inductively powered 32-channel wireless integrated neural recording (WINeR) system-on-a-chip (SoC) to be ultimately used for one or more small freely behaving animals. The inductive powering is intended to relieve the animals from carrying bulky batteries used in other wireless systems, and enables long recording sessions. The WINeR system uses time-division multiplexing along with a novel power scheduling method that reduces the current in unused low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) to cut the total SoC power consumption. In addition, an on-chip high-efficiency active rectifier with optimized coils help improve the overall system power efficiency, which is controlled in a closed loop to supply stable power to the WINeR regardless of the coil displacements. The WINeR SoC has been implemented in a 0.5-? m standard complementary metal-oxide semiconductor process, measuring 4.9×3.3 mm(2) and consuming 5.85 mW at ±1.5 V when 12 out of 32 LNAs are active at any time by power scheduling. Measured input-referred noise for the entire system, including the receiver located at 1.2 m, is 4.95 ?Vrms in the 1 Hz~10 kHz range when the system is inductively powered with 7-cm separation between aligned coils. PMID:23850753

Seung Bae Lee; Hyung-Min Lee; Kiani, Mehdi; Uei-Ming Jow; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2010-12-01

273

Induction of Systemic Resistance against Cucumber mosaic virus in Arabidopsis thaliana by Trichoderma asperellum SKT-1.  

PubMed

Trichoderma asperellum SKT-1 is a microbial pesticide that is very effective against various diseases. Our study was undertaken to evaluate T. asperellum SKT-1 for induction of resistance against yellow strain of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-Y) in Arabidopsis plants. Disease severity was rated at 2 weeks post inoculation (WPI). CMV titre in Arabidopsis leaves was determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 2 WPI. Our results demonstrated that among all Arabidopsis plants treated with barley grain inoculum (BGI) of SKT-1 NahG and npr1 plants showed no significant reduction in disease severity and CMV titre as compared with control plants. In contrast, disease severity and CMV titre were significantly reduced in all Arabidopsis plants treated with culture filtrate (CF) of SKT-1 as compared with control plants. RT-PCR results showed increased expression levels of SA-inducible genes, but not JA/ET-inducible genes, in leaves of BGI treated plants. Moreover, expression levels of SA- and JA/ET-inducible genes were increased in leaves of CF treated plants. In conclusion, BGI treatment induced systemic resistance against CMV through SA signaling cascade in Arabidopsis plants. While, treatment with CF of SKT-1 mediated the expression of a majority of the various pathogen related genes, which led to the increased defense mechanism against CMV infection. PMID:25288946

Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi; Takahashi, Hideki; Ozaki, Kouichi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2013-06-01

274

Induction of Systemic Resistance against Cucumber mosaic virus in Arabidopsis thaliana by Trichoderma asperellum SKT-1  

PubMed Central

Trichoderma asperellum SKT-1 is a microbial pesticide that is very effective against various diseases. Our study was undertaken to evaluate T. asperellum SKT-1 for induction of resistance against yellow strain of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-Y) in Arabidopsis plants. Disease severity was rated at 2 weeks post inoculation (WPI). CMV titre in Arabidopsis leaves was determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 2 WPI. Our results demonstrated that among all Arabidopsis plants treated with barley grain inoculum (BGI) of SKT-1 NahG and npr1 plants showed no significant reduction in disease severity and CMV titre as compared with control plants. In contrast, disease severity and CMV titre were significantly reduced in all Arabidopsis plants treated with culture filtrate (CF) of SKT-1 as compared with control plants. RT-PCR results showed increased expression levels of SA-inducible genes, but not JA/ET-inducible genes, in leaves of BGI treated plants. Moreover, expression levels of SA- and JA/ET-inducible genes were increased in leaves of CF treated plants. In conclusion, BGI treatment induced systemic resistance against CMV through SA signaling cascade in Arabidopsis plants. While, treatment with CF of SKT-1 mediated the expression of a majority of the various pathogen related genes, which led to the increased defense mechanism against CMV infection. PMID:25288946

Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi; Takahashi, Hideki; Ozaki, Kouichi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2013-01-01

275

GnRH and steroids in cancer.  

PubMed

Gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) analogues are synthetic compounds derived from decapeptide neurohormones (LHRH; LH/FSH-RH). They have a key role in hormone dependent cancer, particularly breast and prostate cancer. GnRH analogues produce an efficient inhibition of gonadotropins and sex steroid hormones. Their use in cancer therapy result in a, pharmacological castration (i.e. ovariectomy and orchiectomy), providing an androgen and estrogen ablation. GnRH exert an inhibitory action on the growth of hormone-dependent human and canine mammary tumor. Mammary tumors can produce growth factor that potentially could modulate their own proliferation in an autocrine fashion (i.e. TGF-alpha and TGF-beta or with a paracrine mechanism (i.e. EGF, IGF, FGF). The expression of EGF receptors is related in mammary tissues to the action of oestrogen and progesteron and to the presence of functional receptors for oestrogen (ER) and progesteron (PR). The present review elucidate the role of GnRH receptors in cancer and their connection with steroid hormones. Besides we showed the link between GnRH and signal transductions pathways: Estrogen-receptors, GnRH-receptors, EGF-receptors signal transduction pathways. A very tight link exists between steroid hormones and GnRH analogues both on central pituitary gonadal axis and on tumor receptors peripherically. This last mechanism could be explained either locally activating GnRH receptors or locally interacting with EGF receptor-Intracellular NitricOxide system. PMID:12045004

Florio, Salvatore; Pagnini, Ugo; Crispino, Antonio; Pacilio, Carmen; Crispino, Luca; Giordano, Antonio

2002-06-01

276

Steroid hormone synthesis in mitochondria.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are essential sites for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Mitochondria in the steroidogenic cells of the adrenal, gonad, placenta and brain contain the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc, and its two electron-transfer partners, ferredoxin reductase and ferredoxin. This enzyme system converts cholesterol to pregnenolone and determines net steroidogenic capacity, so that it serves as the chronic regulator of steroidogenesis. Several other steroidogenic enzymes, including 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 11?-hydroxylase and aldosterone synthase also reside in mitochondria. Similarly, the mitochondria of renal tubular cells contain two key enzymes participating in the activation and degradation of vitamin D. The access of cholesterol to the mitochondria is regulated by the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, StAR, serving as the acute regulator of steroidogenesis. StAR action requires a complex multi-component molecular machine on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Components of this machine include the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), the voltage-dependent anion chanel (VDAC-1), TSPO-associated protein 7 (PAP7, ACBD3), and protein kinase A regulatory subunit 1? (PKAR1A). The precise fashion in which these proteins interact and move cholesterol from the OMM to P450scc, and the means by which cholesterol is loaded into the OMM, remain unclear. Human deficiency diseases have been described for StAR and for all the mitochondrial steroidogenic enzymes, but not for the electron transfer proteins or for the components of the cholesterol import machine. PMID:23628605

Miller, Walter L

2013-10-15

277

The Effect of Steroid Use in Hospitalized Adults With Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Related Illness  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Systemic glucocorticosteroids (steroids) are commonly prescribed for patients with exacerbations of COPD during acute viral infections such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The effects of short-term high-dose steroid treatment on viral load and adaptive immunity to RSV have not been examined in adults. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to measure peak viral load and duration of viral shedding, serum and nasal cytokines, RSV-specific antibody response, and lymphocyte subsets in patients admitted to the hospital with RSV infection and to compare patients treated with steroids to patients untreated with steroids. Methods: Hospitalized adults who tested positive for RSV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on admission had respiratory samples collected for quantitative RT-PCR and cytokine analysis. Serum and nasal secretions were tested for RSV antibody and lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry at 2 days, 2 weeks, and 1 month. Main Results: Thirty-three of 50 (66%) patients hospitalized with RSV received systemic steroids for a mean duration of 11 days. Those who received steroids more frequently wheezed and were less often febrile. There were no serious adverse events related to steroids and no significant differences in peak viral load, duration of RSV shedding, nasal cytokines, or lymphocyte subsets in patients treated with steroids and patients untreated with steroids. Antibody responses to RSV were slightly blunted in the steroid-treated group. Conclusions: Short courses of systemic steroids in patients hospitalized with RSV infection did not affect viral load or shedding. Humoral immunity may be mildly diminished, and thus potential benefits of systemic steroids must be balanced against potential risks. PMID:21565965

Lee, F. Eun-Hyung; Walsh, Edward E.

2011-01-01

278

Th17-Associated Cytokines as a Therapeutic Target for Steroid-Insensitive Asthma  

PubMed Central

Steroid-insensitive asthma is an infrequent but problematic airway disease that presents with persistent symptoms, airflow limitation, or recurrent exacerbations even when treated with steroid-based therapies. Because of unsatisfactory results obtained from currently available therapies for steroid-insensitive asthma, a better understanding of its pathogenesis and the development of new targeted molecular therapies are warranted. Recent studies indicated that levels of interleukin (IL)-17 are increased and both eosinophils and neutrophils infiltrate the airways of severe asthmatics. IL-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine mainly secreted from helper T (Th) 17 cells and is important for the induction of neutrophil recruitment and migration at sites of inflammation. This review focuses on the pathogenetic role of Th17 cells and their associated cytokines in steroid-insensitive asthma and discusses the prospects of novel therapeutic options targeting the Th17 signaling pathway. PMID:24454477

Ano, Satoshi; Ishii, Yukio; Matsuyama, Masashi; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

2013-01-01

279

Recurrent Functional-Link-Based Fuzzy-Neural-Network-Controlled Induction-Generator System Using Improved Particle Swarm Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recurrent functional-link (FL)-based fuzzy-neural-network (FNN) controller with improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) is proposed in this paper to control a three-phase induction-generator (IG) system for stand-alone power application. First, an indirect field-oriented mechanism is implemented for the control of the IG. Then, an AC\\/DC power converter and a DC\\/AC power inverter are developed to convert the electric power generated

Faa-Jeng Lin; Li-Tao Teng; Jeng-Wen Lin; Syuan-Yi Chen

2009-01-01

280

The Spatial Effects of Antenna Configuration in a Large Area Inductively Coupled Plasma System for Flat Panel Displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial distributions of plasma parameters such as electron density, electron temperature and electric potential were investigated using a commercial simulation software (COMSOLTM) to predict the effects of antenna configuration in a large area inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system for flat panel displays. Nine planar antenna sets were evenly placed above a ceramic window. While the electron density was influenced by both the input current and gas pressure, the electron temperature and electric potential were dominantly affected by the gas pressure.

Seon-Geun, Oh; Young-Jun, Lee; Jae-Hong, Jeon; Jong-Hyeon, Seo; Hee-Hwan, Choe

2014-08-01

281

Mutual Inductance Problem for a System Consisting of a Current Sheet and a Thin Metal Plate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid inspection of aircraft structures for flaws is of vital importance to the commercial and defense aircraft industry. In particular, inspecting thin aluminum structures for flaws is the focus of a large scale R&D effort in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community. Traditional eddy current methods used today are effective, but require long inspection times. New electromagnetic techniques which monitor the normal component of the magnetic field above a sample due to a sheet of current as the excitation, seem to be promising. This paper is an attempt to understand and analyze the magnetic field distribution due to a current sheet above an aluminum test sample. A simple theoretical model, coupled with a two dimensional finite element model (FEM) and experimental data will be presented in the next few sections. A current sheet above a conducting sample generates eddy currents in the material, while a sensor above the current sheet or in between the two plates monitors the normal component of the magnetic field. A rivet or a surface flaw near a rivet in an aircraft aluminum skin will disturb the magnetic field, which is imaged by the sensor. Initial results showed a strong dependence of the flaw induced normal magnetic field strength on the thickness and conductivity of the current-sheet that could not be accounted for by skin depth attenuation alone. It was believed that the eddy current imaging method explained the dependence of the thickness and conductivity of the flaw induced normal magnetic field. Further investigation, suggested the complexity associated with the mutual inductance of the system needed to be studied. The next section gives an analytical model to better understand the phenomenon.

Fulton, J. P.; Wincheski, B.; Nath, S.; Namkung, M.

1993-01-01

282

Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy: a computer controlled, scanning monochromator system for the rapid determination of the elements  

SciTech Connect

A computer controlled, scanning monochromator system specifically designed for the rapid, sequential determination of the elements is described. The monochromator is combined with an inductively coupled plasma excitation source so that elements at major, minor, trace, and ultratrace levels may be determined, in sequence, without changing experimental parameters other than the spectral line observed. A number of distinctive features not found in previously described versions are incorporated into the system here described. Performance characteristics of the entire system and several analytical applications are discussed.

Floyd, M.A.

1980-03-01

283

Green Light for Steroid Hormones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. In his Perspective, D. Russell describes two papers--one in this week's issue of Science (Li et al., p. 398) and one in the 19 April issue of Cell (M. Szekeres et al.)--which report on two enzymes that synthesize steroid hormones cloned from Arabidopsis. These enzymes, DET2 and CPD, are in the biosynthetic pathway for brassinolides, steroids that seem to participate in the regulation of gene expression by light.

David W. Russell (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center;Department of Molecular Genetics)

1996-04-19

284

Local Control of Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis.  

E-print Network

??abstractSteroids are essential for vertebrate physiology during pre- and postnatal life. Whereas the skeleton structure of cyclopenta[?]phenanthrene rings is common to all steroid molecules, differences… (more)

J. Hofland (Jan)

2012-01-01

285

Skip the Steroids for Shoulder Pain?  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skip the Steroids for Shoulder Pain? Physical therapy as effective as ... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Rehabilitation Rotator Cuff Injuries Steroids TUESDAY, Aug. 5, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- For relief ...

286

Teens and Steroids: A Dangerous Combo  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Teens and Steroids: A Dangerous Combo Search the Consumer Updates Section ... to know how dangerous it is to use steroids in hopes of being better athletes or more ...

287

Steroid Injections for the Carpal Tunnel Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Steroid Injections for the Carpal Tunnel Syndrome The full report is titled “Methylprednisolone Injections for the Carpal ... treatment is wrist splinting. When splinting is ineffective, steroid injections are often given and provide relief. However, ...

288

STEROID RECEPTOR COACTIVATOR-2 EXPRESSION IN BRAIN AND PHYSICAL ASSOCIATIONS WITH STEROID RECEPTORS  

E-print Network

STEROID RECEPTOR COACTIVATOR-2 EXPRESSION IN BRAIN AND PHYSICAL ASSOCIATIONS WITH STEROID RECEPTORS and cognition. Work from our lab and others has shown that the nuclear receptor coactivators, steroid receptor for coactiva- tors to function with steroid receptors, they must be ex- pressed in the same cells. Indeed, SRC

289

Voltage controllable power factor corrector based inductive coupling power transfer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposed a novel inductive coupling power transfer (ICPT) topology to improve the power factor, output voltage regulation and efficiency. The proposed ICPT is mainly constructed by a voltage controllable power factor corrector (VC-PFC) and a LLC resonant circuit. Additionally, the series compensation and series-parallel compensation are used in the primary and the secondary sides of the coupling transformer

Liang-Rui Chen; Hai-Wen Chang; Chia-Hsuan Wu; Chung-Ming Young; Neng-Yi Chu

2012-01-01

290

Converter Propulsion Systems with Three-Phase Induction Motors for Electric Traction Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-phase induction machines have a number of advantages compared with collector type machines which make them particularly suitable for traction purposes. These advantages, which were recognized long before, could only be used in praxis by means of the progress, which the development of static power converters has made in the last decade. Primarily having been used in diesel-electric traction vehicles

Hans Kielgas; Reiner Nill

1980-01-01

291

Prion induction involves an ancient system for the sequestration of aggregated proteins and heritable  

E-print Network

rise to new, often benefi- cial, phenotypes. Evidence suggests that prion induction involves a process long uninterrupted bundles of fibers, whereas Dot fibers were highly fragmented. Both forms were of nucleic acids. In fungi, they act as protein-based elements of heredity, stably propagating their altered

Lindquist, Susan

292

Modeling of Wind Turbines Based on Doubly-Fed Induction Generators for Power System Stability Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with modeling of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) and the corresponding converter for stability studies. To enable efficient computation, a reduced-order DFIG model is developed that restricts the calculation to the fundamental frequency component. However, the model enhancement introduced in this paper allows the consideration of the alternating components of the rotor current as well, which is

Istvan Erlich; JÖrg Kretschmann; Jens Fortmann; Stephan Mueller-Engelhardt; Holger Wrede

2007-01-01

293

Field experience on a novel picohydel system using self excited induction generator and electronic load controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a unique filed experience of a standalone power generating scheme using self-excited induction generator and electronic load controller by exploiting locally available small hydro potential needing minimal civil works. Water is made to flow in a channel and stored in a fore bay tank whose discharge is regulated to have a near constant head. A Pelton wheel

S. S. Murthy; Bhim Singh; Ashish Kulkarni; R. Sivarajan; Sushma Gupta

2003-01-01

294

A comparison of load commutated inverter systems for induction heating and melting applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative analysis of a current source inverter and a voltage source inverter suitable for induction heating and melting applications is presented. Both power supplies considered operate on the principle of load commutation. The comparison is based on criteria such as input power factor, component ratings, maximum and minimum operating frequencies, operation under varying load conditions, inverter starting capability, and

Francis P. Dawson; Praveen Jain

1991-01-01

295

Identification and Characterization of the LysR-Type Transcriptional Regulator HsdR for Steroid-Inducible Expression of the 3?-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase/Carbonyl Reductase Gene in Comamonas testosteroni  

PubMed Central

3?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase (3?-HSD/CR) from Comamonas testosteroni is a key enzyme in steroid degradation in soil and water. 3?-HSD/CR gene (hsdA) expression can be induced by steroids like testosterone and progesterone. Previously, we have shown that the induction of hsdA expression by steroids is a derepression where steroidal inducers bind to two repressors, RepA and RepB, thereby preventing the blocking of hsdA transcription and translation, respectively (G. Xiong and E. Maser, J. Biol. Chem. 276:9961-9970, 2001; G. Xiong, H. J. Martin, and E. Maser, J. Biol. Chem. 278:47400–47407, 2003). In the present study, a new LysR-type transcriptional factor, HsdR, for 3?-HSD/CR expression in C. testosteroni has been identified. The hsdR gene is located 2.58 kb downstream from hsdA on the C. testosteroni ATCC 11996 chromosome with an orientation opposite that of hsdA. The hsdR gene was cloned and recombinant HsdR protein was produced, as was anti-HsdR polyclonal antibodies. While heterologous transformation systems revealed that HsdR activates the expression of the hsdA gene, electrophoresis mobility shift assays showed that HsdR specifically binds to the hsdA promoter region. Interestingly, the activity of HsdR is dependent on decreased repression by RepA. Furthermore, in vitro binding assays indicated that HsdR can come into contact with RNA polymerase. As expected, an hsdR knockout mutant expressed low levels of 3?-HSD/CR compared to that of wild-type C. testosteroni after testosterone induction. In conclusion, HsdR is a positive transcription factor for the hsdA gene and promotes the induction of 3?-HSD/CR expression in C. testosteroni. PMID:22156416

Gong, Wenjie; Xiong, Guangming

2012-01-01

296

Analysis of self excited induction generator feeding induction motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper assesses the suitability of a self excited induction generator (SEIG) to supply dynamic loads like induction motors. An algorithm is proposed to predict the steady state performance of an SEIG feeding an induction motor (IM). The computed and experimental results are presented for different operating conditions of an SEIG-IM system. A good agreement reached between the predicted and

L. Shridhar; B. Singh; C. S. Jha

1994-01-01

297

Assisted reproduction technologies impair placental steroid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The placenta plays a vital role in pregnancy by facilitating steroid passage from maternal to fetal circulation and\\/or direct production of hormones. Using a murine model, we demonstrated the differences in placental steroid metabolism between pregnancies conceived naturally and with assisted reproduction technologies (ART): in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). While the ovarian steroid production was similar

Abby C. Collier; Shogo J. Miyagi; Yasuhiro Yamauchi; Monika A. Ward

2009-01-01

298

Adolescents and Steroids: A User Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anabolic-androgenic steroids ("steroids") are synthetic derivatives of the natural male hormone testosterone. They were first used non-medically by elite athletes seeking to improve performance. More recently, however, steroid use has filtered down to high school and junior high school levels. The purpose of this study was to describe adolescent…

Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

299

Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete  

PubMed Central

Anabolic steroid use by amateur and professional athletes and body builders is common. Patients may be using these drugs to enhance muscle bulk or athletic performance. An informed family physician comfortable with the topic can counsel patients on risks and side effects. This article reviews findings, offers recommendations, and discusses whether physicians should agree to monitor users. PMID:21229078

Geddes, John A.

1991-01-01

300

Conservative management of bilateral pneumoparotitis with sialendoscopy and steroid irrigation.  

PubMed

Pneumoparotitis is a rare condition related to retrograde airflow into the ductal system of the gland and secondary infections. Although counselling is enough in the majority of cases, persistent problems require surgery. Sialendoscopy and ductal irrigation with steroids have never been described as a treatment option. We present the case of a 61-year-old man with recurrent bilateral parotid swellings who had three episodes of sialadenitis on the right side within 2?years. Massage of the glands revealed air bubbles coming out from both papillae. A previous CT scan confirmed the presence of air in both parotid glands. The patient underwent sialendoscopy and irrigation of the ductal system with prednisolone. Ductal irrigation with steroids in three additional sessions led to a significant improvement of symptoms 6?months later. Sialendoscopy and irrigation with steroids could be another treatment modality in cases of recurrent pneumoparotitis avoiding major surgery. PMID:25355739

Konstantinidis, Iordanis; Chatziavramidis, Angelos; Constantinidis, Jannis

2014-01-01

301

Steroid regulation of sexual behavior.  

PubMed

Investigation into the hormonal control of sexual behavior has a rich and extensive history. For many researchers currently active in the field, the physiological psychologist Frank A. Beach is recognized as the modern father of the study of hormones and behavior. His publication of the seminal book Hormones and Behavior-A Survey of Interrelationships Between Endocrine Secretions and Patterns of Overt Response, published in 1948, was a compilation of the previous 20 years of research establishing that gonadal secretions acted in the brain and modulated behavior. The question of precisely how hormones can alter brain functioning in a coordinated fashion and profoundly influence the patterns of behavioral responsiveness remains unanswered. As with many research areas, application of new techniques and approaches to the problem reveals additional layers of complexity and previously unimagined relationships between hormones, brain, and behavior. In addition, with the increasing understanding that the brain is a target organ for steroids, the implications of the ramifications of this steroid sensitivity have broadened. The hormonal regulation of sexual behavior is not an isolated aspect of steroid action in the brain; rather, it is one component of a host of physiological responses influenced by steroids. These include such diverse responses as anxiety, aggression, feeding, and learning and memory. An appreciation of the diverse effects of steroids has emerged from studies on sexual behavior, and a mutually beneficial relationship between this and other aspects of behavioral neuroscience has flourished and endured. As with all of neuroscience, this research area has been dynamic and progressive and has additionally benefited from a long history of comparative and integrative approaches to animal behavior. PMID:18406766

McCarthy, M M; Albrecht, E D

1996-11-01

302

Unipolar Induction  

E-print Network

The phenomenon of unipolar induction consists in generating electric field by uniformly rotating permanent magnets made of either conducting or dielectric substance. The origin of the field around conducting magnets is explained and calculated in Sect. 1. Dielectrics are considered in Sect. 2, where the role of the electric moment due to moving magnetic dipole moment is clarified. Sect. 3 is devoted to the description of the effect in the corotating frame of reference. In Sect. 4 the theory is applied to the Earth core and it is shown that the calculated electric field falls precisely into the range of the ambient electric field observed in the Tethered Satellite System mission of NASA. In the last paragraph I reflect on whether flyby anomaly might be attributed to an electric effect.

P. Hraskó

2008-03-25

303

Vitrification of high level nuclear waste inside ambient temperature disposal containers using inductive heating: The SMILE system  

SciTech Connect

A new approach, termed SMILE (Small Module Inductively Loaded Energy), for the vitrification of high level nuclear wastes (HLW) is described. Present vitrification systems liquefy the HLW solids and associated frit material in large high temperature melters. The molten mix is then poured into small ({approximately}1 m{sup 3}) disposal canisters, where it solidifies and cools. SMILE eliminates the separate, large high temperature melter. Instead, the BLW solids and frit melt inside the final disposal containers, using inductive heating. The contents then solidify and cool in place. The SMILE modules and the inductive heating process are designed so that the outer stainless can of the module remains at near ambient temperature during the process cycle. Module dimensions are similar to those of present disposal containers. The can is thermally insulated from the high temperature inner container by a thin layer of refractory alumina firebricks. The inner container is a graphite crucible lined with a dense alumina refractory that holds the HLW and fiit materials. After the SMILE module is loaded with a slurry of HLW and frit solids, an external multi-turn coil is energized with 30-cycle AC current. The enclosing external coil is the primary of a power transformer, with the graphite crucible acting as a single turn ``secondary.`` The induced current in the ``secondary`` heats the graphite, which in turn heats the HLW and frit materials. The first stage of the heating process is carried out at an intermediate temperature to drive off remnant liquid water and water of hydration, which takes about 1 day. The small fill/vent tube to the module is then sealed off and the interior temperature raised to the vitrification range, i.e., {approximately}1200C. Liquefaction is complete after approximately 1 day. The inductive heating then ceases and the module slowly loses heat to the environment, allowing the molten material to solidify and cool down to ambient temperature.

Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Barletta, R.

1996-03-01

304

Effect of antenna capacitance on the plasma characteristics of an internal linear inductively coupled plasma system  

SciTech Connect

This study examined the effect of the antenna capacitance of an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source, which was varied using an internal linear antenna, on the electrical and plasma characteristics of the ICP source. The inductive coupling at a given rf current increased with decreasing antenna capacitance. This was caused by a decrease in the inner copper diameter of the antenna made from coaxial copper/quartz tubing, which resulted in a higher plasma density and lower plasma potential. By decreasing the diameter of the copper tube from 25 to 10 mm, the plasma density of a plasma source size of 2750x2350 mm{sup 2} was increased from approximately 8x10{sup 10}/cm{sup 3} to 1.5x10{sup 11}/cm{sup 3} at 15 mTorr Ar and 9 kW of rf power.

Lim, Jong Hyeuk; Kim, Kyong Nam; Park, Jung Kyun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Kyunggi-do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Geun Young [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Kyunggi-do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); National Program for Tera-Level Nanodevice, Hawolgok-dong, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-08-15

305

A novel solid-state integrated protection system for three phase induction motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional electro-mechanical and static protective devices used for the protection of three phase Induction motors in Industrial applications normally employ separate and Independent overload, short circuit, earth fault and single phasing protective devices In the circuit breaker to take care of motor protection. The proposed all-In-one protection scheme Integrates these Into a single static protective device and operates by

T. K. Chatteijee; D. K. Mittra; S. Mahata; S. Kareddy

2009-01-01

306

Effective induction of protective systemic immunity with nasally administered vaccines adjuvanted with IL1  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-1? and IL-1? were evaluated for their ability to provide adjuvant activity for the induction of serum antibody responses when nasally administered with protein antigens in mice and rabbits. In mice, intranasal (i.n.) immunization with pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) or tetanus toxoid (TT) combined with IL-1? induced protective immunity that was equivalent to that induced by parenteral immunization. Nasal

William M. Gwinn; Shaun M. Kirwan; Sheena H. Wang; Kathleen A. Ashcraft; Neil L. Sparks; Catherine R. Doil; Tom G. Tlusty; Leslie S. Casey; Susan K. Hollingshead; David E. Briles; Richard S. Dondero; Anthony J. Hickey; W. Michael Foster; Herman F. Staats

2010-01-01

307

Role of salicylic acid in induction of plant defense system in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA), a plant hormone plays an important role in induction of plant defense against a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses through morphological, physiological and biochemical mechanisms. A series of experiments were carried out to evaluate the biochemical response of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants to a range of SA concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM). Water treated plants were maintained as control. Activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated and amounts of total phenols, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and proteins were calculated after 96 h of treatment. Plants responded very quickly to SA at 1.5 mM and showed higher induction of POD and PPO activities, besides the higher accumulation of phenols, H2O2 and proteins. Plants treated with SA at 2 mM showed phytotoxic symptoms. These results suggest that SA at 1.5 mM is safe to these plants and could be utilized for the induction of plant defense. PMID:22057329

War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; War, Mohd Yousf; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2011-01-01

308

Gravitational induction  

E-print Network

We study the linear post-Newtonian approximation to general relativity known as gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM); in particular, we examine the similarities and differences between GEM and electrodynamics. Notwithstanding some significant differences between them, we find that a special nonstationary metric in GEM can be employed to show {\\it explicitly} that it is possible to introduce gravitational induction within GEM in close analogy with Faraday's law of induction and Lenz's law in electrodynamics. Some of the physical implications of gravitational induction are briefly discussed.

Donato Bini; Christian Cherubini; Carmen Chicone; Bahram Mashhoon

2008-03-04

309

Photoaffinity Labeling with a Neuroactive Steroid Analogue 6-AZI-PREGNANOLONE LABELS VOLTAGE-DEPENDENT ANION CHANNEL-1 IN RAT BRAIN*  

E-print Network

Photoaffinity Labeling with a Neuroactive Steroid Analogue 6-AZI-PREGNANOLONE LABELS VOLTAGE, Missouri 63110 Neuroactive steroids modulate the function of -ami- nobutyric acid, type A (GABAA) receptors in the central nervous system by an unknown mechanism. In this study we have used a novel neuroactive steroid ana

Steinbach, Joe Henry

310

The steroids of hexactinellid sponges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hexactinellida ('glass sponges') are commonly considered to be the most basic metazoans. Steroids of 20 species from different taxa were studied for chemotaxonomy and biosynthetic implications. All Hexactinellida contain cholest-5-en-3?-ol (cholesterol) and/or its saturated derivative 5?(H)-cholestan-3?-ol, along with their C-24-alkylated homologues. Where 5?(H)-stanols are present, they regularly co-occur with their 3-keto analogues. The steroid concentrations generally decrease with increasing carbon numbers, similar to sterol distributions typically found in marine sediments. These features argue against de novo sterol biosynthesis operating in hexactinellid sponges. Rather, we suggest a dietary uptake of ?5-stenols and their stereoselective transformation via 3-keto intermediates to 5?(H)-stanols.

Blumenberg, Martin; Thiel, Volker; Pape, Thomas; Michaelis, Walter

2002-07-01

311

The Steroid Metabolome of Adrenarche  

PubMed Central

Adrenarche is an endocrine developmental process whereby humans and select nonhuman primates increase adrenal output of a series of steroids, especially dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). The timing of adrenarche varies between primates, but in humans, serum levels of DHEAS are seen to increase around 6 years of age. This phenomenon corresponds with the development and expansion of the zona reticularis (ZR) of the adrenal gland. The physiological phenomena that trigger the onset of adrenarche are still unknown; however the biochemical pathways leading to this event have been elucidated in detail. There are numerous reviews examining the process of adrenarche, most of which, have focused on the changes within the adrenal as well as the phenotypic results of adrenarche. This article reviews the recent and past studies that show the breadth of changes in the circulating steroid metabolome that occurs during the process of adrenarche. PMID:22715193

Rege, Juilee; Rainey, William E.

2014-01-01

312

Steroidal saponins from Dracaena marginata.  

PubMed

Three new steroidal saponins and ten known ones were isolated from the bark of Dracaena marginata, along with two known steroidal saponins from the roots. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments and mass spectrometry as (25R)-26-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)3beta,22alpha-dihydroxyfurost-5-en-1beta-yl O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), (25R)-26-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3beta,22alpha-dihydroxyfurost-5-en-1beta-yl O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-4-O-sulfo-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (2), and (25S)-3beta-hydroxyspirost-5-en-1beta-yl O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-4-O-sulfo-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (3). PMID:23513716

Rezgui, Abdelmalek; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Pertuit, David; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Delemasure, Stéphanie; Dutartre, Patrick; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

2013-02-01

313

Global metabolomics and targeted steroid profiling reveal that rifampin, a strong human PXR activator, alters endogenous urinary steroid markers.  

PubMed

Activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) alters the expression of metabolic enzymes and transporters involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and endobiotics. To identify endogenous biomarkers of PXR activation in humans, rifampin, a strong PXR activator, was administered to 12 healthy male subjects, and their urine was analyzed before and after rifampin administration. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS)-based global metabolomics and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based profiling of 75 steroids were used to screen the urine samples. Global metabolomics revealed that hydroxytestosterone sulfate and glycochenodeoxycholate sulfate levels were significantly increased and that androsterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate, and p-cresol sulfate levels were significantly decreased following rifampin administration compared with controls. Urinary steroid profiling showed that 16?-OH-androstenedione (16?-OH-A-dione), 16?-OH-DHEA, 7?-DHEA, 7?-DHEA, and 11?-OH-A-dione levels were increased, whereas DHEA, androsterone, etiocholanolone, estrone, ?-cortolone, and allo-tetrahydrocortisone levels were decreased in the rifampin group. The analysis of the metabolic pathway and the metabolic ratio of steroids enabled the estimation of the induction of CYP1A/3A/7B/11B/2C and the inhibition of CYP17A/19A in response to PXR activation. These human urinary biomarkers may be useful for predicting the extent of PXR activation, monitoring the activity of DMEs, and anticipating drug-drug interactions in patients administered PXR-activating drugs. PMID:23320515

Kim, Bora; Moon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Man Ho; Yang, Hyang Hee; Lee, Seunghwan; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Jang, In-Jin; Cho, Joo-Youn

2013-03-01

314

Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are mainly used to treat androgen deficiency syndromes and, more recently, catabolic states\\u000a such as AIDS-associated wasting. There is no evidence in the reviewed literature that AAS abuse or dependence develops from\\u000a the therapeutic use of AAS. Conversely, 165 instances of AAS dependence have been reported among weightlifters and bodybuilders\\u000a who, as part of their weight training

Kirk J. Brower

2002-01-01

315

Spectrophotometric Determination of Steroid Oximes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectrophotometric procedure for the determination of steroid oximes is described utilizing 11?-hydroxy-iia-methyl-5?-pregnane -3, 20 -dione dioxime (I) and iia-hydroxy-progesterone dioxime (II) as models. The method is based on (a) acid hydrolysis to release hydroxylamine, (b) oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrous acid with iodine, (c) diazotization of sulfanilic acid with the nitrous acid, (d) coupling of the diazonium compound with

Arlington A. Forist; Ray W. Judy

1974-01-01

316

High-Frequency Modeling of the Long-Cable-Fed Induction Motor Drive System Using TLM Approach for Predicting Overvoltage Transients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction motor drive systems fed with cables are widely used in many industrial applications. Accurate prediction of motor terminal overvoltage, caused by impedance mismatch between the long cable and the motor, plays an important role for motor dielectric insulation and optimal design of dv\\/dt filters. In this paper, a novel modeling methodology for the investigation of long-cable-fed induction motor drive

Liwei Wang; Carl Ngai-Man Ho; Francisco Canales; Juri Jatskevich

2010-01-01

317

Removal of Natural Steroid Hormones from Wastewater Using  

E-print Network

Removal of Natural Steroid Hormones from Wastewater Using Membrane Contactor Processes J O S H U water resources and increased interest in wastewater reclamation for potable reuse. This interest has in the study of wastewater reuse in advanced life support systems (e.g., space missions) because

318

Sex steroids and cervical cancer.  

PubMed

During the 19th century, studies indicated that reproductive events were involved in cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a prerequisite for development of cancer, but co-factors, among them the action of sexual steroid hormones, are necessary. Childbirth has been an important risk factor but now probably plays a minor role in the industrialized world, where parity is low. Long-term oral contraceptive use has been thoroughly studied epidemiologically, and correlates to cervical cancer in most studies. In vitro studies on cervical cell lines transfected with HPV and animal studies indicate that sex steroid hormones are capable to induce cancer. In in vivo cervical cancer tissue studies there have been observations that endogenous progesterone in serum correlates to a negative pattern of expression of cellular and extracellular proteins, tumor markers. Immune response could be another mechanism. Estradiol might be associated with a positive pattern and high estradiol and low progesterone levels increase duration of survival in cervical cancer. Studies where treatment of compounds that influence sex steroid hormones have been given are rare and have been disappointing. PMID:22843872

Hellberg, Dan

2012-08-01

319

Gamma-irradiation activates biochemical systems: induction of nitrate reductase activity in plant callus.  

PubMed Central

Gamma-irradiation induced high levels of nitrate reductase activity (NADH:nitrate oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.6.1) in callus of Haworthia mirabilis Haworth. Subcultures of gamma-irradiated tissues showed autonomous growth on minimal medium. We were able to mimic the effects of gamma-irradiation by inducing nitrate reductase activity in unirradiated callus with exogenous auxin and kinetin. These results revealed that induction of nitrate reductase activity by gamma-irradiation is mediated through in vitro activation of hormone synthesis in callus cells. PMID:6957874

Pandey, K N; Sabharwal, P S

1982-01-01

320

Induction and Co-induction in Sequent Calculus Alberto Momigliano1,2 and Alwen Tiu3,4  

E-print Network

Induction and Co-induction in Sequent Calculus Alberto Momigliano1,2 and Alwen Tiu3,4 1 LFCS for reasoning about such specifications, we make use of a sequent calculus involving induction and co-induction, in particular enforcing free equality via unification. The full system thus allows inductive and co-inductive

Tiu, Alwen

321

Molecular characterization and systemic induction of single-chain ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) leaves.  

PubMed

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves contain virus-inducible type 1 (single chain) ribosome-inactivating proteins that have been named beetins. The structural and functional characterization, the cellular location, and the potential role of beetins as antiviral agents are reported here. Beetins are formed of a single polypeptide chain with a varying degree of glycosylation and strongly inhibited in vitro protein synthesis in rabbit reticulocyte lysates (IC50=1.15 ng ml(-1)) and a Vicia sativa L. cell-free system (IC50=68 ng ml(-1)) through the single depurination of the large rRNA. Beetins trigger the multidepurination of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) genomic RNA which underwent extensive degradation upon treatment with acid aniline. Beetins are extracellular proteins that were recovered from the apoplastic fluid. Induction of sugar beet RIPs with either H2O2 or artichoke mottled crinkle virus (AMCV) was observed in leaves distant from the site of application of such elicitors. The external application of purified beetin to sugar leaves prevented infection by AMCV which supports the preliminary hypothesis that beetins could be involved in plant systemic acquired resistance subjected to induction by phytopathogens. PMID:15863448

Iglesias, Rosario; Pérez, Yolanda; de Torre, Carlos; Ferreras, J Miguel; Antolín, Pilar; Jiménez, Pilar; Rojo, M Angeles; Méndez, Enrique; Girbés, Tomás

2005-06-01

322

Linear induction accelerator  

DOEpatents

A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

1988-06-21

323

Microbial biotransformation: recent developments on steroid drugs.  

PubMed

About 300 of steroid drugs have been identified since the research and development to steroid drugs was triggered in 1950's. Although much progress in microbial biotransformation on steroid drugs is well-achieved, many efforts are ongoing in order to improve the efficiency of steroidal drug production as well as to degrade their derivatives. In this work an overview of recent and important findings related to patents and various microbial biotransformations of steroidal compounds including dehydrogenation/reduction, hydroxylation, esterification, methylation, halogenation and methoxylation is presented. Both metabolic pathway and genetic manipulation and screening for new strains capable of metabolizing/transforming steroid drugs, as the powerful endocrine disruptors, are introduced since they are serious environmental contaminants. PMID:19519569

Tong, Wang-Yu; Dong, Xiang

2009-01-01

324

Inductive Inference: Theory and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a great deal of theoretical and experimental work in computer science on inductive inference systems, that is, systems that try to infer general rules from examples. However, a complete and applicable theory of such systems is still a distant goal. This survey highlights and explains the main ideas that have been developed in the study of inductive

Dana Angluin; Carl H. Smith

1983-01-01

325

High-performance chromatofocusing of steroid receptor proteins in the presence and absence of steroid. Investigation of steroid-dependent alterations in surface charge heterogeneity.  

PubMed

We have previously reported the development of high-performance chromatofocusing (HPCF) systems for rapid evaluation of the surface charge heterogeneity of steroid receptor proteins, each in the presence of its specific steroid ligand. However, the surface charge properties of ligand-free receptor proteins remain largely unknown. We have now employed HPCF to rapidly evaluate the surface charge properties of cytosolic estrogen receptor proteins in both the presence and absence of the ligand ([3H]estradiol-17 beta). All operations were performed at 0-4 degrees C. Cytosols prepared from immature calf uteri were preparatively analyzed by HPCF on a SynChropak AX-500 column (25 cm X 4.6 mm I.D.) either before or after incubation with 5-10 nM [3H]estradiol-17 beta. Elution of receptor was by generation of internal pH gradients (pH 8.1 to 3.2) using Pharmacia Polybuffers 96 and 74. Postcolumn detection of previously unliganded receptor was accomplished by incubation of pH-neutralized (pH 7.4) fractions with 5 nM [3H]estradiol-17 beta in the presence and absence of unlabelled competitor. Specifically bound steroid was determined in each fraction using an hydroxylapatite adsorption assay. Significant surface charge heterogeneity was observed for both unliganded receptor and the steroid-receptor complex. The heterodisperse pattern of receptor surface charge appeared to vary in a steroid-dependent manner. Preformed steroid-receptor complexes eluted primarily between pH 6.5-7 and between pH 5-6, with indications for heterogeneity within both regions. The surface charge distribution of unliganded receptor routinely revealed additional, more acidic eluting (pH 3.8-4.6) receptor forms. Sodium molybdate, a commonly used receptor-stabilizing agent, maintains receptors during HPCF as relatively acidic eluting forms (pH 3.8-5.0). The specific elution profile of molybdate-stabilized receptor also appears steroid-dependent. These data demonstrate that HPCF can be used preparatively to rapidly isolate unliganded receptor forms in a biologically active state. PMID:2993332

Hutchens, T W; Dunaway, H E; Besch, P K

1985-06-26

326

76 FR 72355 - Classification of Two Steroids, Prostanozol and Methasterone, as Schedule III Anabolic Steroids...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Anabolic Steroids Under the Controlled Substances Act AGENCY: Drug Enforcement Administration...anabolic steroids'' under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA): prostanozol (17[beta...be listed as Schedule III controlled substances subject to the regulatory control...

2011-11-23

327

Induction voidmeter  

DOEpatents

An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; means for applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and means for detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

Anderson, T.T.; Roop, C.J.; Schmidt, K.J.; Brewer, J.

1983-12-21

328

Induction voidmeter  

DOEpatents

An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge circuit, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

Anderson, Thomas T. (Downers Grove, IL); Roop, Conard J. (Lockport, IL); Schmidt, Kenneth J. (Midlothian, IL); Brewer, John (Oak Lawn, IL)

1986-01-01

329

PLANT SCIENCES: Plant Genes on Steroids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Plants, like animals, use steroid hormones to regulate their development. However, in plants, the steroid hormone is bound by a receptor at the cell surface instead of a nuclear receptor. In a Perspective, Sablowski and Harberd discuss studies published here (He et al.) and elsewhere that provide the missing link between binding of the steroid by its receptor and changes in the expression of target genes.

Robert Sablowski (John Innes Centre;Department of Cell and Developmental Biology); Nicholas P. Harberd (John Innes Centre;Department of Cell and Developmental Biology)

2005-03-11

330

Histone acetylation and steroid receptor coactivator expression during clofibrate-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferators (PPs), non-genotoxic rodent carcinogens, cause the induction of the peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation system, including bifunctional enzyme (BE) and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (TH), in the liver. GST M1 gene is polymorphic in Sprague-Dawley rats, NC- and KS-type. The KS-type rats showed enhanced susceptibility to ethyl-alpha-chlorophenoxyisobutyrate (clofibrate, CF), one of the PPs. The degree of BE induction was higher in the KS-type and preneoplastic foci developed after 6-8 weeks of treatment, whereas no foci developed in the NC-type. In the preset study, factors involved in different BE inducibility were investigated. There were no differences in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha levels between them. Among various coactivators for PPARalpha, only steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-3 level was higher in the KS-type. To investigate the association between PPARalpha and SRC-3 or other proteins, nuclear extracts from CF-treated livers were applied to a PPARalpha column. In the KS-type, 110, 72, and 42 kDa proteins were bound and these were identified as SRC-3, BE, and TH, respectively. EMSA supported the binding of these proteins to PPARalpha associated to the BE enhancer in CF-treated KS-type, but not in the NC-type. Histone H3 acetylation was increased 11-fold in the KS-type by CF treatment but not in the NC-type. As BE and TH are responsible for acetyl-CoA production and SRC-3 possesses a histone acetyltransferase activity, these results suggest that enhanced BE induction in the KS-type livers is due to acetylation-mediated transcriptional activation and epigenetic mechanisms might be involved in CF-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:20132223

Asano, Jumpei; Kudo, Toshihiro; Shimizu, Takeshi; Fan, Yang; Nanashima, Naoki; Yamana, Daisuke; Miura, Takuya; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Tsuchida, Shigeki

2010-04-01

331

Induction of decision trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology for building knowledge-based systems by inductive inference from examples has been demonstrated successfully in several practical applications. This paper summarizes an approach to synthesizing decision trees that has been used in a variety of systems, and it describes one such system, ID3, in detail. Results from recent studies show ways in which the methodology can be modified to

J. Ross Quinlan

1986-01-01

332

Extensive visual loss with topical facial steroids.  

PubMed

Steroid creams applied topically to the skin are routinely used in the treatment of many dermatoses. Their use on the face in severe atopic eczema is relatively common. We report a series of three patients who whilst using topical facial steroids developed advanced glaucoma. A further two cases of ocular hypertension secondary to topical facial steroids are also described. This is the first series of cases to be reported demonstrating the potentially blinding complications of topical facial steroids. Recommendations are made with regard to screening such patients for glaucoma. PMID:8287990

Aggarwal, R K; Potamitis, T; Chong, N H; Guarro, M; Shah, P; Kheterpal, S

1993-01-01

333

Steroid metabolism by monkey and human spermatozoa  

SciTech Connect

Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from monkey and human were washed and incubated with tritium labelled androgens or estradiol to study the pattern of spermatozoa steroid metabolism. When equal concentrations of steroid substrates were used for incubation, monkey and human spermatozoa showed very similar pattern of steroid conversion. Spermatozoa from both species converted testosterone mainly to androstenedione, but reverse conversion of androstenedione to testosterone was negligible. Estradiol-17 beta was converted mainly to estrone. The close similarity between the spermatozoa of monkey and men in their steroid metabolic pattern indicates that the rhesus monkey could be an useful animal model to study the effect of drugs on the metabolic pattern of human spermatozoa.

Rajalakshmi, M.; Sehgal, A.; Pruthi, J.S.; Anand-Kumar, T.C.

1983-05-01

334

[Efficacy of intratympanic steroid treatment for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss after failure of intravenous steroid treatment].  

PubMed

This study investigated the efficacy of intratympanic steroid (ITS) therapy as a salvage treatment for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss after failure of intravenous steroid (IVS) therapy. Systemic steroid therapy is the only standard drug therapy. However, ethically, we could not simply compare ITS with IVS. Conventionally, we have treated idiopahic sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients after failure of systemic steroid therapy with the double combined therapy IVS and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), as the salvage modality. We examined the effect of ITS by adding it to the double combined therapy with IVS and HBO. Retrospectively, we clinically examined the effect of double combined therapy with IVS and HBO (A group) for 31 patients (12 men and 19 women) (median age: 54 years) with sudden hearing loss after failure of systemic steroid therapy between June, 2003 and July, 2010. Prospectively, we also examined clinically the effect of triple combined therapy with IVS and HBO, ITS (B group) for 29 patients (17 men and 12 women) (median age: 51 years) with sudden hearing loss after failure of systemic steroid therapy between August, 2010 and April, 2012. In the examination of patients treated within 30 days from the onset, one patient (3.2%) demonstrated remarkable recovery, 6 patients (19.4%) demonstrated mild recovery, while no change was noted in 24 patients (77.4%) in the A group. In the B group, 5 patients (17.2%) demonstrated complete recovery, 3 patients (10.3%) demonstrated remarkable recovery, mild recovery was seen in 14 patients (48.3%), and the remaining 7 patients (24.1%) showed no change. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the A group and the B group. Furthermore, the hearing improvement in group B in five pure tone average was significantly better than in the group A (p < 0.05). We concluded that the B group demonstrated better hearing improvement than the A group. Therefore, ITS could be effective for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients after failure of systemic steroid therapy. PMID:25102738

Kawano, Toshiro; Matsuura, Masaki; Ishitoya, Junichi; Oridate, Nobuhiko

2014-06-01

335

Intra-arterial methylprednisolone for severe steroid refractory gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease.  

PubMed

Acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a significant complication of bone marrow transplantation with approximately half of patients being refractory to steroids. There are numerous second-line systemic immunosuppressive treatments but the overall prognosis is poor and these therapies are associated with high mortality due to infection. An alternative approach to systemic treatment for GVHD is targeted delivery of immunosuppression. We present two pediatric cases with steroid-refractory gastrointestinal GVHD who clinically responded to intra-arterial steroid administration. We also review the literature regarding this treatment modality with a particular emphasis in children. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014;61:2321-2323. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25053422

Bhuller, Kaljit S; Heran, Manraj K S; Wu, John K M; Rassekh, S Rod

2014-12-01

336

Cells in Behaviourally Relevant Brain Regions Coexpress Nuclear Receptor Coactivators and Ovarian Steroid Receptors  

PubMed Central

Oestradiol and progesterone act in the brain to elicit profound effects on behaviour and physiology. One physiological function of oestradiol is the induction of progesterone receptor (PR) expression in a variety of behaviourally relevant brain regions, including the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN), the medial preoptic nucleus of the preoptic area (MPOA), the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the medial central grey (MCG). Ligand-dependent transcriptional activity of steroid receptors, including oestrogen receptors (ER) and PR, is dramatically influenced by nuclear receptor coactivators. In previous studies, we have found that two of these nuclear receptor coactivators, steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) and CREB-binding protein (CBP), are important in ER-mediated induction of PR in the VMN and in steroid-dependent behaviours. For nuclear receptor coactivators to function in hormone-dependent transcription in the brain and regulate behaviour, both receptor and coactivator must be expressed in the same cell. In the present study, we used a dual-label immunohistochemical technique to investigate if individual cells in behaviourally relevant brain regions coexpress nuclear receptor coactivators and steroid receptors. Confocal analysis revealed that in oestrogen-primed rats, most of the E-induced PR cells in the VMN (89.6%), MPOA (63%), ARC (82.6%), and many in the MCG (39%), also express SRC-1. In addition, the majority of the cells containing E-induced PR in the VMN (78.3%), MPOA (83.1%), ARC (83.6%), and MCG (60%) also express CBP. These results, taken together with the findings that virtually all oestradiol-induced PR containing cells in the brain express ER, suggest that these neurones represent sites of functional interaction of nuclear receptor coactivators with ovarian steroid receptors in the brain. The present findings provide neuroanatomical evidence that nuclear receptor coactivators are integral in mediating steroid hormone action in behaviourally relevant brain regions. PMID:17244199

Tetel, M. J.; Siegal, N. K.; Murphy, S. D.

2009-01-01

337

Steroid abuse in female athletes.  

PubMed

Drug abuse in sport attracts considerable media and public interest, particularly around the time of major international events such as the Olympic Games. From a scientific viewpoint the benefits of drugs to sportspersons have been difficult to address. In the case of steroids, the experiments required for proof, particularly in women, are unethical. Drug testing is an expensive mechanism for deterrence, but there are areas in the scenario where validation data are lacking and improvements to the procedures are needed. Testing standards for women cannot be based on results from tests in men, and regulations need revision to take account of new data. PMID:9263702

Honour, J W

1997-06-01

338

Microbial oxidation of anabolic steroids.  

PubMed

Microbial transformation of two anabolic steroids, ethylestrenol (1) and nandrolone (2), were carried out. Ethylestrenol (1), when incubated with Rhizopus stolonifer (TSY 0471), yielded two oxidative metabolites named 17alpha-ethyl-3beta,17beta-dihydroxy-19-norndrost-4-ene (3) and 17alpha-ethyl-17beta-hydroxy-19-norandrost-4-en-3-one (4), while incubation of compound 2 with the same fungus yielded two oxidative metabolites, 19-norandrost-4-en-3,17-dione (5) and 6alpha,17beta-dihydroxy-19-norandrost-1,4-dien-3-one (6). PMID:19023784

Iqbal Choudhary, M; Adnan, S; Shah, A; Atta-Ur-Rahman

2008-01-01

339

Into the world of steroids  

PubMed Central

Evolution of steroids such as sex hormones and ecdysteroids occurred independently in the animal and plant kingdoms. Plants use phytoecdysteroids (PEs) to control defense interactions with some predators; furthermore, PEs can exert beneficial influence on many aspects of mammalian metabolism. Endocrine disrupting compounds such as the estrogen agonist bisphenol A (BPA) are widespread in the environment, posing a potential hormonal risk to animals and plants. Adverse BPA effects on reproductive development and function are coupled with other toxic effects. BPA bioremediation techniques could be developed by exploiting some tolerant plant species. PMID:20671439

2010-01-01

340

Steroids, triterpenoids and molecular oxygen  

PubMed Central

There is a close connection between modern-day biosynthesis of particular triterpenoid biomarkers and presence of molecular oxygen in the environment. Thus, the detection of steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons far back in Earth history has been used to infer the antiquity of oxygenic photosynthesis. This prompts the question: were these compounds produced similarly in the past? In this paper, we address this question with a review of the current state of knowledge surrounding the oxygen requirement for steroid biosynthesis and phylogenetic patterns in the distribution of steroid and triterpenoid biosynthetic pathways. The hopanoid and steroid biosynthetic pathways are very highly conserved within the bacterial and eukaryotic domains, respectively. Bacteriohopanepolyols are produced by a wide range of bacteria, and are methylated in significant abundance at the C2 position by oxygen-producing cyanobacteria. On the other hand, sterol biosynthesis is sparsely distributed in distantly related bacterial taxa and the pathways do not produce the wide range of products that characterize eukaryotes. In particular, evidence for sterol biosynthesis by cyanobacteria appears flawed. Our experiments show that cyanobacterial cultures are easily contaminated by sterol-producing rust fungi, which can be eliminated by treatment with cycloheximide affording sterol-free samples. Sterols are ubiquitous features of eukaryotic membranes, and it appears likely that the initial steps in sterol biosynthesis were present in their modern form in the last common ancestor of eukaryotes. Eleven molecules of O2 are required by four enzymes to produce one molecule of cholesterol. Thermodynamic arguments, optimization of function and parsimony all indicate that an ancestral anaerobic pathway is highly unlikely. The known geological record of molecular fossils, especially steranes and triterpanes, is notable for the limited number of structural motifs that have been observed. With a few exceptions, the carbon skeletons are the same as those found in the lipids of extant organisms and no demonstrably extinct structures have been reported. Furthermore, their patterns of occurrence over billion year time-scales correlate strongly with environments of deposition. Accordingly, biomarkers are excellent indicators of environmental conditions even though the taxonomic affinities of all biomarkers cannot be precisely specified. Biomarkers are ultimately tied to biochemicals with very specific functional properties, and interpretations of the biomarker record will benefit from increased understanding of the biological roles of geologically durable molecules. PMID:16754609

Summons, Roger E; Bradley, Alexander S; Jahnke, Linda L; Waldbauer, Jacob R

2006-01-01

341

Steroids, triterpenoids and molecular oxygen.  

PubMed

There is a close connection between modern-day biosynthesis of particular triterpenoid biomarkers and presence of molecular oxygen in the environment. Thus, the detection of steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons far back in Earth history has been used to infer the antiquity of oxygenic photosynthesis. This prompts the question: were these compounds produced similarly in the past? In this paper, we address this question with a review of the current state of knowledge surrounding the oxygen requirement for steroid biosynthesis and phylogenetic patterns in the distribution of steroid and triterpenoid biosynthetic pathways. The hopanoid and steroid biosynthetic pathways are very highly conserved within the bacterial and eukaryotic domains, respectively. Bacteriohopanepolyols are produced by a wide range of bacteria, and are methylated in significant abundance at the C2 position by oxygen-producing cyanobacteria. On the other hand, sterol biosynthesis is sparsely distributed in distantly related bacterial taxa and the pathways do not produce the wide range of products that characterize eukaryotes. In particular, evidence for sterol biosynthesis by cyanobacteria appears flawed. Our experiments show that cyanobacterial cultures are easily contaminated by sterol-producing rust fungi, which can be eliminated by treatment with cycloheximide affording sterol-free samples. Sterols are ubiquitous features of eukaryotic membranes, and it appears likely that the initial steps in sterol biosynthesis were present in their modern form in the last common ancestor of eukaryotes. Eleven molecules of O2 are required by four enzymes to produce one molecule of cholesterol. Thermodynamic arguments, optimization of function and parsimony all indicate that an ancestral anaerobic pathway is highly unlikely. The known geological record of molecular fossils, especially steranes and triterpanes, is notable for the limited number of structural motifs that have been observed. With a few exceptions, the carbon skeletons are the same as those found in the lipids of extant organisms and no demonstrably extinct structures have been reported. Furthermore, their patterns of occurrence over billion year time-scales correlate strongly with environments of deposition. Accordingly, biomarkers are excellent indicators of environmental conditions even though the taxonomic affinities of all biomarkers cannot be precisely specified. Biomarkers are ultimately tied to biochemicals with very specific functional properties, and interpretations of the biomarker record will benefit from increased understanding of the biological roles of geologically durable molecules. PMID:16754609

Summons, Roger E; Bradley, Alexander S; Jahnke, Linda L; Waldbauer, Jacob R

2006-06-29

342

Steroidal esters from Ferula sinkiangensis.  

PubMed

Two new steroidal esters with an unusual framework, Sinkiangenorin A and B, a new organic acid glycoside, Sinkiangenorin C, and four known lignin compounds were isolated from the seeds of Ferula sinkiangensis. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All of the isolated compounds were tested against Hela, K562 and AGS human cancer cell lines. Sinkiangenorin C showed cytotoxic activity against AGS cells with an IC50 of 36.9 ?M. PMID:24979220

Li, Guangzhi; Li, Xiaojin; Cao, Li; Shen, Liangang; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Junchi; Zhang, Lijing; Si, Jianyong

2014-09-01

343

Control of a wind park with doubly fed induction generators in support of power system stability in case of grid faults  

E-print Network

Control of a wind park with doubly fed induction generators in support of power system stability connected wind power plants based on conventional technology. 1 Introduction Due to the increasing penetration of wind power the power system operators are revising nowa- days the grid codes in several

344

Stress response of systemic organs to ischemia-reperfusion of rat hind limb - study of induction of 72-kD stress protein (HSP72)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many investigators have examined the influence of ischemia-reperfusion of the lower leg on the systemic organs using pathological, physiological, and biochemical studies. However, there has been no study on HSP72 induction in systemic organs. The left hind limb of a rat was dissected, retaining the bone and femoral vessels. The vessels were clamped to produce ischemia. After 6 h, the

M. Hatoko; A. Tanaka; M. Kuwahara; S. Yurugi; H. Iioka; K. Niitsuma

2002-01-01

345

Permeability of a soft steroid, loteprednol etabonate, through an excised rabbit cornea.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to study the in vitro permeability characteristics of a "soft" steroid, loteprednol etabonate 1 in different vehicles across excised rabbit cornea using a transcorneal permeation system. The vehicles studies were aqueous solutions of beta-cyclodextrin derivatives; 2-hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and heptakis (2,6-di-O-methyl) beta-cyclodextrin (DMCD); and DMCD together with 5 and 10% propylene glycol (PG) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Two experimental suspension products of the steroid, 0.1% and 0.5%, and the suspensions of the steroid in commercial lubricant ophthalmic solutions which include Liquifilm Tears and Tears Plus were also studied for their possible use as vehicles to deliver the steroid across the cornea. The observed permeability rate of the soft steroid from DMCD was found to be 13-fold greater than from HPCD. The presence of varying percentages of PG and DMSO with DMCD decreased the flux of the steroid. Transcorneal permeability of the steroid was found to be insignificant from aqueous buffer (pH 7.4) and commercial lubricant ophthalmic solutions. The flux of the steroid in 20% DMCD (23 micrograms/hr/cm2) was found to be comparable with 0.5% commercial suspension (20.5 micrograms/hr/cm2). The barrier function of corneal epithelium for the steroid in 0.5% experimental suspension was also investigated. When the corneal epithelium was removed, the lag time of the lipophilic soft steroid decreased but the flux value did not change. PMID:8773932

Reddy, I K; Khan, M A; Wu, W M; Bodor, N S

1996-01-01

346

Systemic, Mucosal, and Heterotypic Immune Induction in Mice Inoculated with Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Replicons Expressing Norwalk Virus-Like Particles  

PubMed Central

Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) are a diverse group of single-stranded, nonenveloped, positive-polarity RNA viruses and are the leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis in the United States. In this study, the major capsid gene of Norwalk virus, the prototype NLV, has been cloned and expressed in mammalian cells using a Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) replicon expression system. Upon infection of baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells with VEE replicon particles (VRPs), the Norwalk virus capsid proteins self-assemble to generate high titers of Norwalk virus-like particles (VLPs) that are morphologically and antigenically analogous to wild-type Norwalk virus. Mice inoculated subcutaneously with VRPs expressing the Norwalk virus capsid protein (VRP-NV1) developed systemic and mucosal immune responses to Norwalk VLPs, as well as heterotypic antibody responses to the major capsid protein from another genogroup I NLV strain (NCFL) isolated from a recent outbreak. A second Norwalk virus capsid clone (NV2) containing three amino acid codon mutations from the NV1 clone was also expressed using VEE replicons (VRP-NV2), but upon infection of BHK cells failed to confer VLP self-assembly. Mice inoculated with VRP-NV2 elicited reduced systemic and mucosal immune responses to Norwalk VLPs, demonstrating the importance and potential utility of endogenous VLP presentation for maximum immune induction. Inoculation with either VRP-NV1 or VRP-NV2 resulted in serum antibody responses far superior to the induction in mice dosed orally with VLPs that were prepared using the VEE-NV1 replicon construct, a regimen similar to current models for NLV vaccination. Expression of NLV VLPs in mammalian cells offers a powerful approach for the design of novel NLV vaccines, either alone or in combination with current vaccination models. PMID:11752163

Harrington, Patrick R.; Yount, Boyd; Johnston, Robert E.; Davis, Nancy; Moe, Christine; Baric, Ralph S.

2002-01-01

347

THE ROLE OF ESTROGEN IN THE INDUCTION AND MODULATION OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHROMATOSUS (SLE) .  

E-print Network

??Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by circulating auto-antibodies to nuclear and cytoplasmic self antigens. A striking female predominance has been… (more)

Feng, Feng

2006-01-01

348

Targeting the androgen receptor with steroid conjugates.  

PubMed

The androgen receptor (AR) is a major therapeutic target in prostate cancer pharmacology. Progression of prostate cancer has been linked to elevated expression of AR in malignant tissue, suggesting that AR plays a central role in prostate cancer cell biology. Potent therapeutic agents can be precisely crafted to specifically target AR, potentially averting systemic toxicities associated with nonspecific chemotherapies. In this review, we describe various strategies to generate steroid conjugates that can selectively engage AR with high potency. Analogies to recent developments in nonsteroidal conjugates targeting AR are also evaluated. Particular focus is placed on potential applications in AR pharmacology. The review culminates with a description of future prospects for targeting AR. PMID:24936953

Levine, Paul M; Garabedian, Michael J; Kirshenbaum, Kent

2014-10-23

349

21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of...

2012-04-01

350

21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of...

2013-04-01

351

21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of...

2014-04-01

352

21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of...

2011-04-01

353

21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of...

2010-04-01

354

CONTAMINANT INTERACTIONS WITH STEROID RECEPTORS: EVIDENCE FOR RECEPTOR BINDING.  

EPA Science Inventory

Steroid receptors are important determinants of endocrine disrupter consequences. As the most frequently proposed mechanism of endocrine-disrupting contaminant (EDC) action, steroid receptors are not only targets of natural steroids but are also commonly sites of nonsteroidal com...

355

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression  

E-print Network

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured

356

The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), beyond xenobiotic metabolism  

E-print Network

The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), beyond xenobiotic metabolism Changcheng Zhou , Suman, Irvine, California, USA (BB) The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) (also known as pregnane X receptor steroids, pharmaceutical agents, and xenobiotic compounds. SXR has an enlarged, flexible, hydrophobic

Blumberg, Bruce

357

Original article Steroid sulfatase activity in homogenates, microsomes  

E-print Network

Original article Steroid sulfatase activity in homogenates, microsomes and purified Leydig cells (received 12 December 1988, accepted 10 April 1989) Summary - Steroid sulfatase (STS) activity was studied. These data suggest that the steroid sulfatase expressed in total testicular microsomes (activity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

358

JAMA Patient Page: Steroid Injections to Treat Back Pain  

MedlinePLUS

JAMA PATIENT PAGE Steroid Injections to Treat Back Pain Example of epidural steroid injection for back pain SIDE VIEW (CROSS SECTION) Needle inserted using fluoroscopic guidance Steroid Epidural space Dura (membrane covering spinal cord and ...

359

Actin cytoskeleton remodelling by sex steroids in neurones.  

PubMed

Cell morphology and its interaction with the extracellular environment are integrated processes involving a number of intracellular controllers orchestrating cytoskeletal proteins and their interaction with the cell membrane and anchorage proteins. Sex steroids are effective regulators of cell morphology and tissue organisation, and recent evidence indicates that this is obtained through the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Intriguingly, many of these regulatory actions related to cell morphology are achieved through the rapid, nonclassical signalling of sex steroid receptors to kinase cascades, independently from nuclear alteration of gene expression or protein synthesis. The identification of the mechanistic basis for these rapid actions on cell cytoskeleton has special relevance for the characterisation of the effects of sex steroids under physiological conditions, such as for the development of neurone/neurone interconnections and dendritic spine density. This is considered to be critical for gender-specific differences in brain function and dysfunction. Recent advancements in the characterisation of the molecular basis of the extranuclear signalling of sex steroids help to clarify the role of oestrogen and progesterone in the brain, and may turn out to be of relevance for clinical purposes. This review highlights the regulatory effects of oestrogens and progesterone on actin cytoskeleton and neurone morphology, as well as recent progresses in the characterisation of these mechanisms, providing insights and working hypotheses on possible clinical applications for the modulation of these pathways in the central nervous system. PMID:22103470

Sanchez, A M; Flamini, M I; Polak, K; Palla, G; Spina, S; Mannella, P; Genazzani, A D; Simoncini, T

2012-01-01

360

Role of Sex Steroid Hormones in Bacterial-Host Interactions  

PubMed Central

Sex steroid hormones play important physiological roles in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues, including immune cells. These hormones exert their functions by binding to either specific intracellular receptors that act as ligand-dependent transcription factors or membrane receptors that stimulate several signal transduction pathways. The elevated susceptibility of males to bacterial infections can be related to the usually lower immune responses presented in males as compared to females. This dimorphic sex difference is mainly due to the differential modulation of the immune system by sex steroid hormones through the control of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines expression, as well as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expression and antibody production. Besides, sex hormones can also affect the metabolism, growth, or virulence of pathogenic bacteria. In turn, pathogenic, microbiota, and environmental bacteria are able to metabolize and degrade steroid hormones and their related compounds. All these data suggest that sex steroid hormones play a key role in the modulation of bacterial-host interactions. PMID:23509808

Garcia-Gomez, Elizabeth; Gonzalez-Pedrajo, Bertha; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

2013-01-01

361

Performance of an Annular Linear Induction Pump with Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of performance testing of an annular linear induction pump are presented. The pump electromagnetically pumps liquid metal through a circuit specially designed to allow for quantification of the performance. Testing was conducted over a range of conditions, including frequencies of 33, 36, 39, and 60 Hz, liquid metal temperatures from 125 to 525 C, and input voltages from 5 to 120 V. Pump performance spanned a range of flow rates from roughly 0.16 to 5.7 L/s (2.5 to 90 gpm), and pressure head less than 1 to 90 kPa (less than 0.145 to 13 psi). The maximum efficiency measured during testing was slightly greater than 6%. The efficiency was fairly insensitive to input frequency from 33 to 39 Hz, and was markedly lower at 60 Hz. In addition, the efficiency decreased as the NaK temperature was raised. The performance of the pump operating on a variable frequency drive providing 60 Hz power compared favorably with the same pump operating on 60 Hz power drawn directly from the electrical grid.

Polzin, Kurt A.; Schoenfeld, Michael; Pearson, J. Boise; Webster, Kenneth; Godfroy, Thomas; Adkins, Harold E., Jr.; Werner, James E.

2010-01-01

362

Development of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis after Anabolic Steroid Abuse  

PubMed Central

Anabolic steroid abuse adversely affects the endocrine system, blood lipids, and the liver, but renal injury has not been described. We identified an association of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and proteinuria in a cohort of 10 bodybuilders (six white and four Hispanic; mean body mass index 34.7) after long-term abuse of anabolic steroids. The clinical presentation included proteinuria (mean 10.1 g/d; range 1.3 to 26.3 g/d) and renal insufficiency (mean serum creatinine 3.0 mg/dl; range 1.3 to 7.8 mg/dl); three (30%) patients presented with nephrotic syndrome. Renal biopsy revealed FSGS in nine patients, four of whom also had glomerulomegaly, and glomerulomegaly alone in one patient. Three biopsies revealed collapsing lesions of FSGS, four had perihilar lesions, and seven showed ?40% tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Among eight patients with mean follow-up of 2.2 yr, one progressed to ESRD, the other seven received renin-angiotensin system blockade, and one also received corticosteroids. All seven patients discontinued anabolic steroids, leading to weight loss, stabilization or improvement in serum creatinine, and a reduction in proteinuria. One patient resumed anabolic steroid abuse and suffered relapse of proteinuria and renal insufficiency. We hypothesize that secondary FSGS results from a combination of postadaptive glomerular changes driven by increased lean body mass and potential direct nephrotoxic effects of anabolic steroids. Because of the expected rise in serum creatinine as a result of increased muscle mass in bodybuilders, this complication is likely underrecognized. PMID:19917783

Herlitz, Leal C.; Markowitz, Glen S.; Farris, Alton B.; Schwimmer, Joshua A.; Stokes, Michael B.; Kunis, Cheryl; Colvin, Robert B.

2010-01-01

363

Ribosomal Alteration-Derived Signals for Cytokine Induction in Mucosal and Systemic Inflammation: Noncanonical Pathways by Ribosomal Inactivation  

PubMed Central

Ribosomal inactivation damages 28S ribosomal RNA by interfering with its functioning during gene translation, leading to stress responses linked to a variety of inflammatory disease processes. Although the primary effect of ribosomal inactivation in cells is the functional inhibition of global protein synthesis, early responsive gene products including proinflammatory cytokines are exclusively induced by toxic stress in highly dividing tissues such as lymphoid tissue and epithelia. In the present study, ribosomal inactivation-related modulation of cytokine production was reviewed in leukocyte and epithelial pathogenesis models to characterize mechanistic evidence of ribosome-derived cytokine induction and its implications for potent therapeutic targets of mucosal and systemic inflammatory illness, particularly those triggered by organellar dysfunctions. PMID:24523573

Moon, Yuseok

2014-01-01

364

Ribosomal alteration-derived signals for cytokine induction in mucosal and systemic inflammation: noncanonical pathways by ribosomal inactivation.  

PubMed

Ribosomal inactivation damages 28S ribosomal RNA by interfering with its functioning during gene translation, leading to stress responses linked to a variety of inflammatory disease processes. Although the primary effect of ribosomal inactivation in cells is the functional inhibition of global protein synthesis, early responsive gene products including proinflammatory cytokines are exclusively induced by toxic stress in highly dividing tissues such as lymphoid tissue and epithelia. In the present study, ribosomal inactivation-related modulation of cytokine production was reviewed in leukocyte and epithelial pathogenesis models to characterize mechanistic evidence of ribosome-derived cytokine induction and its implications for potent therapeutic targets of mucosal and systemic inflammatory illness, particularly those triggered by organellar dysfunctions. PMID:24523573

Moon, Yuseok

2014-01-01

365

Tests with a line-commutated converter as a variable inductive load on the Bonneville Power Administration transmission system  

SciTech Connect

A twelve-pulse, line-commutated converter, with a steady-state rating of 2.5 kV and 5.5 kA, formerly used for charging and discharging a superconducting magnet, was reconfigured as a static reactive power load. Tests staged at the Tacoma, WA, substation of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) revealed that the converter could be used as a variable inductive load, provided a stable current controller was installed. The unit was modulated as a variable VAR load following a sinusoidal VAR demand signal with an amplitude up to 14.8 MVAR. The total losses at maximum VAR output were 370 kW. This paper explains the necessary modifications of the converter to operate as a variable reactive load. Measured current waveshapes are analyzed. The effects of such a load on the BPA transmission system are presented.

Boenig, H.J.; Hauer, J.F.; Nielsen, R.G.

1986-01-01

366

Behaviour of a desolvation system based on microwave radiation heating for use in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper describes the preliminary results obtained with a desolvation system for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry that incorporates a heating unit based on microwave (MW) radiation. This system has been called Microwave Desolvation System (MWDS). The results have proved that MW radiation can be considered as a good choice for aerosol heating in a sample introduction system. MW radiation seems to be a more uniform way of aerosol desolvation than conductive/convective heating (i.e. lower radial temperature gradients), the degree of vaporization of the droplets is less dependent on the liquid flow rate ( Ql), and also the background noise associated with the vaporization of droplets is reduced. As regards the results obtained with MWDS, in comparison with a conventional desolvation system (CDS), they are very dependent on Ql. When heating is applied, the amount of analyte that leaves the heating step increases by 30-60% with the MWDS, irrespective of Ql, whereas for the CDS this increase is very high (up to 300%) at low Ql values (0.4 ml min -1), but almost negligible at high Ql values (2.4 ml min -1). In agreement with this, the analytical figures of merit are favourable to the CDS at low flow rates, and to the MWDS at high liquid flows. Under all the conditions studied, the amount of solvent that leaves the condensation unit are lower for MWDS than for CDS.

Gras, Luis; Mora, Juan; Todolí, JoséL.; Hernandis, Vicente; Canals, Antonio

1997-07-01

367

Steroids Update, Part 1 and Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part 1 of this two-part article describes the views of a physician who believes that athletes who want to take steroids are best protected by receiving a prescription and monitoring. Part 2 discusses the more general view of physicians that steroids should not be prescribed but perhaps should be monitored. (MT)

Miller, Calvin; Duda, Marty

1986-01-01

368

Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Steroid Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory and Profile of Mood States to assess psychological characteristics in 72 adolescent males: 24 adolescent athletes who reported steroid use, 24 athletes with no steroid use, and 24 nonathletes. Although some personality variables differentiated between athletes and nonathletes, no personality variables…

Burnett, Kent F.; Kleiman, Mark E.

1994-01-01

369

Hyperhomocysteinemia in bodybuilders taking anabolic steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been accepted as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. In recent years, several reports have appeared in the literature linking the use of anabolic steroids with acute vascular events in bodybuilders. In this study, we investigated whether hyperhomocysteinemia could contribute to the high vascular risk in bodybuilders taking anabolic steroids. Methods and results: Twenty-three bodybuilders

C. F. Ebenbichler; S. Kaser; J. Bodner; R. Gander; M. Lechleitner; M. Herold; J. R. Patsch

2001-01-01

370

Scientists Report Advance in Understanding Steroid Receptors  

Cancer.gov

Scientists have long known that proteins called steroid receptors play a critical role in switching on hormone-responsive genes. What has been unclear is how these proteins orchestrate the process, a key issue in learning to control genes activated by steroid hormones such as androgen and estrogen.

371

Vision Loss After Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

'isual loss associated with retinal hemorrhages after laparoscopy performed under general an- esthesia has been previously reported in the an- esthesiology literature (1). This complication has been reported only once after an epidural steroid injection in the anesthesia literature (2). We report a case of acute monocular vision loss secondary to multiple retinal hemorrhages after a lumbar epidural steroid injection.

ERIG P. PURDY; GURJIT S. AJIMAL

1998-01-01

372

Anabolic steroids: a review for the clinician.  

PubMed

The number of athletes self-administering ergogenic pharmacological agents to increase their competitive edge continues to be a problem. Most athletes using anabolic steroids (AS) have acquired a crude pharmacological database regarding these drugs. Their opinions regarding steroids have been derived from their subjective experiences and anecdotal information. For this reason, traditional warnings regarding the lack of efficacy and potential dangers of steroid misuse are disregarded. A common widely held opinion among bodybuilders is that the anabolic steroid experts are the athletic gurus who for years have utilised themselves as the experimental participants and then dispensed their empirical findings. This review will address the common anabolic steroid misconceptions held by many of today's athletes by providing an evaluation of the scientific literature related to AS in athletic performance. PMID:11929356

Kutscher, Eric C; Lund, Brian C; Perry, Paul J

2002-01-01

373

Genotoxicity of industrial dyes under the inductive effect of ethanol on monooxygenase system in mice.  

PubMed

The genotoxic effects of triarylmethane (Acid Green 16, C.I.44025) and arylmonoazo (Basic Orange 28, developed by Boruta Pigment Plant, Poland, C.I. undisclosed) dyes, were evaluated in Balb/C mice. Animals were fed for 6 days nutritionally adequate Portagen liquid diet (1 kcal/ml) or isocaloric alcoholic diet containing 5% (w/v) ethanol (36% of total calories) in order to induce the cytochrome P-4502E1 monooxygenase. Dye compounds were administered intraperitoneally 30 h before the test at doses: 90 mg/kg of Acid Green 16 and 70 mg/kg of Basic Orange 28. Bone marrow micronucleus test was used for evaluation of genotoxicity of the dyes. Ethanol caused an increase of the level of cytochrome P-450 by 200% and activities of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) by 650%, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) by 460% and glutathione (GSH)-S-transferase by 60% in the liver. Both dyes exerted genotoxic effect as inferred from a 3-fold increase of frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow, and a further increase (2-fold) was caused by ethanol liquid diet combined with Acid Green 16 treatment. Basic Orange 28 genotoxicity remained unaffected by ethanol. It is concluded that: (1) enhancement of genotoxic effect of Acid Green 16 by ethanol is caused by induction of cytochrome P-4502E1 monooxygenases resulting in an increased bioactivation of the dye; (2) lack of enhancement of the genotoxic effect of Basic Orange 28 by ethanol probably results from the dye- and ethanol-mediated stimulation of GSH-S-transferase, bypassing the cytochrome P-4502E1 bioactivation step. PMID:9294022

Wro?ska-Nofer, T; Wi?niewska-Knypl, J; Wyszy?ska, K; Dziuba?towska, E

1997-08-14

374

3-Dimensional Modeling of Capacitively and Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low temperature plasmas are widely used for thin film etching during micro and nano-electronic device fabrication. Fluid and hybrid plasma models were developed 15-20 years ago to understand the fundamentals of these plasmas and plasma etching. These models have significantly evolved since then, and are now a major tool used for new plasma hardware design and problem resolution. Plasma etching is a complex physical phenomenon, where inter-coupled plasma, electromagnetic, fluid dynamics, and thermal effects all have a major influence. The next frontier in the evolution of fluid-based plasma models is where these models are able to self-consistently treat the inter-coupling of plasma physics with fluid dynamics, electromagnetics, heat transfer and magnetostatics. We describe one such model in this paper and illustrate its use in solving engineering problems of interest for next generation plasma etcher design. Our 3-dimensional plasma model includes the full set of Maxwell equations, transport equations for all charged and neutral species in the plasma, the Navier-Stokes equation for fluid flow, and Kirchhoff's equations for the lumped external circuit. This model also includes Monte Carlo based kinetic models for secondary electrons and stochastic heating, and can take account of plasma chemistry. This modeling formalism allows us to self-consistently treat the dynamics in commercial inductively and capacitively coupled plasma etching reactors with realistic plasma chemistries, magnetic fields, and reactor geometries. We are also able to investigate the influence of the distributed electromagnetic circuit at very high frequencies (VHF) on the plasma dynamics. The model is used to assess the impact of azimuthal asymmetries in plasma reactor design (e.g., off-center pump, 3D magnetic field, slit valve, flow restrictor) on plasma characteristics at frequencies from 2 -- 180 MHz. With Jason Kenney, Ankur Agarwal, Ajit Balakrishna, Kallol Bera, and Ken Collins.

Rauf, Shahid

2008-10-01

375

The Rule Induction System LERS—A Version for Personal Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the system LERS (Learning from Examples based on Rough Sets), a version for personal computers, which induces a set of rules from a decision table and classifies new examples using the set of rules induced previously by the system. The system may quantize numeric values of attributes and may handle two kinds of uncertainty: missing values of

Michal R. Chmielewski; Jerzy W. Grzymala-Busse; Neil W. Peterson; Soe Than

1993-01-01

376

MR damper-based semiactive control system using electromagnetic induction device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetorheological (MR) damper-based semiactive control systems can be considered as one of the most advantageous control systems for natural hazard mitigation in the field of civil engineering because MR dampers have many good features such as small power requirement, reliability, and low price to manufacture. Those systems require feedback control and power supply parts to efficiently reduce the structural responses.

Hyung-Jo Jung; Dong-Doo Jang; Jeong-Hoi Koo

2009-01-01

377

Development of Volume-Reduction System for Ion Exchange Resin Using Inductively Coupled Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spent ion exchange resin generated as radioactive waste in water purifying system at nuclear power stations or related facilities of nuclear power has been stored in the site, and its volume has been increasing year by year. We had developed a full-scale system of IC plasma volume-reduction system for the spent resin, and have performed basic performance test using

Morio Fujisawa; Genichi Katagiri

2002-01-01

378

Azido analogs of neuroactive steroids.  

PubMed

Analogs of pregnanolone (3?-hydroxy-5?-pregnan-20-one), modified in position 17 were prepared. Compounds with 20-keto pregnane side chain replaced completely by azide (17?- and 17?-azido-5?-androstan-3?-ol), compounds with its part replaced (20-azido-21-nor-5?-pregnan-3?-ol), and compounds with keto group only replaced ((20R)- and (20S)-20-azido-5?-pregnan-3?-ol) were synthesized using tosylate displacements with sodium azide or Mitsunobu reaction with azoimide. All five azido steroids were converted into corresponding sulfates. Subsequent tests for inhibition of glutamate induced response on NMDA receptors revealed that modification of pregnanolone sulfate side chain with azide did not disturb the activity and some of sulfates tested were more active than parent compound. PMID:21545806

Vidrna, Lukáš; ?erný, Ivan; Pouzar, Vladimír; Borovská, Ji?ina; Vyklický, Vojt?ch; Vyklický, Ladislav; Chodounská, Hana

2011-01-01

379

Effect of Iron Availability on Induction of Systemic Resistance to Fusarium Wilt of Chickpea by Pseudomonas spp.  

PubMed

Selected isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf4-92 and PfRsC5) and P. aeruginosa (PaRsG18 and PaRsG27) were examined for growth promotion and induced systemic resistance against Fusarium wilt of chickpea. Significant increase in plant height was observed in Pseudomonas treated plants. However, plant growth was inhibited when isolates of Pseudomonas were used in combination with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (FocRs1). It was also observed that the Pseudomonas spp. was colonized in root of chickpea and significantly suppressed the disease in greenhouse condition. Rock wool bioassay technique was used to study the effect of iron availability on the induction of systemic resistance to Fusarium wilt of chickpea mediated by the Pseudomonas spp. All the isolates of Pseudomonas spp. showed greater disease control in the induced systemic resistance (ISR) bioassay when iron availability in the nutrient solution was low. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that all the bacterial isolates produced more salicylic acid (SA) at low iron (10µM EDDHA) than high iron availability (10µFe(3+) EDDHA). Except PaRsG27, all the three isolates produced more pseudobactin at low iron than high iron availability. PMID:24049472

Saikia, Ratul; Srivastava, Alok K; Singh, Kiran; Arora, Dilip K; Lee, Min-Woong

2005-03-01

380

Integrated design method of MR damper and electromagnetic induction system for structural control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are one of the most advantageous control devices for civil engineering applications to natural hazard mitigation due to many good features such as small power requirement, reliability, and low price to manufacture. To reduce the responses of a structural system by using MR dampers, a control system including a power supply, control algorithm, and sensors is needed.

Heon-Jae Lee; Seok-Jun Moon; Hyung-Jo Jung; Young-Cheol Huh; Dong-Doo Jang

2008-01-01

381

Bacteriology of Manganese Nodules. Iv. Induction of an MNO2-Reductase System in a Marine Bacillus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bacillus 29, isolated from a ferromanganese nodule from the Atlantic Ocean, was shown to possess an MnO2-reductase system which is induced in the presence of manganous ion. Maximal activity of the enzyme system was induced in about 5 hr in the presence of...

R. B. Trimble, H. L. Ehrlich

1970-01-01

382

Otitis Media: Molecular Impact of Inflammation in the Middle and Inner Ear: Cytokines, Steroids, and Ion Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

An overview of recent topics under investigation in our laboratory is presented. Topics include the cytokine and ion homeostasis gene response to steroids in the middle ear in a murine model of otitis media and gene chip analysis of inner ear genes affected by trans-tympanic and systemic steroid administration to the mouse. PMID:23254604

MacArthur, CJ; Hausman, F; Kempton, B; Lighthall, J; Trune, DR

2014-01-01

383

In 14th IEEE Symposium on Computer Based Medical Systems (CBMS'2001), 26-27 July, Bethesda A Case for Supplementing Evidence Base Medicine with Inductive  

E-print Network

). A Case for Supplementing Evidence Base Medicine with Inductive Clinical Knowledge: Towards a Technology Technology-- within traditional Evidence Based Medicine systems to derive all-encompassing clinical evidence with additional technology-mediated clinical evidence. 1. Introduction Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is best

Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

384

Characterization of a novel non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist  

SciTech Connect

Selective antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are desirable for the treatment of hypercortisolemia associated with Cushing's syndrome, psychic depression, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and glaucoma. NC3327, a non-steroidal small molecule with potent binding affinity to GR (K{sub i} = 13.2 nM), was identified in a high-throughput screening effort. As a full GR antagonist, NC3327 greatly inhibits the dexamethasone (Dex) induction of marker genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, but has a minimal effect on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a GR responsive pro-inflammatory gene. Interestingly, the compound recruits neither coactivators nor corepressors to the GR complex but competes with glucocorticoids for the interaction between GR and a coactivator peptide. Moreover, NC3327 does not trigger GR nuclear translocation, but significantly blocks Dex-induced GR transportation to the nucleus, and thus appears to be a 'competitive' GR antagonist. Therefore, the non-steroidal compound, NC3327, may represent a new class of GR antagonists as potential therapeutics for a variety of cortisol-related endocrine disorders.

Li, Qun-Yi; Zhang, Meng [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China) [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Hallis, Tina M.; DeRosier, Therese A. [Cell Systems Division, Invitrogen, Madison, WI (United States)] [Cell Systems Division, Invitrogen, Madison, WI (United States); Yue, Jian-Min; Ye, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Mais, Dale E. [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China) [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); MPI Research, Mattawan, MI (United States); Wang, Ming-Wei, E-mail: wangmw@mail.shcnc.ac.cn [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China) [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

2010-01-15

385

32 CFR 1624.2 - Issuance of induction orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Issuance of induction orders. 1624.2 Section 1624.2 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.2 Issuance of induction orders. The Director of Selective...

2011-07-01

386

32 CFR 1624.5 - Order to report for induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Order to report for induction. 1624.5 Section 1624.5 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.5 Order to report for induction. (a) Immediately upon determining...

2010-07-01

387

32 CFR 1624.9 - Induction into the Armed Forces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Induction into the Armed Forces. 1624.9 Section 1624...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.9 Induction into the Armed Forces. Registrants in...

2011-07-01

388

32 CFR 1624.2 - Issuance of induction orders.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Issuance of induction orders. 1624.2 Section 1624.2 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.2 Issuance of induction orders. The Director of Selective...

2014-07-01

389

32 CFR 1624.2 - Issuance of induction orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of induction orders. 1624.2 Section 1624.2 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.2 Issuance of induction orders. The Director of Selective...

2010-07-01

390

32 CFR 1624.8 - Transfer for induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transfer for induction. 1624.8 Section 1624.8 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.8 Transfer for induction. The Director of Selective Service...

2012-07-01

391

32 CFR 1624.2 - Issuance of induction orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Issuance of induction orders. 1624.2 Section 1624.2 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.2 Issuance of induction orders. The Director of Selective...

2013-07-01

392

32 CFR 1624.8 - Transfer for induction.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transfer for induction. 1624.8 Section 1624.8 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.8 Transfer for induction. The Director of Selective Service...

2014-07-01

393

32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Random selection procedures for induction. 1624.1 Section 1624.1 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction. (a) The Director of...

2012-07-01

394

32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Random selection procedures for induction. 1624.1 Section 1624.1 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction. (a) The Director of...

2013-07-01

395

32 CFR 1624.9 - Induction into the Armed Forces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Induction into the Armed Forces. 1624.9 Section 1624...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.9 Induction into the Armed Forces. Registrants in...

2013-07-01

396

32 CFR 1624.5 - Order to report for induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Order to report for induction. 1624.5 Section 1624.5 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.5 Order to report for induction. (a) Immediately upon determining...

2011-07-01

397

32 CFR 1624.5 - Order to report for induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Order to report for induction. 1624.5 Section 1624.5 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.5 Order to report for induction. (a) Immediately upon determining...

2013-07-01

398

32 CFR 1624.8 - Transfer for induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transfer for induction. 1624.8 Section 1624.8 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.8 Transfer for induction. The Director of Selective Service...

2013-07-01

399

32 CFR 1624.5 - Order to report for induction.  

...2014-07-01 false Order to report for induction. 1624.5 Section 1624.5 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.5 Order to report for induction. (a) Immediately upon determining...

2014-07-01

400

32 CFR 1624.8 - Transfer for induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transfer for induction. 1624.8 Section 1624.8 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.8 Transfer for induction. The Director of Selective Service...

2011-07-01

401

32 CFR 1624.9 - Induction into the Armed Forces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Induction into the Armed Forces. 1624.9 Section 1624...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.9 Induction into the Armed Forces. Registrants in...

2012-07-01

402

32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Random selection procedures for induction. 1624.1 Section 1624.1 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction. (a) The Director of...

2011-07-01

403

32 CFR 1624.9 - Induction into the Armed Forces.  

... 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Induction into the Armed Forces. 1624.9 Section 1624...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.9 Induction into the Armed Forces. Registrants in...

2014-07-01

404

32 CFR 1624.5 - Order to report for induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Order to report for induction. 1624.5 Section 1624.5 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.5 Order to report for induction. (a) Immediately upon determining...

2012-07-01

405

32 CFR 1624.8 - Transfer for induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfer for induction. 1624.8 Section 1624.8 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.8 Transfer for induction. The Director of Selective Service...

2010-07-01

406

32 CFR 1624.9 - Induction into the Armed Forces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Induction into the Armed Forces. 1624.9 Section 1624...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.9 Induction into the Armed Forces. Registrants in...

2010-07-01

407

32 CFR 1624.2 - Issuance of induction orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Issuance of induction orders. 1624.2 Section 1624.2 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.2 Issuance of induction orders. The Director of Selective...

2012-07-01

408

Simulation of Trolleybus Traction Induction Drive With Supercapacitor Energy Storage System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article considers the possibilities of saving the regenerative braking energy in Škoda 24Tr type trolleybuses by installing the onboard supercapacitor energy storage system (ESS) and improving its performance with automated switching to the autonomous traction mode. Proposed is an ESS control system with constant DC bus voltage in the supercapacitor charging mode and supercapacitor current proportional to the AC drive current in the discharging mode. The authors investigate stability of the trolleybus ESS control system operating together with AC traction drive in various overhead voltage failure modes. The co-simulation of ESS operation was done by Matlab/Simulink AC drive and PSIM ESS continuous models.

Brazis, V.; Latkovskis, L.; Grigans, L.

2010-01-01

409

Long-term outcome of children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome treated with tacrolimus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the outcome of our single-center, long-term follow-up study of tacrolimus therapy in children with steroid-resistant\\u000a nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). All cases of nephrotic syndrome (NS) with kidney biopsies treated at our center between January\\u000a 2000 and July 2008 were reviewed. Children with systemic lupus erythematosus and steroid-dependent NS were excluded. Nineteen\\u000a children with SRNS received tacrolimus. Histopathological analysis of

Isabel Roberti; Shefali Vyas

2010-01-01

410

Biolistic augmentation of impaired wound healing in steroid treated rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Systemic corticosteroid treatment has effects on wound healing. Biolistic delivery of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) mRNA’s to acute midline abdominal wounds in normal and steroid treated rats has been shown to augment wound healing. This study investigates the efficacy of the combined delivery of these agents.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (300–350 grams)were used, intraperitoneal

Yongbo Liu; Scott Dulchavsky; Scott Henry; Deborah Dulchavsky; Subhash Gautam

2004-01-01

411

Development of injection gas heating system for introducing large droplets to inductively coupled plasma.  

PubMed

We developed an injection gas heating system for introducing large droplets, because we want to effectively to measure elements in a single cell. This system was applied to ICP-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), to evaluate it performance. To evaluate the effect of the emission intensity, the emission intensity of Ca(II) increased to a maximum of tenfold at 147°C and the peak was shifted upstream of the plasma. To investigate in detail the effect of an injection gas heating system, we studied different conditions of the injection gas temperature and droplet volume. When the injection gas temperature was 89°C, smaller droplets were easily ionized. At 147°C, the emission intensity ratio and the absolute amount of the sample including the droplet exhibited close agreement. These results show the advantages of the injection gas heating system for large droplet introduction, and the sufficient reduction in the solvent load. The solvent load could be reduced by heating to 147°C using the system. PMID:24334979

Kaburaki, Yuki; Nomura, Akito; Ishihara, Yukiko; Iwai, Takahiro; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Okino, Akitoshi

2013-01-01

412

Environmental Assessment for the proposed Induction Linac System Experiments in Building 51B at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), (DOE/EA-1087) evaluating the proposed action to modify existing Building 51B at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to install and conduct experiments on a new Induction Linear Accelerator System. LBNL is located in Berkeley, California and operated by the University of California (UC). The project consists of placing a pre-fabricated building inside Building 51B to house a new 10 MeV heavy ion linear accelerator. A control room and other support areas would be provided within and directly adjacent to Building 51B. The accelerator system would be used to conduct tests, at reduced scale and cost, many features of a heavy-ion accelerator driver for the Department of Energy`s inertial fusion energy program. Based upon information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

NONE

1995-08-01

413

Autonomic nervous system reactivity to positive and negative mood induction: The role of acute psychological responses and frontal electrocortical activity  

PubMed Central

The differential effects of positive versus negative emotions on autonomic nervous system activity are insufficiently understood. This study examined the role of acute mood responses and central nervous system activity on heart rate variability (HRV) using 5-min event recall tasks (happiness and anger recall) and a 5-min Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) in 20 healthy individuals (mean age 25±4 years, 55% female). HRV was measured in high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) domains, and frontal brain activity using electroencephalography (EEG) in the alpha frequency band in F3 and F4. Happiness Recall resulted in increased LF-HRV (p=0.005) but not HF-HRV (p=0.71). Anger Recall did not change HRV (p-values>0.10). The SCWT produced decreases in HF-HRV (p=0.001) as well as LF-HRV (p=0.001). The magnitude of feeling “happy” during Happiness Recall was positively correlated with ?HF-HRV (p=0.050), whereas an incongruent mood state (“frustrated”) was associated with smaller ?HF-HRV (p=0.070). Associations between frontal EEG activation and HRV responses were mostly non-significant, except for increased right frontal activation during Happiness Recall which was associated with a decrease in LF/HF ratio (p = 0.009), It is concluded that positive and negative mood induction result in differential HRV responses, which is related to both task valence and the intensity of task-induced emotions. PMID:21182891

Kop, Willem J.; Synowski, Stephen J.; Newell, Miranda E.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Waldstein, Shari R.; Fox, Nathan A.

2011-01-01

414

Disease induction by human microbial pathogens in plant-model systems: potential, problems and prospects.  

PubMed

Relatively simple eukaryotic model organisms such as the genetic model weed plant Arabidopsis thaliana possess an innate immune system that shares important similarities with its mammalian counterpart. In fact, some human pathogens infect Arabidopsis and cause overt disease with human symptomology. In such cases, decisive elements of the plant's immune system are likely to be targeted by the same microbial factors that are necessary for causing disease in humans. These similarities can be exploited to identify elementary microbial pathogenicity factors and their corresponding targets in a green host. This circumvents important cost aspects that often frustrate studies in humans or animal models and, in addition, results in facile ethical clearance. PMID:17275738

van Baarlen, Peter; van Belkum, Alex; Thomma, Bart P H J

2007-02-01

415

Characteristics of Steroid Users in an Adolescent School Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined rates of steroid use among Ontario adolescent students. Findings from 3,892 students revealed that 1.1 percent reported using steroids over past year. Steroid users were significantly more likely to use stimulants, caffeine, and relaxants than were nonsteroid users. Demographically, steroid users were significantly more likely to be male…

Adlaf, Edward M.; Smart, Reginald G.

1992-01-01

416

Chapter Summary Mathematical Induction  

E-print Network

#12;Chapter Summary Mathematical Induction Strong Induction Well-Ordering Recursive Definitions Structural Induction Recursive Algorithms #12;Section 5.1 #12;Sec.on Summary Mathematical Induction Examples of Proof by Mathematical

417

Inductionless Induction Hubert Comon  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Inductionless Induction Hubert Comon Second readers: Bernhard Gramlich and David Mac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1 Inductive theorem proving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.3 Inductionless induction versus implicit induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.4 Outline

Comon-Lundh, Hubert

418

Distributional Phrase Structure Induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsupervised grammar induction systemscommonly judge potential constituents onthe basis of their effects on the likelihoodof the data. Linguistic justifications ofconstituency, on the other hand, rely onnotions such as substitutability and varyingexternal contexts. We describe twosystems for distributional grammar inductionwhich operate on such principles, usingpart-of-speech tags as the contextualfeatures. The advantages and disadvantagesof these systems are examined,...

2001-01-01

419

Laboratory Investigation of Ice Formation and Elimination in the Induction System of a Large Twin-engine Cargo Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The icing characteristics, the de-icing rate with hot air, and the effect of impact ice on fuel metering and mixture distribution have been determined in a laboratory investigation of that part of the engine induction system consisting of a three-barrel injection-type carburetor and a supercharger housing with spinner-type fuel injection from an 18-cylinder radial engine used on a large twin-engine cargo airplane. The induction system remained ice-free at carburetor-air temperatures above 36 F regardless of the moisture content of the air. Between carburetor-air temperatures of 32 F and 36 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious throttling ice formed in the carburetor because of expansion cooling of the air; at carburetor-air temperatures below 32 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious impact-ice formations occurred, Spinner-type fuel injection at the entrance to the supercharger and heating of the supercharger-inlet elbow and the guide vanes by the warn oil in the rear engine housing are design features that proved effective in eliminating fuel-evaporation icing and minimized the formation of throttling ice below the carburetor. Air-flow recovery time with fixed throttle was rapidly reduced as the inlet -air wet -bulb temperature was increased to 55 F; further temperature increase produced negligible improvement in recovery time. Larger ice formations and lower icing temperatures increased the time required to restore proper air flow at a given wet-bulb temperature. Impact-ice formations on the entrance screen and the top of the carburetor reduced the over-all fuel-air ratio and increased the spread between the over-all ratio and the fuel-air ratio of the individual cylinders. The normal spread of fuel-air ratio was increased from 0.020 to 0.028 when the left quarter of the entrance screen was blocked in a manner simulating the blocking resulting from ice formations released from upstream duct walls during hot-air de-icing.

Colis, William D

1947-01-01

420

406 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 2, APRIL 2006 Magnetic Induction Machines Integrated Into  

E-print Network

sensors, and robotic devices. One potential system is a gas-turbine microengine [1], [2] comprising Machines Integrated Into Bulk-Micromachined Silicon David P. Arnold, Member, IEEE, Sauparna Das, Member, magnetic ma- terials, MEMS, micromachining. I. INTRODUCTION THE power demands of modern electronic devices

421

Induction of systemic resistance in rice against sheath blight disease by Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Pseudomonas fluorescens strains viz., PF1 and FP7 which inhibited the mycelial growth of sheath blight fungus Rhizoctonia solani and increased the seedling vigour of rice plants in vitro were selected for assessing induced systemic resistance (ISR) against R. solani in rice. The Pseudomonas application as a bacterial suspension or a talc-based formulation through seed, root, soil and foliar application

R Nandakumar; S Babu; R Viswanathan; T Raguchander; R Samiyappan

2001-01-01

422

Smart pitch control strategy for wind generation system using doubly fed induction generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A smart pitch control strategy for a variable speed doubly fed wind generation system is presented in this thesis. A complete dynamic model of DFIG system is developed. The model consists of the generator, wind turbine, aerodynamic and the converter system. The strategy proposed includes the use of adaptive neural network to generate optimized controller gains for pitch control. This involves the generation of controller parameters of pitch controller making use of differential evolution intelligent technique. Training of the back propagation neural network has been carried out for the development of an adaptive neural network. This tunes the weights of the network according to the system states in a variable wind speed environment. Four cases have been taken to test the pitch controller which includes step and sinusoidal changes in wind speeds. The step change is composed of both step up and step down changes in wind speeds. The last case makes use of scaled wind data collected from the wind turbine installed at King Fahd University beach front. Simulation studies show that the differential evolution based adaptive neural network is capable of generating the appropriate control to deliver the maximum possible aerodynamic power available from wind to the generator in an efficient manner by minimizing the transients.

Raza, Syed Ahmed

423

A New Design for Vibration-Based Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting Systems Using Coil Inductance of Microgenerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new design methodology for low- voltage electromagnetic energy harvesting systems consisting of a microgenerator and power processing circuit is introduced. In the first section of this paper, a simple topology for a resonance-based electromagnetic generator is presented. The microgenerator is capable of producing a voltage of a few hundred millivolts. Since traditional two-stage power conversion schemes

Rohan Dayal; Suman Dwari; Leila Parsa

2011-01-01

424

Induction of a Myocardial Adrenomedullin Signaling System During Ischemic Heart Failure in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Increased plasma adrenomedullin (ADM) levels have been reported in congestive heart failure (HF). The present study was designed to investigate myocardial regulation of the different components of the ADM signaling system (ADM, ADM receptor, and receptor-activity-modifying protein-2, RAMP-2) during ischemic HF in rats and to identify the cells in the myocardium displaying ADM-like immunoreactivity (ADM-ir). Furthermore, the effects of endothelin

Erik Øie; Leif Erik Vinge; Arne Yndestad; Cecilie Sandberg; Haakon K. Grøgaard; Håvard Attramadal

425

Induction of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-like Disease in Mice by Immunization with Heparan Sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like disease was induced in BALB\\/c mice by immunization with heparan sulfate, the major glycosaminoglycan of glomerular basement membrane. Following booster injections with heparan sulfate (HS), high levels of anti-HS, anti-dsDNA, and anti-cardiolipin antibodies were detected in the sera of the immunized mice. An enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay indicated that IgG anti-HS and anti-dsDNA antibody-secreting cells

William Ofosu-Appiah; George Sfeir; Dana Viti; Elena Burashnikova

1998-01-01

426

Systemic induction of feeding deterrents in cotton plants by feeding of Spodoptera SPP. Larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton,Gossypium hirsutum L., has been shown to exhibit systemic induced resistance to arthropods under certain conditions. We conducted experiments to determine the effects of previous feeding ofSpodoptera exigua Hübner andSpodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) larvae on feeding behavior, growth, and survival of larvae subsequently feeding on cotton. In one feeding choice test,S. exigua larvae preferred young leaves from undamaged control plants to

Hans T. Alborn; Ursula S. R. Röse; Heather J. McAuslane

1996-01-01

427

TLR-dependent and TLR-independent pathways of type I interferon induction in systemic autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We formulate a two-phase paradigm of autoimmunity associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, the archetypal autoimmune disease. The initial Toll-like receptor (TLR)-independent phase is mediated by dendritic cell uptake of apoptotic cell debris and associated nucleic acids, whereas the subsequent TLR-dependent phase serves an amplification function and is mediated by uptake of TLR ligands derived from self-antigens (principally nucleic acids) complexed

Roberto Baccala; Kasper Hoebe; Dwight H Kono; Bruce Beutler; Argyrios N Theofilopoulos

2007-01-01

428

Control system design and small-signal analysis of a phase-shift-controlled series-resonant inverter for induction heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phase-shift-controlled series-resonant inverter operating at zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) is used as the power supply for an induction heating system. This system has two control loops: the phase-shift control loop regulates the output power; and the frequency control loop ensures ZVS for all load conditions. The design and implementation of these control loops are explained. The complete closed-loop small-signal model is

L. Grajales; F. C. Lee

1995-01-01

429

Induction machine  

DOEpatents

A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

Owen, Whitney H. (Ogden, UT)

1980-01-01

430

Steroids: Pharmacology, Complications, and Practice Delivery Issues  

PubMed Central

Background Since their identification nearly 80 years ago, steroids have played a prominent role in the treatment of many disease states. Many of the clinical roles of steroids are related to their potent antiinflammatory and immune-modulating properties. Methods This review summarizes the basic pharmacology, complications, and practice delivery issues regarding steroids. Results Clinically relevant side effects of steroids are common and problematic. Side effects can occur at a wide range of doses and vary depending on the route of administration. The full spectrum of side effects can be present even in patients taking low doses. Conclusions Practitioners must be aware that these drugs might exacerbate a preexisting condition or present a new medical condition. Knowledge of the clinical implications of prescribing these agents is critical. PMID:24940130

Ericson-Neilsen, William; Kaye, Alan David

2014-01-01

431

Topical steroid addiction in atopic dermatitis  

PubMed Central

The American Academy of Dermatology published a new guideline regarding topical therapy in atopic dermatitis in May 2014. Although topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome had been mentioned as possible side effects of topical steroids in a 2006 review article in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, no statement was made regarding this illness in the new guidelines. This suggests that there are still controversies regarding this illness. Here, we describe the clinical features of topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome, based on the treatment of many cases of the illness. Because there have been few articles in the medical literature regarding this illness, the description in this article will be of some benefit to better understand the illness and to spur discussion regarding topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome. PMID:25378953

Fukaya, Mototsugu; Sato, Kenji; Sato, Mitsuko; Kimata, Hajime; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Dozono, Haruhiko; Yoshizawa, Jun; Minaguchi, Satoko

2014-01-01

432

Quantitative determination of 26 steroids in eggs from various species using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for analyzing 26 types of steroids in egg matrix was developed. The method used liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in electrospray ionization mode (ESI). The procedure involved extraction with acetonitrile and removal of phospholipids by zinc chloride (ZnCl?) followed by SPE cleanup with a Plexa cartridge. The effect of ZnCl? on phospholipid removal was directly observed using the post column infusion procedure. The SPE washing and elution conditions were optimized using a shallow gradient procedure. The free and conjugated steroids forms were determined using enzyme hydrolysis. The developed method resulted in satisfactory precision (RSD?15%), and the limits of quantification were between 0.05 and 25 ng/g depending on the steroid types. The recoveries ranged from 63.2% to 121.5%. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to compare the steroids in eggs from different species (i.e., hen, duck, quail and pigeon eggs) or different raising system (i.e., normal vs. organic eggs). The steroids can be clearly clustered according to species and raising system. The hierarchical clustering analysis indicated similarity of the steroids among the species. The developed method is sensitive and useful for detection and quantification of steroids in eggs and can be used for residue control programs. In addition, the observed steroid content will provide a fundamental reference for food risk assessment analysis. PMID:25017396

Mi, Xiaoxia; Li, Sicong; Li, Yanhua; Wang, Kaiqiang; Zhu, Dan; Chen, Gang

2014-08-22

433

Dielectric screening of early differentiation patterns in mesenchymal stem cells induced by steroid hormones.  

PubMed

In the framework of this study, target identification and localization of differentiation patterns by means of dielectric spectroscopy is presented. Here, a primary pre-osteoblastic bone marrow-derived MBA-15 cellular system was used to study the variations in the dielectric properties of mesenchymal stem cells while exposed to differentiation regulators. Using the fundamentals of mixed dielectric theories combined with finite numerical tools, the permittivity spectra of MBA-15 cell suspensions have been uniquely analyzed after being activated by steroid hormones to express osteogenic phenotypes. Following the spectral analysis, significant variations were revealed in the dielectric properties of the activated cells in comparison to the untreated populations. Based on the differentiation patterns of MBA-15, the electrical modifications were found to be highly correlated with the activation of specific cellular mechanisms which directly react to the hormonal inductions. In addition, by describing the dielectric dispersion in terms of transfer functions, it is shown that the spectral perturbations are well adapted to variations in the electrical characteristics of the cells. The reported findings vastly emphasize the tight correlation between the cellular and electrical state of the differentiated cells. It therefore emphasizes the vast abilities of impedance-based techniques as potential screening tools for stem cell analysis. PMID:19837013

Ron, Amit; Shur, Irena; Daniel, Ramiz; Singh, Ragini Raj; Fishelson, Nick; Croitoru, Nathan; Benayahu, Dafna; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi

2010-06-01

434

Microbiological hydroxylation of 5?-H-steroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The literature data on the use of microorganisms for the hydroxylation of 5?-H-steroids of the 5?-H-androstane and 5?-H-pregnane series and also 5?-H-sapogenins are surveyed. A systematic description of the influence of substitution in the steroid molecule on the specificity of the hydroxylation and the activity of the microbial enzymes is given within the framework of the enzyme-substrate interaction model. The bibliography includes 124 references.

Turuta, Alevtina M.; Voishvillo, Natalia E.; Kamernitskii, Alexey V.

1992-10-01

435

Review of Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

An area that has been overlooked within personnel security evaluations is employee use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Current drug testing within the federal government does not include testing for anabolic steroids, and the difficulties to implement such testing protocols-not to mention the cost involved-make AAS testing highly improbable. The basis of this report is to bring to the forefront the

T. Borges; G. Eisele; C. Byrd

2001-01-01

436

Erythrocyte Catabolism by Macrophages In Vitro THE EFFECT OF HYDROCORTISONE ON ERYTHROPHAGOCYTOSIS AND ON THE INDUCTION OF HEME OXYGENASE  

PubMed Central

Phagocytosis of erythrocytes was studied in vitro in an incubation system consisting of rat peritoneal macrophages and antibody-coated 59Fe-labeled erythrocytes. The system was characterized in terms of the rate and magnitude of erythrophagocytosis, determined by the interiorization of the 59Fe label. On incubation of 150 × 106 macrophages with 75 × 106 antibodycoated erythrocytes, erythrophagocytosis began within a few minutes and was essentially completed after 2 h when 50% of the offered red cells had been ingested by the macrophages. Heme oxygenase (HO) activity, which is very low in native macrophages, increased 4- to 10- fold in response to the ingested erythrocytes; this enzyme stimulation occurred with a delay of 3 h in relation to erythrophagocytosis. Actinomycin D or puromycin prevented the increase of HO activity without affecting erythrophagocytosis, which suggests that the enzyme stimulation was due to substrate-mediated enzyme induction. Hydrocortisone (HC) (0.1 mg/ml medium) dissociated erythrophagocytosis from HO induction, leaving the former unimpaired but completely suppressing the latter. The suppressive effect of HC on the enzyme induction was completely prevented by 5 mg glucose and 0.02 U insulin/ml of the medium. In macrophages engaged in erythrophagocytosis. HC also lowered glucose removal from the medium and reduced formation of 14CO2 from [1-14C]glucose. These results suggest that induction of HO in macrophages by the hemoglobin of ingested erythrocytes requires intact transport or metabolism of glucose. Glucose utilization appears to be impaired by HC, but is restored by additional glucose and insulin. The findings suggest that plasma steroid concentrations in the pharmacological range could reduce bilirubin formation in phagocytic cells in vivo without affecting the sequestration and degradation of erythrocytes. This provides a possible explanation for the observation that in patients with hepatogenous jaundice, steroids often lower the serum bilirubin level. PMID:4693648

Gemsa, Diethard; Woo, C. H.; Fudenberg, H. Hugh; Schmid, Rudi

1973-01-01

437

Dynamic Mechanism of Photochemical Induction of Turing Superlattices in the Chlorine Dioxide-Iodine-Malonic Acid Reaction-Diffusion System  

E-print Network

Dynamic Mechanism of Photochemical Induction of Turing Superlattices in the Chlorine Dioxide-Iodine-Malonic".17,18 Recently, we discovered Turing superlattice structures that develop in the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic

Yang, Lingfa

438

Sex steroids in intersexual fishes.  

PubMed

Studies of thein vitro gonadal steroidogenesis in intersexual fishes, using labelled testosterone as precursor, showed large species variation. The protogynousMonopterus albus produced predominantly 5?-reduced metabolites while the protandrousRhabdosargus sarba produced mainly 5?-reduced products. Both fishes synthesized 11-oxotestosterone; the synthesis of which appeared to mediate mainly through adrenosterone inM. albus butvia 11?-hydroxytestosterone inR. sarba.When the plasma levels of androstenedione, testosterone, 11-oxotestosterone, 11?-hydroxytestosterone, estrone and 17?-estradiol among the male, intersexual and female phase of the same species were compared, available data showed that either there was no obvious difference among the different sexual phases or the differences could be accounted for by the seasonal reproductive activities of the animal.Except for androstenedione, there are no marked changes in plasma testosterone, 11-oxotestosterone, 11?-hydroxytestosterone, estrone and 17?-estradiol levels in the intersexual phase compared with the female and male, it is unlikely that these classical sex steroids act as a primary trigger of natural sex reversal in these fishes; the role of androstenedione awaits further elucidation. PMID:24221776

Chan, S T; Yeung, W S

1989-06-01

439

Steroidal saponins from Dioscorea preussii.  

PubMed

Three new steroidal saponins, named diospreussinosides A-C (1-3), along with two known ones (4, 5) were isolated from rhizomes of Dioscorea preussii. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry as (25S)-17?,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), (25S)-17?,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), and (24S,25R)-17?,24,25-trihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (3). The spirostane-type skeleton of compound 3 possessing an unusual dihydroxylation pattern on the F-ring is reported for the first time. Cytotoxicity of compounds 2-5 was evaluated against two human colon carcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and HCT 116). PMID:24928475

Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Tanaka, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

2014-09-01

440

Inductively Coupled Plasma and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Etching of InGaAlP Compound Semiconductor System  

SciTech Connect

Current and future generations of sophisticated compound semiconductor devices require the ability for submicron scale patterning. The situation is being complicated since some of the new devices are based on a wider diversity of materials to be etched. Conventional IUE (Reactive Ion Etching) has been prevalent across the industry so far, but has limitations for materials with high bond strengths or multiple elements. IrI this paper, we suggest high density plasmas such as ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) and ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma), for the etching of ternary compound semiconductors (InGaP, AIInP, AlGaP) which are employed for electronic devices like heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) or high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), and photonic devices such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers. High density plasma sources, opeiating at lower pressure, are expected to meet target goals determined in terms of etch rate, surface morphology, surface stoichiometry, selectivity, etc. The etching mechanisms, which are described in this paper, can also be applied to other III-V (GaAs-based, InP-based) as well as III-Nitride since the InGaAIP system shares many of the same properties.

Abernathy, C.R.; Hobson, W.S.; Hong, J.; Lambers, E.S.; Pearton, S.J.; Shul, R.J.

1998-11-04

441

Planar induction of anteroposterior pattern in the developing central nervous system of Xenopus laevis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has long been thought that anteroposterior (A-P) pattern in the vertebrate central nervous system is induced in the embryo's dorsal ectoderm exclusively by signals passing vertically from underlying, patterned dorsal mesoderm. Explants from early gastrulae of the frog Xenopus laevis were prepared in which vertical contact between dorsal ectoderm and mesoderm was prevented but planar contact was maintained. In these, four position-specific neural markers (engrailed-2, Krox-20, XlHbox 1, and XlHbox 6) were expressed in the ectoderm in the same A-P order as in the embryo. Thus, planar signals alone, following a path available in the normal embryo, can induce A-P neural pattern.

Doniach, T.; Phillips, C. R.; Gerhart, J. C.

1992-01-01

442

Steroid receptor expression in the fish inner ear varies with sex, social status, and reproductive state  

PubMed Central

Background Gonadal and stress-related steroid hormones are known to influence auditory function across vertebrates but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for steroid-mediated auditory plasticity at the level of the inner ear remain unknown. The presence of steroid receptors in the ear suggests a direct pathway for hormones to act on the peripheral auditory system, but little is known about which receptors are expressed in the ear or whether their expression levels change with internal physiological state or external social cues. We used qRT-PCR to measure mRNA expression levels of multiple steroid receptor subtypes (estrogen receptors: ER?, ER?a, ER?b; androgen receptors: AR?, AR?; corticosteroid receptors: GR2, GR1a/b, MR) and aromatase in the main hearing organ of the inner ear (saccule) in the highly social African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, and tested whether these receptor levels were correlated with circulating steroid concentrations. Results We show that multiple steroid receptor subtypes are expressed within the main hearing organ of a single vertebrate species, and that expression levels differ between the sexes. We also show that steroid receptor subtype-specific changes in mRNA expression are associated with reproductive phase in females and social status in males. Sex-steroid receptor mRNA levels were negatively correlated with circulating estradiol and androgens in both males and females, suggesting possible ligand down-regulation of receptors in the inner ear. In contrast, saccular changes in corticosteroid receptor mRNA levels were not related to serum cortisol levels. Circulating steroid levels and receptor subtype mRNA levels were not as tightly correlated in males as compared to females, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms between sexes. Conclusions This is the most comprehensive study of sex-, social-, and reproductive-related steroid receptor mRNA expression in the peripheral auditory system of any single vertebrate. Our data suggest that changes in steroid receptor mRNA expression in the inner ear could be a regulatory mechanism for physiological state-dependent auditory plasticity across vertebrates. PMID:20433748

2010-01-01

443

Induction, Sequences and Series Section 1: Induction  

E-print Network

Unit IS Induction, Sequences and Series Section 1: Induction Suppose A(n) is an assertion that depends on n. We use induction to prove that A(n) is true when we show that · it's true for the smallest will review the idea of proof by induction and give some examples. Here is a formal statement of proof

Bernstein, Daniel

444

Original Articles Geometric Control of Cardiomyogenic Induction  

E-print Network

Original Articles Geometric Control of Cardiomyogenic Induction in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells influences extraembryonic endoderm (ExE) commitment and cardiac inductive properties. hESC aggregates were-free cardiac induction system, that robust and efficient cardiac differentiation is a function of endogenous Ex

Zandstra, Peter W.

445

Toll-like receptor driven B cell activation in the induction of systemic autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Studies over the past decade have demonstrated a key role for pattern recognition receptors in the activation of autoreactive B cells. Self reactive B cells that manage to escape negative selection often express relatively low affinity receptors for self antigens (ignorant B cells), and can only be activated by integrating a relatively weak BCR signal with signals from additional receptors. Members of the toll-like receptor (TLR) gene family, and especially the nucleic acid binding receptors TLR 7, 8 and 9, appear to play a key role in this regard and promote the production of autoantibodies reactive with DNA- or RNA-associated autoantigens. These autoantibodies are able to form immune complexes with soluble or cell-bound ligands, and these immune complexes can in turn activate a second round of proinflammatory cells that further contribute to the autoimmune disease process. Recent data have emerged showing a pathogenic role for TLR7, with an opposing, protective role for TLR9. Targeting these disregulated pathways offers a therapeutic opportunity to treat autoimmune diseases without crippling the entire immune system. Further understanding of the role of specific receptors, cell subsets, and inhibitory signals that govern these TLR-associated pathways will enable future therapeutics to be tailored to specific categories of autoimmune disease. PMID:21306913

Green, Nathaniel M.; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann

2011-01-01

446

Magnetic field-driven induction of ZENK in the trigeminal system of pigeons (Columba livia).  

PubMed

Magnetoreception remains one of the few unsolved mysteries in sensory biology. The upper beak, which is innervated by the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1), has been suggested to contain magnetic sensors based on ferromagnetic structures. Recently, its existence in pigeons has been seriously challenged by studies suggesting that the previously described iron-accumulations are macrophages, not magnetosensitive nerve endings. This raised the fundamental question of whether V1 is involved in magnetoreception in pigeons at all. We exposed pigeons to either a constantly changing magnetic field (CMF), to a zero magnetic field providing no magnetic information, or to CMF conditions after V1 was cut bilaterally. Using immediate early genes as a marker of neuronal responsiveness, we report that the trigeminal brainstem nuclei of pigeons, which receive V1 input, are activated under CMF conditions and that this neuronal activation disappears if the magnetic stimuli are removed or if V1 is cut. Our data suggest that the trigeminal system in pigeons is involved in processing magnetic field information and that V1 transmits this information from currently unknown, V1-associated magnetosensors to the brain. PMID:25232052

Lefeldt, Nele; Heyers, Dominik; Schneider, Nils-Lasse; Engels, Svenja; Elbers, Dana; Mouritsen, Henrik

2014-11-01

447

Induction of Systemic Resistance of Benzothiadiazole and Humic Acid in Soybean Plants Against Fusarium Wilt Disease  

PubMed Central

The ability of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and/or humic acid (HA) used as seed soaking to induce systemic resistance against a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was examined in four soybean cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Alone and in combination the inducers were able to protect soybean plants against damping-off and wilt diseases compared with check treatment. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations (Minia and New Valley governorates). The tested treatments significantly reduced damping-off and wilt diseases and increased growth parameters, except the number of branches per plant and also increased seed yield. Application of BTH (0.25 g/L) + HA (4 g/L) was the most potent in this respect. Soybean seed soaking in BTH + HA produced the highest activities of the testes of oxidative enzymes followed by BTH in the four soybean cultivars. HA treatment resulted in the lowest increases of these oxidative enzymes. Similar results were obtained with total phenol but HA increased total phenol more than did BTH in all tested cultivars. PMID:22783118

Ismail, Mamdoh Ewis; Morsy, Kadry Mohamed

2011-01-01

448

Induction of antibody responses in the common mucosal immune system by respiratory syncytical virus immunostimulating complexes.  

PubMed

Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) containing envelope proteins of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were explored as a mucosal delivery system for the capacity of inducing a common mucosal antibody response. Two intranasal (i.n.) administrations of BALB/c mice with ISCOMs induced potent serum IgG, and strong IgA responses to RSV locally in the lungs and the upper respiratory, and remotely in the genital and the intestinal tracts. Virtually no measurable IgA response was found in these mucosal organs after two subcutaneous (s.c.) immunizations. Virus neutralizing (VN) antibodies were detected in serum and in all of the mucosal organ extracts after both s.c. and i.n. immunizations indicating that the neutralizing epitopes were preserved after both mucosal and parenteral modes of administration. While the mucosal IgA response appears to be of mucosal origin, the IgG antibodies to RSV detected in the mucosal organs were likely of serum origin. However, the mucosal VN antibodies correlated with the IgG rather than the IgA levels. An enhanced IgA response to gp120 in various mucosal organs was recorded after i.n. immunization with gp120 incorporated in RSV ISCOMs, indicating a role of RSV envelope proteins in enhancing and targeting mucosal responses to passenger antigens. PMID:10363675

Hu, K F; Ekström, J; Merza, M; Lövgren-Bengtsson, K; Morein, B

1999-05-01

449

Determination of the distribution constants of aromatic compounds and steroids in biphasic micellar phosphonium ionic liquid/aqueous buffer systems by capillary electrokinetic chromatography.  

PubMed

The distribution constants of some analytes, closely connected to the petrochemical industry, between an aqueous phase and a phosphonium ionic liquid phase, were determined by ionic liquid micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). The phosphonium ionic liquids studied were the water-soluble tributyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium with chloride or acetate as the counter ion. The retention factors were calculated and used for determination of the distribution constants. For calculating the retention factors the electrophoretic mobilities of the ionic liquids were required, thus, we adopted the iterative process, based on a homologous series of alkyl benzoates. Calculation of the distribution constants required information on the phase-ratio of the systems. For this the critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of the ionic liquids were needed. The CMCs were calculated using a method based on PeakMaster simulations, using the electrophoretic mobilities of system peaks. The resulting distribution constants for the neutral analytes between the ionic liquid and the aqueous (buffer) phase were compared with octanol-water partitioning coefficients. The results indicate that there are other factors affecting the distribution of analytes between phases, than just simple hydrophobic interactions. PMID:23953616

Lokajová, Jana; Railila, Annika; King, Alistair W T; Wiedmer, Susanne K

2013-09-20

450

Flywheel Size Design Considerations and Experimental Verification Using a 50-kW System for Voltage Sag Compensator with Flywheel Induction Motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flywheel energy storage systems can be used as uninterrupted power supply system because they are environmentally friendly and have high durability. The use of a simple voltage sag compensator with a low-speed heavy flywheel and a low-cost squirrel-cage induction motor/generator is proposed. First, the ability of the proposed system to maintain the load voltage at 100% when the grid is under voltage sag is experimentally-validated. Next, design guides of the flywheel stored energy are discussed. Experimental verification of a 50-kW class system are carried out, and the results show good agreement with the developed design guides.

Kato, Shuhei; Cheng, Miao-Miao; Sumitani, Hideo; Shimada, Ryuichi

451

Low sex steroids, high steroid receptors: Increasing the sensitivity of the nonreproductive brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male aggressive behavior is generally regulated by testosterone (T). In most temperate breed- ing males, aggressive behavior is only expressed during the reproductive period. At this time circulating T con- centrations, brain steroid receptors, and steroid meta- bolic enzymes are elevated in many species relative to the nonreproductive period. Many tropical birds, however, display aggressive behavior both during the breeding

Virginie Canoine; Leonida Fusani; Barney Schlinger; Michaela Hau

2007-01-01

452

Anabolic Steroid Abuse: Federal Efforts to Prevent and Reduce Anabolic Steroid Abuse among Teenagers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The abuse of anabolic steroids by teenagers--that is, their use without a prescription--is a health concern. Anabolic steroids are synthetic forms of the hormone testosterone that can be taken orally, injected, or rubbed on the skin. Although a 2006 surve...

2007-01-01

453

Preventive Effects of Multi-Lamellar Emulsion on Low Potency Topical Steroid Induced Local Adverse Effect  

PubMed Central

Background Topical steroid treatment induces diverse local Wand systemic adverse effects. Several approaches have been tried to reduce the steroid-induced adverse effects. Simultaneous application of physiological lipid mixture is also suggested. Objective Novel vehicles for topical glucocorticoids formulation were evaluated for the efficacy of reducing side-effects and the drug delivery properties of desonide, a low potency topical steroid. Methods Transcutaneous permeation and skin residual amount of desonide were measured using Franz diffusion cells. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using murine model. Results Topical steroids formulation containing desonide, in either cream or lotion form, were prepared using multi-lamellar emulsion (MLE), and conventional desonide formulations were employed for comparison. MLE formulations did not affect the anti-inflammatory activity of the desonide in phobol ester-induced skin inflammation model, compared with conventional formulations. While the penetrated amounts of desonide were similar for all the tested formulations at 24 hours after application, the increased lag time was observed for the MLE formulations. Interestingly, residual amount of desonide in epidermis was significantly higher in lotion type MLE formulation. Steroid-induced adverse effects, including permeability barrier function impairment, were partially prevented by MLE formulation. Conclusion Topical desonide formulation using MLE as a vehicle showed a better drug delivery with increased epidermal retention. MLE also partially prevented the steroid-induced side effects, such as skin barrier impairment. PMID:23467730

Sul, Geun Dong; Park, Hyun Jung; Bae, Jong Hwan; Hong, Keum Duck; Park, Byeong Deog; Chun, Jaesun; Jeong, Se Kyoo; Lee, Seung Hun; Ahn, Sung Ku

2013-01-01

454

Sex steroid regulation of microglial cell activation: relevance to multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) occurs more commonly in females than males. However, the mechanisms resulting in gender differences in MS are unknown. Several studies have suggested that sex steroids influence the development and severity of MS. For example, pregnancy influences MS symptoms, with remission in the third trimester of gestation, followed by exacerbation in the postpartum period. In addition, oral contraceptives containing female sex steroids have been associated with a lower risk of developing MS and decreased disability. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disorder initiated by T cells reactive against central nervous system (CNS) antigens. EAE is characterized by inflammation and demyelination of the CNS, and by remittent paralysis-features consistent with MS. Recent studies have suggested that female sex steroids may modulate EAE, at least in part, through effects on T cells. For example, sex steroids shift T cells toward a Th2 phenotype in vitro, and cytokines produced by Th2 cells generally suppress EAE. Activated microglia also are believed to contribute to MS pathology; perhaps due in part to production of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-alpha, molecules which can be toxic to CNS cells, including oligodendrocytes. We are currently investigating the role of sex steroids in modulating microglial cell function in relation to MS. It is hoped that elucidation of the mechanisms by which sex steroids modulate CNS inflammation will lead to future therapies in the treatment of MS. PMID:14993065

Drew, Paul D; Chavis, Janet A; Bhatt, Renu

2003-12-01

455

Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain.  

PubMed

Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor ? (ER?) mRNA expression and decreased ER? promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

Auger, Catherine J; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M

2011-03-01

456

21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. 1308...SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a)...

2011-04-01

457

21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application...SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product;...

2012-04-01

458

21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.  

... false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. 1308...SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a)...

2014-04-01

459

21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.  

... Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application...SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product;...

2014-04-01

460

21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. 1308...SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a)...

2013-04-01

461

21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. 1308...SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a)...

2012-04-01

462

21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application...SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product;...

2011-04-01

463

21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application...SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product;...

2013-04-01

464

Prevention of ice formation in light-aircraft-engine induction systems by using an automatic control to operate the carburetor-air heater  

E-print Network

LIBRARY A A III COLLEGE OF TEXAS PREVENTION OF ICE FORMATION IN LIGHT-AIRCRAFT-EIEIINE INDUCTION SYSTEMS BY USING AN AUTOMATIC CONTROL TO OPERATE THE CARBURETOB AIR HEATER A Thesis GARLAND BISHOP MHISENHUNT & JR SuIm&itted to the Graduate... School of the Agricultural and Mechanioal College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1955 MAJOR SUBJECT ' MECHANICAL ENGINEERING& PREVENTION OF ICE FORMATION IN LIGHT...

Whisenhunt, Garland Bishop

2012-06-07

465

Induction of Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 by a DNA Vaccine Formulated with QS-21 Saponin Adjuvant via Intramuscular and Intranasal Routes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of mucosal and cell-mediated immunity is critical for development of an effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We compared intramuscular and intranasal immunizations with a DNA vaccine encoding env of HIV-1 and evaluated the QS-21 saponin adjuvant for augmentation of the systemic and mucosal immune responses to HIV-1 in a murine model. Vaccination via the two routes elicited

SHIN SASAKI; KAHARU SUMINO; KENJI HAMAJIMA; JUN FUKUSHIMA; NORIHISA ISHII; SUSUMU KAWAMOTO; HIROSHI MOHRI; CHARLOTTE READ KENSIL; KENJI OKUDA

1998-01-01

466

Sequential modeling of fecal coliform removals in a full-scale activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant using an evolutionary process model induction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an evolutionary process model induction system that is based on the grammar-based genetic programming to automatically discover multivariate dynamic inference models that are able to predict fecal coliform bacteria removals using common process variables instead of directly measuring fecal coliform bacteria concentration in a full-scale municipal activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant. A sequential modeling paradigm is also proposed to

Chang-Won Suh; Joong-Won Lee; Yoon-Seok Timothy Hong; Hang-Sik Shin

2009-01-01

467

The neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone suppresses hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone release through a mechanism mediated by the gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central nervous system (CNS) is able to synthesize and\\/or metabolize steroid hormones. These neuroactive steroids are capable of modulating several brain functions and, among these, they seem to regulate the hypothalamic- pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Indeed, recent observations have shown that 5Æ-pregnane-3Æ-ol-20-one (allopreg- nanolone), one of the most abundant naturally occurring neuroactive steroids, suppresses ovulation and sexual be- haviour when