Note: This page contains sample records for the topic steroid induction system from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

... there's another type of steroid - sometimes called a corticosteroid - that treats a variety of problems. These steroids ... the immune system. You may need to take corticosteroids to treat Arthritis Asthma Autoimmune diseases such as ...

2

Steroids.  

PubMed

The structure, sources, synthesis, economics, and the present and future marketing of male and female sex steroids and corticoids are summarized. Physiologically, and historically in industry, steroids were made from cholesterol. Now most steroids are produced from diosgenin, an akaloid from the Mexican Dioscorea plant. Other sources are stigmasterol from soybeans, hecogenin from sissal waste, bile acids, and total synthesis. Unlike prices of corticoids which have been low for lack of patent protection, prices of sex steroids, especially oral contraceptives, have fallen only 50%, although doses have decreased 90%. There are 735 million women of fertile age, so prices could fall to an unlikely $1 per year without hurting sales. The major companies and subsidiaries, patent holders, and licencees of steroids in South America, U.S., Europe, Iron Curtain countries, Asia, and Africa were listed with their products. In the future oral contraceptives will be joined with minipills, injectables, once monthly pills, and steroid treatment of menopause. Postcoital pills and pills taken for delayed menses may be developed, but used clandestinely because of government and moral barriers. Corticoids are now used an analogs, with a growing market for topical ointments. Steroids will find uses in domestic animal estrus control, rat control, and insect hormones isolated from plant sources for insect control. PMID:12255132

Applezweig, N

1969-05-17

3

A novel method for induction of pairing in Xenopus by addition of steroids into the water.  

PubMed

The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is widely used in biological studies. Ovulation of Xenopus is normally induced by the injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) into the dorsal lymph sac of fully-grown female frogs. Previously, we reported a novel method for inducing Xenopus ovulation by adding a mixture of steroids into the surrounding water. In the present study, we demonstrate how to induce reproductive behavior in male frogs using the same methodology. The types and concentrations of steroids were evaluated, and the efficiency of the selected steroid for the induction of ejaculation was examined. New procedures were also examined for inducing mating by mixing both females and males activated by steroids. In male frogs, testosterone was effective for the induction of physiological changes, accumulation of melanin in the hands and induction of amplexus. Time course experiments revealed that eight hours were sufficient to induce male reproductive behavior and ovulation in females. Finally, we established an efficient means of inducing pairing in frogs that involved pre-treatment of frogs with salt solution followed by testosterone for males and a mixture of estradiol and progesterone for females. Although the numbers of oocytes obtained were relatively fewer than those resulting from hCG injection, the fertilization rate of eggs ovulated using the new treatment method was similar to that with eggs obtained by hCG-injection, and juveniles developed normally. In conclusion, we have developed a novel method to induce pairing in frogs without the need for injections. PMID:23829209

Miyazaki, Takehiro; Tokumoto, Toshinobu

2013-07-01

4

Steroids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many companies producing products that claim to give you the benefits and results of exercise without all the work. These products are hoaxes, or fakes. Steroid abuse can permanently and fatally damage your body and they should never be used unless prescribed by a doctor.

N/A N/A (Drug Enforcement Administration;)

2007-09-25

5

Inductive System Health Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS uses nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. IMS is able to monitor the system by comparing real time operational data with these classes. We present a description of learning and monitoring method used by IMS and summarize some recent IMS results.

Iverson, David L.

2004-01-01

6

Single Dose of Alemtuzumab Induction With Steroid-Free Maintenance Immunosuppression in Pancreas Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background The use of alemtuzumab (humanized anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody) has been primarily studied in renal transplantation, and the experience of alemtuzumab induction in pancreas transplantation is still limited. The objective of this study is to analyze the outcome of pancreas transplantation by using a single dose of 30 mg alemtuzumab induction with steroid-free maintenance immunosuppression. Methods We performed a total 28 pancreas transplants (17 simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation [SPK], 5 pancreas after kidney transplantation [PAK], and 6 pancreas transplant alone [PTA]) between November 2006 and April 2010. Median follow-up was 25 months (range, 8–49 months). Maintenance immunosuppression consists of tacrolimus and mycophenolate. We analyzed patient/graft survival, graft function, and complications. Results One-year actuarial patient/graft survival was 100%/100% in SPK, PAK, and PTA. Three-year actuarial patient/pancreas graft survival rates for SPK, PAK, and PTA were 100%/100%, 100%/100%, and 100%/83%, respectively. Excellent pancreas and kidney graft functions were observed. Acute cellular rejection occurred in 42% of patients. Most of the rejection episode occurred approximately 1 or 6 months after transplant. Absolute lymphocyte count remained below preoperative level for 1 year posttransplant and WBC counts were significantly lower for 3 years after transplant compared with pretransplant level. Cytomegalovirus infection and bacterial infection occurred in 28% and 36% of patients, respectively. Eleven percent of patients developed donor-specific antibodies and 7% of patients experienced antibody-mediated rejection. Conclusion A single dose of 30 mg alemtuzumab induction with steroid-free maintenance immunosuppression achieved excellent mid-term patient and graft survival for pancreas transplantation with acceptable complication rate.

Uemura, Tadahiro; Ramprasad, Varun; Matsushima, Kazuhide; Shike, Hiroko; Valania, Tracy; Kwon, Osun; Ghahramani, Nasrollah; Shah, Riaz; Farooq, Umar; Khan, Akhtar; Kadry, Zakiyah

2012-01-01

7

Systemic steroid pretreatment improves cerebral protection after circulatory arrest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This study evaluates whether systemic steroid pretreatment enhances neuroprotection during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) compared with steroid in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) prime.Methods. Four-week-old piglets randomly placed into two groups (n = 5 per group) were given methylprednisolone (30 mg\\/kg) into the pump prime (group PP), or pretreated intravenously 4 hours before CPB (group PT). All animals underwent 100

Dominique Shum-Tim; Christo I Tchervenkov; Al-Maleek Jamal; Toni Nimeh; Chwan-Yau Luo; Edgar Chedrawy; Eric Laliberte; Anie Philip; Colin P Rose; Josee Lavoie

2001-01-01

8

Switch from systemic steroids to budesonide in steroid dependent patients with inactive Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDSteroid dependent patients with Crohn's disease are at high risk of developing glucocorticosteroid induced side effects.AIMSWe evaluated the possibility of switching from systemic steroids to budesonide (Entocort) in prednisolone\\/prednisone dependent patients with inactive Crohn's disease affecting the ileum and\\/or ascending colon.PATIENTSSteroid dependent patients with a Crohn's disease activity index ?200 were included.METHODSIn a double blind multicentre trial, 120 patients were

A Cortot; J-F Colombel; P Rutgeerts; K Lauritsen; H Malchow; J Hämling; T Winter; A Van Gossum; T Persson; E Pettersson

2001-01-01

9

The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers  

PubMed Central

The “endocannabinoid system (ECS)” comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed.

Taylor, Anthony H.; Marczylo, Timothy H.; Willets, Jonathon M.; Konje, Justin C.

2013-01-01

10

Inductive System Monitors Tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software developed at Ames Research Center uses artificial intelligence and data mining techniques to build system-monitoring knowledge bases from archived or simulated sensor data. This information is then used to detect unusual or anomalous behavior that may indicate an impending system failure. Currently helping analyze data from systems that help fly and maintain the space shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS), the IMS has also been employed by data classes are then used to build a monitoring knowledge base. In real time, IMS performs monitoring functions: determining and displaying the degree of deviation from nominal performance. IMS trend analyses can detect conditions that may indicate a failure or required system maintenance. The development of IMS was motivated by the difficulty of producing detailed diagnostic models of some system components due to complexity or unavailability of design information. Successful applications have ranged from real-time monitoring of aircraft engine and control systems to anomaly detection in space shuttle and ISS data. IMS was used on shuttle missions STS-121, STS-115, and STS-116 to search the Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLEIDS) data for signs of possible damaging impacts during launch. It independently verified findings of the WLEIDS Mission Evaluation Room (MER) analysts and indicated additional points of interest that were subsequently investigated by the MER team. In support of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, IMS is being deployed as an anomaly detection tool on ISS mission control consoles in the Johnson Space Center Mission Operations Directorate. IMS has been trained to detect faults in the ISS Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) systems. In laboratory tests, it has already detected several minor anomalies in real-time CMG data. When tested on archived data, IMS was able to detect precursors of the CMG1 failure nearly 15 hours in advance of the actual failure event. In the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, IMS successfully performed real-time engine health analysis. IMS was able to detect simulated failures and actual engine anomalies in an F/A-18 aircraft during the course of 25 test flights. IMS is also being used in colla

2008-01-01

11

Inductive-data-type Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous work (``Abstract Data Type Systems'', TCS 173(2), 1997), the last two authors presented a combined language made of a (strongly normalizing) algebraic rewrite system and a typed lambda-calculus enriched by pattern-matching definitions following a certain format, called the ``General Schema'', which generalizes the usual recursor definitions for natural numbers and similar ``basic inductive types''. This combined language

Frédéric Blanqui; Jean-Pierre Jouannaud; Mitsuhiro Okada

2006-01-01

12

Sex-steroid induction of endogenous opioid inhibition on oxytocin secretory responses to stress.  

PubMed

In pregnancy, endogenous opioids inhibit enhanced basal and stressor-stimulated oxytocin neurone activity and secretion. By contrast, stress responses of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are reduced in pregnancy. We investigated whether the high levels of oestradiol and progesterone of pregnancy could induce these changes. Silastic capsules containing oestradiol or progesterone (or control capsules) were implanted s.c. in virgin female rats for 16 or 17 days, with or without progesterone removal on day 15 to mimic the progesterone withdrawal seen at the end of pregnancy. Plasma concentrations of oxytocin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone were measured in jugular vein blood samples from conscious rats. Under basal conditions, naloxone (5 mg/kg) increased oxytocin secretion in all groups, but had no greater effect in sex-steroid treated rats, and did not induce Fos expression in the supraoptic nucleus. Forced swimming, a stressor, increased oxytocin secretion at 5 min in vehicle-injected controls, and this response was slightly attenuated in the sex-steroid treated groups. Pretreatment with naloxone greatly enhanced the response in the sex-steroid treated rats, and was less effective in the controls. In rats treated with oestradiol alone, naloxone prolonged the response. Thus, the combined sex-steroid treatment enhanced the responsiveness of oxytocin neurones to the stressor, while simultaneously restraining oxytocin secretion via endogenous opioid inhibition. In the same rats, ACTH and corticosterone secretion was also stimulated by the stressor, but the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response was not attenuated in sex-steroid treated rats. Naloxone weakly reduced the HPA axis response in controls and was ineffective in the sex-steroid treated rats. We conclude that oestradiol and progesterone may be responsible for inducing the opioid restraint and enhanced oxytocin neurone responsiveness in pregnancy. PMID:10718931

Douglas, A J; Johnstone, H; Brunton, P; Russell, J A

2000-04-01

13

21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1385 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids)...

2012-04-01

14

Induction of micronuclei in V79 cells by the anabolic doping steroids tetrahydrogestrinone and trenbolone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthetic steroid tetrahydrogestrinone is a new “designer drug” and was recently detected to be illegally used in sports.\\u000a It is chemically closely related to trenbolone that is known as an animal growth promoter. The potencies of trenbolone, tetrahydrogestrinone\\u000a and testosterone to induce micronuclei in V79 cells in vitro were determined. CREST analysis was employed to differentiate\\u000a between aneugenic or

Susanne B. Dorn; Hermann M. Bolt; Mario Thevis; Patrick Diel; Gisela H. Degen

2008-01-01

15

Mobile inductively coupled plasma system  

DOEpatents

A system for sampling and analyzing a material located at a hazardous site. A laser located remote from the hazardous site is connected to an optical fiber, which directs laser radiation proximate the material at the hazardous site. The laser radiation abates a sample of the material. An inductively coupled plasma is located remotely from the material. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated particles to a plasma, where they are dissociated, atomized and excited to provide characteristic optical reduction of the elemental constituents of the sample. An optical spectrometer is located remotely from the site. A second optical fiber is connected to the optical spectrometer at one end and the plasma source at the other end to carry the optical radiation from the plasma source to the spectrometer.

D'Silva, Arthur P. (Ames, IA); Jaselskis, Edward J. (Ames, IA)

1999-03-30

16

Mobile inductively coupled plasma system  

DOEpatents

A system is described for sampling and analyzing a material located at a hazardous site. A laser located remotely from the hazardous site is connected to an optical fiber, which directs laser radiation proximate the material at the hazardous site. The laser radiation abates a sample of the material. An inductively coupled plasma is located remotely from the material. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated particles to a plasma, where they are dissociated, atomized and excited to provide characteristic optical reduction of the elemental constituents of the sample. An optical spectrometer is located remotely from the site. A second optical fiber is connected to the optical spectrometer at one end and the plasma source at the other end to carry the optical radiation from the plasma source to the spectrometer. 10 figs.

D`Silva, A.P.; Jaselskis, E.J.

1999-03-30

17

Induction of Podocyte VEGF164 Overexpression at Different Stages of Development Causes Congenital Nephrosis or Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The tight regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) signaling is required for both the development and maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier, but the pathogenic role of excessive amounts of VEGF-A detected in multiple renal diseases remains poorly defined. We generated inducible transgenic mice that overexpress podocyte VEGF164 at any chosen stage of development. In this study, we report the phenotypes that result from podocyte VEGF164 excess during organogenesis and after birth. On doxycycline induction, podocin-rtTA:tet-O-VEGF164 mice express twofold higher kidney VEGF164 levels than single transgenic mice, localized to podocytes. Podocyte VEGF164 overexpression during organogenesis resulted in albuminuria at birth and was associated with glomerulomegaly, uniform podocyte effacement, very few and wide foot processes joined by occluding junctions, almost complete absence of slit diaphragms, and swollen endothelial cells with few fenestrae as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Podocyte VEGF164 overexpression after birth caused massive albuminuria in 70% of 2-week-old mice, glomerulomegaly, and minimal changes on light microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy showed podocyte effacement and fusion and morphologically normal endothelial cells. Podocyte VEGF164 overexpression induced nephrin down-regulation without podocyte loss. VEGF164-induced abnormalities were reversible on removal of doxycycline and were unresponsive to methylprednisolone. Collectively, the data suggest that moderate podocyte VEGF164 overexpression during organogenesis results in congenital nephrotic syndrome, whereas VEGF164 overexpression after birth induces a steroid-resistant minimal change like-disease in mice.

Veron, Delma; Reidy, Kimberly; Marlier, Arnaud; Bertuccio, Claudia; Villegas, Guillermo; Jimenez, Juan; Kashgarian, Michael; Tufro, Alda

2010-01-01

18

Induction of podocyte VEGF164 overexpression at different stages of development causes congenital nephrosis or steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.  

PubMed

The tight regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) signaling is required for both the development and maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier, but the pathogenic role of excessive amounts of VEGF-A detected in multiple renal diseases remains poorly defined. We generated inducible transgenic mice that overexpress podocyte VEGF164 at any chosen stage of development. In this study, we report the phenotypes that result from podocyte VEGF164 excess during organogenesis and after birth. On doxycycline induction, podocin-rtTA:tet-O-VEGF164 mice express twofold higher kidney VEGF164 levels than single transgenic mice, localized to podocytes. Podocyte VEGF164 overexpression during organogenesis resulted in albuminuria at birth and was associated with glomerulomegaly, uniform podocyte effacement, very few and wide foot processes joined by occluding junctions, almost complete absence of slit diaphragms, and swollen endothelial cells with few fenestrae as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Podocyte VEGF164 overexpression after birth caused massive albuminuria in 70% of 2-week-old mice, glomerulomegaly, and minimal changes on light microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy showed podocyte effacement and fusion and morphologically normal endothelial cells. Podocyte VEGF164 overexpression induced nephrin down-regulation without podocyte loss. VEGF164-induced abnormalities were reversible on removal of doxycycline and were unresponsive to methylprednisolone. Collectively, the data suggest that moderate podocyte VEGF164 overexpression during organogenesis results in congenital nephrotic syndrome, whereas VEGF164 overexpression after birth induces a steroid-resistant minimal change like-disease in mice. PMID:20829436

Veron, Delma; Reidy, Kimberly; Marlier, Arnaud; Bertuccio, Claudia; Villegas, Guillermo; Jimenez, Juan; Kashgarian, Michael; Tufro, Alda

2010-11-01

19

Application of induction generators in power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of induction generators in power systems is discussed. The performance of induction generators as function of machine and system parameters and as function of var source control is evaluated and compared with that of synchronous generators. Results are presented so as to allow identification of system conditions favoring the application of induction generators and to estimate var source requirements. Fundamentals of induction generator transient behavior and determinations of the effect of modeling detail are discussed. The importance of rotor flux transient effects in high efficiency (low slip) designs is determined. Although the thrust of the investigations was to explore application of large scale induction machines (500 to 1000 MVA) the range of parameters studied and their presentation in normalized form allows the reslts to be applicable to all sizes of machines.

Demello, F. P.; Hannett, L. N.; Feltes, J. W.

1981-10-01

20

Introduction to the Interaction Between Gonadal Steroids and the Central Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The sex steroids are frequently referred to as the gonadal steroids and are erroneously assumed to be exclusively linked to\\u000a the ovaries in women or the testes in men and the functions of the reproductive tract. This chapter will provide an overview\\u000a of some of the extragonadal effects of these hormones, focusing on the central nervous system, and the mechanisms

Kay M. Marshall

21

14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23.1091...AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary...

2014-01-01

22

Widespread Capacity for Steroid Synthesis in the Avian Brain and Song System  

PubMed Central

Steroids exert powerful effects on the brains and behavior of many species, but measures and manipulations of endocrine physiology in songbirds often reveal unexplained connections between steroids and the brain. The zebra finch song system, a sensorimotor neural circuit sensitive to steroids throughout life, organizes and functions largely in apparent independence from gonadally derived steroids. We tested the hypothesis that the zebra finch brain has the capacity for de novo steroidogenesis and that neurally synthesized steroids, neurosteroids, may impact the song system. Using multiple techniques, we demonstrate that the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (CYP11A1), and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/?5-?4 isomerase, the first three factors in the steroidogenic pathway, are expressed in both developing and adult zebra finch brain. Detailed expression mapping at posthatch d 20 (P20) and adult reveals widespread area-specific expression and coexpression patterns for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, CYP11A1, and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/?5-?4 isomerase, which suggest neurosteroids may modulate multiple brain functions, including sensory and motor systems. Notably, whereas expression of other steroidogenic genes such as aromatase has been essentially absent from the song system, each of the major song nuclei express at least a subset of steroidogenic genes described here, establishing the song system as a potential steroidogenic circuit.

London, Sarah E.; Monks, D. Ashley; Wade, Juli; Schlinger, Barney A.

2010-01-01

23

Performance characterization of inductive coupling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of biomedical implants has been on the rise over the recent past years and this use is expected to increase exponentially over the comings years. Such devices are becoming the most feasible interface to monitor the betrothed parameters. Biomedical implants usually require a low input voltage which is provided making use of inductive coupling. Inductive coupling not only solves the powering issue but also helps to collect the data through non-invasive means. Power transfer efficiency of an inductive link system depends upon factors like mutual coupling, separation between the coils and most importantly the shape of the input voltage. The power transferred or signal received as a result of coil separation under optimum size conditions are reported in contemporary works. This paper comes is testing the effect of different shaped input voltages on the performance of inductive coupling system in terms of power transfer efficiency. Circuits have been tested for three different types of input waveforms of sine, square and ramp. Comparison of plots shows that the shape of input plays a major role on the entire performance of inductive coupling system.

Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Malik, Noreha Abdul; Khan, Sheroz; Nurashikin, Anis; Haider, Samnan; Arshad, Atika; Tasnim, Rumana; Aissa, Foughalia

2013-12-01

24

Immunogenity of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in COPD patients. The effect of systemic steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: To investigate if systemic steroids influence the antibody response to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccaride vaccine (23-PPV) in COPD patients.Patients and methods: COPD patients on: (a)?10mg of prednisolone\\/day (SS, n=30); (b) inhalative steroids (IS, n=30); (c) controls without COPD (CG, n=29) were vaccinated with 23-PPV. The concentration (?g\\/ml) of capsular specific anti-pneumococcal IgG antibodies (AB) for the serotypes (PNC) 4,6B,9V,14,18C,19F,23F

A. de Roux; N. Schmidt; M. Rose; S. Zielen; M. Pletz; H. Lode

2004-01-01

25

Induct flue gas conditioning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a system for conditioning flue gas generated by a boiler furnace prior to its emission to the atmosphere, including conduit means for conducting a flow of flue gas from said boiler furnace to the atmosphere and an electrostatic precipitator located in said conduit means for electrostatically removing particulate matter entrained in the flue gas, the improvement is described comprising:

1993-01-01

26

Combined Intratympanic and Systemic Steroid Therapy for Poor-Prognosis Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined intratympanic and systemic steroid therapy compared with systemic steroid therapy alone in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) patients with poor prognostic factors. Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) who had at least one poor prognostic factor (age greater than 40 years, hearing loss more than 70 db, or greater than a 2-week delay between the onset of hearing loss and initiation of therapy) were included in this study. Patients were randomized to the intervention group (combined intratympanic and systemic steroid therapy) or the control group (systemic steroid therapy alone). All patients received oral treatment with systemic prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day for 10 days), acyclovir (2 g/day for 10 days, divided into four doses), triamterene H (daily), and omeprazole (daily, during steroid treatment), and were advised to follow a low salt diet. The intervention group also received intratympanic dexamethasone injections (0.4 ml of 4 mg/ml dexamethasone) two times a week for two consecutive weeks (four injections in total). A significant hearing improvement was defined as at least a 15-db decrease in pure tone average (PTA). Results: Among all participants,44 patients(57.14%) showed significant improvement in hearing evaluation. More patients showed hearing improvement in the intervention group than in the control group (27 patients (75%) versus 17 patients (41.4%), respectively; P=0.001). Conclusion: The combination of intratympanic dexamethasone and systemic prednisolone is more effective than systemic prednisolone alone in the treatment of poor-prognosis SSNHL.

Arastou, Shima; Tajedini, Ardavan; Borghei, Pedram

2013-01-01

27

14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. 29...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1103 Induction systems ducts and air duct systems....

2009-01-01

28

14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Induction system ducts and air duct systems. 25.1103...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1103 Induction system ducts and air duct systems....

2009-01-01

29

14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. 29...TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1103 Induction systems ducts and air duct systems....

2010-01-01

30

14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ducts and air duct systems. 25.1103...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1103 Induction system ducts and air duct systems....

2010-01-01

31

Larva currens following systemic steroid therapy in a case of strongyloidiasis.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of larva currens following systemic steroid administration for acute contact eczema. The patient was found affected with subclinical strongyloidiasis. Strongyloides is not very common in Northern Italy; it is occasionally diagnosed from stool samples from patients complaining of persisting itching. PMID:4076506

Orecchia, G; Pazzaglia, A; Scaglia, M; Rabbiosi, G

1985-01-01

32

Role of Steroid Hormones and Decidual Induction in the Regulation of Adenosine Diphosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Rat Endometrium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To assess the effect of ovarian steroid hormones on enzyme activity, adenosine diphosphoribosyl transferase (ADPRT) was measured in endometrial nuclei isolated on estrus and on d 4 from rats ovariectomized on estrus (d 0) and treated d 0-3 with vehicle, 1...

A. M. Cummings

1989-01-01

33

Cybernetic systems based on inductive logic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work in the area of inductive logic suggests that cybernetics might be quantified and reduced to engineering practice. If so, then there are considerable implications for engineering, science, and other fields. This paper attempts to capture the essential ideas of cybernetics cast in the light of inductive logic. The described inductive logic extends conventional logic by adding a conjugate logical domain of questions to the logical domain of assertions intrinsic to Boolean Algebra with which most are familiar. This was first posited and developed by Richard Cox. Interestingly enough, these two logical domains, one of questions and the other of assertions, only exist relative to one another with each possessing natural measures of entropy and probability, respectively. Examples are given that highlight the utility of cybernetic approaches to neuroscience, algorithm design, system engineering, and the design and understanding of defensive and offensive systems. For example, the application of cybernetic approaches to defense systems suggests that these systems possess a wavefunction which like quantum mechanics, collapses when we ``look'' through the eyes of the system sensors such as radars and optical sensors. .

Fry, Robert L.

2001-05-01

34

Application of Induction Generators in Power Systems. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of induction generators in power systems is discussed. The performance of induction generators as function of machine and system parameters and as function of var source control is evaluated and compared with that of synchronous generators...

F. P. de Mello L. N. Hannett J. W. Feltes

1981-01-01

35

14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.  

...2014-01-01 false Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. 29.1103 Section 29... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction...29.1103 Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. (a) Each...

2014-01-01

36

Induction of Remission is Difficult due to Frequent Relapse during Tapering Steroids in Korean Patients with Polymyalgia Rheumatica  

PubMed Central

Polymyalgia rheumatica is an inflammatory disease affecting elderly and involving the shoulder and pelvic girdles. No epidemiological study of polymyalgia rheumatica was conducted in Korea. We retrospectively evaluated patients with polymyalgia rheumatica followed up at the rheumatology clinics of 10 tertiary hospitals. In total 51 patients, 36 patients (70.6%) were female. Age at disease onset was 67.4 yr. Twenty-three patients (45.1%) developed polymyalgia rheumatica in winter. Shoulder girdle ache was observed in 45 patients (90%) and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (> 40 mm/h) in 49 patients (96.1%). Initial steroid dose was 23.3 mg/d prednisolone equivalent. Time to normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 4.1 months. Only 8 patients (15.7%) achieved remission. Among 41 patients followed up, 28 patients (68.3%) had flare at least once. Number of flares was 1.5 ± 1.6. The frequency of flare was significantly lower in patients with remission (P = 0.02). In Korea, polymyalgia rheumatica commonly develops during winter. Initial response to steroid is fairly good, but the prognosis is not benign because remission is rare with frequent relapse requiring long-term steroid treatment.

Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Lee, Jisoo; Ha, You-Jung; Kim, Sang-Hyon; Lee, Chan-Hee; Choi, Hyo-Jin; Baek, Han-Joo; Lim, Mie Jin; Park, Won; Choi, Sungiae; Hong, Yeon-Sik; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Koh, Bo-Ram

2012-01-01

37

Long range inductive power transfer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report upon a recently developed long range inductive power transfer system (IPT) designed to power remote sensors with mW level power consumption at distances up to 7 m. In this paper an inductive link is established between a large planar (1 × 1 m) transmit coil (Tx) and a small planer (170 × 170 mm) receiver coil (Rx), demonstrating the viability of highly asymmetrical coil configurations that real-world applications such as sensor networks impose. High Q factor Tx and Rx coils required for viable power transfer efficiencies over such distances are measured using a resonant method. The applicability of the Class-E amplifier in very low magnetic coupling scenarios and at the high frequencies of operation required for high Q operation is demonstrated by its usage as the Tx coil driver.

Lawson, James; Pinuela, Manuel; Yates, David C.; Lucyszyn, Stepan; Mitcheson, Paul D.

2013-12-01

38

Epidemiology of BK Virus in Renal Allograft Recipients: Identification of Steroid Maintenance Therapy and Rabbit Anti-Human Thymocyte Globulin Induction as Independent Risk Factors for BKV replication  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Identification of risk factors for BKV replication may improve transplant outcome. We investigated the impact of immunosuppressive drugs on the prevalence of BKV replication in recipients of human renal allografts. METHODS One hundred twenty renal allograft recipients were studied prospectively at one, three, and six months post-transplantation to identify risk factors for BKV replication. BKV replication was quantified by measurement of urinary cell BKV VP1 mRNA levels using BKV specific primers and TaqMan® probe in a real-time quantitative PCR assay. Levels of urinary cell mRNA for granzyme B, CD103 and TGF-?1 were measured to ascertain whether BKV replication is associated with an inflammatory signature. RESULTS The prevalence of BKV replication increased over time and was highest at six-months compared to 1 or 3 months post-transplantation (P<0.001). A logistic regression model analysis demonstrated that steroid maintenance therapy (odds ratio: 8.3, P= 0.003) and induction with rabbit anti-human thymocyte globulin (ATG) (odds ratio: 5.8, P= 0.008) were independent risk factors for BKV replication. Neither mycophenolate mofetil dose nor tacrolimus dose or trough levels were different between those with or without BKV replication. The development of acute rejection or anti-rejection treatment with methylprednisolone did not increase the risk of BKV replication. BKV replication was associated with heightened levels of urinary cell mRNA for granzyme B (P<0.002), CD103 (P<0.005) but not for TGF-?1 (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS Steroid maintenance therapy and induction with ATG are independent risk factors for BKV replication in renal allograft recipients treated with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil.

Dadhania, Darshana; Snopkowski, Catherine; Ding, Ruchuang; Muthukumar, Thangamani; Chang, Christina; Aull, Meredith; Lee, Jun; Sharma, Vijay K.; Kapur, Sandip; Suthanthiran, Manikkam

2013-01-01

39

Implant positioning system using mutual inductance.  

PubMed

Surgical placement of implantable medical devices (IMDs) has limited precision and post-implantation the device can move over time. Accurate knowledge of the position of IMDs allows better interpretation of data gathered by the devices and may allow wireless power to be focused on the IMD thereby increasing power transfer efficiency. Existing positioning methods require device sizes and/or power consumptions which exceed the limits of in-vivo mm-sized IMDs applications. This paper describes a novel implant positioning system which replaces the external transmitting (TX) coil of a wireless power transfer link by an array of smaller coils, measures the mutual inductance between each coil in the TX array and the implanted receiving (RX) coil, and uses the spatial variation in those mutual inductances to estimate the location of the implanted device. This method does not increase the hardware or power consumption in the IMD. Mathematical analysis and electromagnetic simulations are presented which explain the theory underlying this scheme and show its feasibility. A particle swarm based algorithm is used to estimate the position of the RX coil from the measured mutual inductance values. MATLAB simulations show the positioning estimation accuracy on the order of 1 mm. PMID:23366001

Zou, You; O'Driscoll, Stephen

2012-01-01

40

Photosensitivity in South Africa. VI. The experimental induction of geeldikkop in sheep with crude steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.  

PubMed

Geeldikkop was induced in sheep by the oral administration of crude steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris. Two of the sheep developed typical lesions of geeldikkop, including birefringent crystalloid material in bile ducts and concentric periductal lamellar fibrosis. The clinical pathological changes in these sheep were also consistent with those of geeldikkop: aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase activities in the sera of both were elevated, and one had bilirubinaemia. A third sheep became photosensitive without typical lesions of geeldikkop in the liver or changes in the activities of liver enzymes before euthanasia. The findings of these trials are consistent with reports from abroad that ovine hepatogenous photosensitization, caused by Agave lechuguilla and Narthecium ossifragum, can be induced with crude saponins from the respective plants. PMID:2052320

Kellerman, T S; Erasmus, G L; Coetzer, J A; Brown, J M; Maartens, B P

1991-03-01

41

Optimized coils for electromagnetic induction systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems often use separate transmit and receive coils. In these systems, it is desirable for the transmit and receive coils to have minimal mutual coupling and a maximum eld product, thus maximizing the detection depth. We demonstrate that a pair of spiral coils can be optimized to achieve these desired properties. A mathematical representation is chosen for the coils that allows the coil pair to be optimized using an iterative convex method, which, due to its convexity, is very fast. We then present results showing both a pair of nonuniformly-wound, single-sided spiral coils and a pair of nonuniformly-wound, double-sided, spiral coils created with this optimization.

Reed, Mark A.; Scott, Waymond R.

2013-06-01

42

Contactless inductive power pickup system for Maglev applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a newly developed contactless inductive power pickup system for Maglev applications. The system consists of a loosely coupled transformer and two high-frequency power converters. Furthermore, the proposed inductive system was verified through various simulations and experiments. System performances such as magnetic coupling, energy efficiency, and power factor correction effects are included.

Byeong-Mun Song; Robert Kratz; Sam Gurol

2002-01-01

43

INDUCTIVE SYSTEM HEALTH MONITORING WITH STATISTICAL METRICS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model-based reasoning is a powerful method for performing system monitoring and diagnosis. Building models for model-based reasoning is often a difficult and time consuming process. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS processes nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. In particular, a clustering algorithm forms groups of nominal values for sets of related parameters. This establishes constraints on those parameter values that should hold during nominal operation. During monitoring, IMS provides a statistically weighted measure of the deviation of current system behavior from the established normal baseline. If the deviation increases beyond the expected level, an anomaly is suspected, prompting further investigation by an operator or automated system. IMS has shown potential to be an effective, low cost technique to produce system monitoring capability for a variety of applications. We describe the training and system health monitoring techniques of IMS. We also present the application of IMS to a data set from the Space Shuttle Columbia STS-107 flight. IMS was able to detect an anomaly in the launch telemetry shortly after a foam impact damaged Columbia's thermal protection system.

Iverson, David L.

2005-01-01

44

BILATERAL PATELLAR TENDON RUPTURE AT DIFFERENT SITES WITHOUT PREDISPOSING SYSTEMIC DISEASE OR STEROID USE  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon ruptures are extremely rare, and even more rare in patients without systemic disease. We describe bilateral simultaneous patellar tendon disruptions in the absence of systemic disease or steroid usage, with one tendon disruption at the inferior pole and the other an intrasubstance tear. The different locations of the ruptures are also exceedingly rare, as only two cases of non-identical ruptures have ever been reported. We also review all bilateral patellar tendon rupture case reports from English and German literature.

Taylor, Benjamin C.; Tancev, Alex; Fowler, Ty

2009-01-01

45

14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.  

... Induction system ducts and air duct systems. 25.1103... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant... Induction system ducts and air duct systems. (a...and auxiliary power unit bleed air duct systems, no hazard...

2014-01-01

46

Steroids from Commiphora mukul display antiproliferative effect against human prostate cancer PC3 cells via induction of apoptosis.  

PubMed

Two new stigmastane-type steroids, stigmasta-5,22E-diene-3?,11?-diol (1) and stigmasta-5,22E-diene-3?,7?,11?-triol (2), together with eight known compounds, were isolated from the resinous exudates of Commiphora mukul. Their structures were established by extensive analysis of their HR-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY) spectra. The isolates were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against four human cancer cell lines. Compound 2 demonstrated inhibitory effects with IC(50) values of 5.21, 9.04, 10.94 and 16.56 ?M, respectively, against K562, MCF-7, PC3 and DU145 human cancer cell lines. Further study showed that 2 was able to enforce the PC3 cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, and induce the apoptosis of PC3 cells by activation of Bax, caspases 3 and 9, and by inhibition of Bcl-2. It was also found that 1 inhibited proliferation of PC3 cells via G0/G1 phase arrest of the cell cycle. PMID:22687747

Shen, Tao; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yan-Yan; Fan, Pei-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Lin, Zhao-Min; Lou, Hong-Xiang

2012-07-15

47

How to Prove Equivalence of Term Rewriting Systems without Induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method is proposed for testing equivalence in a restricted domain of two given term rewriting systems. By using the Church-Rosser property and the teachability of term rewriting systems, the method allows us to prove equivalence of these systems without the explicit use of induction; this proof usually requires some kind of induction. The method proposed is a general

Yoshihito Toyama

1986-01-01

48

[Is there a risk of steroid-induced adrenal deficit after induction treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia?].  

PubMed

The occurrence of eight cases of adrenal deficit in children hospitalized for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) led us to conduct a prospective study from May 2006 to May 2007 to better characterize this corticoid-induced adrenal deficit. Forty of the 48 patients hospitalized for ALL were given a low-dose Synacthen test (1 ?g), a mean 7 days after the induction phase. An adrenal deficit was diagnosed in 27 patients (67.5%). No significant clinical or hematological difference was identified between the "with deficit" (n = 27) and "without deficit" (n = 13) groups. The diagnosis of adrenal deficit was not more common for children who had received dexamethasone (13/19) or prednisone (14/21), or for those who had (19/29) or had not (8/11) experienced corticoid toxicity during induction. The clinical signs suggesting adrenal deficit were identical in the two groups and none of the children presented an acute episode. In biological terms, only hypoprotidemia was significantly more common in patients with adrenal deficit (p = 0.0004). Of 13 patients with a deficit at the end of the induction who had received a 2nd low-dose Synacthène(®) test before intensification no. 1, 3 weeks on average after the end of corticotherapy, only two still had a deficit. Thus, corticoid-induced adrenal deficit is a common complication in children treated for ALL, although it is not highly symptomatic. Most of these children recover normal adrenal function before intensification no. 1, but it does not eliminate the risk of a secondary deficit after other courses of corticotherapy. Systematic repeated Synacthène(®) tests in common practice among children treated for ALL does not seem justified. However, the results of this study encouraged us to propose a hydrocortisone substitution to children treated for ALL in the event of stress. PMID:20943354

Bélien-Pallet, V; Cabrol, S; Fasola, S; Petit, A; Landman-Parker, J; Auvrignon, A; Leverger, G

2010-12-01

49

Cardiac effects of anabolic steroids  

PubMed Central

Anabolic steroid abuse in athletes has been associated with a wide range of adverse conditions, including hypogonadism, testicular atrophy, impaired spermatogenesis, gynaecomastia, and psychiatric disturbance. But what effect does steroid abuse have on the cardiovascular system?

Payne, J R; Kotwinski, P J; Montgomery, H E

2004-01-01

50

Induction of steroid sulfatase expression in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells by insulin-like growth factor II.  

PubMed

Human steroid sulfatase (STS) plays an important role in regulating the formation of biologically active estrogens and may be a promising target for treating estrogen-mediated carcinogenesis. The molecular mechanism of STS gene expression, however, is still not clear. Growth factors are known to increase STS activity but the changes in STS expression have not been completely understood. To determine whether insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II can induce STS gene expression, the effects of IGF-II on STS expression were studied in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that IGF-II treatment significantly increased the expression of STS mRNA and protein in concentration- and time-dependent manners. To understand the signaling pathway by which IGF-II induces STS gene expression, the effects of specific PI3-kinase/Akt and NF-?B inhibitors were determined. When the cells were treated with IGF-II and PI3-kinase/Akt inhibitors, such as LY294002, wortmannin, or Akt inhibitor IV, STS expression induced by IGF-II was significantly blocked. Moreover, we found that NF-?B inhibitors, such as MG-132, bortezomib, Bay 11-7082 or Nemo binding domain (NBD) binding peptide, also strongly prevented IGF-II from inducing STS gene expression. We assessed whether IGF-II activates STS promoter activity using transient transfection with a luciferase reporter. IGF-II significantly stimulated STS reporter activity. Furthermore, IGF-II induced expression of 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) 1 and 3, whereas it reduced estrone sulfotransferase (EST) gene expression, causing enhanced estrone and ?-estradiol production. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that IGF-II induces STS expression via a PI3-kinase/Akt-NF-?B signaling pathway in PC-3 cells and may induce estrogen production and estrogen-mediated carcinogenesis. PMID:24055520

Sung, Chul-Hoon; Im, Hee-Jung; Park, Nahee; Kwon, Yeojung; Shin, Sangyun; Ye, Dong-Jin; Cho, Nam-Hyeon; Park, Young-Shin; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Donghak; Chun, Young-Jin

2013-11-25

51

Repetitive pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system are extremely compact and lightweight in comparison with those using a capacitive energy storage system. A reliable opening switch operated repetitively is necessary to realize an inductive pulsed power generator. Two kinds of repetitively operated opening switches have been developed in Kumamoto University. One is an exploding copper wire set by

H. Akiyama; U. Katschinski; K. Murayama; S. Katsuki; S. Tsukamoto

1995-01-01

52

Comparison between moving and stationary transmitter systems in induction logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a general treatment of the theory of induction logging, an exact integral representation has been obtained for the mutual impedance between a vertical dipole transmitter and a coaxial dipole receiver in a three layered earth. Based on this representation, a computer model has been devised using the traditional Slingram system of induction logging and the comparatively new Turam system,

M. Poddar; P. Caleb Dhanasekaran; K. Prabhakar Rao

1985-01-01

53

Steroidal Saponins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

54

Induction motor drive system for low-power applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the utilization of three different configurations of induction motor drives to implement low-cost systems for low-power applications. The static power converter side is implemented by a single-phase rectifier cascaded with a four-switch inverter. Three different types of induction machines are supplied with the static power converter. In the first configuration, a standard three-phase induction machine is employed.

C. B. Jacobina; M. B. de Rossiter Correa; E. R. C. da Silva; A. M. N. Lima

1999-01-01

55

Two clinical trials of an intraocular steroid delivery system for cataract surgery.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To determine the safety and efficacy of an intraocular dexamethasone drug delivery system (Surodex) in the treatment of inflammation following cataract surgery. METHODS: Surodex is a biodegradable polymer that releases dexamethasone for 7 to 10 days after placement in the anterior segment. Study 1 was a prospective, randomized, double-masked Phase II clinical trial of 90 cataract surgical patients that compared treatment with Surodex to treatment with a placebo drug delivery system and to no anti-inflammatory drug treatment at all. Study 2 was a separate prospective, randomized, double-masked study of 60 cataract surgical patients that compared treatment with Surodex to topical dexamethasone (eye drop) therapy. RESULTS: In the first study, Surodex was superior to placebo in suppressing postsurgical inflammation throughout the 60-day postoperative period, as judged by masked-evaluator, slit-lamp grading of cell and flare. The differences were statistically significant from postoperative day 3 through postoperative week 3. The majority of Surodex patients did not require topical steroid by 2 weeks after surgery (93%) or by 2 months after surgery (88%). In the second study, Kowa laser flare meter readings were lower in Surodex patients throughout the 90-day postoperative period. The results were statistically significant at 4, 8, and 15 days following surgery. There were no significant adverse complications of Surodex in either study. CONCLUSION: Surodex was safe and effective in suppressing postcataract surgery inflammation and appears to be a promising alternative to topical steroids.

Chang, D F; Wong, V

1999-01-01

56

Steroid biotransformations in biphasic systems with Yarrowia lipolytica expressing human liver cytochrome P450 genes  

PubMed Central

Background Yarrowia lipolytica efficiently metabolizes and assimilates hydrophobic compounds such as n-alkanes and fatty acids. Efficient substrate uptake is enabled by naturally secreted emulsifiers and a modified cell surface hydrophobicity and protrusions formed by this yeast. We were examining the potential of recombinant Y. lipolytica as a biocatalyst for the oxidation of hardly soluble hydrophobic steroids. Furthermore, two-liquid biphasic culture systems were evaluated to increase substrate availability. While cells, together with water soluble nutrients, are maintained in the aqueous phase, substrates and most of the products are contained in a second water-immiscible organic solvent phase. Results For the first time we have co-expressed the human cytochromes P450 2D6 and 3A4 genes in Y. lipolytica together with human cytochrome P450 reductase (hCPR) or Y. lipolytica cytochrome P450 reductase (YlCPR). These whole-cell biocatalysts were used for the conversion of poorly soluble steroids in biphasic systems. Employing a biphasic system with the organic solvent and Y. lipolytica carbon source ethyl oleate for the whole-cell bioconversion of progesterone, the initial specific hydroxylation rate in a 1.5?L stirred tank bioreactor was further increased 2-fold. Furthermore, the product formation was significantly prolonged as compared to the aqueous system. Co-expression of the human CPR gene led to a 4-10-fold higher specific activity, compared to the co-overexpression of the native Y. lipolytica CPR gene. Multicopy transformants showed a 50-70-fold increase of activity as compared to single copy strains. Conclusions Alkane-assimilating yeast Y. lipolytica, coupled with the described expression strategies, demonstrated its high potential for biotransformations of hydrophobic substrates in two-liquid biphasic systems. Especially organic solvents which can be efficiently taken up and/or metabolized by the cell might enable more efficient bioconversion as compared to aqueous systems and even enable simple, continuous or at least high yield long time processes.

2012-01-01

57

Impact of preoperative steroids administration on ischemia-reperfusion injury and systemic responses in liver surgery: a prospective randomized study.  

PubMed

Hepatic injury secondary to warm ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and alterations in haemostatic parameters are often unavoidable events after major hepatic resection. The release of inflammatory mediator is believed to play a significant role in the genesis of these events. It has been suggested that preoperative steroid administration may reduce I/R injury and improve several aspects of the surgical stress response. The aim of this prospective randomized study was to investigate the clinical benefits on I/R injury and systemic responses of preoperatively administered corticosteroids. Seventy-six patients undergoing liver resection were randomized either to a steroid group or to a control group. Patients in the steroid group received preoperatively 500 mg of methylprednisolone. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, coagulation parameters, and inflammatory mediators, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were compared between the 2 groups. Length of stay, and type and number of complications were recorded as well. Postoperative serum levels of ALT, AST, total bilirubin, and inflammatory cytokines were significantly lower in the steroid than in the control group at postoperative days 1 and 2. Changes in hemostatic parameters were also significantly attenuated in the steroid group. In conclusion, the incidence of postoperative complications in the steroid group tended to be significantly lower than the control group. It is of clinical interest that preoperative steroids administration before major surgery may reduce I/R injury, maintain coagulant/anticoagulant homeostasis, and reduce postoperative complications by modulating the inflammatory response. PMID:16710858

Aldrighetti, Luca; Pulitanò, Carlo; Arru, Marcella; Finazzi, Renato; Catena, Marco; Soldini, Laura; Comotti, Laura; Ferla, Gianfranco

2006-06-01

58

From Steroid Receptors to Cytokines: The Thermodynamics of Self-Associating Systems  

PubMed Central

Since 1987, the Gibbs Conference on Biothermodynamics has maintained a focus on understanding the quantitative aspects of gene regulatory systems. These studies coupled rigorous techniques with exact theory to dissect the linked reactions associated with bacterial and lower eukaryotic gene regulation. However, only in the last ten years has it become possible to apply this approach to clinically relevant, human gene regulatory systems. Here we summarize our work on the thermodynamics of human steroid receptors and their interactions with multi-site promoter sequences, highlighting results not available from more traditional biochemical and structural approaches. Noting that the Gibbs Conference has also served as a vehicle to promote the broader use of thermodynamics in understanding biology, we then discuss collaborative work on the hydrodynamics of a cytokine implicated in tumor suppression, prostate derived factor (PDF).

Connaghan, Keith D.; Moody, Amie D.; Robblee, James P.; Lambert, James R.; Bain, David L.

2011-01-01

59

Characterization of polymeric poly(epsilon-caprolactone) injectable implant delivery system for the controlled delivery of contraceptive steroids.  

PubMed

Contraceptive steroids levonorgestrel (LNG) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) have been encapsulated with poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) microspheres using a w / o /w double emulsion method. The microspheres prepared were smooth and spherical, with a mean size from 8-25 microm. In vitro release profiles of microspheres showed a trend of increasing initially at the first week, and thereafter the release was sustained. At the end of the seventh week LNG/EE from 1:5 and 1:10 PCL microspheres were 60 and 48%, 52 and 46%, respectively. An in vitro degradation study shows that at the 20th week the microspheres maintained the surface integrity. The PCL microspheres showed a triphasic in vivo release profile with an initial burst effect due to the release of the steroid adsorbed on the microsphere surface, a second sustained release phase due to the steroid diffusion through the pores or channels formed in the polymer matrix, and third phase due to polymer bioerodible. Histological examination of PCL microspheres injected intramuscularly into thigh muscle of a rat showed a minimal inflammatory reaction demonstrating that contraceptive steroid-loaded microspheres were biocompatible. The level of inflammatory cytokines determined by immunostaining for IL-1alpha, the tissue response to formulations at the first week was considered mild, whereas at the end of the 20th week the inflammatory response ceased. Thus, this study helped us to evaluate the feasibility of using these microspheres as a long-acting biodegradable drug delivery system for contraceptive steroids. PMID:16108044

Dhanaraju, Magharla Dasaratha; Gopinath, Damodaran; Ahmed, Mohamed Rafiuddin; Jayakumar, Rajadas; Vamsadhara, Chandrasekar

2006-01-01

60

Effects of use of anabolic steroids on the masticatory system: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The use of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) has increased significantly among athletes in Brazil and other countries. These drugs alter the physiological behavior of bone and muscles, also affecting these structures in masticatory system. This paper aims to evaluate bone and dental changes in users of AAS, as well as the incidence of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD), compared to athletes not using AAS. Eight athletes were equally divided in two groups, AAS users and non-users. The groups were evaluated using Helkimo index, McNamara cephalometric tracing and cast analysis. The AAS users presented more intense TMD signs and symptoms (Di total value, P = 0.096, Mann-Whitney test), increased cephalometric measures (Co-A, P = 0.020, Mann-Whitney test) and Angle Class II malocclusion, compared to the non-users. These results suggested that the use of AAS alters masticatory structures and increases the incidence of TMD. PMID:18403879

Barros, Tatiana S P; Santos, Mateus B F; Shinozaki, Ewerson B; Santos, Jarbas F F; Marchini, Leonardo

2008-03-01

61

EVALUATION OF AN INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA, MULTICHANNEL SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

An inductively coupled plasma, multielement atomic emission spectrometric analysis system has been evaluated with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency's need for a rapid method for determination of trace elemental concentrations in water. Data are presented on detection...

62

Interaction of endocannabinoid system and steroid hormones in the control of colon cancer cell growth.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence suggest the role of the cannabinoid receptors (CBs) in the control of cell survival or death and signaling pathways involved in tumor progression. Cancer cell lines are characterized by a subtle modulation of CB levels which produces a modified responsiveness to specific ligands, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are poorly and partially understood. We previously provided evidence that the endocannabinoid (EC) anandamide (AEA) exerts anti-proliferative effect likely by modulation of the expression of genes involved in the cellular fate. In this study we focused on the role of the CB1 receptor, ECs, and steroids in the mechanisms involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell growth inhibition in vitro. We demonstrated that, in DLD1 and SW620 cells, 17?-estradiol induced a specific and strong up-regulation of the CB1 receptor by triggering activation of the CB1 promoting region, localized at the exon 1 of the CNR1 gene. Moreover, treatment of DLD1 and SW620 cells with Met-F-AEA, a stable AEA-analogous, or URB597, a selective inhibitor of FAAH, induced up-regulation of CB1 expression by co-localization of PPAR? and RXR? at the promoting region. Finally, increased availability of AEA, of both exogenous and endogenous sources, induced the expression of estrogen receptor-beta in both cell lines. Our results partially elucidated the role of EC system in the molecular mechanisms enrolled by steroids in the inhibition of colon cancer cell growth and strongly suggested that targeting the EC system could represent a promising tool to improve the efficacy of CRC treatments. PMID:21412772

Proto, Maria C; Gazzerro, Patrizia; Di Croce, Luciano; Santoro, Antonietta; Malfitano, Anna M; Pisanti, Simona; Laezza, Chiara; Bifulco, Maurizio

2012-01-01

63

Controlling inrush currents in inductively coupled power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an inductively coupled power transfer (ICPT) system, a multiplicity of (moving) loads take power from an elongated conductive loop (track) excited by a current in the range of 15-125 A by magnetic induction at a VLF frequency of between 5-50 kHz. In this application, the track performs the same function as a distribution line in a power system. However,

J. T. Boys; C. I. Chen; G. A. Covic

2005-01-01

64

Mycobacterium intracellulare infection of the shoulder and spine in a patient with steroid-treated systemic Lupus erythematosus  

SciTech Connect

Atypical mycobacterial infections of bone are rare. A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus treated with steroids developed an M. intracellulare infection of the shoulder and spine. These infections are insidious and diagnosis is difficult. Marked involvement of one joint, large effusion, or aspirated small synovial fragments suggest an atypical tuberculous joint infection.

Zvetina, J.R.; Rubinstein, H.; Demos, T.C.

1982-05-01

65

Fate and occurrence of steroids in swine and dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems.  

PubMed

Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (steroids via swine farms and human sources were mainly originated from wastewater into the receiving environments while those steroids via cattle farms were mainly from cattle feces. The total contributions of steroids to the environment in China are estimated to be 139, 65.8 and 60.7 t/year from swine, dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. PMID:22835499

Liu, Shan; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Zhou, Li-Jun; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng

2012-11-01

66

Steroid receptor RNA activator bi-faceted genetic system: Heads or Tails?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Steroid Receptor RNA Activator (SRA) was first identified by Lanz et al. in 1999 as a functional non-coding RNA able to co-activate steroid nuclear receptors. Since this incipient study, our understanding of SRA as a broader co-regulator of nuclear receptors as well as other transcription factors has greatly expanded. Accumulated data has now revealed the diverse roles played by this

Charlton Cooper; Daniel Vincett; Yi Yan; Mohammad K. Hamedani; Yvonne Myal; Etienne Leygue

2011-01-01

67

Potential immunological advantage of intravenous mycophenolate mofetil with tacrolimus and steroids in primary deceased donor liver transplantation and live donor liver transplantation without antibody induction.  

PubMed

With the current immunosuppressive regimens, graft loss secondary to immunological reasons after successful liver transplantation is a rarity; acute rejections, however, do occur, with the majority of them being steroid-responsive. The aim of the present study is to examine the rate of acute rejection with tacrolimus, intravenous (IV) mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and steroids in primary deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT) and live donor liver transplant (LDLT) recipients. During the year 2005, 130 patients (mean age: 54.9 +/- 10.8, males: 84, females: 46, 112 DDLT and 18 LDLT) received primary liver transplantation. They were followed up for the incidence of acute rejection in the first 12 months. Liver biopsies were performed as clinically indicated; protocol liver biopsies were never performed. A total of 127 liver biopsies were performed. Thirty-two had a rejection activity index (RAI) score of > or =3, of which 24 biopsies in 20 patients were not treated with a steroid bolus. Eight (6.1%) patients (mean RAI score: 5.1 +/- 1.4) received 750 to 1500 mg of methylprednisolone over 3 days. Out of these, 2 were noncompliant, 4 were off MMF, and 1 was on cyclosporine. All patients responded to steroid therapy. None of the patients required any antibody preparation. In conclusion, IV MMF with tacrolimus and steroids is useful and required antirejection therapy in 6.1% of liver transplant recipients. PMID:18236395

Jain, Ashokkumar; Sharma, Rajeev; Ryan, Charlotte; Tsoulfas, Georgious; Orloff, Mark; Abt, Peter; Kashyap, Randeep; Batzold, Pam; Sauberman, Lisa; Safadjou, Saman; Graham, Maureen; Bozorgzadeh, Adel

2008-02-01

68

Development of inductance simulation system for deflection yoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to develop a high-performance deflection yoke (DY) for CRTs, a simulation system to evaluate the misconvergence and inductance of the DY has been developed. The system can treat the three-dimensional shape and winding pattern of the DY. In the inductance analysis, the inductance calculation is based on an Integral Equation Method (IEM) and magnetic flux method in which vector potential is integrated along the coils. This method requires no spatial mesh. For calculating the self-inductance, the DY coil is modeled by an equivalent radius model. In this model, several turns of coil are represented as one line element with equivalent radius. As this model can reduce the number of coil elements, the equivalent radius model is effective to reduce calculation time. The system has been applied to the DY. The difference between measured and calculated inductance is within 2%. The calculation takes place within 1 h CPU time using the Hitachi H9000/VR460 (PA-8000, 180 MHz). The shape and winding pattern of the DY fringe can be designed by the simulation system.

Miyazawa, H.; Koizumi, M.; Fukumoto, H.; Hisada, T.; Okuyama, N.; Oku, K.; Shirai, S.

1999-05-01

69

Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system  

DOEpatents

A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

2012-10-23

70

The inductive generation of the magnetic field in binary systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic interaction of stars in close binary systems in the presence of an interstellar plasma of rather high density is studied. The objective is to determine the conditions under which the inductive mechanism results in a magnetic field increase in binary systems, and to obtain an estimate of its growth rate. It is shown that under specified conditions the

A. Z. Dolginov; V. A. Urpin

1979-01-01

71

Power factor control system for AC induction motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A power factor control system for use with ac induction motors was designed which samples lines voltage and current through the motor and decreases power input to the motor proportional to the detected phase displacement between current and voltage. This system provides, less power to the motor, as it is less loaded.

Nola, F. J. (inventor)

1977-01-01

72

Power system modal analysis considering doubly-fed induction generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a modal analysis of a two machine power system that includes a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The DFIG's model considers rotor flux linkages as dynamic states and stator flux linkages as algebraic variables. Active- and reactive-power controllers are also modeled. Active power is tracked for optimal power extraction from the wind. Using the power system set of

H. A. Pulgar-Painemal; P. W. Sauer

2010-01-01

73

An in-progress, open-label, multi-centre study (SAILOR) evaluating whether a steroid-free immunosuppressive protocol, based on ATG induction and a low tacrolimus dose, reduces the incidence of new onset diabetes after transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background Corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are included in renal transplantation immunosuppressive protocols around the world. Well-known side effects are associated with the use of these drugs, including new onset of diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). Long-term patient survival rates are lower among patients with NODAT. The optimal immunosuppressive protocol would therefore include not using corticosteroids and minimization of CNI use. Methods/Design This is a prospective, multi-centre, controlled, randomized, parallel group, open-label study involving kidney transplant patients. The study compares a steroid-free immunosuppressive protocol (study arm A), which is based on low-dose tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) maintenance therapy together with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) induction, with the conventional immunosuppressive protocol (study arm B), being based on low-dose tacrolimus, MMF and steroids together with interleukin-2 receptor (IL2-R) induction. The study is designed to include most normal-risk patients. It will exclude patients seen as at a high risk of rejection. The primary objective of the study is to assess the cumulative incidence of NODAT in the two study arms 12 months after transplantation using the American Diabetes Association type 2 diabetes diagnostic criteria. The composite measure of freedom from acute rejection, graft survival and patient survival will be evaluated. Renal function and chronic changes in the transplanted kidney will be assessed. Discussion If this study confirms conceptual expectations, namely decreased incidence of NODAT, the steroid-free study protocol could be used with all patients. The regimen could be especially beneficial for patients at a high risk of diabetes mellitus. Trial registration Trial registration: EudraCT 2012-000451-13.

2014-01-01

74

Control of doubly-fed induction generator system using PFNN  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent controlled doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) system using probabilistic fuzzy neural network (PFNN) is proposed in this study. This system can be applied as a stand-alone power supply system or as the emergency power system when the electricity grid fails for all sub-synchronous, synchronous and super-synchronous conditions. The rotor side converter is controlled using the field-oriented control to produce

Faa-Jeng Lin; Kuang-Hsiung Tan; Zong-Han Lu; Yung-Ruei Chang

2011-01-01

75

Implantation: mutual activity of sex steroid hormones and the immune system guarantee the maternal-embryo interaction.  

PubMed

Implantation is strictly dependent on the mutual interaction between a receptive endometrium and the blastocyst. Hence, synchronization between blastocyst development and the acquisition of endometrial receptivity is a prerequisite for the success of this process. This review depicts the cellular and molecular events that coordinate these complex activities. Specifically, the involvement of the sex steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, as well as components of the immune system, such as cytokines and specific blood cells, is elaborated. PMID:24959815

Gnainsky, Yulia; Dekel, Nava; Granot, Irit

2014-09-01

76

Icing-protection requirements for reciprocating-engine induction system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite the development of relatively ice-free fuel-metering systems, the widespread use of alternate and heated-air intakes, and the use of alcohol for emergency de-icing, icing of aircraft-engine induction systems is a serious problem. Investigations have been made to study and to combat all phases of this icing problem. From these investigations, criterions for safe operation and for design of new induction systems have been established. The results were obtained from laboratory investigations of carburetor-supercharger combinations, wind-tunnel investigations of air scoops, multicylinder-engine studies, and flight investigations. Characteristics of three forms of ice, impact, throttling, and fuel evaporation were studied. The effects of several factors on the icing characteristics were also studied and included: (1) atmospheric conditions, (2) engine and air-scoop configurations, including light-airplane system, (3) type fuel used, and (4) operating variables, such as power condition, use of a manifold pressure regulator, mixture setting, carburetor heat, and water-alcohol injection. In addition, ice-detection methods were investigated and methods of preventing and removing induction-system ice were studied. Recommendations are given for design and operation with regard to induction-system design.

Coles, Willard D; Rollin, Vern G; Mulholland, Donald R

1950-01-01

77

Sexual differentiation of the copulatory neuromuscular system in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis): normal ontogeny and manipulation of steroid hormones.  

PubMed

The copulatory neuromuscular system of green anoles is sexually dimorphic and differentiates during embryonic development, although details of the process were unknown. In Experiment 1, we determined the time course of normal ontogeny. Both male and female embryos possessed bilateral copulatory organs (hemipenes) and associated muscles until incubation day 13; the structures completely regressed in female embryos by incubation day 19 (total incubation 34 days). In Experiment 2, we treated eggs with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, or vehicle on both incubation days 10 and 13 to determine whether these steroid hormones mediate sexual differentiation. These time points fall between gonadal differentiation, which was determined in Experiment 1 to complete before day 10, and regression of the peripheral copulatory system in females. Tissue was collected on the day of hatching. Gonads were classified as testes or ovaries; presence versus absence of hemipenes and muscles, and the number and size of copulatory motoneurons were determined. Copulatory system morphology of vehicle-treated animals matched their gonadal sex. Hemipenes and muscles were absent in estradiol-treated animals, and androgens rescued the hemipenes and muscles in most females. Both testosterone and dihydrotestosterone treatment also caused hypertrophy of the hemipenes, which were everted in animals treated with these steroids. Copulatory motoneurons, assessed on the day of hatching in both experiments, were not dimorphic in size or number. Steroid treatment significantly increased motoneuron size and number overall, but no significant differences were detected in pairwise comparisons. These data demonstrate that differentiation of peripheral copulatory neuromuscular structures occurs during embryonic development and is influenced by gonadal steroids (regression by estradiol and enhancement by androgens), but associated motoneurons do not differentiate until later in life. PMID:16025462

Holmes, Melissa M; Wade, Juli

2005-09-01

78

Possible involvement of G-proteins and cAMP in the induction of progesterone hydroxylating enzyme system in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Fungi present the ability to hydroxylate steroids. In some filamentous fungi, progesterone induces an enzyme system which converts the compound into a less toxic hydroxylated product. We investigated the progesterone response in the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, using mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Progesterone was mainly transformed into 15alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, which was found predominantly in the extracellular medium. The role of two conserved fungal signaling cascades in the induction of the progesterone-transforming enzyme system was studied, using knockout mutants lacking the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 or the heterotrimeric G-protein beta subunit Fgb1 functioning upstream of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway. No steroid hydroxylation was induced in the Deltafgb1 strain, suggesting a role for the G-protein beta subunit in progesterone signaling. Exogenous cAMP restored the induction of progesterone-transforming activity in the Deltafgb1 strain, suggesting that steroid signaling in F. oxysporum is mediated by the cAMP-PKA pathway. PMID:19429428

Poli, Anna; Di Pietro, Antonio; Zigon, Dusan; Lenasi, Helena

2009-02-01

79

Induction Curing of Thiol-acrylate and Thiolene Composite Systems  

PubMed Central

Induction curing is demonstrated as a novel type of in situ radiation curing that maintains most of the advantages of photocuring while eliminating the restriction of light accessibility. Induction curing is utilized to polymerize opaque composites comprised of thiol-acrylate and thiol-ene resins, nanoscale magnetic particles, and carbon nanotubes. Nanoscale magnetic particles are dispersed in the resin and upon exposure to the magnetic field, these particles lead to induction heating that rapidly initiates the polymerization. Heat transfer profiles and reaction kinetics of the samples are modeled during the reactions with varying induction heater power, species concentration, species type and sample thickness, and the model is compared with the experimental results. Thiol-ene polymerizations achieved full conversion between 1.5 minutes and 1 hour, depending on the field intensity and the composition, with the maximum reaction temperature decreasing from 146 – 87 °C when the induction heater power was decreased from 8 – 3 kW. The polymerization reactions of the thiol-acrylate system were demonstrated to achieve full conversion between 0.6 and 30 minutes with maximum temperatures from 139 to 86 °C. The experimental behavior was characterized and the temperature profile modeled for the thiol-acrylate composite comprised of sub100nm nickel particles and induction heater power in the range of 32 to 20 kW. A 9°C average deviation was observed between the modeling and experimental results for the maximum temperature rise. The model also was utilized to predict reaction temperatures and kinetics for systems with varying thermal initiator concentration, initiator half-life, monomer molecular weight and temperature gradients in samples with varying thickness, thereby demonstrating that induction curing represents a designable and tunable polymerization method. Finally, induction curing was utilized to cure thiol-acrylate systems containing carbon nanotubes where 1 wt% carbon nanotubes resulted in systems where the storage modulus increased from 17.6 ± 0.2 to 21.6 ± 0.1 MPa and an electrical conductivity that increased from <10?7 to 0.33 ± 0.5 S/m.

Ye, Sheng; Cramer, Neil B.; Stevens, Blake E.; Sani, Robert L.; Bowman, Christopher N.

2011-01-01

80

Induction Linac Systems Experiments for heavy ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory propose to build at LBL the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step toward the eventual goal of a heavy ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Though much smaller than a driver, ILSE will be at full driver scale in several important parameters. Nearly all accelerator components and beam manipulations required for a driver will be tested. It is expected that ILSE will be built in stages as funds and technical progress allow. The first stage, called Elise will include all of the electrostatic quadrupole focused parts of ILSE.

Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bangerter, R.O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Div.

1994-06-01

81

Lack of clinical association and effect of peripheral WBC counts on immune cell function test in kidney transplant recipients with T-cell depleting induction and steroid-sparing maintenance therapy.  

PubMed

The Cylex ImmuKnow assay measures the amount of stimulated ATP production by CD4+ T-cells, and has been used clinically, trying to predict rejection and infection episodes. However, predictive values of this assay after induction therapy with steroid-sparing maintenance protocols are unclear. In this single-center cohort study, we analyzed renal transplant recipients who received T-cell depleting+/-anti-IL2 receptor antibodies and tacrolimus/mycophenolate maintenance without steroids. A total of 4224 ImmuKnow levels in 306 patients were available for analysis. ImmuKnow levels (Mean ± SE) changed over time after induction therapy with a paradoxical initial increase: 419 ± 23, 461 ± 32, 519 ± 14, 411 ± 10, 344 ± 6, and 405 ± 3 for pre-transplant, 0-1 wk, 1 wk-1 mo, 1-3 mos, 3 mos-1 yr, and thereafter. This change was parallel to the evolution of peripheral WBC counts and ImmuKnow levels had weak but significant correlation with WBC counts (R(2)=0.264, P<0.0001). The levels for biopsy-proven rejection (389 ± 56) and borderline/clinical rejection (254 ± 41) were not significantly higher than the levels of quiescent patients. The levels for opportunistic infection (349 ± 48) and other infections (345 ± 27) were not significantly lower than the levels of quiescent patients. The longitudinal changes in ImmuKnow levels were not predictive of rejection or infection. In conclusion, ImmuKnow levels can vary after T-cell depleting induction therapies at various time points, even without significant clinical events. Since ImmuKnow levels seem to be affected by WBC counts, ImmuKnow results need to be interpreted with caution. The effects of leukocytosis or leukopenia caused by immunosuppressive medication on the ImmuKnow assay need further investigation. PMID:24518158

Sageshima, Junichiro; Ciancio, Gaetano; Chen, Linda; Dohi, Takehiko; El-Hinnawi, Ashraf; Paloyo, Siegfredo; Gaynor, Jeffrey J; Mattiazzi, Adela; Guerra, Giselle; Kupin, Warren; Roth, David; Ruiz, Phillip; Burke, George W

2014-03-01

82

Cell death and the song control system: a model for how sex steroid hormones regulate naturally-occurring neurodegeneration.  

PubMed

The production, learning, and perception of song in songbirds are regulated by a series of discrete brain nuclei known as the song control system. In most songbird species, the song control system is sexually dimorphic, and these dimorphisms become more robust after birds have hatched. In seasonally breeding songbirds, the song control system grows and regresses depending upon breeding context. The development and seasonal plasticity of the song control system are dependent upon neurodegenerative processes, which can be ameliorated, at least in part, by circulating sex steroid hormones. I will describe two areas of song control system research that have provided important information about how hormonal control of cell death contributes to the shaping of behaviorally-relevant brain circuits. First, sexual dimorphism in the zebra finch song control system is robust and emerges partially due to substantial regression of female song control system nuclei during development. Second, in seasonally-breeding songbirds, the song control system regresses as birds transition from breeding to non-breeding conditions. In a controlled laboratory setting where hormones can be acutely withdrawn, these brain areas regress in only a matter of hours to days. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the study of cell death in the song control system provides an excellent opportunity for understanding how changes in circulating levels of sex steroids affect the degeneration of hormone-sensitive brain circuits. PMID:21338347

Thompson, Christopher K

2011-02-01

83

Pulse Detonation Engine Air Induction System Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary mixed-compression inlet design concept for potential pulse-detonation engine (PDE) powered supersonic aircraft was defined and analyzed. The objectives of this research were to conceptually design and integrate an inlet/PDE propulsion system into a supersonic aircraft, perform time-dependent CFD analysis of the inlet flowfield, and to estimate the installed PDE cycle performance. The study was baselined to a NASA Mach 5 Waverider study vehicle in which the baseline over/under turboramjet engines were replaced with a single flowpath PDE propulsion system. As much commonality as possible was maintained with the baseline configuration, including the engine location and forebody lines. Modifications were made to the inlet system's external ramp angles and a rotating cowl lip was incorporated to improve off-design inlet operability and performance. Engines were sized to match the baseline vehicle study's ascent trajectory thrust requirement at Mach 1.2. The majority of this study was focused on a flight Mach number of 3.0. The time-dependent Navier Stokes CFD analyses of a two-dimensional approximation of the inlet was conducted for the Mach 3.0 condition. The Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems-developed FALCON CFD code with a two equation 'k-1' turbulence model was used. The downstream PDE was simulated by an array of four sonic nozzles in which the flow areas were rapidly varied in various opening/closing combinations. Results of the CFD study indicated that the inlet design concept operated successfully at the Mach 3.0 condition, satisfying mass capture, total pressure recovery, and operability requirements. Time-dependent analysis indicated that pressure and expansion waves from the simulated valve perturbations did not effect the inlet's operability or performance.

Pegg, R. J.; Hunter, L. G.; Couch, B. D.

1996-01-01

84

Induction of cerebral ?-amyloidosis: Intracerebral versus systemic A? inoculation  

PubMed Central

Despite the importance of the aberrant polymerization of A? in the early pathogenic cascade of Alzheimer's disease, little is known about the induction of A? aggregation in vivo. Here we show that induction of cerebral ?-amyloidosis can be achieved in many different brain areas of APP23 transgenic mice through the injection of dilute A?-containing brain extracts. Once the amyloidogenic process has been exogenously induced, the nature of the induced A?-deposition is determined by the brain region of the host. Because these observations are reminiscent of a prion-like mechanism, we then investigated whether cerebral ?-amyloidosis also can be induced by peripheral and systemic inoculations or by the intracerebral implantation of stainless steel wires previously coated with minute amounts of A?-containing brain extract. Results reveal that oral, intravenous, intraocular, and intranasal inoculations yielded no detectable induction of cerebral ?-amyloidosis in APP23 transgenic mice. In contrast, transmission of cerebral ?-amyloidosis through the A?-contaminated steel wires was demonstrated. Notably, plasma sterilization, but not boiling of the wires before implantation, prevented the induction of ?-amyloidosis. Our results suggest that minute amounts of A?-containing brain material in direct contact with the CNS can induce cerebral ?-amyloidosis, but that systemic cellular mechanisms of prion uptake and transport to the CNS may not apply to A?.

Eisele, Yvonne S.; Bolmont, Tristan; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Langer, Franziska; Jacobson, Laura H.; Yan, Zheng-Xin; Roth, Klaus; Aguzzi, Adriano; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Walker, Lary C.; Jucker, Mathias

2009-01-01

85

Performances of Induction System for Nanosecond Mode Operation  

SciTech Connect

An induction system comprises an array of single turn pulse transformers. Ferromagnetic cores of transformers are toroids that are stacked along the longitudinal core axis. Another name for this array is a fraction transformer or an adder. The primary and secondary windings of such a design have one turn. The step up mode is based on the number of primary pulse sources. The secondary windings are connected in series. Performances of such a system for the nanosecond range mode operation are different in comparison to the performances of traditional multi-turn pulse transformers, which are working on a 100+ nanosecond mode operation. In this paper, the author discusses which aspects are necessary to take into account for the high power nanosecond fractional transformer designs. The engineering method of the nanosecond induction system design is presented.

Krasnykh, Anatoly; /SLAC

2006-05-16

86

Real-Time System Verification by Kappa-Induction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the first formal verification of a reintegration protocol for a safety-critical, fault-tolerant, real-time distributed embedded system. A reintegration protocol increases system survivability by allowing a node that has suffered a fault to regain state consistent with the operational nodes. The protocol is verified in the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL), where bounded model checking and decision procedures are used to verify infinite-state systems by k-induction. The protocol and its environment are modeled as synchronizing timeout automata. Because k-induction is exponential with respect to k, we optimize the formal model to reduce the size of k. Also, the reintegrator's event-triggered behavior is conservatively modeled as time-triggered behavior to further reduce the size of k and to make it invariant to the number of nodes modeled. A corollary is that a clique avoidance property is satisfied.

Pike, Lee S.

2005-01-01

87

Induction of systemic stress tolerance by brassinosteroid in Cucumis sativus.  

PubMed

• Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a new class of plant hormones that are essential for plant growth and development. Here, the involvement of BRs in plant systemic tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses was studied. • The effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on plant stress tolerance were studied through the assessment of symptoms of photooxidative stress by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging pulse amplitude modulation, the analysis of gene expression using quantitative real-time PCR and the measurement of hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) production using a spectrophotometric assay or confocal laser scanning microscopy. • Treatment of primary leaves with EBR induced systemic tolerance to photooxidative stress in untreated upper and lower leaves. This was accompanied by the systemic accumulation of H?O? and the systemic induction of genes associated with stress responses. Foliar treatment of EBR also enhanced root resistance to Fusarium wilt pathogen. Pharmacological study showed that EBR-induced systemic tolerance was dependent on local and systemic H?O? accumulation. The expression of BR biosynthetic genes was repressed in EBR-treated leaves, but elevated significantly in untreated systemic leaves. Further analysis indicated that EBR-induced systemic induction of BR biosynthetic genes was mediated by systemically elevated H?O?. • These results strongly argue that local EBR treatment can activate the continuous production of H?O?, and the autopropagative nature of the reactive oxygen species signal, in turn, mediates EBR-induced systemic tolerance. PMID:21564100

Xia, Xiao-Jian; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Ding, Ju; Shi, Kai; Asami, Tadao; Chen, Zhixiang; Yu, Jing-Quan

2011-08-01

88

Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

1982-01-01

89

Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

1982-10-01

90

Transistorized PWM Inverter-Induction Motor Drive System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a transistorized pulsewidth modulated (PWM) inverter-induction motor traction drive system is described. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and

Steven C. Peak; Allan B. Plunkett

1983-01-01

91

Doubly fed induction generator systems for wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows that adjustable speed generators for wind turbines are necessary when output power becomes higher than 1 MW. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) system presented in this article offers many advantages to reduce cost and has the potential to be built economically at power levels above 1.5 MW, e.g., for off-shore applications. A dynamic model of the

S. Muller; M. Deicke; R. W. De Doncker

2002-01-01

92

Modularity in inductively-learned word pronunciation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In leading morpho-phonological theories and state-of-the-art text-to-speech systems it is assumed that word pronunciation cannot be learned or performed without in-between anal- yses at several abstraction levels (e.g., mor- phological, graphemic, phonemic, syllabic, and stress levels). We challenge this assump- tion for the case of English word pronunci- ation. Using IGTR~B, an inductive-learning decision-tree algorithms, we train and test three

Antal Van Den Bosch; Ton Weijters; Walter Daelemans

1998-01-01

93

Analysis of an induction linac driver system for inertial fusion  

SciTech Connect

A linear induction accelerator that produces a beam of energetic (5 to 20 GeV) heavy (130 to 210 amu) ions is a prime candidate as a driver for inertial fusion. Continuing developments in sources for ions with charge state greater than unity allow a potentially large reduction in the driver cost and an increase in the driver efficiency. The use of high undepressed tunes (sigma/sub 0/ approx. = 85/sup 0/) and low depressed tunes (sigma approx. = 8.5/sup 0/) also contributes to a potentially large reduction in the driver cost. The efficiency and cost of the induction linac system are discussed as a function of output energy and pulse repetition frequency for several ion masses and charge states. The cost optimization code LIACEP, including accelerating module alternatives, transport modules, and scaling laws, is presented. Items with large cost-leverage are identified as a guide to future research activities and development of technology that can yield substantial reductions in the accelerator system cost and improvement in the accelerator system efficiency. Finally, a cost-effective strategy using heavy ion induction linacs in a development scenario for inertial fusion is presented. 34 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

Hovingh, J.; Brady, V.O.; Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.; Lee, E.P.

1987-07-01

94

Induction Motor Drive System using V-connection AC Chopper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a novel induction motor drive system using a three-phase V-connection ac chopper that consists of two single-phase ac choppers. There are three new topics proposed in this paper. Firstly, this paper proves that the three-phase V-connection ac chopper can be operated properly only if the input and the output voltages are in synchronism . Secondly, a novel commutation method for ac chopper isproposed. The proposed commutation method combines the load current commutation and the input voltage commutation. Therefore, by applying the proposed commutation method, voltage and current surge around zero crossing of the input voltage and the load current do not occur. Thirdly, a novel high effciency control method for induction motor is proposed. The proposed control method does not require d-axis and q-axis current components, but uses only the magnitude ofthe primary current. The whole control system has a very simple structure. These new topics are confirmed by experimental results on a 750W general-purpose induction motor.

Ito, Jun-Ichi; Tajima, Hirokazu; Ohsawa, Hiroshi

95

Control system for an induction motor with energy recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A control circuit for an induction motor powered system is disclosed in which a power factor controlled servo loop is used to control, via the phase angle of firing of a triac, the power input to the motor, as a function of load placed on the motor by machinery of the powered system. Then, upon application of torque by this machinery to the motor, which tends to overspeed the motor, the firing angle of the triac is automatically set to a fixed, and relatively short, firing angle.

Nola, F. J. (inventor)

1983-01-01

96

Comparison between moving and stationary transmitter systems in induction logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a general treatment of the theory of induction logging, an exact integral representation has been obtained for the mutual impedance between a vertical dipole transmitter and a coaxial dipole receiver in a three layered earth. Based on this representation, a computer model has been devised using the traditional Slingram system of induction logging and the comparatively new Turam system, ignoring borehole effects. The model results indicate that due to its much larger response, the Turam system is in general preferable to the Slingram in mineral and groundwater investigations where formation conductivity much less than 1 S/m is generally encountered. However, if the surrounding media are conductive (more than 0.1 S/m), the Turam system suffers from large amplitude attenuation and phase rotation of the primary field caused by the conductive surrounding, and is less useful than the Slingram system which does not so suffer, unless the target bed is shallow. Because it is a more complex function of system parameters than the corresponding Slingram log, a Turam log can be conveniently interpreted only by the modern inverse method using a fast algorithm for the forward solution and a high speed digital computer.

Poddar, M.; Caleb Dhanasekaran, P.; Prabhakar Rao, K.

1985-09-01

97

Simulation of electrical faults of three phase induction motor drive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simulation of a three-phase induction motor drive system is presented with emphasis on the electrical faults of the inverter and induction motor. Using the basic components of MATLAB SIMULINK toolboxes, the drive system is modeled. An induction motor with mechanical faults is modeled using the winding function method (WFM) and is integrated with the drive model using S-function. The

Zhongming Ye; Bin Wu

2001-01-01

98

Identification of a new class of steroid hormone receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gonads and adrenal glands produce steroids classified into five major groups which include the oestrogens, progestins, androgens, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Gonadal steroids control the differentiation and growth of the reproductive system, induce and maintain sexual characteristics and modulate reproductive behaviour. Adrenal steroids also influence differentiation as well as being metabolic regulators. The effects of each steroid depend primarily on

Vincent Giguère; Na Yang; Prudimar Segui; Ronald M. Evans

1988-01-01

99

Steroid signaling activation and intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors  

PubMed Central

In addition to stimulating gene transcription, sex steroids trigger rapid, non-genomic responses in the extra-nuclear compartment of target cells. These events take place within seconds or minutes after hormone administration and do not require transcriptional activity of sex steroid receptors. Depending on cell systems, activation of extra-nuclear signaling pathways by sex steroids fosters cell cycle progression, prevents apoptosis, leads to epigenetic modifications and increases cell migration through cytoskeleton changes. These findings have raised the question of intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors mediating these responses. During the past years, increasing evidence has shown that classical sex steroid receptors localized in the extra-nuclear compartment or close to membranes of target cells induce these events. The emerging picture is that a process of bidirectional control between signaling activation and sex steroid receptor localization regulates the outcome of hormonal responses in target cells. This mechanism ensures cell cycle progression in estradiol-treated breast cancer cells, and its derangement might occur in progression of human proliferative diseases. These findings will be reviewed here together with unexpected examples of the relationship between sex steroid receptor localization, signaling activation and biological responses in target cells. We apologize to scientists whose reports are not mentioned or extensively discussed owing to space limitations.

Giraldi, Tiziana; Giovannelli, Pia; Di Donato, Marzia; Migliaccio, Antimo; Auricchio, Ferdinando

2010-01-01

100

Dynamics and system bifurcation in autonomous induction generators  

SciTech Connect

An autonomous induction generator has limited output power capability, the limit of which is determined by the values of the rotor speed, per-phase shunt excitation capacitor, and the load. For self-excitation to be sustained, certain minimum airgap flux linkage and load impedance are required. This paper sets forth, using concepts of bifurcation theory, how these limits are affected by system parameters. The dynamic voltage collapse phenomena arising from loading the generator above the attainable maximum load or changing the load impedance to a lower than critical value and the process of self-excitation are also investigated. Theoretical analyses are supported by experimental results.

Ojo, O. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1995-07-01

101

Inhibition of cell growth and induction of G1-phase cell cycle arrest in hepatoma cells by steroid extract from Meretrix meretrix.  

PubMed

In this study, we report that the steroid extract 5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxycholest-6-ene-3beta-ol (MME) from Meretrix meretrix has the ability to inhibit growth of hepatoma cells and to induce G1-phase cell cycle arrest in two human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B. HepG2 cells were more sensitive than Hep3B to MME. The extract markedly up-regulated the expression of p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 in HepG2, suggesting that MME-induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest in HepG2 might be p53-dependent. Therefore, the up-regulation of p27KIP1and p16INK4A in both cell lines indicates that a p53-independent pathway might be involved in the mechanism of MME inducing cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, MME induces G1 phase cell cycle arrest via both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways. PMID:16458116

Wu, Ting-He; Yang, Ruo-Lin; Xie, Li-Ping; Wang, Hong-Zhong; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Rong-Qing

2006-02-01

102

Induction of cell-specific apoptosis and protection of mice from cancer challenge by a steroid positive compound from Zornia diphylla (L.) Pers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Zornia diphylla (L.) Pers is an ethnomedical herb. The aim of the study is to scientifically verify the traditional use of Z. diphylla as an anticancer medicine. Materials and Methods: Different extracts, fractions, and chemical isolates of the whole plant were screened for cytotoxicity to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) cells by the Trypan blue exclusion method and MTT assay. Column chromatographic and preparative TLC techniques were used for the isolation of active fraction (AF) and active principle. Cytotoxicity of AF to different cell types was tested. The apoptotic activity of AF was evaluated by morphological observations, nuclear condensation, and comet assay. In vivo antitumor activity of AF was determined in DLA-challenged mice. Short-term (29 days) preliminary toxicity evaluation of AF was done in mice. Results: n-Hexane extract (but not water and ethanol extracts) showed significant cytotoxicity. AF, isolated from n-hexane extract, induced apoptotic cell death (in vitro) to DLA cells, but not to normal thymocytes and macrophages. A steroid positive active principle was isolated which showed 100% cytotoxicity at 5 ?g/mL level. Interestingly, AF (50 mg/kg) protected all the mice challenged with one million DLA cells/mouse. AF (up to 10 times higher than the therapeutic dose) did not exhibit any conspicuous adverse toxic symptoms in the toxicity evaluation. Conclusion: Z. diphylla (AF) showed promising in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity against DLA cells, and it was devoid of any toxicity to mice in short-term toxicity evaluation. The herb is promising for the development of a valuable anticancer medicine.

Arunkumar, R.; Nair, S. Ajikumaran; Subramoniam, A.

2012-01-01

103

Dendritic growth gated by a steroid hormone receptor underlies increases in activity in the developing Drosophila locomotor system  

PubMed Central

As animals grow, their nervous systems also increase in size. How growth in the central nervous system is regulated and its functional consequences are incompletely understood. We explored these questions, using the larval Drosophila locomotor system as a model. In the periphery, at neuromuscular junctions, motoneurons are known to enlarge their presynaptic axon terminals in size and strength, thereby compensating for reductions in muscle excitability that are associated with increases in muscle size. Here, we studied how motoneurons change in the central nervous system during periods of animal growth. We find that within the central nervous system motoneurons also enlarge their postsynaptic dendritic arbors, by the net addition of branches, and that these scale with overall animal size. This dendritic growth is gated on a cell-by-cell basis by a specific isoform of the steroid hormone receptor ecdysone receptor-B2, for which functions have thus far remained elusive. The dendritic growth is accompanied by synaptic strengthening and results in increased neuronal activity. Electrical properties of these neurons, however, are independent of ecdysone receptor-B2 regulation. We propose that these structural dendritic changes in the central nervous system, which regulate neuronal activity, constitute an additional part of the adaptive response of the locomotor system to increases in body and muscle size as the animal grows.

Zwart, Maarten F.; Randlett, Owen; Evers, Jan Felix; Landgraf, Matthias

2013-01-01

104

Effects of adrenocortical steroids on long-term potentiation in the limbic system: Basic mechanisms and behavioral consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hippocampal structures are a major target for adrenal steroid hormones, and hence these neural regions are some of the most likely mediators of the effects of adrenocortical steroids on behavior. Memory disturbance, in particular biasing toward negative contents, are part of the symptomatology presented by depressive patients. In turn, a sizeable subset of depression also presents with hypercortisolemia. Adrenocortical hormones

B. Dubrovsky; K. Gijsbers; D. Filipini; M. K. Birmingham

1993-01-01

105

Birdsong and the neural production of steroids  

PubMed Central

The forebrain circuits involved in singing and audition (the ‘song system’) in songbirds exhibit a remarkable capacity to synthesize and respond to steroid hormones. This review considers how local brain steroid production impacts the development, sexual differentiation, and activity of song system circuitry. The songbird forebrain contains all of the enzymes necessary for the de novo synthesis of steroids - including neuroestrogens - from cholesterol. Steroid production enzymes are found in neuronal cell bodies, but they are also expressed in pre-synaptic terminals in the song system, indicating a novel mode of brain steroid delivery to local circuits. The song system expresses nuclear hormone receptors, consistent with local action of brain-derived steroids. Local steroid production also occurs in brain regions that do not express nuclear hormone receptors, suggesting a non-classical mode-of-action. Recent evidence indicates that local steroid levels can change rapidly within the forebrain, in a manner similar to traditional neuromodulators. Lastly, we consider growing evidence for modulatory interactions between brain-derived steroids and neurotransmitter/neuropeptide networks within the song system. Songbirds have therefore emerged as a rich and powerful model system to explore the neural and neurochemical regulation of social behavior.

Remage-Healey, Luke; London, Sarah E.; Schinger, Barney A.

2009-01-01

106

Forward and reverse control system for induction motors  

DOEpatents

A control system for controlling the direction of rotation of a rotor of an induction motor includes an array of five triacs with one of the triacs applying a current of fixed phase to the windings of the rotor and four of the triacs being switchable to apply either hot ac current or return ac current to the stator windings so as to reverse the phase of current in the stator relative to that of the rotor and thereby reverse the direction of rotation of the rotor. Switching current phase in the stator is accomplished by operating the gates of pairs of the triacs so as to connect either hot ac current or return ac current to the input winding of the stator. 1 fig.

Wright, J.T.

1987-09-15

107

Calibration of a magnetic induction system for measurement of hypervelocities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A device to measure the velocity and to determine the character of a material launched in a flight tube during the execution of an experiment has been constructed. This measurement device provides a self generating signal, is nonintrusive, compact, and accurate. The signals are reproducible, and it is relatively inexpensive to procure. The MAgnetic Velocity Induction System (MAVIS) has been the technique used to measure projectile velocities in the two-stage light gas gun at Sandia for many years. Several experiments were conducted to study the MAVIS data signatures produced by various metal projectiles at velocities raging from 0.8 km/sec to nearly 7.0 km/sec, as well as fragmented metal projectiles, and a highly conductive carbon plasma. This report deals with the results of those calibration experiments. The data signature study may be used as an aid in the interpretation of the other test data records.

Breeze, S. P.

1993-03-01

108

Toroid Joining Gun. [thermoplastic welding system using induction heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Toroid Joining Gun is a low cost, self-contained, portable low powered (100-400 watts) thermoplastic welding system developed at Langley Research Center for joining plastic and composite parts using an induction heating technique. The device developed for use in the fabrication of large space sructures (LSST Program) can be used in any atmosphere or in a vacuum. Components can be joined in situ, whether on earth or on a space platform. The expanded application of this welding gun is in the joining of thermoplastic composites, thermosetting composites, metals, and combinations of these materials. Its low-power requirements, light weight, rapid response, low cost, portability, and effective joining make it a candidate for solving many varied and unique bonding tasks.

Buckley, J. D.; Fox, R. L.; Swaim, R J.

1985-01-01

109

Towards a Formalised Teacher Induction System: The Macau Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the importance of teacher induction not only for sustaining teacher retention and reducing attrition, but also for supporting beginning teachers, helping them develop professionally as they progress within the profession and enhancing effective teaching and learning. While acknowledging the importance of teacher induction,…

Vong, Sou-Kuan; Wong, Matilda

2009-01-01

110

Module Eight: Induction; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The module covers in greater depth electromagnetic induction, its effects, and how it is used to advantage in electrical circuits; and the physical components, called inductors, designed to take advantage of the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. This module is divided into four lessons: electromagnetism; inductors and flux density, inducing…

Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

111

Analysis and experimental results for an inductively coupled near-field power transmission system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inductively coupled near-field wireless power transmission system, consisting of transmitter and receiver coils connected via appropriate impedance matching network to source and load respectively, is analyzed to address how the properties of antennas and impedance terminations impact on the performance of such a system. This is achieved by deriving the power transfer relationship of inductively coupled resonant loops based

Umar Azad; Yuanxun Ethan Wang

2012-01-01

112

Power quality improvement for single phase and three phase current source induction heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing application of Induction Heating (IH) systems in various industries such as metallurgy, concerns about the harmonic effects and power quality of the power grid have been involved in the problems facing network operation engineers. This paper presents methods to improve the power quality of induction heating systems. Current Source Parallel Resonant Inverter (CSPRI) is mostly used for

Alireza Namadmalan; Sajjad Abedi; Sayed Hossein Hosseinian; Javad Shokrollahi Moghani

2010-01-01

113

Power quality improvement for three phase current source induction heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing application of Induction Heating (IH) systems in various industries such as metallurgy, concerns about the harmonic effects and power quality of the power grid have been involved in the problems facing network operation engineers. This paper presents two methods to improve the power quality of three phase current source induction system. The two methods are active and

A. R. Namadmalan; S. H. Fathi; J. S. Moghani; S. H. Sadeghi

2011-01-01

114

DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF A BATTERY INVERTER SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION GENERATOR SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of a single-phase induction generator with a PWM inverter as a source of excitation was tested and analyzed. The battery included in the system was found to be an excellent configuration for a s ource or sink of real power depending on the given load of the single-phase induction generator. The system modeling was done considering the effect

Obasohan I. Omozusi

115

Steroids (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

Stories about athletes and steroids seem to pop up regularly in the news. Some professional baseball players, cyclists, and track stars ... And steroid use has trickled down to younger athletes too, who face fierce pressure to be stronger ...

116

Modeling of an Inductive Adder Kicker Pulser for a Proton Radiography System  

SciTech Connect

An all solid-state kicker pulser for a proton radiography system has been designed. Multiple solid-state modulators stacked in an inductive-adder configuration are utilized in this kicker pulser design. Each modulator is comprised of multiple metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) which quickly switch the energy storage capacitors across a magnetic induction core. Metglas is used as the core material to minimize loss. Voltage from each modulator is inductively added by a voltage summing stalk. A circuit model of a prototype inductive adder kicker pulser modulator has been developed to predict the performance of the pulser modulator. The modeling results are compared with experimental data.

Wang, L; Caporaso, G J; Cook, E G

2001-06-12

117

Dynamic equivalence to induction generators and wind turbines for power system stability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing installation capacity and energy production, wind power plays more important role in power systems. In transient stability analysis, detailed modeling to each induction generator and wind turbine will introduce lots of calculation effort, which necessitates dynamic equivalence to induction generators and wind turbines in the same wind farm, or wind farms closely located. In this paper, weighted equivalence

Shenghu Li; Zhengkai Liu; Xinjie Hao; Shusen Jia

2010-01-01

118

Association of systemic steroids and mycophenolate mofetil as rescue therapy for uveitic choroidal neovascularization unresponsive to the traditional immunesuppressants: interventional case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the efficacy of systemic steroids (SS) associated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for the control of juxta\\/sub-foveal\\u000a uveitic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) unresponsive to the traditional immunosuppressive agents. Patients with juxta\\/sub-foveal\\u000a uveitic CNV unresponsive to the traditional immunesuppressive drugs were treated with SS and MMF. The study was designed as\\u000a a prospective, consecutive, open-label, interventional case series. Visual gain and

Piergiorgio Neri; Mara Manoni; Cinzia Fortuna; Marta Lettieri; Cesare Mariotti; Alfonso Giovannini

2010-01-01

119

Steroid regulation of programmed cell death during Drosophila development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of numerous physiological responses, but the mechanisms that enable these systemic signals to trigger specific cell changes remain poorly characterized. Recent studies of Drosophila illustrate several important features of steroid-regulated programmed cell death. A single steroid hormone activates both cell differentiation and cell death in different tissues and at multiple stages

E H Baehrecke

2000-01-01

120

NDCX-II PULSED POWER SYSTEM AND INDUCTION CELLS  

SciTech Connect

The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is currently finalizing the design of NDCX-II, the second phase of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, which will use an ion beam to explore Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target hydrodynamics. The ion induction accelerator will include induction cells and Blumleins from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A test stand has been built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test refurbished ATA induction cells and pulsed power hardware for voltage holding and ability to produce various compression and acceleration waveforms. The performance requirements, design modifications, and test results will be presented.

Waldron, W.L.; Reginato, L.L.; Leitner, M.

2009-06-01

121

Space fabrication demonstration system. [beam builder and induction fastening  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development effort on the composite beam cap fabricator was completed within cost and close to abbreviated goals. The design and analysis of flight weight primary and secondary beam builder structures proceeded satisfactorily but remains curtailed until further funding is made available to complete the work. The induction fastening effort remains within cost and schedule constraints. Tests of the LARC prototype induction welder is continuing in an instrumented test stand comprised of a Dumore drill press (air over oil feed for variable applied loads) and a dynamometer to measure actual welding loads. Continued testing shows that the interface screening must be well impregnated with resin to ensure proper flow when bonding graphite-acrylic lap shear samples. Specimens prepared from 0.030 inch thick graphite-polyethersulfone are also available for future induction fastening evaluation.

1980-01-01

122

Steroids as ?-secretase modulators.  

PubMed

Aggregation and accumulation of A?42 play an initiating role in Alzheimer's disease (AD); thus, selective lowering of A?42 by ?-secretase modulators (GSMs) remains a promising approach to AD therapy. Based on evidence suggesting that steroids may influence A? production, we screened 170 steroids at 10 ?M for effects on A?42 secreted from human APP-overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary cells. Many acidic steroids lowered A?42, whereas many nonacidic steroids actually raised A?42. Studies on the more potent compounds showed that A?42-lowering steroids were bonafide GSMs and A?42-raising steroids were inverse GSMs. The most potent steroid GSM identified was 5?-cholanic acid (EC50=5.7 ?M; its endogenous analog lithocholic acid was virtually equipotent), and the most potent inverse GSM identified was 4-androsten-3-one-17?-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (EC50=6.25 ?M). In addition, we found that both estrogen and progesterone are weak inverse GSMs with further complex effects on APP processing. These data suggest that certain endogenous steroids may have the potential to act as GSMs and add to the evidence that cholesterol, cholesterol metabolites, and other steroids may play a role in modulating A? production and thus risk for AD. They also indicate that acidic steroids might serve as potential therapeutic leads for drug optimization/development. PMID:23716494

Jung, Joo In; Ladd, Thomas B; Kukar, Thomas; Price, Ashleigh R; Moore, Brenda D; Koo, Edward H; Golde, Todd E; Felsenstein, Kevin M

2013-09-01

123

Subacromial ultrasound guided or systemic steroid injection for rotator cuff disease: randomised double blind study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the effectiveness of ultrasound guided corticosteroid injection in the subacromial bursa with systemic corticosteroid injection in patients with rotator cuff disease.Design Double blind randomised clinical trial.Setting Outpatient clinic of a physical medicine and rehabilitation department in Oslo, Norway.Patients 106 patients with rotator cuff disease lasting at least three months.Interventions Ultrasound guided corticosteroid and lidocaine injection in the

Ole M Ekeberg; Erik Bautz-Holter; Einar K Tveitå; Niels G Juel; Synnøve Kvalheim; Jens I Brox

2009-01-01

124

System analysis and design for the resonant inductive nearfield generation system (RINGS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Resonant Inductive Near-field Generation System (RINGS) is a technology demonstrator experiment which will allow for the first ever testing of electromagnetic formation flight (EMFF) algorithms in a full six degree of freedom environment on board the International Space Station (ISS). RINGS is a hybrid design, which, in addition to providing EMFF capabilities, also allows for wireless power transfer (WPT) via resonant inductive coupling. This thesis presents an overview of the mechanical and electrical design of the RINGS experiment, as well as simulation techniques used to model various system parameters in both EMFF and WPT operational modes. Also presented is an analytical and experimental investigation of the influence of the proximity effect on a multi-layer flat spiral coil made from ribbon wire.

Alinger, Dustin James

125

Steroid extraction in a microchannel system--mathematical modelling and experiments.  

PubMed

The continuous ethyl acetate extraction of progesterone and 11alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, a reactant and the product of the biotransformation step involved in corticosteroid production, was studied in a microchannel at different flow velocities. In addition, non-steady state batch extraction without mixing was performed and modelled in order to verify the theoretically predicted parameters. In order to analyze experimental data and to forecast microreactor performance, a three-dimensional mathematical model with convection and diffusion terms was developed considering the velocity profile for laminar flow of two parallel phases in a microchannel at steady-state conditions. For the numerical solution of a complex equation system, non-equidistant finite differences were used. Very good agreement between model calculations and experimental data was achieved without any fitting procedure. Due to the efficient phase separation and high extraction yields obtained, the micro scale extraction units were found to be a promising tool for the development of an integrated system of 11alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone by Rhizopus nigricans in the form of pellets. PMID:17594008

Znidarsic-Plazl, Polona; Plazl, Igor

2007-07-01

126

Power factor control system for ac induction motors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A power control circuit for an induction motor is disclosed in which a servo loop is used to control power input by controlling the power factor of motor operation. The power factor is measured by summing the voltage and current derived square wave signals.

Nola, F. J. (inventor)

1981-01-01

127

Dynamic Performance of Subway Vehicle with Linear Induction Motor System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light rail vehicle with Linear Induction Motor (LIM) bogie, which is a new type of urban rail traffic tool, has the advantages of low costs, wide applicability, low noise, simple maintenance and better dynamic behavior. This kind of vehicle, supported and guided by the wheel and rail, is not driven by the wheel\\/rail adhesion force, but driven by the

Pingbo Wu; Ren Luo; Yan Hu; Jing Zeng

2010-01-01

128

Voltage controlled stand-alone microhydro induction generator system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses simulated control cases of the wound rotor self-excited induction generator WRSEIG. The generator external controller is designed to regulate the output voltage and frequency for constant or variable speed operation of the prime mover and has the inherent capability of protecting the load from short circuit, which permits voltage collapse under heavy loads. WRSEIG is self-excited using

K. A. Nigim

2005-01-01

129

Steroids in aquatic invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroid molecules are present in all invertebrates, and some of them have established hormonal roles: this is the case for\\u000a ecdysteroids in arthropods and, to a lesser extent, for vertebrate-type steroids in molluscs. Steroids are not only hormones,\\u000a they may also fulfill many other functions in chemical communication, chemical defense or even digestive physiology. The increasing\\u000a occurrence of endocrine disruption

René Lafont; Michel Mathieu

2007-01-01

130

Effect of electrical-utility-system voltage harmonics on induction motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distortion of the electrical utility system voltage waveform can result in damage to or malfunction of user electrical equipment. An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of utility voltage harmonics on the temperature rise of single phase induction motors. The results suggest that utility voltage harmonics do not significantly affect the operating temperature of a single phase induction motor until the amplitudes of the harmonics are much larger than the amplitudes currently present in the U.S. utility system.

Rasmussen, N. E.

1981-03-01

131

Model Reference Adaptive System Against Rotor Resistance Variation in Induction Motor Drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with a compensation method of the rotor-resistance variation in induction motor drives using high-performance slip-frequency control. Our proposed method is based on a discrete-type model reference adaptive system (MRAS), and it is implemented in an 8086 microprocessor. When an induction motor is driven by a controlled current source, the system sensitivity to the rotor resistance variation is

Kouhei Ohnishi; Youzou Ueda; Kunio Miyachi

1986-01-01

132

Control system for detection of the illegal use of naturally occurring steroids in calves.  

PubMed

Within the scope of the National Plan for Hormone Control in The Netherlands, a study was performed to develop a system for control of the illegal use of three naturally occurring hormones [oestradiol-17 beta (E2-17 beta), testosterone (T), progesterone (P)] for fattening purposes in animal production. Using a specific high-performance liquid chromatographic-radioimmunoassay method, reference values were established for concentrations of E2-17 beta, T and P and some of their metabolites in blood plasma and urine from untreated male and female veal calves. E2-17 beta levels of both male and female calves were less than 0.01 microgram/l in blood plasma and less than 0.2 microgram/l in urine. For male veal calves levels of T and epitestosterone (epiT) in blood plasma and urine varied widely. The P levels were less than 0.1-0.3 micrograms/l in blood plasma and less than 0.6-10 micrograms/l in urine from both male and female calves. To investigate the effect of anabolic treatment on the hormone levels in plasma and excreta, male veal calves were injected, subcutaneously into the dewlap, with a solution containing 20 mg of E2-17 beta benzoate and 200 mg of T propionate in 5 ml of arachis oil. Only the levels of E2-17 beta and E2-17 alpha in blood plasma and excreta were elevated until about one week after injection, compared with the untreated control calves and the reference values. T and epiT levels were similar in plasma and excreta from both untreated and treated animals. PMID:1874847

Arts, C J; van Baak, M J; den Hartog, J M

1991-04-01

133

Neuroprotection of Sex Steroids  

PubMed Central

Sex steroids are essential for reproduction and development in animals and humans, and sex steroids also play an important role in neuroprotection following brain injury. New data indicate that sex-specific responses to brain injury occur at the cellular and molecular levels. This review summarizes the current understanding of neuroprotection by sex steroids, particularly estrogen, androgen, and progesterone, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. Better understanding of the role of sex steroids under physiological and pathological conditions will help us to develop novel effective therapeutic strategies for brain injury.

Liu, Mingyue; Kelley, Melissa H.; Herson, Paco S.; Hurn, Patricia D.

2011-01-01

134

Power Control of New Wind Power Generation System with Induction Generator Excited by Voltage Source Converter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates advantages of new combination of the induction generator for wind power and the power electronic equipment. Induction generator is popularly used for the wind power generation. The disadvantage of it is impossible to generate power at the lower rotor speed than the synchronous speed. To compensate this disadvantage, expensive synchronous generator with the permanent magnets is sometimes used. In proposed scheme, the diode rectifier is used to convert the real power from the induction generator to the intermediate dc voltage, while only the reactive power necessary to excite the induction generator is supplied from the voltage source converter (VSC). This means that the rating of the expensive VSC is minimized and total cost of the wind power generation system is decreased compared to the system with synchronous generator. Simulation study to investigate the control strategy of proposed system is performed. The results show the reduction of the VSC rating is prospective.

Morizane, Toshimitsu; Kimura, Noriyuki; Taniguchi, Katsunori

135

Reducing the inductance requirements of piezoelectric shunt damping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural vibration can be reduced by shunting an attached piezoelectric transducer (PZT) with an electrical impedance. Current shunt circuit designs, e.g. a single-mode inductor–resistor network, typically require large inductance values of up to thousands of henries. In practice, discrete inductors are limited in size to around 1 H. By placing an additional capacitance across the terminals of the PZT, shunt

A J Fleming; S Behrens; S O R Moheimani

2003-01-01

136

Reducing the inductance requirements of piezoelectric shunt damping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural vibration can be reduced by shunting an attached piezoelectric transducer (PZT) with an electrical impedance. Current shunt circuit designs, e.g. a single-mode inductor-resistor network, typically require large inductance values of up to thousands of henries. In practice, discrete inductors are limited in size to around 1 H. By placing an additional capacitance across the terminals of the PZT, shunt

A. J. Fleming; S. Behrens; S. O. R. Moheimani

2003-01-01

137

Thermodynamic induction effects exhibited in nonequilibrium systems with variable kinetic coefficients.  

PubMed

A nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory demonstrating an induction effect of a statistical nature is presented. We have shown that this thermodynamic induction can arise in a class of systems that have variable kinetic coefficients (VKC). In particular if a kinetic coefficient associated with a given thermodynamic variable depends on another thermodynamic variable then we have derived an expression that can predict the extent of the induction. The amount of induction is shown to be proportional to the square of the driving force. The nature of the intervariable coupling for the induction effect has similarities with the Onsager symmetry relations, though there is an important sign difference as well as the magnitudes not being equal. Thermodynamic induction adds nonlinear terms that improve the stability of stationary states, at least within the VKC class of systems. Induction also produces a term in the expression for the rate of entropy production that could be interpreted as self-organization. Many of these results are also obtained using a variational approach, based on maximizing entropy production, in a certain sense. Nonequilibrium quantities analogous to the free energies of equilibrium thermodynamics are introduced. PMID:24580173

Patitsas, S N

2014-01-01

138

Thermodynamic induction effects exhibited in nonequilibrium systems with variable kinetic coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory demonstrating an induction effect of a statistical nature is presented. We have shown that this thermodynamic induction can arise in a class of systems that have variable kinetic coefficients (VKC). In particular if a kinetic coefficient associated with a given thermodynamic variable depends on another thermodynamic variable then we have derived an expression that can predict the extent of the induction. The amount of induction is shown to be proportional to the square of the driving force. The nature of the intervariable coupling for the induction effect has similarities with the Onsager symmetry relations, though there is an important sign difference as well as the magnitudes not being equal. Thermodynamic induction adds nonlinear terms that improve the stability of stationary states, at least within the VKC class of systems. Induction also produces a term in the expression for the rate of entropy production that could be interpreted as self-organization. Many of these results are also obtained using a variational approach, based on maximizing entropy production, in a certain sense. Nonequilibrium quantities analogous to the free energies of equilibrium thermodynamics are introduced.

Patitsas, S. N.

2014-01-01

139

ent-Steroids: Novel Tools for Studies of Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Membrane receptors are often modulated by steroids and it is necessary to distinguish the effects of steroids at these receptors from effects occurring at nuclear receptors. Additionally, it may also be mechanistically important to distinguish between direct effects caused by binding of steroids to membrane receptors and indirect effects on membrane receptor function caused by steroid perturbation of the membrane containing the receptor. In this regard, ent-steroids, the mirror images of naturally occurring steroids, are novel tools for distinguishing between these various actions of steroids. The review provides a background for understanding the different actions that can be expected of steroids and ent-steroids in biological systems, references for the preparation of ent-steroids, a short discussion about relevant forms of stereoisomerism and the requirements that need to be fulfilled for the interaction between two molecules to be enantioselective. The review then summarizes results of biophysical, biochemical and pharmacological studies published since 1992 in which ent-steroids have been used to investigate the actions of steroids in membranes and/or receptor-mediated signaling pathways.

Covey, Douglas F.

2008-01-01

140

Anabolic Steroid Abuse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The monograph is based on the papers and discussion from a technical review on 'Anabolic Steroid Abuse' held on March 6 and 7, 1989, in Rockville, MD. Contents: Abuse Liability of Anabolic Steroids and Their Possible Role in the Abuse of Alcohol, Morphine...

G. C. Lin L. Erinoff

1990-01-01

141

Proof Systems for Inductive Reasoning in the Logic of Bunched Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on our early progress in developing suitable frameworks for inductive reasoning in separation logic and related logics for low-level program verification, following the approach of our previous work on sequent proof systems for first-order logic with inductive definitions. We extend a first-order predicate version of the logic of bunched implications, BI — of which separation logic is a

James Brotherston

2007-01-01

142

Modeling of an inductive adder kicker pulser for a proton radiography system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An all solid-state kicker pulser for a proton radiography system has been designed. Multiple solid-state modulators stacked in an inductive-adder configuration are utilized in this kicker pulser design. Each modulator is composed of multiple metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) which quickly switch the energy storage capacitors across a magnetic induction core. Metglas is used as the core material to minimize loss.

L. Wangs; G. J. Caporaso; E. G. Cook

2001-01-01

143

[Research on integrated application of tumor magnetic induction hyperthermia treatment planning system and modern medical information systems].  

PubMed

Magnetic induction hyperthermia becomes a very important tumor treatment method at present. In order to ensure a successful operation, doctors should make hyperthermia treatment planning before surgery. Based on Integration Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) framework and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medcine (DICOM) standard, we proposed and carried out a network workflow integrated with modern medical information systems for the dissemination of information in magnetic induction hyperthermia like accurate accessing patient information and radiology image data, storing processed images, sharing and verifying hyperthermia reports. The results proved that our system could not only improve the efficiency of magnetic induction hyperthermia treatment planning, but also save medical resources and reduce labor costs. PMID:24804509

Zhuo, Zihan; Zhai, Weiming; Cai, Dongyang; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tang, Jintian

2014-02-01

144

A study of carburetor/induction system icing in general aviation accidents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of the frequency and severity of carburetor/induction icing in general-aviation accidents was performed. The available literature and accident data from the National Transportation Safety Board were collected. A computer analysis of the accident data was performed. Between 65 and 90 accidents each year involve carburetor/induction system icing as a probable cause/factor. Under conditions conducive to carburetor/induction icing, between 50 and 70 percent of engine malfunction/failure accidents (exclusive of those due to fuel exhaustion) are due to carburetor/induction system icing. Since the evidence of such icing may not remain long after an accident, it is probable that the frequency of occurrence of such accidents is underestimated; therefore, some extrapolation of the data was conducted. The problem of carburetor/induction system icing is particularly acute for pilots with less than 1000 hours of total flying time. The severity of such accidents is about the same as any accident resulting from a forced landing or precautionary landing. About 144 persons, on the average, are exposed to death and injury each year in accidents involving carburetor/induction icing as a probable cause/factor.

Obermayer, R. W.; Roe, W. T.

1975-01-01

145

Eigenvalue sensitivity of a speed-sensorless CSI-fed induction motor system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation and interpretation of eigenvalue sensitivity for a speed-sensorless LCCSI-fed induction motor drive system are presented. It is well known that the sensitivity of the dynamic stability with respect to any parameter variations of the system matrix, A, can be characterized by the sensitivity of the eigenvalues with respect to the parameter variations. Based on a control system devised

Joong-Ho Song; Kwang-Bae Kim; Myung-Joong Youn

1993-01-01

146

Development of roll-to-roll hot embossing system with induction heater for micro fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a hot embossing heating roll with induction heater inside the roll is proposed. The induction heating coil is installed inside a roll that is used as a heating roll of a roll-to-roll (R2R) hot embossing apparatus. Using an inside installed heating coil gives the roll-to-roll hot embossing system a more even temperature distribution on the surface of the heating roll compared to that of previous systems, which used an electric wire for heating. This internal induction heating roll can keep the working environment much cleaner because there is no oil leakage compared to the oiled heating roll. This paper describes the principles and provides an analysis of this proposed system; some evaluation has also been performed for the system. A real R2R hot embossing heating roll system was fabricated and some experiments on micro-pattering have been performed. After that, evaluation has been performed on the results.

Yun, Dongwon; Son, Youngsu; Kyung, Jinho; Park, Heechang; Park, Chanhun; Lee, Sunghee; Kim, Byungin

2012-01-01

147

Development of roll-to-roll hot embossing system with induction heater for micro fabrication.  

PubMed

In this paper, a hot embossing heating roll with induction heater inside the roll is proposed. The induction heating coil is installed inside a roll that is used as a heating roll of a roll-to-roll (R2R) hot embossing apparatus. Using an inside installed heating coil gives the roll-to-roll hot embossing system a more even temperature distribution on the surface of the heating roll compared to that of previous systems, which used an electric wire for heating. This internal induction heating roll can keep the working environment much cleaner because there is no oil leakage compared to the oiled heating roll. This paper describes the principles and provides an analysis of this proposed system; some evaluation has also been performed for the system. A real R2R hot embossing heating roll system was fabricated and some experiments on micro-pattering have been performed. After that, evaluation has been performed on the results. PMID:22299987

Yun, Dongwon; Son, Youngsu; Kyung, Jinho; Park, Heechang; Park, Chanhun; Lee, Sunghee; Kim, Byungin

2012-01-01

148

Scaling and Systems Considerations in Pulsed Inductive Thrusters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance scaling in pulsed inductive thrusters is discussed in the context of previous experimental studies and modeling results. Two processes, propellant ionization and acceleration, are interconnected where overall thruster performance and operation are concerned, but they are separated here to gain physical insight into each process and arrive at quantitative criteria that should be met to address or mitigate inherent inductive thruster difficulties. The effects of preionization in lowering the discharge energy requirements relative to a case where no preionization is employed, and in influencing the location of the initial current sheet, are described. The relevant performance scaling parameters for the acceleration stage are reviewed, emphasizing their physical importance and the numerical values required for efficient acceleration. The scaling parameters are then related to the design of the pulsed power train providing current to the acceleration stage. The impact of various choices in pulsed power train and circuit topology selection are reviewed, paying special attention to how these choices mitigate or exacerbate switching, lifetime, and power consumption issues.

Polzin, Kurt A.

2007-01-01

149

Pharmacology of anabolic steroids  

PubMed Central

Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic–androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided.

Kicman, A T

2008-01-01

150

Development of a LAC4 promoter-based gratuitous induction system in Kluyveromyces lactis.  

PubMed

A gratuitous induction system based on the strong, indigenous LAC4 promoter was developed for Kluyveromyces lactis. To prevent consumption of the inducer galactose, a strain with a gal1-209 mutation was employed; this mutation disables the galactokinase function but retains the regulatory function for induction. The Escherichia coli lacZ gene (encoding beta-galactosidase) is functional in K. lactis and was used as the reporter gene downstream of the LAC4 promoter on a multicopy plasmid. The gal1-209 strain exhibited several unexpected phenomena, including partial consumption of the inducer galactose (although at a much slower rate relative to GAL1 strains) and growth inhibition at high concentrations of galactose. These unusual characteristics, however, did not prevent the successful construction of a strong gratuitous induction system. Due to the low rate of inducer consumption for the gratuitous strain, very low concentrations of galactose (1:20 galactose:glucose) resulted in high-level induction. Under these conditions, beta-galactosidase specific and volumetric activities were 4.2- and 5.5-fold higher, respectively, than those for the "GAL1" nongratuitous strain. This research demonstrated the improved productivity possible via LAC4 promoter-based gratuitous induction (and thus a more stable inducer concentration). The effects of various carbon source concentrations on growth and induction were also determined. PMID:10620756

Hsieh, H B; Da Silva, N A

2000-02-20

151

Deposition Of Materials Using A Simple Planar Coil Radio Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasma System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A planar coil RF inductively coupled plasma (PC-RFICP) systems is set up for the purpose of thin film deposition. The system is powered by a 13.56 MHz, 550 W, 50 ? RF generator. The RF power is transferred to the plasma via a planar induction coil. The impedance matching unit consists of an air core step-down transformer and a tunable vacuum capacitor. This system is used for the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film on silicon substrate, and hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) film.

Ng, K. H.; Wong, C. S.; Yap, S. L.; Gan, S. N.

2009-07-01

152

Induction motor control system with voltage controlled oscillator circuit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A voltage controlled oscillator circuit is reported in which there are employed first and second differential amplifiers. The first differential amplifier, being employed as an integrator, develops equal and opposite slopes proportional to an input voltage, and the second differential amplifier functions as a comparator to detect equal amplitude positive and negative selected limits and provides switching signals which gate a transistor switch. The integrating differential amplifier is switched between charging and discharging modes to provide an output of the first differential amplifier which upon the application of wave shaping provides a substantially sinusoidal output signal. A two phased version with a second integrator provides a second 90 deg phase shifted output for induction motor control.

Nola, F. J.; Currie, J. R.; Reid, H., Jr. (inventors)

1973-01-01

153

Inductance effects in the high-power transmitter crowbar system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective protection of a klystron in a high-power transmitter requires the diversion of all stored energy in the protected circuit through an alternate low-impedance path, the crowbar, such that less than 1 joule of energy is dumped into the klystron during an internal arc. A scheme of adding a bypass inductor in the crowbar-protected circuit of the high-power transmitter was tested using computer simulations and actual measurements under a test load. Although this scheme has several benefits, including less power dissipation in the resistor, the tests show that the presence of inductance in the portion of the circuit to be protected severely hampers effective crowbar operation.

Daeges, J.; Bhanji, A.

1987-11-01

154

Inductance effects in the high-power transmitter crowbar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effective protection of a klystron in a high-power transmitter requires the diversion of all stored energy in the protected circuit through an alternate low-impedance path, the crowbar, such that less than 1 joule of energy is dumped into the klystron during an internal arc. A scheme of adding a bypass inductor in the crowbar-protected circuit of the high-power transmitter was tested using computer simulations and actual measurements under a test load. Although this scheme has several benefits, including less power dissipation in the resistor, the tests show that the presence of inductance in the portion of the circuit to be protected severely hampers effective crowbar operation.

Daeges, J.; Bhanji, A.

1987-01-01

155

Detection of designer steroids  

PubMed Central

Illicit use of performance-enhancing steroids has proliferated among a wide range of professional and amateur athletes. This problem has attracted broad public attention and has led the United States Congress to draft legislation that proposes frequent testing of athletes. However, current testing protocols are inadequate as athletes can evade detection by using novel steroids that are unknown to authorities. We have developed a strategy that overcomes this limitation by virtue of its ability to detect “designer steroids” without prior knowledge of their existence.

Yuan, Xiaohui; Forman, Barry Marc

2005-01-01

156

[Effect of glucosamine hydrochloride in combination with paracetamol on chondrocyte apoptosis under conditions of systemic steroidal arthritis development in rats].  

PubMed

The effect of a combination of glucosamine hydrochloride with paracetamol on the apoptosis of chondrocytes in the articular cartilage of rats with experimental steroidal dystrophy (osteoarthritis) has been studied by hystochemical methods. Untreated control rats are characterized by a significant increase in the fraction of chondrocytes involved in the processes of apoptosis. The treatment of animals by a combination of glucosamine hydrocloride with paracetamol substantially reduced the percentage of apoptic chondrocytes. The pronounced antiapoptic effect of the investigated combination differed but little from the effect of glucosamine hydrochloride alone, but significantly exceeded the antiapoptic activity of paracetamol. PMID:22702110

Zupanets, I A; Tuliakov, V A; Shebeko, S K

2012-01-01

157

Modeling and control of a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based Wind Conversion System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general modeling and an experimental validation of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind conversion system (WCS). The wind conversion system has been briefly presented. Then, the d q control of the grid side converter (GSC) has been detailed theoretically. Moreover, the decoupled active and reactive powers control of the DFIG has been presented. The

T. Ghennam; E. M. Berkouk; B. Francois

2009-01-01

158

Complete System for Wireless Powering and Remote Control of Electrostatic Actuators by Inductive Coupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a successful asynchronous remote powering and control of electrostatic microactuators, organized in two distributed micro motion systems (DMMS) with the aim of realizing a wireless microrobot. Remote powering of the integrated circuit (IC) and the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) components is obtained by inductive coupling at 13.56 MHz, and the digital transmission is created by modulating the carrier

Philippe Basset; Andreas Kaiser; Bernard Legrand; Dominique Collard; Lionel Buchaillot

2007-01-01

159

Characterization of novel Inductive Power Transfer Systems for On-Line Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Inductive Power Transfer System (IPTS) for On-Line Electric Vehicle (OLEV) developed at KAIST is fully characterized in this paper. The proposed IPTS includes Tesla's resonant transformers and show quite different characteristics comparing with conventional transformers. A current source instead of a voltage source is used for the IPTS at the primary side, and the system is fully resonated for

Jin Huh; Wooyoung Lee; Gyu-Hyeong Cho; Byunghun Lee; Chun-Taek Rim

2011-01-01

160

Traction system for an EV based on induction motor and 3-level NPC inverter multilevel converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents the modeling of the dynamics of an electric vehicle (EV). Then, by using a typical driving cycle, the parameters for the motor drive system and other drive train components are determined. The proposed drive system is based on an induction motor being supplied by a 3-level NPC inverter. The speed control is based on a constant V\\/Hz

M. A. Gonza?lez; M. F. Escalante

2010-01-01

161

Design and simulation of a photovoltaic induction motor coupled water pumping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficiency is the sense of energy saving is a main issue in photovoltaic pumping. The objective of this work is to design and simulate an efficient battery less pumping system powered from photovoltaic panels, comprising a new push-pull converter with Induction Motor. In a photovoltaic pump-storage system, solar energy is stored, when sunlight is available as potential energy in water

2012-01-01

162

Field oriented control of an induction machine in a high frequency link power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A field-oriented controlled induction machine drive operating with a high-frequency single-phase sinusoidal voltage link is presented. System performance is investigated by computer simulation and is verified by a test on a prototype system. A novel control loop to minimize the link voltage fluctuation is proposed. The capability of rapid demagnetization of the induction machine by current regulation is investigated. A current-modulation technique termed mode control is proposed, and its performance is compared with that of the conventional delta-modulation technique.

Sul, Seung K.; Lipo, Thomas A.

1988-01-01

163

System implemented by a processor controlled machine for inductive determination of pattern probabilities of logical connectors  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to a system for the inductive determination of pattern probabilities of 16 dyadic logical connectors. Said system is especially useful for technically predicting human behavior, e.g. inclusion fallacies, and is therefore useful for controlling of technical systems and for data mining, search engines or human-machine interfaces. The system can be implemented in software with a processor controlled machine.

2013-06-11

164

Heat-killed yeast protects diabetic ketoacidotic-steroid treated mice from pulmonary mucormycosis.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that vaccination with heat-killed yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (HKY), protects mice against systemic candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis or coccidioidomycosis. Here we sought to define the potential use of HKY as a vaccine to protect mice from mucormycosis. Mice were vaccinated with different regimens of HKY prior to induction of diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidotic (DKA) mice were then treated with steroids prior to intratracheal challenge with Rhizopus oryzae. All regimens of HKY vaccine improved survival of DKA mice and reduced fungal burden in the primary target organ, lungs, as determined by qPCR. Furthermore, compared to mice vaccinated with diluent, vaccination with HKY substantially increased the mouse immune response as determined by detection of increased anti-Rhizopus antibody titers. Our results show that HKY protects steroid-treated DKA mice from pulmonary R. oryzae infection. Considering its demonstrated efficacy against other fungal infections, HKY is a promising candidate for development as a panfungal vaccine. PMID:24814556

Luo, Guanpingsheng; Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

2014-06-17

165

Comparing 193 nm photoresist roughening in an inductively coupled plasma system and vacuum beam system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comparison of blanket 193 nm photoresist (PR) roughening and chemical modifications of samples processed in a well-characterized argon (Ar) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system and an ultra-high vacuum beam system. In the ICP system, PR samples are irradiated with Ar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and Ar ions, while in the vacuum beam system, samples are irradiated with either a Xe-line VUV source or Ar-lamp VUV source with Ar ions. Sample temperature, photon flux, ion flux and ion energy are controlled and measured. The resulting chemical modifications to bulk 193 nm PR and surface roughness are analysed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrate that under VUV-only conditions in the vacuum beam and ICP (with no substrate bias applied) systems 193 nm PR does not roughen. However, roughness increases with simultaneous high energy (>70 eV) ion bombardment and VUV irradiation and is a function of VUV fluence, substrate temperature and photon-to-ion flux ratio. PR processed in the ICP system experiences increased etching, probably due to release of H- and O-containing gaseous products and subsequent chemical etching, in contrast to samples in the vacuum beam system where etch-products are rapidly pumped away. The surface roughness structure and behaviour, however, remain similar and this is attributed to the synergy between VUV-photon and positive ions.

Titus, M. J.; Nest, D. G.; Chung, T.-Y.; Graves, D. B.

2009-12-01

166

Transient Current Analysis of Induction Generators for Wind Power Generating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent year, non-conventional energy generation is coming up for effective use of natural energy, such as wind energy. Induction generators consisting squirrel-cage rotors are widly used as wind generators because of their salient features like robust rotor design, simple in the construction, maintenance free operation, etc. However these induction generators will draw large transient inrush current, several times as large as the machine rated current, the instant when they are connected to utility grid or restored after the fault clearance. Under such situations, there will be a severe voltage fluctuations in the power system. In this paper, we present transient analysis of induction generators before and after a three-phase fault conditions. Theoretical discission is developed to determine the initial phase angle and the time at which maximum transient currents flow in the system.

Senjyu, Tomonobu; Sueyoshi, Norihide; Uezato, Katsumi; Fujita, Hideki

167

The evolution of a linear induction motor people mover system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 1975 the WEDway PeopleMover system was introduced in the Tomorrowland section of the Walt Disney World Theme Park culminating the development of a transportation concept which began with a system which was designed by Disney to transport guests thru the Ford pavilion at the 1964 New York World's Fair. A first generation WEDway PeopleMover system at Disneyland employed

W. Watkins; M. Black

1978-01-01

168

Geomagnetic induction effects in ground-based systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma physics processes, whose ultimate origin is the Sun, exist in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere and can produce effects which are detrimental to the operation of technological systems associated with long conductors deployed on the Earth's surface. Geomagnetic fluctuations produced by such plasma processes can cause disturbances and disruptions in cable communication systems, electrical power distribution systems, and long

L. J. Lanzerotti

1983-01-01

169

Antiresorptive therapy in asthmatic patients receiving high-dose inhaled steroids: A prospective study for 18 months  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Inhaled steroid therapy is an effective and well tolerated mode of therapy for asthma. Although systemic side-effects of inhaled steroids are much less common than those found with systemic steroids, the drugs may be absorbed through mucosal surfaces. Inhaled steroids have been reported to disturb normal bone metabolism, and they are associated with a decrease in bone mineral density.

Wei Qing Wang; Mary Sau Man Ip; Kenneth Wau Tak Tsang; Karen Siu Ling Lam

1998-01-01

170

Interaction between nabumetone--a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug--and the haemostatic system ex vivo.  

PubMed

Twenty-six healthy volunteers were given the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug nabumetone (1 g/day p.o.) for 10 days. Platelet aggregation tests in response to adenosine diphosphate, adrenaline, collagen, arachidonic acid, and ristocetin and bleeding time and coagulation screening tests were performed on three occasions: (1) before drug therapy; (2) on the last day of drug therapy, and (3) 5 days after the end of therapy. No significant changes were noted in platelet aggregation, bleeding time, or the coagulation screening tests, except for a significant drop in fibrinogen during therapy and for 1 week after stopping the drug. The lack of any antiplatelet action and minimal effects on the coagulation parameters recommend the drug as a suitable antirheumatic in patients with bleeding disorders. The hypofibrinogenaemic action requires further studies. PMID:2289708

al Balla, S; al Momen, A K; al Arfaj, H; al Sugair, S; Gader, A M

1990-01-01

171

Optimal resonant tank design considerations for primary track compensation in Inductive Power Transfer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, design of a primary resonant tank for resonant converters compensation in an Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) system is analyzed and some criteria for selecting its reactive components are established. The optimization goal is to maximize the transferred power, while limiting the number of compensation components to no more than two reactive components. Additionally, VA limits of the

Zeljko Pantic; Subhashish Bhattacharya; Srdjan Lukic

2010-01-01

172

Application of Fuzzy Neural Network Sliding Mode Controller for Wind Driven Induction Generator System  

Microsoft Academic Search

An induction generator (IG) speed drive with the application of a sliding mode controller and a proposed fuzzy neural network (FNN) controller is introduced in this paper. Grid connected wind energy conversion system (WECS) present interesting control demands, due to the intrinsic nonlinear characteristic of wind mills and electric generators. The FNN torque compensation is feedforward to increase the robustness

Chih-Ming Hong; Whei-Min Lin; Fu-Sheng Cheng

2007-01-01

173

Regulating the immune system: the induction of regulatory T cells in the periphery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immune system has evolved a variety of mechanisms to achieve and maintain tolerance both centrally and in the periphery. Central tolerance is achieved through negative selection of autoreactive T cells, while peripheral tolerance is achieved primarily via three mechanisms: activation-induced cell death, anergy, and the induction of regulatory T cells. Three forms of these regulatory T cells have been

Jane H Buckner; Steven F Ziegler

2004-01-01

174

Improvement of induction motor drive systems supplied by photovoltaic arrays with frequency control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall efficiency of an induction motor drive system, powered by a PV array, drops significantly when the insolation condition varies away from its nominal level. This problem can be overcame using a control method in which the frequency of the inverter's PWM control signal is adjusted according to the insolation and temperature conditions. The motor speed, and therefore, the

Y. Yao; P. Bustamante; R. S. Ramshaw

1994-01-01

175

Predictive tracking controller for induction generator in variable speed wind energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the problem of tracking control for variable speed wind induction generator (IG) energy conversion system (WECS) is investigated using nonlinear predictive control. A rotor speed predictive control algorithm has been designed to control the angular speed of the machine in order to allow the WECS operate with maximum power extraction. The generator torque is estimated and injected

Adel Merabet; Jogendra S. Thongam

2010-01-01

176

An Inductively Powered Converter for Implantable Biochemical Sensor Signal Processing System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an inductively powered converter to convert the incoming RF energy into a DC voltage (3.3 V) which powers up the biochemical sensor signal processing system. The converter, which is constructed by clamper, voltage limiter, rectifier, and LDO regulator, is capable of delivering more than 330 muW from a receiver coil to the implant circuitry. The

I-Jen Chao; Tsai-Heng Su; Chun-Yueh Huang; Bin-Da Liu

2009-01-01

177

Causal relevance to improve the prediction accuracy of dynamical systems using inductive reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the concept of causal relevance (CR) is introduced in the context of the fuzzy inductive reasoning (FIR) modelling and simulation methodology. The idea behind CR is to quantify how much influence each system variable has, from the spatial and temporal points of view, on the prediction of the output. This paper introduces the FIR inference engine, and

Àngela Nebot; Francisco Mugica; Félix Castro

2009-01-01

178

Non-conventional supplying system for induction traction motors from Diesel locomotives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the power electronic devices (with proper control strategies) enables the replacement of the DC traction motor with the more advantageous induction motor in railway application. The AC traction motors ask for expensive, intricate inverters with semiconductors working under high electric stress. For the Diesel-electric locomotives, the authors propose an original non-conventional supplying system for AC motor with

M. Huzau; R. Both; E. H. Dulf; V. Tulbure

2010-01-01

179

Sensorless Traction System with Low Voltage High Current Induction Machine for Indoor Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with DC traction application, AC electric traction is known to provide robust and low cost solution with high dynamic performances for an industrial vehicle. This embedded, compact and autonomous system is composed of a low voltage and high current induction motor (IM) fed by PWM voltage source inverter (PWM-VSI) supplied by an independent DC source (DCS battery). The authors

C. Conilh; M. Pietrzak-David

2005-01-01

180

Induction from Multi-Label Examples in Information Retrieval Systems: a Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information retrieval systems often use machine-learning techniques to induce classifiers capable of categorizing documents. Unfortunately, the circumstance that the same document may simultaneously belong to two or more categories has so far received inadequate attention, and induction techniques currently in use often suffer from prohibitive computational costs. In the case study reported in this article, we managed to reduce these

Kanoksri Sarinnapakorn; Miroslav Kubat

2008-01-01

181

The design of low inductance electrical circuits for slapper detonator systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flying plate generators (FPG) are used to study the shock properties of various materials. This report investigates the theoretical electrical properties of the flat, parallel conductors that are currently used in the construction of FPGs. The design of these conductors can greatly effect the efficiency of FPGs by varying the high frequency capacitance and inductance of the electrical circuit, and the induced current in the surrounding system. The report derives rules governing the geometry of the conductors to minimize the inductance and capacitance of high frequency for such circuits.

Richardson, Don D.; Kummer, Ross

1989-04-01

182

Misoprostol vaginal insert for induction of labor: a delivery system with accurate dosing and rapid discontinuation.  

PubMed

Labor induction and cervical ripening are widely utilized and new methods are constantly being investigated. Prostaglandins have been shown to be effective labor induction agents and, in particular, were compared with other prostaglandin preparations; vaginal misoprostol used off-label was associated with reduced failure to achieve vaginal delivery. The challenge is to provide this medication with the correct dosing for this indication and with the ability to discontinue the medication if needed, all while ensuring essential maternal and neonatal safety. The misoprostol vaginal insert initiates cervical ripening using a delivery system that controls misoprostol release and can be rapidly removed. This article reviews the development, safety and efficacy of the misoprostol vaginal insert for induction of labor and cervical ripening, and will focus on vaginally administered prostaglandins. PMID:24328596

Stephenson, Megan L; Hawkins, J Seth; Powers, Barbara L; Wing, Deborah A

2014-01-01

183

Inductive monitoring system constructed from nominal system data and its use in real-time system monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to an Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), its software implementations, hardware embodiments and applications. Training data is received, typically nominal system data acquired from sensors in normally operating systems or from detailed system simulations. The training data is formed into vectors that are used to generate a knowledge database having clusters of nominal operating regions therein. IMS monitors a system's performance or health by comparing cluster parameters in the knowledge database with incoming sensor data from a monitored-system formed into vectors. Nominal performance is concluded when a monitored-system vector is determined to lie within a nominal operating region cluster or lies sufficiently close to a such a cluster as determined by a threshold value and a distance metric. Some embodiments of IMS include cluster indexing and retrieval methods that increase the execution speed of IMS.

Iverson, David L. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

184

Analysis of Power Converter Losses in Vector Control System of a Self-Excited Induction Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides analysis of losses in the hysteresis-driven three-phase power converter with IGBTs and free-wheeling diodes. The converter under consideration is part of the self-excited induction generator (SEIG) vector control system. For the analysis, the SEIG vector control system is used in which the induction generator iron losses are taken into account. The power converter losses are determined by using a suitable loss estimation algorithm reported in literature. The chosen algorithm allows the power converter losses to be determined both by type (switching/conduction losses) and by converter component (IGBT/diode losses). The overall power converter losses are determined over wide ranges of rotor speed, dc-link voltage and load resistance, and subsequently used for offline correction of the overall control system's losses (efficiency) obtained through control system simulations with an ideal power converter. The control system's efficiency values obtained after the correction are compared with the measured values.

Baši?, Mateo; Vukadinovi?, Dinko; Poli?, Miljenko

2014-03-01

185

Viral Induction of Central Nervous System Innate Immune Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the central nervous system (CNS) to generate innate immune responses was investigated in an in vitro model of CNS infection. Cultures containing CNS cells were infected with mouse hepatitis virus-JHM, which causes fatal encephalitis in mice. Immunostaining indicated that viral infection had a limited effect on culture characteristics, overall cell survival, or cell morphology at the early

J. D. Rempel; L. A. Quina; P. K. Blakely-Gonzales; M. J. Buchmeier; D. L. Gruol

2005-01-01

186

Improvement of induction motor drive systems supplied by photovoltaic arrays with frequency control  

SciTech Connect

The overall efficiency of an induction motor drive system, powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array, drops significantly when the insolation condition varies away from its nominal level. This problem can be overcome using a control method in which the frequency of the inverter's PWM control signal is adjusted according to the insolation and temperature conditions. The motor speed and, therefore, the power delivered to the load, are adjusted by controlling the inverter's frequency. This eliminates the mismatch between the maximum power that is available from the source and the power that is required by the load. Simulation results presented in this paper show that using the proposed control system allows the induction motor drive system to maintain its optimum efficiency and deliver consistently more power to the load when insolation and temperature vary from the nominal level. This method also offers an improvement in the system stability method.

Yao, Y.; Ramshaw, R.S. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Bustamante, P. (Novatronics Inc., Stratford, Ontario (Canada))

1994-06-01

187

A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay amplified by biotin-streptavidin system for detecting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen.  

PubMed

A sensitive biotin-streptavidin-amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BA-ELISA) method was developed for detecting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen. Compared with traditional ELISA method, the sensitivity of proposed immunoassay was enhanced by the biotin-streptavidin system. Under the optimal condition, the median inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.25 ng mL(-1), with minor cross-reactivity to a number of structural analogs. This developed assay was successfully applied to detect the ketoprofen residues in different fish samples, and good recoveries (72.6-105.5%) were obtained. The results indicated that this immunoassay method could specifically detect trace ketoprofen residues and could be widely used for routine monitoring of food samples. PMID:24762178

Bu, Dan; Zhuang, Hui S; Yang, Guang X

2014-06-01

188

A New Concept: Asymmetrical Pick-Ups for Inductively Coupled Power Transfer Monorail Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inductively coupled power transfer systems have recently proven to be popular in moving vehicle monorail systems situated in difficult environments such as clean rooms. In such applications the magnetic design is critical if low weight high power pick-ups are to be realized. Early designs were largely experimental and used magnetic shapes that easily fit the existing structure. Modern finite-element-modeling packages

Grant A. J. Elliott; Grant A. Covic; Dariusz Kacprzak; John T. Boys

2006-01-01

189

Modeling, simulation and implementation of a five-phase induction motor drive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comprehensive simulation model of a five-phase induction motor drive system. Both open-loop and closed-loop control is elaborated. The complete component modeling is developed using `simpower system' blocksets of Matlab\\/Simulink. To address the real time implementation issues, dead banding of the inverter switches are also incorporated in the simulation model. To validate the modeling procedure, experimental implementation

Atif Iqbal; S. M. Ahmed; M. A. Khan; M. R. Khan; H. Abu-Rub

2010-01-01

190

Microprocessor-Based Vector Control System for Induction Motor Drives with Rotor Time Constant Identification Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microprocessor-based high-performance vector control system for induction motor drives is discussed. In this system the high-performance current control method is employed, which can operate stably even when the saturation of a supplied voltage occurs. To estimate the rotor flux vector accurately, the powerful identification method of the rotor time constant is investigated, which does not require additional sensors for

Masato Koyama; Masao Yano; Isao Kamiyama; Sadanari Yano

1986-01-01

191

Steroids in kidney transplant patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any evaluation of steroids in kidney transplantation is hampered by individual variability in metabolism, the lack of clinically\\u000a available steroid blood levels, and overall little attention to steroid exposure. Many feel that steroids were an essential\\u000a part of chronic immunosuppression in past decades but may no longer be necessary in low-risk populations when our newer and\\u000a more potent drugs are

Robert W. Steiner; Linda Awdishu

2011-01-01

192

Clinical efficacy of initial intratympanic steroid treatment on sudden sensorineural hearing loss with diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of intratympanic steroid injection (ITSI) with that of systemic steroids as an initial treatment of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) with diabetes.

Chi-Sung Han; Jong-Ryul Park; Sung-Hyun Boo; Joon-Man Jo; Kyung-Won Park; Won-Yong Lee; Joong-Gi Ahn; Myung-Koo Kang; Byung-Gun Park; Hyun Lee

2009-01-01

193

C20 steroids  

PubMed Central

1. The metabolism of 3-hydroxy-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10)-trien-20-one, a possible product of the aromatization of progesterone or pregnenolone, has been studied. 2. After oral administration of this C20 steroid as the 21-14C-labelled compound to two groups of rabbits, the excretion pattern of metabolites in the urine was examined. 3. At 14 days after administration, 3·3–6·5% of the radioactivity had appeared in the urine, 71–79% in the faeces and approx. 10% remained in the gut. 4. A metabolite, isolated from urine mainly as the unconjugated steroid, was identified as 19-norpregna-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,20?-diol and constituted 18·5–22% of the total urinary radioactivity. 5. A minor component of the urinary unconjugated steroids was identified as 19-norpregna-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17?,20?-triol. 6. A further 2–7·5% of the total urinary radioactivity, isolated only from the urinary sulphate fraction, was tentatively identified as an 18-oxygenated derivative of the administered steroid.

Schulster, D.; Kellie, A. E.

1967-01-01

194

Effects of Induction-System Icing on Aircraft-Engine Operating Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted on a multicylinder aircraft engine on a dynamometer stand to determine the effect of induction-system icing on engine operating characteristics and to compare the results with those of a previous laboratory investigation in which only the carburetor and the engine-stage supercharger assembly from the engine were used. The experiments were conducted at simulated glide power, low cruise power, and normal rated power through a range of humidity ratios and air temperatures at approximately sea-level pressure. Induction-system icing was found to occur within approximately the same limits as those established by the previous laboratory investigation after making suitable allowances for the difference in fuel volatility and throttle angles. Rough operation of the engine was experienced when ice caused a marked reduction in the air flow. Photographs of typical ice formations from this investigation indicate close similarity to icing previously observed in the laboratory.

Stevens, Howard C., Jr.

1947-01-01

195

Dynamic Average-Value Modeling of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind energy conversion system, the rotor of a wound rotor induction generator is connected to the grid via a partial scale ac/ac power electronic converter which controls the rotor frequency and speed. In this research, detailed models of the DFIG wind energy conversion system with Sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulation (SPWM) scheme and Optimal Pulse-Width Modulation (OPWM) scheme for the power electronic converter are developed in detail in PSCAD/EMTDC. As the computer simulation using the detailed models tends to be computationally extensive, time consuming and even sometimes not practical in terms of speed, two modified approaches (switching-function modeling and average-value modeling) are proposed to reduce the simulation execution time. The results demonstrate that the two proposed approaches reduce the simulation execution time while the simulation results remain close to those obtained using the detailed model simulation.

Shahab, Azin

196

Nonprescription Steroids on the Internet  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular websites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March and June, 2006 revealed that approximately half of the websites advocated their “safe” use, and roughly one-third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The websites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the websites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment and policy are discussed.

McDonald, Christen L.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Patapis, Nicholas S.; Festinger, David S.; Forman, Robert F.

2008-01-01

197

Three-year outcomes in kidney transplant patients randomized to steroid-free immunosuppression or steroid withdrawal, with enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium and cyclosporine: the infinity study.  

PubMed

In a six-month, multicenter, open-label trial, de novo kidney transplant recipients at low immunological risk were randomized to steroid avoidance or steroid withdrawal with IL-2 receptor antibody (IL-2RA) induction, enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS: 2160?mg/day to week 6, 1440?mg/day thereafter), and cyclosporine. Results from a 30-month observational follow-up study are presented. Of 166 patients who completed the core study on treatment, 131 entered the follow-up study (70 steroid avoidance, 61 steroid withdrawal). The primary efficacy endpoint of treatment failure (clinical biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) graft loss, death, or loss to follow-up) occurred in 21.4% (95% CI 11.8-31.0%) of steroid avoidance patients and 16.4% (95% CI 7.1-25.7%) of steroid withdrawal patients by month 36 (P = 0.46). BPAR had occurred in 20.0% and 11.5%, respectively (P = 0.19). The incidence of adverse events with a suspected relation to steroids during months 6-36 was 22.9% versus 37.1% (P = 0.062). By month 36, 32.4% and 51.7% of patients in the steroid avoidance and steroid withdrawal groups, respectively, were receiving oral steroids. In conclusion, IL-2RA induction with early intensified EC-MPS dosing and CNI therapy in de novo kidney transplant patients at low immunological risk may achieve similar three-year efficacy regardless of whether oral steroids are withheld for at least three months. PMID:24829794

Thierry, A; Mourad, G; Büchler, M; Choukroun, G; Toupance, O; Kamar, N; Villemain, F; Le Meur, Y; Legendre, C; Merville, P; Kessler, M; Heng, A-E; Moulin, B; Queré, S; Di Giambattista, F; Lecuyer, A; Touchard, G

2014-01-01

198

Three-Year Outcomes in Kidney Transplant Patients Randomized to Steroid-Free Immunosuppression or Steroid Withdrawal, with Enteric-Coated Mycophenolate Sodium and Cyclosporine: The Infinity Study  

PubMed Central

In a six-month, multicenter, open-label trial, de novo kidney transplant recipients at low immunological risk were randomized to steroid avoidance or steroid withdrawal with IL-2 receptor antibody (IL-2RA) induction, enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS: 2160?mg/day to week 6, 1440?mg/day thereafter), and cyclosporine. Results from a 30-month observational follow-up study are presented. Of 166 patients who completed the core study on treatment, 131 entered the follow-up study (70 steroid avoidance, 61 steroid withdrawal). The primary efficacy endpoint of treatment failure (clinical biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) graft loss, death, or loss to follow-up) occurred in 21.4% (95% CI 11.8–31.0%) of steroid avoidance patients and 16.4% (95% CI 7.1–25.7%) of steroid withdrawal patients by month 36 (P = 0.46). BPAR had occurred in 20.0% and 11.5%, respectively (P = 0.19). The incidence of adverse events with a suspected relation to steroids during months 6–36 was 22.9% versus 37.1% (P = 0.062). By month 36, 32.4% and 51.7% of patients in the steroid avoidance and steroid withdrawal groups, respectively, were receiving oral steroids. In conclusion, IL-2RA induction with early intensified EC-MPS dosing and CNI therapy in de novo kidney transplant patients at low immunological risk may achieve similar three-year efficacy regardless of whether oral steroids are withheld for at least three months.

Thierry, A.; Mourad, G.; Buchler, M.; Choukroun, G.; Toupance, O.; Kamar, N.; Villemain, F.; Le Meur, Y.; Legendre, C.; Merville, P.; Kessler, M.; Heng, A.-E.; Moulin, B.; Quere, S.; Di Giambattista, F.; Lecuyer, A.; Touchard, G.

2014-01-01

199

Modeling of an inductive adder kicker pulser for a proton radiography system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. An all solid-state prototype kicker pulser for a proton radiography system has been designed and fabricated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Multiple solid state modulators stacked in an inductive-adder configuration are utilized in this kicker pulser design. Each modulator is comprised of multiple metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) which quickly switch the energy storage capacitors across magnetic

L. Wang; G. J. Caporaso; E. G. Cook

2001-01-01

200

Control strategy of doubly fed induction generators for a wind diesel energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new control structure for a variable speed wind diesel energy system based on doubly-fed induction generators to provide energy to an isolated load. Both generator rotor currents are controlled using an indirect vector scheme approach using a d-q reference frame with the d-axis aligned with the stator flux. The scheme uses a common DC bus for

R. Pena; Roberto Cardenas; Jon Clare; Greg Asher

2002-01-01

201

Direct Torque Control for a Matrix Converter Based on Induction Motor Drive Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes a direct torque control (DTC) scheme for a matrix-converter-fed induction motor drive system. DTC is a high performance motor control scheme with fast torque and flux responses. However, the main disadvantage of conventional DTC is electromagnetic torque ripple. Besides, the matrix converter is a single-stage ac-ac power conversion device without dc-link energy storage elements. Due to the

Der-Fa Chen; Chin-Wen Liao; Kai-Chao Yao

2007-01-01

202

The gated induction system of a systemic floral inhibitor, antiflorigen, determines obligate short-day flowering in chrysanthemums  

PubMed Central

Photoperiodic floral induction has had a significant impact on the agricultural and horticultural industries. Changes in day length are perceived in leaves, which synthesize systemic flowering inducers (florigens) and inhibitors (antiflorigens) that determine floral initiation at the shoot apex. Recently, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) was found to be a florigen; however, the identity of the corresponding antiflorigen remains to be elucidated. Here, we report the identification of an antiflorigen gene, Anti-florigenic FT/TFL1 family protein (AFT), from a wild chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum seticuspe) whose expression is mainly induced in leaves under noninductive conditions. Gain- and loss-of-function analyses demonstrated that CsAFT acts systemically to inhibit flowering and plays a predominant role in the obligate photoperiodic response. A transient gene expression assay indicated that CsAFT inhibits flowering by directly antagonizing the flower-inductive activity of CsFTL3, a C. seticuspe ortholog of FT, through interaction with CsFDL1, a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor FD homolog of Arabidopsis. Induction of CsAFT was triggered by the coincidence of phytochrome signals with the photosensitive phase set by the dusk signal; flowering occurred only when night length exceeded the photosensitive phase for CsAFT induction. Thus, the gated antiflorigen production system, a phytochrome-mediated response to light, determines obligate photoperiodic flowering response in chrysanthemums, which enables their year-round commercial production by artificial lighting.

Higuchi, Yohei; Narumi, Takako; Oda, Atsushi; Nakano, Yoshihiro; Sumitomo, Katsuhiko; Fukai, Seiichi; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu

2013-01-01

203

Type II interferon induction and passive transfer depress the murine cytochrome P-450 drug metabolism system.  

PubMed Central

Induction of type II interferon by sensitization of mice with Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain BCG and challenge with tuberculin resulted in a depression of the cytochrome P-450 drug metabolism system of the liver. The degree of depression was significantly greater than in mice that were only sensitized to BCG. Cytochrome b5 levels were not affected. In addition, the level of the depression of the cytochrome P-450 system correlated with the levels of type II interferon induced. Passive transfer of exogenous type II interferon preparations also significantly depressed the cytochrome P-450 system. Passive transfer of mock interferon or of normal serum had no effect.

Sonnenfeld, G; Harned, C L; Thaniyavarn, S; Huff, T; Mandel, A D; Nerland, D E

1980-01-01

204

Use of isothermal heat conduction microcalorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy for characterisation of crystals grown in steroid combination-containing transdermal drug delivery systems.  

PubMed

The combined application of the steroids estradiol (E2) hemihydrate and norethindrone acetate (NEA) is desirable for hormone replacement therapy. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) enable a controlled delivery of these drugs to the skin. However, in order to attain high skin permeation rates the concentration of the dissolved drugs in the TDDSs has to be high. This often results in supersaturated systems with a high crystallisation tendency. The combination of NEA and E2-hemihydrate in the acrylic matrix of patches yields crystals that are different from single drug systems. A new crystal phase showing additional X-ray powder diffraction peaks and a new feather-like crystal shape appeared. The crystal formation was considerably accelerated and enhanced by increasing E2 contents in the patches. The new crystal phase seems to be kinetically favoured compared with crystals appearing from pure E2-hemihydrate or NEA. A crystallisation enthalpy of -7.9+/-0.95 kJ/mol in the matrix containing a 1:3 mixture of E2-hemihydrate and NEA was determined by isothermal microcalorimetry. The crystallisation rate increased with higher drug concentrations. In addition, the influence of patch pre-treatment at 80 degrees C prior to storage on crystallisation was investigated. This treatment enabled a slight reduction of the crystallisation in the TDDSs. Microcalorimetry enabled the classification of various additives according to their influence on the crystallisation process. PMID:15019001

Latsch, Silvia; Selzer, Torsten; Fink, Lothar; Horstmann, Michael; Kreuter, Jörg

2004-03-01

205

Cationic influenza virosomes as an adjuvanted delivery system for CTL induction by DNA vaccination.  

PubMed

DNA vaccines have emerged as an attractive approach to induce CTL responses against cancer and infectious agents in recent years. Although CTL induction by DNA vaccination would be a valuable strategy for controlling viral infections, increasing the potency of DNA vaccines is mandatory before DNA vaccines can make it to the clinic. In this study, we developed and characterized a new and safe adjuvanted delivery system for DNA vaccination using cationic influenza virosomes (CIV). CIV were produced by reconstitution of detergent-solubilized influenza virus membranes in the presence of cationic lipids. Plasmid DNA (pDNA) mixed with these virosomes was efficiently transfected into cells of a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW-Blue cells). Moreover, the cells were effectively activated as demonstrated by production of an NF?B/AP-1-inducible reporter enzyme. Following three intradermal immunizations, CIV-delivered epitope-encoding pDNA induced equal numbers of IFN?- and granzyme B-producing T cells than a 10-fold higher dose of naked pDNA. Virosomes without cationic lipids also improved induction of cellular immunity by pDNA but to a significantly lower extent than CIV. These findings suggest that pDNA-CIV complexes could be an efficacious delivery system suitable for CTL induction by DNA vaccination. PMID:22981929

Jamali, Abbas; Holtrop, Marijke; de Haan, Aalzen; Hashemi, Hamidreza; Shenagari, Mohammad; Memarnejadian, Arash; Roohvand, Farzin; Sabahi, Farzaneh; Kheiri, Masumeh Tavassoti; Huckriede, Anke

2012-01-01

206

Laser sampling system for an inductively-coupled atomic emission spectrometer. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A laser sampling system was attached to a Perkin Elmer Optima 3000 inductively-coupled plasma, atomic emission spectrometer that was already installed and operating in the Chemistry and Geochemistry Department at the Colorado School of Mines. The use of the spectrometer has been highly successful. Graduate students and faculty from at least four different departments across the CSM campus have used the instrument. The final report to NSF is appended to this final report. Appendices are included which summarize several projects utilizing this instrument: acquisition of an inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer for the geochemistry program; hydrogen damage susceptibility assessment for high strength steel weldments through advanced hydrogen content analysis, 1996 and 1997 annual reports; and methods for determination of hydrogen distribution in high strength steel welds.

NONE

1998-02-15

207

SOURCES, PRESENCE, ANALYSIS, AND FATE OF STEROID SEX HORMONES IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS - A REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural and synthetic steroid sex hormones, including those administered to humans and livestock as pharmaceuticals, constitute an important class of environmental endocrine disruptors. Steroid sex hormones generally have high biological activities at low concentrations, and in river systems steroid sex hormones have been linked to various adverse effects on fish, including altered sex ratios, intersex fish, and diminished reproduction. In

Robert B. Young; Thomas Borch

2009-01-01

208

Steroid-Associated Hip Joint Collapse in Bipedal Emus  

PubMed Central

In this study we established a bipedal animal model of steroid-associated hip joint collapse in emus for testing potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of steroid-associated joint collapse in preclinical settings. Five adult male emus were treated with a steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) induction protocol using combination of pulsed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and methylprednisolone (MPS). Additional three emus were used as normal control. Post-induction, emu gait was observed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and blood was collected for routine examination, including testing blood coagulation and lipid metabolism. Emus were sacrificed at week 24 post-induction, bilateral femora were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. Asymmetric limping gait and abnormal MRI signals were found in steroid-treated emus. SAON was found in all emus with a joint collapse incidence of 70%. The percentage of neutrophils (Neut %) and parameters on lipid metabolism significantly increased after induction. Micro-CT revealed structure deterioration of subchondral trabecular bone. Histomorphometry showed larger fat cell fraction and size, thinning of subchondral plate and cartilage layer, smaller osteoblast perimeter percentage and less blood vessels distributed at collapsed region in SAON group as compared with the normal controls. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed poor mineral matrix and more osteo-lacunae outline in the collapsed region in SAON group. The combination of pulsed LPS and MPS developed in the current study was safe and effective to induce SAON and deterioration of subchondral bone in bipedal emus with subsequent femoral head collapse, a typical clinical feature observed in patients under pulsed steroid treatment. In conclusion, bipedal emus could be used as an effective preclinical experimental model to evaluate potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of ON-induced hip joint collapse in patients.

Zheng, Li-Zhen; Liu, Zhong; Lei, Ming; Peng, Jiang; He, Yi-Xin; Xie, Xin-Hui; Man, Chi-Wai; Huang, Le; Wang, Xin-Luan; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Xiao, De-Ming; Wang, Da-Ping; Chen, Yang; Feng, Jian Q.; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Ge; Qin, Ling

2013-01-01

209

Signal Detection and Target Gene Induction by the CpxRA Two-Component System  

PubMed Central

The Cpx pathway is a two-component signal transduction system that senses a variety of envelope stresses, including misfolded proteins, and responds by upregulating periplasmic folding and trafficking factors. CpxA resides in the inner membrane and has both kinase and phosphatase activities. CpxR, the response regulator, mediates a response by activating transcription of stress-combative genes. Signal transduction is subject to feedback inhibition via regulon member CpxP and autoamplification. Recently, it was shown that the Cpx pathway is also upregulated when cells adhere to hydrophobic surfaces and that this response is dependent on the outer membrane lipoprotein NlpE. Here we show that while NlpE is required for induction of the Cpx pathway by adhesion, induction by envelope stress and during growth is NlpE independent. We show that while all of the envelope stresses tested induce the Cpx pathway in a manner that is dependent on the periplasmic domain of CpxA, induction during growth is independent of CpxA. Therefore, we propose that the Cpx pathway can sense inducing cues that enter the signaling pathway at three distinct points. Although CpxP is not required for induction of the Cpx pathway, we show that its activity as a negative regulator of CpxA is inactivated by envelope stress. Moreover, the cpxP promoter is more inducible than any other regulon member tested. Consistent with these results, we suggest that CpxP performs a second function, most likely that of a chaperone. Finally, we show that two Cpx-regulated genes are differentially upregulated in response to different envelope stresses, suggesting the existence of three stress-responsive systems.

DiGiuseppe, Patricia A.; Silhavy, Thomas J.

2003-01-01

210

Role of microsomal steroid hydroxylases in ?7-steroid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

CYP17 (steroid 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase) is a key enzyme in steroid hormone biosynthesis. It catalyzes two independent reactions at the same active center and has a unique ability to differentiate ?(4)-steroids and ?(5)-steroids in the 17,20-lyase reaction. The present work presents a complex experimental analysis of the role of CYP17 in the metabolism of 7-dehydrosteroids. The data indicate the existence of a possible alternative pathway of steroid hormone biosynthesis using 7-dehydrosteroids. The major reaction products of CYP17 catalyzed hydroxylation of 7-dehydropregnenolone have been identified. Catalytic activity of CYP17 from different species with 7-dehydropregnenolone has been estimated. It is shown that CYP21 cannot use ?(5)-?(7) steroids as a substrate. PMID:23586722

Sushko, T A; Gilep, A A; Yantsevich, A V; Usanov, S A

2013-03-01

211

Early Steroid Withdrawal in Repeat Kidney Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Kidney re-transplantation (KRT) candidates are considered at high risk for graft failure. Most of these patients are kept on a chronic steroid maintenance (CSM) regimen. The safety of early steroid withdrawal (ESW) remains unanswered in KRT. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study was aimed at comparing the outcomes of ESW and CSM in KRT. Retrospective analysis of 113 KRT patients (ESW, n = 59; CSM, n = 54) was performed. All patients received rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin/steroid induction and were maintained on mycophenolate/tacrolimus (±steroids). Results One- and 5-year patient survival for the ESW and the CSM group were not significantly different (98 versus 96% and 91 versus 88%, respectively; P = 0.991). No significant difference was seen in the graft survival for both groups at 1 and 5 years (98 versus 93% and 80 versus 74%, respectively; P = 0.779). Mean 1- and 5-year estimated GFR was not statistically different between the groups (P = 0.773 and 0.790, respectively). The incidence of acute rejection at 1 year was 17 and 22% in ESW and CSM patients, respectively (P = 0.635). Compared with the ESW group, patients in the CSM group were more likely to be hyperlipidemic (P = 0.044), osteoporotic (P = 0.010), post-transplant diabetics (P = 0.051) and required more medications to control BP (P = 0.004). Conclusions ESW seems to be a reasonable approach in KRT recipients because the short and intermediate patient survival, graft survival, and graft function is comparable to CSM immunosuppression.

Taber, Tim E.; Goggins, William C.; Yaqub, Muhammad S.; Mishler, Dennis P.; Milgrom, Martin L.; Fridell, Jonathan A.; Lobashevsky, Andrew; Powelson, John A.; Sharfuddin, Asif A.

2011-01-01

212

14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2012-01-01

213

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2012-01-01

214

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2010-01-01

215

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2011-01-01

216

14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2010-01-01

217

14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2011-01-01

218

Development and drift-analysis of a modular electromagnetic induction system for shallow ground conductivity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic induction (EMI) is used for fast near surface mapping of the electrical conductivity (EC) for a wide range of geophysical applications. Recently, enhanced methods were developed to measure depth-dependent EC by inverting quantitative multi-configuration EMI data, which increases the demand for a suitable multi-channel EMI measurement system. We have designed a novel EMI system that enables the use of modular transmitter/receiver (TX/RX) units, which are connected to a central measurement system and are optimized for flexible setups with coil separations of up to 1.0 m. Each TX/RX-unit contains a coil, which is specifically adjusted for transmitting or receiving magnetic fields. All units enable impedance measurements at the coils, which are used to simulate its electrical circuit and analyze temperature-induced drift effects. A laboratory drift analysis at 8 kHz showed that 88% of the drift in the measured data is due to the change in the electrical transmitter coil resistance. The remaining 12% is due to changes in the transmitter coil inductance and capacitance, the receiver impedance and drifts in the amplification circuit. A measurement under field conditions proved that the new EMI system is able to detect a water-filled swimming pool with 50 mS m?1, using a coil separation of 0.3 m. In addition, the system allows in-field ambient noise spectra measurements in order to select optimal low-noise measurement frequencies.

Mester, A.; Zimmermann, E.; Van der Kruk, J.; Vereecken, H.; Van Waasen, S.

2014-05-01

219

The minimization of the extraneous electromagnetic fields of an inductive power transfer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of inductive wireless power transfer (IPT) systems has been extensively studied. However, the electromagnetic compatibility of such systems is at least as important as the efficiency and has received much less attention. We consider the net magnetic dipole moment of the system as a figure of merit. That is, we seek to minimize the magnitude of the net dipole moment in order to minimize both the near magnetic fields and the radiated power. A 20 kHz, 3.3 kW, IPT system, representative of typical wireless vehicular battery charging systems, is considered and it is seen that one particular value of load impedance minimizes the net dipole moment while another, distinct, value maximizes efficiency. Thus, efficiency must be traded off, at least to some extent, in order to minimize extraneous electromagnetic fields.

McLean, James; Sutton, Robert

2013-04-01

220

Analysis of competing topologies of linear induction machines for high-speed material transport systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates longitudinal and transverse flux linear motor topologies for very high acceleration rate (3--4 g), and high speed (120 km/h), material transport systems which have significant technical and economic potential in flexible manufacturing environments. The general topology under consideration is a double-sided, short-moving-secondary/long-fixed-primary, linear induction motor (LIM). The transport system requirements place severe demands upon the machine topology. In addition to efficient thrust production, the linear machine must be capable of generating large unbalanced normal (i.e., lateral) forces in order to achieve electromagnetic (mechanically passive) steering of vehicles with both straight and curvilinear primaries. Air gap chording and short secondary effects are two additional design complications. Minimization of the primary leakage inductance is necessary not only to minimize inverter ratings but also to maximize the influence of the secondary state on the primary terminal properties for magnetic flux and position/velocity estimation. The orientation of the magnetic flux (i.e., longitudinal versus transverse) has a significant impact upon the above conversion and is thus a major analytical focus of this paper. A hybrid system topology consisting of a longitudinal-flux orientation within straight sections and a transverse-flux orientation within curvilinear sections appears to offer the best of both topologies. The intended contribution of this paper is a detailed comparison of LIM topologies leading to a better design selection for very high performance systems.

Jansen, P.L. [MK Rail Corp., Boise, ID (United States)] [MK Rail Corp., Boise, ID (United States); Li, L.J.; Lorenz, R.D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1995-07-01

221

Sex and stress-steroids interactions and the immune system: evidence for a neuroendocrine-immunological sexual dimorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that sexual dimorphism exits within the immune system. Females have higher levels of immunoglobulins, greater antibody response to antigens, and higher incidence of autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, Grave’s disease, and Hashimoto thyroiditis than males. Spontaneous autoimmune syndromes in mice are more prevalent and of greater severity in females compared with males, and the

R. C. Gaillard; E. Spinedi

1998-01-01

222

Free-induction decay in a fluctuating two-level system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study theoretically free-induction decay (FID) in an inhomogeneously broadened system of two-level atoms whose transition frequencies fluctuate according to the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. A numerical solution of the model shows that at low intensities the saturation behaviour of FID may depend strongly on the statistics of the fluctuations, but at high intensities the fluctuations play a minor role. The results mimic qualitatively the recent experimental data of DeVoe and Brewer, but a full quantitative agrrement with experiments is not reached.

Javanainen, Juha

1984-05-01

223

Induction of aromatic ring: cleavage dioxygenases in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain KB2 in cometabolic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KB2 is known to produce different enzymes of dioxygenase family. The aim of our studies was to determine activity of these\\u000a enzymes after induction by benzoic acids in cometabolic systems with nitrophenols. We have shown that under cometabolic conditions\\u000a KB2 strain degraded 0.25–0.4 mM of nitrophenols after 14 days of incubation. Simultaneously degradation of 3 mM of growth\\u000a substrate during 1–3 days

Danuta Wojcieszy?ska; Urszula Guzik; Izabela Gre?; Magdalena Perkosz; Katarzyna Hupert-Kocurek

2011-01-01

224

Induction of systemic resistance in different varieties of Solanum tuberosum by pure and crude elicitor treatment.  

PubMed

A 10 kD elicitor protein (infestin) produced by Phytopthora infestans was purified and its efficacy for induction of systemic resistance in resistant and susceptible varieties of Solanum tuberosum was studied. Culture filtrates from P. infestans with and without purified elicitor (infestin) were used as elicitors to understand the effect of purified elicitor (infestin) on development of systemic resistance. Culture filtrate and purified elicitor (infestin) were found to induce hypersensitive reaction on the leaves of resistant varieties, but not on susceptible varieties after 48 h. Culture filtrate devoid of purified elicitor (infestin) did not induce any necrotic spots even on resistant variety. Purified elicitor (infestin) was found to induce glucose oxidase, NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, catalase and peroxidase enzymes in resistant S. tuberosum plants, however the induction of these enzymes was low in susceptible varieties. The oxidative enzymes were found to induce earlier than antioxidative enzymes and there was negative correlation between these two groups of enzymes. Levels of salicylic acid, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), beta-1, 3 glucanase and chitinase activities were also found higher in resistant than in susceptible varieties. It was observed that purified elicitor (infestin) was superior to crude culture filtrate, but was not capable of inducing systemic resistance in susceptible varieties. PMID:21428218

Bariya, Himanshu S; Thakkar, Vasudev R; Thakkar, Amit N; Subramanian, R B

2011-02-01

225

The diagnostics system for the multiple heavy ion beams induction linac experiment, MBE-4  

SciTech Connect

MBE-4 is a four beam current amplifying induction linac experiment conducted at LBL as a part of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program for studying accelerator physics issues of a heavy ion driver for inertial fusion. The four ion beams (Cs{sup +}, 10 mA) are focused by electrostatic quadrupoles and accelerated fro about 200 keV to 900 keV through 24 induction gaps. Current amplification of up to nine times is achieved while the beam pulse duration is compressed from about 3 {mu}s to 0.5 {mu}s. The diagnostic system enables the complete time-resolved 2-D transverse phase space distribution of the beam to be measured. Reduction of the raw data yields the beam current, current profile, emittance, centroid position and angle as well as the beam envelope parameters. In addition, the longitudinal energy distribution is obtained from measurements using a calibrated electrostatic spectrometer. The diagnostic system hardware, as well as the data acquisition and reduction routines, are controlled by an IBM pc-XT. We shall describe the diagnostic system and discuss its performance in view of the specific issues which result from the acceleration and amplification of multiple beams of heavy ions.

Eylon, S.

1991-09-01

226

Evolution of regulatory networks: nematode vulva induction as an example of developmental systems drift.  

PubMed

Changes in the developmental processes and developmental mechanisms can result in the modification of morphological structures and in the evolution of phenotypic novelty. But how do developmental processes evolve? One striking finding in modern biology is the confrontation of morphological diversity in multicellular organisms with the conserved blueprint of life-the small number of conserved signaling pathways and transcriptional regulators. Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) tries to explain this discrepancy between macroscopic diversity and molecular uniformity. Selected case studies in evo-devo models allowed detailed insight into the mechanisms of evolutionary changes and might help solving this problem. Here, I compare the formation of vulva development between Caenorhabditis elegans and the evo-devo model Pristionchus pacificus. More than 3 decades of work in C. elegans and 15 years in P. pacificus provide an insight into the molecular mechanisms of developmental change during vulva evolution. C. elegans and P. pacificus differ first, in the type of the signaling system used for vulva induction; second, the cells required for the inductive interactions; third, the logic of the signal system, and finally, the sequence and structure of peptide domains in otherwise conserved proteins. Nonetheless, the vulva is formed from the same three cells in both nematodes. I discuss redundancy as an evolutionary mechanism to explain developmental systems drift, a theory predicting conserved morphological structures to be generated by diverse molecular regulatory networks. PMID:22821454

Sommer, Ralf J

2012-01-01

227

The anti-lung cancer activities of steroidal saponins of P. polyphylla Smith var. chinensis (Franch.) Hara through enhanced immunostimulation in experimental Lewis tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice and induction of apoptosis in the A549 cell line.  

PubMed

P. polyphylla Smith var. chinensis (Franch.) Hara (PPSCFH) has been used as medicinal Paris for the prevention and treatment of cancers in China for thousands of years. Its main components, steroidal saponins (PRS), have been confirmed to inhibit tumor growth. In the present study, the immunostimulation of PRS was investigated in Lewis bearing-C57BL/6 mice while the induction of apoptosis in A549 cells was also studied. The treatment with PRS (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg) significantly inhibited tumor, volume, and weight in the C57BL/6 mice. The rates of inhibition of PRS (at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg) were 26.49 ± 17.30%, 40.32 ± 18.91% and 54.94 ± 16.48%, respectively. The spleen and thymus indexes were increased remarkably, while the levels of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-?, IL-8 and IL-10 in serum were decreased according to ELISA assays. For A549 cells, Hoechst 33342 staining and annexin V/PI by flow cytometry showed that PRS (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mg/mL) induced nuclear changes of A549 cells with DNA condensation and fragmentations of chromatin, as well as inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, PRS could also attenuate the over-generation of intracellular ROS. Western blotting analysis showed a significant decrease on the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines MCP-1, IL-6 and TGF-?1, as well as cell adhesion molecule ICAM-1, by treatment with PRS. Our results demonstrated that the inhibition of PRS on tumor growth might be associated with the amelioration of inflammation responses, induction of apoptosis, as well as the decrease of ROS. These results suggested that PRS implied a potential therapeutic effect in the lung cancer treatment. PMID:24141243

Li, Yu; Gu, Jun-Fei; Zou, Xi; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Jiang, Jun; Qin, Dong; Zhou, Jin-Yong; Liu, Bao-Xin-Zi; Zhu, Yun-Tao; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Feng, Liang; Wang, Rui-Ping

2013-01-01

228

Preventive Steroids May Not Help Heart Bypass  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Preventive Steroids May Not Help Heart Bypass Common practice might ... March 31, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Heart Surgery Steroids MONDAY, March 31, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Although steroids ...

229

Steroid-free maintenance immunotherapy: Minneapolis Heart Institute experience.  

PubMed

Recent advances in immunotherapy have resulted in improved survival after heart transplantation. The use of OKT3 as an induction agent has allowed the identification of a subset of patients who can be successfully withdrawn from prednisone and maintained on only cyclosporine and azathioprine. The latter regimen offers several theoretic advantages in terms of freedom from complications of long-term steroid therapy. To compare both the long-term efficacy and toxicity of steroid-free maintenance immunosuppression with triple-drug therapy, the medical records of 68 patients undergoing transplantation at the Minneapolis Heart Institute during a 3-year period (1988 through 1990) were reviewed. Thirty-six patients were treated with OKT3 induction immunotherapy, 29 were successfully tapered off prednisone by 114 +/- 44 days after transplantation, whereas 32 patients were maintained on triple-drug therapy. The incidence of treated rejection was equivalent in both groups; however, the time to first rejection was longer in patients treated with OKT3/steroid-free maintenance (205 +/- 214 vs 27 +/- 17 days) (p = 0.02). Bacterial infections during the early posttransplant period were more common in the OKT3/steroid-free maintenance group (p = 0.008); however, fungal and viral infections were equally distributed between both groups. The incidence of hypertension was slightly higher in patients maintained on prednisone (67% vs 51%; p = 0.242).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1571339

Pritzker, M R; Lake, K D; Reutzel, T J; Hoffman, F M; Jorgensen, C R; Pederson, W; Emery, R W

1992-01-01

230

Hybrid renewable energy system using doubly-fed induction generator and multilevel inverter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed hybrid system generates AC power by combining solar and wind energy converted by a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The DFIG, driven by a wind turbine, needs rotor excitation so the stator can supply a load or the grid. In a variable-speed wind energy system, the stator voltage and its frequency vary with wind speed, and in order to keep them constant, variable-voltage and variable-frequency rotor excitation is to be provided. A power conversion unit supplies the rotor, drawing power either from AC mains or from a PV panel depending on their availability. It consists of a multilevel inverter which gives lower harmonic distortion in the stator voltage. Maximum power point tracking techniques have been implemented for both wind and solar power. The complete hybrid renewable energy system is implemented in a PSIM-Simulink interface and the wind energy conversion portion is realized in hardware using dSPACE controller board.

Ahmed, Eshita

231

Rail Brake System Using a Linear Induction Motor for Dynamic Braking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One type of braking system for railway vehicles is the eddy current brake. Because this type of brake has the problem of rail heating, it has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of a linear induction motor (LIM) for dynamic braking in eddy current brake systems. The LIM reduces rail heating and uses an inverter for self excitation. In this paper, we estimated the performance of an LIM from experimental results of a fundamental test machine and confirmed that the LIM generates an approximately constant braking force under constant current excitation. At relatively low frequencies, this braking force remains unaffected by frequency changes. The reduction ratio of rail heating is also approximately proportional to the frequency. We also confirmed that dynamic braking resulting in no electrical output can be used for drive control of the LIM. These characteristics are convenient for the realization of the LIM rail brake system.

Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Minoru; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

232

Establishment of a reproducible tissue culture system for the induction of Arabidopsis somatic embryos.  

PubMed

Somatic embryogenesis is an example of totipotency and is used as a model system for studying embryogenesis. A reproducible tissue culture system was established for the large-scale induction of Arabidopsis somatic embryos. The method allows maintenance of high embryogenic competence over a one-year period. Using this tissue culture system, the expression of embryo-specific genes (ABI3, LEC1, FUS3) was detected in embryogenic cells and somatic embryos. Exogenous application of abscisic acid enhanced the expression of some late-embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) protein genes in somatic embryos. The experiments show that the method can be used to obtain sufficient amounts of embryogenic material for basic molecular analyses. PMID:12096096

Ikeda-Iwai, Miho; Satoh, Shinobu; Kamada, Hiroshi

2002-07-01

233

Potato Steroidal Glycoalkaloids: Biosynthesis and Genetic Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are important components of plant resistance against pests and pathogens but can\\u000a be toxic to humans at high levels. SGAs derive their toxicity from anticholinesterase activity affecting the central nervous\\u000a system and the disruptive effects on cell membrane integrity affecting the digestive system and other organs. Accordingly,\\u000a current safety regulations limit their content in the

Idit Ginzberg; James G. Tokuhisa; Richard E. Veilleux

2009-01-01

234

Steroidal saponins from Sansevieria trifasciata.  

PubMed

The methanol extract of the whole plant of Sansevieria trifasciata has yielded 12 steroidal saponins, 10 of which are new constituents. The respective structures of the new compounds have been shown by the spectroscopic evidence, and alkaline- and acid-catalysed degradation. This is the first report of the isolation of steroidal saponins from S. trifasciata. PMID:8987911

Mimaki, Y; Inoue, T; Kuroda, M; Sashida, Y

1996-12-01

235

Steroid Hormones Generated by CAFOs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steroid hormones are phylogenetically very old and nature has developed numerous mechanisms for their decomposition. However,\\u000a the huge volume of steroids generated from CAFOs and the appearance of hormones in streams and rivers requires that possible\\u000a environmental impact needs to be assessed.

Laurence Shore

236

Ovarian Steroids and Cognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ovarian steroids, estrogen and progesterone, not only govern reproductive events in mammalian females but also influence an array of other processes. Of particular clinical interest is the potential of ovarian steroids to facilitate storage of new memories and to protect neurons from various threats. Research during the past decade confirms that estrogen and progesterone influence the biochemical, electrical, and

Gary Dohanich

2003-01-01

237

Four Pulse Drive System for the Beam Induction Cells for DARHT Axis 2  

SciTech Connect

The proposed drive system allows for the generation of up to four (4) high-quality radiographic pulses along one line-of-sight, having arbitrary pulse spacing ({approximately}500 ns), using demonstrated technologies. This concept uses a four-pulse drive system to drive both a 16-MeV ensemble of 250-kV, 4-kA induction cells and a four-pulse, 4-MeV injector. The key to this approach lies in the method used to combine four pulses from different generators in a manner that does not compromise the voltage flatness requirement of {+-} 1%. The induction cells use core material for only a single pulse. A simple reverse bias circuit is used to reset the cores between pulses, and the insulator has been redesigned to withstand the reverse reset voltage. This approach can be installed in stages so that the facility can be used for dual axis radiography while implementing the multi-pulsing capability. A dual double-pulse format has been identified which provides a sequence of two pulses along one line-of-sight within a 2-{micro}sec window. The 2-{micro}sec windows can be separated by arbitrary time intervals of 2- to 10-{micro}sec.

Downing, J.; Carlson, R.; Melton, J.; Fockler, J.

1999-06-28

238

NOISE: A nonlinear optimization induction free-electron laser systems engineering code  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a computer code to assist in the design of a ground-based induction free-electron laser (FEL) proposed for construction at the White Sands Missile Range. Called NOISE (for Nonlinear Optimization Induction Free-Electron Laser Systems Engineering), the code contains algorithms for modeling and costing the eight basic IFEL assemblies (accelerator, amplifier, master oscillator, optical conditioning, controls and data acquisition, ancillary and alignment systems, prime power, and technical facilities). A set of nonlinear equations is used to optimize a figure of merit (FOM) subject to various engineering constraints. The FOM is typically total cost (less facilities costs) but may be any combination of variables used by NOISE. The NOISE architecture is highly modular so that assembly routines can be easily modified. Trade studies can be quickly performed over a wide range of dimensions (up to 34 variables with up to 12 constraints). In addition, NOISE contains a spreadhseet'' or benchmark mode that calculates feasible, but not necessarily optimized, design points. We review various nonlinear optimization techniques, show how the techniques influenced NOISE development, and describe in detail the code's subroutines and capabilities. 14 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

Blackfield, D.T. (TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA (USA))

1989-08-01

239

Effect of Pulse Width on Ozone Yield using Inductive Energy Storage System Pulsed Power Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanosecond pulse voltages of several pulse widths were applied to a cylindrical plasma reactor for ozone synthesis with high energy yield. Nanoseconds pulse voltages were produced by inductive energy storage system pulsed power generators using semiconductor opening switch (SOS) diodes. First recovery diodes were used as SOS diodes in the inductive energy storage system to produce short-pulsed high voltage with high-repetition rate. The short pulse voltage of 9.5 ns width and 33 kV peak voltage was produced at charging voltage of 15 kV and was applied to a 1 mm diameter center wire electrode in the plasma reactor. The copper cylinder of 19 mm inner diameter was used as outer electrode and was connected to a ground. The ozone yield of 271 g/kWh was obtained using the 9.5 ns width pulse voltage at synthesized 412 ppm of ozone concentration. The yield 271 g/kWh was more than twice as much as the yield 114 g/kWh at 401 ppm using a 60 ns pulse voltage.

Yagi, Ippei; Mukaigawa, Seiji; Takaki, Koichi; Fujiwara, Tamiya; Go, Tomio

240

T lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are resistant to induction of autophagy  

PubMed Central

Autophagy, the cytoprotection mechanism that takes place under metabolic impairment, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. Here, we investigated the spontaneous and induced autophagic behavior of T lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared with that of T lymphocytes from healthy donors by measuring the autophagy marker microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II. No significant differences in spontaneous autophagy were found between T lymphocytes from patients with SLE and from healthy donors, apart from CD4+ naive T cells from patients with SLE in which constitutively higher levels of autophagy (P<0.001) were detected. At variance, whereas treatment of T lymphocytes from healthy donors with serum IgG from patients with SLE resulted in a 2-fold increase in LC3-II levels (P<0.001), T lymphocytes from SLE patients were resistant to autophagic induction and also displayed an up-regulation of genes negatively regulating autophagy, e.g., ?-synuclein. These findings could open new perspectives in the search for pathogenetic determinants of SLE progression and in the development of therapeutic strategies aimed to recover T-cell compartment homeostasis by restoring autophagic susceptibility.—Alessandri, C., Barbati, C., Vacirca, D., Piscopo, P., Confaloni, A., Sanchez, M., Maselli, A., Colasanti, T., Conti, F., Truglia, S., Perl, A., Valesini, G., Malorni, W., Ortona, E., Pierdominici, M. T lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are resistant to induction of autophagy.

Alessandri, Cristiano; Barbati, Cristiana; Vacirca, Davide; Piscopo, Paola; Confaloni, Annamaria; Sanchez, Massimo; Maselli, Angela; Colasanti, Tania; Conti, Fabrizio; Truglia, Simona; Perl, Andras; Valesini, Guido; Malorni, Walter; Ortona, Elena; Pierdominici, Marina

2012-01-01

241

Inductive displacement sensors with a notch filter for an active magnetic bearing system.  

PubMed

Active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems support rotating shafts without any physical contact, using electromagnetic forces. Each radial AMB uses two pairs of electromagnets at opposite sides of the rotor. This allows the rotor to float in the air gap, and the machine to operate without frictional losses. In active magnetic suspension, displacement sensors are necessary to detect the radial and axial movement of the suspended object. In a high-speed rotating machine equipped with an AMB, the rotor bending modes may be limited to the operating range. The natural frequencies of the rotor can cause instability. Thus, notch filters are a useful circuit for stabilizing the system. In addition, commercial displacement sensors are sometimes not suitable for AMB design, and cannot filter the noise caused by the natural frequencies of rotor. Hence, implementing displacement sensors based on the AMB structure is necessary to eliminate noises caused by natural frequency disturbances. The displacement sensor must be highly sensitive in the desired working range, and also exhibit a low interference noise, high stability, and low cost. In this study, we used the differential inductive sensor head and lock-in amplifier for synchronous demodulation. In addition, an active low-pass filter and a notch filter were used to eliminate disturbances, which caused by natural frequencies. As a consequence, the inductive displacement sensor achieved satisfactory linearity, high sensitivity, and disturbance elimination. This sensor can be easily produced for AMB applications. A prototype of these displacement sensors was built and tested. PMID:25029281

Chen, Seng-Chi; Le, Dinh-Kha; Nguyen, Van-Sum

2014-01-01

242

Optimal secondary coil design for inductive powering of the Artificial Accommodation System.  

PubMed

Age-related ailments like presbyopia and cataract are increasing concerns in the aging society. Both go along with a loss of ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore the patients' ability to accommodate is the Artificial Accommodation System. This micro mechatronic system will be implanted into the capsular bag to replace the human crystalline lens. Depending on the patients' actual need for accommodation, the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously adapts the refractive power of its integrated optical element in a way that the projection on the patients' retina results in a sharp image. As the Artificial Accommodation System is an active implant, its subsystems have to be supplied with electrical energy. Evolving technologies, like energy harvesting, which can potentially be used to power an implant like the Artificial Accommodation System are at the current state of art not sufficient to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously [1]. In the near future, therefore an inductive power supply system will be developed which includes an energy storage to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously over a period of 24 h and can be recharged wirelessly. This Paper describes a new possibility to optimize the secondary coil design in a solely analytical way, based on a new figure of merit. Within this paper the developed figure of merit is applied to optimize the secondary coil design for the Artificial Accommodation System. PMID:22254948

Nagel, J A; Krug, M; Gengenbach, U; Guth, H; Bretthauer, G; Guthoff, R F

2011-01-01

243

RESULTS OF PANCREAS TRANSPLANTATION AFTER STEROID WITHDRAWAL UNDER TACROLIMUS IMMUNOSUPPRESSION1  

PubMed Central

Purpose The results of steroid withdrawal in pancreas transplant recipients under tacrolimus immunosuppression were analyzed. Methods From July 4, 1994 until April 30, 1998, 147 pancreas transplantations were performed in 141 patients, including 126 simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantations, 13 pancreas after kidney transplantation, and 8 pancreas transplantations alone. Baseline immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus and steroids without antilymphocyte induction. Twenty-three patients were excluded from analysis because of early graft loss in 17 cases, retransplantation in 5 cases, and simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation after heart transplantation in 1 patient. Results With a mean follow-up of 2.8±1.1 years (range 1.0 to 4.8 years), complete steroid withdrawal was achieved in 58 (47%) patients with a mean time to steroid withdrawal of 15.2±8 months (range 4 to 40 months after transplantation). Of the entire cohort of 141 patients, overall 1-, 2-, and 4-year patient survival rates were 98%, 95.5%, and 86%, respectively. Overall 1-, 2-, and 4-year graft survival rates were 83%, 80%, and 71% (pancreas) and 95%, 91%, and 84% (kidney), respectively. Of the 124 patients analyzed for steroid withdrawal, 1-, 2-, and 4-year patient survival rates were 98%, 97%, and 92%, respectively. Overall 1-, 2-, and 4-year graft survival rates were 98%, 91.5%, 83% (pancreas) and 97%, 95%, and 91% (kidney). Patient, pancreas, and kidney survival rates at 1 year were 100%, 100%, and 98% (off steroids) versus 97%, 91%, and 96% (on steroids, all NS) and at 4 years were 100%, 94%, and 95% (off steroids) versus 78%, 68%, and 85% (on steroids, P=0.01, 0.002, and NS, respectively). The cumulative risk of rejection at the time of follow-up was 76% for patients on steroids versus 74% for patients off steroids (P=NS). Seven patients originally tapered off steroids were treated for subsequent rejection episodes, which were all steroid sensitive, and two of these seven patients are currently off steroids. Thirteen patients received antilymphocyte therapy for steroid-resistant rejection, five of whom are now off steroids. Tacrolimus trough levels were 9.3±2.4 ng/ml (off steroids) and 9.7±4.3 (on steroids, P=NS). Mean fasting glucose levels were 98±34 mg/dl (off steroids) and 110±41 mg/dl (on steroids, P=NS). Mean glycosylated hemoglobin levels were 5.2±0.9% (off steroids) and 6.2±2.1% (on steroids, P=0.02), and mean serum creatinine levels were 1.4±0.8 mg/dl (off steroids) and 1.7±1.0 mg/dl (on steroids, P=0.02). Conclusion These data show for the first time that steroid withdrawal can be safely accomplished in pancreas transplant recipients maintained on tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Steroid withdrawal is associated with excellent patient and graft survival with no increase in the cumulative risk of rejection.

Jordan, Mark L.; Chakrabarti, Pradip; Luke, Patrick; Shapiro, Ron; Vivas, Carlos A.; Scantlebury, Velma P.; Fung, John J.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Corry, Robert J.

2010-01-01

244

Icogenin, a new cytotoxic steroidal saponin isolated from Dracaena draco.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the cytotoxic effect induced by a new natural steroidal saponin, icogenin, on the myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60. Icogenin was found to be a cytotoxic compound IC(50) 2.6+/-0.9microM at 72h, with growth inhibition caused by the induction of apoptosis, as determined by microscopy of nuclear changes and the fragmentation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. PMID:15265493

Hernández, Juan C; León, Francisco; Quintana, José; Estévez, Francisco; Bermejo, Jaime

2004-08-15

245

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 {+-} 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 {+-} 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 {+-} 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 {+-} 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and {beta}-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of {sup 13}C{sup +} with {sup 12}C{sup 1}H{sup +} comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or {beta}-cyclodextrin.

Luong, E.

1999-05-10

246

Post-LASIK interface fluid syndrome caused by steroid drops  

PubMed Central

Interface fluid syndrome after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a rare but visually threatening postoperative complication. In this case series we present 8 post-LASIK eyes that developed interface fluid syndrome after prolonged steroid use. Patients presented with signs mimicking diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) that worsened with steroid treatment. Slit-lamp examination revealed corneal haze and an optically clear fluid-filled space between the flap and stroma. The IOP was high in all cases. Topical steroids were stopped and replaced with topical and systemic anti-glaucoma medications resulting in a dramatic improvement in visual acuity.

Bamashmus, Mahfouth A.; Saleh, Mahmoud F.

2013-01-01

247

Using a Computer Algebra System to Facilitate the Learning of Mathematical Induction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical induction is one of the major proof techniques taught to mathematics students in the first years of their undergraduate degrees. In addition to its importance to mathematics, induction is also required for computer science and related disciplines. However, even if the concepts of a proof by induction are taught and understood, many…

McAndrew, Alasdair

2010-01-01

248

To investigate the role of the nervous system of bone in steroid-induced osteonecrosis in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Glucocorticoid treatment frequently causes osteonecrosis of the femoral head. The precise mechanism in the pathogenesis of\\u000a osteonecrosis remains highly controversial. Normal bone metabolism requires a coordinated interaction between the sensory\\/sympathetic\\u000a nervous system and cells within the bone tissue. So we speculated that neural lesions may be involved in osteonecrosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  Using a rabbit model, we investigated the relationship between neural factors

L. Wang; N. Wang; M. Li; K. Wang

2010-01-01

249

CLIPPERS: chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids. Review of an increasingly recognized entity within the spectrum of inflammatory central nervous system disorders.  

PubMed

Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a recently defined inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) disorder, prominently involving the brainstem and in particular the pons. The condition features a combination of clinical symptoms essentially referable to brainstem pathology and a characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance with punctate and curvilinear gadolinium enhancement 'peppering' the pons. The radiological distribution is focused in the pons and adjacent rhombencephalic structures such as the cerebellar peduncles, cerebellum, medulla and the midbrain. While the lesion burden with a perivascular pattern is typically most dense in these pontine and peripontine regions, enhancing lesions may additionally extend into the spinal cord and supratentorial structures such as the thalamus, basal ganglia, capsula interna, corpus callosum and the cerebral white matter. Another core feature is clinical and radiological responsiveness to glucocorticosteroid (GCS)-based immunosuppression. As withdrawal of GCS treatment results commonly in disease exacerbation, long-term immunosuppressive therapy appears to be mandatory for sustained improvement. Diagnosis of CLIPPERS is challenging, and requires careful exclusion of alternative diagnoses. A specific serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker for the disorder is currently not known. Pathogenesis of CLIPPERS remains poorly understood, and the nosological position of CLIPPERS has still to be established. Whether CLIPPERS represents an independent, actual new disorder or a syndrome that includes aetiologically heterogeneous diseases and/or their prestages remains a debated and not finally clarified issue. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of this condition and its differential diagnoses, given that CLIPPERS constitutes a treatable condition and that patients may benefit from an early introduction of GCS ensued by long-term immunosuppression. Based on previous reports in literature?-?currently encompassing more than 50 reported cases of CLIPPERS?-?this review addresses clinical features, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses and therapeutic management of this peculiar disorder. PMID:24028073

Dudesek, A; Rimmele, F; Tesar, S; Kolbaske, S; Rommer, P S; Benecke, R; Zettl, U K

2014-03-01

250

Deficiency in steroid receptor coactivator 3 enhances cytokine production in IgE-stimulated mast cells and passive systemic anaphylaxis in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC-3) is a multifunctional protein that plays an important role in malignancy of several cancers and in regulation of bacterial LPS-induced inflammation. However, the involvement of SRC-3 in allergic response remains unclear. Herein we used passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA) and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) mouse models to assess the role of SRC-3 in allergic response. Results SRC-3-deficient mice exhibited more severe allergic response as demonstrated by a significant drop in body temperature and a delayed recovery period compared to wild-type mice in PSA mouse model, whereas no significant difference was observed between two kinds of mice in PCA mouse models. Mast cells play a pivotal role in IgE-mediated allergic response. Antigen-induced aggregation of IgE receptor (Fc?RI) on the surface of mast cell activates a cascade of signaling events leading to the degranulation and cytokine production in mast cells. SRC-3-deficient bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs) developed normally but secreted more proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-? and IL-6 than wild-type cells after antigen stimulation, whereas there was no significant difference in degranulation between two kinds of mast cells. Further studies showed that SRC-3 inhibited the activation of nuclear factor NF-?B pathway and MAPKs including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 in antigen-stimulated mast cells. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that SRC-3 suppresses cytokine production in antigen-stimulated mast cells as well as PSA in mice at least in part through inhibiting NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways. Therefore, SRC-3 plays a protective role in PSA and it may become a drug target for anaphylactic diseases.

2014-01-01

251

Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs may reduce Enterohepatic Recirculation of Mycophenolic Acid in Patients with Childhood-onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Background The large inter-individual differences observed in mycophenolic acid (MPA) pharmacokinetics (MPA-PK) are in part attributed to large variability in enterohepatic recirculation (EHC) of the drug. MPA’s main metabolite, MPA-glucuronide is actively secreted into the bile via the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) transporter. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to inhibit the MRP2 transporter which can alter EHC and drug exposure. Here, we evaluated the effects of this potential drug-transporter interaction on MPA-PK in a cohort for patients with childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) on mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) therapy. Methods and Materials Full MPA concentration-time profiles and demographics including co-medications were available for 19 patients with cSLE. Concentrations at pre-dose (Ctrough), 9 hour (C9) and nadir (Cnadir; defined as the lowest concentration between Cmax and C9), and Area under the curve (AUC0–12 and AUC6–12) were assessed using standard methods (WinNonlin5.1). AUC6–12/AUC0–12 and C9/Cnadir ratios were used to evaluate the effect of NSAIDs treatment on MPA-PK. Results Eleven out of 19 patients were on NSAID treatment, and did not show visual evidence of EHC in their PK profile. In contrast, patients not on NSAID therapy showed evidence of EHC-related MPA concentration increase in the later part of their PK profiles, typically after 6h. This phenomenon could be well characterized by the C9/Cnadir ratio, which was significantly lower in the NSAID-treated cohort (P<0.01). Conclusion These preliminary data suggest that concomitant intake of NSAID may lower EHC of MPA possibly through inhibition of MRP2 transport of MPA-G. Further mechanism-based studies are needed to further elucidate this potential transporter interaction.

Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Brunner, Hermine I.; Sagcal-Gironella, Anna Carmela P.; Vinks, Alexander A.

2014-01-01

252

A wearable respiration monitoring system based on digital respiratory inductive plethysmography.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a wearable device for continuous monitoring of respiration signal and the associated algorithm for signal evaluations. The device took advantages of a proven respiratory inductive plethysmograph (RIP) technology and a wireless body sensor networks (BSN) development platform. The textile RIP sensor was integrated into a suit that could be comfortably worn around thorax or abdomen for monitoring respiration during sleep. A smart signal processing algorithm was implemented for extracting the dynamic respiration rate. The results of in-situ experiments from ten healthy subjects suggested that our system worked as intended. Due to the high reliability and low cost of our system it is believed to meet the future demands on home-based monitoring and diagnosis of sleep disorder-related diseases. PMID:19963862

Wu, Dan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Huang, Bang-Yu; Wang, Bo; Lin, Shao-Jie; Xu, Xiao-Wen

2009-01-01

253

Sex Difference and Steroid Modulation of Pheromone-Induced Immediate Early Genes in the Two Zones of the Mouse Accessory Olfactory System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two anatomically and neurochemically distinct zones within the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) have been identified that are responsible for the detection of pheromones. Using markers to distinguish between apical and basal neurons of the VNO neuroepithelium and rostral versus caudal AOB glomeruli, we examined immediate early gene immunoreactivity (IEG-IR) in gonadectomized, steroid-treated mice in response to

Heather A. Halem; Michael J. Baum; James A. Cherry

2001-01-01

254

Organ-dependent induction of systemic resistance and systemic susceptibility in Pinus nigra inoculated with Sphaeropsis sapinea and Diplodia scrobiculata.  

PubMed

Systemic induced resistance (SIR) is a well-known host defense mechanism against pathogen attack in herbaceous plants, but SIR has only recently been documented in conifers. We tested if inoculation of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) with Sphaeropsis sapinea (Fr.:Fr.) Dyko and Sutton or Diplodia scrobiculata de Wet, Slippers and Wingfield results in SIR or systemic induced susceptibility (SIS) to subsequent colonization by S. sapinea. Induction at the stem base resulted in significant (P < 0.01) SIR in the upper stem, and induction in the upper stem resulted in significant (P < 0.05) SIR at the stem base, indicating that SIR is bidirectional in Austrian pine. However, inoculation at the stem base resulted in significant (P < 0.01) SIS in shoot tips, demonstrating that, in the same host species, the expression of resistance can be organ-dependent, resulting in either SIR or SIS depending on the site of challenge infection. Systemic induced resistance in the stem was associated with induced lignification, supporting a potential role for this defense mechanism in disease resistance. Systemic induced susceptibility has been documented before, but this is the first demonstration of organ-dependent expression of both SIR and SIS in a tree or any other plant. PMID:17241993

Blodgett, James T; Eyles, Alieta; Bonello, Pierluigi

2007-04-01

255

Electromechanical performance of induction motor/drive systems subjected to voltage sags  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Induction Motors are workhorses for many industries. They are extensively utilized in industrial variable-frequency drive (VFD) or adjustable-speed drive (ASD) applications as well as constant speed applications. Recent advances in power electronics have made AC motor drives an economically viable solution for ASD applications traditionally dominated by dc motor drives. In this study, electromechanical performance variables of an Induction Motor (IM) have been studied during the balanced voltage sags. For this purpose a laboratory prototype of an industrial mixer has been designed. IM has been coupled to a speed reducer that is worm gear type with a ratio 10 to 1. Then the reducer is vertically coupled to a food process mixer within a metal canister. The mixer represents a high friction load with practically zero inertia. Voltage, current, speed, and power measurements have been collected and compared with the simulation results from Simnon. An open-loop control Volts per Hertz boost strategy has been used in order to compensate the speed loss during the three-phase balanced voltage sags. Both compensated and uncompensated cases have been run and compared with simulation results. Results are verified with a reasonably good agreement that the total system modeling is successful and boost compensation circuit is effective.

Tunaboylu, Serdar N.

256

Induction Firing System for Hero-Proof Launch Initiation of Ordnance from Mortars, Guns, Rocket Launchers, etc..  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A RADHAZ- and HERO-proof induction firing system for initiating launch of ordnance from mortars, guns, rocket launchers, etc., is designed and analyzed. The system is being used in the Rapid Bloom Off-board Chaff (RBOC) mortar development, and is to be us...

F. E. Warnock

1973-01-01

257

Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

258

The Natural Induction System AQ21 and its Application to Data Describing Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: Initial Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly describes the AQ21 learning system that implements a simple form of natural induction, an approach to learning that generates hypotheses in forms resembling natural language descriptions, and by that easy to understand and interpret. The system was applied to the analysis of aggregated data obtained from non-invasive tests performed on different groups of patients with metabolic syndrome.

Janusz Wojtusiak; Ryszard S. Michalski; Thipkesone Simanivanh; Anna V. Baranova

2007-01-01

259

MR damper-based semiactive control system using electromagnetic induction device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetorheological (MR) damper-based semiactive control systems can be considered as one of the most advantageous control systems for natural hazard mitigation in the field of civil engineering because MR dampers have many good features such as small power requirement, reliability, and low price to manufacture. Those systems require feedback control and power supply parts to efficiently reduce the structural responses. The control system becomes complex when a lot of MR dampers are applied to large-scale civil structures, such as cable-stayed bridges and high-rise buildings, resulting in difficulties in its implementation and maintenance. To overcome the above difficulties, a new-class MR damper-based control system was recently proposed by replacing feedback control and power supply parts with an electromagnetic induction (EMI) part consisting of permanent magnets and a coil. According to the Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, an EMI part produces electrical energy (i.e., electromotive force or induced voltage) from mechanical energy (i.e., reciprocal motions of an MR damper), which is proportional to the rate of the change of the movement of a damper. From this characteristic of an EMI part, it might be used as a response sensing device as well as an alternative power supply. In addition, some control algorithms used in the MR damper-based semiactive control systems require the measurement information on the response related to the relative velocity of the damper. In this study, the sensing capability of an EMI part is preliminarily examined for an application to the MR damper-based semiactive control system. To this end, experimental tests are carried out using the real-scale stay cable employing an MR damper with an EMI part. It is demonstrated from the tests that an EMI part could exactly extract the dynamic characteristics of the stay cable so that it might be used as a sensing device for estimating the tension force of the stay cable. In addition, numerical simulations are performed to verify the control performance of the MR damper-based semiactive control system adopting an EMI part as a power supply as well as a velocity sensor and the maximum energy dissipation algorithm, which requires the information on the relative velocity, as a control algorithm. The numerical result validates that the proposed control system can reduce the vibration of the stay cable effectively.

Jung, Hyung-Jo; Jang, Dong-Doo; Koo, Jeong-Hoi

2009-03-01

260

Inductively coupled plasma -- Atomic emission spectroscopy glove box assembly system at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy [ICP/AES (ICP)] system for elemental analyses in support of vitrification processing was first installed in 1986. The initial instrument was a Jobin Yvon (JY) Model JY-70 ICP that consisted of sequential and simultaneous spectrometers for analysis of nonradioactive samples as radioactive surrogates. The JY-70 ICP continued supporting nonradioactive testing during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) using the full-scale melter with ``cold'' (nonradioactive) testing campaigns. As a result, the need for another system was identified to allow for the analysis of radioactive samples. The Mass Spec (Spectrometry) Lab was established for the installation of the modified ICP system for handling radioactive samples. The conceptual setup of another ICP was predicated on the use of a hood to allow ease of accessibility of the torch, nebulizer, and spray chamber, and the minimization of air flow paths. However, reconsideration of the radioactive sample dose rate and contamination levels led to the configuration of the glovebox system with a common transfer interface box for the ICP and the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) glovebox assemblies. As a result, a simultaneous Model JY-50P ICP with glovebox was installed in 1990 as a first generation ICP glovebox system. This was one of the first ICP glovebox assemblies connected with an ICP-MS glovebox system. Since the economics of processing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) required the availability of an instrument to operate 24 hours a day throughout the year without any downtime, a second generation ICP glovebox assembly was designed, manufactured, and installed in 1995 using a Model JY-46P ICP. These two ICP glovebox systems continue to support vitrification of the HLW into canisters for storage. The ICP systems have been instrumental in monitoring vitrification batch processing. To date, remote sample preparation and compositional analysis of key parameters, i.e., greater than 0.5% weight percent metal oxides, during batch processing (waste initials, glass formers, waste plus glass formers, and glass) has verified the composition to be within the acceptance criteria and generated the necessary data for the Waste Qualification Report.

Marlow, J.H.; McCarthy, K.M.; Tamul, N.R.

1999-12-17

261

Computer expert system for spectral line simulation and selection in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta, Part B (SAB). This hardcopy text, comprising the main body and an appendix, is accompanied by a disk with programs, data files and a brief manual. The main body discusses purpose, design principle and usage of the computer software for the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) expert system. The appendix provides a brief instruction on the manipulation of the demonstration program and relevant information on accessing the diskette. The computer software of the expert system has been developed in C++ language to simulate spectra and to select analytical lines in ICP-AES. This expert system is based on a comprehensive model of non-LTE ICP-AES, which includes expertise in plasma discharges, analyte ionization and excitation, and spectral-line shapes. The system also provides several databases in which essential elemental and spectral data are stored. A logic reasoning engine is utilized for selection of the best analytical line with a main criterion of minimizing the true detection limit. The system is user-friendly with pop-up menus, an editor for database operation, and a graphic interface for the display of simulated spectra. The system can simulate spectra and predict spectral interferences with good accuracy.

Yang, Pengyuan; Ying, Hai; Wang, Xiaoru; Huang, Benli

1996-07-01

262

Multiphysics Modeling of an Annular Linear Induction Pump With Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An annular linear induction pump (ALIP) that could be used for circulating liquid-metal coolant in a fission surface power reactor system is modeled in the present work using the computational COMSOL Multiphysics package. The pump is modeled using a two-dimensional, axisymmetric geometry and solved under conditions similar to those used during experimental pump testing. Real, nonlinear, temperature-dependent material properties can be incorporated into the model for both the electrically-conducting working fluid in the pump (NaK-78) and structural components of the pump. The intricate three-phase coil configuration of the pump is implemented in the model to produce an axially-traveling magnetic wave that is qualitatively similar to the measured magnetic wave. The model qualitatively captures the expected feature of a peak in efficiency as a function of flow rate.

Kilbane, J.; Polzin, K. A.

2014-01-01

263

Steroids in Athletics: One University's Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an account of one university's experience in conducting an investigation into possible steroid use by student athletes and the development of a program to deal with the problem. Discusses why athletes use steroids and how steroids are taken. Concludes it is likely many steroid-related deaths of athletes go undetected. (Author/ABL)

Lopez, Mike

1990-01-01

264

Effect of Age and Early Intervention with a Systemic Steroid, Intravenous Immunoglobulin or Amniotic Membrane Transplantation on the Ocular Outcomes of Patients with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose This retrospective observational case series of fifty-one consecutive patients referred to the eye clinic with acute-stage Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) from 1995 to 2011 examines the effect of early treatment with a systemic corticosteroid or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) on the ocular outcomes in patients with SJS or TEN. Methods All patients were classified by age (?18 years vs. >18 years) and analyzed by treatment modality and early intervention with systemic corticosteroids (?5 days), IVIG (?6 days), or amniotic membrane graft transplantation (AMT) (?15 days). The main outcomes were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) and ocular involvement scores (OIS, 0-12), which were calculated based on the presence of superficial punctate keratitis, epithelial defect, conjunctivalization, neovascularization, corneal opacity, keratinization, hyperemia, symblepharon, trichiasis, mucocutaneous junction involvement, meibomian gland involvement, and punctal damage. Results The mean logMAR and OIS scores at the initial visit were not significantly different in the pediatric group (logMAR = 0.44, OIS = 2.76, n = 17) or the adult group (logMAR = 0.60, OIS = 2.21, n = 34). At the final follow-up, the logMAR and OIS had improved significantly in the adult group (p = 0.0002, p = 0.023, respectively), but not in the pediatric group. Early intervention with IVIG or corticosteroids significantly improved the mean BCVA and OIS in the adult group (p = 0.043 and p = 0.024, respectively for IVIG; p = 0.002 and p = 0.034, respectively for corticosteroid). AMT was found to be associated with a significantly improved BCVA or OIS in the late treatment group or the group with a better initial OIS (p = 0.043 and p = 0.043, respectively for BCVA; p = 0.042 and p = 0.041, respectively for OIS). Conclusions Our findings suggest that patients with SJS or TEN who are aged 18 years or less have poorer ocular outcomes than older patients and that early treatment with steroid or immunoglobulin therapy improves ocular outcomes.

Kim, Kyeong Hwan; Park, Sung Wook; Wee, Won Ryang

2013-01-01

265

Are Steroids Worth the Risk?  

MedlinePLUS

... body hair. Testosterone levels can also affect how aggressive a person is. Athletes sometimes take anabolic steroids ... balding or hair loss weight gain mood swings aggression problems sleeping high blood pressure greater chance of ...

266

Role of Sex Steroid Hormones in Bacterial-Host Interactions  

PubMed Central

Sex steroid hormones play important physiological roles in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues, including immune cells. These hormones exert their functions by binding to either specific intracellular receptors that act as ligand-dependent transcription factors or membrane receptors that stimulate several signal transduction pathways. The elevated susceptibility of males to bacterial infections can be related to the usually lower immune responses presented in males as compared to females. This dimorphic sex difference is mainly due to the differential modulation of the immune system by sex steroid hormones through the control of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines expression, as well as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expression and antibody production. Besides, sex hormones can also affect the metabolism, growth, or virulence of pathogenic bacteria. In turn, pathogenic, microbiota, and environmental bacteria are able to metabolize and degrade steroid hormones and their related compounds. All these data suggest that sex steroid hormones play a key role in the modulation of bacterial-host interactions.

Garcia-Gomez, Elizabeth; Gonzalez-Pedrajo, Bertha; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

2013-01-01

267

Evaluation of a Closed Loop Inductive Power Transmission System on an Awake Behaving Animal Subject  

PubMed Central

This paper presents in vivo experimental results for a closed loop wireless power transmission system to implantable devices on an awake behaving animal subject. In this system, wireless power transmission takes place across an inductive link, controlled by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. Induced voltage on the implantable secondary coil is rectified, digitized by a 10-bit analog to digital converter, and transmitted back to the primary via back telemetry. Transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) circuitry were mounted on the back of an adult rat with a nominal distance of ~7 mm between their coils. Our experiments showed that the closed loop system was able to maintain the Rx supply voltage at the designated 3.8 V despite changes in the coils’ relative distance and alignment due to animal movements. The Tx power consumption changed between 410 ~ 560 mW in order to deliver 27 mW to the receiver. The open loop system, on the other hand, showed undesired changes in the Rx supply voltage while the Tx power consumption was constant at 660 mW.

Kiani, Mehdi; Kwon, Ki Yong; Zhang, Fei; Oweiss, Karim; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2011-01-01

268

Evaluation of a closed loop inductive power transmission system on an awake behaving animal subject.  

PubMed

This paper presents in vivo experimental results for a closed loop wireless power transmission system to implantable devices on an awake behaving animal subject. In this system, wireless power transmission takes place across an inductive link, controlled by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. Induced voltage on the implantable secondary coil is rectified, digitized by a 10-bit analog to digital converter, and transmitted back to the primary via back telemetry. Transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) circuitry were mounted on the back of an adult rat with a nominal distance of ~7 mm between their coils. Our experiments showed that the closed loop system was able to maintain the Rx supply voltage at the designated 3.8 V despite changes in the coils' relative distance and alignment due to animal movements. The Tx power consumption changed between 410 ~ 560 mW in order to deliver 27 mW to the receiver. The open loop system, on the other hand, showed undesired changes in the Rx supply voltage while the Tx power consumption was constant at 660 mW. PMID:22256112

Kiani, Mehdi; Kwon, Ki Yong; Zhang, Fei; Oweiss, Karim; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2011-01-01

269

A numerical model for inductively heated cylindrical silicon tube growth system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth of large diameter silicon tubes can bring further advancements in the photovoltaic technology. Efforts are underway to grow first 50 cm and then 100 cm diameter tube using the current octagonal tube growth technique. A two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical model has been developed to simulate and design a large diameter cylindrical tube growth system. The model uses magnetic vector potential equation to predict the induced magnetic field and heat generation due to magnetic induction. A conduction-based model that accounts for the heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation in various components of the system is employed to calculate the temperature field. The model predictions agree well with the experimental data. A parametric study is performed to examine the effects of number of coils, current, position of coil and geometry of the growth system, and to obtain the desired temperature profile. Numerical results for magnetic and thermal fields are presented for various cases. The goal of this investigation is to optimize the system with respect to the die tip temperature and temperature profile in the grown tube.

Roy, A.; Mackintosh, B.; Kalejs, J. P.; Chen, Q.-S.; Zhang, H.; Prasad, V.

2000-04-01

270

Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolic alterations in preeclampsia evaluated by quantitative steroid signatures.  

PubMed

Although preeclampsia has been suggested potential risk factors including placental and systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and abnormal steroid metabolism during pregnancy, the pathogenesis of preeclampsia has not fully been elucidated, particularly in steroid metabolism. The association between various cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated steroid metabolic markers and preeclampsia risk was therefore investigated. The serum levels of 54 CYP-mediated regioselective hydroxysteroids and their substrates were quantitatively evaluated from both pregnant women with preeclampsia (n=30; age, 30.8±4.5 years) and normotensive controls (n=30; age, 31.0±3.5 years), who were similar with respect to maternal age, gestational age, and body mass index. The levels of 6ß-, 7a-, and 11ß-hydroxymetabolites of androgens and corticoids were significantly increased in women with preeclampsia. In addition, the levels of oxysterols, including 7a-, 7ß-, 4ß-, 20a-, 24S-, and 27-hydroxycholesterol, were markedly higher, while the levels of 16a-OH-DHEA, 16a-OH-androstenedione, and cholesterol were significantly decreased in patients. The 6ß-hydroxylation of androgens and corticoids by CYP3A4 (P<0.01), the activation of 20,22-desmolase (a cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme) by CYP11A1 (P<0.00001), and the multi-hydroxylation of cholesterol at C-4ß, C-7a, C-7ß, C-24S, C-27, and C-20a (P<0.0001) by catalytic or enzymatic reaction (e.g. CYP3A4, CYP7A1, CYP27A1, and CYP46A1) were differed between preeclamptic women and control subjects. In particular, an increased oxysterols (induction>2.0-fold) were positively correlated with the conditions of preeclampsia. Our metabolic profiling suggests the CYP-mediated alterations in steroid metabolism and hydroxylation in pregnancy-induced hypertension. These multiple markers could serve as background information for improved clinical diagnosis and management during pregnancy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Pregnancy and Steroids". PMID:23474437

Moon, Ju-Yeon; Moon, Myeong Hee; Kim, Ki Tae; Jeong, Dae Hoon; Kim, Young Nam; Chung, Bong Chul; Choi, Man Ho

2014-01-01

271

Power Supply System Using Electromagnetic Induction for Three-Dimensionally Stacked Retinal Prosthesis Chip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed a new retinal prosthesis system consisting of a three-dimensionally (3-D) stacked retinal prosthesis chip, a flexible cable with an electrode array stimulus, and a power supply system for the retinal prosthesis chip. Electromagnetic induction with a primary coil and a secondary coil was employed as the power supply system. The power was transmitted to the retinal prosthesis chip through an RF/DC voltage conversion chip that converted AC voltage into DC voltage. The 3-D stacked retinal prosthesis chip operates with a DC supply voltage of 3.3 V, and the secondary coil requires a transmitted voltage that is 1 V higher than the DC supply voltage. In order to receive a sufficient supply voltage, several parameters such as external supply voltage and transmission frequency were optimized. A peak RF voltage of 4.5 V was obtained when we employed a primary coil with 50 turns, a secondary coil with 20 turns, an external supply voltage of 4.1 V, and a frequency of 3 MHz. We also successfully fabricated Schottky barrier diodes to rectify the RF voltage received by the secondary coil. The fabricated Schottky barrier diodes have a high breakdown voltage of 4.6 V, which is sufficient for our 3-D stacked retinal prosthesis chip.

Komiya, Ken; Kobayashi, Risato; Kobayashi, Takafumi; Sato, Keigo; Fukushima, Takafumi; Tomita, Hiroshi; Kurino, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Tetsu; Tamai, Makoto; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa

2008-04-01

272

Vectorial Command of Induction Motor Pumping System Supplied by a Photovoltaic Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the continuous decrease of the cost of solar cells, there is an increasing interest and needs in photovoltaic (PV) system applications following standard of living improvements. Water pumping system powered by solar-cell generators are one of the most important applications. The fluctuation of solar energy on one hand, and the necessity to optimise available solar energy on the other, it is useful to develop new efficient and flexible modes to control motors that entrain the pump. A vectorial control of an asynchronous motor fed by a photovoltaic system is proposed. This paper investigates a photovoltaic-electro mechanic chain, composed of a PV generator, DC-AC converter, a vector controlled induction motor and centrifugal pump. The PV generator is forced to operate at its maximum power point by using an appropriate search algorithm integrated in the vector control. The optimization is realized without need to adding a DC-DC converter to the chain. The motor supply is also ensured in all insolation conditions. Simulation results show the effectiveness and feasibility of such an approach.

Makhlouf, Messaoud; Messai, Feyrouz; Benalla, Hocine

2011-01-01

273

A hybrid topology for a variable speed wind-diesel generation system using wound rotor induction machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a energy system topology consisting of a diesel and wind turbine generation units is presented. Wound rotor induction machines are considered to provide energy to an isolated load at constant voltage and frequency. Both generator rotor currents are vector controlled and operate at variable speed. The scheme uses a common DC bus for the voltage source PWM

Ruben Peña; Roberto Cardenas; José Proboste; Jon Clare; Greg Asher

2005-01-01

274

Five-phase induction motor drives with DSP-based control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces two kinds of control schemes: vector control and direct torque control (DTC). These control schemes can be extensively applied to the operation of a five-phase induction motor using a fully digital implementation. Vector control of the five-phase induction motor not only achieves high drive performance, but also generates the desired nearly rectangular current waveforms and flux profile

Huangsheng Xu; Hamid A. Toliyat; Lynn J. Petersen

2002-01-01

275

Conserved steroid hormone homology converges on NF?B to modulate inflammation in asthma  

PubMed Central

Asthma is a complex, multifactorial disease comprising multiple different subtypes, rather than a single disease entity [1], yet has a consistent clinical phenotype: recurring episodes of chest tightness, wheezing, and difficulty breathing. Despite the complex pathogenesis of asthma, steroid hormones (e.g. glucocorticoids) are ubiquitous in the acute and chronic management of all types of asthma. Overall, steroid hormones are a class of widely-relevant, biologically-active compounds originating from cholesterol and altered in a stepwise fashion, but maintain a basic 17-carbon, 4-ring structure. Steroids are lipophilic molecules that diffuse readily through cell membranes to directly and/or indirectly affect gene transcription. In addition, they employ rapid, non-genomic actions to affect cellular products. Steroid hormones are comprised of several groups (including glucocorticoids, sex steroid hormones, and secosteroids) with critical divergent biological and physiological functions relevant to health and disease. However, the conserved homology of steroid hormone molecules, receptors, and signaling pathways suggest that each of these is part of dynamic system of hormone interaction, likely involving overlap of downstream signaling mechanisms. Therefore, we will review the similarities and differences of these three groups of steroid hormones (i.e. glucocorticoids, sex steroid hormones, and secosteroids), identifying NF?B as a common inflammatory mediator. Despite our understanding of the impact of individual steroids (e.g. glucocorticoids, sex steroids and secosteroids) on asthma, research has yet to explain the interplay of the dynamic system in which these hormones function. To do so, there needs to be better understanding of the interplay of classical, non-classical, and non-genomic steroid hormone function. However, clues from the conserved homology steroid hormone structure and function and signaling pathways, offer insight into a possible model of steroid hormone regulation of inflammation in asthma through common NF?B-mediated downstream events.

Payne, Asha S.; Freishtat, Robert J.

2012-01-01

276

Steroid hormone synthesis in mitochondria.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are essential sites for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Mitochondria in the steroidogenic cells of the adrenal, gonad, placenta and brain contain the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc, and its two electron-transfer partners, ferredoxin reductase and ferredoxin. This enzyme system converts cholesterol to pregnenolone and determines net steroidogenic capacity, so that it serves as the chronic regulator of steroidogenesis. Several other steroidogenic enzymes, including 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 11?-hydroxylase and aldosterone synthase also reside in mitochondria. Similarly, the mitochondria of renal tubular cells contain two key enzymes participating in the activation and degradation of vitamin D. The access of cholesterol to the mitochondria is regulated by the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, StAR, serving as the acute regulator of steroidogenesis. StAR action requires a complex multi-component molecular machine on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Components of this machine include the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), the voltage-dependent anion chanel (VDAC-1), TSPO-associated protein 7 (PAP7, ACBD3), and protein kinase A regulatory subunit 1? (PKAR1A). The precise fashion in which these proteins interact and move cholesterol from the OMM to P450scc, and the means by which cholesterol is loaded into the OMM, remain unclear. Human deficiency diseases have been described for StAR and for all the mitochondrial steroidogenic enzymes, but not for the electron transfer proteins or for the components of the cholesterol import machine. PMID:23628605

Miller, Walter L

2013-10-15

277

A Digital Readout System For The CSO Microwave Kinetic Inductance Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submillimeter galaxies are important to the understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Determination of the spectral energy distribution in the millimeter and submillimeter regimes allows important and powerful diagnostics. Our group is developing a camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) using Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). MKIDs are superconducting devices whose impedance changes with the absorption of photons. The camera will have 600 spatial pixels and 4 bands at 750 ?m, 850 ?m, 1.1 mm and 1.3 mm. For each spatial pixel of the camera the radiation is coupled to the MKIDs using phased-array antennas. This signal is split into 4 different bands using filters and detected using the superconductor as part of a MKID's resonant circuit. The detection process consists of measurement of the changes in the transmission through the resonator when it is illuminated. By designing resonant circuits to have different resonant frequencies and high transmission out resonance, MKIDs can be frequency-domain multiplexed. This allows the simultaneous readout of many detectors through a single coaxial cable. The readout system makes use of microwave IQ modulation and is based on commercial electronics components operating at room temperature. The basic readout has been demonstrated on the CSO. We are working on the implementation of an improved design to be tested on a prototype system with 6x6 pixels and 4 colors next April on the CSO.

Max-Moerbeck, Walter; Mazin, B. A.; Zmuidzinas, J.

2007-12-01

278

Steroid treatment of posttraumatic anosmia.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to treat posttraumatic anosmia with oral steroid and evaluate its effect. One-hundred sixteen posttraumatic patients whose olfactory thresholds were -1.0 by the phenyl ethyl alcohol threshold test assembled in our department. They were treated with a course of high-dose steroid, and followed up for at least 3 months. During the latter period of this study, magnetic resonance imaging was performed to measure the volumes of olfactory bulbs and to detect subfrontal lobe damage. Among them, 19 (16.4%) patients' olfactory thresholds improved after steroid treatment, but the other 97 patients' thresholds did not change. The incidences of loss of consciousness and intracranial hemorrhage after head injury, the ratios of admission and craniotomy, the intervals between head injury and steroid treatment, the volumes of olfactory bulbs, and the incidences of subfrontal lobe damage were not significantly different between patients whose thresholds improved and those whose thresholds did not improve. However, patients with olfactory improvement were significantly younger than those who remained unchanged. Our study showed that oral steroid treatment might improve olfactory acuity in some patients with posttraumatic anosmia, but the possibility of spontaneous recovery cannot be ruled out. PMID:20379733

Jiang, Rong-San; Wu, Shang-Heng; Liang, Kai-Li; Shiao, Jiun-Yih; Hsin, Chung-Han; Su, Mao-Chang

2010-10-01

279

Development of a tunable wide-range gene induction system useful for the study of streptococcal toxin-antitoxin systems.  

PubMed

Despite the plethora of genetic tools that have been developed for use in Streptococcus mutans, the S. mutans genetic system still lacks an effective gene induction system exhibiting low basal expression and strong inducibility. Consequently, we created two hybrid gene induction cassettes referred to as Xyl-S1 and Xyl-S2. Both Xyl-S cassettes are xylose inducible and controlled by the Bacillus megaterium xylose repressor. The Xyl-S cassettes each demonstrated >600-fold-increased reporter activity in the presence of 1.2% (wt/vol) xylose. However, the Xyl-S1 cassette yielded a much higher maximum level of gene expression, whereas the Xyl-S2 cassette exhibited much lower uninduced basal expression. The cassettes also performed similarly in Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii, which suggests that they are likely to be useful in a variety of streptococci. We demonstrate how both Xyl-S cassettes are particularly useful for the study of toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules using both the previously characterized S. mutans mazEF TA module and a previously uncharacterized HicAB TA module in S. mutans. HicAB TA modules are widely distributed among bacteria and archaea, but little is known about their function. We show that HicA serves as the toxin component of the module, while HicB serves as the antitoxin. Our results suggest that, in contrast to that of typical TA modules, HicA toxicity in S. mutans is modest at best. The implications of these results for HicAB function are discussed. PMID:23934493

Xie, Zhoujie; Qi, Fengxia; Merritt, Justin

2013-10-01

280

A Comparison of Two Methods of Inductive Knowledge Acquisition for Medical Knowledge-Based Systems  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the use of inductive machine learning for knowledge acquisition, and compares two inductive learning programs, CRLS and C4, with respect to their classification accuracy and comprehensibility on the task of generating decision rules by induction from two medical databases. Each program shows the ability to outperform the other in classification accuracy, depending on the database and the nature of the data. Decision trees and criteria tables are compared and contrasted with respect to comprehensibility, and both are seen to have advantages and drawbacks.

Spackman, Kent A.

1990-01-01

281

Novel pyrazolo, isoxazolo, and thiazolo steroidal systems and model analogs containing dimethyoxylaryl (or dihydroxylaryl) groups and derivatives. Synthesis, spectral properties, and biological activity.  

PubMed

The total syntheses of a series of vicinal-substituted dimethoxy and dihydroxy heterosteroids of the equilenin type and model analogs are described. A novel class of pyrazolo steroidal N-glucosides has also been synthesized. Compounds prepared were screened in vitro for growth inhibition of different microorganisms. Of these, 1-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl-4,5-dihydro-7-methyoxy-1H-benz[g]indazole tetraacetate (3) was quite active. For example, N-glucoside 13 inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus aureus, and KB cells at moderate concentrations. PMID:814234

Hashem, M M; Berlin, K D; Chesnut, R W; Durham, N N

1976-02-01

282

An Inductively Powered Scalable 32-Channel Wireless Neural Recording System-on-a-Chip for Neuroscience Applications  

PubMed Central

We present an inductively powered 32-channel wireless integrated neural recording (WINeR) system-on-a-chip (SoC) to be ultimately used for one or more small freely behaving animals. The inductive powering is intended to relieve the animals from carrying bulky batteries used in other wireless systems, and enables long recording sessions. The WINeR system uses time-division multiplexing along with a novel power scheduling method that reduces the current in unused low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) to cut the total SoC power consumption. In addition, an on-chip high-efficiency active rectifier with optimized coils help improve the overall system power efficiency, which is controlled in a closed loop to supply stable power to the WINeR regardless of the coil displacements. The WINeR SoC has been implemented in a 0.5-µm standard complementary metal–oxide semiconductor process, measuring 4.9 × 3.3 mm2 and consuming 5.85 mW at ± 1.5 V when 12 out of 32 LNAs are active at any time by power scheduling. Measured input-referred noise for the entire system, including the receiver located at 1.2 m, is 4.95 µVrms in the 1 Hz~10 kHz range when the system is inductively powered with 7-cm separation between aligned coils.

Lee, Seung Bae; Lee, Hyung-Min; Kiani, Mehdi; Jow, Uei-Ming; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2014-01-01

283

Characterization of mucoadhesive microspheres for the induction of mucosal and systemic immune responses.  

PubMed

In the present study, mucoadhesive polymer-dispersed microspheres (MS) were examined as a potential mucosal vaccine carrier. A major focus of the study was aimed at directly assessing the influence of antigen release and persistence in the mouse small intestine for the induction of mucosal and systemic immune responses. BALB/c mice were immunized with various forms of MS containing chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA) by administration into the duodenum. No detectable anti-OVA immune responses were observed following the administration of OVA alone or that of MS without mucoadhesive polymer (MS-0). MS-10 containing 10% mucoadhesive polymer rapidly released OVA and hardly induced anti-OVA antibody responses in either serum or fecal extracts. In contrast, MS-8 and MS-6 (with 8 and 6% mucoadhesive polymer) showed controlled release of OVA, which elicited strong OVA-specific IgG and IgA responses in serum and fecal extracts, respectively. Additionally, the strongest immune responses were induced in mice immunized with MS-8, which had both the optimal release-profile of OVA and the longest persistence in the small intestine. These findings indicate that antigen movement in the small intestine is an important factor and that appropriate microsphere forms with mucoadhesive polymers might be useful candidates as mucosal vaccine carriers. PMID:11027825

Kunisawa, J; Okudaira, A; Tsutusmi, Y; Takahashi, I; Nakanishi, T; Kiyono, H; Mayumi, T

2000-10-15

284

Impul'snaya sistema linejnogo induktsionnogo uskoritelya. (Pulse system of linear induction accelerator).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The detailed description of two modifications of powerful pulse generators (modulators) - the acceleration voltage sources for linear induction accelerator (LIA) is given. The modulators are designed with application of nonlinear circuits of power amplifi...

A. I. Sidorov V. I. Kazacha A. K. Krasnykh V. P. Sarantsev

1989-01-01

285

Environmental Technology Verification. Biological Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All tests were performed in accordance with RTI's Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaner, a supplement to 'Test/Quality Assurance Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners' which ...

2008-01-01

286

Green Light for Steroid Hormones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. In his Perspective, D. Russell describes two papers--one in this week's issue of Science (Li et al., p. 398) and one in the 19 April issue of Cell (M. Szekeres et al.)--which report on two enzymes that synthesize steroid hormones cloned from Arabidopsis. These enzymes, DET2 and CPD, are in the biosynthetic pathway for brassinolides, steroids that seem to participate in the regulation of gene expression by light.

David W. Russell (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center;Department of Molecular Genetics)

1996-04-19

287

Steroidal saponins from Smilax officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new steroidal saponins were isolated from the rhizomes of Smilax officinalis. The structures of these saponins were established by extensive spectral data, hydrolysis and chemical correlation as sarsasapogenin 3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-d-glucopyranoside, neotigogenin 3-O-?-d- glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-d-glucopyranoside and 25S-spirostan-6?-ol 3-O-?-d- glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-d-glucopyranoside. Acid hydrolysis of the latter compound gave a sapogenin which has a new orientation of an hydroxyl on the steroidal skeleton. A route

Ribson Roney Bernardo; Antonio Ventura Pinto; JoséPaz Parente

1996-01-01

288

Adolescents and Steroids: A User Prospective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first of two reports describes the adolescent users' perceptions of the patterns, trends, motivations for and effects of anabolic steroid use. Findings are based on detailed interviews of 72 current or former adolescent steroid users (average current ...

J. V. Tyler

1990-01-01

289

Steroids/Nutritional Supplements/Antibiotics  

MedlinePLUS

... than anabolic steroids? Catabolic steroids, like the natural hydrocortisone, help the body break down tissues to release ... to its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects. Like hydrocortisone, prednisone fights inflammation (swelling) in injured or damaged ...

290

Steroids Often Prescribed for Psoriasis, Countering Guidelines  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Steroids Often Prescribed for Psoriasis, Countering Guidelines Their use may cause skin flare- ... Dallas Friday, February 28, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Psoriasis Steroids FRIDAY, Feb. 28, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Although ...

291

Induction and suppression of allergic diarrhea and systemic anaphylaxis in a mouse model of food allergy  

PubMed Central

Background The clinical manifestations of food allergy include diarrhea and systemic anaphylaxis (shock), which can occur together or by themselves in different individuals. Although ingested food antigens need to be absorbed to induce shock, it is not known whether they need to be absorbed to induce diarrhea. Objective Identify mechanisms that determine whether food allergy induces diarrhea versus shock and determine whether diarrhea requires absorption of ingested antigens. Methods: These issues were studied in mice in active, passive and hybrid immunization models. The active model was used to determine the allergic diarrhea susceptibility of J chain- and pIgR-deficient mice, which are unable to secrete IgA. The hybrid model was used to determine whether intravenously administered antigen-specific IgG antibody, which is not secreted into the gut, can protect against allergic diarrhea as well as shock. Results Shock, but not diarrhea was induced in naïve mice by intravenous IgE anti-TNP antibody, followed by oral TNP-bovine serum albumin, whereas both were induced in mice presensitized with intraperitoneal ovalbumin/alum plus oral ovalbumin. More TNP-bovine serum albumin was required to induce shock than diarrhea in presensitized mice and intravenous IgG anti-TNP antibody, which is not secreted into the gut, protected these mice against both diarrhea and shock. Consistent with this, OVA-immunized J chain- and pIgR-deficient mice, which have high serum IgA but little intestinal IgA, resisted diarrhea induction. Conclusion Intestinal immunity and oral Ag dose determine whether diarrhea and/or systemic anaphylaxis are induced and ingested Ag must be absorbed to induce either response.

Kucuk, Zeynep Yesim; Strait, Richard; Khodoun, Marat V.; Mahler, Ashley; Hogan, Simon; Finkelman, Fred D.

2012-01-01

292

Steady-State Characteristics of a Torque and Speed Control System of an Induction Motor Utilizing Rotor Slot Harmonics for Slip Frequency Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is proposed to detect the slip frequency of a three phase squirrel-cage induction motor from rotor slot harmonics. A method of torque and speed control of the induction motor using the proposed slip frequency detector is presented. The torque and speed control system is realized considering characteristics of the slip frequency detector. Experimental results show that the proposed

Muneaki Ishida; Koji Iwata

1987-01-01

293

Effects of voltage unbalance and system harmonics on the performance of doubly fed induction wind generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inherent difficulties in management of electric power in the presence of an increasing demand for more energy, non-conventional loads such as digital appliances, and non-sustainable imported fossil fuels has initiated a multi-folded effort by many countries to restructure the way electric energy is generated, dispatched, and consumed. Smart power grid is the manifestation of many technologies that would eventually transforms the existing power grid into a more flexible, fault resilient, and intelligent system. Integration of distributed renewable energy sources plays a central role in successful implementation of this transformation. Among the renewable options, wind energy harvesting offers superior engineering and economical incentives with minimal environmental impacts. Doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) have turned into a serious contender for wind energy generators due to their flexibility in control of active and reactive power with minimal silicon loss. Significant presence of voltage unbalance and system harmonics in finite inertia transmission lines can potentially undermine the reliability of these wind generators. The present dissertation has investigated the impacts of system unbalances and harmonics on the performance of the DFIG. Our investigation indicates that these effects can result in an undesirable undulation in the rotor shaft which can potentially invoke mechanical resonance, thereby causing catastrophic damages to the installations and the power grid. In order to remedy the above issue, a control solution for real time monitoring of the system unbalance and optimal excitation of the three phase rotor currents in a DFIG is offered. The optimal rotor currents will create appropriate components of the magneto-motive force in the airgap that will actively compensate the undesirable magnetic field originated by the stator windings. Due to the iterative nature of the optimization procedure, field reconstruction method has been incorporated. Field reconstruction method provides high precision results at a considerably faster pace as compared to finite element method. Our results indicate that by just-in-time detection of the system unbalance and employment of the optimal rotor currents damaging torque pulsation can be effectively eliminated. The side effects of the proposed method in changing the core, copper, and silicon losses are minor and well justified when reliability of the wind generation units are considered.

Kiani, Morgan Mozhgan

294

Management issues with exogenous steroid therapy  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are extensively used for various inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, but long term use of these agents is not without complications. Almost every GC formulations (e.g. oral, topical, inhaled, etc.) can cause systemic side effects. It can range from minor side effects (e.g. weight gain) to life-threatening effects (e.g. adrenal suppression, sepsis, etc.), which may require immediate intervention. Therefore, the decision to institute steroid therapy always requires careful consideration of the relative risk and benefit in each patient. The objectives of this study are to discuss monitoring of patients on GCs and management of the complications of GCs.

Patt, Hiren; Bandgar, Tushar; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

2013-01-01

295

Management issues with exogenous steroid therapy.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are extensively used for various inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, but long term use of these agents is not without complications. Almost every GC formulations (e.g. oral, topical, inhaled, etc.) can cause systemic side effects. It can range from minor side effects (e.g. weight gain) to life-threatening effects (e.g. adrenal suppression, sepsis, etc.), which may require immediate intervention. Therefore, the decision to institute steroid therapy always requires careful consideration of the relative risk and benefit in each patient. The objectives of this study are to discuss monitoring of patients on GCs and management of the complications of GCs. PMID:24910822

Patt, Hiren; Bandgar, Tushar; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

2013-12-01

296

Transtympanic steroids in refractory sudden hearing loss. Personal experience  

PubMed Central

Summary The treatment of choice for sudden sensorineural hearing loss is still lacking. Many drugs have been used over the years, with varying results and steroids have proven to be effective in clinical trials, albeit systemic administration is associated with untoward side-effects and cannot be used in all patients. The transtympanic approach presents two main advantages: first, it allows higher concentrations in the inner ear environment and, second, it minimizes systemic absorption. Aim of the present investigation was to establish the effectiveness of transtympanic steroid treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss in patients in whom conventional treatment had failed. For this purpose, a prospective, non-randomized study was designed to evaluate hearing improvement in sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients treated with transtympanic steroids. A solution of methyl-prednisolone and sodium bicarbonate was administered, via a transtympanic injection, in 10 patients. Hearing levels were evaluated before treatment and on days 1, 7 and 30, thereafter. Improvement in hearing was observed in 70% of patients, moreover, in patients not usually considered amenable to this kind of treatment. Transtympanic steroid treatment is an effective and safe option for patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss when conventional treatment regimens have failed. Further studies are needed to define the optimal dosage, route of administration and type of steroids.

Dallan, I; Bruschini, L; Nacci, A; Fattori, B; Traino, AC; Rognini, F; Ferraro, G; Bruschini, P

2006-01-01

297

Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete  

PubMed Central

Anabolic steroid use by amateur and professional athletes and body builders is common. Patients may be using these drugs to enhance muscle bulk or athletic performance. An informed family physician comfortable with the topic can counsel patients on risks and side effects. This article reviews findings, offers recommendations, and discusses whether physicians should agree to monitor users.

Geddes, John A.

1991-01-01

298

Standalone Self-Excited Induction Generator with a Three-Phase Four-Wire Active Filter and Energy Storage System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a system, based on a self- excited induction generator with a shunt electronic converter, to feed isolated three-phase and single-phase linear or nonlinear loads. The electronic converter is composed by a three-phase four-wire voltage source inverter (VSI) and, connected to its dc side, two dc\\/dc converters. The VSI compensates the current harmonics, the reactive power and the

José Antonio Barrado; Robert Griñó; Hugo Valderrama

2007-01-01

299

Real-Time Simulation of a Wind Energy System Based on the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the real-time digital simulation of a grid-connected wind turbine generator system (WTGS) based on a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). A 1.5-MW WTGS is the basis for model development. First a detailed electromagnetic transient model for the WTGS is developed in the MATLAB\\/SIMULINK environment. This model includes the complete aerodynamic, mechanical and electrical components of the wind turbine,

Lok-Fu Pak; Venkata Dinavahi

2009-01-01

300

A cage induction generator using back to back PWM converters for variable speed grid connected wind energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new control scheme of a variable speed grid connected wind energy generation system is presented. The scheme uses a cage induction generator driven by an emulated wind turbine with two back-to-back voltage-fed PWM inverters to interface the generator and the grid. The machine currents are controlled using an indirect vector control technique. The generator torque is controlled to drive

R. Pena; Roberto Cardenas; R. Blasco; G. Asher; J. Clare

2001-01-01

301

Roles of sex and gonadal steroids in mammalian pheromonal communication.  

PubMed

A brain circuit (the accessory olfactory system) that originates in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and includes the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) plus additional forebrain regions mediates many of the effects of pheromones, typically comprised of a variety of non-volatile and volatile compounds, on aspects of social behavior. A second, parallel circuit (the main olfactory system) that originates in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and includes the main olfactory bulb (MOB) has also been shown to detect volatile pheromones from conspecifics. Studies are reviewed that point to specific roles of several different steroids and their water-soluble metabolites as putative pheromones. Other studies are reviewed that establish an adult, 'activational' role of circulating sex hormones along with sex differences in the detection and/or processing of non-steroidal pheromones by these two olfactory circuits. Persisting questions about the role of sex steroids in pheromonal processing are posed for future investigation. PMID:23872334

Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

2013-10-01

302

Mutual Inductance Problem for a System Consisting of a Current Sheet and a Thin Metal Plate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid inspection of aircraft structures for flaws is of vital importance to the commercial and defense aircraft industry. In particular, inspecting thin aluminum structures for flaws is the focus of a large scale R&D effort in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community. Traditional eddy current methods used today are effective, but require long inspection times. New electromagnetic techniques which monitor the normal component of the magnetic field above a sample due to a sheet of current as the excitation, seem to be promising. This paper is an attempt to understand and analyze the magnetic field distribution due to a current sheet above an aluminum test sample. A simple theoretical model, coupled with a two dimensional finite element model (FEM) and experimental data will be presented in the next few sections. A current sheet above a conducting sample generates eddy currents in the material, while a sensor above the current sheet or in between the two plates monitors the normal component of the magnetic field. A rivet or a surface flaw near a rivet in an aircraft aluminum skin will disturb the magnetic field, which is imaged by the sensor. Initial results showed a strong dependence of the flaw induced normal magnetic field strength on the thickness and conductivity of the current-sheet that could not be accounted for by skin depth attenuation alone. It was believed that the eddy current imaging method explained the dependence of the thickness and conductivity of the flaw induced normal magnetic field. Further investigation, suggested the complexity associated with the mutual inductance of the system needed to be studied. The next section gives an analytical model to better understand the phenomenon.

Fulton, J. P.; Wincheski, B.; Nath, S.; Namkung, M.

1993-01-01

303

Hardware for quasi-single-shot multifrequency magnetic induction tomography (MIT): the Graz Mk2 system.  

PubMed

Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) has been suggested by several groups for the contact-less mapping of the passive electrical properties of tissues via AC magnetic fields in the frequency range between several tens of kHz and several tens of MHz. Multifrequency MIT as an analog to multifrequency EIT has been tried and first image reconstructions have been demonstrated with phantoms. MIT appears to yield comparable images to EIT but offers the advantage of being non-contacting. In the beta-dispersion range of most tissues the method is challenging because the signals are very small and buried in noise. In order to minimize drifts and systematic errors fast data acquisition is therefore pivotal. This paper presents a method for single-shot MIT which allows us to acquire the data for a multifrequency image with an analog bandwidth of 50 kHz-1.5 MHz which covers a good part of the beta-dispersion of many tissues. The transmit (TX) coils are simultaneously driven by individual power amplifiers with a multisinus pattern with up to 3 A(pp). The amplifiers are configured as current sources so as not to perturb the excitation fields by inappropriately terminated coils. The separation of the different TX channels after reception is achieved by splitting up the carrier frequencies into individual subcarriers with a narrow spacing of at most 300 Hz. In this way every TX coil is identifiable by its own subcarrier but the whole excitation band is contained within a few kHz. The real and imaginary parts of the received signals are extracted efficiently with FFT. The system noise and the sources for low-frequency perturbations are analyzed and characterized. PMID:18544831

Scharfetter, H; Köstinger, A; Issa, S

2008-06-01

304

Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy: a computer controlled, scanning monochromator system for the rapid determination of the elements  

SciTech Connect

A computer controlled, scanning monochromator system specifically designed for the rapid, sequential determination of the elements is described. The monochromator is combined with an inductively coupled plasma excitation source so that elements at major, minor, trace, and ultratrace levels may be determined, in sequence, without changing experimental parameters other than the spectral line observed. A number of distinctive features not found in previously described versions are incorporated into the system here described. Performance characteristics of the entire system and several analytical applications are discussed.

Floyd, M.A.

1980-03-01

305

Modulation of corneal wound healing after excimer laser keratomileusis using topical mitomycin C and steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 193-nm excimer laser system was used to create deep stromal ablations in seven New Zealand white rabbits and shallow ablations in three. Eyes were randomized for treatment with topical mitomycin C, steroids, and erythromycin; topical steroids and erythromycin; or topical erythromycin only. All treatment regimens were instituted twice daily for 14 days. All eyes reepithelialized normally within 3 to

J. H. Talamo; S. Gollamudi; W. R. Green; Z. De La Cruz; V. Filatov; W. J. Stark

1991-01-01

306

Steroid treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis in adults.  

PubMed

Topical steroid therapy has been used to treat eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) for more than 15 years. We review the treatment trials of topical steroid therapy in adult patients with EoE. Currently, there is no commercially available preparation designed to deliver the steroid to the esophagus. Current regimens consist of swallowing steroid preparations designed for inhalation treatment for asthma. In the short term, steroids are associated with an approximately 15% to 25% incidence of asymptomatic esophageal candidiasis, but otherwise appear to be well tolerated. PMID:24813521

Alexander, Jeffrey A

2014-06-01

307

Perioral dermatitis -- the role of nasal steroids.  

PubMed

We present two patients with allergic rhinitis who developed perioral dermatitis (PD) after initiating intranasal steroid spray. Both patients had been previously misdiagnosed as having contact or seborrheic dermatitis, and therefore inappropriately and unsuccessfully treated with topical steroids. Physicians should be aware of this potential side effect of intranasal steroids to avoid incorrect therapeutic measures. In the setting of nasal steroids use, PD probably is an under-reported and commonly misdiagnosed condition that should be thought when a patient treated with nasal steroids present with small erythematous papules, papulovesicles, and papulopustules occurring against a background of redness, beginning in the nasolabial areas and spreading rapidly to the perioral zone. PMID:21995785

Peralta, Lígia; Morais, Paulo

2012-06-01

308

Induction: Making the Leap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a critical examination of a variety of approaches to induction focusing especially upon Australia and other Pacific Rim countries. The question of the purposes induction serves for graduate teachers, experienced teachers and education systems is addressed in terms of whether it is a technical exercise which preserves the…

Ling, Lorraine M.

2009-01-01

309

Steroid hormones, stress and the adolescent brain: a comparative perspective.  

PubMed

Steroid hormones, including those produced by the gonads and the adrenal glands, are known to influence brain development during sensitive periods of life. Until recently, most brain organisation was assumed to take place during early stages of development, with relatively little neurogenesis or brain re-organisation during later stages. However, an increasing body of research has shown that the developing brain is also sensitive to steroid hormone exposure during adolescence (broadly defined as the period from nutritional independence to sexual maturity). In this review, we examine how steroid hormones that are produced by the gonads and adrenal glands vary across the lifespan in a range of mammalian and bird species, and we summarise the evidence that steroid hormone exposure influences behavioural and brain development during early stages of life and during adolescence in these two taxonomic groups. Taking a cross-species, comparative perspective reveals that the effects of early exposure to steroid hormones depend upon the stage of development at birth or hatching, as measured along the altricial-precocial dimension. We then review the evidence that exposure to stress during adolescence impacts upon the developing neuroendocrine systems, the brain and behaviour. Current research suggests that the effects of adolescent stress vary depending upon the sex of the individual and type of stressor, and the effects of stress could involve several neural systems, including the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. Experience of stressors during adolescence could also influence brain development via the close interactions between the stress hormone and gonadal hormone axes. While sensitivity of the brain to steroid hormones during early life and adolescence potentially leaves the developing organism vulnerable to external adversities, developmental plasticity also provides an opportunity for the developing organism to respond to current circumstances and for behavioural responses to influence the future life history of the individual. PMID:23262238

Brown, G R; Spencer, K A

2013-09-26

310

Steroid-Protein Interactions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies on the binding of progesterone to alpha-1-acid glycoprotein were continued. A decreasing effect of traces of heavy metals, especially Fe(++), on the binding affinity was observed. Complete deionization of the test system is necessary. Purification...

U. F. Westphal

1965-01-01

311

Electric monorail system with magnetic levitations and linear induction motors for contactless delivery applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent semiconductor and display manufac- turing processes, high clean-class delivery operation is required more and more for short working time and better product quality. Traditionally single-sided linear induction motor (SLIM) is widely used in the liner drive applications because of its simplicity in the rail structure. A magnetically levitated (Maglev) unmanned vehicle with SLIM traction, which is powered by

Ki-Chang Lee; Ji-Woo Moon; Min-Cheol Lee; Jong-Moo Kim; Ji-Won Kim; Dae-Hyun Koo

2011-01-01

312

The design of low inductance electrical circuits for slapper detonator systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flying plate generators (FPG) are used to study the shock properties of various materials. This report investigates the theoretical electrical properties of the flat, parallel conductors that are currently used in the construction of FPGs. The design of these conductors can greatly effect the efficiency of FPGs by varying the high frequency capacitance and inductance of the electrical circuit, and

Don D. Richardson; Ross Kummer

1989-01-01

313

Modeling of wind turbines based on doubly-fed induction generators for power system stability studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with modeling of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) and the corresponding converter for stability studies. To enable efficient computation a reduced order DFIG model is developed that restricts the calculation to the fundamental frequency component. However, the model enhancement introduced in the paper allows the consideration of the alternating components of the rotor current as well which

I. Erlich; J. Kretschmann; S. Mueller-Engelhardt; F. Koch; J. Fortmann

2008-01-01

314

An inductive reasoning approach for building system safety risk models of aviation accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inductive reasoning approach is employed to develop a prototype hybrid decision support tool whose main objective is to build probabilistic causal models representing the safety risk involved in aviation accidents. In this context, 15 aircraft accidents representative of five major accident types are selected to build an initial seed for the case?base of the prototype tool. Consequently, within each

Ahmet E. Oztekin; James T. Luxhøj

2010-01-01

315

Computer expert system for spectral line simulation and selection in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta, Part B (SAB). This hardcopy text, comprising the main body and an appendix, is accompanied by a disk with programs, data files and a brief manual. The main body discusses purpose, design principle and usage of the computer software for the inductively coupled

Pengyuan Yang; Hai Ying; Xiaoru Wang; Benli Huang

1996-01-01

316

Comparison Between Control Systems in a Doubly Fed Induction Generator Connected to an Electric Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of doubly fed induction generator proper for dynamic studies is connected to a mechanical wind turbine model and to a simple electric grid to perform several simulations. The generator model rejects stator electric transients, a common assumption made in transient stability analysis. Aerodynamic effects are represented by a typical power coefficient-tip speed ratio transfer function, so that the

Pablo Ledesma; Julio Usaola; Jose Luis Rodr ´ iguez; Juan Carlos Burgos

317

Modeling of Wind Turbines Based on Doubly-Fed Induction Generators for Power System Stability Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with modeling of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) and the corresponding converter for stability studies. To enable efficient computation, a reduced-order DFIG model is developed that restricts the calculation to the fundamental frequency component. However, the model enhancement introduced in this paper allows the consideration of the alternating components of the rotor current as well, which is

Istvan Erlich; JÖrg Kretschmann; Jens Fortmann; Stephan Mueller-Engelhardt; Holger Wrede

2007-01-01

318

Influence of the sample introduction system on acid effects in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of the aerosol formation and transport on acid effects has been studied in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in order to elucidate the decrease in the analyte intensity. To separate the role of the ionization and excitation conditions from that of the sample introduction, operating conditions have been set-up to obtain a constant ratio of the ionic line

M. Carre; K. Lebas; M. Marichy; M. Mermet; E. Poussel; J. M. Mermet

1995-01-01

319

Magnetic design of a three-phase Inductive Power Transfer system for roadway powered Electric Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) is a viable method for recharging and powering Electric Vehicles (EV) along a roadway since it is safe, efficient and convenient. This is however, a demanding application because power needs to be transferred over relatively large air gaps of 150-200 mm while allowing sufficient horizontal tolerance across the width of the lane, to enable an unguided

Mickel Budhia; Grant Covic; John Boys

2010-01-01

320

Converter Propulsion Systems with Three-Phase Induction Motors for Electric Traction Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-phase induction machines have a number of advantages compared with collector type machines which make them particularly suitable for traction purposes. These advantages, which were recognized long before, could only be used in praxis by means of the progress, which the development of static power converters has made in the last decade. Primarily having been used in diesel-electric traction vehicles

Hans Kielgas; Reiner Nill

1980-01-01

321

Steroid nanocrystals prepared using the nano spray dryer B-90.  

PubMed

The Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple, and alternative approach for the production of drug nanocrystals. In this study, the preparation of steroid nanocrystals using the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 was demonstrated. The particle size was controlled by selecting the mesh aperture size. Submicrometer steroid particles in powder form were successfully obtained. These nanoparticles were confirmed to have a crystal structure using powder X-ray diffraction pattern analysis. Since drug nanocrystals have recently been considered as a novel type of drug formulation for drug delivery systems, this study will be useful for nano-medical applications. PMID:24300400

Baba, Koichi; Nishida, Kohji

2013-01-01

322

Steroid Nanocrystals Prepared Using the Nano Spray Dryer B-90  

PubMed Central

The Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple, and alternative approach for the production of drug nanocrystals. In this study, the preparation of steroid nanocrystals using the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 was demonstrated. The particle size was controlled by selecting the mesh aperture size. Submicrometer steroid particles in powder form were successfully obtained. These nanoparticles were confirmed to have a crystal structure using powder X-ray diffraction pattern analysis. Since drug nanocrystals have recently been considered as a novel type of drug formulation for drug delivery systems, this study will be useful for nano-medical applications.

Baba, Koichi; Nishida, Kohji

2013-01-01

323

Paediatric cardiac transplantation with steroid-sparing maintenance immunosuppression.  

PubMed Central

In order to determine the results of steroid-sparing maintenance immunosuppression in paediatric patients who have undergone orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT), a retrospective study was undertaken in 12 children and five infants (median age 3.5 years). Preoperative diagnoses were cardiomyopathy in seven and congenital heart disease in 10 patients. Immunosuppression was induced by cyclosporin, azathioprine, methylprednisolone, and antihuman lymphocyte immune globulin. It was maintained with cyclosporin and azathioprine. After induction, five patients received no further steroids. The remainder, except one, required only pulses for rejection (13 episodes or 0.51 episodes/patient year). Long term complications included hypertension in six, and renal impairment in three children. There were no early or late deaths from infection. Actuarial survival was 94% at one year. Of the children followed up for more than one year, all demonstrated an increase in height SD scores (mean (SD) -2.15 (1.35) to -1.15 (1.16)). We conclude that a steroid-sparing maintenance immunosuppression regimen can be successfully employed in paediatric OHT, and that significant catch-up growth can be achieved postoperatively.

Au, J; Gregory, J W; Colquhoun, I W; Scott, C D; Hilton, C J; Hunter, S; Dark, J H

1992-01-01

324

The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), beyond xenobiotic metabolism  

PubMed Central

The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) (also known as pregnane X receptor or PXR) is a nuclear hormone receptor activated by a diverse array of endogenous hormones, dietary steroids, pharmaceutical agents, and xenobiotic compounds. SXR has an enlarged, flexible, hydrophobic ligand binding domain (LBD) which is remarkably divergent across mammalian species and SXR exhibits considerable differences in its pharmacology among mammals. The broad response profile of SXR has led to the development of "the steroid and xenobiotic sensor hypothesis". SXR has been established as a xenobiotic sensor that coordinately regulates xenobiotic clearance in the liver and intestine via induction of genes involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. In the past few years, research has revealed new and mostly unsuspected roles for SXR in modulating inflammation, bone homeostasis, vitamin D metabolism, lipid homeostasis, energy homeostasis and cancer. The identification of SXR as a xenobiotic sensor has provided an important tool for studying new mechanisms through which diet, chemical exposure, and environment ultimately impact health and disease. The discovery and pharmacological development of new PXR modulators might represent an interesting and innovative therapeutic approach to combat various diseases.

Zhou, Changcheng; Verma, Suman; Blumberg, Bruce

2009-01-01

325

Induction linacs  

SciTech Connect

The principle of linear induction acceleration is described, and examples are given of practical configurations for induction linacs. These examples include the Advanced Technology Accelerator, Long Pulse Induction Linac, Radial Line Accelerator (RADLAC), and Magnetically-Insulated Electron-Focussed Ion Linac. A related concept, the auto accelerator, is described in which the high-current electron-beam technology in the sub-10 MeV region is exploited to produce electron beams at energies perhaps as high as the 100 to 1000 MeV range. Induction linacs for ions are also discussed. The efficiency of induction linear acceleration is analyzed. (LEW)

Keefe, D.

1986-07-01

326

Flux modeling and analysis of a linear induction motor for steel mill non-contacting conveyance system application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed mathematical approach for analyzing static/dynamic characteristics of a linear induction motor for steel mill non-contacting conveyance system application will be provided. The dependent reluctances among the motor secondary steel plate and primary poles have been systematically formulated; hence, the operational performance of the system can be derived conveniently. Results showed that not only the motor structure is suitable for the design objective, but also the proposed magnetic equivalent circuit can provide appropriate and convenient modeling for relative analytical investigations.

Liu, Cheng-Tsung; Lin, Sheng-Yang; Yang, Yung-Yi

2005-04-01

327

Early steroid withdrawal in pediatric renal transplant: five years of follow-up.  

PubMed

This prospective, comparative trial investigated the impact on mean change in height standard deviation score (SDS), acute rejection rate, and renal function of early steroid withdrawal in 96 recipients with 5 years of follow-up. Recipients under basiliximab induction and steroid withdrawal (SW: TAC/MMF; n = 55) were compared with a matched steroid control group (SC: TAC/MMF/STEROID, n = 41). SW received steroids until Day 6, SC decreased to 10 mg/m(2) within 2 months post-transplant. Five years after SW, the longitudinal growth (SDS) gain was 1.4 ± 0.4 vs. 1.1 ± 0.3 for SC group (p < 0.02). Height benefits in prepubertal and pubertal status in both groups were demonstrated in the delta growth trends (mixed model; p < 0.01). Biopsy-proven acute rejection in SW was 11% and 17.5%, SC (p: ns). Mean eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m(2)) at 5 years post-transplant was SW 80.6 ± 27.8 vs. 82.6 ± 25.1 for SC (p: ns). The death-censored graft survival rate at 1 and 5 years was 99 and 90% for SW; 98 and 96% for SC (p = ns). PTLD incidence in SW 3.3 vs. 2.5% in SC (p: ns). Five years post-transplant, early steroid withdrawal showed positive impacts on growth, stable renal function without increased acute rejection risk, and PTLD incidence. PMID:21695450

Delucchi, Angela; Valenzuela, Marcela; Lillo, Ana M; Guerrero, Jose Luis; Cano, Francisco; Azocar, Marta; Zambrano, Pedro; Salas, Paulina; Pinto, Viola; Ferrario, Mario; Rodríguez, Jorge; Cavada, Gabriel

2011-12-01

328

The Steroid Metabolome of Adrenarche  

PubMed Central

Adrenarche is an endocrine developmental process whereby humans and select nonhuman primates increase adrenal output of a series of steroids, especially dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). The timing of adrenarche varies between primates, but in humans, serum levels of DHEAS are seen to increase around 6 years of age. This phenomenon corresponds with the development and expansion of the zona reticularis (ZR) of the adrenal gland. The physiological phenomena that trigger the onset of adrenarche are still unknown; however the biochemical pathways leading to this event have been elucidated in detail. There are numerous reviews examining the process of adrenarche, most of which, have focused on the changes within the adrenal as well as the phenotypic results of adrenarche. This article reviews the recent and past studies that show the breadth of changes in the circulating steroid metabolome that occurs during the process of adrenarche.

Rege, Juilee; Rainey, William E.

2014-01-01

329

Spectrophotometric Determination of Steroid Oximes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectrophotometric procedure for the determination of steroid oximes is described utilizing 11?-hydroxy-iia-methyl-5?-pregnane -3, 20 -dione dioxime (I) and iia-hydroxy-progesterone dioxime (II) as models. The method is based on (a) acid hydrolysis to release hydroxylamine, (b) oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrous acid with iodine, (c) diazotization of sulfanilic acid with the nitrous acid, (d) coupling of the diazonium compound with

Arlington A. Forist; Ray W. Judy

1974-01-01

330

Vitrification of high level nuclear waste inside ambient temperature disposal containers using inductive heating: The SMILE system  

SciTech Connect

A new approach, termed SMILE (Small Module Inductively Loaded Energy), for the vitrification of high level nuclear wastes (HLW) is described. Present vitrification systems liquefy the HLW solids and associated frit material in large high temperature melters. The molten mix is then poured into small ({approximately}1 m{sup 3}) disposal canisters, where it solidifies and cools. SMILE eliminates the separate, large high temperature melter. Instead, the BLW solids and frit melt inside the final disposal containers, using inductive heating. The contents then solidify and cool in place. The SMILE modules and the inductive heating process are designed so that the outer stainless can of the module remains at near ambient temperature during the process cycle. Module dimensions are similar to those of present disposal containers. The can is thermally insulated from the high temperature inner container by a thin layer of refractory alumina firebricks. The inner container is a graphite crucible lined with a dense alumina refractory that holds the HLW and fiit materials. After the SMILE module is loaded with a slurry of HLW and frit solids, an external multi-turn coil is energized with 30-cycle AC current. The enclosing external coil is the primary of a power transformer, with the graphite crucible acting as a single turn ``secondary.`` The induced current in the ``secondary`` heats the graphite, which in turn heats the HLW and frit materials. The first stage of the heating process is carried out at an intermediate temperature to drive off remnant liquid water and water of hydration, which takes about 1 day. The small fill/vent tube to the module is then sealed off and the interior temperature raised to the vitrification range, i.e., {approximately}1200C. Liquefaction is complete after approximately 1 day. The inductive heating then ceases and the module slowly loses heat to the environment, allowing the molten material to solidify and cool down to ambient temperature.

Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Barletta, R.

1996-03-01

331

Identification of Plant Model of Linear Induction Motors for Traction System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linear induction motor (LIM) is suitable for use in trains; the motor can be used in both wheel-suspended and contact-less types such as Linear Metro and HSST trains in Japan. The LIM has the end winding as well as asymmetrical winding. The end-effect is a major problem in the LIM, and it makes the analysis, design, and control of motors difficult. In this paper, the combination method of numerical analysis and equivalent circuit of the LIM is described in order to design a high-performance controller of the LIM includeing the end effect. A sample basic field-oriented control scheme that is based on the plant model is applied to the LIM in order to check the control performance; the theory of rotary induction motor is used for the verification.

Nozaki, Yuichiro; Koseki, Takafumi

332

Induction of IL33 expression and activity in central nervous system glia  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-33 is a novel member of the IL-1 cytokine family and a potent inducer of type 2 immunity, as mast cells and Th2 CD4 T cells respond to IL-33 with the induction of type 2 cy- tokines such as IL-13. IL-33 mRNA levels are ex- tremely high in the CNS, and CNS glia possess both subunits of the IL-33R, yet

Chad A. Hudson; George P. Christophi; Ross C. Gruber; Joel R. Wilmore; David A. Lawrence; Paul T. Massa

2008-01-01

333

Multiple components and induction mechanism of the chitinolytic system of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus chitonophagus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermococcus chitonophagus produces several, cellular and extracellular chitinolytic enzymes following induction with various types of chitin and chitin oligomers, as well as cellulose. Factors affecting the anaerobic culture of this archaeon, such as optimal temperature, agitation speed and type of chitin, were investigated. A series of chitinases, co-isolated with the major, cell membrane-associated endochitinase (Chi70), and a periplasmic chitobiase (Chi90)

Evi Andronopoulou; Constantinos E. Vorgias

2004-01-01

334

Revival by automation of induction generator for distributed power systems, in Romanian academic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper approaches the half-century history and the main research results of the academic staff and researchers from “Politehnica” University of Timisoara (Universitatea “Politehnica” Timisoara—UPT) and their collaboration with the academic, research and production environment concerning the use of induction machine as power supply in microhydro plants and windmills in particular; from among these collaborators we mention: The Romanian Academy—Timisoara

Nicolae Budisan; Octavian Prostean; Nicolae Robu; Ioan Filip

2007-01-01

335

Design of a back-to-back multilevel induction motor drive for traction systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the design of a single phase AC\\/DC\\/AC converter feeding an induction motor for traction applications. A cascade of H-bridge cells has been used to obtain a multilevel conversion structure. The front-end rectifier should absorb current with low harmonic content to eliminate disturbances on the communication equipments and, more in general, to reduce electromagnetic pollution. Additional specification

A. Dell'Aquila; Marco Liserre; Vito G. Monopoli; C. Cecati

2003-01-01

336

Nuclear Receptor Coactivators Are Coexpressed with Steroid Receptors and Regulated by Estradiol in Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The steroid hormones, including estradiol (E) and progesterone, act in the brain to regulate female reproductive behavior and physiology. These hormones mediate many of their biological effects by binding to their respective intracellular receptors. The receptors for estrogens (ER) and progestins (PR) interact with nuclear receptor coactivators to initiate transcription of steroid-responsive genes. Work from our laboratory and others reveals that nuclear receptor coactivators, including steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) and SRC-2, function in brain to modulate ER-mediated induction of the PR gene and hormone-dependent behaviors. In order for steroid receptors and coactivators to function together, both must be expressed in the same cells. Methods Triple-label immunofluorescence was used to determine if E-induced PR cells also express SRC-1 or SRC-2 in reproductively relevant brain regions of the female mouse. Results The majority of E-induced PR cells in the medial preoptic area (61%), ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (63%) and arcuate nucleus (76%) coexpressed both SRC-1 and SRC-2. A smaller proportion of PR cells expressed either SRC-1 or SRC-2, while a few PR cells expressed neither coactivator. In addition, compared to control animals, 17?-estradiol benzoate (EB) treatment increased SRC-1 levels in the arcuate nucleus, but not the medial preoptic area or the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. EB did not alter SRC-2 expression in any of the three brain regions analyzed. Conclusions Taken together, the present findings identify a population of cells in which steroid receptors and nuclear receptor coactivators may interact to modulate steroid sensitivity in brain and regulate hormone-dependent behaviors in female mice. Given that cell culture studies reveal that SRC-1 and SRC-2 can mediate distinct steroid-signaling pathways, the present findings suggest that steroids can produce a variety of complex responses in these specialized brain cells.

Tognoni, Christina M.; Chadwick, Joseph G.; Ackeifi, Courtney A.; Tetel, Marc J.

2011-01-01

337

Nuclear receptor coactivators are coexpressed with steroid receptors and regulated by estradiol in mouse brain.  

PubMed

Background/Aims: The steroid hormones, including estradiol (E) and progesterone, act in the brain to regulate female reproductive behavior and physiology. These hormones mediate many of their biological effects by binding to their respective intracellular receptors. The receptors for estrogens (ER) and progestins (PR) interact with nuclear receptor coactivators to initiate transcription of steroid-responsive genes. Work from our laboratory and others reveals that nuclear receptor coactivators, including steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) and SRC-2, function in brain to modulate ER-mediated induction of the PR gene and hormone-dependent behaviors. In order for steroid receptors and coactivators to function together, both must be expressed in the same cells. Methods: Triple-label immunofluorescence was used to determine if E-induced PR cells also express SRC-1 or SRC-2 in reproductively relevant brain regions of the female mouse. Results: The majority of E-induced PR cells in the medial preoptic area (61%), ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (63%) and arcuate nucleus (76%) coexpressed both SRC-1 and SRC-2. A smaller proportion of PR cells expressed either SRC-1 or SRC-2, while a few PR cells expressed neither coactivator. In addition, compared to control animals, 17?-estradiol benzoate (EB) treatment increased SRC-1 levels in the arcuate nucleus, but not the medial preoptic area or the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. EB did not alter SRC-2 expression in any of the three brain regions analyzed. Conclusions: Taken together, the present findings identify a population of cells in which steroid receptors and nuclear receptor coactivators may interact to modulate steroid sensitivity in brain and regulate hormone-dependent behaviors in female mice. Given that cell culture studies reveal that SRC-1 and SRC-2 can mediate distinct steroid-signaling pathways, the present findings suggest that steroids can produce a variety of complex responses in these specialized brain cells. PMID:21311177

Tognoni, Christina M; Chadwick, Joseph G; Ackeifi, Courtney A; Tetel, Marc J

2011-01-01

338

Role of salicylic acid in induction of plant defense system in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA), a plant hormone plays an important role in induction of plant defense against a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses through morphological, physiological and biochemical mechanisms. A series of experiments were carried out to evaluate the biochemical response of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants to a range of SA concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM). Water treated plants were maintained as control. Activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated and amounts of total phenols, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and proteins were calculated after 96 h of treatment. Plants responded very quickly to SA at 1.5 mM and showed higher induction of POD and PPO activities, besides the higher accumulation of phenols, H2O2 and proteins. Plants treated with SA at 2 mM showed phytotoxic symptoms. These results suggest that SA at 1.5 mM is safe to these plants and could be utilized for the induction of plant defense.

War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; War, Mohd Yousf; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2011-01-01

339

Cross-induction of systemic induced resistance between an insect and a fungal pathogen in Austrian pine over a fertility gradient.  

PubMed

Evidence for cross-induction of systemic resistance or susceptibility in plant-fungus-herbivore interactions is mostly derived from herbaceous model systems and not perennial woody plants. Furthermore, the effects of environmental variables such as soil fertility on these tripartite interactions are generally unknown. This study examined cross-induction of systemic resistance in Pinus nigra (Austrian pine) to infection by Sphaeropsis sapinea (a fungal pathogen), or feeding by Neodiprion sertifer (European pine sawfly), by prior induction with either S. sapinea or N. sertifer, over a fertility gradient. In a replicated 3-year study, cross-induction of systemic induced resistance (SIR) was found to be both asymmetric within a single year and variable between years. Prior induction with insect defoliation induced SIR to subsequent fungal challenge in 2006 but not in 2005. In 2005, a fertility-independent negative systemic effect of the fungal infection on herbivore growth was detected while herbivore survival was affected by a significant interaction between induction treatment and fertility level in 2006. Prior infection by the fungus induced SIR against the same fungus in both years regardless of fertility levels. This is the first report of whole-plant SIR against a defoliating insect induced by a fungal pathogen and vice versa, under variable nutrient availability, in a conifer or any other tree. PMID:17453247

Eyles, Alieta; Chorbadjian, Rodrigo; Wallis, Chris; Hansen, Robert; Cipollini, Don; Herms, Dan; Bonello, Pierluigi

2007-08-01

340

Metabolism of neuroactive steroids in day-old chick brain.  

PubMed

Metabolism of the neuroactive steroids pregnenolone (PREG), progesterone (PROG), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) was investigated in day-old chick brain following direct injection of the (3)H-labelled compounds into the intermediate medial mesopallium and sampling at times known to be crucial for memory formation in this brain region. (3)H-label from these steroids was cleared rapidly from the brain, decreasing to barely detectable levels within 5 h. Following extraction and fractionation, the (3)H-labelled brain steroids were identified by TLC, coupled with acetylation and/or separation in different solvent systems. PREG and PROG were converted within 10 min mostly to 20beta-dihydropregnenolone (20beta-DHPREG) and 5beta-dihydroprogesterone, respectively. There was no detectable metabolism of DHEA. Label from DHEAS persisted for longer (half-time 18.9 min) than the free steroid but with no detectable metabolism other than a small amount (4%) of desulphation to DHEA. Further investigation of chick brain steroid metabolism by incubation of subcellular fractions (1-3 h, 37 degrees C) with PREG, PROG or DHEA plus NADPH led to the formation of the following compounds: 20beta-DHPREG from PREG (particularly in cytosol); 5beta-dihydroprogesterone and 3alpha,5beta-tetrahydroprogesterone from PROG and no detectable metabolism of DHEA. Following incubation of the same brain fractions and labelled steroids with NAD(+), there was no detectable metabolism of PREG or PROG but some conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, especially in the nuclear fraction. The results suggest direct actions of DHEA(S) on the early stages of memory formation in the chick and introduce the possibility that PREG may act indirectly via 20beta-DHPREG. PMID:19200338

Sujkovic, Elizabeth; Mileusnic, Radmila; Fry, Jonathan P

2009-04-01

341

Systemic induction of phloem secondary metabolism and its relationship to resistance to a canker pathogen in Austrian pine.  

PubMed

The mechanisms and conditions affecting expression of systemic induced resistance (SIR) in pine are not clearly understood. Two hypotheses were tested here: that SIR against a pathogen induced by either a pathogen or an insect involves coordinated shifts in phloem secondary metabolism; and that fertility affects the production of these compounds. To test these hypotheses, a tripartite system was used comprising Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) grown under three different fertility regimes, the fungal pathogen Diplodia pinea, and the defoliator Neodiprion sertifer. Fungal induction led to systemic accumulation of lignin, phenolic glycosides and stilbenes, whereas insect defoliation led to an increase in germacrene D concentration in branch phloem. Fertility affected the concentrations of only the phenolic glycosides. Multivariate analyses showed coregulation of compounds within at least three consistent groupings: phenolic glycosides, stilbenes and monoterpenes. As groups and as individual compounds, accumulation of phenolic glycosides and stilbenes was negatively correlated with disease susceptibility. The experimental manipulation of the phenolics and terpenoids metabolic networks achieved in this study by biotic induction and changes in nutrient availability suggests that lignin, phenolic glycosides and stilbenes are important biochemical factors in the expression of SIR against the pathogen in this system. PMID:18069955

Wallis, C; Eyles, A; Chorbadjian, R; McSpadden Gardener, B; Hansen, R; Cipollini, D; Herms, D A; Bonello, P

2008-01-01

342

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091 Aeronautics...ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary...

2014-01-01

343

14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091 Aeronautics...AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary...

2014-01-01

344

Separate regions of glucocorticoid receptor, coactivator TIF2, and comodulator STAMP modify different parameters of glucocorticoid-mediated gene induction.  

PubMed Central

Increased specificity in steroid-regulated gene expression is a long-sought goal of endocrinologists. Considerable progress has resulted from the discovery of coactivators, corepressors, and comodulators that adjust the total activity (Amax) of gene induction. Two less frequently quantitated, but equally potent, means of improving specificity are the concentration of agonist steroid required for half-maximal activity (EC50) and the residual or partial agonist activity displayed by most antisteroids (PAA). It is usually assumed that the modulatory activity of transcriptional cofactors coordinately regulates Amax, EC50, and PAA. Here we examine the hypothesis that these three parameters can be independently modified by separate protein domains. The test system involves three differently sized fragments of each of three factors (glucocorticoid receptor [GR], coactivator TIF2, and comodulator STAMP), which are shown to form a ternary complex and similarly affect the induction properties of transfected and endogenous genes. Twenty five different fragment combinations of the ternary complex are examined for their ability to modulate the Amax, EC50, and PAA of a transiently transfected synthetic reporter gene. Different combinations selectively alter one, two, or all three parameters. These results clearly demonstrate that Amax, EC50, and PAA can be independently regulated under some conditions by different pathways or molecular interactions. This new mechanistic insight suggests that selected activities of individual transcription factors are attractive targets for small molecules, which would have obvious clinical applications for increasing the specificity of steroids during endocrine therapies.

Awasthi, Smita; Simons, S. Stoney

2012-01-01

345

Interaction of JAK with steroid receptor function  

PubMed Central

The function of steroid receptors is not only regulated by steroid hormones, but also by multiple cellular signaling cascades activated by membrane-bound receptors which are stimulated by growth factors or cytokines. Cross-talk between JAK and steroid receptors plays a central role in the regulation of a multitude of physiological processes and aberrant signaling is involved in the development of numerous diseases including cancer. In this review we provide a brief summary of the knowledge of interactions between JAK and the function of steroid receptors in normal cells and tissues and in diseases.

Gupta, Nibedita; Mayer, Doris

2013-01-01

346

Renal transplant recipient attitudes toward steroid use and steroid withdrawal.  

PubMed

Although steroid avoidance and withdrawal in renal transplant recipients (RTR) are actively being evaluated by physicians, the attitudes of recipients toward steroid use have not been systematically studied in the modern era. We conducted a confidential written survey of single-organ adult RTR pertaining to prednisone-related side-effects. Recipients were asked which drug they felt maximized graft life, which drug they wished to avoid if graft life was unaffected, and which drug they had most compliant with. They also rated 16 common immunosuppressive-related side-effects on a Likert scale with 1 meaning complete disagreement and 10 complete agreement with their own prednisone-attributed experience. A comparison of responses based on RTR demographic characteristics was made by ANOVA or chi-square analysis with Bonferroni correction. The questionnaire was completed by 223 recipients, of whom 93% were primary recipients, 57% were cadaveric organ recipients, and 69% were white people, 7% black people, and 23% Asian people. Age at transplant, age at survey and time since transplant were 41.5 +/- 11, 47.5 +/- 11 and 6.0 +/- 5 yr, respectively. For the entire group, overall side-effect profile for prednisone was rated as 6.1 +/- 3 on the Likert scale, while efficacy was rated as 7.3 +/- 3. If offered monotherapy, 67% preferred a calcineurin-inhibitor (CI), 23% mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)/azathioprine (AZA), and 10% prednisone. When asked which drug they would like to discontinue, 19% chose CI, 16% MMF/AZA, and 65% prednisone. Most recipients felt that CI was the most efficacious drug (80%), followed by MMF/AZA (12%), and prednisone (8%). The side-effects reported as most common were unacceptable weight gain (5.8 +/- 3) and bone/joint disease (5.3 +/- 3). The least common side-effects were blood disorders (2.2 +/- 2) and cancer (2.3 +/- 2). Black people were more likely than non-black people to report developing diabetes (p = 0.02), blood disorders (p = 0.003) and headaches (p = 0.003) as a result of prednisone use. Males reported more liver damage (p = 0.01) while females reported more body fat (p = 0.01) and fluid retention (p = 0.006). RTR >5 yr post-transplant reported more infections (p = 0.008), skin/hair problems (p = 0.02), gastrointestinal irritation (p = 0.02), and bone disease (p = 0.02) compared with RTR <1 yr. Donor source and recipient age did not determine any responses. If given a 'risk-free' choice, the majority of recipients prefer withdrawal of steroids over other agents. Demographic data may be used to predict prednisone-related side-effects and guide steroid use in this population. Study designs related to steroid withdrawal should account for patient preferences in this context. PMID:12709080

Prasad, G V Ramesh; Nash, Michelle M; McFarlane, Philip A; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S

2003-04-01

347

Steroids, triterpenoids and molecular oxygen.  

PubMed

There is a close connection between modern-day biosynthesis of particular triterpenoid biomarkers and presence of molecular oxygen in the environment. Thus, the detection of steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons far back in Earth history has been used to infer the antiquity of oxygenic photosynthesis. This prompts the question: were these compounds produced similarly in the past? In this paper, we address this question with a review of the current state of knowledge surrounding the oxygen requirement for steroid biosynthesis and phylogenetic patterns in the distribution of steroid and triterpenoid biosynthetic pathways. The hopanoid and steroid biosynthetic pathways are very highly conserved within the bacterial and eukaryotic domains, respectively. Bacteriohopanepolyols are produced by a wide range of bacteria, and are methylated in significant abundance at the C2 position by oxygen-producing cyanobacteria. On the other hand, sterol biosynthesis is sparsely distributed in distantly related bacterial taxa and the pathways do not produce the wide range of products that characterize eukaryotes. In particular, evidence for sterol biosynthesis by cyanobacteria appears flawed. Our experiments show that cyanobacterial cultures are easily contaminated by sterol-producing rust fungi, which can be eliminated by treatment with cycloheximide affording sterol-free samples. Sterols are ubiquitous features of eukaryotic membranes, and it appears likely that the initial steps in sterol biosynthesis were present in their modern form in the last common ancestor of eukaryotes. Eleven molecules of O2 are required by four enzymes to produce one molecule of cholesterol. Thermodynamic arguments, optimization of function and parsimony all indicate that an ancestral anaerobic pathway is highly unlikely. The known geological record of molecular fossils, especially steranes and triterpanes, is notable for the limited number of structural motifs that have been observed. With a few exceptions, the carbon skeletons are the same as those found in the lipids of extant organisms and no demonstrably extinct structures have been reported. Furthermore, their patterns of occurrence over billion year time-scales correlate strongly with environments of deposition. Accordingly, biomarkers are excellent indicators of environmental conditions even though the taxonomic affinities of all biomarkers cannot be precisely specified. Biomarkers are ultimately tied to biochemicals with very specific functional properties, and interpretations of the biomarker record will benefit from increased understanding of the biological roles of geologically durable molecules. PMID:16754609

Summons, Roger E; Bradley, Alexander S; Jahnke, Linda L; Waldbauer, Jacob R

2006-06-29

348

Modified internal model control of induction motor variable frequency speed control system in v\\/f mode based on neural network generalized inverse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the robustness and anti-interference ability of induction motor variable frequency speed control system (IMVFSCS), a modified internal model control (MIMC) method based on neural network generalized inverse (NNGI) was proposed. On the basis of reversibility analysis of original system, the generalized inverse model approximated by the dynamical BP neural network was cascaded with the original system.

Guohai Liu; Xiao Xiao; Chenglong Teng; Guanxue Yang; Yan Jiang; Yue Shen

2010-01-01

349

Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

Kids dream of being professional athletes, and why not? It's fun to think about being the very best in your favorite sport, not to mention earning a ... been looking more closely at the way some athletes get their bodies into super shape — tough enough ...

350

Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

... of Justice | Legal Policies and Disclaimers | US Drug Enforcement Administration View Mobile Site This is a United States Government, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) website The inclusion of a link ...

351

Sequential Induction of Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase and a Lyase-inactivating System in Potato Tuber Disks  

PubMed Central

The light induced synthesis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in disks cut from potato tubers is very sensitive to cycloheximide. Synthesis is inhibited 50% in disks cultured on 5 ?m cycloheximide instead of water and almost completely in disks aged in the presence of 10 ?m inhibitor. Inhibition is irreversible. Fresh disks exposed only 1 hour to 10 ?m cycloheximide do not synthesize enzyme during the subsequent 24 hours. Normally a maximal enzyme activity develops in disks about 24 hours after being cut from the tuber. Thereafter enzyme activity declines. The disappearance of enzyme is not affected by concentrations of cycloheximide sufficient to inhibit the synthesis of enzyme initially. No disappearance of enzyme is noted during the initial phase of induction if enzyme synthesis is inhibited by cycloheximide. However, enzyme does disappear from the tissue if more than half the maximal enzyme content is allowed to form before synthesis is inhibited. If cycloheximide at a concentration 10-fold that needed to inhibit synthesis completely is added to disks after they have attained a maximal enzyme level, then subsequent loss of enzyme activity from the tissue is prevented. The initial stability of the enzyme in the absence of further synthesis and the inhibition of enzyme disappearance by high concentrations of cycloheximide suggest A) that early phases of induction involve synthesis of enzyme protein in the absence of turnover, B) that a system capable of degrading or inactivating the lyase subsequently forms in the tissue, and C) that the formation of the degrading or inactivating system requires protein synthesis. The effect of cycloheximide on uptake and incorporation of l-isoleucine-U-14C into soluble and insoluble proteins of tuber disks was also examined. During induction the rate of uptake increased 3 to 4-fold, and the rate of incorporation into protein, corrected for change in uptake, increased 25-fold. Cycloheximide inhibited incorporation of isoleucine-14C into proteins of fresh disks more than 80%. It did not prevent activation of general protein synthesis during induction and inhibited incorporation in induced disks only 20%. At all times incorporation of amino acid into the soluble, lyase-rich, protein fraction was more sensitive to cycloheximide than the insoluble fraction.

Zucker, Milton

1968-01-01

352

Stress, Ethanol, and Neuroactive Steroids  

PubMed Central

Neurosteroids play a crucial role in stress, alcohol dependence and withdrawal, and other physiological and pharmacological actions by potentiating or inhibiting neurotransmitter action. This review article focuses on data showing that the interaction among stress, ethanol, and neuroactive steroids may result in plastic molecular and functional changes of GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission. The molecular mechanisms by which stress-ethanol-neuroactive steroids interactions can produce plastic changes in GABAA receptors have been studied using different experimental models in vivo and in vitro in order to provide useful evidence and new insights into the mechanisms through which acute and chronic ethanol and stress exposure modulate the activity of GABAergic synapses. We show detailed data on a) the effect of acute and chronic stress on peripheral and brain neurosteroid levels and GABAA receptor gene expression and function; b) ethanol-stimulated brain steroidogenesis; c) plasticity of GABAA receptor after acute and chronic ethanol exposure. The implications of these new mechanistic insights to our understanding of the effects of ethanol during stress are also discussed. The understanding of these neurochemical and molecular mechanisms may shed new light on the physiopathology of diseases, such as anxiety, in which GABAergic transmission play a pivotal role. These data may also lead to the need for new anxiolytic, hypnotic and anticonvulsant selective drugs devoid of side effects.

Biggio, Giovanni; Concas, Alessandra; Follesa, Paolo; Sanna, Enrico; Serra, Mariangela

2010-01-01

353

Cyanobacterial Bioamarkers: Triterpenoids plus Steroids?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructing the biomarker record of the early Earth requires us to make assumptions about the constancy and specificity of lipid biosynthetic pathways through geological time and rests upon our knowledge of the lipid composition of extant organisms.\\x90\\x90 For example, the three domains of extant life Eukarya, Archaea and Bacteria were present in Archean ecosystems if we are to believe the record of chemical fossils that have been found in rocks as old as 2700Ma.\\x90 However, the validity of the steroid signature as an indicator for Eukarya has questioned because of some reports of Ophytosterol, biosynthesis in cyanobacteria and we examined this issue in some new experiments with cyanobacteria grown in culture.\\x90 After initial cultures of Phormidium and Chlorogloeopsis proved to contain sterols, in addition to the expected complement of hopanoid and 2-methylhopanoid, we hypothesized that these might be the result of fungal contamination.\\x90 Subsequent cultures grown after repeated sub-culturing in the presence of cycloheximide proved to be devoid of sterol. Our results are therefore consistent with the notion that sterol biosynthesis is, with very few exceptions, a primary characteristic of Eukarya.\\x90 Consequently, the steroid hydrocarbons that are found in ancient sediments are most likely the remains of algae and other eukaryotes.\\x90

Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.; Cullings, K. W.; Logan, G. A.

2001-12-01

354

Development of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis after Anabolic Steroid Abuse  

PubMed Central

Anabolic steroid abuse adversely affects the endocrine system, blood lipids, and the liver, but renal injury has not been described. We identified an association of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and proteinuria in a cohort of 10 bodybuilders (six white and four Hispanic; mean body mass index 34.7) after long-term abuse of anabolic steroids. The clinical presentation included proteinuria (mean 10.1 g/d; range 1.3 to 26.3 g/d) and renal insufficiency (mean serum creatinine 3.0 mg/dl; range 1.3 to 7.8 mg/dl); three (30%) patients presented with nephrotic syndrome. Renal biopsy revealed FSGS in nine patients, four of whom also had glomerulomegaly, and glomerulomegaly alone in one patient. Three biopsies revealed collapsing lesions of FSGS, four had perihilar lesions, and seven showed ?40% tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Among eight patients with mean follow-up of 2.2 yr, one progressed to ESRD, the other seven received renin-angiotensin system blockade, and one also received corticosteroids. All seven patients discontinued anabolic steroids, leading to weight loss, stabilization or improvement in serum creatinine, and a reduction in proteinuria. One patient resumed anabolic steroid abuse and suffered relapse of proteinuria and renal insufficiency. We hypothesize that secondary FSGS results from a combination of postadaptive glomerular changes driven by increased lean body mass and potential direct nephrotoxic effects of anabolic steroids. Because of the expected rise in serum creatinine as a result of increased muscle mass in bodybuilders, this complication is likely underrecognized.

Herlitz, Leal C.; Markowitz, Glen S.; Farris, Alton B.; Schwimmer, Joshua A.; Stokes, Michael B.; Kunis, Cheryl; Colvin, Robert B.

2010-01-01

355

Linear induction accelerator  

DOEpatents

A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

1988-06-21

356

Steroids: To Test or to Educate?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In February 2005, The Dallas Morning News published a multipart series on steroid use among high school students in Texas. The paper's four-month investigation was wide-ranging, but shined a particular spotlight upon alleged abuses in the 13,700-student Grapevine-Colleyville Independent School District, north of Dallas. Use of steroids and other…

LaFee, Scott

2006-01-01

357

Scientists Report Advance in Understanding Steroid Receptors  

Cancer.gov

Scientists have long known that proteins called steroid receptors play a critical role in switching on hormone-responsive genes. What has been unclear is how these proteins orchestrate the process, a key issue in learning to control genes activated by steroid hormones such as androgen and estrogen.

358

Steroids Update, Part 1 and Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part 1 of this two-part article describes the views of a physician who believes that athletes who want to take steroids are best protected by receiving a prescription and monitoring. Part 2 discusses the more general view of physicians that steroids should not be prescribed but perhaps should be monitored. (MT)

Miller, Calvin; Duda, Marty

1986-01-01

359

Inductive Inference: Theory and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a great deal of theoretical and experimental work in computer science on inductive inference systems, that is, systems that try to infer general rules from examples. However, a complete and applicable theory of such systems is still a distant goal. This survey highlights and explains the main ideas that have been developed in the study of inductive

Dana Angluin; Carl H. Smith

1983-01-01

360

Different shapes of the steroid hormone 1?,25(OH) 2-vitamin D 3 act as agonists for two different receptors in the vitamin D endocrine system to mediate genomic and rapid responses? 1 1 ? Guest Editor: Dr. Satya Reddy, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Chemistry and Biology of Vitamin D Analogs, Brown University, Providence, RI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin D3 produces biologic responses as a consequence of its metabolism into 1?,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 [1?,25(OH)2D3] and 24R,25(OH)2-vitamin D3. The metabolic production of these two seco steroids and their generation of the plethora of biologic actions that are attributable to the parent vitamin D3 are orchestrated via the integrated operation of the vitamin D endocrine system. This system is very similar

Anthony W. Norman; Helen L. Henry; June E. Bishop; Xin-De Song; Craig Bula; William H. Okamura

2001-01-01

361

Steroids differentially inhibit the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.  

PubMed

The effect of various natural and synthetic steroids on the function of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) was studied at the single-channel level. AChR channel kinetics was affected by some substitutions in the cyclopentaneperhydrophenantrene ring. Functionally relevant substitutions shortened channel open state duration, an effect that varied for different steroids. The presence of a polar group at C11 contributed to the inhibitory potency of the steroid. Among mono-hydroxylated steroids such as 11- and 17-OH progesterone, the highest potency was displayed by the former showing a level similar to that of the reference compound, hydrocortisone. When the effects were analyzed in terms of the octanol-water partition coefficient, a linear relationship was unexpectedly found between the hydrophilicity of the steroids and their inhibitory potency. PMID:11209925

Garbus, I; Bouzat, C; Barrantes, F J

2001-02-12

362

Induction voidmeter  

DOEpatents

An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge circuit, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

Anderson, Thomas T. (Downers Grove, IL) [Downers Grove, IL; Roop, Conard J. (Lockport, IL) [Lockport, IL; Schmidt, Kenneth J. (Midlothian, IL) [Midlothian, IL; Brewer, John (Oak Lawn, IL) [Oak Lawn, IL

1986-01-01

363

Induction voidmeter  

DOEpatents

An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; means for applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and means for detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

Anderson, T.T.; Roop, C.J.; Schmidt, K.J.; Brewer, J.

1983-12-21

364

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Suppression and Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome as a Complication of Epidural Steroid Injections  

PubMed Central

Epidural steroid injections are well accepted as a treatment for radicular back pain in appropriate candidates. While overall incidence of systemic side effects has not been well established, at least five biochemically proven cases of iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome have been reported as complications of epidural steroid treatment. We present an additional case of iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome and adrenal suppression in a middle-aged woman who received three epidural steroid injections over a four-month period. We review this case in the context of previous cases and discuss diagnostic and management issues.

2013-01-01

365

Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for spatially resolved trace element determination of solids using an autofocus system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used for spatially resolved trace element analysis of archaeological samples. An autofocus system was built in order to achieve reproducible ablation conditions. This system allows focusing of any sample automatically, with an accuracy of 10–50 ?m, in the focal plane of the laser, or any height specified by the user, and can

B. Wanner; Ch Moor; P Richner; R Brönnimann; B Magyar

1999-01-01

366

Concomitant Induction of Systemic Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans in Cucumber by Trichoderma asperellum (T-203) and Accumulation of Phytoalexins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies on the reduction of disease incidence in soil treated with Trichoderma asperellum have focused on microbial interactions rather than on plant responses. This study presents conclusive evidence for the induction of a systemic response against angular leaf spot of cucumber (Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans) following application of T. asperellum to the root system. To ascertain that T. asperellum

Iris Yedidia; Michal Shoresh; Zohar Kerem; Nicole Benhamou; Yoram Kapulnik; Ilan Chet

2003-01-01

367

32 CFR 1624.6 - Postponement of induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM] [Part 1624 - INDUCTIONS] [Sec. 1624.6 - Postponement of induction.] 32 NATIONAL DEFENSE 6 2009-07-01...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS Sec. 1624.6 Postponement...

2009-07-01

368

32 CFR 1624.5 - Order to report for induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM] [Part 1624 - INDUCTIONS] [Sec. 1624.5 - Order to report for induction.] 32 NATIONAL DEFENSE 6 2009-07-01...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS Sec. 1624.5 Order to report...

2009-07-01

369

Steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to hecogenin 3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl(1 ? 4)-?-d-galactopyranoside, two new steroidal saponins were isolated from the aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris L. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence, especially 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques, the structures of the new saponins were established as 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-[{?-d-xylopyranosyl(1 ? 3)}{?-d-galactopyranosyl(1 ? 2)}-?-d-glucopyranosyl (1 ? 4)-?-d-glucopyranosyl]-5?-furost-20(22)-en-12-one-3?,26-diol and 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-[rm[{?-d-xylopyranosyl(1 ? 3){?-d-galactopyranosyl(1 ? 2)}-?-d-glucopyranosyl (1 ? 4)-?-d-glucopyranosyl]-5?-furostan-12-one-3?,22,26-triol.

Gong Wu; Shanhao Jiang; Fuxiang Jiang; Dayuan Zhu; Houming Wu; Shaokai Jiang

1996-01-01

370

The importance of low inductance, low resistive phase switches in compact pulse power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. In order to design and fabricate compact pulse power systems, the basic functions of a pulse power system must be combined in the same volume. This approach is critically dependent upon the pulse power switches employed to reduce the mass, volume and weight of pulsed power system. The three general functions a power conditioning system must

W. C. Nunnally; N. E. Islam; D. Cooperstock

2004-01-01

371

Performance of an Annular Linear Induction Pump with Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of performance testing of an annular linear induction pump are presented. The pump electromagnetically pumps liquid metal through a circuit specially designed to allow for quantification of the performance. Testing was conducted over a range of conditions, including frequencies of 33, 36, 39, and 60 Hz, liquid metal temperatures from 125 to 525 C, and input voltages from 5 to 120 V. Pump performance spanned a range of flow rates from roughly 0.16 to 5.7 L/s (2.5 to 90 gpm), and pressure head less than 1 to 90 kPa (less than 0.145 to 13 psi). The maximum efficiency measured during testing was slightly greater than 6%. The efficiency was fairly insensitive to input frequency from 33 to 39 Hz, and was markedly lower at 60 Hz. In addition, the efficiency decreased as the NaK temperature was raised. The performance of the pump operating on a variable frequency drive providing 60 Hz power compared favorably with the same pump operating on 60 Hz power drawn directly from the electrical grid.

Polzin, Kurt A.; Schoenfeld, Michael; Pearson, J. Boise; Webster, Kenneth; Godfroy, Thomas; Adkins, Harold E., Jr.; Werner, James E.

2010-01-01

372

Ribosomal Alteration-Derived Signals for Cytokine Induction in Mucosal and Systemic Inflammation: Noncanonical Pathways by Ribosomal Inactivation  

PubMed Central

Ribosomal inactivation damages 28S ribosomal RNA by interfering with its functioning during gene translation, leading to stress responses linked to a variety of inflammatory disease processes. Although the primary effect of ribosomal inactivation in cells is the functional inhibition of global protein synthesis, early responsive gene products including proinflammatory cytokines are exclusively induced by toxic stress in highly dividing tissues such as lymphoid tissue and epithelia. In the present study, ribosomal inactivation-related modulation of cytokine production was reviewed in leukocyte and epithelial pathogenesis models to characterize mechanistic evidence of ribosome-derived cytokine induction and its implications for potent therapeutic targets of mucosal and systemic inflammatory illness, particularly those triggered by organellar dysfunctions.

Moon, Yuseok

2014-01-01

373

Assisted Reproduction Technologies Impair Placental Steroid Metabolism  

PubMed Central

The placenta plays a vital role in pregnancy by facilitating steroid passage from maternal to fetal circulation and/or direct production of hormones. Using a murine model, we demonstrated the differences in placental steroid metabolism between pregnancies conceived naturally and with assisted reproduction technologies (ART): in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). While the ovarian steroid production was similar (estrone, 17?-estradiol) or higher (estriol) in ART pregnancies compared to mating, the levels of placental estriol were significantly lower in ART group. Placentas from ART had significantly higher activities of the steroid metabolizing enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT), which in ICSI were also coupled with decreased activity of the steroid regenerating enzymes ?-glucuronidase (?-G) and Aryl sulfatase (AS). Levels of steroid metabolites androstane-3?-17?-diol glucuronide and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were higher in fetal compared to maternal blood in ART, but not in mating. This study demonstrates that in murine ART pregnancies, higher metabolism and clearance of steroids by the placenta may seriously affect the passage of essential hormones to the fetus. If a similar phenomenon exists in humans, this could provide a plausible explanation for obstetric and neonatal complications associated with ART, including the higher incidence of low birth weight babies.

Collier, Abby C.; Miyagi, Shogo J.; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Ward, Monika A.

2009-01-01

374

Steroid management in giant cell arteritis  

PubMed Central

AIM—Ocular involvement in giant cell arteritis (GCA) is an ophthalmic emergency which, if untreated, can progress to permanent blindness. There is little evidence in the literature to support current protocols for the acute treatment of GCA with steroids. The authors sought to review the effects of intravenous and oral steroids in GCA.?METHODS—This retrospective study reviewed the records of 100 consecutive patients with biopsy proved giant cell arteritis. 73 patients with visual loss who were treated at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital (RVEEH) and St Vincent's Hospital were included in the final series. The authors studied the management of the patients in the first week after presentation, analysing types of treatment, dose, effect on visual acuity, and complications.?RESULTS—All the patients except one had visual loss due to anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AION). 17 patients (23%) had bilateral eye involvement. Visual acuity improved in 21 of 73 patients (29%) by a mean of two Snellen chart lines after commencement of steroids. There was an increased likelihood of improved vision in the group who had intravenous steroids (40%) compared with those who received oral steroids (13%). In all except four patients (95%) vision remained stable at 1 month review.?CONCLUSIONS—Prompt treatment of GCA with steroids leads to improvement of visual acuity in a significant number of cases. Intravenous steroids may offer a greater prospect of improvement compared with oral steroids. A prospective trial comparing intravenous with oral steroids is needed to validate these findings and would not expose elderly patients to unacceptable risks.??

Chan, C.; Paine, M.; O'Day, J.

2001-01-01

375

Transcriptional regulation of steroid hydroxylase genes by corticotropin.  

PubMed Central

Maintenance of optimal steroidogenic capacity in the adrenal cortex is the result of a cAMP-dependent response to the peptide hormone corticotropin (ACTH). The molecular mechanism of this action of ACTH has been examined by using five recombinant DNA clones specific for enzymes of the steroidogenic pathway (P-450scc, P-45011 beta, P-450C21, P-45017 alpha, and adrenodoxin). The presence of nuclear precursors in steady-state RNA samples derived from cultured bovine adrenocortical cells and moderate increases in the number of RNA chain initiations, as determined by in vitro nuclear run-off assays, indicate that ACTH controls the expression of the gene(s) for each of these proteins at the transcriptional level. The ACTH-mediated increase in accumulation of transcripts specific for steroid hydroxylases in nuclear RNA can be specifically blocked by inhibiting protein synthesis in bovine adrenocortical cell cultures. The steady-state concentrations of nuclear RNA for control genes show no decrease upon cycloheximide treatment. These studies suggest that a primary action of ACTH in the adrenal cortex is to activate (via cAMP) the synthesis of rapidly turning over protein factors that in turn mediate increased initiation of transcription of steroid hydroxylase genes. We propose that these protein factors impart specificity of induction to genes encoding components of this pathway in steroidogenic tissues. Images

John, M E; John, M C; Boggaram, V; Simpson, E R; Waterman, M R

1986-01-01

376

Rituximab in steroid refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia.  

PubMed

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is rare in children and infants and steroids are the corner stone of therapy. Management of the patients with steroid refractory/dependent disease is difficult .Rituximab is being used in the treatment of a variety of autoimmune diseases including Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA),especially in adults but there is scarce data regarding the use of this agent in pediatric AIHA patients.The authors report two cases of steroid refractory AIHA, who responded to rituximab with review the literature of its use in pediatrics. PMID:21830023

Gupta, Nitin; Sharma, Sanjeev; Seth, Tulika; Mishra, Pravas; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Kumar, Suman; Kapoor, Rajan; Agarwal, Narendra

2012-06-01

377

Homologous Series of Liquid Crystalline Steroidal Lipids  

SciTech Connect

Steroids are an important source of chiral mesophases. The melting behavior and mesomorphic properties of homologous series of steroidal derivatives have been extracted from the literature, tabulated, and discussed. The tables provide the reader with an evaluated compilation of the type of mesophases found for the individual compounds, including their transition temperatures. Where the literature gives more than one set of data for a specific substance, one has been chosen as the main reference, but all alternatives are listed in the footnotes. The data can be used for statistical analysis to show the specific role of substructures within the steroidal framework. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital American Institute of Physics and American Chemical Society}

Thiemann, T.; Vill, V. [Institut fuer Organische Chemie, Martin-Luther-King Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

1997-03-01

378

Torsional Vibration Effects on Induction Machine Current and Torque Signatures in Gearbox-Based Electromechanical System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring of heavy-duty electromechanical systems is crucial for their preventive maintenance planning. In these systems, the mechanical anomalies such as load troubles, great torque dynamic variations, and torsional oscillations lead to shaft fatigue and aging of other mechanical parts such as bearings and gearboxes. In this paper, a gearbox-based electromechanical system is investigated. Initially, a simple gearbox dynamic model

Shahin Hedayati Kia; Humberto Henao; GÉrard-AndrÉ Capolino

2009-01-01

379

Fulminant VZV infection in an adult AIDS patient treated with steroids: a case report.  

PubMed

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) typically causes a benign disease in childhood. However, VZV can lead to severe complication in immunocompromised patients, involving skin and nearly every organ system, with significant morbidity and mortality. VZV infection occurs more frequently in patients treated with steroids. Herein, we describe a case of rapidly fatal disseminated VZV infection with cutaneous and visceral involvement in an adult AIDS patient treated with steroids. PMID:24631117

Grilli, E; Baiocchini, A; Del Nonno, F; Petrosillo, N; Galati, V

2014-05-01

380

Exploring the role of sex steroids through studies of receptor deficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decades of study have described a number roles fulfilled by the steroid hormones and their respective receptors in sexual\\u000a differentiation and development, reproductive function and behavior, and more recently in the function and maintenance of\\u000a non-reproductive organ systems, such as skeletal muscle, bone and coronary tissues. The biological effects of the steroid\\u000a hormones are believed to be mediated in part

John F. Couse; Kenneth S. Korach

1998-01-01

381

Human endometrial epithelial cell lines for studying steroid and cytokine actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Recent studies suggest that the proliferation and expression of HLA-DR molecules in endometrial epithelium may be regulated\\u000a by systemic steroids and local cytokines. To test the interacting influences of cytokines and steroids on the expression of\\u000a HLA-DR and proliferation of epithelial cells, an endometrial cell model is required that is sensitive to both signals. In\\u000a this study, we characterize cells

S. Tabibzadeh; K. L. Kaffka; P. L. Kilian; P. G. Satyaswaroop

1990-01-01

382

3-Dimensional Modeling of Capacitively and Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low temperature plasmas are widely used for thin film etching during micro and nano-electronic device fabrication. Fluid and hybrid plasma models were developed 15-20 years ago to understand the fundamentals of these plasmas and plasma etching. These models have significantly evolved since then, and are now a major tool used for new plasma hardware design and problem resolution. Plasma etching is a complex physical phenomenon, where inter-coupled plasma, electromagnetic, fluid dynamics, and thermal effects all have a major influence. The next frontier in the evolution of fluid-based plasma models is where these models are able to self-consistently treat the inter-coupling of plasma physics with fluid dynamics, electromagnetics, heat transfer and magnetostatics. We describe one such model in this paper and illustrate its use in solving engineering problems of interest for next generation plasma etcher design. Our 3-dimensional plasma model includes the full set of Maxwell equations, transport equations for all charged and neutral species in the plasma, the Navier-Stokes equation for fluid flow, and Kirchhoff's equations for the lumped external circuit. This model also includes Monte Carlo based kinetic models for secondary electrons and stochastic heating, and can take account of plasma chemistry. This modeling formalism allows us to self-consistently treat the dynamics in commercial inductively and capacitively coupled plasma etching reactors with realistic plasma chemistries, magnetic fields, and reactor geometries. We are also able to investigate the influence of the distributed electromagnetic circuit at very high frequencies (VHF) on the plasma dynamics. The model is used to assess the impact of azimuthal asymmetries in plasma reactor design (e.g., off-center pump, 3D magnetic field, slit valve, flow restrictor) on plasma characteristics at frequencies from 2 -- 180 MHz. With Jason Kenney, Ankur Agarwal, Ajit Balakrishna, Kallol Bera, and Ken Collins.

Rauf, Shahid

2008-10-01

383

Theoretical foundation for real-time prostate localization using an inductively coupled transmitter and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer system.  

PubMed

Real-time, 3D localization of the prostate for intensity-modulated radiotherapy can be accomplished with passively charged radio frequency transmitters and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers. The overall system design consists of an external dipole antenna as a power source for charging a microchip implant transmitter and SQUID magnetometers for signal detection. An external dipole antenna charges an on-chip capacitor through inductive coupling in the near field region through a small implant inductor. The charge and discharge sequence between the external antenna and the implant circuit can be defined by half duplex, full duplex, or sequential operations. The resulting implant discharge current creates an alternating magnetic field through the inductor. The field is detected by the surrounding magnetometers, and the location of the implant transmitter can be calculated. Problems associated with this system design are interrelated with the signal strength at the detectors, detector sensitivity, and charge time of the implant capacitor. The physical parameters required for optimizing the system for real-time applications are the operating frequency, implant inductance and capacitance, the external dipole current and loop radius, the detector distance, and mutual inductance. Consequently, the sequential operating mode is the best choice for real-time localization for constraints requiring positioning within 1 s due to the mutual inductance and detector sensitivity. We present the theoretical foundation for designing a real-time, 3D prostate localization system including the associated physical parameters and demonstrate the feasibility and physical limitations for such a system. PMID:15738919

McGary, John E

2004-01-01

384

Linear induction accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The development of linear induction accelerators has been motivated by applications requiring high-pulsed currents of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capability of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high for rf accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multi-stage induction machine, but the 50-MeV, 10-kA Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL is the highest voltage machine in existence at this time. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high-repetition rates practical, and this capability for high-average power is very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines in the future. This paper surveys the US induction linac technology with primary emphasis on electron machines. A simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam is given, to illustrate many of the general issues that bound the design space of induction linacs.

Briggs, R.J.

1986-06-01

385

A Cell-Free Assay System for ?-Catenin Signaling That Recapitulates Direct Inductive Events in the Early Xenopus laevis Embryo  

PubMed Central

In vertebrate embryos, signaling via the ?-catenin protein is known to play an essential role in the induction of the dorsal axis. In its signaling capacity, ?-catenin acts directly to affect target gene transcription, in concert with transcription factors of the TCF/LEF family. We have developed a cell-free in vitro assay for ?-catenin signaling activity that utilizes transcriptionally active nuclei and cytoplasm from cleavage-blocked Xenopus laevis embryos. Under these assay conditions, we demonstrate that either addition of ?-catenin protein or upstream activation of the ?-catenin signaling pathway can induce the expression of developmentally relevant target genes. Addition of exogenous ?-catenin protein induced expression of Siamois, XTwin, Xnr3, and Cerberus mRNAs in a protein synthesis independent manner, whereas a panel of other Spemann organizer-specific genes did not respond to ?-catenin. Lithium induction of the ?-catenin signaling pathway, which is thought to cause ?-catenin accumulation by inhibiting its proteasome-dependent degradation, caused increased expression of Siamois in a protein synthesis independent fashion. This result suggests that ?-catenin derived from a preexisting pool can be activated to signal, and that accumulation of this activated form does not require ongoing synthesis. Furthermore, activation of the signaling pathway with lithium did not detectably alter cytoplasmic ?-catenin levels and was insensitive to inhibition of the proteasome- dependent degradation pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of ?-catenin signaling by lithium in this system may occur through a distinct activation mechanism that does not require modulation of levels through regulation of proteasomal degradation.

Nelson, Richard W.; Gumbiner, Barry M.

1999-01-01

386

Comparative biochemical and morphometric changes associated with induction of the hepatic mixed function oxidase system in the rat.  

PubMed

This study characterized the induction of the rat hepatic cytochrome P-450-dependent mixed function oxidase system by SK&F 86002 [6-(4'-fluorophenyl)-5-(4'-pyridyl)-2,3-dihydroimidazo-(2,1-b)thia zole], an inhibitor of both the cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. The induction characteristics of SK&F 86002 were compared to those of the classical inducer, phenobarbital, and morphological features of both SK&F 86002 and phenobarbital induced hepatocellular hypertrophy were quantitated. Rats were administered either SK&F 86002 (6, 18, or 60 mg/kg/day, po) or phenobarbital (8, 24, 80 mg/kg/day, ip) for 3 or 14 consecutive days. Liver to body weight ratio, total hepatic microsomal protein and cytochrome P-450 content, ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD) and leukotriene B4(LTB4) omega- and omega-1 hydroxylase were measured. Ultrastructural morphometry of the liver from control, and high dose SK&F 86002 (60 mg/kg/day) and phenobarbital (80 mg/kg/day) treated rats was completed. On day 3, phenobarbital increased liver to body weight ratio but only at the 80 mg/kg/day dosage; microsomal protein content was unchanged. ECOD activity increased in a dose-dependent fashion. LTB4 omega- and omega-1 hydroxylase activities were unaffected. Administration of SK&F 86002 for 3 days increased the liver to body weight ratio at both the 18 and 60 mg/kg/day dosage; microsomal protein content was unchanged. ECOD activity was significantly increased by the 60 mg/kg/day dosages of SK&F 86002. On day 14, phenobarbital increased the liver to body weight ratio and microsomal protein content but again only at the 80 mg/kg/day dosage. Cytochrome P-450 content was increased by all dosages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1663268

Howard, M O; Schwartz, L W; Newton, J F; Qualls, C W; Yodis, L A; Ventre, J R

1991-01-01

387

Metabolic effects of contraceptive steroids.  

PubMed

Estrogen and progestins have been used by millions of women as effective combined contraceptives. The safety of hormonal contraceptives has been documented by years of follow-up and serious adverse events that may be related to their use are rare in the young population exposed to these agents. The balance between the benefits and the risks of contraceptive steroids is generally positive in particular when comparing to the risks of pregnancy and especially in women with risk factors. The metabolic changes induced by the synthetic steroids used in contraception, such as lipoprotein changes, insulin response to glucose, and coagulation factors have been considered as potential markers of cardiovascular and venous risk. Observations of these effects have led to modifications of the composition of hormonal contraceptive in order to minimize these changes and hence potentially decrease the risks. The synthetic estrogen Ethinyl-Estradiol (EE) exerts a stronger effect that natural estradiol (E2) on hepatic metabolism including estrogen-dependent markers such as liver proteins. This stronger hepatic impact of EE has been related to its 17?-ethinyl group which prevents the inactivation of the molecule and results in a more pronounced hepatic effect of EE as compared to estradiol. Due to its strong activity, administering EE via a non-oral route does not prevent its impact on liver proteins. In order to circumvent the metabolic changes induced by EE, newer products using more natural compounds such as estradiol (E2) and estradiol valerate (E2V) have been introduced. The synthetic progestins used for contraception are structurally related either to testosterone (T) (estranes and gonanes) or to progesterone (pregnanes and 19-norpregnanes). Several new progestins have been designed to bind more specifically to the progesterone receptor and to minimize side-effects related to androgenic, estrogenic or glucocorticoid receptor interactions. Dienogest (DNG), and drospirenone (DRSP) and the 19-norpregnanes including Nestorone® (NES), nomegestrol acetate (NOMAc) and trimegestone (TMG) have been combined with estrogen either EE or E2 or estradiol valerate (E2V). Risks and benefits of the newer progestins used in contraception depend upon the type of molecular structure, the type and dose of estrogen associated in a combination and the route of administration. The lower metabolic impact of estradiol-based combinations may result in an improved safety profile, but large surveillance studies are warranted to confirm this plausible hypothesis. So far, the contraindications and warnings for use of current COCs also apply to the estradiol-based COCs. PMID:21538049

Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Nath, Anita

2011-06-01

388

Steroid Shots May Not Help Back Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... 2014) Wednesday, July 2, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Spinal Stenosis Steroids WEDNESDAY, July 2, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- People who have lower back pain caused by spinal stenosis -- a condition that narrows the open space in ...

389

Steroids: Pharmacology, Complications, and Practice Delivery Issues  

PubMed Central

Background Since their identification nearly 80 years ago, steroids have played a prominent role in the treatment of many disease states. Many of the clinical roles of steroids are related to their potent antiinflammatory and immune-modulating properties. Methods This review summarizes the basic pharmacology, complications, and practice delivery issues regarding steroids. Results Clinically relevant side effects of steroids are common and problematic. Side effects can occur at a wide range of doses and vary depending on the route of administration. The full spectrum of side effects can be present even in patients taking low doses. Conclusions Practitioners must be aware that these drugs might exacerbate a preexisting condition or present a new medical condition. Knowledge of the clinical implications of prescribing these agents is critical.

Ericson-Neilsen, William; Kaye, Alan David

2014-01-01

390

Antifungal Activity of C-27 Steroidal Saponins  

PubMed Central

As part of our search for new antifungal agents from natural resources, 22 C-27 steroidal saponins and 6 steroidal sapogenins isolated from several monocotyledonous plants were tested for their antifungal activity against the opportunistic pathogens Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus. The results showed that the antifungal activity of the steroidal saponins was associated with their aglycone moieties and the number and structure of monosaccharide units in their sugar chains. Within the 10 active saponins, four tigogenin saponins (compounds 1 to 4) with a sugar moiety of four or five monosaccharide units exhibited significant activity against C. neoformans and A. fumigatus, comparable to the positive control amphotericin B. The antifungal potency of these compounds was not associated with cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. This suggests that the C-27 steroidal saponins may be considered potential antifungal leads for further preclinical study.

Yang, Chong-Ren; Zhang, Ying; Jacob, Melissa R.; Khan, Shabana I.; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Li, Xing-Cong

2006-01-01

391

BINDING OF STEROIDS BY MICROORGANISMS1  

PubMed Central

Hartman, Ronald E. (American Cyanamid Co., Pearl River, N.Y.) and Chester E. Holmlund. Binding of steroids by microorganisms. J. Bacteriol. 84:1254–1259. 1962.—Certain microorganisms, particularly higher fungi, are able to bind steroids. The steroids can be recovered by solvent extraction only after lyophilization of the cultures. There appears to be a relationship between steroid structure and avidity for the microbial-binding component from Penicillium canescens. Sterols which possess a long side chain and a 3?-hydroxy-5-ene group are particularly susceptible to microbial binding. The sterol-binding component of P. canescens is released by rupture of the cells. After liberation from the intact cells, it appears to be highly unstable in the presence of other cellular constituents.

Hartman, R. E.; Holmlund, C. E.

1962-01-01

392

Steroids for Treating Cancer (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... can plan ahead for any unsettling symptoms or adverse reactions, should they occur. Temporary side effects may include: ... your child to let you know about any adverse reactions during or after a steroid treatment. More tips ...

393

Steroid Secreting Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cell Lines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multiple pathways of steroidogenesis are present in the normal adrenal cortex, primarily involving formation of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and weak androgens. One or more of the steroid pathways may be expressed by benign adenomas and malignant c...

A. F. Gazdar R. V. La Rocca C. A. Stein

1990-01-01

394

Induction of systemic resistance in tomato by N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone-producing rhizosphere bacteria.  

PubMed

N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules are utilized by Gram-negative bacteria to monitor their population density (quorum sensing) and to regulate gene expression in a density-dependent manner. We show that Serratia liquefaciens MG1 and Pseudomonas putida IsoF colonize tomato roots, produce AHL in the rhizosphere and increase systemic resistance of tomato plants against the fungal leaf pathogen, Alternaria alternata. The AHL-negative mutant S. liquefaciens MG44 was less effective in reducing symptoms and A. alternata growth as compared to the wild type. Salicylic acid (SA) levels were increased in leaves when AHL-producing bacteria colonized the rhizosphere. No effects were observed when isogenic AHL-negative mutant derivatives were used in these experiments. Furthermore, macroarray and Northern blot analysis revealed that AHL molecules systemically induce SA- and ethylene-dependent defence genes (i.e. PR1a, 26 kDa acidic and 30 kDa basic chitinase). Together, these data support the view that AHL molecules play a role in the biocontrol activity of rhizobacteria through the induction of systemic resistance to pathogens. PMID:17087474

Schuhegger, Regina; Ihring, Alexandra; Gantner, Stephan; Bahnweg, Günther; Knappe, Claudia; Vogg, Gerd; Hutzler, Peter; Schmid, Michael; Van Breusegem, Frank; Eberl, Leo; Hartmann, Anton; Langebartels, Christian

2006-05-01

395

Effect of Iron Availability on Induction of Systemic Resistance to Fusarium Wilt of Chickpea by Pseudomonas spp.  

PubMed

Selected isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf4-92 and PfRsC5) and P. aeruginosa (PaRsG18 and PaRsG27) were examined for growth promotion and induced systemic resistance against Fusarium wilt of chickpea. Significant increase in plant height was observed in Pseudomonas treated plants. However, plant growth was inhibited when isolates of Pseudomonas were used in combination with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (FocRs1). It was also observed that the Pseudomonas spp. was colonized in root of chickpea and significantly suppressed the disease in greenhouse condition. Rock wool bioassay technique was used to study the effect of iron availability on the induction of systemic resistance to Fusarium wilt of chickpea mediated by the Pseudomonas spp. All the isolates of Pseudomonas spp. showed greater disease control in the induced systemic resistance (ISR) bioassay when iron availability in the nutrient solution was low. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that all the bacterial isolates produced more salicylic acid (SA) at low iron (10µM EDDHA) than high iron availability (10µFe(3+) EDDHA). Except PaRsG27, all the three isolates produced more pseudobactin at low iron than high iron availability. PMID:24049472

Saikia, Ratul; Srivastava, Alok K; Singh, Kiran; Arora, Dilip K; Lee, Min-Woong

2005-03-01

396

Induction of systemic protection against rust infection in broad bean by saccharin: effects on plant growth and development.  

PubMed

Here, we examine the effect of saccharin on the induction of systemic resistance in broad bean (Vicia faba) to the rust fungus Uromyces viciae-fabae. Saccharin was applied to beans at the three-leaf stage, either as a soil drench or by painting the solution on to first leaves. Plants were then challenge inoculated with the rust 1, 6, 10 and 14 d following saccharin treatment, after which they were harvested, assessed for the intensity of rust infection and plant growth measurements conducted. Foliar application of saccharin did not induce systemic protection to rust infection until 14 d after application and was less effective than saccharin applied as a soil drench. When saccharin was applied as a drench, systemic protection was not observed until 6 d after application, but was still apparent in plants 14 d after application of the drench. Irrespective of the method of application, saccharin had no significant effect on fresh and dry weights or leaf area of the plants. Saccharin applied as a drench did, however, reduce the number of leaflets produced. PMID:15998410

Boyle, Celia; Walters, Dale

2005-08-01

397

Photovoltaic pumping system for induction machine with hysteresis array current control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to introduce an additional circuit between the photovoltaic source and the already realized MOSFET based three phase voltage source inverter. The proposed circuit will solve some problems usually met in photovoltaic pumping systems. The system consists of a DC\\/AC converter and a three-phase asynchronous motor coupled to a centrifugal pump

M. Arrouf; C. Goedel

1996-01-01

398

Three-phase power supplying system for induction motor of the diesel-electric locomotive  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the railway traction systems, an important role play diesel-electric locomotive. The AC traction motor proves its advantages compared to the DC older motor, but the supply (the power inverter) is more sophisticated and expensive and, in many cases, not too safe. The authors propose for diesel-electric locomotive a different version of supplying system, based on amplitude modulation and cheap

M. Huzau; Eva-Henrietta Dulf; V. Tulbure; C. Festila

2008-01-01

399

Quantitative systemic and local evaluation of the antiviral effect of ganciclovir and foscarnet induction treatment on human cytomegalovirus gastrointestinal disease of patients with AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a group of 29 AIDS patients with biopsy-proven human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gastrointestinal disease (GID), HCMV GID was shown to correlate mostly with systemic HCMV infection. The antiviral induction treatment (IT) with either ganciclovir (GCV) or foscarnet (PFA) caused a significant reduction in the level of HCMV antigenemia, viremia and leukoDNAemia, and a complete virus clearance or a sharp drop

Giuseppe Gerna; Antonella Sarasini; Fausto Baldanti; Elena Percivalle; Davide Zella; Maria Grazia Revello

1997-01-01

400

Classification of Binary Mass Spectra of Toxic Compounds with an Inductive Expert System and Comparison with SIMCA Class Modeling (Journal Version).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance of an inexpensive, inductive rule-building expert system, 1ST CLASS, using the ID3 algorithm was compared to that of SIMCA class modeling in classifying the binary mass spectra of 78 toxic and related compounds. The compressed mass spectra...

D. R. Scott

1988-01-01

401

CLASSIFICATION OF BINARY MASS SPECTRA OF TOXIC COMPOUNDS WITH AN INDUCTIVE EXPERT SYSTEM AND COMPARISON WITH SIMCA CLASS MODELING (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of an inexpensive, inductive rule-building expert system, 1ST CLASS, using the ID3 algorithm was compared to that of SIMCA class modeling in classifying the binary mass spectra of 78 toxic and related compounds. The compressed mass spectra consisted of 17 masses c...

402

Partial characterization of a biologically active steroid glycoside isolated from the starfish Marthasterias glacialis  

PubMed Central

1. A steroid glycoside (M2), which induces avoidance and other reactions in the mollusc Buccinum undatum, has been isolated from extracts of the starfish Marthasterias glacialis by ion-exchange chromatography. 2. The steroid glycoside was homogeneous by t.l.c. and contained glucose, quinovose, fucose and sulphate in the molar proportions 1:2:1:1, in addition to a water-insoluble aglycone. 3. The aglycone was identified as a cholestane derivative containing an unusual ?24-23-ketone system, two secondary hydroxyl groups and an olefinic double bond, and had the molecular formula C27H42O3. 4. The rates of release of sugars and sulphate suggested that fucose was at the non-reducing end of the oligosaccharide, with glucose glycosidically linked to the steroid. The sulphate group appeared to be linked to the other hydroxyl group of the steroid.

Mackie, A. M.; Turner, A. B.

1970-01-01

403

Quantitative analysis of the interaction of constitutive androstane receptor with chemicals and steroid receptor coactivator 1 using surface plasmon resonance biosensor systems: a case study of the Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica) and the mouse.  

PubMed

The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) not only displays a high basal transcriptional activity but also acts as a ligand-dependent transcriptional factor. It is known that CAR exhibits different ligand profiles across species. However, the mechanisms underlying CAR activation by chemicals and the species-specific responses are not fully understood. The objectives of this study are to establish a high-throughput tool to screen CAR ligands and to clarify how CAR proteins from the Baikal seal (bsCAR) and the mouse (mCAR) interact with chemicals and steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC1). We developed the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system to assess quantitatively the interaction of CAR with potential ligands and SRC1. The ligand-binding domain (LBD) of bsCAR and mCAR was synthesized in a wheat germ cell-free system. The purified CAR LBD was then immobilized on the sensor chip for the SPR assay, and the kinetics of direct interaction of CARs with ligand candidates was measured. Androstanol and androstenol, estrone, 17?-estradiol, TCPOBOP, and CITCO showed compound-specific but similar affinities for both CARs. The CAR-SRC1 interaction was ligand dependent but exhibited a different ligand profile between the seal and the mouse. The results of SRC1 interaction assay accounted for those of our previous in vitro CAR-mediated transactivation assay. In silico analyses also supported the results of CAR-SRC1 interaction; there is little structural difference in the ligand-binding pocket of bsCAR and mCAR, but there is a distinct discrimination in the helix 11 and 12 of these receptors, suggesting that the interaction of ligand-bound CAR and SRC1 is critical for determining species-specific and ligand-dependent transactivation over the basal activity. The SPR assays demonstrated a potential as a high-throughput screening tool of CAR ligands. PMID:23015691

Dau, Pham Thi; Sakai, Hiroki; Hirano, Masashi; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yuki; Kameda, Kenji; Fujino, Takahiro; Kim, Eun-Young; Iwata, Hisato

2013-01-01

404

Steroid-Refractory Acute GVHD: Predictors and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Patients with steroid-resistant acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) have a dismal prognosis, with mortality rates in excess of 90%. We sought to identify a subgroup of patients less likely to benefit from initial therapy with corticosteroids as well as the impact of response on day 14 on outcome. Retrospective evaluation was performed of patients with biopsy-proven aGVHD treated with corticosteroids after allogeneic HSCT at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center from 1998 through 2002 (N = 287). Overall response to first-line therapy on day 14 was 56%. Grade III-IV aGVHD and hyperacute GVHD were the most significant factors predicting failure. Patients who fail to respond to steroids by day 14 should be considered for clinical trials. Severity of aGVHD, hyperacute GVHD, and sex mismatch could be integrated into prognostic scoring systems which may allow for pretreatment identification of patients unlikely to benefit from standard therapy with corticosteroids.

Westin, Jason R.; Saliba, Rima M.; De Lima, Marcos; Alousi, Amin; Hosing, Chitra; Qazilbash, Muzaffar H.; Khouri, Issa F.; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Anderlini, Paolo; Rondon, Gabriela; Andersson, Borje S.; Champlin, Richard; Couriel, Daniel R.

2011-01-01

405

Steroid-induced Kager's fat pad atrophy.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of Kager's fat pad atrophy and fibrosis in a 60-year-old woman 1 year after a steroid injection for Achilles tendinopathy. There are few published reports of steroid-induced atrophy affecting deeper layers of fat tissue. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to illustrate its features using magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the scientific literature is also presented. PMID:24615408

Taneja, Atul K; Santos, Durval C B

2014-08-01

406

In Vivo Metabolism of Adrenocortical Steroids: Cerebrospinal Fluid Ions and Neuro-Transmitters as Modifiers of the Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal-Adrenocortical System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present study was designed to investigate whether alterations, within physiological ranges, in the concentrations of various CSF cations (e.g., Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) could affect the basal activity of the HHA system directly or through their actions on...

S. F. Marotta

1976-01-01

407

Sick sinus syndrome and diffuse impairment of the conduction system in a child: Successful pacing with a steroid eluting endocardial pacing lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 9-year-old patient who had had a syncope was found to have atrial flutter in a resting electrocardiogram (ECG). Brief phases of sinus arrest had previously occurred after drug conversion to sinus rhythm. Structural heart disease was excluded by cardiac catheterization and angiography. Electrophysiologic study revealed a sick sinus syndrome, associated with diffuse impairment of the conduction system (supra-, infra-,

Alessandro Capucci; Giuseppe Boriani; Roberto Galli; Fernando Maria Picchio; Angelo Pierangeli; Bruno Magnani

1992-01-01

408

Quantitative determination of 26 steroids in eggs from various species using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for analyzing 26 types of steroids in egg matrix was developed. The method used liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in electrospray ionization mode (ESI). The procedure involved extraction with acetonitrile and removal of phospholipids by zinc chloride (ZnCl2) followed by SPE cleanup with a Plexa cartridge. The effect of ZnCl2 on phospholipid removal was directly observed using the post column infusion procedure. The SPE washing and elution conditions were optimized using a shallow gradient procedure. The free and conjugated steroids forms were determined using enzyme hydrolysis. The developed method resulted in satisfactory precision (RSD?15%), and the limits of quantification were between 0.05 and 25ng/g depending on the steroid types. The recoveries ranged from 63.2% to 121.5%. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to compare the steroids in eggs from different species (i.e., hen, duck, quail and pigeon eggs) or different raising system (i.e., normal vs. organic eggs). The steroids can be clearly clustered according to species and raising system. The hierarchical clustering analysis indicated similarity of the steroids among the species. The developed method is sensitive and useful for detection and quantification of steroids in eggs and can be used for residue control programs. In addition, the observed steroid content will provide a fundamental reference for food risk assessment analysis. PMID:25017396

Mi, Xiaoxia; Li, Sicong; Li, Yanhua; Wang, Kaiqiang; Zhu, Dan; Chen, Gang

2014-08-22

409

Influence of System Integration and Packaging on Its Inductive Power Link for an Integrated Wireless Neural Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an integrated wireless neural interface based on the Utah electrode array, the implanted electronics are supplied with power through inductive coupling between two coils. This inductive link is affected by conductive and dielectric materials and media surrounding the implant coil. In this study, the influences of the integration of an implant coil on a silicon-based IC and electrode array,

Reid R. Harrison; Florian Solzbacher

2009-01-01

410

Simulation of Trolleybus Traction Induction Drive With Supercapacitor Energy Storage System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article considers the possibilities of saving the regenerative braking energy in Škoda 24Tr type trolleybuses by installing the onboard supercapacitor energy storage system (ESS) and improving its performance with automated switching to the autonomous traction mode. Proposed is an ESS control system with constant DC bus voltage in the supercapacitor charging mode and supercapacitor current proportional to the AC drive current in the discharging mode. The authors investigate stability of the trolleybus ESS control system operating together with AC traction drive in various overhead voltage failure modes. The co-simulation of ESS operation was done by Matlab/Simulink AC drive and PSIM ESS continuous models.

Brazis, V.; Latkovskis, L.; Grigans, L.

2010-01-01

411

Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.  

PubMed

Five new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Their structures were fully established by spectroscopic and chemical analysis as (23S,25S)-5alpha-spirostane-24-one-3beta,23-diol-3-O-{alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (24S,25S)-5alpha-spirostane-3beta,24-diol-3-O-{alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-d-galactopyranoside} (2), 26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5alpha-furostan-2alpha,3beta,22alpha,26-tetraol-3-O-{beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-d-galactopyranoside} (3), 26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5alpha-furostan-20(22)-en-2alpha,3beta,26-triol-3-O-{beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-d-galactopyranoside} (4), and 26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furostan-12-one-22-methoxy-3beta,26-diol-3-O-{alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-d-galactopyranoside} (5). The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytostatic activity against HL-60 cells. PMID:19152803

Su, Lan; Chen, Gang; Feng, Sheng-Guang; Wang, Wei; Li, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Huan; Liu, Ying-Xue; Pei, Yue-Hu

2009-01-01

412

Bone-specific delivery and sustained release of diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, via bisphosphonic prodrug based on the Osteotropic Drug Delivery System (ODDS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have newly synthesized osteotropic diclofenac with bisphosphonic moiety (DIC-BP) based on the concept of Osteotropic Drug Delivery System (ODDS) and investigated its potency of site-specific and controlled delivery of diclofenac to the bone in rats. After intravenous injection into rats, DIC-BP was predominantly distributed in the skeleton. DIC-BP once incorporated in the bone was gradually eliminated (t1\\/2=9.7 days), releasing

Hideki Hirabayashi; Toshiya Takahashi; Jiro Fujisaki; Taro Masunaga; Sachio Sato; Jun Hiroi; Yuji Tokunaga; Sumihisa Kimura; Takehisa Hata

2001-01-01

413

32 CFR 1624.5 - Order to report for induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Order to report for induction. 1624.5 Section 1624.5 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.5 Order to report for induction. (a) Immediately upon determining...

2010-07-01

414

Steroid receptor expression in the fish inner ear varies with sex, social status, and reproductive state  

PubMed Central

Background Gonadal and stress-related steroid hormones are known to influence auditory function across vertebrates but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for steroid-mediated auditory plasticity at the level of the inner ear remain unknown. The presence of steroid receptors in the ear suggests a direct pathway for hormones to act on the peripheral auditory system, but little is known about which receptors are expressed in the ear or whether their expression levels change with internal physiological state or external social cues. We used qRT-PCR to measure mRNA expression levels of multiple steroid receptor subtypes (estrogen receptors: ER?, ER?a, ER?b; androgen receptors: AR?, AR?; corticosteroid receptors: GR2, GR1a/b, MR) and aromatase in the main hearing organ of the inner ear (saccule) in the highly social African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, and tested whether these receptor levels were correlated with circulating steroid concentrations. Results We show that multiple steroid receptor subtypes are expressed within the main hearing organ of a single vertebrate species, and that expression levels differ between the sexes. We also show that steroid receptor subtype-specific changes in mRNA expression are associated with reproductive phase in females and social status in males. Sex-steroid receptor mRNA levels were negatively correlated with circulating estradiol and androgens in both males and females, suggesting possible ligand down-regulation of receptors in the inner ear. In contrast, saccular changes in corticosteroid receptor mRNA levels were not related to serum cortisol levels. Circulating steroid levels and receptor subtype mRNA levels were not as tightly correlated in males as compared to females, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms between sexes. Conclusions This is the most comprehensive study of sex-, social-, and reproductive-related steroid receptor mRNA expression in the peripheral auditory system of any single vertebrate. Our data suggest that changes in steroid receptor mRNA expression in the inner ear could be a regulatory mechanism for physiological state-dependent auditory plasticity across vertebrates.

2010-01-01

415

Effect of infliximab induction therapy on secondary systemic amyloidosis associated with Crohn's disease: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Secondary systemic (AA) amyloidosis is reported as a serious complication that occurs in long-standing Crohn's disease (CD), with an incidence of 0.3-10.9%. Various therapeutic approaches using medicines and elemental diet have been recommended, but still there are no established standards of treatment for secondary systemic amyloidosis in CD. Only a few studies have shown the role of TNF? ihibitors in the treatment of AA amyloidosis over a long term period. We report the case of a 24-year-old male with CD complicated by AA amyloidosis with renal and gastrointestinal tract involvement treated with infliximab as induction therapy. Intestinal AA amyloidosis progression occurred at the same time with the development of CD as an early complication, whereas duration of CD prior to the diagnosis of renal AA amyloidosis was 6 years. Infliximab therapy (3 infusions) caused a significant decrease of serum amyloid A protein (by 97.9%), C-reactive protein (by 70%), improvement of disease activity index, and CD caused clinical symptoms. At the same time gradual progression of the renal damage (reduction of renal function) was not affected by the treatment. Direct efficacy of infliximab infusions on serum amyloid protein level may support the hypothesis of TNF? induced reduction on the progression of AA amyloidosis described in previous study reports. Targeted histological analysis of tissue biopsy is crucial to clarify the presence of AA amyloidosis in CD induced multiorgan damage cases. PMID:24078992

Pukitis, Aldis; Zake, Tatjana; Groma, Valerija; Ostrovskis, Evalds; Skuja, Sandra; Pokrotnieks, Juris

2013-09-01

416

Development of Volume-Reduction System for Ion Exchange Resin Using Inductively Coupled Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spent ion exchange resin generated as radioactive waste in water purifying system at nuclear power stations or related facilities of nuclear power has been stored in the site, and its volume has been increasing year by year. We had developed a full-scale system of IC plasma volume-reduction system for the spent resin, and have performed basic performance test using some samples imitating the spent resin. As the results, the imitation of the resin can be reduced in volume by more than 90% so that the processing performance in actual scale was proved to be effective. In addition, it was clarified that the residuum after volume-reduction process is easy to mix with cement, and solidity containing 30wt% residuum provides high strength of 68MPa. Therefore, we evaluate the application of this process to stabilization of the disposal to be very effective.

Fujisawa, Morio; Katagiri, Genichi

417

Development of a Native Escherichia coli Induction System for Ionic Liquid Tolerance  

PubMed Central

The ability to solubilize lignocellulose makes certain ionic liquids (ILs) very effective reagents for pretreating biomass prior to its saccharification for biofuel fermentation. However, residual IL in the aqueous sugar solution can inhibit the growth and function of biofuel-producing microorganisms. In E. coli this toxicity can be partially overcome by the heterologous expression of an IL efflux pump encoded by eilA from Enterobacter lignolyticus. In the present work, we used microarray analysis to identify native E. coli IL-inducible promoters and develop control systems for regulating eilA gene expression. Three candidate promoters, PmarR’, PydfO’, and PydfA’, were selected and compared to the IPTG-inducible PlacUV5 system for controlling expression of eilA. The PydfA’ and PmarR’ based systems are as effective as PlacUV5 in their ability to rescue E. coli from typically toxic levels of IL, thereby eliminating the need to use an IPTG-based system for such tolerance engineering. We present a mechanistic model indicating that inducible control systems reduce target gene expression when IL levels are low. Selected-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry analysis revealed that at high IL concentrations EilA protein levels were significantly elevated under the control of PydfA’ and PmarR’ in comparison to the other promoters. Further, in a pooled culture competition designed to determine fitness, the strain containing pPmarR’-eilA outcompeted strains with other promoter constructs, most significantly at IL concentrations above 150 mM. These results indicate that native promoters such as PmarR’ can provide effective systems for regulating the expression of heterologous genes in host engineering and simplify the development of industrially useful strains.

Frederix, Marijke; Hutter, Kimmo; Leu, Jessica; Batth, Tanveer S.; Turner, William J.; Ruegg, Thomas L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Adams, Paul D.; Keasling, Jay D.; Thelen, Michael P.; Dunlop, Mary J.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

2014-01-01

418

Determination of the distribution constants of aromatic compounds and steroids in biphasic micellar phosphonium ionic liquid/aqueous buffer systems by capillary electrokinetic chromatography.  

PubMed

The distribution constants of some analytes, closely connected to the petrochemical industry, between an aqueous phase and a phosphonium ionic liquid phase, were determined by ionic liquid micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). The phosphonium ionic liquids studied were the water-soluble tributyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium with chloride or acetate as the counter ion. The retention factors were calculated and used for determination of the distribution constants. For calculating the retention factors the electrophoretic mobilities of the ionic liquids were required, thus, we adopted the iterative process, based on a homologous series of alkyl benzoates. Calculation of the distribution constants required information on the phase-ratio of the systems. For this the critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of the ionic liquids were needed. The CMCs were calculated using a method based on PeakMaster simulations, using the electrophoretic mobilities of system peaks. The resulting distribution constants for the neutral analytes between the ionic liquid and the aqueous (buffer) phase were compared with octanol-water partitioning coefficients. The results indicate that there are other factors affecting the distribution of analytes between phases, than just simple hydrophobic interactions. PMID:23953616

Lokajová, Jana; Railila, Annika; King, Alistair W T; Wiedmer, Susanne K

2013-09-20

419

Effects of centrifugation on gonadal and adrenocortical steroids in rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many endocrine systems are sensitive to external changes in the environment. Both the pituitary adrenal and pituitary gonadal systems are affected by stress including centrifugation stress. The effect of centrifugation on the pituitary gonadal and pituitary adrenocortical systems was examined by measuring the gonadal and adrenal steroids in the plasma and brain following different duration and intensity of centrifugation stress in rats. Two studies were completed and the results are presented. The second study was carried out to describe the developmental changes of brain, plasma and testicular testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in Sprague Dawley rats so that the effect of centrifugation stress on the pituitary gonadal syatem could be better evaluated in future studies.

Kakihana, R.; Butte, J. C.

1980-01-01

420

Induction of systemic acquired resistance in cotton by BTH has a negligible effect on phytophagous insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether or not chemical changes in plants in response to pests (insects and pathogens) are general or specific remains unclear. Some evidence indicates that an induced response (IR) to arthropods via the octadecanoid pathway represents a distinct mechanism from the salicylic acid-based pathway of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to pathogens. To further test this hypothesis, young cotton seedlings were activated

Moshe Inbar; Hamed Doostdar; Dan Gerling; Richard T. Mayer

2001-01-01

421

Validity of Two Sign Systems Based on Inductively Derived Teacher Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Teacher Practices Observation Record (TPOR) and the Florida Climate and Control System (FLACCS) were reviewed to determine their appropriateness for measuring teacher competencies defined by teachers in Carroll County, Georgia. The TPOR looks at the way the teacher develops subject matter and thinking processes of pupils through the eyes of…

Soar, Robert S.

422

Inductively Inferring Valid Logical Models of Continuous-State Dynamical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid control systems consist of a discrete event (DES) controller supervising a continuous-state (CSS) plant. A controller can be synthesized by obtaining a DES controller for an equivalent DES representation (DES plant) of the CSS plant. An important issue concerns the logical invariance (stability) of DES plant transitions to variations in the initial CSS plant state. This paper provides a

Michael D. Lemmon; Panos J. Antsaklis

1995-01-01

423

Effect of Electrical-Utility-System Voltage Harmonics on Induction Motors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Distortion of the electrical utility system voltage waveform can result in damage to or malfunction of user electrical equipment. An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of utility voltage harmonics on the temperature rise of single-phase in...

N. E. Rasmussen

1981-01-01

424

Induction of Dendritic Cell Differentiation by IFN-alpha in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells (DCs) are important in regulating both immunity and tolerance. Hence, we hypothesized that systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease characterized by autoreactive B and T cells, may be caused by alterations in the functions of DCs. Consistent with this, monocytes from SLE patients' blood were found to function as antigen-presenting cells, in vitro. Furthermore, serum from SLE

Patrick Blanco; A. Karolina Palucka; Michelle Gill; Virginia Pascual; Jacques Banchereau

2001-01-01

425

Smart pitch control strategy for wind generation system using doubly fed induction generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A smart pitch control strategy for a variable speed doubly fed wind generation system is presented in this thesis. A complete dynamic model of DFIG system is developed. The model consists of the generator, wind turbine, aerodynamic and the converter system. The strategy proposed includes the use of adaptive neural network to generate optimized controller gains for pitch control. This involves the generation of controller parameters of pitch controller making use of differential evolution intelligent technique. Training of the back propagation neural network has been carried out for the development of an adaptive neural network. This tunes the weights of the network according to the system states in a variable wind speed environment. Four cases have been taken to test the pitch controller which includes step and sinusoidal changes in wind speeds. The step change is composed of both step up and step down changes in wind speeds. The last case makes use of scaled wind data collected from the wind turbine installed at King Fahd University beach front. Simulation studies show that the differential evolution based adaptive neural network is capable of generating the appropriate control to deliver the maximum possible aerodynamic power available from wind to the generator in an efficient manner by minimizing the transients.

Raza, Syed Ahmed

426

Laboratory Investigation of Ice Formation and Elimination in the Induction System of a Large Twin-engine Cargo Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The icing characteristics, the de-icing rate with hot air, and the effect of impact ice on fuel metering and mixture distribution have been determined in a laboratory investigation of that part of the engine induction system consisting of a three-barrel injection-type carburetor and a supercharger housing with spinner-type fuel injection from an 18-cylinder radial engine used on a large twin-engine cargo airplane. The induction system remained ice-free at carburetor-air temperatures above 36 F regardless of the moisture content of the air. Between carburetor-air temperatures of 32 F and 36 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious throttling ice formed in the carburetor because of expansion cooling of the air; at carburetor-air temperatures below 32 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious impact-ice formations occurred, Spinner-type fuel injection at the entrance to the supercharger and heating of the supercharger-inlet elbow and the guide vanes by the warn oil in the rear engine housing are design features that proved effective in eliminating fuel-evaporation icing and minimized the formation of throttling ice below the carburetor. Air-flow recovery time with fixed throttle was rapidly reduced as the inlet -air wet -bulb temperature was increased to 55 F; further temperature increase produced negligible improvement in recovery time. Larger ice formations and lower icing temperatures increased the time required to restore proper air flow at a given wet-bulb temperature. Impact-ice formations on the entrance screen and the top of the carburetor reduced the over-all fuel-air ratio and increased the spread between the over-all ratio and the fuel-air ratio of the individual cylinders. The normal spread of fuel-air ratio was increased from 0.020 to 0.028 when the left quarter of the entrance screen was blocked in a manner simulating the blocking resulting from ice formations released from upstream duct walls during hot-air de-icing.

Colis, William D

1947-01-01

427

Model systems for the study of kidney development: use of the pronephros in the analysis of organ induction and patterning.  

PubMed

Most vertebrate organs, once formed, continue to perform the function for which they were generated until the death of the organism. The kidney is a notable exception to this rule. Vertebrates, even those that do not undergo metamorphosis, utilize a progression of more complex kidneys as they grow and develop. This is presumably due to the changing conditions to which the organism must respond to retain what Homer Smith referred to as our physiological freedom. To quote, "Recognizing that we have the kind of blood we have because we have the kind of kidneys we have, we must acknowledge that our kidneys constitute the major foundation of our physiological freedom. Only because they work the way they do has it become possible for us to have bones, muscles, glands, and brains. Superficially, it might be said that the function of the kidneys is to make urine; but in a more considered view one can say that the kidneys make the stuff of philosophy itself" ("From Fish to Philosopher," Little, Brown and Co., Boston, 1953). Different kidneys are used to make the stuff of philosophy at different stages of development depending on the age and needs of the organism, rather than the usual approach of simply making embryonic organs larger as the animal grows. Although evolution has provided the higher vertebrates with complex adult kidneys, they continue to utilize simple kidneys in embryogenesis. In lower vertebrates with simple adult kidneys, even more simple versions are used during early developmental stages. In this review the anatomy, development, and gene expression patterns of the embryonic kidney, the pronephros, will be described and compared to the more complex kidney forms. Despite some differences in anatomy, similar developmental pathways seem to be responsible for the induction and the response to induction in both evanescent and permanent kidney forms. Gene expression patterns can, therefore, be added to the morphological and functional data indicating that all forms of the kidney are closely related structures. Given the similarities between the development of simple and complex kidneys, the embryonic kidneys may be an ideal model system in which to investigate the genesis of multicomponent organ systems. PMID:9268568

Vize, P D; Seufert, D W; Carroll, T J; Wallingford, J B

1997-08-15

428

Capacitive Excitation for Induction Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to the present, applications of induction generators have been limited, mainly because they must be paralleled with an existing synchronous system to determine their frequency and voltage and to obtain their necessary excitation. The tests described in this paper show that an induction machine may be operated as an independent or isolated generator at a predetermined voltage and frequency,

E. D. Bassett; F. M. Potter

1935-01-01

429

Anabolic steroids and cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Recent reports from needle exchange programmes and other public health initiatives have suggested growing use of anabolic steroids (AS) in the UK and other countries. Data indicate that AS use is not confined to body-builders or high-level sportsmen. Use has spread to professionals working in emergency services, casual fitness enthusiasts and subelite sportsmen and women. Although the precise health consequences of AS use is largely undefined, AS use represents a growing public health concern. Data regarding the consequences of AS use on cardiovascular health are limited to case studies and a modest number of small cohort studies. Numerous case studies have linked AS use with a variety of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events or endpoints, including myocardial infarction, stroke and death. Large-scale epidemiological studies to support these links are absent. Consequently, the impact of AS use upon known CVD risk factors has been studied in relatively small, case-series studies. Data relating AS use to elevated blood pressure, altered lipid profiles and ECG abnormalities have been reported, but are often limited in scope, and other studies have often produced equivocal outcomes. The use of AS has been linked to the appearance of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy as well as endothelial dysfunction but the data again remains controversial. The mechanisms responsible for the negative effect of AS on cardiovascular health are poorly understood, especially in humans. Possibilities include direct effects on myocytes and endothelial cells, reduced intracellular Ca2+ levels, increased release of apoptogenic factors, as well as increased collagen crosslinks between myocytes. New data relating AS use to cardiovascular health risks are emerging, as novel technologies are developed (especially in non-invasive imaging) that can assess physiological structure and function. Continued efforts to fully document the cardiovascular health consequences of AS use is important to provide a clear, accurate, public health message to the many groups now using AS for performance and image enhancement. PMID:22229259

Angell, Peter; Chester, Neil; Green, Danny; Somauroo, John; Whyte, Greg; George, Keith

2012-02-01

430

Mice lacking Mrp1 have reduced testicular steroid hormone levels and alterations in steroid biosynthetic enzymes  

PubMed Central

The multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) is a member of the ABC active transporter family that can transport several steroid hormone conjugates, including 17?-estradiol glucuronide, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and estrone 3-sulfate. The present study investigated the role that MRP1 plays in maintaining proper hormone levels in the serum and testes. Serum and testicular steroid hormone levels were examined in both wild-type mice and Mrp1 null mice. Serum testosterone levels were reduced 5-fold in mice lacking Mrp1, while testicular androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were significantly reduced by 1.7- to 4.5-fold in Mrp1 knockout mice. Investigating the mechanisms responsible for the reduction in steroid hormones in Mrp1-/- mice revealed no differences in the expression or activity of enzymes that inactivate steroids, the sulfotransferases or glucuronosyltransferases. However, steroid biosynthetic enzyme levels in the testes were altered. Cyp17 protein levels were increased by 1.6-fold, while Cyp17 activity using progesterone as a substrate was also increased by 1.4-2.0-fold in mice lacking Mrp1. Additionally, the ratio of 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and steroidogenic factor 1 to 3?hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were significantly increased in the testes of Mrp1-/- mice. These results indicate that Mrp1-/- mice have lowered steroid hormones levels, and suggests that upregulation of steroid biosynthetic enzymes may be an attempt to maintain proper steroid hormone homeostasis.

SIVILS, JEFFREY C.; GONZALEZ, IVEN; BAIN, LISA J.

2010-01-01

431

Building intelligent alarm systems by combining mathematical models and inductive machine learning techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article a technique is described to develop knowledge-based alarm systems for ventilator therapy, using mathematical modeling and machine learning. With a mathematical model airway pressure, expiratory gas flow and CO2 concentration at the endotracheal tube are simulated for patients, undergoing volume-controlled ventilation with constant ventilator settings, during normal functioning of the breathing circuit and during breathing circuit mishaps

Bert Müller; A. Hasman; J. A. Blom

1996-01-01

432

A power- and area-efficient integrated power management system for inductively-powered biomedical implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated power management unit (PMU) to improve the power and area efficiencies of the transcutaneous power transmission in biomedical implants. An auto-reconfigurable multi-ratio SC DC-DC regulator is developed within the PMU not only to maintain high system power efficiency under coupling variations but also to reduce the number of required capacitors and power transistors in the

Xiwen Zhang; Hoi Lee; Song Guo

2011-01-01

433

A Scroll Compressor With a High-Performance Sensorless Induction Motor Drive for the Air Management of a PEMFC System for Automotive Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop experimental rig for testing a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) driving an electrical vehicle. The PEMFC includes an air-management system with a scroll compressor driven by a high-performance sensorless induction motor drive. The sensorless technique is based on a neural-network-based speed observer, i.e., the total least-squares EXIN full-order observer. The whole system is driven

Benjamin Blunier; Marcello Pucci; Giansalvo Cirrincione; Maurizio Cirrincione; Abdellatif Miraoui

2008-01-01

434

Development of vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for wide measurement range of number density using a dual-tube inductively coupled plasma light source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for a wide measurement range of atomic number densities is developed. Dual-tube inductively coupled plasma was used as a light source. The probe beam profile was optimized for the target number density range by changing the mass flow rate of the inner and outer tubes. This system was verified using cold xenon gas. As a result, the measurement number density range was extended from the conventional two orders to five orders of magnitude.

Kuwahara, Akira; Matsui, Makoto; Yamagiwa, Yoshiki

2012-12-01

435

X-ray radiation of a spark preionisation system and volume discharge plasma in a laser with an inductive energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spark-gap preionisation system is studied in a laser pumped by a generator with an inductive energy storage and a semiconductor current interrupter. This preionisation system was shown to produce, in addition to UV and VUV radiation, soft X-ray pulses with photon energies higher than 5 keV. The X-ray radiation was recorded from the plasma of a volume discharge in

Aleksei N Panchenko; Viktor F Tarasenko; A E Telminov

2007-01-01

436

Development of vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for wide measurement range of number density using a dual-tube inductively coupled plasma light source  

SciTech Connect

A vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for a wide measurement range of atomic number densities is developed. Dual-tube inductively coupled plasma was used as a light source. The probe beam profile was optimized for the target number density range by changing the mass flow rate of the inner and outer tubes. This system was verified using cold xenon gas. As a result, the measurement number density range was extended from the conventional two orders to five orders of magnitude.

Kuwahara, Akira; Matsui, Makoto; Yamagiwa, Yoshiki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-4 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561, Shizuoka (Japan)

2012-12-15

437

Stability Analysis Methods for Digital Vector Control System of Induction Motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To perform the vector control, relatively complicated control algorythm is required. The digital sampling control system is apt to be unstable dependent on its sampling period. To equip with many functions under the limitation of lower cost, the longer sampling period is inevitable and the performance of the system becomes less stable. Therefore it is important to evaluate the permissible maximum sampling period of each system. To evaluate it, software simulation tools such as PSIM and EMTP can be used. However these tools require a long execution time even for the sole model under each circuit condition. Therefore simpler methods are necessary to investigate the stability rapidly for many cases of the circuit conditions. In this paper, we propose three kinds of stability judging methods using root loci in a z-plane. The first metod is the most practical one based on a simple approximated model. The second and third methods are based on detailed models each having continuously rotating axis and stepwise rotating axis of the motor coordinates. To evaluate the proposed analytical methods, these results are compared with those obtained from detailed simulation taking PWM control into account.

Tsuji, Mineo; Tsuboi, Katsutaka; Yamada, Eiji

438

Trichoderma Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Is Involved in Induction of Plant Systemic Resistance  

PubMed Central

The role of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) TmkA in inducing systemic resistance in cucumber against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. lacrymans was investigated by using tmkA loss-of-function mutants of Trichoderma virens. In an assay where Trichoderma spores were germinated in proximity to cucumber roots, the mutants were able to colonize the plant roots as effectively as the wild-type strain but failed to induce full systemic resistance against the leaf pathogen. Interactions with the plant roots enhanced the level of tmkA transcript in T. virens and its homologue in Trichoderma asperellum. At the protein level, we could detect the activation of two forms reacting to the phospho-p44/42 MAPK antibody. Biocontrol experiments demonstrated that the tmkA mutants retain their biocontrol potential against Rhizoctonia solani in soil but are not effective against Sclerotium rolfsii in reducing disease incidence. Our results show that, unlike in many plant-pathogen interactions, Trichoderma TmkA MAPK is not involved in limited root colonization. Trichoderma, however, needs MAPK signaling in order to induce full systemic resistance in the plant.

Viterbo, Ada; Harel, Michal; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Chet, Ilan; Mukherjee, Prasun K.

2005-01-01

439

Systemic movement of FT mRNA and a possible role in floral induction  

PubMed Central

FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein is known to be part of the mobile flowering inducing “florigen” signal in plants, but it may not be acting alone. This article reviews the data that FT