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1

Analysis of a post-translational steroid induction system for GIGANTEA in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To investigate the link between the flowering time gene GIGANTEA (GI) and downstream genes, an inducible GI system was developed in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. Transgenic Arabidopsis plant lines were generated with a steroid-inducible post-translational control system for GI. The gene expression construct consisted of the coding region of the GI protein fused to that of the ligand binding

Markus Günl; Eric FungMin Liew; Karine David; Joanna Putterill

2009-01-01

2

Analysis of a post-translational steroid induction system for GIGANTEA in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the link between the flowering time gene GIGANTEA (GI) and downstream genes, an inducible GI system was developed in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. Transgenic Arabidopsis plant lines were generated with a steroid-inducible post-translational control system for GI. The gene expression construct consisted of the coding region of the GI protein fused to that of the ligand binding domain of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (GR). This fusion gene was expressed from the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and was introduced into plants carrying the gi-2 mutation. Application of the steroid dexamethasone (DEX) was expected to result in activation of the GI-GR protein and its relocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Results Application of DEX to the transgenic plant lines rescued the late flowering phenotype conferred by the gi-2 mutation. However, despite their delayed flowering in the absence of steroid, the transgenic lines expressed predicted GI downstream genes such as CONSTANS (CO) to relatively high levels. Nevertheless, increased CO and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) transcript accumulation was observed in transgenic plants within 8 h of DEX treatment compared to controls which was consistent with promotion of flowering by DEX. Unlike CO and FT, there was no change in the abundance of transcript of two other putative GI downstream genes HEME ACTIVATOR PROTEIN 3A (HAP3A) or TIMING OF CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN 1 (TOC1) after DEX application. Conclusion The post-translational activation of GI and promotion of flowering by steroid application supports a nuclear role for GI in the floral transition. Known downstream flowering time genes CO and FT were elevated by DEX treatment, but not other proposed targets HAP3A and TOC1, indicating that the expression of these genes may be less directly regulated by GI.

2009-01-01

3

Neuroactive steroids and central nervous system disorders.  

PubMed

Steroid hormones are vital for the cell life and affect a number of neuroendocrine and behavioral functions. In contrast to their endocrine actions, certain steroids have been shown to rapidly alter brain excitability and to produce behavioral effects within seconds to minutes. In this article we direct attention to this issue of neuroactive steroids by outlining several aspects of current interest in the field of steroid research. Recent advances in the neurobiology of neuroactive are described along with the impact of advances on drug design for central nervous system (CNS) disorders provoked by neuroactive steriods. The theme was selected in association with the clinical aspects and therapeutical potentials of the neuroactive steroids in CNS disorders. A wide range of topics relating to the neuroactive steroids are outlined, including steroid concentrations in the brain, premenstrual syndrome, estrogen and Alzheimer's disease, side effects of oral contraceptives, mental disorder in menopause, hormone replacement therapy, Catamenial epilepsy, and neuractive steroids in epilepsy treatment. PMID:11599309

Wang, M; Bäckström, T; Sundström, I; Wahlström, G; Olsson, T; Zhu, D; Johansson, I M; Björn, I; Bixo, M

2001-01-01

4

Effect of induction agent on vasopressor and steroid use, and outcome in patients with septic shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: In seriously ill patients, etomidate gives cardiovascular stability at induction of anaesthesia, but there is concern over possible adrenal suppression. Etomidate could reduce steroid synthesis and increase the need for vasopressor and steroid therapy. The outcome could be worse than in patients given other induction agents. METHODS: We reviewed 159 septic shock patients admitted to our intensive care unit

David Charles Ray; Dermot William McKeown

2007-01-01

5

Inductive System Health Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that ...

D. L. Iverson

2004-01-01

6

Induction Heating Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Induction heating technology, a magnetic non-deforming process, was developed by Langley researchers to join plastic and composite components in space. Under NASA license, Inductron Corporation uses the process to produce induction heating systems and equipment for numerous applications. The Torobonder, a portable system, comes with a number of interchangeable heads for aircraft repair. Other developments are the E Heating Head, the Toroid Joining Gun, and the Torobrazer. These products perform bonding applications more quickly, safely and efficiently than previous methods.

1991-01-01

7

Induction of Molting in Horseshoe Crab Larvae by Polyhydroxy Steroids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Molting in stage 1 horseshoe crab larvae, Limulus polyphemus, can be induced by polyhydroxy steriods that stimulate molting in insects. The effect of the injected steroids in shortening the intermolt period is dependent on dose and time of injection after...

T. C. Jegla J. D. Costlow

1969-01-01

8

Inductive System Health Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS uses nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations

David L. Iverson

2004-01-01

9

A steroid-inducible gene expression system for plant cells.  

PubMed Central

Promoters that allow the selective induction of gene expression in vivo constitute an important methodology in eukaryotic organisms such as yeast and the fruit fly, but to date no such system has been described for higher plants. Given the fact that mammalian steroid receptors can function as hormone-dependent inducers of gene expression in heterologous systems, the feasibility of using mammalian steroid hormones as selective inducers of plant gene expression was investigated. Here it is shown that the glucocorticoid receptor expressed in plant cells is capable of activating a test gene linked to glucocorticoid response elements, providing the transfected plant cells are treated with glucocorticoid hormone. Nanomolar concentrations of glucocorticoids are sufficient to induce gene expression more than 150-fold, without causing detectable alterations in the physiology of the cultured plant cells. These findings indicate that glucocorticoid induction of steroid-responsive promoters should provide a general method for regulating gene expression in plant cells and imply that such a system might ultimately function in whole plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Images

Schena, M; Lloyd, A M; Davis, R W

1991-01-01

10

Induction of specific proteins in hyphae of Achlya ambisexualis by the steroid hormone antheridiol  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEXUAL differentiation in the male and female strains of the water mould Achlya ambisexualis occurs through a series of stages mediated by steroid hormones1. The species-specific and sex-specific hormones, antheridiol and oogoniol2, initiate the development of the male and female sex organs, respectively. Because antheridiol induction depends on RNA and protein synthesis3 and steroid hormones are thought to influence the

Bernd Groner; Nancy Hynes; Albrecht E. Sippel; Gunther Schutz

1976-01-01

11

Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

... up? Login here Please leave this field empty Steroids SHARE Share on Facebook Preview your comments Share ... Finish Home > Care and Treatment > Treatments Listen Understanding Steroid Treatment Steroids are often used to reduce the ...

12

Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

Anabolic steroids are synthetically produced variants of the naturally occurring male hormone testosterone that are abused in an attempt ... are some of the most frequently abused anabolic steroids. What are the street names? Arnolds, Juice, Pumpers, ...

13

Induction of 5-aminolevulinate synthase by activators of steroid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Different cytochromes P450 are involved in steroid biosynthesis. These cytochromes have heme as the prosthetic group. We previously reported that ACTH, an activator of glucocorticoid biosynthesis in adrenal, requires heme biosynthesis for a maximal response. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ACTH, and the effect of two activators of the adrenal mineralocorticoid synthesis, endothelin-1 and low sodium diet on 5-aminolevulinate-synthase (ALA-s) mRNA. ALA-s is the rate-limiting enzyme in heme biosynthesis. It was found that infusion of rats with ACTH for 1 h caused an increase of adrenal ALA-s mRNA and activity accompanied by an increase in plasma corticosterone. CYP21, a cytochrome involved in the synthesis of both corticosterone and aldosterone, was not modified at the RNA level in adrenal glands by 1 h of ACTH infusion. Consistently, infusion of endothelin-1 for 1 h increased ALA-s mRNA and aldosterone content in adrenal gland without modifying CYP21 mRNA levels. To study if ALA-s is also regulated by the main physiological stimuli that increase adrenal mineralocorticoid secretion, we fed rats with low salt diet for 2 or 15 days. Low salt diet treatment increased adrenal gland ALA-s mRNA levels. On the other hand, the rapid stimulation of ALA-s mRNA by ACTH which acts through cyclic AMP was confirmed in H295R human adrenocortical cells, the only human adrenal cell line that has a steroid secretion pattern and regulation similar to primary cultures of adrenal cells. Our findings suggest that the acute activation of adrenal steroidogenic cytochromes by trophic hormones involves an increase in heme biosynthesis which will favor the production of active cytochromes. PMID:17537461

Martini, Claudia N; Romero, Damian G; Yanes, Licy L; Vila, María del C

2007-05-01

14

Steroids.  

PubMed

Anabolic steroids have been used by athletes for more than three decades in an attempt to improve athletic performance in sports requiring great strength and size. Within the last decade, use of these drugs has spread, involving not only elite athletes, but recreational athletes as well. In the last several years it has become apparent that adolescents are using anabolic steroids. The author describes the physiological effects and side effects of steroids, and reasons for their use by adolescents. The role of the physician in screening for and preventing steroid use is also addressed. PMID:10350741

Johnson

1991-02-01

15

Neuroactive steroids and central nervous system disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroid hormones are vital for the cell life and affect a number of neuroendocrine and behavioral functions. In contrast to their endocrine actions, certain steroids have been shown to rapidly alter brain excitability and to produce behavioral effects within seconds to minutes. In this article we direct attention to this issue of neuroactive steroids by outlining several aspects of current

Mingde Wang; Torbjörn Bäckström; Inger Sundström; Göran Wahlström; Tommy Olsson; Di Zhu; Inga-Maj Johansson; Inger Björn; Marie Bixo

2001-01-01

16

Role of Neuroactive Steroids in the Peripheral Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Several reviews have so far pointed out on the relevant physiological and pharmacological role exerted by neuroactive steroids in the central nervous system. In the present review we summarize observations indicating that synthesis and metabolism of neuroactive steroids also occur in the peripheral nerves. Interestingly, peripheral nervous system is also a target of their action. Indeed, as here reported neuroactive steroids are physiological regulators of peripheral nerve functions and they may also represent interesting therapeutic tools for different types of peripheral neuropathy.

Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Giatti, Silvia; Pesaresi, Marzia; Calabrese, Donato; Mitro, Nico; Caruso, Donatella; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel

2011-01-01

17

Steroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If a radioimmunoassay, a protein binding method, or a colorimetric assay for the assessment of a steroid level is replaced by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the cost for the determination of a steroid level increases at least initially because one must acquire the new HPLC equipment. Therefore, if an older method provides the same results as the new, "advanced" HPLC method, the only advantage resulting from the introduction of a high performance chromatographic assay is that gained by the manufacturer in terms of greater sales. Thus, justification for the assessment of steroids by HPLC is only obtained if the quality and/or quantity of information gained is significantly increased as compared to that provided by the conventional methods. But this evidential relation, that more and better information justifies a higher price in any case, is no longer true in health care, with the birth some years ago of the categoric imperative for the reduction of costs in the medical sector. That is, each new technology introduced for health maintenance should demonstrate at least a stabilizing impact on total medical expenditures. Therefore, after reviewing the presently available HPLC methods for the clinically important steroids, we will consider whether HPLC analyses for these steroids can be recommended without violating this vox populi.

Frey, Felix J.; Frey, Brigitte M.; Benet, Leslie Z.

18

21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system. 862.1385 Section...17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system. (a) Identification...17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system is a device intended...

2009-04-01

19

21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system. 862.1385 Section...17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system. (a) Identification...17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system is a device intended...

2010-04-01

20

21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system. 862.1385 Section...17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system. (a) Identification...17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system is a device intended...

2013-04-01

21

Steroids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Chemistry at Queen Mary University of London has provided an online version of this document from the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The IUPAC has provided numerous documents describing the nomenclature of organic compounds. This specific document issues recommendations for the nomenclature of steroids.

Moss, Gerard P.

2007-09-11

22

Steroids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many companies producing products that claim to give you the benefits and results of exercise without all the work. These products are hoaxes, or fakes. Steroid abuse can permanently and fatally damage your body and they should never be used unless prescribed by a doctor.

N/A N/A (Drug Enforcement Administration;)

2007-09-25

23

Methotrexate for steroid-resistant systemic lupus erythematosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We here report two patients with steroid-resistant systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who were successfully treated with methotrexate (MTX). In both cases, a steroid resistant high fever, associated with mild myositis and pancytopenia were the main common findings, and all these symptoms were alleviated within a few days either by 7.5 mg or 5 mg MTX per week. The number of

M. Hashimoto; S. Nonaka; E. Furuta; T. Wada; Y. Suenaga; M. Yasuda; M. Shingu; M. Nobunaga

1994-01-01

24

Sex steroid priming for induction of puberty in thalassemia patients with pulsatile reversible hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.  

PubMed

Growth and pubertal disturbances are the most common causes of morbidity, affecting 60-80% ?-thalassemia major (?-TM) patients worldwide, due mainly to hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HH). We undertook a 6-year prospective study of 55 Indian ?-TM children with stunted growth and absent or arrested puberty, aged 15-18 years with pulsatile HH, to evaluate the role of low dose sex steroid priming (6-12 months) for physiological induction of puberty. Eighty percent responded favorably with increase in height, growth spurt and completed pubertal maturation [Tanner stage 4-5 (T4-T5)] and 20% moved from T2 to T3. There was biochemical improvement in maturation of hypothalamic-pituitary (H-P) axis. Those younger than 15 years with minimal iron load had the best outcome. Our data suggest that sex steroid priming is a feasible method of induction of physiological puberty in ?-TM patients with sexual infantilism and reversible apulsatile HH, especially in younger patients with minimal iron loads. PMID:22074126

Chatterjee, Ratna; Mukhopadhyay, Tarak Nath; Chandra, Sharmila; Bajoria, Rekha

2011-01-01

25

Detection of anabolic steroid abuse using a yeast transactivation system.  

PubMed

The classical analytical method for detection of anabolic steroid abuse is gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, even molecules with a chemical structure typical for this class of substances, are sometimes not identified in routine screening by GC/MS when their precise chemical structure is still unknown. A supplementary approach to identify anabolic steroid abuse could be a structure-independent identification of anabolic steroids based on their biological activity. To test the suitability of such a system, we have analyzed the yeast androgen receptor (AR) reporter gene system to identify anabolic steroids in human urine samples. Analysis of different anabolic steroids dissolved in buffer demonstrated that the yeast reporter gene system is able to detect a variety of different anabolic steroids and their metabolites with high specificity, including the so-called 'designer steroid' tetrahydrogestrinone. In contrast, other non-androgenic steroids, like glucocordicoids, progestins, mineralocordicoids and estrogens had a low potency to stimulate transactivation. To test whether the system would also allow the detection of androgens in urine, experiments with spiked urine samples were performed. The androgen reporter gene in yeast responds very sensitive to 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), even at high urine concentrations. To examine whether the test system would also be able to detect anabolic steroids in the urine of anabolic steroid abusers, anonymous urine samples previously characterized by GCMS were analyzed with the reporter gene assay. Even when the concentration of the anabolic metabolites was comparatively low in some positive samples it was possible to identify the majority of positive samples by their biological activity. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the yeast reporter gene system detects anabolic steroids and corresponding metabolites with high sensitivity even in urine of anabolic steroid abusing athletes. Therefore we believe that this system can be developed towards a powerful (pre) screening tool for the established doping tests. The system is easy to handle, robust, cost-efficient and needs no high-tech equipment. But most importantly, a biological test system does not require knowledge of the chemical structure of androgenic substances and therefore suitable to detect previously unidentified substances, especially those of the class of so-called designer steroids. PMID:18550137

Zierau, Oliver; Lehmann, Sylvi; Vollmer, Günter; Schänzer, Willhelm; Diel, Patrick

2008-05-04

26

Switch from systemic steroids to budesonide in steroid dependent patients with inactive Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Steroid dependent patients with Crohn's disease are at high risk of developing glucocorticosteroid induced side effects.?AIMS—We evaluated the possibility of switching from systemic steroids to budesonide (Entocort) in prednisolone/prednisone dependent patients with inactive Crohn's disease affecting the ileum and/or ascending colon.?PATIENTS—Steroid dependent patients with a Crohn's disease activity index ?200 were included.?METHODS—In a double blind multicentre trial, 120 patients were randomly assigned to receive budesonide 6 mg once daily or placebo. Prednisolone was tapered to zero during the first 4-10 weeks and budesonide or placebo was given concomitantly and for a further 12 weeks. Relapse was defined as an index >200 and an increase of 60 points from baseline or withdrawal due to disease deterioration.?RESULTS—After one and 13 weeks without prednisolone, relapse rates were 17% and 32%, respectively, in the budesonide group, and 41% and 65% in the placebo group (95% confidence intervals for the difference in percentages ?41%, ?8% and ?51%, ?16%; p=0.004 and p<0.001, respectively). The number of glucocorticosteroid side effects was reduced by 50% by switching from prednisolone and was similar in the budesonide and placebo groups. Basal plasma cortisol increased in both groups.?CONCLUSIONS—The majority of patients with steroid dependent ileocaecal Crohn's disease may be switched to budesonide controlled ileal release capsules 6 mg without relapse, resulting in a sharp decrease in glucocorticosteroid side effects similar to placebo, and with an increase in plasma cortisol levels.???Keywords: budesonide; Crohn's disease; steroid dependent; prednisolone

Cortot, A; Colombel, J; Rutgeerts, P; Lauritsen, K; Malchow, H; Hamling, J; Winter, T; Van Gossum, A; Persson, T; Pettersson, E

2001-01-01

27

Switch from systemic steroids to budesonide in steroid dependent patients with inactive Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDSteroid dependent patients with Crohn's disease are at high risk of developing glucocorticosteroid induced side effects.AIMSWe evaluated the possibility of switching from systemic steroids to budesonide (Entocort) in prednisolone\\/prednisone dependent patients with inactive Crohn's disease affecting the ileum and\\/or ascending colon.PATIENTSSteroid dependent patients with a Crohn's disease activity index ?200 were included.METHODSIn a double blind multicentre trial, 120 patients were

A Cortot; J-F Colombel; P Rutgeerts; K Lauritsen; H Malchow; J Hämling; T Winter; A Van Gossum; T Persson; E Pettersson

2001-01-01

28

Steroid-free liver transplantation using rabbit antithymocyte globulin induction: Results of a prospective randomized trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroids have been 1 of the primary modes of immunosuppression since the inception of transplantation and have been credited with both the prevention and treatment of rejection. Steroids also have been held responsible for increased infections, posttransplantation diabetes, and recurrent hepatitis after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The purpose of this ongoing prospective randomized trial is to eliminate steroid use in

James D. Eason; George E. Loss; Jamie Blazek; Satheesh Nair; Andrew L. Mason

2001-01-01

29

Temperature monitoring system for inductive heater oven  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes numerical model for inductive heating oven and temperature monitoring system for color coating line. For induction heating, the heat generation is concentrated within skin depth so exponentially decaying heat distribution was assumed. To calculate and to monitor the oven exit temperature, measurement system was installed on the inductive heater oven including pyrometer and several thermocouples . The

Wonchul Jung; Jongwoo You; Sangchul Won

2008-01-01

30

Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system - treatment with steroids?  

PubMed

Steroids have been suggested as a therapeutic option for superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SSCNS) without identifiable bleeding source. Longitudinal observational data of a patient with idiopathic SSCNS who was repeatedly treated with methylprednisolone over a course of 2 years are reported. The case history is critically discussed on the background of the sparse literature. In conclusion, if at all, there is only a limited and temporary, mostly subjective clinical response to steroids in SSCNS. Systematic studies of this medication in SSCNS do not seem warranted. Pathophysiological considerations hopefully may lead to more helpful medications for this chronic and debilitating disorder. PMID:19753681

Scheid, R; Frisch, S; Schroeter, M L

2009-10-01

31

Central nervous system manifestations of Q fever responsive to steroids.  

PubMed

We report the clinical and radiological central nervous system manifestations of a 27-year-old man with Q fever who subsequently developed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and showed a significant response to steroids. The patient presented with headache and fever and quickly progressed to develop acute respiratory failure and hepatitis. A prompt evaluation revealed positive serology for Q fever and doxycycline was initiated. Approximately 1 week into his illness he was noted to be profoundly weak. Neuroimaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed diffuse white matter T2/FLAIR hyperintensities, with evidence of restricted diffusion. He was given high-dose steroids for a presumed diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and within days he had both clinical and MRI improvement. In addition to well-described meningitis and encephalitis, Q fever may also be associated with diffuse CNS lesions that may be demyelinating inflammatory in pathophysiology, and therefore responsive to high-dose steroids. PMID:19743743

Skiba, Virginia; Barner, Kristen C

2009-08-01

32

Systemic effects of intranasal steroids: An endocrinologist’s perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intranasal steroids (INSs) are established as first-line treatment for allergic rhinitis. Extensive use of INSs with few reported adverse events supports the safety of these medications. Nevertheless, the prescription of more potent INSs for consistent and more prolonged use to younger and older patients, often in combination with inhaled corticosteroids, justifies the careful examination of their potential adverse systemic effects.

David B Allen

2000-01-01

33

Impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on neuropeptide systems.  

PubMed

The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is relatively widely spread and epidemiological studies in the western countries report a prevalence between 1-5 % among males. The impact of these steroids on the strength and muscle mass as well as many of the adverse physical effects that have been observed are well described. Several reports have also revealed severe psychological effects as results of the administration of AAS. Effects such as irritability, aggressiveness, anxiety and depression are reported to be associated with AAS abuse. The mechanistic rationales behind these effects are not well understood. Several systems are likely to be involved, including the monoamine and peptidergic systems. The aim of this review is to highlight the potential role of the neuropeptide systems in the brain with focus on how these systems are affected by repeated administration of AAS. PMID:21443512

Hallberg, M

2011-05-01

34

Oil field induction generator system  

SciTech Connect

An induction generator system for powering an electric load at a location where fuel is available to power a prime mover and at a location having an existing electrical power distribution system is described comprising: an electrical motor coupled to an existing electrical power distribution system and designed to rotate at a selected synchronous speed in response to application of the electrical power; a prime mover fueled by the fuel and mechanically coupled to drive the electric motor at a speed in excess of the selected synchronous speed whereby the electric motor will generated electrical energy into the electric load; and, control means for coupling the existing electrical power distribution system to the electrical load in the absence of sufficient fuel to drive the prime mover at a speed sufficient to rotate the electric motor above its synchronous speed and for coupling the electrical energy generate by the electric motor to the existing electrical power distribution system when sufficient fuel is available to drive the prime mover at a speed sufficient to rotate the electric motor above its synchronous speed.

Quarles, M.H.; Bolin, W.D.

1988-03-08

35

New steroidal aromatase inhibitors: Suppression of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell proliferation and induction of cell death  

PubMed Central

Background Aromatase, the cytochrome P-450 enzyme (CYP19) responsible for estrogen biosynthesis, is an important target for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. In fact, the use of synthetic aromatase inhibitors (AI), which induce suppression of estrogen synthesis, has shown to be an effective alternative to the classical tamoxifen for the treatment of postmenopausal patients with ER-positive breast cancer. New AIs obtained, in our laboratory, by modification of the A and D-rings of the natural substrate of aromatase, compounds 3a and 4a, showed previously to efficiently suppress aromatase activity in placental microsomes. In the present study we have investigated the effects of these compounds on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and induction of cell death using the estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cell line stably transfected with the aromatase gene, MCF-7 aro cells. Results The new steroids inhibit hormone-dependent proliferation of MCF-7aro cells in a time and dose-dependent manner, causing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and inducing cell death with features of apoptosis and autophagic cell death. Conclusion Our in vitro studies showed that the two steroidal AIs, 3a and 4a, are potent inhibitors of breast cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, it was also shown that the antiproliferative effects of these two steroids on MCF-7aro cells are mediated by disrupting cell cycle progression, through cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and induction of cell death, being the dominant mechanism autophagic cell death. Our results are important for the elucidation of the cellular effects of steroidal AIs on breast cancer.

Cepa, Margarida; Correia-da-Silva, Georgina; da Silva, Elisiario J Tavares; Roleira, Fernanda MF; Borges, Margarida; Teixeira, Natercia A

2008-01-01

36

Dual-mode induction system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a dual-mode induction system for a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine having at least one intake port to each cylinder for allowing air to each cylinder for purposes of combustion. It comprises a manifold having an elongated plenum forming a cavity and a mounting surface for attachment to the engine, the manifold having an inlet air duct communicating with the plenum and a plurality of runners corresponding to and coupled respectively to each of the intake ports, each of the runners forming a loop of predetermined length and communicating with the elongated plenum, each of the runners defining a long flow path between the plenum and its respective intake port, the plenum including a wall portion and a plurality of bypass ports located in line along the wall portion, a bypass member extending and providing communication between a respective one of the bypass ports and each of the runners intermediate the intake port, the bypass member defining a flow path shorter than the predetermined length of the long flow path; and valve means for regulating the flow of air through each the bypass part to vary the effective length of the runners to maximize engine output at various engine speed conditions, the valve means including a single valve member adapted to overlay and thereby close at least a pair of the bypass ports.

Beaber, W.E.

1992-03-03

37

INDUCTIVE SYSTEM HEALTH MONITORING WITH STATISTICAL METRICS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Model-based reasoning is a powerful method for performing system monitoring and diagnosis. Building models for model-based reasoning is often a difficult and time consuming process. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a...

D. L. Iverson

2005-01-01

38

Developmental changes in galanin receptors in the quail oviduct and the effect of ovarian sex steroids on galanin receptor induction.  

PubMed

We have recently isolated an oviposition-inducing peptide from mature quail oviducts identified as avian galanin. This peptide evoked vigorous contractions of the uterine oviduct through binding to receptors located in the uterus. The questions arising from these findings are: what changes occur in galanin receptors in the uterus during maturation, and what is the hormonal factor(s) that induces uterine galanin receptors? Therefore, the present study examined changes in uterine galanin receptors with age and the effect of administration of ovarian sex steroids on galanin receptors in the quail. Immature females reared under long day (LD) photoperiods from 4 weeks of age demonstrated a progressive increase in specific galanin binding per both unit uterine weight and per whole uterus concurrent with uterine development during 4-13 weeks. Scatchard plot analyses of the binding to the uterine preparation showed that the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) was about 0.30-0.34 nM regardless of age, and the change in galanin binding during uterine development was due to a change in the number of binding sites. Plasma 17beta-estradiol and progesterone concentrations were almost constant between 4-6 weeks and tended to increase thereafter. Administration of 17beta-estradiol to immature females for 1 week increased not only uterine weight but also specific galanin binding per unit uterine weight, whereas progesterone increased only the binding per unit uterine weight. Both sex steroids also induced an increase in total binding per uterus. Combined administration of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone induced marked increases in the galanin binding, and the effect was not additive but, rather, was synergistic. Scatchard plot analysis showed that the number of binding sites, but not the Kd, was increased by steroid treatment. Administration of 17beta-estradiol or progesterone increased each circulating steroid level to that relatively similar to the maximal levels observed in females exposed to LD. Thus, ovarian sex steroids may contribute at least in part as hormonal factors to galanin receptor induction, which takes place in the uterine oviduct during development. PMID:9751504

Tsutsui, K; Li, D; Ukena, K; Kikuchi, M; Ishii, S

1998-10-01

39

Steroids and tuftsin fail to prevent the induction of altered plasma proteinase homeostasis in mice bearing the B16 melanoma or treated with C. parvum.  

PubMed

The effects of tuftsin and steroids (methyl prednisolone) on the induction of disrupted plasma proteinase regulation in mice bearing the B16 melanoma or treated with Corynebacterium parvum was investigated. Tuftsin treatment inhibited tumor progression only if treatment was started at the time of tumor transplantation. However, tuftsin inhibited the development of splenomegaly in mice with established tumors. In contrast, tuftsin did not influence either the induction of elevated plasma proteinase activity or the activity in plasma from animals with established tumors. Treatment of mice with high, anti-inflammatory, doses of steroid (20 mg/kg/day) partially inhibited tumor progression, inhibited the induction of splenomegaly, but did not inhibit the induction of disrupted plasma proteinase regulation. Likewise, steroid treatment did not suppress the induction of elevated plasma proteinase activity following treatment of mice with C. parvum. Thus the induction of elevated plasma proteinase activity, previously demonstrated to be a host regulated phenomenon, is resistant to regulation by this anti-inflammatory drug and likely not a component of the anti-tumor response. These findings raise the possibility that this phenomenon results from the interaction of activated RES elements with components of the plasma proteinase cascades. PMID:3319918

Hart, D A

1987-01-01

40

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme: Induction by Steroids in Rabbit Alveolar Macrophages in Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dexamethasone and prednisone in physiologic range increased angiotensin converting enzyme 7- to 16-fold in comparison to control in 3 days at maximal stimulation (4 nM steroid) in rabbit alveolar macrophages in culture. The increase was inhibited by actinomycin D (0.1 mug\\/ml) and 1 muM cycloheximide, suggesting that de novo transcription and enzyme synthesis are responsible for the increased enzyme activity.

Joan Friedland; Charlotte Setton; Emanuel Silverstein

1977-01-01

41

Induction of micronuclei in V79 cells by the anabolic doping steroids tetrahydrogestrinone and trenbolone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthetic steroid tetrahydrogestrinone is a new “designer drug” and was recently detected to be illegally used in sports.\\u000a It is chemically closely related to trenbolone that is known as an animal growth promoter. The potencies of trenbolone, tetrahydrogestrinone\\u000a and testosterone to induce micronuclei in V79 cells in vitro were determined. CREST analysis was employed to differentiate\\u000a between aneugenic or

Susanne B. Dorn; Hermann M. Bolt; Mario Thevis; Patrick Diel; Gisela H. Degen

2008-01-01

42

INDUCTIVE SYSTEM HEALTH MONITORING WITH STATISTICAL METRICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model-based reasoning is a powerful method for performing system monitoring and diagnosis. Building models for model-based reasoning is often a difficult and time consuming process. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer

David L. Iverson

43

Induction machine based flywheel energy storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study introduces a field oriented controlled (FOC) induction machine based flywheel energy storage (FES) system fed from a 20 kHz high frequency (HF) ac link and pulse density modulated (PDM) Converter. The feasibility of FES system is investigated both in software and hardware and is demonstrated successfully in both cases. The investigated system offers a good potential as a

IRFAN ALAN; THOMAS A. LIPO

2003-01-01

44

Three applications of rule induction expert systems  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to illustrate the usefulness of expert systems created using a technique known as rule induction. The document is organized into four parts, including this introduction and three independent papers. The remainder of this introduction discusses expert systems in general and rule induction in particular; it is intended to introduce the concepts involved and to provide the background necessary to understand the technique. The three papers that follow illustrate the creation and use of rule induction expert systems in different domain areas. The papers (along with the introduction) are intended to demonstrate the ease with which expert systems can be constructed using rule induction, and to suggest the variety of analytical problems for which they may be of value. It is hoped that this document will serve to introduce a wider audience to the potential value and uses of rule-induction expert systems, and ultimately that it may stimulate more widespread use of such systems. 5 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

Zimmerman, B.D.; Jansen, G. Jr.; Moen, M.J.

1990-01-01

45

Engine induction system and method  

SciTech Connect

The patent describes a method of inducting air into the intake of an internal combustion engine to reduce engine pumping losses, the engine having an intake plenum connected to a plurality of cylinders each having at least one primary and one secondary intake valve. It comprises the steps of: first, blocking the flow of air to the secondary valves; second, opening each primary intake valve one at a time and closing that valve prior to the opening of the primary intake valve of any other cylinder thereby precluding overlap between the openings of primary valves of different cylinders; and third, at heavier loads, unblocking the flow of air to the secondary valves to obtain greater air flow.

Clarke, J.R.; Wolfe, B.C.

1989-08-29

46

Cylindrical Induction Melter Modicon Control System  

SciTech Connect

In the last several years an extensive R{ampersand}D program has been underway to develop a vitrification system to stabilize Americium (Am) and Curium (Cm) inventories at SRS. This report documents the Modicon control system designed for the 3 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM).

Weeks, G.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1998-04-01

47

Compact inductive energy storage pulse power system.  

PubMed

An inductive energy storage pulse power system is being developed in BARC, India. Simple, compact, and robust opening switches, capable of generating hundreds of kV, are key elements in the development of inductive energy storage pulsed power sources. It employs an inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The energy stored in the capacitor bank is transferred to an air cored storage inductor in 5.5 ?s through wire fuses. By optimizing the exploding wire parameters, a compact, robust, high voltage pulse power system, capable of generating reproducibly 240 kV, is developed. This paper presents the full details of the system along with the experimental data. PMID:22667637

K, Senthil; Mitra, S; Roy, Amitava; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D P

2012-05-01

48

Compact inductive energy storage pulse power system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inductive energy storage pulse power system is being developed in BARC, India. Simple, compact, and robust opening switches, capable of generating hundreds of kV, are key elements in the development of inductive energy storage pulsed power sources. It employs an inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The energy stored in the capacitor bank is transferred to an air cored storage inductor in 5.5 ?s through wire fuses. By optimizing the exploding wire parameters, a compact, robust, high voltage pulse power system, capable of generating reproducibly 240 kV, is developed. This paper presents the full details of the system along with the experimental data.

K, Senthil; Mitra, S.; Roy, Amitava; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D. P.

2012-05-01

49

Steroid catabolism in marine and freshwater fish.  

PubMed

Steroids play important roles in regulating many physiological functions in marine and freshwater fish. Levels of active steroid in blood and tissues are determined by the balance between synthetic and catabolic processes. This review examines what is known about pathways of catabolism of steroids, primarily sex steroids, in marine and freshwater fish. Cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms present in hepatic microsomes catalyze steroid hydroxylation to metabolites with lower or no activity at estrogen or androgen receptors. Important pathways of steroid catabolism to readily excreted metabolites are glucuronidation and sulfonation of hydroxyl groups. Estradiol, testosterone, DHEA and hydroxylated metabolites of these and other steroids readily form glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in those fish species where these pathways have been examined. Little is known, however, of the structure and function of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes involved in steroid conjugation in fish. Glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of steroids may be transported into and out of cells by organic anion transporter proteins and multi-drug resistance proteins, and there is growing evidence that these proteins play important roles in steroid conjugate transport and elimination. Induction or inhibition of any of these pathways by environmental chemicals can result in alteration of the natural balance of steroid hormones and could lead to disruption of the endocrine system. Recent studies in this area are presented, with particular focus on phase II (conjugative) pathways. PMID:20955793

James, Margaret O

2010-10-16

50

Tissue Differential Microarray Analysis of Dexamethasone Induction Reveals Potential Mechanisms of Steroid Glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To identify myocilin (TIGR\\/MYOC) properties that are specific to the human trabecular meshwork (HTM). To search for genes highly expressed in dexamethasone (DEX)- induced HTM cells that are barely expressed or absent in DEX-induced cells from other tissues. METHODS. TIGR\\/MYOC induction by DEX (107 M for 8 -10 days) was analyzed by Northern and Western blot analyses in HTM,

Wayne R. Lo; Laura Leigh Rowlette; Montserrat Caballero; Ping Yang; M. Rosario Hernandez; Teresa Borras

2003-01-01

51

Analysis of Steroid Hormones in a Typical Dairy Waste Disposal System  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The environmental loading of steroid hormones contained in dairy wastes may cause a potential adversely affect on the aquatic species. This work was to investigate the profile of steroid hormones in a typical dairy waste operation system and assess the potential risk of hormone contaminations result...

52

Mortality after steroid-resistant acute cellular rejection and chronic rejection episodes in adult intestinal transplants: report from a single center in induction/preconditioning era.  

PubMed

Steroid-resistant acute cellular rejection (ACR) and chronic rejection (CR) are still major concerns after intestinal transplantation. We report our experience from a single center on 48 adults recipients using 49 grafts from 2001 to 2011, immunosuppressing them initially with daclizumab initially and later Alemtuzumab. Overall patient survival was 41.9% at 10 years while graft survival was 38.5%. The steroid-resistant ACR population of 14 recipients (28.5%) experienced 50% mortality mainly due to sepsis, while the five (8%) CR recipients, included two survivors. All but 1 graft was placed without a liver. CR was often preceded by ACR episodes. Mortality related to steroid-resistant ACR and CR still affects the intestinal transplant population despite induction/preconditioning, especially in the absence of a protective liver effect of the liver. New immunosuppressive strategies are needed. PMID:23769102

Lauro, A; Bagni, A; Zanfi, C; Pellegrini, S; Dazzi, A; Del Gaudio, M; Ravaioli, M; Di Simone, M; Ramacciato, G; Pironi, L; Pinna, A D

2013-06-01

53

NADP Regulates the Yeast GAL Induction System  

SciTech Connect

Transcriptional regulation of the galactose-metabolizing genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on three core proteins: Gal4p, the transcriptional activator that binds to upstream activating DNA sequences (UASGAL); Gal80p, a repressor that binds to the carboxyl terminus of Gal4p and inhibits transcription; and Gal3p, a cytoplasmic transducer that, upon binding galactose and adenosine 5'-triphosphate, relieves Gal80p repression. The current model of induction relies on Gal3p sequestering Gal80p in the cytoplasm. However, the rapid induction of this system implies that there is a missing factor. Our structure of Gal80p in complex with a peptide from the carboxyl-terminal activation domain of Gal4p reveals the existence of a dinucleotide that mediates the interaction between the two. Biochemical and in vivo experiments suggests that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) plays a key role in the initial induction event.

Kumar,P.; Yao, Y.; Sternglanz, R.; Johnston, S.; Joshua-Tor, L.

2008-01-01

54

Mucormycosis in a patient with AIDS receiving systemic steroids.  

PubMed

Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection with a high mortality rate. Although mucormycosis is relatively rare, recent studies suggest that the incidence is on the rise as a result of increased use of chemotherapy and steroids. The authors present an unusual case of invasive mucormycosis in a hospitalized patient with AIDS who was receiving short-term, high-dose steroids and who had associated steroid-induced diabetes. The patient was otherwise healthy, with no underlying risk factors such as neutropenia or intravenous drug use. The patient developed acute onset of proptosis, vision loss, and invasive Mucor in the left maxillary sinus that extended along the optic nerve intracranially. Despite aggressive treatment, the patient died. Physicians should be aware of steroid-induced diabetes as a risk factor for invasive fungal infections such as mucormycosis. PMID:24005091

Pan, Andrew Shiau; Srinath, Latha

2013-09-01

55

Factors in inductive storage system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practical implementation of an inductive pulsed power supply depends on its size and EMI with neighboring environment. Parametric trade-off is made for the prime power battery and the coil. It is shown that the minimal volume of the battery-coil system with a Brooks coil is achieved at a ratio of their volumes 3:2, respectively. For such systems, a jellyroll

M. Kanter; A. Pokrvailo; N. Shaked; Z. Kaplan

1995-01-01

56

Detection of anabolic steroid abuse using a yeast transactivation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical analytical method for detection of anabolic steroid abuse is gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). However, even molecules with a chemical structure typical for this class of substances, are sometimes not identified in routine screening by GC\\/MS when their precise chemical structure is still unknown. A supplementary approach to identify anabolic steroid abuse could be a structure-independent

Oliver Zierau; Sylvi Lehmann; Günter Vollmer; Willhelm Schänzer; Patrick Diel

2008-01-01

57

Electromagnetic induction phenomena in plasma systems  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is considered in complex high temperature plasma systems. Thermal energy of such fully ionized plasma is really energy of the magnetic vortex fields surrounding the randomly moving ions and electrons. In an expanding plasma stream, moving across the containing magnetic field, random thermal motion of the ions and electrons is converted into ordered motion and thereby random magnetic energy of the plasma into magnetic energy of an ordered field. Consequently, in contrast to simple systems consisting of coils and magnets only, an expanding plasma stream can maintain net outflow of ordered magnetic energy from a closed volume for an indefinite length of time. Conversion of thermal energy of plasma into ordered magnetic energy by the thermodynamic expansion process leads to the expectation of a new induction phenomenon: the generation of a unidirectional induced electromotive force of unlimited duration, measured in a closed loop at rest relative to the magnetic field, by the expansion work of the plasma stream. No change is required in the differential form of Maxwell's equations for the existence of this induction phenomenon, only the definition of the concept of rate of change of magnetic flux needs to be modified in the macroscopic equations to correspond to the rate of flow of magnetic energy across a closed surface. An experimental test of the predicted induction phenomenon is proposed.

Karlovitz, B.

1982-10-01

58

A novel approach to the discovery of non-systemic anti-inflammatory steroids; Antedrug  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapeutic use of anti-inflammatory steroids is limited due primarily to their systemic suppressive effects on pituitary\\u000a function and the immune system. To overcome the clinical limitation, a new approach toward the discovery of non-systemic anti-inflammatory\\u000a steroids is based upon the antedrug concept introduced by this laboratory. The new concept describes locally active agents\\u000a which are designed to undergo a predictable

Henry J. Lee; Dong-Hoon Ko

1999-01-01

59

Cybernetic systems based on inductive logic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work in the area of inductive logic suggests that cybernetics might be quantified and reduced to engineering practice. If so, then there are considerable implications for engineering, science, and other fields. This paper attempts to capture the essential ideas of cybernetics cast in the light of inductive logic. The described inductive logic extends conventional logic by adding a conjugate logical domain of questions to the logical domain of assertions intrinsic to Boolean Algebra with which most are familiar. This was first posited and developed by Richard Cox. Interestingly enough, these two logical domains, one of questions and the other of assertions, only exist relative to one another with each possessing natural measures of entropy and probability, respectively. Examples are given that highlight the utility of cybernetic approaches to neuroscience, algorithm design, system engineering, and the design and understanding of defensive and offensive systems. For example, the application of cybernetic approaches to defense systems suggests that these systems possess a wavefunction which like quantum mechanics, collapses when we ``look'' through the eyes of the system sensors such as radars and optical sensors. .

Fry, Robert L.

2001-05-01

60

Application of Induction Generators in Power Systems. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of induction generators in power systems is discussed. The performance of induction generators as function of machine and system parameters and as function of var source control is evaluated and compared with that of synchronous generators...

F. P. de Mello L. N. Hannett J. W. Feltes

1981-01-01

61

Sex steroids, immune system, and parasitic infections: facts and hypotheses.  

PubMed

It has been widely reported that the incidence and the severity of natural parasitic infections are different between males and females of several species, including humans. This sexual dimorphism involves a distinct exposure of males and females to various parasite infective stages, differential effects of sex steroids on immune cells, and direct effects of these steroids on parasites, among others. Typically, for a large number of parasitic diseases, the prevalence and intensity is higher in males than females; however, in several parasitic infections, males are more resistant than females. In the present work, we review the effects of sex hormones on immunity to protozoa and helminth parasites, which are the causal agents of several diseases in humans, and discuss the most recent research related to the role of sex steroids in the complex host-parasite relationship. PMID:22823431

Nava-Castro, Karen; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2012-07-01

62

Inhaled Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids What are some common inhaled steroids? How are ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...

63

Effects of steroids on the brain opioid system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiments reported here add further evidence in support of the view that sex steroids may influence the binding characteristics of brain opioid receptors. In particular, it has been shown that: (a) the number of ?-opioid receptors varies in the hypothalamus of regularly cycling female rats according to the different phases of the estrous cycle, which are characterized by fluctuations

Flavio Piva; Patrizia Limonta; Donatella Dondi; Federica Pimpinelli; Luciano Martini; Roberto Maggi

1995-01-01

64

Steroid hormone activation of wandering in the isolated nervous system of Manduca sexta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroid hormones modulate motor circuits in both vertebrates and invertebrates. The insect Manduca sexta, with its well-characterized developmental and endocrinological history, is a useful model system in which to study these effects. Wandering is a stage-specific locomotor behavior triggered by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), consisting of crawling and burrowing movements as the animal searches for a pupation site. This

Julie E. Miller; Richard B. Levine

2006-01-01

65

Introduction to the Interaction Between Gonadal Steroids and the Central Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The sex steroids are frequently referred to as the gonadal steroids and are erroneously assumed to be exclusively linked to\\u000a the ovaries in women or the testes in men and the functions of the reproductive tract. This chapter will provide an overview\\u000a of some of the extragonadal effects of these hormones, focusing on the central nervous system, and the mechanisms

Kay M. Marshall

66

Widespread Capacity for Steroid Synthesis in the Avian Brain and Song System  

PubMed Central

Steroids exert powerful effects on the brains and behavior of many species, but measures and manipulations of endocrine physiology in songbirds often reveal unexplained connections between steroids and the brain. The zebra finch song system, a sensorimotor neural circuit sensitive to steroids throughout life, organizes and functions largely in apparent independence from gonadally derived steroids. We tested the hypothesis that the zebra finch brain has the capacity for de novo steroidogenesis and that neurally synthesized steroids, neurosteroids, may impact the song system. Using multiple techniques, we demonstrate that the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (CYP11A1), and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/?5-?4 isomerase, the first three factors in the steroidogenic pathway, are expressed in both developing and adult zebra finch brain. Detailed expression mapping at posthatch d 20 (P20) and adult reveals widespread area-specific expression and coexpression patterns for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, CYP11A1, and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/?5-?4 isomerase, which suggest neurosteroids may modulate multiple brain functions, including sensory and motor systems. Notably, whereas expression of other steroidogenic genes such as aromatase has been essentially absent from the song system, each of the major song nuclei express at least a subset of steroidogenic genes described here, establishing the song system as a potential steroidogenic circuit.

London, Sarah E.; Monks, D. Ashley; Wade, Juli; Schlinger, Barney A.

2010-01-01

67

Contactless inductive power pickup system for Maglev applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a newly developed contactless inductive power pickup system for Maglev applications. The system consists of a loosely coupled transformer and two high-frequency power converters. Furthermore, the proposed inductive system was verified through various simulations and experiments. System performances such as magnetic coupling, energy efficiency, and power factor correction effects are included.

Byeong-Mun Song; Robert Kratz; Sam Gurol

2002-01-01

68

Induction system for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

An induction system is described for an internal combustion engine having first and second groups of cylinders of which firing orders are respectively discontinuous. It consists of: a first collector for supplying air to the first group of cylinders; a second collector for supplying air to the second group of cylinders; a first main air supply passage fluidly connected to the first collector to form a first supply line; a second main air supply passage fluidly connected to the second collector to form a second air supply line independent from the first air supply line; a first throttle valve disposed in the first main or supply passage; a second throttle valve disposed in the first main air supply passage; an additional air supply passage bypassing the first and second throttle valves for supplying additional air to the first and second collectors; and an additional air control valve disposed in the additional air supply passage for controlling air flow therethrough.

Ura, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Yasuda, M.

1987-10-20

69

Induction system for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

An induction system for an internal combustion engine having cylinders is described, comprising: an intake manifold having passages for supplying air to the cylinders and an upstream planar joining end face; a collector unit located upstream of the intake manifold for supplying air to the passages of the intake manifold and having a planar joining end face which is joined with the planar joining end face of the intake manifold; and a groove formed in at least one of the joining end faces to define therebetween a fluid recirculation passage and having a main groove section and a plurality of outlet groove sections branching off from the main groove section so that recirculation fluid is drawn in the main groove section and distributed from the outlet groove sections to the passages of the intake manifold, respectively.

Yasuda, M.; Nishimura, S.; Ura, S.

1987-12-29

70

Neuroactive steroid effects on cognitive functions with a focus on the serotonin and GABA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will review neuroactive steroid effects on serotonin and GABA systems, along with the subsequent effects on cognitive functions. Neurosteroids (such as estrogen, progesterone, and allopregnanolone) are synthesized in the central and peripheral nervous system, in addition to other tissues. They are involved in the regulation of mood and memory, in premenstrual syndrome, and mood changes related to hormone

Vita Birzniece; Torbjörn Bäckström; Inga-Maj Johansson; Charlotte Lindblad; Per Lundgren; Magnus Löfgren; Tommy Olsson; Gianna Ragagnin; Magdalena Taube; Sahruh Turkmen; Göran Wahlström; Ming-De Wang; Anna-Carin Wihlbäck; Di Zhu

2006-01-01

71

Steroid receptor expression in the developing copulatory system of the green anole lizard ( Anolis carolinensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adulthood, the copulatory system in male green anole lizards is characterized by the presence of two hemipenes, each controlled by ipsilateral muscles. These structures are present in both sexes early in development, but prior to hatching regress completely in females. Embryonic treatment with steroid hormones alters the morphology of the copulatory system, suggesting active roles for both androgens and

Laurel A. Beck; Juli Wade

2008-01-01

72

Steroid hormones and neurosteroids in normal and pathological aging of the nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without medical progress, dementing diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease will become one of the main causes of disability. Preventing or delaying them has thus become a real challenge for biomedical research. Steroids offer interesting therapeutical opportunities for promoting successful aging because of their pleiotropic effects in the nervous system: they regulate main neurotransmitter systems, promote the viability of neurons, play

M. Schumacher; S. Weill-Engerer; P. Liere; F. Robert; R. J. M. Franklin; L. M. Garcia-Segura; J. J. Lambert; W. Mayo; R. C. Melcangi; A. Parducz; U. Suter; C. Carelli; E. E. Baulieu; Y. Akwa

2003-01-01

73

Implementation of an embedded induction motor test and analysis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the implementation of an embedded induction motor test and analysis system based on ARM and Linux. This system adopts the ARM microprocessor - S3C2410X - as the core of the hardware and the Linux as the embedded operating system. It can be used to sample and acquire the currents, voltages, and the rate of the tested induction

Hongbin Gao; Yukun Liu; Liwei Guo

2011-01-01

74

Anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse in weight lifters: evidence for activation of the hemostatic system.  

PubMed

Anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse has recently been linked with acute vascular events in athletes. To date, the relationship between steroid abuse and the potential for cardiovascular disease has been considered almost exclusively in terms of lipid metabolism. However, recent reports of thrombosis in androgen abusing athletes with no evidence of atherosclerosis suggests the hypothesis that thrombosis risk in such athletes could be mediated through androgen induced abnormalities of coagulation. To determine if anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse in weight lifters is associated with an activation of the hemostatic system we studied forty-nine weight lifters recruited through advertisements. History of androgen use or abstinence was confirmed via urine assays. Plasma was assayed for clotting and fibrinolytic activity by measuring thrombin/antithrombin complexes (TAT), prothrombin fragment 1 + 1 (F1 + 2), and D-dimers (D-di); markers of the endothelial based fibrinolytic components were assayed by measuring tissue plasminogen activator antigen (t-PA Ag) and its inhibitor (PAI-1); finally, the activity of antithrombin III, protein C, and protein S were measured. Abnormally high concentrations of TAT complexes were noted in 16% of our confirmed steroid using weight lifters compared to 6% of our confirmed nonusers (P = .01). Steroid users also demonstrated abnormally high concentrations of F1 + 2 and D-dimers when compared to nonusers (44 vs. 24%, P < .001, and 9 vs. 0%, respectively). Non-steroid users were more likely to have elevated levels of t-PA Ag and PAI-1 than our steroid using weight lifters (both P < .001). The activities of antithrombin III and protein S were more likely to be higher in users compared to nonusers (22 vs. 6%, P = .005; 19 vs. 0%, respectively). Some anabolic-androgenic steroid using weight lifters have an accelerated activation of their hemostatic system as evidence by increased generation of both thrombin and plasmin. These changes could reflect a thrombotic diatheses that may contribute to vascular occlusion reported in young athletes using these drugs. The predictive value of these coagulation abnormalities in terms of risk of thrombosis to individual steroid using weight lifters or the population as a whole remains to be studied. PMID:7639272

Ferenchick, G S; Hirokawa, S; Mammen, E F; Schwartz, K A

1995-08-01

75

Artificial Neural Network Based Designing System for Induction Motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An artificial neural network (ANN) based designing method has been proposed for induction motors. Based on the real design data for various types of induction motors with different rating, three-layered cascaded artificial neural networks have been specified and trained to estimate the fundamental quantities and parameters, and also to give proper sizes of the target induction motor. Totally, thirty-four cage rotor type induction motors, which were designed by different engineers, have been selected for the training data. These induction motors have different ratings, different capacities, and different usage, i. e., driving units for pumps, compressors, and fans. The type of cooling method is totally enclosed the fan cooled type for all the selected induction motors. Through the numerical simulations based on the actual design data for different types of induction motors, the efficiency of the proposed designing system has been demonstrated.

Ikeda, Masahiro; Nakayama, Takaaki; Hiyama, Takashi

76

Administration of steroids in pediatric cardiac surgery: impact on clinical outcome and systemic inflammatory response.  

PubMed

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with a systemic inflammatory response. Pre-bypass steroid administration may modulate the inflammatory response, resulting in improved postoperative recovery. We performed a prospective study in the departments of cardiovascular surgery and pediatric intensive care medicine of two university hospitals that included 50 infants who underwent heart surgery. Patients received either prednisolone (30 mg/kg) added to the priming solution of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit (steroid group) or no steroids (nonsteroid group). Clinical outcome parameters include therapy with inotropic drugs, oxygenation, blood lactate, glucose, and creatinine, and laboratory parameters of inflammation include leukocytes, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-8. Postoperative recovery (e.g., the number, dosage, and duration of inotropic drugs as well as oxygenation) was similar in patients treated with or without steroids when corrected for the type of cardiac surgery performed. After CPB, there was an inflammatory reaction, especially in patients with a long CPB time. Postoperative plasma levels of interleukin-8 were correlated with the duration of CPB time (r = 0.62, p < 0.001). Administration of steroids had no significant impact on the laboratory parameters of inflammation. Administration of prednisolone into the priming solution of the CPB circuit had no measurable influence on postoperative recovery and did not suppress the inflammatory response. PMID:15690237

Gessler, P; Hohl, V; Carrel, T; Pfenninger, J; Schmid, E R; Baenziger, O; Prètre, R

77

BEVATRON INDUCTION-ELECTRODE BEAM-MONITORING SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is described that uses the east induction electrode in the ; Bevatron to provide beam-amplitude signals for specialized monitoring and for ; primary calibration of other beam-monitoring equipment. A system is also ; described that uses the south induction electrodes to provide beam-position ; signals for tracking, and beam-amplitude signals for intensity control and ; general distribution to

Lavrischeff

1957-01-01

78

14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181 Section...GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Airworthiness Requirements...125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for...malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine...

2009-01-01

79

14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181 Section...GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Airworthiness Requirements...125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for...malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine...

2010-01-01

80

Effects of systemic steroids in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefit of systemic steroids as adjunctive treatment in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of corticosteroid treatment on mortality in patients with severe CAP. A retrospective, observational study of a cohort of patients hospitalised with severe CAP, classes IV and V of the Prognostic Severity Index score, was carried

C. Garcia-Vidal; E. Calbo; V. Pascual; C. Ferrer; S. Quintana; J. Garau

2007-01-01

81

Study on compensation of novel planar inductive power transfer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel inductive power transfer system based on planar transformer technology was presented in this paper. Inductive power transmission technology and planar transformer technology was combined. It was characterized by small volume, high energy density, low loss, large cooling area, good characteristic for current and many other advantages. At the same time, secondary parallel-compensation and primary series-compensation which influenced performance

Deng Yafeng I; Wang Changsong; Wang Hui; Shi Pengfei; Liu Hongxia

2010-01-01

82

Research of Sensorless Induction Motor Monitoring and Measuring System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce t he co st of mo nitoring and measuring system of induction motor and wit ho ut increasing t he roto rs rotational , t he rotor speed and elect ro magnetic torque estimation wit h good performance of induction motor based on t he algo rit hm of estimating inductio n motors dynamic velocit y

H E Zhi

83

Inhaled versus systemic steroids in chronic oxygen dependency of preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speed of action and side-effects of systemic versus inhaled steroids was compared in infants with mild-moderate oxygen\\u000a dependency. Forty infants (median gestational age 27 weeks) were randomized to receive either 10 days of dexamethasone (systemic\\u000a group) or budesonide (100 ?g qds) (inhaled group). At randomization, there was no significant difference in the gestational\\u000a or postnatal age, inspired oxygen requirements

G. Dimitriou; A. Greenough; F. J. Giffin; V. Kavadia

1996-01-01

84

Inductive Fatigue Dectector: Field System Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the hardware development of a rotating inductive flaw detector, based on an experimental unit built under a previous phase of the program. A complete self-contained transducer and readout unit for field use on aluminum is described an...

L. Hoogenboom R. Dorman G. Moross

1974-01-01

85

Neurotransmitter-controlled steroid hormone receptors in the central nervous system.  

PubMed

Results are discussed indicating that neurotransmitters affect steroid hormone activity not only by controlling via neuroendocrine events the hypophysial-gonadal and hypophysial-adrenal axes, but also by modulating cell responsiveness to steroids in target cells. Hyper- or hypoactivity of pineal nerves result in enhancement or impairment of estradiol and testosterone effects on pineal metabolism in vivo and in vitro. Pineal cytoplasmic and nuclear estrogen and androgen receptors are modulated by norepinephrine released from nerve endings at the pinealocyte level. Neural activity affects the cycle of depletion-replenishment of pineal estrogen receptors following estradiol administration. Another site of modulation of steroid effects on the pinealocytes is the intracellular metabolism of testosterone and progesterone; nerve activity has a positive effect on testosterone aromatization and a negative effect on testosterone and progesterone 5?-reduction. NE activity on the pineal cells is mediated via ?-adrenoceptors and cAMP. In the central nervous system information on the neurotransmitter modulation of steroid hormone action includes the following observations: (a) hypothalamic deafferentation depresses estrogen receptor levels in rat medial basal hypothalamus; (b) changes in noradrenergic transmission affect, via ?-adrenoceptors, the estradiol-induced increase of cytosol progestin receptor concentration in guinea pig hypothalamus; (c) cAMP increases testosterone aromatization in cultured neurons from turtle brain; (d) electrical stimulation of dorsal hippocampus augments, and reserpine or 6-hydroxydopamine treatment decrease, corticoid binding in cat hypothalamus. In the adenohypophysis changes in dopaminergic input after median eminence lesions or bromocriptine treatment of rats result in opposite modifications of pituitary estrogen receptor levels. Therefore all these observations support the view that neurotransmitters can modulate the attachment of steroid hormones to their receptors in target cells. PMID:20487939

Cardinali, D P; Vacas, M I; Ritta, M N; Gejman, P V

1983-01-01

86

14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from burning through the duct and entering...absorb or trap hazardous quantities of flammable fluids that could be ignited by a surge or reverse-flow condition. (f) Induction system...

2013-01-01

87

EVALUATION OF AN INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA, MULTICHANNEL SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

An inductively coupled plasma, multielement atomic emission spectrometric analysis system has been evaluated with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency's need for a rapid method for determination of trace elemental concentrations in water. Data are presented on detection...

88

Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)  

MedlinePLUS

Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups) How are steroid pills and syrups used? What is a steroid burst? What about routine ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

89

Molecular Evolution of a Steroid Hydroxylating Cytochrome P450 Using a Versatile Steroid Detection System for Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular evolution is a powerful tool for improving or changing activities of enzymes for their use in biotechnological processes.\\u000a Cytochromes P450 are highly interesting enzymes for biotechnological purposes because they are able to hydroxylate a broad\\u000a variety of substrates with high regio- and stereoselectivity. One promising steroid hydroxylating cytochrome P450 for biotechnological\\u000a applications is CYP106A2 from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 13368. It

Rita Bernhardt

2008-01-01

90

A design of inductive torque sensor for EPS system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Torque sensor is an important component of EPS system. The output characteristics of the sensor determine the performances of EPS system. This paper provides a design of torque senor for EPS system, using inductive electric bridge with sine-wave motivation. We designed a sine-wave driving source with properly stable frequency and amplitude, an intelligent adjusting circuit for the electric bridge based

Wang Huaqiang; Yan Wenjun

2010-01-01

91

Regulation of the hyaluronan system in ovine endometrium by ovarian steroids.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated steroid regulation of the hyaluronan (HA) system in ovine endometrium including HA synthases (HAS), hyaluronidases, and HA receptor-CD44 using 30 adult Welsh Mountain ewes. Eight ewes were kept intact and synchronized to estrous (day 0). Intact ewes were killed on day 9 (luteal phase; LUT; n=5) and day 16 (follicular phase; FOL; n=3). The remaining ewes (n=22) were ovariectomized and then treated (i.m.) with vehicle (n=6) or progesterone (n=8) for 10 days, or estrogen and progesterone for 3 days followed by 7 days of progesterone alone (n=8). Estradiol and progesterone concentrations in plasma correlated with the stage of estrous or steroid treatment. Our results showed trends (P<0.1) and statistically significant effects (P<0.05, by t-test) indicating that LUT had lower HAS1 and HAS2 and higher HAS3 and CD44 mRNA expression compared with FOL. This was reflected in immunostaining of the corresponding HAS proteins. Similarly, in ovariectomized ewes, progesterone decreased HAS1 and HAS2 and increased HAS3 and CD44, whereas estradiol tended to increase HAS2 and decrease CD44. Sometimes, HAS mRNA expression did not follow the same trend observed in the intact animals or the protein expression. HA and its associated genes and receptors were regulated by the steroids. In conclusion, these results show that the level of HA production and the molecular weight of HA in the endometrium are regulated by ovarian steroids through differential expression of different HAS both at the gene and at the protein levels. PMID:23630333

Raheem, Kabir A; Marei, Waleed F; Mifsud, Karen; Khalid, Muhammad; Wathes, D Claire; Fouladi-Nashta, Ali A

2013-04-29

92

Wireless health monitoring system for vibration detection of induction motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To avoid unexpected equipment failures and obtain higher accuracy in diagnostic for the predictive maintenance of induction motors, on-line health monitoring system plays an important role to improve the system reliability and availability. Among different techniques of fault detection, work on motor current signature analysis by using only stator current spectra has been well documented. In addition, the recent developments

Suratsavadee Korkua; Himanshu Jain; Wei-Jen Lee; Chiman Kwan

2010-01-01

93

Adaptive fuzzy sliding-mode control for induction servomotor systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptive fuzzy sliding-mode control design method is proposed for induction servomotor system control. The proposed adaptive fuzzy sliding-mode control system is comprised of a fuzzy controller and a compensation controller. The fuzzy controller is the main tracking controller, which is used to approximate an ideal computational controller. The compensation controller is designed to compensate for the difference between the

Chih-Min Lin; Chun-Fei Hsu

2004-01-01

94

Wind energy conversion system simulator using variable speed induction motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional synchronous generator in wind energy conversion system are now getting replaced by variable speed induction generator to extract maximum power with wide range of wind speed limit. The design and performance of such system are required a simplified digital simulator, especially for development of optimal control solutions. The proposed work is to make a prototype of an variable

S. W. Mohod; M. V. Aware

2010-01-01

95

Low bioavailability and traditional systemic steroids in IBD: can the former take over the latter?  

PubMed

Systemic corticosteroids have been used to treat active inflammatory bowel disease for over 50 years by virtue of their unquestionable efficacy in inducing clinical remission rapidly in the vast majority of patients. Nevertheless, traditional corticosteroids are associated to a plethora of potentially serious side effects due to their systemic metabolism; for this reason, interest has lately been growing in newer steroid compounds characterized by a high topical anti-inflammatory activity and a low systemic bioavailability. These compounds, namely budesonide and beclomethasone dipropionate--regarding the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease--can be administered orally and thanks to sophisticated delivery systems are conveyed specifically to the inflamed gut mucosa where they exert their anti-inflammatory action. After intestinal absorption, these drugs are promptly and efficiently inactivated by the liver, so that only inactive molecules reach the systemic circulation. This review revises the main clinical trials, meta-analyses and observational studies conducted on traditional and newer steroids, and critically interprets the main results achieved by these studies. PMID:23539393

Fasci Spurio, Federica; Aratari, Annalisa; Margagnoni, Giovanna; Clemente, Valeria; Moretti, Alessandra; Papi, Claudio

2013-03-01

96

Inductive coupling system for endovascular aneurysm repair monitoring.  

PubMed

Endoleaks are one of the major concerns in the long-term follow-up of endovascular aneurysm repair treatment (EVAR). Therefore, periodic monitoring is required to detect eventual damages in an implanted stent-graft. A monitoring system for post EVAR procedure based on inductive-coupling which avoids the need to resorting to more complex biomedical imaging systems is presented here. Endoleaks are detected with capacitive pressure sensors placed in the stent-graft and monitored externally after the measure of the oscillation frequency provided by the LC circuit created by sensors and inductive coupling. PMID:22942038

Oliveira, Cristina; Almeida, Nuno; Machado da Silva, José

2012-01-01

97

Internal combustion engine with dual induction system and with fuel injection system to discharge fuel into primary induction system  

SciTech Connect

A spark ignition fuel injection reciprocatory internal combustion engine with dual induction system has within a cylinder head a primary intake passage to direct air fuel mixture charge into a cylinder to swirl therein and a secondary intake passage to direct air charge into the cylinder in such a direction as to impede the swirling motion of the air fuel mixture charge, thereby to maintain the volumetric efficiency of the engine at a sufficiently high level. A fuel injector is so positioned as to discharge fuel into the primary intake passage. An air flow sensor is provided upstream of primary and secondary throttle valves to detect the total of flow of induction air fed to the engine so that fuel is discharged at a rate proportional to the total induction air flow. Under engine operating conditions when only the primary throttle valve opens, air fuel mixture charge will swirl at a sufficiently high rate as to enhance evaporation and dispersion of fuel droplets. Under engine operating conditions when both the primary and secondary throttle valves open, the air fuel mixture charge issuing from the primary intake passage is enriched and air charge from the secondary intake passage impedes swirling motion of enriched air fuel mixture charge from the primary intake passage to enhance evaporation and dispersion of fuel droplets.

Etoh, Y.; Nakagawa, Y.; Nakai, M.; Nakajima, R.

1981-01-27

98

The role of steroid hormones and decidual induction in the regulation of adenosine diphosphoribosyl transferase activity in rat endometrium.  

PubMed

Adenosine diphosphoribosyl transferase (ADPRT) activity was measured in endometrial nuclei isolated on estrus and day 4 from rats ovariectomized on estrus (day 0) and treated on days 0-3 with vehicle, estrone (E), progesterone (P), or E plus P, a treatment that supports a decidual response. Also, measures were made of ADPRT in endometrial nuclei isolated from rats during the estrous cycle, days 1-7 of pseudopregnancy, and days 5-7 of pseudopregnancy after decidual induction on day 4. E treatment produced an increase in ADPRT activity, DNA content, tissue mass, and total protein. P alone did not affect ADPRT activity or DNA content. Enzyme activity and DNA content measured after E plus P treatment were significantly lower than those after estrone treatment and higher than those in vehicle-treated controls. The parallel stimulation of ADPRT activity and DNA synthesis by E supports a role for ADPRT in cellular proliferation. The blockade of E-stimulated ADPRT activity by P is consistent with a previously proposed model of hormonal regulation of rat uterine pyridine nucleotide metabolism. In endometrium from cycling rats, ADPRT activity did not change between metestrus and proestrus, but declined on estrus. After a rise on day 1 of pseudopregnancy, ADPRT activity remained stable through day 5 and declined on day 6. The relatively constant enzyme activity during the cycle and early pseudopregnancy, when hormone levels undergo great changes, may reflect an additional level of control in intact animals not observed in ovariectomized hormone-treated rats. Decidual ADPRT activity declined on day 5, 1 day after uterine trauma, and increased on day 6. This pattern of enzyme activity is consistent with the initial phase of cytodifferentiation, followed by rapid proliferation during early decidualization. PMID:2492929

Cummings, A M

1989-03-01

99

Self-tuning inductive powering for implantable telemetric monitoring systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inductive powering of implantable monitoring devices is a widely accepted solution for replacing implanted batteries. However, this method demands technically skilled operators to tune constantly the power link parameters. This becomes particularly important when the external system must also be portable. However, acceptable lifetimes for the external batteries can be obtained by a precise optimization of the power efficiency of

Koenraad Van Schuylenbergh; Robert Puers

1996-01-01

100

Self Tuning Inductive Powering For Implantable Telemetric Monitoring Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Inductive powering of implantable monitoring devices is a widely accepted solution to replace implanted batteries. However, this method demands technically skilled operators to constantly tune the power link parameters. This becomes particularly important when the entire system must be portable. Acceptable battery lifetimes can only be obtained by a precise optimisation of the power efficiency. In this paper, a

Koenraad Van Schuylenbergh; Robert Puers

1995-01-01

101

Design and Construction of Induction Motor Thermal Monitoring System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotor and stator temperature rise in induction motors is considered to be a major cause of motor insulation degradation and motor failures. In most cases, it is necessary to monitor rotor bars and stator windings to make sure that their temperature remains below the allowable limits. In this paper, design and implementation of a temperature measuring system suitable for three-phase

H. Hafezi; A. Jalilian

2006-01-01

102

Systems modeling for heavy ion drivers - an induction linac example  

SciTech Connect

A source-to-target model for a induction linac driver for heavy ion fusion has been developed and is described here. Design features for a reference case driver that meets the requirements of one current target design are given, and the systems analyses supporting the point design are discussed. Directions for future work are noted.

Meier, W.R.; Bangerter, R.O.; Faltens, A.

1997-09-30

103

Rule Quality Measures for Rule Induction Systems: Description and Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rule quality measure is important to a rule induction system for determining when to stop gener-alization or specialization. Such measures are also important to a rule-based classification procedure for resolving conflicts among rules. We describe a number of statistical and empirical rule quality formulas and present an experimental comparison of these formulas on a number of standard machine learning

An Aijun; Nick Cercone

2001-01-01

104

Induction generator static systems with a reduced number of components  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two different structures for energy generation from an induction machine to supply DC and AC isolated loads. The paper presents different control strategies for each system and discusses problems such as the use of a battery set and a variable load to take care of an eventual variation of the energy generated. Some of the strategies also

C. B. Jacobina; E. R. C. da Silva; A. M. N. Lima; R. L. A. Ribeiro

1996-01-01

105

Control System for an Induction Motor with Energy Recovery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A control circuit for an induction motor powered system is described wherein a power factor controlled servo loop is used to control, via the phase angle of firing of a triac, the power input to the motor as a function of load placed on the motor by machi...

F. J. Nola

1982-01-01

106

Forward and Reverse Control System for Induction Motors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A control system for controlling the direction of rotation of a rotor of an induction motor includes an array of five triacs with one of the triacs applying a current of fixed phase to the windings of the rotor and four of the triacs being switchable to a...

J. T. Wright

1987-01-01

107

Cardiac effects of anabolic steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anabolic steroid abuse in athletes has been associated with a wide range of adverse conditions, including hypogonadism, testicular atrophy, impaired spermatogenesis, gynaecomastia, and psychiatric disturbance. But what effect does steroid abuse have on the cardiovascular system?

J R Payne; P J Kotwinski; H E Montgomery

2004-01-01

108

Induction Linac Systems Experiments for heavy ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory propose to build at LBL the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step toward the eventual goal of a heavy ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Though much smaller than a driver, ILSE will be at full driver scale in several important parameters. Nearly all accelerator components and beam manipulations required for a driver will be tested. It is expected that ILSE will be built in stages as funds and technical progress allow. The first stage, called Elise will include all of the electrostatic quadrupole focused parts of ILSE.

Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bangerter, R.O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Div.

1994-06-01

109

Chemical segregation during induction melting of high-magnesia systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies the chemical segregation phenomenon during induction melting in a cold crucible (IMCC) using a Krystall-402 installation designed for continuous induction melting. The authors melted chemically pure materials of the systems MgO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MgO-Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and MgO-ZrO/sub 2/. Based on the theory of directional solidification and zone refining as applied to the technology of continuous IMCC processes, the authors obtained the numerical values of the diffusion coefficient of the aluminum and chromium oxides and the impurities in molten magnesium oxide.

Suvorov, S.A.; Aleksandrov, B.P.; Masover, I.F.

1986-09-01

110

Internal combustion engine with dual induction system and with EGR system  

SciTech Connect

A spark ignition reciprocatory internal combustion engine with dual induction system and with EGR system is provided in which under engine operating conditions when only a primary throttle valve opens, a fluid charge from a primary induction system will swirl around the cylinder axis, while, under engine operating condition when both the primary and secondary throttle valves open, a fluid charge from a secondary induction system will impede and reduce swirling motion of fluid charge from the primary induction system. With the EGR system, the recirculation of exhaust gas is effected through the primary induction system under the engine operating condition with low and intermediate loads. At high loads, the recirculation of exhaust gas is effected not only through the primary induction system but also through the secondary induction system. For this end the EGR system includes a load responsive valve which will permit admission of exhaust gas into the secondary induction system at a position downstream of the secondary throttle valve in response to loads of the engine.

Etoh, Y.; Tanaka, T.

1980-05-06

111

Steroid biotransformations in biphasic systems with Yarrowia lipolytica expressing human liver cytochrome P450 genes  

PubMed Central

Background Yarrowia lipolytica efficiently metabolizes and assimilates hydrophobic compounds such as n-alkanes and fatty acids. Efficient substrate uptake is enabled by naturally secreted emulsifiers and a modified cell surface hydrophobicity and protrusions formed by this yeast. We were examining the potential of recombinant Y. lipolytica as a biocatalyst for the oxidation of hardly soluble hydrophobic steroids. Furthermore, two-liquid biphasic culture systems were evaluated to increase substrate availability. While cells, together with water soluble nutrients, are maintained in the aqueous phase, substrates and most of the products are contained in a second water-immiscible organic solvent phase. Results For the first time we have co-expressed the human cytochromes P450 2D6 and 3A4 genes in Y. lipolytica together with human cytochrome P450 reductase (hCPR) or Y. lipolytica cytochrome P450 reductase (YlCPR). These whole-cell biocatalysts were used for the conversion of poorly soluble steroids in biphasic systems. Employing a biphasic system with the organic solvent and Y. lipolytica carbon source ethyl oleate for the whole-cell bioconversion of progesterone, the initial specific hydroxylation rate in a 1.5?L stirred tank bioreactor was further increased 2-fold. Furthermore, the product formation was significantly prolonged as compared to the aqueous system. Co-expression of the human CPR gene led to a 4-10-fold higher specific activity, compared to the co-overexpression of the native Y. lipolytica CPR gene. Multicopy transformants showed a 50-70-fold increase of activity as compared to single copy strains. Conclusions Alkane-assimilating yeast Y. lipolytica, coupled with the described expression strategies, demonstrated its high potential for biotransformations of hydrophobic substrates in two-liquid biphasic systems. Especially organic solvents which can be efficiently taken up and/or metabolized by the cell might enable more efficient bioconversion as compared to aqueous systems and even enable simple, continuous or at least high yield long time processes.

2012-01-01

112

Electromagnetic induction moisture measurement system acceptance test plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this acceptance test plan (ATP) is to verify that the mechanical, electrical and software features of the ElectroMagnetic Induction (EMI) probe are operating as designed,and that the unit is ready for field service. The accepted EMI and Surface Moisture Measurement Systems (SMMS) will be used primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement of organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

Vargo, G.F., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-01

113

Anabolic Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

... Marijuana) LSD (Acid) Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine PCP/Phencyclidine Prescription Drugs Salvia Steroids (Anabolic) Tobacco Addiction ... Marijuana) LSD (Acid) Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine PCP/Phencyclidine Prescription Drugs Fentanyl Salvia Steroids (Anabolic) Tobacco ...

114

A testing strategy for the identification of mammalian, systemic endocrine disruptors with particular focus on steroids.  

PubMed

Most endocrine disruptors interact with hormone receptors or steroid biosynthesis and metabolism, thereby modifying the physiological function of endogenous hormones. Here, we present an alternative testing paradigm for detection of endocrine modes of action that replace and reduce animal testing through refinement. Receptor mediated endocrine effects were assessed using the yeast-based receptor-mediated transcriptional activation YES/YAS assays and effects on steroid hormone biosynthesis were assessed using the human cell line H295R in the steroidogenesis assay. In our testing paradigm we propose to complement the in vitro assays with a single in vivo repeated dose study in which plasma samples are analyzed for their metabolome profile in addition to classical parameters such as histopathology. The combination of these methods does not only contribute to refinement and reduction of animal testing, but also has significantly increased the efficient allocation of resources and allows for a sound assessment of the endocrine disruption potential of compounds. Thus, this proposal constitutes a potentially attractive alternative to EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program to identify mammalian, systemic endocrine modes of action. Data on 14 reference substances for which the in vitro YES/YAS and steroidogenesis assays and the in vivo metabolome analysis were performed to assess their putative endocrine modes of action are presented here. PMID:22554500

Kolle, Susanne N; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Kamp, Hennicke G; Buesen, Roland; Flick, Burkhard; Strauss, Volker; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

2012-04-24

115

Induction of cerebral ?-amyloidosis: Intracerebral versus systemic A? inoculation  

PubMed Central

Despite the importance of the aberrant polymerization of A? in the early pathogenic cascade of Alzheimer's disease, little is known about the induction of A? aggregation in vivo. Here we show that induction of cerebral ?-amyloidosis can be achieved in many different brain areas of APP23 transgenic mice through the injection of dilute A?-containing brain extracts. Once the amyloidogenic process has been exogenously induced, the nature of the induced A?-deposition is determined by the brain region of the host. Because these observations are reminiscent of a prion-like mechanism, we then investigated whether cerebral ?-amyloidosis also can be induced by peripheral and systemic inoculations or by the intracerebral implantation of stainless steel wires previously coated with minute amounts of A?-containing brain extract. Results reveal that oral, intravenous, intraocular, and intranasal inoculations yielded no detectable induction of cerebral ?-amyloidosis in APP23 transgenic mice. In contrast, transmission of cerebral ?-amyloidosis through the A?-contaminated steel wires was demonstrated. Notably, plasma sterilization, but not boiling of the wires before implantation, prevented the induction of ?-amyloidosis. Our results suggest that minute amounts of A?-containing brain material in direct contact with the CNS can induce cerebral ?-amyloidosis, but that systemic cellular mechanisms of prion uptake and transport to the CNS may not apply to A?.

Eisele, Yvonne S.; Bolmont, Tristan; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Langer, Franziska; Jacobson, Laura H.; Yan, Zheng-Xin; Roth, Klaus; Aguzzi, Adriano; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Walker, Lary C.; Jucker, Mathias

2009-01-01

116

From Steroid Receptors to Cytokines: The Thermodynamics of Self-Associating Systems  

PubMed Central

Since 1987, the Gibbs Conference on Biothermodynamics has maintained a focus on understanding the quantitative aspects of gene regulatory systems. These studies coupled rigorous techniques with exact theory to dissect the linked reactions associated with bacterial and lower eukaryotic gene regulation. However, only in the last ten years has it become possible to apply this approach to clinically relevant, human gene regulatory systems. Here we summarize our work on the thermodynamics of human steroid receptors and their interactions with multi-site promoter sequences, highlighting results not available from more traditional biochemical and structural approaches. Noting that the Gibbs Conference has also served as a vehicle to promote the broader use of thermodynamics in understanding biology, we then discuss collaborative work on the hydrodynamics of a cytokine implicated in tumor suppression, prostate derived factor (PDF).

Connaghan, Keith D.; Moody, Amie D.; Robblee, James P.; Lambert, James R.; Bain, David L.

2011-01-01

117

Anabolic Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Medical uses of anabolic steroids include some hormone problems in men, late puberty ... some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. But ...

118

Anabolic Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

Print What Are Anabolic Steroids? Ever wondered how those bulky weight lifters got so big? While some may have gotten their muscles through a strict ... What Are the Common Street Names for Anabolic Steroids? Slang words for steroids are hard to find. ...

119

A Complete Modeling and Simulation of Induction Generator Wind Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the modeling and simulation of wind power systems based on two different induction generators; the squirrel-cage induction generator (SCIG) and the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The techniques of direct grid integration of SCIG system and independent power control of DFIG system are discussed. Particularly, to solve the droop in distribution line voltage in SCIG system, a reactive

Yu Zou; M. Elbuluk; Y. Sozer

2010-01-01

120

Ovarian steroid regulation of the midbrain corticotropin releasing factor and urocortin systems in macaques.  

PubMed

A significant number of postmenopausal women report increased anxiety and vulnerability to stress, which has been linked to decreased secretion of ovarian steroids. Communication between the serotonin system and the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) system determines stress sensitivity or resilience. This study examines the effects of the ovarian steroids, estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) on the CRF system components that impact serotonin neurons in the midbrain of nonhuman primates. Ovariectomized rhesus macaques were treated with placebo, E alone for 1 month, or E supplemented with P for the last 2 weeks. Quantitative (q)RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry were employed. E±P treatment decreased CRF-R1 and increased CRF-R2 gene expression in hemi-midbrain blocks and in laser captured serotonin neurons. Also in hemi-midbrains, E treatment increased urocortin 1 (UCN1) and CRFBP gene expression, but supplemental P treatment reversed these effects. E±P decreased CRF fiber density in the dorsal, interfascicular and median raphe nuclei and decreased CRF-R1 immunostaining in the dorsal raphe. E increased CRF-R2 immunostaining in the dorsal and median raphe. E±P increased UCN1 immunostaining in the cell bodies and increased UCN1 fiber density in the caudal linear nucleus. Estrogen receptor beta (ER?), but not ER? was detected in the nucleus of UCN1-positive neurons. While the mechanism of ovarian hormone regulation of the midbrain CRF system requires further investigation, these studies clearly demonstrate another pathway by which ovarian hormones may have positive effects on anxiety and mood regulation. PMID:20833230

Sanchez, R L; Reddy, A P; Bethea, C L

2010-09-15

121

Steroid withdrawal in renal transplantation.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, steroid minimization became one of the major goals in pediatric renal transplantation. Different protocols have been used by individual centers and multicenter study groups, including early and late steroid withdrawal or even complete avoidance. The timing of steroid withdrawal determines if antibodies are used, as avoidance and early withdrawal require antibody induction, while late withdrawal typically does not. A monoclonal antibody was used in most protocols during an early steroid withdrawal together with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil in low immunological risk patients. Polyclonal induction was reported as effective in high-risk patients. Cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil were used in late steroid withdrawal with no induction. All described protocols were effective in terms of preventing acute rejection and preserving renal graft function. There was no superiority of any specific protocol in terms of clinical benefits of steroid withdrawal. Pre-puberty determined growth benefit while other clinical advantages, including better control of glycemia, lipids, and blood pressure, were age independent. It is not clear whether the steroid withdrawal increases the risk of recurrence of primary glomerular diseases post-transplant, however it cannot be excluded. There is no evidence to date for a higher risk of anti-HLA production in steroid-free children after renal transplantation. Key summary points - Current strategies to minimize the steroid-related adverse effects in pediatric renal graft recipients include steroid withdrawal, early or late after transplantation, or complete steroid avoidance- Early steroid withdrawal or avoidance is generally used following the induction therapy with mono- or polyclonal antibodies, while in late steroid withdrawal induction therapy was generally not used- Elimination of steroids (early or late) does not increase the risk of acute rejection and does not deteriorate long-term renal graft function- Early steroid withdrawal is possible in patients at high immunological risk using a combination of polyclonal antibody induction, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil- All protocols of steroid minimization showed relevant clinical benefits, however the growth-related benefit was limited to pre-pubertal patients in all but one of the studies- Adverse events of steroid withdrawal occurred in a higher incidence of post-transplant bone marrow suppression Key research points - There is no clear evidence of the impact of steroid withdrawal on the risk of recurrence of primary glomerulonephritis after renal transplantation in children, therefore further evaluation of this important issue should be performed in prospective trials- There is limited pediatric data on the risk of anti-HLA/donor-specific antibody production in steroid-free patients after renal transplantation. It is not clear whether the selection of the type of induction antibody (lymphocyte depleting versus short, two-dose administration of anti-IL2R inhibitor) is important in this term. The production of anti-HLA antibodies should then be monitored on a regular basis and analyzed in prospective trials. PMID:23288351

Grenda, Ryszard

2013-01-04

122

Steroid hormone regulation of vasopressinergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vasopressinergic neurotransmission is intimately linked to steroid hormone signaling. Both arginine8 vasopressin (VP) and the extrahypothalamic VP V1a receptors are regulated by steroid hormones. Here, we present work that has been done in our laboratory, investigating mechanisms underlying steroid hormone effects on the expression of both VP and its primary receptor in the brain, the VP V1a receptor. Data on

Jyoti J. Watters; Paule Poulin; Daniel M. Dorsa

1999-01-01

123

Steroidal Saponins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

124

Doubly fed induction generator systems for wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows that adjustable speed generators for wind turbines are necessary when output power becomes higher than 1 MW. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) system presented in this article offers many advantages to reduce cost and has the potential to be built economically at power levels above 1.5 MW, e.g., for off-shore applications. A dynamic model of the

S. Muller; M. Deicke; R. W. De Doncker

2002-01-01

125

Transistorized PWM Inverter-Induction Motor Drive System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a transistorized pulsewidth modulated (PWM) inverter-induction motor traction drive system is described. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and

Steven C. Peak; Allan B. Plunkett

1983-01-01

126

Mycobacterium intracellulare infection of the shoulder and spine in a patient with steroid-treated systemic Lupus erythematosus  

SciTech Connect

Atypical mycobacterial infections of bone are rare. A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus treated with steroids developed an M. intracellulare infection of the shoulder and spine. These infections are insidious and diagnosis is difficult. Marked involvement of one joint, large effusion, or aspirated small synovial fragments suggest an atypical tuberculous joint infection.

Zvetina, J.R.; Rubinstein, H.; Demos, T.C.

1982-05-01

127

Pubertal exposure to anabolic androgenic steroids increases spine densities on neurons in the limbic system of male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human studies show that the number of teenagers abusing anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is increasing. During adolescence, brain development is altered by androgen exposure, which suggests that AAS may potentially alter central nervous system (CNS) development. The goal of the present study was to determine whether pubertal AAS exposure increased dendritic spine densities on neurons within the medial amygdala and

R. L. Cunningham; B. J. Claiborne; M. Y. McGinnis

2007-01-01

128

Effect of systemic steroids on ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in patients with ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Long-term steroid therapy predisposes to postsurgical complications, especially in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to determine incidence of early septic complications after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (TPAA) in patients who are undergoing prolonged steroid therapy. METHODS: We reviewed charts of 692 patients undergoing restorative proctocolectomy and IPAA to treat ulcerative colitis. Incidence of early (within

Yehiel Ziv; James M. Church; Victor W. Fazio; Tai-Ming King; Ian C. Lavery

1996-01-01

129

Roles of steroid hormones and their receptors in structural organization in the nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to their chemical properties, steroid hormones cross the blood-brain barrier where they have profound effects on neuronal development and reorganization both in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans mediated through their receptors. Steroids play a crucial role in the organizational actions of cellular differentiation representing sexual dimorphism and apoptosis, and in the activational effects of phenotypic changes in association with

Mitsuhiro Kawata

1995-01-01

130

Si LiG process for inductive meso systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new process for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) has been developed and employed in the microfabrication of inductive actuators. The process combines deep UV lithography and metal electroplating with bulk silicon micromachining. The lithography is based on an AZ-4260 photoresist with a thickness of 50 ?m, while electroplating is accomplished by using a gold bath; the bulk silicon is micromachined in an aqueous KOH solution (28% w/w) at 80 °C. This process has been successfully applied in the micromachining of an oscillating mirror actuated by induction. The results show compatibility between the microfabrication process of the metallic structures and the KOH bulk silicon micromachining process. The photoresist mold remained intact after the electroplating step, and the electroplated structures were uniform in thickness, surface uniformly smooth, and presented good adhesion, maintaining these features also after KOH micromachining.

Barbaroto, Pedro R.; Doi, Ioshiaki; Ferreira, Luiz Otávio S.

2003-05-01

131

[Genetic polymorphism of steroidogenic enzymes and steroid receptor level in tumors of the reproductive system].  

PubMed

The strategy of therapy and prognosis of reproductive system neoplasia generally depend on the steroid receptor status of tumor. The causes of formation of steroid receptor-free tumors are to be investigated. The genetic polymorphism of CYP19 (aromatase), CYP17 (17-hydroxylase; 17,20-lyase), CYP1B1 (4-estrogen hydroxylase) and COMT (catechol-O-methyl transferase) was studied in a total of 254 patients with breast and endometrial cancer, with particular reference to the association of certain polymorphisms and receptor status of tumor. It was found that the lack of estrogen receptor (ER) in breast tumor was due to a deficit in the A3A6 allele (p(0.01), while the absence of progesterone receptors was associated with a lower incidence of the A1A1 and A1A2 variants (p = 0.022) of tetranucleotide repeats in the CYP19 gene. In the same patients, receptor-negative tumors occurred more often (p = 0.032) than in combinations of higher level of 4-hydroxylase estradiol of S-allele in position 48 (Gly/Arg) of the CYP1B1 gene. Moreover, endometrial carcinoma patients tended to reveal (p = 0.058) an increased ratio of A6A7-CYP19 to allele A1-containing variant. No other distinctions between R(+) and R(-) tumors were identified. It is suggested that peculiar polymorphisms of steroidogenic enzymes may moderately influence the genesis of R(-) neoplasms which may be associated with either the rate of estrogen biosynthesis or, as in the case of CYP1B1, with formation of genotoxic derivatives of estrogens. The latter point is to be investigated further. PMID:15176218

Berstein, L M; Zimarina, T S; Tsyrlina, E V; Kovalevski?, A Iu; Imianitov, E N

2004-01-01

132

Control system for an induction motor with energy recovery  

SciTech Connect

A control circuit for an induction motor powered system wherein a power factor controlled servo loop is used to control, via the phase angle of firing of a triac, the power input to the motor as a function of load placed on the motor by machinery of the powered system. Then, upon application of torque by this machinery to the motor, which tends to overspeed the motor, the firing angle of the triac is automatically set to a fixed, and relatively short, firing angle.

Nola, F.J.

1983-11-22

133

Control system for an induction motor with energy recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A control circuit for an induction motor powered system is disclosed in which a power factor controlled servo loop is used to control, via the phase angle of firing of a triac, the power input to the motor, as a function of load placed on the motor by machinery of the powered system. Then, upon application of torque by this machinery to the motor, which tends to overspeed the motor, the firing angle of the triac is automatically set to a fixed, and relatively short, firing angle.

Nola, F. J.

1983-11-01

134

Surface moisture measurement system electromagnetic induction probe calibration technique  

SciTech Connect

The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) is designed to measure the moisture concentration near the surfaces of the wastes located in the Hanford Site tank farms. This document describes a calibration methodology to demonstrate that the Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) moisture probe meets relevant requirements in the `Design Requirements Document (DRD) for the Surface Moisture Measurement System.` The primary purpose of the experimental tests described in this methodology is to make possible interpretation of EMI in-tank surface probe data to estimate the surface moisture.

Crowe, R.D., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-08

135

A linear induction motor control system for magnetically levitated carrier system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electromagnetic suspension system has been developed that cuts off electric power-collecting devices from a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system makes it possible to transport materials with no mechanical contact at all between the vehicle and ground facilities. A control system for linear induction motors used in the magnetically levitated carrier system is described. The system was developed to transport

Teruo Azukizawa; Mimpei Morishita; Shuji Kanda; Noboru Tamura; Toyohiko Yokoyama

1989-01-01

136

Steroid osteopathy  

SciTech Connect

Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible.

Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

1984-01-01

137

Annual sex steroid profiles and effects of gender and season on cytochrome P450 mRNA induction in Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod)  

SciTech Connect

As a preliminary step in a 4-year biomonitoring program, sex steroid levels, gonad weights, and diameter of vitellogenic oocytes were measured in tomcod collected bimonthly from the Miramichi and Kouchibouguac rivers from September 1993 to September 1994. As well as the reproductive indices, hepatic levels of cytochrome P4501A mRNA (CYP1A mRNA) were also measured. The preparatory period for spawning began in September, with maximal steroid levels in November, and spawning took place from late December to January. The CYP1A mRNA levels in female tomcod appeared inversely related to plasma steroids, with the lowest amounts of CYP1A mRNA coinciding with maximal steroids. The CYP1A mRNA levels in male tomcod did not exhibit this relationship. River-river comparisons of female tomcod showed significantly smaller vitellogenic oocytes in the Miramichi, along with lower plasma testosterone, estradiol, and relative gonad weight. Miramichi CYP1A mRNA levels were higher than Kouchibouguac in the fall but lower in the spring sample. The CYP1A mRNA-sex steroid relationship observed in this study will facilitate meaningful interpretation of data collected during the full 4-year study.

Williams, P.J.; Courtenay, S.C. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, New Brunswick (Canada); Wilson, C.E. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Ocean Sciences Center

1998-08-01

138

Progress in developing repetitive pulse systems utilizing inductive energy storage  

SciTech Connect

High-power, fast-recovery vacuum switches were used in a new repetitive counterpulse and transfer circuit to deliver a 5-kHz pulse train with a peak power of 75 MW (at 8.6 kA) to a 1-..cap omega.. load, resulting in the first demonstration of fully controlled, high-power, high-repetition-rate operation of an inductive energy-storage and transfer system with nondestructive switches. New circuits, analytical and experimental results, and feasibility of 100-kV repetitive pulse generation are discussed. A new switching concept for railgun loads is presented.

Honig, E.M.

1983-01-01

139

Fate and occurrence of steroids in swine and dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems.  

PubMed

Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (steroids via swine farms and human sources were mainly originated from wastewater into the receiving environments while those steroids via cattle farms were mainly from cattle feces. The total contributions of steroids to the environment in China are estimated to be 139, 65.8 and 60.7 t/year from swine, dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. PMID:22835499

Liu, Shan; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Zhou, Li-Jun; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng

2012-07-24

140

Tyrosine phosphatases as key regulators of StAR induction and cholesterol transport: SHP2 as a potential tyrosine phosphatase involved in steroid synthesis.  

PubMed

The phospho-dephosphorylation of intermediate proteins is a key event in the regulation of steroid biosynthesis. In this regard, it is well accepted that steroidogenic hormones act through the activation of serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases. Although many cellular processes can be regulated by a crosstalk between different kinases and phosphatases, the relationship of Ser/Thr phosphorylation and tyrosine (Tyr)-dephosphorylation is a recently explored field in the regulation of steroid synthesis. Indeed in steroidogenic cells, one of the targets of hormone-induced Ser/Thr phosphorylation is a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Whereas protein tyrosine phosphatases were initially regarded as household enzymes with constitutive activity, dephosphorylating all the substrates they encountered, evidence is now accumulating that protein tyrosine phosphatases are tightly regulated by various mechanisms. Here, we will describe the role of protein tyrosine phosphatases in the regulation of steroid biosynthesis, relating them to steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, arachidonic acid metabolism and mitochondrial rearrangement. PMID:21145937

Cooke, Mariana; Mele, Pablo; Maloberti, Paula; Duarte, Alejandra; Poderoso, Cecilia; Orlando, Ulises; Paz, Cristina; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Podestá, Ernesto J

2010-12-09

141

Anabolic steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anabolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone modified to enhance the anabolic rather than the androgenic actions of the hormone. The anabolic effects are considered to be those promoting protein synthesis, muscle growth and crythopoiesis. There are numerous side-effects to anabolic steroids, including hypertension and atherosclerosis, blood clotting, jaundice, hepatic carcinoma, tendon damage, psychiatric and behavioural effects and, in males,

David R. Mottram; Alan J. George

2000-01-01

142

The effect of anabolic steroids on the gastrointestinal system, kidneys, and adrenal glands.  

PubMed

Over the past several decades we have seen an increase in the prevalence of anabolic steroid use by athletes. Because use of anabolic steroids is illicit, much of our knowledge of their side effects is derived from case reports, retrospective studies, or comparisons with studies in other similar patient groups. It has been shown that high-dose anabolic steroids have an effect on lowering high-density lipoprotein, increasing low-density lipoprotein, and increasing the atherogenic-promoting apolipoprotein A. Steroid abuse can also be hepatotoxic, promoting disturbances such as biliary stasis, peliosis hepatis, and even hepatomas, which are all usually reversible upon discontinuation. Suppression of the hypothalamic adrenal axis can also lead to profound adrenal changes that are also reversible with time. Although rare, renal side effects have also been documented, leading to acute renal failure and even Wilms' tumors in isolated cases. Much of our knowledge of these potentially severe but usually limited side effects is confounded by use of combinations of different steroid preparations and by the concomitant use with other substances. Physicians must target their efforts at counseling adolescents and other athletes about the potential harms of androgenic anabolic steroids and the legal options to improve strength and performance. PMID:16529682

Modlinski, Ryan; Fields, Karl B

2006-04-01

143

An Industrial DC Power Supply System Based on an Inductive Filtering Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new direct current (dc) power supply system based on an inductive filtering method for one industrial dc load. The operating mechanism of the new inductive filtering method is analyzed, and then, the harmonic model and the equivalent model are established. Moreover, the impedance conditions for the implementation of the inductive filtering method are presented, and the

Yong Li; Longfu Luo; Christian Rehtanz; Sven Ruberg; Dechang Yang; Jiazhu Xu

2012-01-01

144

The Research and Development Platform for Wind Energy System Used Induction Motor Replacing Wind Turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research platform for wind energy system is developed in this paper. An inverter fed induction motor drive the wind generator replacing a real wind turbine. The power-speed characteristics of a wind turbine are physically implemented by an induction motor drive. For a given wind turbine characteristics, the shaft torque of induction motor is calculated by the given wind speed

Ming Qiao; Fei Lin; Ruixiang Hao; Xiaojie You; Trillion Q Zheng

2007-01-01

145

Steroids in kidney transplant patients.  

PubMed

Any evaluation of steroids in kidney transplantation is hampered by individual variability in metabolism, the lack of clinically available steroid blood levels, and overall little attention to steroid exposure. Many feel that steroids were an essential part of chronic immunosuppression in past decades but may no longer be necessary in low-risk populations when our newer and more potent drugs are used. Potential differences in long-term outcome will be unapparent in short-term antibody induction studies in low-risk patients, particularly with low on steroid doses, as may have happened in the recent, well-done Astellas trial. In many studies, the evidence for the superiority of mycophenolate (MMF) and tacrolimus (TAC) was not as strong as the evidence for the benefit of steroids in the Canadian cyclosporine study. As the practice of steroid withdrawal has increased, we have not seen the improvement in long-term graft survival that many expected with our newer agents. Steroids have immunosuppressive effects even in doses that are low by historic standards, and side effects may not justify their abandonment. PMID:21331501

Steiner, Robert W; Awdishu, Linda

2011-02-18

146

Artificial Neural Network Based Designing System for Induction Motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An artificial neural network (ANN) based designing method has been proposed for induction motors. Based on the real design data for various types of induction motors with different rating, three-layered cascaded artificial neural networks have been specified and trained to estimate the fundamental quantities and parameters, and also to give proper sizes of the target induction motor. Totally, thirty-four cage

Masahiro Ikeda; Takaaki Nakayama; Takashi Hiyama

2005-01-01

147

Use of systemic steroid after successful macular surgery in eyes with epiretinal membrane: a randomized, controlled clinical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo evaluate the functional and morphological outcomes of postoperative systemic steroid therapy after successful macular surgery in eyes with macular edema due to idiopathic macular epiretinal membranes (ERMs).DesignProspective, randomized, investigator-masked, controlled clinical study.MethodsTwenty-eight patients scheduled for 23-gauge vitrectomy combined with ERM and inner limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for macular edema due to ERM were included in this single center trial.

M Ritter; S Sacu; G Matt; R Dunavölgyi; W Bühl; C Prünte; U Schmidt-Erfurth

2011-01-01

148

Sniffing human sex-steroid derived compounds modulates mood, memory and autonomic nervous system function in specific behavioral contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We asked whether the effects of exposure to two human sex-steroid derived compounds were context dependent. The effects of sniffing 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and 1,3,5(10),16-estratetraen-3-ol (EST) on mood, memory, and autonomic nervous system responses were explored in 72 participants. Subjects were tested with AND, EST, or a Control compound within four mood contexts: neutral, sexually aroused, sad and happy. These moods

M Bensafi; W. M Brown; R Khan; B Levenson; N Sobel

2004-01-01

149

Structure of steroids and their diffusion through blood vessel walls in a counter-current system  

SciTech Connect

Several substances including prostaglandin F2 alpha, progesterone and /sup 85/krypton have been shown to be transferred from the venous side to the arterial side of the circulation in the ovarian vascular pedicle. Experiments were therefore carried out to study the transfer of three pairs of steroids (progesterone and 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone, C-21; androstenedione and testosterone, C-19; and estrone and estradiol-17 beta, C-18) in which each member of a pair differed by one hydroxyl group. Each pair of steroids, one labeled with /sup 3/H and the other with /sup 14/C, were infused in sequence for 30 minutes into a side branch of an ovarian vein near the hilus of the ovary with a rest period of 90 minutes between infusions. An increase in radioactivity in ovarian arterial plasma compared to the radioactivity in an equal volume of aortic plasma sampled simultaneously was used as the index for a direct transfer of steroids from the ovarian vein to the adjacent ovarian artery. All six steroids showed such a transfer which began 3 to 6 minutes after the start of each infusion and decreased rapidly after the infusion was stopped. The results of this study also showed that a larger quantity of the less polar (ketonic) form of each steroid pair examined was transferred than its hydroxyl counterpart.

McCracken, J.A.; Schramm, W.; Einer-Jensen, N.

1984-03-01

150

Interaction of steroids with the transport system of glucose in human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Steroids inhibit the exchange transport of glucose in human erythrocytes. The extent of inhibition is roughly correlated to the affinity of the steroids to the membrane lipids. All C-21-steroids tested show a competitive inhibition while the C-19-steriods show different types of inhibition. 5Beta-androstane-3,17-dione acts as a competitive inhibitor. The inhibition by testosterone is of mixed type, while with androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and 5alpha-androstane-3,17-dione a non-competitive inhibition is observed. In this case two inhibitor molecules can be bound per transport molecule. The "non-competitive" inhibitors compete also to some extent with the glucose binding. This effect, however, is at high inhibitor concentrations masked by the more powerful non-competitive inhibition. Competitive and non-competitive inhibitors compete with each other. The structural requirements for the different types of inhibition are discussed. PMID:1202039

Lacko, L; Wittke, B; Geck, P

1975-12-01

151

Anabolic steroids.  

PubMed

Anabolic-androgenic steroid hormones are used by athletes in an attempt to improve performance. Side effects include decreased testosterone and sperm production, acne, balding, and increased aggression. The long-term effects are not known. PMID:6443757

Strauss, R H

1984-07-01

152

Port fuel injection and induction system for internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an engine having a valve cover with a PVC valve to vent a valve chamber so as to eliminate oil and gas fumes there from and an automotive fuel injection system having a port fuel injector connected to a fuel supply and to an air manifold for injecting an air/fuel mixture into the injector for producing a fuel spray pattern at the outlet of an air induction passage form a throttle body assembly and upstream of an inlet valve to the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine characterized by an integral electric motor driven pump assembly means supplying the injection air to the air manifold; the motor pump assembly means having a pump inlet connected to the PVC valve for providing a lubrication mist to the pump during the operation thereof and the motor pump assembly means having a pump outlet connected to the inlet of the air manifold.

Bishai, M.N.

1991-04-23

153

Forward and reverse control system for induction motors  

SciTech Connect

A control system for controlling the direction of rotation of a rotor of an induction motor includes an array of five triacs with one of the triacs applying a current of fixed phase to the windings of the rotor and four of the triacs being switchable to apply either hot ac current or return ac current to the stator windings so as to reverse the phase of current in the stator relative to that of the rotor and thereby reverse the direction of rotation of the rotor. Switching current phase in the stator is accomplished by operating the gates of pairs of the triacs so as to connect either hot ac current or return ac current to the input winding of the stator. 1 fig.

Wright, J.T.

1987-09-15

154

Anabolic steroids.  

PubMed

Anabolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone modified to enhance the anabolic rather than the androgenic actions of the hormone. The anabolic effects are considered to be those promoting protein synthesis, muscle growth and crythopoiesis. There are numerous side-effects to anabolic steroids, including hypertension and atherosclerosis, blood clotting, jaundice, hepatic carcinoma, tendon damage, psychiatric and behavioural effects and, in males, reduced fertility and gynaccomastia. Anabolic steroids were added to the International Olympic Committee's list of banned substances in 1975. The majority of 'evidence' concerning the efficacy of anabolic steroids as performance enhancing agents is anecdotal. In the main, experimental investigations have been poorly designed scientifically, clinically and statistically. The percentage of positive test results from IOC accredited laboratories has remained consistently low. However, athletes take their steroids during training and out-of-competition testing is not conducted in all countries, although international co-operation is now under consideration. Despite the lack of conclusive evidence, steroids users will continue to hold the view that their effects are efficacious and they are therefore unlikely to be persuaded to curtail their use. PMID:10932810

Mottram, D R; George, A J

2000-03-01

155

Direct voltage control for standalone wind energy conversion systems with induction generator and energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control method for standalone wind energy conversion systems with induction generator and energy storage system (ESS) is proposed in this paper. A fixed-speed self-excited induction generator is directly connected to the standalone power system. An ESS is employed to compensate the power variation from wind generator and load, maintain the power flow balanced. A direct voltage control scheme is

Wei Huang; D. W. Xu

2008-01-01

156

The Comamonas testosteroni steroid biosensor system (COSS)—Reflection on other methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural and synthetic steroid hormones are released uncontrolled into the environment and are considered as pollutants with regard to their endocrine activity and negative influence on all kind of organisms. Due to their widespread presence, endocrine activity even at low concentrations, and their potential adverse effects in both the environment and human health, there is an increasing need for the

Edmund Maser; Guangming Xiong

2010-01-01

157

Low Inductance pulser system drives a fast magnet at DARHT.  

SciTech Connect

The DARHT facility [Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test] uses bremsstrahlung radiation from focused electron beams to produce radiographs. To produce a smaller spot size and, thus, a higher quality radiograph, one must be able to control the emittance of the electron beam. To that end, it is necessary to measure emittance. Emittance is measured by focusing the electron beam to a small size, such that the size is dominated by the emittance, as opposed to the space charge. Our electron beam, at 2 kA, 18 MV and 2 ps, would destroy any imaging target, were the full beam to be focused to minimal spot size for the full beam duration. The solution is to focus the beam for a short duration, a few tens of nanoseconds, using a fast solenoid magnet. This paper reports details of the pulsed power system used to drive the segmented magnet. The system consists of twenty pulsers, driving 60 cables to feed two headers on the magnet. The magnet itself consists of 12 individual loops, each segmented in three parts, for inductance reduction. The system is designed to produce one kilogauss over a 15-cm diameter and 60-cm length. The pulsers incorporate spark gaps that produce the main pulse with a half sine period of 125 ns and also clip the tail of the pulse to prevent refocusing of the beam. A five-to-one ratio between the first and second current peaks has been demonstrated [same polarity peaks].

Rose, E. A. (Evan A.); Bartsch, R. R. (Robert Richard); Custer, D. M. (Daniel M.); Ekdahl, C. A. (Carl A.); Montoya, R. R. (Robert R.); Smith, J. R. (John R.)

2002-01-01

158

Birdsong and the neural production of steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forebrain circuits involved in singing and audition (the ‘song system’) in songbirds exhibit a remarkable capacity to synthesize and respond to steroid hormones. This review considers how local brain steroid production impacts the development, sexual differentiation, and activity of song system circuitry. The songbird forebrain contains all of the enzymes necessary for the de novo synthesis of steroids

Luke Remage-Healey; Sarah E. London; Barney A. Schlinger

2010-01-01

159

Module Eight: Induction; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The module covers in greater depth electromagnetic induction, its effects, and how it is used to advantage in electrical circuits; and the physical components, called inductors, designed to take advantage of the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. This module is divided into four lessons: electromagnetism; inductors and flux density,…

Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

160

DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF A BATTERY INVERTER SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION GENERATOR SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of a single-phase induction generator with a PWM inverter as a source of excitation was tested and analyzed. The battery included in the system was found to be an excellent configuration for a s ource or sink of real power depending on the given load of the single-phase induction generator. The system modeling was done considering the effect

Obasohan I. Omozusi

161

Cooperative relay in Near Field Magnetic Induction: A new technology for embedded medical communication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio Frequency based communication systems highly benefit from the cooperative relaying to achieve higher data rate and more coverage range with lower cost and complexity. However this concept has not been fairly examined to be used in the Magnetic Induction Communication systems, where the path loss effect is very critical and the range extension is highly required. Recently Magneto Inductive

Mehrnoush Masihpour; Johnson I Agbinya

2010-01-01

162

Analytical algorithm of inductive field for realising a smart eddy current NDT system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research effort to integrate an analysis module of inductive field into an eddy current NDT system to realise a hybrid technique, which is capable of automatically analysing the inductive field so as to set up the optimum parameters for the system, has not been well addressed. This paper describes the work that leads to the realization of such a hybrid

Qimi Jiang; Chun-Hsien Chen; Li Pheng Khoo

2003-01-01

163

An automated system for incipient fault detection and diagnosis in induction motors based on MCSA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a system for automated detection of incipient faults in induction machines. The system is based on the Motor Current Signature Analysis method (MCSA) and aimed to be applied in a thermal electric power plant in south Brazil. First, the mechanism of fault evolution is introduced and clarified regarding the most common induction motor faults: stator winding short-circuits,

Daniel da Silva Gazzana; LuAlberto Pereira; D. Fernandes

2010-01-01

164

Feature-based fault diagnosis system of induction motors using vibration signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the efficiency of vibration signals for fault diagnosis system of induction motors. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A fault diagnosis system for induction motors using vibration signals is designed based on pattern recognition. Genetic algorithm is used for feature reduction and neural network tuning. Findings – The usage of genetic algorithm improves the

Tian Han; Bo-Suk Yang; Zhong-Jun Yin

2007-01-01

165

Power smoothing in wind generation systems using a sensorless vector controlled induction Machine driving a flywheel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel control strategy for power smoothing in generation systems in which power flow variations can occur. These variations are the norm in wind energy generation. The system is based on a sensorless vector controlled induction machine driving a flywheel. The induction machine is controlled to operate in a wide speed range by using flux weakening above

Roberto Cárdenas; Rubén Peña; Greg Asher; Jon Clare

2004-01-01

166

Release of Iron from Ferritin Storage by Redox Cycling of Stilbene and Steroid Estrogen Metabolites: A Mechanism of Induction of Free Radical Damage by Estrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogens induce hydroxyl radical-mediated DNA and protein damage and lipid peroxidation. As part of a study of the mechanism of hydroxyl radical generation by estrogens, we investigated thein vitromobilization of Fe2+from ferritin by redox cycling of the stilbene or steroid estrogen metabolites diethylstilbestrol-4?,4?-quinone (DESQ), equilenin-3,4-quinone (EQ), or estrone-3,4-quinone (3,4EQ). Aerobic cytochrome P450 reductase-mediated redox cycling of 35.50 ?mDESQ, 0.35 ?mEQ,

Samuel Wyllie; Joachim G. Liehr

1997-01-01

167

Steroids (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... your child isn't at risk. What Are Steroids? Drugs commonly referred to as "steroids" are classified ... number of health problems. Continue How Do Anabolic Steroids Work? Anabolic steroids are drugs that resemble the ...

168

Transtympanic steroids for treatment of sudden hearing loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine whether transtympanic steroid administration may be an effective treatment for sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) in patients for whom systemic steroid treatment has failed or who were not candidates for systemic steroids. Methods: The standard medical regimen for SSNHL usually involves systemic steroid therapy. Unfortunately, some patients do not respond successfully to or are poorly tolerant

Gerard J. Gianoli; John C. Li

2001-01-01

169

Induction system for internal combustion engine having multiple inlet valves  

SciTech Connect

An internal combustion engine means defining a combustion chamber; first and second induction ports leading to the combustion chamber; first and second inlet valves for controlling fluid communication between the combustion chamber and the first and second induction ports respectively; an induction manifold including a collector section and a structure which defines first and second induction conduits which lead from the collector section to the first and second induction ports respectively; first and second control valves diesposed in the first and secontd conduits respectively, the first and second flow control valves being located upstream of the first and second inlet valves; a third flow control valve upstream of the collector, the third valve controlling the amount of air which enters the collector; a device for causing the first and second flow control valves to close independently of the third flow control valve and prevent the flow of fluid from the collector section to the combustion chamber during a predetermined first mode of engine operation and for opening the valves when the engine enters a second predetermined mode of engine operation; a third induction port, the third induction port being arranged to merge with the first port at an acute angle at a location downstream of the first flow control valve.

Urabe, S.; Iwasa, Y.

1986-09-23

170

Regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor and nerve growth factor mRNA by beta-adrenergic receptor activation and adrenal steroids in rat central nervous system.  

PubMed

Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are two neurotrophic factors that play a role in neuronal maintenance and repair. The identification and characterization of mechanisms regulating neurotrophic factor availability in the central nervous system are vital to the development of therapeutic tools for prevention of neuronal degeneration. The lipophilic beta-adrenergic receptor (BAR) agonist clenbuterol was used to assess whether activation of central BAR changes the levels of NGF and bFGF mRNA. Within 5 hr, clenbuterol (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) elicited a 2-3-fold increase in bFGF and NGF mRNA content in rat cerebral cortex. The induction of bFGF and NGF mRNA expression showed anatomical specificity. Among the various brain areas examined, bFGF mRNA levels were increased in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, whereas induction of NGF mRNA was observed only in the cerebral cortex. Isoproterenol, a BAR agonist that does not cross the blood-brain barrier, also elicited a 2-3-fold increase in bFGF and NGF mRNA in the cerebral cortex. Propranolol (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a lipophilic BAR antagonist, blocked the induction of NGF and bFGF mRNA mediated by either isoproterenol or clenbuterol, whereas nadolol (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a BAR antagonist that does not cross the blood-brain barrier, blocked only the effect of isoproterenol. Therefore, activation of both central and peripheral BAR play a role in the regulation of bFGF and NGF mRNA expression. Moreover, in adrenalectomized rats, isoproterenol failed to increase bFGF and NGF mRNA, whereas clenbuterol elicited a 2-fold increase in bFGF mRNA in the cortex and hippocampus. Our data suggest that both adrenal steroids and noradrenaline might regulate the availability of selective neurotrophic factors in the adult central nervous system. PMID:8381505

Follesa, P; Mocchetti, I

1993-02-01

171

Induction system for V-type internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

An induction system for a V-type internal combustion engine is described having a first bank and a second bank constituted with cylinders and shifted with respect to each other in the direction of alignment of the cylinders. It includes intake ports provided to face the space between the banks, fuel injection means for injecting fuel into the cylinders, fuel distributing means for distributing fuel to the fuel injection means, and surge tank means having a predetermined inner volume. The first surge tank means overlays the second surge tank means. The first and second surge tank means are arranged in the direction of alignment of the cylinders above the first bank. First independent intake passage means connect with the side portion of the first surge tank means at one end thereof and with one of the intake ports of the cylinders constituting the first bank to lead intake air thereto at the other end, and second independent intake passage means connect with the side portion of the second surge tank means at one end of the first and second independent intake passage means consist of downstream and upstream intake passage means.

Hatamura, K.; Hiraoka, T.; Hokazono, K.; Seike, S.

1987-11-24

172

14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...induction air supplyâ (a) Each air filter must be capable of withstanding the...and maintenance; and (b) Each air filter shall have a design feature to prevent material separated from the filter media from interfering with proper...

2010-01-01

173

14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...induction air supplyâ (a) Each air filter must be capable of withstanding the...and maintenance; and (b) Each air filter shall have a design feature to prevent material separated from the filter media from interfering with proper...

2009-01-01

174

Modeling of wind energy conversion system using doubly fed induction generator equipped batteries energy storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

in this work the model of different parts of the wind energy conversion system using doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is set up and implemented in PSCAD\\/EMTDC . The two quadrants DC converter using battery energy storage system is employed for the DC-Link Voltage control in normal and fault operating conditions. To verify the control strategies and Low Voltage ride through

Kone Ibrahima; Chengyong Zhao

2011-01-01

175

Modeling of an Inductive Adder Kicker Pulser for a Proton Radiography System  

SciTech Connect

An all solid-state kicker pulser for a proton radiography system has been designed. Multiple solid-state modulators stacked in an inductive-adder configuration are utilized in this kicker pulser design. Each modulator is comprised of multiple metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) which quickly switch the energy storage capacitors across a magnetic induction core. Metglas is used as the core material to minimize loss. Voltage from each modulator is inductively added by a voltage summing stalk. A circuit model of a prototype inductive adder kicker pulser modulator has been developed to predict the performance of the pulser modulator. The modeling results are compared with experimental data.

Wang, L; Caporaso, G J; Cook, E G

2001-06-12

176

Detection of speaking with a new respiratory inductive plethysmography system.  

PubMed

The LifeShirt system, a garment with integrated sensors connected to a handheld computer, allows recording of a wide variety of clinically important cardiorespiratory data continuously for extended periods outside the laboratory or clinic. The device includes sensors for assessment of physical activity and posture since both can affect physiological activation and need to be controlled. Speaking is another potential confounding factor in the interpretation of physiological data. Auditory speech recording is problematic because it can pick up sources other than the person's voice (external microphone) or is obtrusive (throat microphone). The abdominal and thoracic calibrated respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) sensors integrated in the LifeShirt system might be an adequate alternative for detecting speech. In a laboratory experiment we determined respiratory parameters indicative of speech. Eighteen subjects were instructed to sit quietly, write, and speak continuously, for 4 min each. Nine parameters were derived from the RIP signals and averaged over each minute. In addition, nine variability parameters were computed as their coefficients of breath-by-breath variation. Inspiratory/expiratory time (IE-ratio) best distinguished speaking from writing with 98% correct classification at a cutoff criterion of 0.52. This criterion was equally successful in distinguishing speaking from sitting quietly. Discriminant analyses indicated that linear combinations of IE-ratio and a variety of other parameters did not reliably improve classification accuracy across tasks and replications. These results demonstrate the high efficacy of RIP-derived IE-ratio for speech detection and suggest that auditory recording is not necessary for detection of speech in ambulatory assessment. PMID:12724882

Wilhelm, Frank H; Handke, Eva M; Roth, Walton T

2003-01-01

177

Designer steroids.  

PubMed

Anabolic steroids have been studied for over 50 years and during that time numerous compounds with a variety of functional groups have been produced and many have been published. Of these only a small number have been introduced to the pharmaceutical market. WADA has continued the work begun by the IOC banning the use of these agents within sport as performance enhancing substances. Athletes, however, continue to use these anabolic steroids but tighter testing and the introduction of unannounced sample collection has made this form of cheating harder.In order to try to evade detection, athletes who continue to dope are having to resort to the use of a far more dangerous form of drug - the designer steroid. These steroids are manufactured to closely resemble existing known compounds, but with sufficient chemical diversity to ensure that their detection by the WADA accredited laboratories is more difficult. A worrying feature of the use of these compounds is that no data is available to evaluate either the efficacy or the safety of these substances. Many such drugs are now being made in clandestine ways (as demonstrated by the recent BALCO case) and then passed on to athletes who become the guinea pigs determining the potential of the substances as doping agents.Methods for the detection of these new compounds are being developed using emerging techniques such as gas chromatography or liquid chromatography attached to a variety of mass spectrometry instruments. This technology as well as vigilance by laboratories and enforcement agencies can all help in early detection of designer steroids being used for doping. PMID:20020364

Kazlauskas, Ray

2010-01-01

178

A new monitoring system for wind turbines with doubly-fed induction generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

For modern large wind farms, it is interesting to design an efficient diagnosis system oriented to wind turbine generators based on doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM). Intensive research efforts have been focused on the signature analysis to predict or to detect electrical and mechanical faults in induction machines. Different signals can be used such as voltages, currents or stray flux. In

A. Yazidi; G. A. Capolino; F. Filippetti; D. Casadei

2006-01-01

179

Modelling and performance of fixed-speed induction generators in power system oscillation stability studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the modelling and performance effects of induction generator-based wind farms on the oscillation stability of power systems. For groups of 5, 10 and 20 induction generators, it is established that the basic dynamic properties of each group of generators are similar to those of a third-order equivalent machine model whether the generators are evenly loaded or unevenly

Jian Zhang; Adam Dy?ko; John O’Reilly; William E. Leithead

2008-01-01

180

Distributed generation system based on single-phase grid, induction generator and solar photovoltaic panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies a distributed generation electrical system. It is composed of an induction generator with a prime mover, a single-phase utility grid and a solar panel. All energy sources are connected by using a reduced switch count AC-AC converters. A hydraulic power or an other power controlled source is adopted to drive the induction generator, operating as a prime

E. C. dos Santos; C. B. Jacobina; M. B. R. Correa; N. Rocha

2008-01-01

181

A decision-tree-based symbolic rule induction system for text categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a decision-tree-based symbolic rule induction system whosepurpose is to categorize text documents automatically. Our method forrule induction involves the novel combination of (1) a fast decision treeinduction algorithm especially suited to text data and (2) a new methodfor converting a decision tree to a rule set that is simplied, but stilllogically equivalent to, the original tree. We report

David E. Johnson; Frank J. Oles; Tong Zhang; Thilo Götz

2002-01-01

182

The SVM-DTC system of the bearingless induction motor based on model reference adaptive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the need of speed sensorless operation for bearingless induction motor, the model reference adaptive method which takes reactive power as reference quantity is used to identify speed for the SVM-DTC system of the bearingless induction motor. The method eliminates the influences of pure integration and rotor resistance. Simulation results show that model reference adaptive control using reactive power as

Yuxin Sun; Yanqing Mao; Xianxing Liu; Zhengqi Wang

2011-01-01

183

Design and implementation of PLC-based monitoring control system for induction motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of a monitoring and control system for the induction motor based on programmable logic controller (PLC) technology is described. Also, the implementation of the hardware and software for speed control and protection with the results obtained from tests on induction motor performance is provided. The PLC correlates the operational parameters to the speed requested by the user and

Maria G. Ioannides

2004-01-01

184

Are Steroids Worth the Risk?  

MedlinePLUS

... facts. Here's the scoop on steroids. What Are Steroids? Steroids, sometimes referred to as "roids" or "juice" ... laws controlling steroid distribution. Continue How Do Anabolic Steroids Work? Anabolic steroids stimulate muscle tissue to grow ...

185

Fasting increases aggression and differentially modulates local and systemic steroid levels in male zebra finches.  

PubMed

Aggression enables individuals to obtain and retain limited resources. Studies of the neuroendocrine regulation of aggression have focused on territorial and reproductive contexts. By contrast, little is understood concerning the neuroendocrine regulation of aggression over other resources, such as food. Here, we developed a paradigm to examine the role of steroids in food-related aggression. In groups of male zebra finches, a 6-hour fast decreased body mass and increased aggressive interactions among subjects that competed for a point source feeder. Fasting also dramatically altered circulating steroid levels by decreasing plasma testosterone but not estradiol (E2). By contrast, both plasma corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations were elevated with fasting. Interestingly, short-term access to food (15 minutes) after fasting normalized circulating steroid levels. Fasting increased corticosterone levels in a wide range of peripheral tissues but increased DHEA levels specifically in adrenal glands and liver; these effects were quickly normalized with refeeding. DHEA can be metabolized within specific brain regions to testosterone and E2, which promote the expression of aggression. We measured E2 in microdissected brain regions and found that fasting specifically increased local E2 levels in 3 regions: the periaqueductal gray, ventral tegmental area, and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. These regions are part of the vertebrate social behavior network and regulate the expression of aggression. Together, these data suggest that fasting stimulates secretion of DHEA from the adrenals and liver and subsequent conversion of DHEA to E2 within specific brain regions, to enable individuals to compete for limited food resources. PMID:23939990

Fokidis, H Bobby; Prior, Nora H; Soma, Kiran K

2013-08-12

186

NDCX-II PULSED POWER SYSTEM AND INDUCTION CELLS  

SciTech Connect

The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is currently finalizing the design of NDCX-II, the second phase of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, which will use an ion beam to explore Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target hydrodynamics. The ion induction accelerator will include induction cells and Blumleins from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A test stand has been built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test refurbished ATA induction cells and pulsed power hardware for voltage holding and ability to produce various compression and acceleration waveforms. The performance requirements, design modifications, and test results will be presented.

Waldron, W.L.; Reginato, L.L.; Leitner, M.

2009-06-01

187

Effect of systemic steroids on post-tonsillectomy bleeding and reinterventions: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the risk of postoperative bleeding and reintervention with the use of systemic steroids in patients undergoing tonsillectomy. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, Intute, Biosis, OpenSIGLE, National Technical Information Service, and Google Scholar were searched. References from reviews identified in the search and from included studies were scanned. Review methods Randomised controlled trials comparing the administration of systemic steroids during tonsillectomy with any other comparator were eligible. Primary outcome was postoperative bleeding. Secondary outcomes were the rate of admission for a bleeding episode, reintervention for a bleeding episode, blood transfusion, and mortality. Results Of 1387 citations identified, 29 randomised controlled trials (n=2674) met all eligibility criteria. Seven studies presented a low risk of bias, but none was specifically designed to systematically identify postoperative bleeding. Administration of systemic steroids did not significantly increase the incidence of post-tonsillectomy bleeding (29 studies, n=2674 patients, odds ratio 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.66 to 1.40), I²=0%). We observed a significant increase in the incidence of operative reinterventions for bleeding episodes in patients who received systemic steroids (12, n=1178, 2.27 (1.03 to 4.99), I²=0%). No deaths were reported. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with the findings. Conclusions Although systemic steroids do not appear to increase bleeding events after tonsillectomy, their use is associated with a raised incidence of operative reinterventions for bleeding episodes, which may be related to increased severity of bleeding events. Systemic steroids should be used with caution, and the risks and benefits weighed, for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after tonsillectomy before further research is performed to clarify their condition of use.

2012-01-01

188

Designer Steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anabolic steroids have been studied for over 50 years and during that time numerous compounds with a variety of functional\\u000a groups have been produced and many have been published. Of these only a small number have been introduced to the pharmaceutical\\u000a market. WADA has continued the work begun by the IOC banning the use of these agents within sport as

Ray Kazlauskas

189

Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

2011-01-01

190

Modeling and Design of Controlled Current Induction Motor Drive Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic model for current-controlled induction motor drives is developed, and a transfer function approach to the transient response investigation is formulated by means of d-q variables in the synchronously rotating reference frame. A sample control strategy is discussed, and transfer functions for various combinations of input and output variables are presented. It is shown that both dynamic and static

Edward P. Cornell; Thomas A. Lipo

1977-01-01

191

Identification of a new class of steroid hormone receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gonads and adrenal glands produce steroids classified into five major groups which include the oestrogens, progestins, androgens, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Gonadal steroids control the differentiation and growth of the reproductive system, induce and maintain sexual characteristics and modulate reproductive behaviour. Adrenal steroids also influence differentiation as well as being metabolic regulators. The effects of each steroid depend primarily on

Vincent Giguère; Na Yang; Prudimar Segui; Ronald M. Evans

1988-01-01

192

Model Reference Adaptive System Against Rotor Resistance Variation in Induction Motor Drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with a compensation method of the rotor-resistance variation in induction motor drives using high-performance slip-frequency control. Our proposed method is based on a discrete-type model reference adaptive system (MRAS), and it is implemented in an 8086 microprocessor. When an induction motor is driven by a controlled current source, the system sensitivity to the rotor resistance variation is

Kouhei Ohnishi; Youzou Ueda; Kunio Miyachi

1986-01-01

193

Fluid-dynamic characterization of a radio-frequency induction thermal plasma system for nanoparticle synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluid flow in a radio-frequency induction thermal plasma (RF-ITP) system for the synthesis of nanoparticles has been characterized using three- and two-dimensional modelling supported by enthalpy probe and calorimetric measurements in order to provide insights for the improvement of the process. The RF-ITP system is composed of a commercial inductively coupled plasma torch mounted on a reaction chamber that

V Colombo; C Deschenaux; E Ghedini; M Gherardi; C Jaeggi; M Leparoux; V Mani; P Sanibondi

2012-01-01

194

Effect of electrical-utility-system voltage harmonics on induction motors  

SciTech Connect

Distortion of the electrical utility system voltage waveform can result in damage to or malfunction of user electrical equipment. An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of utility voltage harmonics on the temperature rise of single-phase induction motors. The results suggest that utility voltage harmonics do not significantly affect the operating temperature of a single-phase induction motor until the amplitudes of the harmonics are much larger than the amplitudes currently present in the US utility system.

Rasmussen, N.E.

1981-03-01

195

A hybrid converter system for high performance large induction motor drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel, hybrid converter system employing combination of a load-commutated inverter (LCI), a DC-DC buck converter, and a voltage-source inverter is proposed for the large induction motor drives. By avoiding the use of output capacitors and a forced decommutation circuit, this system can eliminate all disadvantages related to these circuits in the conventional LCI based induction motor drives. Improved quality

Sangshin Kwak; Hamid A. Toliyat

2004-01-01

196

Fast power ``crowbar'' system using a current transformer with extremely low leakage inductance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A power crowbar system for fast theta-pinch experiments is operated successfully. A current transformer with extremely low leakage inductance is used to reduce the effective impedance of series capacitor system. The leakage inductance of the transformer is reduced to 2 nH by employing a special arrangement of windings. It is demonstrated that a current of 40 kA, the rise time

S. Kitagawa; K. Hirano

1974-01-01

197

Compression of the Radiative Heat Transfer BEM Matrix of an Inductive Heating System Using a Block-Oriented Wavelet Transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inductive heating processes become more and more important, and therefore the interest in thermal effects of an inductive heating system increases. Radiative heat transfers are normally neglected even though these transfers affect the temperature of the inductive heating system up to ten percent. To compute radiative heat transfers a boundary element method (BEM) is of first choice, due to a

Christian Scheiblich; Vassilios Kolitsas; Wolfgang M. Rucker

2009-01-01

198

The effects of aging on the central nervous system steroid profiles and myelin basic protein in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aging on the central nervous system steroid and myelin basic protein (MBP) profiles. Forty-seven male Sprague-Dawley rats (newborn, 1, 6, 12 and 24-monthsold) were studied. Tissues were obtained from the cerebellum and parietal, frontal, temporal cortex of the central nervous system of the rats for steroid extraction. The estradiol, progesteron, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The average levels of estradiol (pg/g), progesteron (ng/g), DHEA (ng/g) and testosterone (ng/g) in the brain tissues were respectively 24.29, 4.59, 0.27, 0.92 in the newborn-rats; 4.18 ± 1.10, 1.54 ± 0.30, 0.28 ± 0.01, 0.57 ± 0.10 in the 1 month-old-rats; 11.02 ± 1.10, 2.96 ± 0.30, 0.27 ± 0.01, 0.61 ± 0.10 in the 6 month-old-rats; 15.80 ± 1.10, 4.80 ± 0.30, 0.28 ± 0.10, 0.67 ± 0.10 in the 12 monthold- rats; 20.07 ± 1.10, 4.12 ± 0.30, 0.28 ± 0.01, 0.55±0.10 in the 24 month-old-rats. The myelin basic protein levels were determined by immunohistochemical staining and an elevation was observed in conjunction with the aging process. The results of the study indicate that the alterations in MBP, DHEA, progesterone, testosterone and estrodiol concentrations in the central nervous system of the rats during aging can be considered fundamental for future animal and human studies. PMID:21464608

Ciftci, Gulay; Yarim, Gul Fatma; Yarim, Murat; Karayigit, Mehmet Onder; Cenesiz, Sena; Nisbet, Cevat; Gultiken, Murat Erdem

2011-04-04

199

Power Control of New Wind Power Generation System with Induction Generator Excited by Voltage Source Converter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates advantages of new combination of the induction generator for wind power and the power electronic equipment. Induction generator is popularly used for the wind power generation. The disadvantage of it is impossible to generate power at the lower rotor speed than the synchronous speed. To compensate this disadvantage, expensive synchronous generator with the permanent magnets is sometimes used. In proposed scheme, the diode rectifier is used to convert the real power from the induction generator to the intermediate dc voltage, while only the reactive power necessary to excite the induction generator is supplied from the voltage source converter (VSC). This means that the rating of the expensive VSC is minimized and total cost of the wind power generation system is decreased compared to the system with synchronous generator. Simulation study to investigate the control strategy of proposed system is performed. The results show the reduction of the VSC rating is prospective.

Morizane, Toshimitsu; Kimura, Noriyuki; Taniguchi, Katsunori

200

Dendritic growth gated by a steroid hormone receptor underlies increases in activity in the developing Drosophila locomotor system.  

PubMed

As animals grow, their nervous systems also increase in size. How growth in the central nervous system is regulated and its functional consequences are incompletely understood. We explored these questions, using the larval Drosophila locomotor system as a model. In the periphery, at neuromuscular junctions, motoneurons are known to enlarge their presynaptic axon terminals in size and strength, thereby compensating for reductions in muscle excitability that are associated with increases in muscle size. Here, we studied how motoneurons change in the central nervous system during periods of animal growth. We find that within the central nervous system motoneurons also enlarge their postsynaptic dendritic arbors, by the net addition of branches, and that these scale with overall animal size. This dendritic growth is gated on a cell-by-cell basis by a specific isoform of the steroid hormone receptor ecdysone receptor-B2, for which functions have thus far remained elusive. The dendritic growth is accompanied by synaptic strengthening and results in increased neuronal activity. Electrical properties of these neurons, however, are independent of ecdysone receptor-B2 regulation. We propose that these structural dendritic changes in the central nervous system, which regulate neuronal activity, constitute an additional part of the adaptive response of the locomotor system to increases in body and muscle size as the animal grows. PMID:24043825

Zwart, Maarten F; Randlett, Owen; Evers, Jan Felix; Landgraf, Matthias

2013-09-16

201

Dendritic growth gated by a steroid hormone receptor underlies increases in activity in the developing Drosophila locomotor system  

PubMed Central

As animals grow, their nervous systems also increase in size. How growth in the central nervous system is regulated and its functional consequences are incompletely understood. We explored these questions, using the larval Drosophila locomotor system as a model. In the periphery, at neuromuscular junctions, motoneurons are known to enlarge their presynaptic axon terminals in size and strength, thereby compensating for reductions in muscle excitability that are associated with increases in muscle size. Here, we studied how motoneurons change in the central nervous system during periods of animal growth. We find that within the central nervous system motoneurons also enlarge their postsynaptic dendritic arbors, by the net addition of branches, and that these scale with overall animal size. This dendritic growth is gated on a cell-by-cell basis by a specific isoform of the steroid hormone receptor ecdysone receptor-B2, for which functions have thus far remained elusive. The dendritic growth is accompanied by synaptic strengthening and results in increased neuronal activity. Electrical properties of these neurons, however, are independent of ecdysone receptor-B2 regulation. We propose that these structural dendritic changes in the central nervous system, which regulate neuronal activity, constitute an additional part of the adaptive response of the locomotor system to increases in body and muscle size as the animal grows.

Zwart, Maarten F.; Randlett, Owen; Evers, Jan Felix; Landgraf, Matthias

2013-01-01

202

Importance of local versus systemic effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in increasing small intestinal permeability in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased small intestinal permeability caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is probably a prerequisite for NSAID enteropathy, a source of morbidity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This increased small intestinal permeability may be a summation of a local effect during drug absorption, a systemic effect after absorption, and a local effect of the drug excreted in bile, but the relative

I Bjarnason; B Fehilly; P Smethurst; I S Menzies; A J Levi

1991-01-01

203

Use of isothermal heat conduction microcalorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy for characterisation of crystals grown in steroid combination-containing transdermal drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined application of the steroids estradiol (E2) hemihydrate and norethindrone acetate (NEA) is desirable for hormone replacement therapy. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) enable a controlled delivery of these drugs to the skin. However, in order to attain high skin permeation rates the concentration of the dissolved drugs in the TDDSs has to be high. This often results in

Silvia Latsch; Torsten Selzer; Lothar Fink; Michael Horstmann; Jörg Kreuter

2004-01-01

204

Anabolic steroids.  

PubMed

Anabolic steroids have been employed extensively in equine practice over the past 25 years. Their usefulness is largely dependent on subjective opinions, as only minimal studies have been carried out in horses. Therefore, their use will vary markedly between practitioners depending on their personal experiences and pressures by trainers to use them. They form part of rational therapy in a variety of conditions. In addition to use for increasing muscle mass, they are used to a varying extent in the raising of yearlings and in the training and racing of horses with the view of improving performance. However, in almost all countries, the latter use is largely curtailed, and the presence of these substances in postrace urine samples constitutes use of an illegal substance. To detect the use of anabolic steroids, including testosterone, sensitive ELISA tests for screening and GC/MS for confirmation have been developed. These compounds can be used safely. Risks can be encountered if too high doses are used, as horses may become difficult to manage due to increased aggressiveness and other stallion-like behavior. Reproductive efficiency in both stallions and mares may be temporarily impaired, but this is quite rapidly reversible following cessation of treatment. PMID:8299016

Snow, D H

1993-12-01

205

Effects of adrenocortical steroids on long-term potentiation in the limbic system: Basic mechanisms and behavioral consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hippocampal structures are a major target for adrenal steroid hormones, and hence these neural regions are some of the most likely mediators of the effects of adrenocortical steroids on behavior. Memory disturbance, in particular biasing toward negative contents, are part of the symptomatology presented by depressive patients. In turn, a sizeable subset of depression also presents with hypercortisolemia. Adrenocortical hormones

B. Dubrovsky; K. Gijsbers; D. Filipini; M. K. Birmingham

1993-01-01

206

A miniaturized inductively coupled plasma source for applications in microelectromechanical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. A miniaturized inductively coupled plasma (mICP) source has been fabricated to examine the feasibility of scaling ICPs to sizes comparable with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The mICP adds a new dimension to MEMS capabilities in the same way that large-scale plasmas enrich engineering, manufacturing, and diagnostic fields. Planar-coil inductively coupled plasmas are ideal for MEMS applications since

Y. Yin; J. Hopwood

1998-01-01

207

System modeling for the longitudinal beam dynamics control problem in heavy ion induction accelerators  

SciTech Connect

We address the problem of developing system models that are suitable for studying the control of the longitudinal beam dynamics in induction accelerators for heavy ions. In particular, we present the preliminary results of our efforts to devise a general framework for building detailed, integrated models of accelerator systems consisting of pulsed power modular circuits, induction cells, beam dynamics, and control system elements. Such a framework will permit us to analyze and design the pulsed power modulators and the control systems required to effect precise control over the longitudinal beam dynamics.

Payne, A.N.

1993-05-17

208

Structure and Nomenclature of Steroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A formula of a steroid compound is easily recognized by its four-membered hydrocarbon core (Fig. 1.1a). My little grand daughter called it “a little cottage”, more advanced beginners may recall the term “cyclopentenoperhydrophenanthrene”. All the thousands of natural and synthetic steroids are derivatives of that core. Ring A is the cyclohexane ring on the left; it is attached to another six-membered ring B. The C ring follows, the D ring is a cyclopentane system.

Kasal, Alexander

209

Dynamic Performance of Subway Vehicle with Linear Induction Motor System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The light rail vehicle with Linear Induction Motor (LIM) bogie, which is a new type of urban rail traffic tool, has the advantages of low costs, wide applicability, low noise, simple maintenance and better dynamic behavior. This kind of vehicle, supported and guided by the wheel and rail, is not driven by the wheel/rail adhesion force, but driven by the electromagnetic force between LIM and reaction plate. In this paper, three different types of suspensions and their characteristic are discussed with considering the interactions both between wheel and rail and between LIM and reaction plate. A nonlinear mathematical model of the vehicle with LIM bogie is set up by using the software SIMPACK, and the electromechanical model is also set up on Simulink roof. Then the running behavior of the LIM vehicle is simulated, and the influence of suspension on the vehicle dynamic performance is investigated.

Wu, Pingbo; Luo, Ren; Hu, Yan; Zeng, Jing

210

Deposition Of Materials Using A Simple Planar Coil Radio Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasma System  

SciTech Connect

A planar coil RF inductively coupled plasma (PC-RFICP) systems is set up for the purpose of thin film deposition. The system is powered by a 13.56 MHz, 550 W, 50 OMEGA RF generator. The RF power is transferred to the plasma via a planar induction coil. The impedance matching unit consists of an air core step-down transformer and a tunable vacuum capacitor. This system is used for the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film on silicon substrate, and hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) film.

Ng, K. H.; Wong, C. S.; Yap, S. L. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Gan, S. N. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2009-07-07

211

Adolescent Steroid Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

212

Adolescent Steroid Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

213

Anabolic steroids: performance enhancers?  

PubMed

Physicians must discourage steroid use in those who have not yet begun and must treat those patients already on anabolic steroids. Physicians cannot encourage anabolic steroid use by their patients or by themselves. Anabolic steroids are bad for the user. PMID:1745424

Levandowski, R; McInerney, V K; Scott, D I

1991-09-01

214

Production of functional bacteriorhodopsin by an Escherichia coli cell-free protein synthesis system supplemented with steroid detergent and lipid.  

PubMed

Cell-free expression has become a highly promising tool for the efficient production of membrane proteins. In this study, we used a dialysis-based Escherichia coli cell-free system for the production of a membrane protein actively integrated into liposomes. The membrane protein was the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin, consisting of seven transmembrane alpha-helices. The cell-free expression system in the dialysis mode was supplemented with a combination of a detergent and a natural lipid, phosphatidylcholine from egg yolk, in only the reaction mixture. By examining a variety of detergents, we found that the combination of a steroid detergent (digitonin, cholate, or CHAPS) and egg phosphatidylcholine yielded a large amount (0.3-0.7 mg/mL reaction mixture) of the fully functional bacteriorhodopsin. We also analyzed the process of functional expression in our system. The synthesized polypeptide was well protected from aggregation by the detergent-lipid mixed micelles and/or lipid disks, and was integrated into liposomes upon detergent removal by dialysis. This approach might be useful for the high yield production of functional membrane proteins. PMID:19746358

Shimono, Kazumi; Goto, Mie; Kikukawa, Takashi; Miyauchi, Seiji; Shirouzu, Mikako; Kamo, Naoki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

2009-10-01

215

On-line active safety warning monitoring system of power equipment by microwave induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the deficiency of the passive warning manner of safety warning sign around the high voltage power system and a lot of electric power equipments are stole, we developed a on-line active safety warning monitoring system of power equipment by microwave induction, the device adopts microwave sensor technology to monitor the room around power equipment. When there is some objects

Jun Deng; Zhanlong Zhang; Kang Ju; Danmei Huang; XiHong Wu

2008-01-01

216

A Wireless Pharmaceutical Compliance Monitoring System Based on Magneto-Inductive Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a magnetic sensor-based wireless pharmaceutical compliance monitoring (PCM) system using an array of magneto-inductive sensors mounted around the patient's neck in the form of a tight necklace. This system detects the passage of a pill or capsule embedded with a small permanent magnet as a tracer through the esophagus upon ingestion. As a result, a signal representing

Xueliang Huo; Maysam Ghovanloo

2007-01-01

217

High-Performance Induction Motor Drive System Using a PWM Inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance speed control system for cage induction motors is described which utilizes a PWM inverter. The effects of primary current coincidence and machine constant variation on system characteristics such as response time, torque precision, and operating noise were investigated. Based on the results obtained, new control methods have been devised; one varies the gain of the current controller in

Hiroshi Nagase; Yasuo Matsuda; Kazuo Ohnishi; Hisakazu Ninomiya; Toshio Koike

1984-01-01

218

Quantitative Analysis and Rating Considerations of a Doubly Fed Induction Generator for Wind Energy Conversion Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the advantages of a grid connected doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) for wind energy conversion systems (WECS) over the other available variable speed WECS. The WEC system includes back-to-back connected PWM voltage source converters (VSC) in the rotor circuit of the DFIG. The control strategy implemented is - unity power factor operation of

Vijay Chand Ganti; Bhim Singh

2010-01-01

219

Evaluation of first swing stability of power system with doubly fed induction generator wind farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

For evaluating the first swing stability (FSS) of power systems in the presence of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind farms, a simple and unified model of DFIG is proposed in this paper. In addition the proposed DFIG model is carefully incorporated into the power system for fast FSS evaluation. The evaluation algorithm is also presented in details in the

Gang Zheng; Ghadir Radman

2011-01-01

220

Fuzzy logic control of variable speed induction machine wind generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the use of fuzzy logic control (FLC) of a variable speed induction machine wind generation system. The generation system uses three fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's), first fuzzy logic controller tracks the generator speed with wind velocity to extract maximum power. Second fuzzy logic controller programs the machine flux for light load efficiency improvement. Third fuzzy logic controller

M. K. K. Reddy; G. Sreenivasulu

2010-01-01

221

Grid-connected VSC-HVDC wind farm system and control using permanent magnet induction generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the use of the permanent magnet induction generator (PMIG) as a direct drive, direct online solution for wind energy conversion is considered. A wind farm system with several PMIGs connected to a single voltage source converter (VSC) is proposed. This VSC forms part of a utility grid-connected HVDC transmission system. A PMIG model and control strategies for

Rieghard Vermaak; J. H. J. Potgieter; M. J. Kamper

2009-01-01

222

Self-adjusting fuzzy controller application for linear induction motor control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mathematical model of linear induction motor (LIM) based on slip frequency type vector control system is established. A self-adjusting fuzzy controller (SAFC) is designed as magnetic thrust adjuster of the motor. The speed of the motor is adjusted by control magnetic thrust of the motor. The scheme of the slip frequency type vector control system of the LIM is

Wang-Yuhua; Zhu-xi Lin; Dang-Zhiqian; Sun-Ying

2008-01-01

223

Investigation and Suppression of Conducted EMI and Shaft Voltage in Induction Motor Drive System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an induction motor drive system capable of suppressing shaft voltage and electromagnetic interference (EMI). A filter developed for this system is characterized by sophisticated connection of two small passive filters between inverter output and motor which can compensate for common mode voltages produced by PWM inverter and between motor neutral point and rectifier input which can suppress

Yaxiu Sun; Abdolreza Esmaeli; Li Sun; Erliang Kang

2006-01-01

224

Bounded Model Checking and Inductive Verication of Hybrid Discrete-continuous Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a concept to signic antly advance the state of the art for bounded model checking (BMC) and inductive veric ation (IV) of hybrid discrete-continuous systems. Our approach combines the expertise of partners coming from dier ent domains, like hybrid systems modeling and digital circuit veric ation, bounded plan- ning and heuristic search, combinatorial optimization and integer programming. Af-

Bernd Becker; Markus Behle; Fritz Eisenbrand; Martin Franzle; Marc Herbstritt; Christian Herde; Joerg Homann; Daniel Kroning; Bernhard Nebel; Ilia Polian; Ralf Wimmer

2004-01-01

225

Stability Analysis of Induction Motor Drives Using Phase-Locked Loop Control System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the analysis of an induction motor drive using a phase-locked loop speed control system. A linear continuous model of the drive is developed and the system response is analysed using conventional root locus techniques. Various compensating ``filters'' and feedback signals are considered and the need for addition of derivative feedback is shown. A sampled data model is

Paresh C. Sen; Murray L. MacDonald

1980-01-01

226

Photoaffinity Labeling with a Neuroactive Steroid Analogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroactive steroids modulate the function of -ami- nobutyric acid, type A (GABAA) receptors in the central nervous system by an unknown mechanism. In this study we have used a novel neuroactive steroid ana- logue, 3,5-6-azi-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (6-AziP), as a photoaffinity labeling reagent to identify neuroactive steroid binding sites in rat brain. 6-AziP is an effective modulator of GABAA receptors as evidenced

Ramin Darbandi-Tonkabon; William R. Hastings; Chun-Min Zeng; Gustav Akk; Brad D. Manion; John R. Bracamontes; Joseph H. Steinbach; Steven J. Mennerick; Douglas F. Covey; Alex S. Evers

227

System implemented by a processor controlled machine for inductive determination of pattern probabilities of logical connectors  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to a system for the inductive determination of pattern probabilities of 16 dyadic logical connectors. Said system is especially useful for technically predicting human behavior, e.g. inclusion fallacies, and is therefore useful for controlling of technical systems and for data mining, search engines or human-machine interfaces. The system can be implemented in software with a processor controlled machine.

2013-06-11

228

Transient Current Analysis of Induction Generators for Wind Power Generating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent year, non-conventional energy generation is coming up for effective use of natural energy, such as wind energy. Induction generators consisting squirrel-cage rotors are widly used as wind generators because of their salient features like robust rotor design, simple in the construction, maintenance free operation, etc. However these induction generators will draw large transient inrush current, several times as large as the machine rated current, the instant when they are connected to utility grid or restored after the fault clearance. Under such situations, there will be a severe voltage fluctuations in the power system. In this paper, we present transient analysis of induction generators before and after a three-phase fault conditions. Theoretical discission is developed to determine the initial phase angle and the time at which maximum transient currents flow in the system.

Senjyu, Tomonobu; Sueyoshi, Norihide; Uezato, Katsumi; Fujita, Hideki

229

A Digital Electromagnetic Induction Measurement System Based on FPGA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic measurement has advanced rapidly in recent years because of its characteristics of non-contact and non-invasion nature. This paper presents an electromagnetic measurement system based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). The core of the system is a FPGA chip in which DDS, FIFO, digital demodulation module and MCU are embedded. The system consists of a flexible multi-frequency excitation source

Chao Wang; Jian Meng; Chunyan Huang; Wuliang Yin; Yong Yan; Huaxiang Wang

2008-01-01

230

An On-line Distributed Induction Motor Monitoring System Based-on ARM and CAN Bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an on-line distributed induction motor monitoring system based-on the ARM (Advanced RISC Machines), which is integrated with the embedded and CAN (Controller Area Network) bus technologies. The hardware structure of the system with the ARM microprocessor S3C2410X and CAN bus controller MCP2510 is introduced; the accomplishment of software of motor on-line monitoring system is also described. Compared

Chenhui Wang; Yukun Liu; Liwei Guo; Yong Yue; Carsten Maple

2011-01-01

231

A combined lift and propulsion system of a steel plate by transverse flux linear induction motors  

SciTech Connect

To realize a non-contacting conveyance of a steel plate, a combined lift and propulsion system of a steel plate by transverse flux linear induction motors (LIMs) is proposed. By introducing the DC biased AC feeding to the LIM< a steel plate is supported stably and efficiently. In this paper, after showing the advantages of the system, the magnetic levitation experiments are carried out to investigate the feasibility of the system.

Hayashiya, H.; Ohsaki, H.; Masada, E.

1999-09-01

232

Conceptual design of bend, compression, and final focus components of ILSE (Induction Linac System Experiment)  

SciTech Connect

The Induction Linac System Experiment (ILSE) includes a 180/degree/ bend system, drift compression line and a final focus, which test the analogous features of a heavy ion driver for inertial fusion. These components are novel in their transport of a space-charge-dominated ion beam with large head-to-tail velocity tilt. Their conceptual design is presented, including calculations of the beam envelope, momentum dispersion, and engineering design of magnets, vacuum system, diagnostics, alignment, and support. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Lee, E.P.; Fong, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Thur, W.

1989-03-01

233

A new concept of small-compressed air energy storage system integrated with induction generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a hybrid technology for a renewable energy power generation, which is developed as a small-scale power plant. The proposed system is a new concept of small-compressed air energy storage (S-CAES) integrated with induction generator. The system consists of 3 main components: air compressor, energy storage system and power generation. The air compressor uses a general reciprocating engine

Varin Vongmanee; Veerapol Monyakul

2008-01-01

234

Novel approaches for the study of vertebrate steroid hormone receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis Steroid hormones are essential for the normal function of most organ systems in vertebrates. Reproductive activities in females and males, such as the differentiation, growth and maintenance of the reproductive system, require signaling by sex steroid hormones. Although extensively studied in mammals and a few fish and bird species, the evolution and molecular mechanisms associated with the nuclear steroid

Satomi Kohno; Yoshinao Katsu; Taisen Iguchi; Louis J. Guillette Jr

2008-01-01

235

Steroid-dependent plasticity of vocal motor systems: Novel insights from teleost fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocal communication is a trait shared by most vertebrates. Non-mammalian model systems have provided exquisite examples of how motor and sensory systems, respectively, produce and encode the physical attributes of acoustic communication signals that play essential roles in mediating the dynamics of social behavior. These same models, mainly developed for a few species of fish, amphibians and birds, have proven

A. H. Bass

2008-01-01

236

Are systemic levels of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs relevant to acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is uncertain as to the extent which gastrointestinal (GI) haemorrhage related to NSAIDs is due to a local, topical effect or to an action related to systemic absorption. We hypothesised that, should systemic drug concentrations be of importance, plasma levels of NSAIDs might be higher in patients who had developed GI haemorrhage, from controls who had not.

H. A. Wynne; M. D. Rawlins

1993-01-01

237

Embedded Ring-Type Inductors Modeling With Application to Induction Heating Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive integral expressions of the equivalent impedance of ring-type coils for induction heating systems. These expressions are obtained by integrating the analytical solution of the field generated by a circular filamentary current placed between two linear and homogeneous semi-infinite media. Constant current density is assumed for the coils, since they are wound with an appropriate Litz wire. The model

C. Carretero; J. Acero; R. Alonso; J. M. Burdio; F. Monterde

2009-01-01

238

A Magneto-Inductive Sensor Based Wireless Pharmaceutical Compliance Monitoring System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a noninvasive wireless pharmaceutical compliance monitoring (PCM) system using an array of magneto-inductive sensors around the patient's neck in the form of a necklace to detect the passage of a pill or capsule embedded with a small permanent magnet as a tracer through the esophagus upon ingestion. As a result, a signal representing \\

Xueliang Huo; M. Ghovanloo

2007-01-01

239

Monitoring system for the diagnostic of sparking in doubly-fed induction generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diagnostic strategy for the monitoring of the transmission properties and sparking of doubly-fed induction generators with slip rings is introduced in this paper. Modifications in the transmission properties can be recognized by measurement and evaluation of the rotor currents without additional sensors. The existing current transformers in the system can be used for the diagnostic

M. Wurfel; W. Hofmann

2005-01-01

240

An unsupervised, on-line system for induction motor fault detection using stator current monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for online induction motor fault detection is presented in this paper. This system utilizes artificial neural networks to learn the spectral characteristics of a good motor operating online. This learned spectrum may contain many harmonics due to the load which correspond to normal operating conditions. In order to reduce the number of harmonics which are continuously monitored

R. R. Schoen; B. K. Lin; T. G. Habetler; J. H. Schlag; S. Farag

1995-01-01

241

Diagnostic system for on-line detection of rotor faults in induction motor drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract -- The paper presents an on-line condition monitoring and diagnostic system for induction motor drives. It enables detection of many different faults, which may arise during the lifetime of the motor, although special attention was devoted to identify broken rotor bars at an early stage of the fault propagation. The method is based on the analysis of stator

R. Fiser; H. Lavric; V. Ambrozic; M. Bugeza

2011-01-01

242

Power transfer capability improvement of an induction generator wind energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind energy is considered the most viable proposition among the renewable energy options. Of various Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS), fixed speed induction generator based WECS directly connected to the grid is the cheapest and simplest option and has the largest market share. This type of WECS does not require any power electronic interface to allow the grid connection unlike

Susanne Sugiarto; Syed Islam; Ahmed Abu-Siada

2009-01-01

243

Improved Direct Power Control of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Energy System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an improved constant switching frequency direct power control (CSFDPC) strategy for doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind energy generation systems. Unlike the conventional vector control scheme which is based on rotor current decoupling control, the proposed CSFDPC strategy directly calculates the rotor voltage within each fixed sampling period to reduce the stator active and reactive power errors.

Dawei Zhi; Lie Xu; J. Morrow

2007-01-01

244

General analysis of inductive sensor based systems for non destructive testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general view of the Non Destructive Testing (NDT) systems based on the use of inductive sensors where the potential users are likely to be more and more numerous. We describe the different phases of their conception. Firstly, we analyse the physical interaction between the sensor and the specimen material by the use of an enlarged concept

Isabelle Dufour; Moolraj Busawon; Denis Premel; Dominique Placko

1994-01-01

245

Grid Connection of Doubly-Fed Induction Generators in Wind Energy Conversion System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new synchronization algorithm for grid connection of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) in wind generation system. A stator flux-oriented vector control is used for the variable speed DFIG operation. By controlling the generator excitation current the amplitude of the stator EMF is adjusted equal to the amplitude of the grid voltage. To set the generator

Ahmed G. Abo-Khalil; Dong-Choon Lee; Se-Hyun Lee

2006-01-01

246

An energy transmission system for an artificial heart using leakage inductance compensation of transcutaneous transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A power supply system using a transcutaneous transformer to power an artificial heart through intact skin has been designed and built. In order to realize both high-voltage gain and minimum circulating current, compensation of leakage inductances on both sides of a transcutaneous transformer is proposed. A frequency region which realizes the robustness against coupling coefficient and load variation is identified.

Gyu Bum Joung; Bo H. Cho

1998-01-01

247

Sensorless Traction System with Low Voltage High Current Induction Machine for Indoor Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with DC traction application, AC electric traction is known to provide robust and low cost solution with high dynamic performances for an industrial vehicle. This embedded, compact and autonomous system is composed of a low voltage and high current induction motor (IM) fed by PWM voltage source inverter (PWM-VSI) supplied by an independent DC source (DCS battery). The authors

C. Conilh; M. Pietrzak-David

2005-01-01

248

Evidence for Substrate Induction of a Nitrate Efflux System in Barley Roots.  

PubMed Central

Induction of an NO3- efflux system in intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots was demonstrated. Since the measurement of NO3- efflux is dependent on its accumulation, experiments were devised to facilitate accumulation under noninducing conditions. This was accomplished by incubating seedlings in 10 mM NO3- in the presence of RNA and protein synthesis inhibitors. Under these conditions NO3- uptake is mediated by constitutive high- and low-affinity transport systems. Control roots were incubated with 1.0 mM NO3-. This resulted in the accumulation of similar levels of NO3- in both treated and control roots; however, cytoplasmic NO3- efflux from inhibitor-treated roots was much lower than from control roots. Following a brief lag period, efflux rates increased rapidly in the presence of NO3- for 8 to 12 h. The NO3- efflux system was also induced by ambient NO2-. After induction the efflux system was relatively stable in the presence of RNA and protein synthesis inhibitors as long as NO3- or NO2- was present. These results suggest that NO3- efflux may be an inducible system requiring both RNA and protein synthesis, as does induction of the uptake system. The efflux system, however, has a much slower turnover rate than the uptake system.

Aslam, M.; Travis, R. L.; Rains, D. W.

1996-01-01

249

Condition Monitoring System for Induction Motor Using Fuzzy Logic Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condition monitoring (CM) is a process which monitors the condition of equipment throughout its serviceable life in order to opt for Predictive Maintenance (PdM). This approach is based on the equipment's condition to determine at which point during future maintenance activities will be necessary. Implementing PdM will result in substantial cost savings and higher system reliability. This paper is focused

Josefina Barnachea Janier; M. Fazrin Zaim Zaharia

2011-01-01

250

14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...60 percent of maximum continuous power, can provide a heat rise ofâ (i) 100 °F.; or (ii) 40 °F., if a fluid deicing system meeting the requirements of §§ 23.1095 through 23.1099 is installed; (4) Each airplane with sea level...

2013-01-01

251

14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tending to prevent icing has a preheater that can provide a heat rise ofâ (i) 100 degrees F.; or (ii) If a fluid deicing system is used, at least 40 degrees F. (b) Turbine engine. (1) It must be shown that each turbine engine and...

2013-01-01

252

14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...e) If provided as part of the engine, the applicant must show for each fluid injection (other than fuel) system and its controls that the flow of the injected fluid is adequately controlled. [Doc. No. 3025, 29 FR 7453, June 10,...

2013-01-01

253

COMPARATIVE POLITICAL SYSTEMS, A BOOK OF READINGS FOR INDUCTIVE TEACHING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS COURSE WAS DEVELOPED AS PART OF AN INTEGRATED AND SEQUENTIAL, HIGH SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM FOR ABLE STUDENTS (UPPER 25 PERCENT). THE COURSE CONSISTS OF 9 UNITS OF STUDY, EACH UNIT CONTAINING A BRIEF STATEMENT OF A POLITICAL ISSUE AND SEVERAL READINGS ON THAT ISSUE. SOME ISSUES COVERED ARE (1) POLITICAL SYSTEMS OF PRIMITIVE SOCIETIES,…

Carnegie Inst. of Tech., Pittsburgh, PA.

254

Systemic Steroid Application Caused Sudden Death of a Patient with Sudden Deafness  

PubMed Central

A 63-year-old man, who was diagnosed with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL), showed severe hypertension 10 hours after prednisolone administration. Subsequently, the patient suddenly died due to pulmonary edema. The autopsy indicated a pheochromocytoma in the right adrenal gland, and the cause of death was determined to be a pheochromocytoma crisis induced by systemic administration of prednisolone. Pheochromocytoma crisis is a life-threatening condition and can result from the use of corticosteroids. Physicians should consider the risk of a pheochromocytoma crisis due to systemic corticosteroids in the treatment of patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

Ogino-Nishimura, Eriko; Tateya, Ichiro; Hiraumi, Harukazu; Ito, Juichi

2013-01-01

255

Inhaled Steroid Drugs  

MedlinePLUS

... among them, Consumer Reports has analyzed the steroid inhalers based on their effectiveness, safety, dosing convenience, and ... Chronic Lung Disease www.CRBestBuyDrugs.org Evaluating Steroid Inhalers Used to Treat: Comparing Effectiveness, Safety, and Price ...

256

Steroid-resistant asthma.  

PubMed

Steroid-resistant asthma (SRA) refers to patients with symptoms consistent with asthma who show very poor or no response at all to high doses of inhaled or even of systemic corticosteroids. The current article reviews the SRA related literature focusing on the problems associated with the definition of SRA (especially its association with difficult to control, or severe asthma), its various phenotypes, its molecular basis, and the potential treatment options. The article also discusses the limitations of some of the key criteria used for the determination of SRA and proposes a modified set of criteria that are more applicable to children. PMID:22726874

Yim, Robert P; Koumbourlis, Anastassios C

2012-09-01

257

Improvement of induction motor drive systems supplied by photovoltaic arrays with frequency control  

SciTech Connect

The overall efficiency of an induction motor drive system, powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array, drops significantly when the insolation condition varies away from its nominal level. This problem can be overcome using a control method in which the frequency of the inverter's PWM control signal is adjusted according to the insolation and temperature conditions. The motor speed and, therefore, the power delivered to the load, are adjusted by controlling the inverter's frequency. This eliminates the mismatch between the maximum power that is available from the source and the power that is required by the load. Simulation results presented in this paper show that using the proposed control system allows the induction motor drive system to maintain its optimum efficiency and deliver consistently more power to the load when insolation and temperature vary from the nominal level. This method also offers an improvement in the system stability method.

Yao, Y.; Ramshaw, R.S. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Bustamante, P. (Novatronics Inc., Stratford, Ontario (Canada))

1994-06-01

258

SALT segmented primary mirror: commissioning capacitive edge sensing system and performance comparison with inductive sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAMS (Segment Alignment Measurement System) is a capacitance-based edge sensing solution for the active alignment of the 10m SALT segmented primary mirror. Commissioning and calibrating the system has been an ongoing task in an attempt to counteract the unfavourable response of the sensors to high humidity conditions and high dust levels. Several solutions were implemented and tested including real-time feedback systems and the application of corrective functions. In parallel with the continuing efforts to improve the performance of the capacitive sensors, we have also been testing a prototype inductive sensor developed by Fogale Nanotech that is of a very similar flexible plate construction. In this paper we present the results obtained and performance gains achieved thus far with the capacitive edge-sensing system as well as a performance comparison of the Fogale inductive sensor to the capacitive edge sensor.

Buous, Sebastien; Menzies, John; Gajjar, Hitesh

2008-08-01

259

Anabolic steroids in athletics.  

PubMed

Steroid abuse in athletics is one of the most pressing health problems in sports today. Many athletes believe that they must take steroids in order to compete, even though scientists are divided on the question of whether steroids increase strength. This paper reviews the history of anabolic drug use in sports, the types of steroids and amounts used, their intended effects, and the possible side effects. PMID:2333633

Holden, S C; Calvo, R D; Sterling, J C

1990-03-01

260

An Adaptive Speed Controller for Induction Motor Drives Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops an adaptive speed controller from the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for an indirect field-oriented\\u000a (IFO) induction motor drive. First, a two-degree-of-freedom controller (2DOFC) is designed quantitatively to meet the prescribed\\u000a speed command tracking and load regulation responses at the nominal case. When system parameters and operating conditions\\u000a vary, the prescribed control specifications cannot be satisfied. To

Kuei-hsiang Chao; Yu-ren Shen

2007-01-01

261

Derivatives of partial inductances for the sensitivity analysis in PEEC systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

When applying the adjoint sensitivity analysis to an electromagnetic (EM) field solver, the derivatives of the system matrix elements with respect to the design parameters have to be computed. In this paper the partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) method is utilized in the magneto-quasi-static regime where the system matrix elements represent partial resistances and inductances. Closed-form solutions for the derivatives

Peter Scholz; Wolfgang Ackermann; Thomas Weiland

2010-01-01

262

Magnetic levitation and propulsion system by single-sided linear induction motor  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic levitation and propulsion systems have been studied and the gap length control and propulsion control characteristics are clarified. The voltage equation for the single-sided linear induction motor (SLIM) is derived with consideration of the gap length dependence. Also, the transfer function of the control system is obtained by the state variable method to clarify the characteristics of the gap length control loop and the propulsion control loop. The experiment is made using a model system and the frequency and step responses are compared with the analysis results. The features and problems of the magnetic levitation and propulsion system are discussed in comparison with the attraction-type magnetic levitation system.

Tanaka, S.; Tadakuma, S.

1980-05-01

263

Stability synthesis of control system in current fed inverter driven induction motor  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a new method of synthesizing a stabilizing control system in current fed inverter driven induction motor (CFIDIM). The method is focused on rotor dynamics and a concept of ''damping torque coefficient (DTC)'' is introduced concerning the electrical torque. At first the control system is synthesized on the assumption that an induction motor is driven by an ideally controllable current source. Then perturbed linearized technique indicates that the system can be stabilized if the stator current or frequency is controlled so as to make the DTC positive by feeding back a signal composed of rotor speed. Next, based on this fact, an approach of synthesizing the converter output voltage is presented under a fixed stator frequency. This result clarifies that the stable operation can be achieved by controlling the voltage in proportion to the acceleration of rotor speed or the deviation of electrical torque. These analytical results are verified with laboratory field tests.

Veda, R.; Irisa, T.; Ito, T.; Mochizuki, T.; Sonoda, T.

1983-01-01

264

Adrenal steroids as modulators of nerve cell function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adrenal steroids modulate the function of nerve cells. Some, but not all actions of these steroids take place after binding to intracellular receptor systems and translocation of the steroid-receptor complex into the cell nucleus. Studies on the rat brain revealed heterogeneity of receptors. One population of receptor sites is present in abundance in extrahypothalamic limbic brain regions, e.g. neurons of

E. R. de Kloet

1984-01-01

265

Comparison and Evaluation of Induction Generator Models in Wind Turbine Systems for Transient Stability of Power System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to analyze the transient stability of grid-connected squirrel cage induction generators (SCIG) in wind power generating systems, various mathematical models, including the detailed and reduced generator models as well as the one-mass and two-mass shaft system models, are studied in this paper. Based on the different wind turbine system models, the dynamic behaviors are simulated and compared by

H. Liiswiththeschool; Z. Chen; L. Haniswiththeschool

2006-01-01

266

Compact integrated engine induction air/fuel system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a unitary compact all plastic tuned engine intake manifold comprising upper and lower essentially symmetrical L-shaped sections facing one another and together forming a U-shaped assembly, each section including a plurality of laterally spaced L-shaped essentially parallel runners of equal length, the upper section having an air intake plenum common to all the runners and connected integrally therewith for supplying air individually thereto, the lower section having engine attaching flange means integral therewith with port means aligned with the corresponding in number of runners for the discharge of air therethrough, and a fuel system integral with the lower section including a housing having a plurality of serially fuel connected fuel injector receiving cup means communicating with each of the port means for discharging thereinto fuel intermittently discharged from fuel injectors adapted to be inserted into each of the cup means, and fuel supply and return lines formed integral with the housing for supplying fuel to the cups to supply the injectors.

Freismuth, R.J.; Jones, J.H.; Mayol, D.M.

1988-10-11

267

Systemic side effects of beclomethasone dipropionate aerosols (Becotide, Aldecine, Sanasthmyl) in otherwise non steroid treated asthmatic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beclomethasone dipropionate (0.4 mg daily) or its propellent carrier alone used as placebo (oleic acid and fluorens) was inhaled by a group of sixteen otherwise non steroid treated asthmatic patients with stable perennial asthma. The mean FEV1 was 1780 ml and increased by more than 20% (mean 47%) after orciprenaline aerosol. The double blind controlled study lasted three weeks. Weekly

Ch. Messerli; H. Studer; M. Scherrer

1975-01-01

268

Steroid Response in Refractory Asthmatics  

PubMed Central

Inhaled glucocorticosteroids are currently the most effective anti-inflammatory controller medications for treating persistent asthma. The efficacies of glucocorticoids include reducing asthma symptoms, reducing exacerbation frequency, improving quality of life, improving lung function, decreasing airway hyperresponsiveness, controlling airway inflammation, and reducing mortality. However, the treatment response to glucocorticosteroids in asthmatics varies, and certain subtypes of asthma, such as refractory asthma, respond poorly to high-dose inhaled glucocorticoid and systemic steroids. The medical costs of treating refractory asthmatics represent about 50% of the total healthcare cost for asthma. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms of glucocorticoid action, patient responses to glucocorticoids, and steroid resistance observed in refractory asthmatics is necessary for the targeted development of therapeutic drugs. This review discusses the characteristics of severe refractory asthmatics and the mechanisms of steroid response and resistance in asthma treatment.

2012-01-01

269

Development of a respiratory inductive plethysmography module supporting multiple sensors for wearable systems.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present an RIP module with the features of supporting multiple inductive sensors, no variable frequency LC oscillator, low power consumption, and automatic gain adjustment for each channel. Based on the method of inductance measurement without using a variable frequency LC oscillator, we further integrate pulse amplitude modulation and time division multiplexing scheme into a module to support multiple RIP sensors. All inductive sensors are excited by a high-frequency electric current periodically and momentarily, and the inductance of each sensor is measured during the time when the electric current is fed to it. To improve the amplitude response of the RIP sensors, we optimize the sensing unit with a matching capacitor parallel with each RIP sensor forming a frequency selection filter. Performance tests on the linearity of the output with cross-sectional area and the accuracy of respiratory volume estimation demonstrate good linearity and accurate lung volume estimation. Power consumption of this new RIP module with two sensors is very low. The performance of respiration measurement during movement is also evaluated. This RIP module is especially desirable for wearable systems with multiple RIP sensors for long-term respiration monitoring. PMID:23201991

Zhang, Zhengbo; Zheng, Jiewen; Wu, Hao; Wang, Weidong; Wang, Buqing; Liu, Hongyun

2012-09-27

270

An ultraviolet photon counting imaging detector system based on Ge induction readout mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photon counting imaging technology has been widely used in nuclear radiation detection, space environment detection, astronomy observation, nuclear physics and ultraweak bioluminescence. The structure and operating principles of ultraviolet photon counting imaging systems based on direct electron collection mode and induction readout mode are introduced, but there are more advantages with the induction readout mode. The gain characteristic, resolution, linearity and count rate of a system based on induction mode are evaluated. The dark count pulse height distribution curves shift towards higher pulse height, and the dark count rate increases as the voltage increases. The pulse height distribution curves with light incidence also indicate that the count rate with higher pulse height increases as the voltage increases. The resolution test results show that the system resolution is better than 100 ?m along the Y direction and better than 80 ?m in some areas. The nonlinearity in both directions is less than 5% in a ?35 mm area. The system resolution at a low count rate is better than that at a high count rate.

Zhang, Xinghua; Zhao, Baosheng; Zhao, Feifei; Liu, Yong'An; Zhu, Xiangping; Yan, Qiurong

2009-11-01

271

Sensorless vector-controlled induction motor drive system with rotor resistance estimation using parallel processing with floating point DSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the aspects related to simultaneous rotor speed estimation and rotor resistance identification in field-oriented induction motor systems using only the induction motor model. A statistical based computing algorithm is proposed in order to avoid the division by zero. Three basic algorithms have been considered in order to establish the optimum solution. The study of the speed

Teodor Pana

1997-01-01

272

Operation Characteristics of Zone 3 Impedance Relays in Wind Power Systems with Fixed-Speed Induction Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction generators are basic to wind energy conversion. They produce the active power and consume reactive power, with the voltage characteristics fragile compared with that of the synchronous generators. In stressed system conditions, they may intensify var imbalance, causing undesirable operation of the zone 3 impedance relays (mho relays). In this paper, the static voltage characteristics of the induction

Shenghu Li; Shasha Sun; Shaofei Li

2011-01-01

273

Performance of Double Fed Induction Machine at Sub and Super Synchronous Speed in Wind Energy Conversion System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper two modes of operating a wound rotor induction machine as a generator at sub-and super-synchronous speeds in wind energy conversion systems are investigated. In the first mode, known as double fed induction generator (DFIG), the rotor circuit is fed from the ac mains via a controlled rectifier and a forced commutated inverter. Adjusting the applied rotor voltage

Mona N. Eskander; Mahmoud A. Saleh; Mohsen M. T. El-Hagry

2009-01-01

274

Design and Implementation of PLC-Based Monitoring Control System for Three-Phase Induction Motors Fed by PWM Inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a design and implementation of a monitoring and control system for the three-phase induction motor based on programmable logic controller (PLC) technology. Also, the implementation of the hardware and software for speed control and protection with the results obtained from tests on induction motor performance is provided. The PLC correlates the operational parameters to the speed requested

YASAR BIRBIR; H. SELCUK NOGAY

2007-01-01

275

The gated induction system of a systemic floral inhibitor, antiflorigen, determines obligate short-day flowering in chrysanthemums.  

PubMed

Photoperiodic floral induction has had a significant impact on the agricultural and horticultural industries. Changes in day length are perceived in leaves, which synthesize systemic flowering inducers (florigens) and inhibitors (antiflorigens) that determine floral initiation at the shoot apex. Recently, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) was found to be a florigen; however, the identity of the corresponding antiflorigen remains to be elucidated. Here, we report the identification of an antiflorigen gene, Anti-florigenic FT/TFL1 family protein (AFT), from a wild chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum seticuspe) whose expression is mainly induced in leaves under noninductive conditions. Gain- and loss-of-function analyses demonstrated that CsAFT acts systemically to inhibit flowering and plays a predominant role in the obligate photoperiodic response. A transient gene expression assay indicated that CsAFT inhibits flowering by directly antagonizing the flower-inductive activity of CsFTL3, a C. seticuspe ortholog of FT, through interaction with CsFDL1, a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor FD homolog of Arabidopsis. Induction of CsAFT was triggered by the coincidence of phytochrome signals with the photosensitive phase set by the dusk signal; flowering occurred only when night length exceeded the photosensitive phase for CsAFT induction. Thus, the gated antiflorigen production system, a phytochrome-mediated response to light, determines obligate photoperiodic flowering response in chrysanthemums, which enables their year-round commercial production by artificial lighting. PMID:24082137

Higuchi, Yohei; Narumi, Takako; Oda, Atsushi; Nakano, Yoshihiro; Sumitomo, Katsuhiko; Fukai, Seiichi; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu

2013-09-30

276

Optical free induction decay (OFID) 10 micron CO2 laser systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes new improved and reliable optical free induction decay (OFID) picosecond-pulse CO2-10 micron laser systems, differing mainly in the pump laser and in the peak power of the generated pulses. In this context a single-mode TEA-CO2-10 micron laser preionized by a novel surface-corona discharge was developed. Improved plasma shutters operate as optical switches at variable gas pressures. They

A. W. Kaelin; R. Kesselring; Hongru Cao; F. K. Kneubuehl

1992-01-01

277

An Intelligent Monitoring System of Medium-Frequency Induction Furnace Based on Fuzzy Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at the problem such as slowly-varying, pure-lag and low accuracy in the temperature control process of medium-frequency induction furnace, designed an intelligent monitoring system based on fuzzy control. The major hardware is composed of Program Logic Controller and its special expansion modules, the algorithm of fuzzy controller is completely realized via software programming. In order to improve the resolution

Zhang Zheng; Wan Guocheng; Liu Xiaowei

2010-01-01

278

Radial Basis Function Network Control WithImproved Particle Swarm Optimizationfor Induction Generator System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes a radial basis function network (RBFN) controlled three-phase induction generator (IG) system using ac-dc and dc-ac power converters. In this study, first, the indirect field-oriented mechanism is implemented for the control of the IG. The electric frequency of the IG is controlled using the indirect field-oriented control mechanism. Then, an ac-dc power converter and a dc-ac power

Faa-Jeng Lin; Li-Tao Teng; Meng-Hsiung Yu

2008-01-01

279

Particle sample introduction system for inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development and characterization of a new, relatively inexpensive, computer-controlled, particle sample introduction (PSI) system for programmable delivery of small amounts of diluted powdered samples into an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and measurement by atomic emission spectrometry (AES) is described. The PSI was developed for use with non-hygroscopic particles, in particular those with a particle weight in the ng range (i.e.,

Lowell Greib; Vassili Karanassios

2006-01-01

280

Active Oxygen Species in the Induction of Plant Systemic Acquired Resistance by Salicylic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complementary DNA encoding a salicylic acid (SA)-binding protein has been cloned. Its properties suggest involvement in SA-mediated induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants. The sequence of the protein is similar to that of catalases and the protein exhibits catalase activity. Salicylic acid specifically inhibited the catalase activity in vitro and induced an increase in H_2O_2 concentrations in

Zhixiang Chen; Herman Silva; Daniel F. Klessig

1993-01-01

281

Fuzzy logic based indirect vector control of induction generator in Wind Energy Conversion System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet increasing power demand, taking into account economical and environmental factors, wind energy conversion is gradually gaining interest as a suitable source of renewable energy. The modeling of Wind Energy Conversion System(WECS) is done in MATLAB-SIMULINK. The dynamic d-q model of the induction generator is developed from the fundamentals in a modular approach in simulink. A fuzzy

Y. Sreenivasa Rao; A. Jaya Laxmi

2012-01-01

282

Biological transformations of steroidal compounds: a review.  

PubMed

Microbial transformation is an important tool for structural modification of organic compounds, especially natural products with complex structures like steroids. It can be used to synthesize chemical structures that are difficult to obtain by ordinary methods and as a model of mammalian metabolism due to similarity between mammalian and microbial enzyme systems. During recent years research has been focused on the structural modifications of bioactive steroids by using various microorganisms, in order to obtain biologically potent compounds with diverse structures. Steroidal compounds are responsible for important biological functions in the cells and manifest a variety of activities. This article covers the microbial transformation of sterols, steroidal hormones and some new types of steroids known as bufadienolides. Emphasis has placed on reporting metabolites that may be of general interest and on the practical aspects of work in the field of microbial transformations. The review covers the literature from 1994 to 2011. PMID:22910289

Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Khera, Rasheed Ahmad

2012-08-13

283

Accuracy study of frequency converter estimates used in the sensorless diagnostics of induction-motor-driven systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern frequency converters allow energy efficient operation of induction-motor-driven systems such as pumps and fans. In addition, they can be used as a sensorless monitoring unit for the pump and fan systems, as shown by previous studies. Sensorless diagnostics of induction-motor-driven systems relies on the accurate estimation of the rotational speed, shaft torque and shaft power of the motor, which

Tero Ahonen; Jussi Tamminen; Jero Ahola; Markku Niemela

2011-01-01

284

An Inductively Powered Scalable 32Channel Wireless Neural Recording System-on-a-Chip for Neuroscience Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an inductively powered 32-channel wireless integrated neural recording (WINeR) system-on-a-chip (SoC) to be ultimately used for one or more small freely behaving animals. The inductive powering is intended to relieve the animals from carrying bulky batteries used in other wireless systems, and enables long recording sessions. The WINeR system uses time-division multiplexing along with a novel power scheduling

Seung Bae Lee; Hyung-Min Lee; Mehdi Kiani; Uei-Ming Jow; Maysam Ghovanloo

2010-01-01

285

Steroid hormones and BDNF.  

PubMed

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin abundantly expressed in several areas of the central nervous system (CNS) and is known to induce a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy, to enhance specific learning and memory processes. BDNF is one of the key molecules modulating brain plasticity and it affects cognitive deficit associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease. Several studies have shown an altered BDNF production and secretion in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases but also in mood disorders like depression, eating disorders and schizophrenia. Plasma BDNF is also a biomarker of impaired memory and general cognitive function in aging women. Gonadal steroids are involved in the regulation of several CNS processes, specifically mood, affective and cognitive functions during fertile life and reproductive aging. These observations lead many scientists to investigate a putative co-regulation between BDNF and gonadal and/or adrenal steroids and their relationship with gender difference in the incidence of mental diseases. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge on the correlation between BDNF expression/function and both gonadal (progesterone, estrogens, and testosterone) and adrenal hormones (mainly cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) with relevance in clinical application. PMID:23380505

Pluchino, N; Russo, M; Santoro, A N; Litta, P; Cela, V; Genazzani, A R

2013-02-01

286

COX isoforms in the cardiovascular system: understanding the activities of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the formation of prostanoids by the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX). Work in the past 15 years has shown that COX exists in two forms: COX1, which is largely associated with physiological functions, and COX2, which is largely associated with pathological functions. Heated debate followed the introduction of selective COX2 inhibitors around 5 years ago: do these

Jane A. Mitchell; Timothy D. Warner

2006-01-01

287

Inertia supercharging induction system for multi-cylinder internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a non-supercharged multi-cylinder V-type internal combustion engine consisting of: a first group of cylinders, a second group of cylinders, and a naturally aspirated induction system for supplying air to the first and second groups of cylinders. The naturally aspirated system comprises: a first elongate collector section, being fluidly communicated with the cylinders of the first group of cylinders; a second elongate collector section, being fluidly communicated with the cylinders of the second group of cylinders; the first and second collector sections being defined in the same housing and located above and essentially between the first and second banks of cylinders; an air cleaner; a surge tank fluidly communicated with the air cleaner; a first induction conduit leading from a first end of the surge tank to a first end of the first collector section; a second induction conduit leading from a second end of the surge tank to a second end of the second collector section; an essentially U-shaped connection passage fluidly interconnecting the first and second collector sections at locations essentially mid-way between the first and second ends thereof; a valve disposed in the connection passage; and a motor for operating the valve.

Yasuda, M.; Ura, S.; Nishimura, S.; Kato, M.; Sagata, M.

1988-05-03

288

Study on Terminal Voltage and Power Factor Control of Induction Generators for Wind Power Generation System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with two types of control method concerning induction generator used in wind power generating station. One is aiming at keeping the voltage magnitude of the node of the station and the other is aiming at keeping the constant power factor through the branch connecting to the station. Both of them are able to be in controllable area by adjusting generator reactive power using compensating capacitor. At first, the theoretical equations expressing terminal voltage and power factor for induction generator are derived, and then the compensating capacitor corresponding to the wind velocity variation is determined quantitatively. By using the proposed control method, it is confirmed to be able to keep the terminal voltage and operating power factor of wind power generation system to a target value even in the case when the abrupt deviation is caused by wind power disturbance.

Senjyu, Tomonobu; Sueyoshi, Norihide; Kuninaka, Ryo; Uezato, Katsumi; Fujita, Hideki; Funabashi, Toshihisa

289

Analysis and Control of Heat Distribution in a Zone-Control Induction Heating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses heat distribution on a workpiece in a zone-control induction heating (ZCIH) system. The system consists of two or more split working coils and multi inverter units, and adjust the coil currents to control the heat or temperature distribution on the workpiece. This paper theoretically reveals the relation between the coil currents and the heat distribution, and proposes a simple method to calculate the heat distribution using a three-dimensional resistance matrix. The validity of the developed theory is confirmed by performing both numerical computation based on the finite element method (FEM) and experiments using a 1.5-kW six-zone ZCIH laboratory setup.

Ha, Pham Ngoc; Fujita, Hideaki; Uchida, Naoki; Ozaki, Kazuhiro

290

[Clinical use of spinal or epidural steroids].  

PubMed

Steroids, drugs with potent antiinflammatory properties on the damaged nervous roots, have been especially used as adjuvants of local anesthetics, by spinal route, in the treatments of low-back pain. Spinal route was chosen to obtain a higher local concentration of drug, with few systemic side effects and to improve drug's action mechanism. Steroids seem to interact with GABA receptors and thus control neural excitability through a stabilising effect on membranes, modification of nervous conduction and membrane hyperpolarization, in supraspinal and spinal site. Epidural steroids are especially used in the treatment of low back pain due to irritation of nervous roots. They have been administered alone or in association with local anesthetics and/or saline solution. Slow release formulations have been generally used (methylprednisolone acetate, and triamcinolone diacetate). Other indications of epidural steroids are: postoperative hemilaminectomy pain, prevention of post herpetic neuralgia, degenerative ostheoartrithis. Intra-thecal steroids have been frequently used in the treatment of lumbar radiculopathy due to discopathy, as an alternative treatment when epidural administration is ineffective. Positive results have been obtained with methylprednisolone acetate, alone or in association with local anesthetics. Complications related to intraspinal steroids injections are due to execution of the block and side effects of drugs. Complications associated with intrathecal steroids are more frequent and severe than epidural injections and include: adhesive arachnoiditis, aseptic meningitis, cauda equina syndrome. Steroidal toxicity seems to be related to the polyethylenic glycole vehicle. Anyway, slow release formulations contain less concentrated polyethylenic glycole. The epidural administration, a correct dilution of steroid with local anesthetics solution and/or saline solution, and a limited number of injections (no more than three) allows a significant reduction of steroid neurotoxicity. PMID:12244293

Marinangeli, F; Ciccozzi, A; Donatelli, F; Paladini, A; Varrassi, G

291

Anabolic Steroid Abuse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched this month by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), this Website offers research about the abuse of anabolic steroids and provides support to educators and policymakers interested in educating the public, especially teenagers, about the problem. The site provides substantial medical information in layman's terms about the composition, use, and potentially harmful effects of steroids. The site also gives statistics from the Institute's Monitoring the Future Study that shows a "significant increase" in steroid use from 1998 to 1999 among middle school males. Links for further information and education strategies are also provided. The Website is part of NIDA's Education Initiative: Science, Steroids, and Youth.

292

Neuroprotection of Sex Steroids  

PubMed Central

Sex steroids are essential for reproduction and development in animals and humans, and sex steroids also play an important role in neuroprotection following brain injury. New data indicate that sex-specific responses to brain injury occur at the cellular and molecular levels. This review summarizes the current understanding of neuroprotection by sex steroids, particularly estrogen, androgen, and progesterone, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. Better understanding of the role of sex steroids under physiological and pathological conditions will help us to develop novel effective therapeutic strategies for brain injury.

Liu, Mingyue; Kelley, Melissa H.; Herson, Paco S.; Hurn, Patricia D.

2011-01-01

293

Modeling and simulation of DC transit system with VSI-fed induction motor driven train using PSB\\/MATLAB  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comprehensive simulation model of DC transit system with VSI-fed induction motor driven trains created using Power System Blockset (PSB)\\/MATLAB software package. The substation rectifier, the accurate track, the VSI-fed induction motor train and a detailed traction load are included in the model. The objective of this model is to study the short circuits faults that happen

C. S. Chang; A. Khambadkone; Zhao Xu

2001-01-01

294

Integrated design method of MR damper and electromagnetic induction system for structural control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are one of the most advantageous control devices for civil engineering applications to natural hazard mitigation due to many good features such as small power requirement, reliability, and low price to manufacture. To reduce the responses of a structural system by using MR dampers, a control system including a power supply, control algorithm, and sensors is needed. The control system becomes complex, however, when a lot of MR dampers are applied to large-scale civil structures, such as cable-stayed bridges and high-rise buildings. Thus, it is difficult to install and/or maintain the MR damper-based control system. To overcome the above difficulties, a smart passive system was proposed, which is based on an MR damper system. The smart passive system consists of an MR damper and an electromagnetic induction (EMI) system that uses a permanent magnet and a coil. According to the Faraday law of induction, the EMI system that is attached to the MR damper can produce electric energy and the produced energy is applied to the MR damper to vary the damping characteristics of the damper. Thus, the smart passive system does not require any power at all. Besides the output of electric energy is proportional to input loads such as earthquakes, which means the smart passive system has adaptability by itself without any controller or sensors. In this paper, the integrated design method of a large-scale MR damper and Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) system is presented. Since the force of an MR damper is controllable by altering the input current generated from an EMI part, it is necessary to design an MR damper and an EMI part simultaneously. To do this, design parameters of an EMI part consisting of permanent magnet and coil as well as those of an MR damper consisting of a hydraulic-type cylinder and a magnetic circuit that controls the magnetic flux density in a fluid-flow path are considered in the integrated design procedure. As an example, a smart passive control system for reducing stay cable responses is considered in this investigation and it will be fabricated and tested through experiment in the future.

Lee, Heon-Jae; Moon, Seok-Jun; Jung, Hyung-Jo; Huh, Young-Cheol; Jang, Dong-Doo

2008-05-01

295

Synthesis of an anaesthetic agent administration system using fuzzy inductive reasoning.  

PubMed

Control of the depth of anaesthesia is a difficult undertaking. Progress has been made during recent years by use of different methodologies and monitoring systems that suggest the safe amount of an anaesthetic drug, considering the condition of an individual patient. Despite these improvements, anaesthetists still rely heavily on personal experience when suggesting the anaesthetic dosage during surgical operations. The purposes of this paper are twofold. One is a description of the design of an anaesthetic agent control system using a qualitative modelling and simulation methodology called Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning (FIR). A comparison with a system developed for the same application using a neural network approach is also presented. The second purpose is a discussion of the problem of separating system-generic from patient-specific behaviour in the context of inductive modeling using the FIR methodology. In order to be useful, the model generated by FIR should reflect upon system-generic behavioural characteristics exclusively, while suppressing patient-specific behavioural patterns. A technique based on combining knowledge obtained from different patients is designed that makes it possible to derive a single model characterizing a specific class of similar patients undergoing similar operations, preserving the common characteristics of all these patients while filtering out the specific behavioural patterns of any one of the individual patients from whom the data were obtained. PMID:8798291

Nebot, A; Cellier, F E; Linkens, D A

1996-05-01

296

The minimization of the extraneous electromagnetic fields of an inductive power transfer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of inductive wireless power transfer (IPT) systems has been extensively studied. However, the electromagnetic compatibility of such systems is at least as important as the efficiency and has received much less attention. We consider the net magnetic dipole moment of the system as a figure of merit. That is, we seek to minimize the magnitude of the net dipole moment in order to minimize both the near magnetic fields and the radiated power. A 20 kHz, 3.3 kW, IPT system, representative of typical wireless vehicular battery charging systems, is considered and it is seen that one particular value of load impedance minimizes the net dipole moment while another, distinct, value maximizes efficiency. Thus, efficiency must be traded off, at least to some extent, in order to minimize extraneous electromagnetic fields.

McLean, James; Sutton, Robert

2013-04-01

297

14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2013-01-01

298

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2013-01-01

299

Analysis of competing topologies of linear induction machines for high-speed material transport systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates longitudinal and transverse flux linear motor topologies for very high acceleration rate (3--4 g), and high speed (120 km/h), material transport systems which have significant technical and economic potential in flexible manufacturing environments. The general topology under consideration is a double-sided, short-moving-secondary/long-fixed-primary, linear induction motor (LIM). The transport system requirements place severe demands upon the machine topology. In addition to efficient thrust production, the linear machine must be capable of generating large unbalanced normal (i.e., lateral) forces in order to achieve electromagnetic (mechanically passive) steering of vehicles with both straight and curvilinear primaries. Air gap chording and short secondary effects are two additional design complications. Minimization of the primary leakage inductance is necessary not only to minimize inverter ratings but also to maximize the influence of the secondary state on the primary terminal properties for magnetic flux and position/velocity estimation. The orientation of the magnetic flux (i.e., longitudinal versus transverse) has a significant impact upon the above conversion and is thus a major analytical focus of this paper. A hybrid system topology consisting of a longitudinal-flux orientation within straight sections and a transverse-flux orientation within curvilinear sections appears to offer the best of both topologies. The intended contribution of this paper is a detailed comparison of LIM topologies leading to a better design selection for very high performance systems.

Jansen, P.L. [MK Rail Corp., Boise, ID (United States); Li, L.J.; Lorenz, R.D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1995-07-01

300

Neuropsychopharmacological properties of neuroactive steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to the well-known genomic effects of steroid molecules via intracellular steroid receptors, certain steroids rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with neurotransmitter-gated ion channels. Several of these steroids accumulate in the brain after local synthesis or after metabolism of adrenal steroids. The 3?-hydroxy ring A-reduced pregnane steroids allopregnanolone and tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone have been thought not to interact with intracellular

Rainer Rupprechta; Florian Holsboer

1999-01-01

301

Steroids Report, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Steroids is a broad term used to describe a variety of individual drugs that are delivered to end users primarily in two major forms: injectable liquid held in vials and pills. Steroids are typically used in various combinations with a user often combinin...

2006-01-01

302

Anabolic Steroid Abuse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The monograph is based on the papers and discussion from a technical review on 'Anabolic Steroid Abuse' held on March 6 and 7, 1989, in Rockville, MD. Contents: Abuse Liability of Anabolic Steroids and Their Possible Role in the Abuse of Alcohol, Morphine...

G. C. Lin L. Erinoff

1990-01-01

303

Pharmacology of anabolic steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly,

A T Kicman

2008-01-01

304

Steroid-sparing strategies.  

PubMed

Corticosteroids have represented the mainstay for immunosuppression since the beginning of organ transplantation. However, these agents may be responsible of a number of invalidating and even life-threatening side effects. After the introduction of cyclosporine, some randomized trials have been attempted to avoid or withdraw corticosteroids. Meta-analyses of these studies showed that acute rejection was more frequent in patients who eliminated steroids than in patients who continued steroids. However, although graft survival was not affected by steroid avoidance, an increased risk of graft failure was reported in patients with late withdrawal of steroids. Only one multicenter trial provided a long-term follow-up of patients treated with the old formulation of cyclosporine. That study showed that, in spite of a higher incidence of rejection, in patients with an early avoidance of steroids, the 9-year graft survival rate was similar to that observed in patients given cyclosporine and steroids but with reduced risks of cardiovascular, ocular, and bone complications. A more recent study with everolimus and low-dose cyclosporine showed that the 3-year patient and graft survival rates were similar in patients who stopped steroids within 1 week after transplantation and in patients who continued low doses of prednisone. The available data indicate that an early elimination of corticosteroids is feasible today in many renal transplant recipients. A steroid-sparing strategy may reduce the side effects and improve the compliance of transplant recipients. PMID:16386481

Ponticelli, C

2005-11-01

305

Effect of a magnetic core in the receiver coil of a biomedical inductive power system.  

PubMed

The design of an inductive power system is investigated in order to determine the relative benefits provided by the inclusion of a magnetic core in the receiver coil. Both transmitter and receiver coils are chosen to have dimensions similar to those used in many biomedical devices. It is found that while a magnetic core provides enhanced coupling, the operating frequency is limited by losses in the magnetic material. Consequently, the performance of air-core coils is shown to match that of coils with magnetic cores when operated at a higher frequency. Work is ongoing to consider the effects of other limitations imposed by biomedical environments. PMID:19965240

Noor, Furqan; Duffy, Maeve

2009-01-01

306

Induction of aromatic ring: cleavage dioxygenases in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain KB2 in cometabolic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KB2 is known to produce different enzymes of dioxygenase family. The aim of our studies was to determine activity of these\\u000a enzymes after induction by benzoic acids in cometabolic systems with nitrophenols. We have shown that under cometabolic conditions\\u000a KB2 strain degraded 0.25–0.4 mM of nitrophenols after 14 days of incubation. Simultaneously degradation of 3 mM of growth\\u000a substrate during 1–3 days

Danuta Wojcieszy?ska; Urszula Guzik; Izabela Gre?; Magdalena Perkosz; Katarzyna Hupert-Kocurek

2011-01-01

307

Steroids in neuroinfection.  

PubMed

The consequences of inflammatory response are primarily responsible for morbimortality in bacterial meningitis. Early use of steroids in these cases can reduce mortality and hearing loss and improve functional outcome without causing significant side effects. The formal recommendation towards pneumoccocal meningitis is being extended to other forms of Bacterial Meningitis. The same thought can be applied to tuberculous meningitis. In neurocysticercosis and neuroschistosomiasis steroids are more useful than parasiticides in most cases. Despite the evidence favoring the use of steroids in herpes simplex encephalitis, it is not sufficient to definitely support such indication. Among the opportunistic infections that affect AIDS patients, neurotoxoplasmosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopaty are those most often considered for the use of steroids; steroids are safe to use, but no definite benefit could be demonstrated in both conditions. PMID:24141512

Abraham, Ronaldo

2013-09-01

308

Xenobiotic and vitamin D-responsive induction of the steroid\\/bile acid-sulfotransferase Sult2A1 in young and old mice: The role of a gene enhancer in the liver chromatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The xenobiotic-activated nuclear receptors PXR (pregnane X receptor) and CAR (constitutive androstane receptor) and the vitamin D3-activated nuclear receptor VDR regulate steroid and xenobiotic metabolism by inducing the phase I cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, phase II conjugating transferases, and the phase III transporters, which mediate the efflux of water-soluble lipid metabolites from cells. Metabolic stress due to the deviant expression of

Young-Kyo Seo; Yoon-Tae Chung; Soyoung Kim; Ibtissam Echchgadda; Chung S. Song; Bandana Chatterjee

2007-01-01

309

The diagnostics system for the multiple heavy ion beams induction linac experiment, MBE-4  

SciTech Connect

MBE-4 is a four beam current amplifying induction linac experiment conducted at LBL as a part of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program for studying accelerator physics issues of a heavy ion driver for inertial fusion. The four ion beams (Cs{sup +}, 10 mA) are focused by electrostatic quadrupoles and accelerated fro about 200 keV to 900 keV through 24 induction gaps. Current amplification of up to nine times is achieved while the beam pulse duration is compressed from about 3 {mu}s to 0.5 {mu}s. The diagnostic system enables the complete time-resolved 2-D transverse phase space distribution of the beam to be measured. Reduction of the raw data yields the beam current, current profile, emittance, centroid position and angle as well as the beam envelope parameters. In addition, the longitudinal energy distribution is obtained from measurements using a calibrated electrostatic spectrometer. The diagnostic system hardware, as well as the data acquisition and reduction routines, are controlled by an IBM pc-XT. We shall describe the diagnostic system and discuss its performance in view of the specific issues which result from the acceleration and amplification of multiple beams of heavy ions.

Eylon, S.

1991-09-01

310

About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases > Long-Term Control Medications > About Steroids About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids) What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’) ... considerations when your dosage changes? What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’)? Corticosteroids (steroids) are medicines that are used to ...

311

Rail Brake System Using a Linear Induction Motor for Dynamic Braking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One type of braking system for railway vehicles is the eddy current brake. Because this type of brake has the problem of rail heating, it has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of a linear induction motor (LIM) for dynamic braking in eddy current brake systems. The LIM reduces rail heating and uses an inverter for self excitation. In this paper, we estimated the performance of an LIM from experimental results of a fundamental test machine and confirmed that the LIM generates an approximately constant braking force under constant current excitation. At relatively low frequencies, this braking force remains unaffected by frequency changes. The reduction ratio of rail heating is also approximately proportional to the frequency. We also confirmed that dynamic braking resulting in no electrical output can be used for drive control of the LIM. These characteristics are convenient for the realization of the LIM rail brake system.

Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Minoru; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

312

A randomized trial of cyclosporine in steroid-resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized trial of cyclosporine in steroid-resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. To compare the efficacy (induction of remission) and safety of cyclosporine (CsA) with those of supportive therapy in patients with steroid-resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS), we organized an open, prospective, randomized, multicentric, controlled study for parallel groups, stratified for adults and children. Forty-five patients with steroid-resistant INS were randomly assigned

Claudio Ponticelli; Gianfranco Rizzoni; Alberto Edefonti; Paolo Altieri; Emilio Rivolta; Stefano Rinaldi; Luciana Ghio; Egidio Lusvarghi; Rosanna Gusmano; Francesco Locatelli; Sonia Pasquali; Alfonso Castellani; Ornella Della Casa-Alberighi

1993-01-01

313

A Novel Method for Improving Overload Capability of Stand-alone Power System Based on a Flywheel Induction Motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stand-alone power systems are widely used in islands and remote areas. With the rapid advances in the new energy technology, stand-alone power systems have got a rapid development. However, their overload capability is very poor. In this paper, a novel method to improve the overload performance of the stand-alone power system is proposed by using a flywheel induction motor. The flywheel induction motor is composed of a flywheel disk connected to a squirrel cage induction motor. It is controlled to supply the overload power of the stand-alone power supply by charging and discharging. The proposed system is characterized by the following three points: 1) Simple configuration; The flywheel induction motor is directly connected to the inverter-controlled load without any converters. 2) Simple frequency control; The expected active power flow is realized by a small change of the stand-alone power side inverter's output frequency. 3) Low cost system; A decreased power capacity demand for the stand-alone power supply is realized by adding a low cost flywheel induction motor. Experimental results are provided to verify the proposed system.

Cheng, Miao-Miao; Kato, Shuhei; Sumitani, Hideo; Shimada, Ryuichi

314

Four Pulse Drive System for the Beam Induction Cells for DARHT Axis 2  

SciTech Connect

The proposed drive system allows for the generation of up to four (4) high-quality radiographic pulses along one line-of-sight, having arbitrary pulse spacing ({approximately}500 ns), using demonstrated technologies. This concept uses a four-pulse drive system to drive both a 16-MeV ensemble of 250-kV, 4-kA induction cells and a four-pulse, 4-MeV injector. The key to this approach lies in the method used to combine four pulses from different generators in a manner that does not compromise the voltage flatness requirement of {+-} 1%. The induction cells use core material for only a single pulse. A simple reverse bias circuit is used to reset the cores between pulses, and the insulator has been redesigned to withstand the reverse reset voltage. This approach can be installed in stages so that the facility can be used for dual axis radiography while implementing the multi-pulsing capability. A dual double-pulse format has been identified which provides a sequence of two pulses along one line-of-sight within a 2-{micro}sec window. The 2-{micro}sec windows can be separated by arbitrary time intervals of 2- to 10-{micro}sec.

Downing, J.; Carlson, R.; Melton, J.; Fockler, J.

1999-06-28

315

Anabolic steroid abuse.  

PubMed

Anabolic steroids are capable of increasing strength and muscle bulk in certain individuals when combined with a proper diet and an intense training program. Any steroid that is anabolic is also androgenic. Anabolic steroids are fraught with numerous side effects, a few of which are potentially life threatening, and some of which are permanent. Most of the side effects are mild and reversible. Use of anabolic steroids in sports is as much a moral issue as a medical one. Drug testing has not been a very successful means to eradicate abuse in the sporting arena. Education alone is probably not the answer to stopping anabolic steroid abuse but is an essential first step in combating this problem. Use of anabolic steroids in athletes is a form of cheating, and use will likely continue, especially if the rewards for success in sports remain so high. Physicians should avoid condemning individuals who choose to use anabolic steroids and encourage discussion of use with their health providers. PMID:2264527

Landry, G L; Primos, W A

1990-01-01

316

Pharmacology of anabolic steroids  

PubMed Central

Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic–androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided.

Kicman, A T

2008-01-01

317

A simple and efficacious control system for stand alone generation plants equipped with induction machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a novel control algorithm, for a stand alone generation plant equipped with induction machine. The aim of control is to regulate properly the voltage and frequency generation of induction machine during load power changes. A \\

Andrea Del Pizzo; Diego Iannuzzi; Luigi Piegari; Stefano Baratto; Umberto Macri

2006-01-01

318

[Detecting sleep apnea/hypopnea events with a wearable respiratory inductive plethysmograph system].  

PubMed

The wearable respiratory inductive plethysmograph(RIP) system is a non-intrusive respiratory monitoring system. Sleep monitoring was performed on 9 human subjects suspected of having sleep apnea hypersomnolence syndrome (SAHS) and 7 healthy volunteers using both the wearable RIP system and the conventional polysomnography(PSG), and the sensitivity and specificity of the wearable RIP system were analyzed by comparison with the PSG results. According to the characteristic of the wearable RIP system in detecting sleep apnea/hypopnea event, the diagnostic criteria of sleep apnea/hypopnea event were put forward. All subjects with SAHS diagnosed by the wearable RIP were confirmed by PSG,the sensitivity and specificity of the wearable RIP system for detecting sleep apnea/hypopnea events were 99.0% and 94.6% respectively. The wearable RIP system can be used reliably in detecting sleep apnea/hypopnea events. This system can be used at home for detecting the sleep apnea/hypopnea events non-intrusively. PMID:18610614

Zhang, Zhengbo; Bi, Yaqiong; Yu, Mengsun; Wu, Taihu; Li, Ruoxin

2008-04-01

319

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 {+-} 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 {+-} 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 {+-} 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 {+-} 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and {beta}-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of {sup 13}C{sup +} with {sup 12}C{sup 1}H{sup +} comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or {beta}-cyclodextrin.

Luong, E.

1999-05-10

320

Detection of designer steroids  

PubMed Central

Illicit use of performance-enhancing steroids has proliferated among a wide range of professional and amateur athletes. This problem has attracted broad public attention and has led the United States Congress to draft legislation that proposes frequent testing of athletes. However, current testing protocols are inadequate as athletes can evade detection by using novel steroids that are unknown to authorities. We have developed a strategy that overcomes this limitation by virtue of its ability to detect “designer steroids” without prior knowledge of their existence.

Yuan, Xiaohui; Forman, Barry Marc

2005-01-01

321

A high voltage, high current, low inductance, pressurised switch for parallel plate, pulsed power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pressurised gap switch is described for advanced pulsed power applications that connect a parallel plate capacitor bank with a very low inductance load. This switch replaces the conventional connector on each capacitor installed in the plates, thereby reducing the inductance of the switch and capacitor module by approximately 50%. This reduction of the capacitor connector inductance is particulately important

M. J. Wilson; W. L. Pickles; M. Vanderbeck; R. E. Salbeck

1981-01-01

322

Using a Computer Algebra System to Facilitate the Learning of Mathematical Induction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mathematical induction is one of the major proof techniques taught to mathematics students in the first years of their undergraduate degrees. In addition to its importance to mathematics, induction is also required for computer science and related disciplines. However, even if the concepts of a proof by induction are taught and understood, many…

McAndrew, Alasdair

2010-01-01

323

An inductively powered telemetry system for temperature, EKG, and activity monitoring.  

PubMed

An implant telemetry system for the simultaneous monitoring of temperature, activity, and EKG from small animals, such as rats, has recently been designed with the novel feature that instead of a battery the system is energized by an inductive field. A 250 kHz resonant coil surrounds the cage (30 X 30 X 20 cm) and provides the approximately 100 muW of power required to operate the implant transmitter while allowing the animal unrestrained movement in the cage. The implant can also be battery operated if desired RF transmission is in the 8-10 MHz band, which allows the use of a simple, essentially single IC chip, receiver. PMID:737291

Fryer, T B; Lund, G F; Williams, B A

1978-01-01

324

A wearable respiration monitoring system based on digital respiratory inductive plethysmography.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a wearable device for continuous monitoring of respiration signal and the associated algorithm for signal evaluations. The device took advantages of a proven respiratory inductive plethysmograph (RIP) technology and a wireless body sensor networks (BSN) development platform. The textile RIP sensor was integrated into a suit that could be comfortably worn around thorax or abdomen for monitoring respiration during sleep. A smart signal processing algorithm was implemented for extracting the dynamic respiration rate. The results of in-situ experiments from ten healthy subjects suggested that our system worked as intended. Due to the high reliability and low cost of our system it is believed to meet the future demands on home-based monitoring and diagnosis of sleep disorder-related diseases. PMID:19963862

Wu, Dan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Huang, Bang-Yu; Wang, Bo; Lin, Shao-Jie; Xu, Xiao-Wen

2009-01-01

325

Optical control, diagnostic and power supply system for a solid state induction modulator  

SciTech Connect

A new high speed optical control, diagnostic and power supply system has been developed for a solid state induction modulator. The modulator consists of a large array of field effect transistors (FETs) that switch a high-voltage pulse across a tape-wound magnetic core. The FETs within the modulator are mounted on numerous circuit boards that are stacked in series for high-voltage operation. The new optical system overcomes the issue of voltage isolation by supplying each circuit board with optically coupled control power and high bandwidth signal information. An optical fiber is used to transmit laser light to a custom photovoltaic cell that provides dc power to the on-board control circuits. Optical fiber technology is again used to convey a pulse that contains detailed analog features to the FET gate controls. Diagnostic data and status information are also obtained from each board by similar optical methods. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Saethre, R. [Bechtel Nevada Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Kirbie, H.; Hickman, B.; Lee, B.; Ollis, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-06-01

326

Development of a dental implant mobility measurement system using an inductive sensor.  

PubMed

Estimation of dental implant stability is an important factor for diagnosis of implant treatment. In this study, we have developed a new system for measuring dental implant mobility. Movement of the implant was measured by an inductive sensor and an amplification adaptor was developed to multiply movement of the implant. Impulse response signal of the implant was acquired and power spectrum analysis was applied for the signal. Various implant-tissue interfacial conditions were simulated in an in vitro experiment and average peak frequency of the power spectrum was calculated for each condition. Artificial implantation model of acryl was fabricated and holes of different levels of depth and diameter were drilled. Two types of impression materials were used to fix the dental implant into the hole. The peak frequency showed linear relationship (P-value<0.01) with the depth and the diameter of the hole. Differentiability of the system was evaluated by ANOVA test. PMID:22254323

Kim, Dae-Seung; Lee, Woo-Jin; Choi, Soon-Chul; Lee, Sam-Sun; Heo, Min-Suk; Heo, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin

2011-01-01

327

Hyperadrenocorticism associated with sex steroid excess.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of sex steroid excess or hyperadrenocorticism in dogs may be challenging. Unlike Cushing's disease, sex steroid excess may have a multitude of manifestations that differ from standard hyperadrenocorticism. In particular, the clinical scenario of a dog with sex steroid imbalance involves one of three systems: dermatologic, reproductive, or hepatic. The history of a dog with hyperadrenocorticism manifesting as sex steroid imbalance often lacks the classical clinical signs of polydipsia and polyuria. Dogs with sex steroid imbalance will often be of specific breeds such as miniature poodles and exhibit trunkal hair loss as the only sign. There is often involvement of the reproductive system, manifested as the growth of perianal adenomas in neutered male or female dogs. The most common laboratory findings consist of elevations in serum alkaline phosphatase and serum alanine transferase. The following article reviews the etiology, common signalment, clinical signs, and laboratory findings associated with atypical hyperadrenocorticism caused by sex steroid imbalance and then explores the medical, surgical, and radiation treatment options. PMID:17542192

Greco, Deborah S

2007-02-01

328

ALLTEM System User's Manual, Munitions Management Projects, ALLTEM Multi-Axis Electromagnetic Induction System Demonstration and Validation, Version 1.0.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An advanced multi-axis electromagnetic induction system, ALLTEM, has been specifically designed and developed for detection and discrimination of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by the U.S. Geological Survey. This document is a combined user s manual for operat...

T. H. Asch

2012-01-01

329

Epidural Steroid Injections  

MedlinePLUS

... slipped vertebrae’, also known as spondylolisthesis). The epidural space is a fat filled ‘sleeve’ that surrounds the ... spinal cord. Steroids (‘cortisone’) placed into the epidural space have a very potent anti-inflammatory action that ...

330

Adolescent Steroid Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second of two reports describes the patterns, trends and risks of anabolic steroid use by adolescents. Since scientific inquiry in the area has been limited findings are based on: the compilation of the best available professional and research literat...

J. V. Tyler

1991-01-01

331

Inductively coupled plasma -- Atomic emission spectroscopy glove box assembly system at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy [ICP/AES (ICP)] system for elemental analyses in support of vitrification processing was first installed in 1986. The initial instrument was a Jobin Yvon (JY) Model JY-70 ICP that consisted of sequential and simultaneous spectrometers for analysis of nonradioactive samples as radioactive surrogates. The JY-70 ICP continued supporting nonradioactive testing during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) using the full-scale melter with ``cold'' (nonradioactive) testing campaigns. As a result, the need for another system was identified to allow for the analysis of radioactive samples. The Mass Spec (Spectrometry) Lab was established for the installation of the modified ICP system for handling radioactive samples. The conceptual setup of another ICP was predicated on the use of a hood to allow ease of accessibility of the torch, nebulizer, and spray chamber, and the minimization of air flow paths. However, reconsideration of the radioactive sample dose rate and contamination levels led to the configuration of the glovebox system with a common transfer interface box for the ICP and the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) glovebox assemblies. As a result, a simultaneous Model JY-50P ICP with glovebox was installed in 1990 as a first generation ICP glovebox system. This was one of the first ICP glovebox assemblies connected with an ICP-MS glovebox system. Since the economics of processing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) required the availability of an instrument to operate 24 hours a day throughout the year without any downtime, a second generation ICP glovebox assembly was designed, manufactured, and installed in 1995 using a Model JY-46P ICP. These two ICP glovebox systems continue to support vitrification of the HLW into canisters for storage. The ICP systems have been instrumental in monitoring vitrification batch processing. To date, remote sample preparation and compositional analysis of key parameters, i.e., greater than 0.5% weight percent metal oxides, during batch processing (waste initials, glass formers, waste plus glass formers, and glass) has verified the composition to be within the acceptance criteria and generated the necessary data for the Waste Qualification Report.

Marlow, J.H.; McCarthy, K.M.; Tamul, N.R.

1999-12-17

332

Induction of systemic resistance by Pseudomonas fluorescens in radish cultivars differing in susceptibility to fusarium wilt, using a novel bioassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas fluorescens-mediated induction of systemic resistance in radish against fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.raphani) was studied in a newly developed bioassay using a rockwool system. In this bioassay the pathogen and bacterium were confirmed to be confined to spatially separate locations on the plant root, throughout the experiment. Pathogen inoculum obtained by mixing peat with microconidia and subsequent incubation

M. Leeman; J. A. van Pelt; F. M. den Ouden; M. Heinsbroek; P. A. H. M. Bakker; B. Schippers

1995-01-01

333

Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

334

Remote area micro-grid system using diesel driven doubly fed induction generators, photovoltaics and wind generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new modular hybrid power system incorporating photovoltaic and small scale wind generators connected to an AC grid formed by a doubly fed induction generator driven by a variable speed diesel generator operating in the optimum fuel efficiency mode. Preliminary experimental and simulation results of the DFIG are included. The system is proposed to replace medium scale

Chem Nayar

2008-01-01

335

Investigation of the operational behaviour of a wind energy conversion system including double fed induction generator in converter's faulty conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the wind energy conversion system that uses the structure of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) under fault condition is presented. Moreover, a simulation of this wind energy conversion system under fault conditions in MATLAB\\/ SIMULINK is done and the results are evaluated. Two typical cases of fault, open-circuit faults in two IGBTs in Rotor Side Converter and in

Dimitrios G. Giaourakis; Athanasios N. Safacas; Savvas Tsotoulidis

2012-01-01

336

Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

337

Sensitivity maps and system requirements for magnetic induction tomography using a planar gradiometer.  

PubMed

We evaluated analytically and experimentally the performance of a planar gradiometer as a sensing element in a system for magnetic induction tomography. A system using an excitation coil and a planar gradiometer was compared against a system with two coils. We constructed one excitation coil, two different sensing elements and a high-resolution phase detector. The first sensor was a PCB square spiral coil with seven turns. The second sensor was a PCB planar gradiometer with two opposite square spirals of seven turns, with a distance between centres of 8 cm. Theoretical sensitivity maps were derived from basic equations and compared with experimental data obtained at 150 kHz. The experimental sensitivity maps were obtained measuring the perturbation produced by a brass sphere of 12 mm in empty space. The advantage of using a gradiometer is that it can be adjusted to give a minimum signal for homogeneous objects, while increasing the sensitivity to local perturbations of the conductivity. Results show that a system using a planar gradiometer as detector has less demanding requirements for the electronic system than a system using simple coils. PMID:11236873

Rosell, J; Casañas, R; Scharfetter, H

2001-02-01

338

Immunoassay of Steroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior to 1970, few chemical methods existed that were appropriate for the determination of nanomolar and picomolar concentrations of steroid hormones in biological fluids. Nevertheless, by the end of the 1960s, several technologies were being proposed for the measurement of steroids in serum and urine, which included gas-liquid chromatography (Collins et al., 1968), double isotope derivatization (Kliman and Peterson, 1960; Gandy and Peterson, 1968), spectrophotometry and fluorometry (Brown et al., 1968).

Wheeler, M. J.; Barnard, G.

339

Sex Steroids and the Dentate Gyrus  

PubMed Central

In the late 1980s, the finding that the dentate gyrus contains more granule cells in the male than in the female of certain mouse strains provided the first indication that the dentate gyrus is a significant target for the effects of sex steroids during development. Gonadal hormones also play a crucial role in shaping the function and morphology of the adult brain. Besides reproduction-related processes, sex steroids participate in higher brain operations such as cognition and mood, in which the hippocampus is a critical mediator. Being part of the hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus is naturally involved in these mechanisms and as such, this structure is also a critical target for the activational effects of sex steroids. These activational effects are the results of three major types of steroid-mediated actions. Sex steroids modulate the function of dentate neurons under normal conditions. In addition, recent research suggests that hormone-induced cellular plasticity may play a larger role than previously thought, particularly in the dentate gyrus. Specifically, the regulation of dentate gyrus neurogenesis and synaptic remodeling by sex steroids received increasing attention lately. Finally, the dentate gyrus is influenced by gonadal hormones in the context of cellular injury, and the work in this area demonstrates that gonadal hormones have neuroprotective potential. The expression of estrogen, progestin and androgen receptors in the dentate gyrus suggests that sex steroids, which could be of gonadal origin and/or synthesized locally in the dentate gyrus, may act directly on dentate cells. In addition, gonadal hormones could also influence the dentate gyrus indirectly, by subcortical hormone-sensitive structures such as the cholinergic septohippocampal system. Importantly, these three sex steroid-related themes, functional effects in the normal dentate gyrus, mechanisms involving neurogenesis and synaptic remodeling, as well as neuroprotection, have substantial implications for understanding normal cognitive function, with clinical importance for epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease and mental disorders.

Hajszan, Tibor; Leranth, Csaba

2006-01-01

340

Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4{prime}-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit {sup 3}H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations.

Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E. (Georgetown Univ. School of Medicine, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-12-01

341

Neuroactive steroids, their metabolites, and neuroinflammation.  

PubMed

Neuroinflammation represents a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases implicated both in their onset and progression. Neuroactive steroids act as physiological regulators and protective agents in the nervous system. Therefore, the attention of biomedical research has been recently addressed in evaluating whether neuroactive steroids, such as progestagens, androgens, and estrogens may also affect neuroinflammatory pathways. Observations so far obtained suggest a general anti-inflammatory effect with a beneficial relapse on several neurodegenerative experimental models, thus confirming the potentiality of a neuroprotective strategy based on neuroactive steroids. In this scenario, neuroactive steroid metabolism and the sophisticated machinery involved in their signaling are becoming especially attractive. In particular, because metabolism of neuroactive steroids as well as expression of their receptors is affected during the course of neurodegenerative events, a crucial role of progesterone and testosterone metabolites in modulating neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration may be proposed. In the present review, we will address this issue, providing evidence supporting the hypothesis that the efficacy of neuroactive steroids could be improved through the use of their metabolites. PMID:22966132

Giatti, Silvia; Boraso, Mariaserena; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Viviani, Barbara

2012-10-10

342

Steroid-resistant idiopathic childhood nephrosis: overdiagnosed and undertreated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The rate of complete remission after induction therapy for steroid-resistant nephrotic syn- drome (SRNS) due to either focal segmental glomerulo- sclerosis (FSGS) or minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) has been reported to be <50%. The present retrospective study investigated 86 children with SRNS due to FSGS and MCNS and found improved rates of complete remission in children with idiopathic

Jochen H. H. Ehrich; Christoph Geerlings; Miroslav Zivicnjak; Doris Franke; Heinz Geerlings; Jutta Gellermann

343

Intense beam-target interactions in linear induction accelerator radiography systems  

SciTech Connect

Modern flash x-ray systems employing electron linear induction accelerators require focal spot sizes of order 1 mm diameter incident on high-Z Bremsstrahlung targets. Typical beam parameters are in the range of several kiloamperes, tens of MeV with pulse lengths of order 50 ns. A single pulse with these parameters is so intense that it converts the target material into a hot plasma with velocities on the order of several centimeters per microsecond. Intense axial electric fields will exist on the target surface which may lead to the extraction of light contaminant ions. These ions can travel upstream where they will act as an electrostatic lens which can cause a time varying disruption of the focal spot. Experimental and theoretical work on this backstreaming ion mechanism will be presented along with issues for multiple pulse operation.

Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Y.J.; Houck, T.; Sampayan, S.; Hughes, T.; Oliver, B.; Welch, D.; Christ, C.

1999-07-01

344

Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Paraná basin: a comparative study in a three-river system.  

PubMed

This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paraná River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guaçu River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17?-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guaçu River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish. PMID:23616136

Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Paschoalini, Alessandro Loureiro; Cruz, Cláudia Kelly Fernandes da; Rocha, Rita de Cássia Gimenes Alcântara de; Senhorini, José Augusto; Ribeiro, Dirceu Marzulo; Formagio, Paulo Sérgio; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

2013-04-25

345

Use of an AC induction motor system for producing finger movements in human subjects.  

PubMed

This report describes the set-up and evaluation of a novel system for producing precise finger movements, for tests of movement perception. The specifications were to construct a system using commercially available components that were easy to use but which offered both flexibility and also high precision control. The system was constructed around an industrial AC induction motor with an optical encoder, controlled by an AC servo digital control module that could be programmed using a simple, high-level language. This set-up fulfilled the requirements regarding position and velocity control for a range of movements and also the facility for the subject to move the joint voluntarily while still attached to the motor. However a number of problems were encountered, the most serious being the level of vibration and the inability to vary the torque during movements. The vibration was reduced to the point where it did not affect the subject, by the introduction of mechanical dampening using an anti-vibration coupling and a pneumatic splint. The torque control could not be modified during rotation and so the system could only be operated using constant torque for any given movement. PMID:9874151

Proudlock, F A; Scott, J J

1998-12-01

346

Evaluation of a Closed Loop Inductive Power Transmission System on an Awake Behaving Animal Subject  

PubMed Central

This paper presents in vivo experimental results for a closed loop wireless power transmission system to implantable devices on an awake behaving animal subject. In this system, wireless power transmission takes place across an inductive link, controlled by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. Induced voltage on the implantable secondary coil is rectified, digitized by a 10-bit analog to digital converter, and transmitted back to the primary via back telemetry. Transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) circuitry were mounted on the back of an adult rat with a nominal distance of ~7 mm between their coils. Our experiments showed that the closed loop system was able to maintain the Rx supply voltage at the designated 3.8 V despite changes in the coils’ relative distance and alignment due to animal movements. The Tx power consumption changed between 410 ~ 560 mW in order to deliver 27 mW to the receiver. The open loop system, on the other hand, showed undesired changes in the Rx supply voltage while the Tx power consumption was constant at 660 mW.

Kiani, Mehdi; Kwon, Ki Yong; Zhang, Fei; Oweiss, Karim; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2011-01-01

347

Five-phase induction motor drives with DSP-based control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extensively introduces two kinds of control schemes that can be applied to the operation of a five-phase induction motor-vector control and direct torque control, as well as their fully digital implementations. Vector control of the five-phase induction motor generates the fundamental and third harmonic currents. In conjunction with the designed five-phase induction motor geometry, this current profile induces

Huangsheng Xu; Hamid A. Toliyat; Lynn J. Petersen

2001-01-01

348

Vectorial Command of Induction Motor Pumping System Supplied by a Photovoltaic Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the continuous decrease of the cost of solar cells, there is an increasing interest and needs in photovoltaic (PV) system applications following standard of living improvements. Water pumping system powered by solar-cell generators are one of the most important applications. The fluctuation of solar energy on one hand, and the necessity to optimise available solar energy on the other, it is useful to develop new efficient and flexible modes to control motors that entrain the pump. A vectorial control of an asynchronous motor fed by a photovoltaic system is proposed. This paper investigates a photovoltaic-electro mechanic chain, composed of a PV generator, DC-AC converter, a vector controlled induction motor and centrifugal pump. The PV generator is forced to operate at its maximum power point by using an appropriate search algorithm integrated in the vector control. The optimization is realized without need to adding a DC-DC converter to the chain. The motor supply is also ensured in all insolation conditions. Simulation results show the effectiveness and feasibility of such an approach.

Makhlouf, Messaoud; Messai, Feyrouz; Benalla, Hocine

2011-01-01

349

A New Dual-Promoter System for Cardiomyocyte-Specific Conditional Induction of Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis is a key determinant of major pathological processes, including chronic cardiac failure. We developed and tested in vitro a novel system to induce cardiomyocyte-specific apoptosis by virus-mediated delivery of a conditional transgene. The entire system was packaged in a lentiviral vector. We used the cardiomyocyte-specific Na+-Ca2+ exchange promoter to control the transcription of the reverse tetracycline transactivator, while the transgene expression was driven by the tetracycline-responsive element. The proapoptotic transgene of choice was the short isoform of the apoptosis-inducing factor, known to quickly induce the caspase-independent apoptosis when overexpressed in cells. Transduction of cardiomyocyte cells with this vector caused a tetracycline-regulated induction of apoptosis, which was not observed in noncardiac cells. Therefore, our system proved a valuable molecular tool for inducing controlled apoptosis in selected cells. Furthermore, the vector we developed is suitable for “lentivirus transgenesis,” an interesting strategy recently proposed for the genetic manipulation of animals other than mice, including large mammals.

Agostini, Silvia; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Matteucci, Marco; Chiuppesi, Flavia; Giacca, Mauro; Pistello, Mauro; Recchia, Fabio A.

2013-01-01

350

A new dual-promoter system for cardiomyocyte-specific conditional induction of apoptosis.  

PubMed

Apoptosis is a key determinant of major pathological processes, including chronic cardiac failure. We developed and tested in vitro a novel system to induce cardiomyocyte-specific apoptosis by virus-mediated delivery of a conditional transgene. The entire system was packaged in a lentiviral vector. We used the cardiomyocyte-specific Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange promoter to control the transcription of the reverse tetracycline transactivator, while the transgene expression was driven by the tetracycline-responsive element. The proapoptotic transgene of choice was the short isoform of the apoptosis-inducing factor, known to quickly induce the caspase-independent apoptosis when overexpressed in cells. Transduction of cardiomyocyte cells with this vector caused a tetracycline-regulated induction of apoptosis, which was not observed in noncardiac cells. Therefore, our system proved a valuable molecular tool for inducing controlled apoptosis in selected cells. Furthermore, the vector we developed is suitable for "lentivirus transgenesis," an interesting strategy recently proposed for the genetic manipulation of animals other than mice, including large mammals. PMID:23573514

Agostini, Silvia; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Matteucci, Marco; Chiuppesi, Flavia; Giacca, Mauro; Pistello, Mauro; Recchia, Fabio A

2013-01-31

351

Diagnostics of vibrations in induction motor-pump system used for reactor core cooling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis and diagnostics of vibration in industrial systems play a significant rule to prevent severe damages. This paper proposes a non-linear model to simulate the torsional vibration in the reactor core cooling system. Simulation results of an operating reactor core cooling system set with the actual parameters are presented to validate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed analytical method.

S. A. Qutb; A. M. Abdel-Hamid; A. Mansour; S. E. Soliman

2006-01-01

352

A novel rotor resistance identification method for an indirect rotor flux-orientated controlled induction machine system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel rotor resistance identification method for an indirect rotor flux-orientated controlled induction machine drive. The method is effectively integrated with the intermediate current control loop of the system. A decoupled synchronous voltage control scheme is used to achieve a fast, accurate current control response and indicates the relative thermal change of the rotor resistance. A model

Xing Yu; Matthew W. Dunnigan; Barry W. Williams

2002-01-01

353

New concept of optical-free-induction-decay (OFID) picosecond-pulse 10 micron-CO2-laser systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report first operation of ps-pulse 10 micron-CO2-laser systems based on optical free induction decay (OFID) in far-infrared-laser gases, e.g. CH3F, D2O, NH3, instead of the usual hot CO2-gas. This implies new phenomena. Main advantages are wavelength selectivity and compactness.

D. P. Scherrer; F. K. Kneubuehl

1993-01-01

354

The applicability of second harmonic generation for in situ measurement of induction time of selected crystallization systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonlinear optical technique of second harmonic generation (SHG) is introduced as a novel technique for monitoring particle formation in batch crystallizations. SHG is more sensitive and is less prone to interference than turbidometric methods. The studies presented show the applicability of SHG as a method for in situ measuring the induction time of a number of noncentrosymmetric crystal systems.

Dale J. LeCaptain; Kris A. Berglund

1999-01-01

355

The Design of a Digital Magnetic Induction Tomography (MIT) System for Metallic Object Imaging Based on Half Cycle Demodulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents several important aspects of a highly integrated, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based digital Magnetic Induction Tomography (MIT) system for metallic object imaging applications. Excitation signal generation, re- ceiving signal demodulation, and channel multiplexing control are all implemented inside a Xilinx FPGA (Spartan III). A novel digital demodulation method using only half of the signal cycle is proposed

Wuliang Yin; Guang Chen; Lijing Chen; Ben Wang

2011-01-01

356

A novel variable-speed wind energy system using induction generator and six-switch AC\\/AC converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays using of the wind energy has a growing trend in the world due to their numerous advantages. The wind energy is free, inexhaustible and it produces no waste or greenhouse gases. Furthermore, it is a good method of supplying energy to remote areas. In this paper, a new variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) with a squirrel cage induction

M. Heydari; A. Yazdian Varjani; M. Mohamadian

2012-01-01

357

Performance Analysis of an Induction Machine-Based Flywheel Energy Storage System Associated to a Variable-Speed Wind Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flywheel energy storage systems (FESSs) are suitable for improving the quality of the electric power delivered by the wind generators and to help these generators to contribute to the ancillary services. This paper investigates the energetic performances of a low-speed FESS with a classical squirrel-cage Induction Machine (IM) in the aim of its association to a wind generator.

Gabriel CIMUCA; Mircea M. RADULESCU; Christophe SAUDEMONT; Benoît ROBYNS

358

Comparison of ultrasonic and thermospray systems for high performance sample introduction to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes detailed work done in our lab to compare analytical figures of merit for pneumatic, ultrasonic and thermospray sample introduction (SI) systems with three different inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) instruments. One instrument from Leeman Labs, Inc. has an air path echelle spectrometer and a 27 MHz ICP. For low dissolved solid samples with this instrument, we

Timothy S. Conver; John A. Koropchak

1995-01-01

359

An inductively powered scalable 32-channel wireless neural recording system-on-a-chip for neuroscience applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inductively powered 32-channel wireless integrated neural recording system, capable of endless recording from small freely behaving animals, is reported. A power scheduling mechanism maintains the power consumption of the LNAs constant regardless of the number of channels. Closed-loop power transmission maintains the received power constant despite animal movements.

Seung Bae Lee; Hyung-Min Lee; Mehdi Kiani; Uei-Ming Jow; Maysam Ghovanloo

2010-01-01

360

LQR with integral action applied to a wind energy conversion system based on doubly fed induction generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) with Integral action (LQRI) applied to a wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). The controller is used to achieve speed regulation for maximum power extraction from the wind turbine, DC bus voltage regulation, to make the machine draw its magnetizing current only from

Bachir Kedjar; Kamal Al-Haddad

2011-01-01

361

Vitrification of high level nuclear waste inside ambient temperature disposal containers using inductive heating: The SMILE system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach, termed SMILE (Small Module Inductively Loaded Energy), for the vitrification of high level nuclear wastes (HLW) is described. Present vitrification systems liquefy the HLW solids and associated frit material in large high temperature melters. The molten mix is then poured into small (â¼1 m³) disposal canisters, where it solidifies and cools. SMILE eliminates the separate, large high

J. Powell; M. Reich; R. Barletta

1996-01-01

362

Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for bearing fault detection in induction motors using temperature, current, vibration data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the features for bearing fault diagnosis is investigated based on the analysis of temperature, vibration and current measurements of a 3 phase, 4 poles, 5 HP induction motors which are chemically, thermally and electrically aged by artificial aging methods. Then three adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems which takes the temperature, current and vibration measurements as inputs and the

Malik S. Yilmaz; Emine Ayaz

2009-01-01

363

Pancreas transplantation in African American patients using basiliximab induction.  

PubMed

The long-term outcome of pancreas transplant (PT) in African Americans (AA) using interleukin-2 receptor antibody induction has not been well documented. We retrospectively analyzed the 7-year outcomes of 45 AA and 73 white recipients of primary PT at our center. All PT were performed with enteric-systemic drainage. Basiliximab induction, tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid, and steroid maintenance were used as the primary immunotherapy. There was no difference by Kaplan-Meier analysis in patient (P = 0.94), pancreas graft (P = 0.76), or death-censored graft survival (P = 0.71) over 7 years between the AA and white groups. Clinically treated pancreas rejection episodes were slightly higher in AA than in white patients. Similarly, cytomegalovirus infection rates and comparable quality of graft function were noted in both groups over 7 years. Excellent long-term patient and pancreas graft survivals can be achieved in AA recipients of PT by using interleukin-2 receptor antibody induction and combination of tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid, and steroid maintenance. PMID:19295415

Zhang, Rubin; Florman, Sander; Paramesh, Anil; Islam, Tareq; Zarifian, April; Simon, Eric; Hamm, L Lee; Slakey, Douglas

2009-05-01

364

Embedded FPGA based induction motor monitoring system with speed drive fed using multiple wavelet analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preventive maintenance on machinery is one of the major concerns in industry. Induction motors represent 85% of the total power consumption in the world and several faults related to these motors that increase the power consumption are not easily detected; therefore, periodic fault monitoring is mandatory. There are several techniques for fault detection in induction motors being current analysis the

Jesus Roberto Millan-almaraz; René De Jesús Romero-troncoso; Luis Miguel Contreras-medina; Arturo Garcia-perez

2008-01-01

365

A current monitoring system for diagnosing electrical failures in induction motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction motors are critical components in industrial processes. A motor failure may yield an unexpected interruption at the industrial plant, with consequences in costs, product quality, and safety. Many of these faulty situations in three phase induction motors have an electrical reason. Among different detection approaches proposed in the literature, those based on stator current monitoring are advantageous due to

G. G. Acosta; C. J. Verucchi; E. R. Gelso

2006-01-01

366

Five-phase induction motor drives with DSP-based control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces two kinds of control schemes: vector control and direct torque control (DTC). These control schemes can be extensively applied to the operation of a five-phase induction motor using a fully digital implementation. Vector control of the five-phase induction motor not only achieves high drive performance, but also generates the desired nearly rectangular current waveforms and flux profile

Huangsheng Xu; Hamid A. Toliyat; Lynn J. Petersen

2002-01-01

367

Effect of levamisole in steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION. Childhood idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is characterized by frequent relapsing courses or steroid dependency. Levamisole is a popular drug for treatment of these patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate levamisole in children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We retrospectively studied 304 children with a diagnosis of steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome or frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 4.84 years. Following induction of complete remission with steroid therapy based on the International Study of Kidney Disease in Children's protocol and when they were taking alternative days of steroid, 2.5 mg/kg of levamisole was administered. RESULTS. The steroid dose was significantly decreased (mean reduction of 0.39 ± 0.46 g to 0.33 ± 0.38 g) after treatment with levamisole (P < .001). The number of relapses also significantly decreased (mean reduction of 0.92 ± 0.98 episodes to 1.07 ± 1.20 relapses per year; P < .001). The 14.5-month administration of levamizole had a sensitivity of 67.5% and a specificity of 71.9% to reach a dose reduction of more than 50% in steroid therapy. The duration of levamizole treatment was associated with more than 50% reduction in the number of relapses (P < .001). A 14.5-month treatment with levamizole had a sensitivity of 62.3% and a specificity of 63.6% to reach a relapse reduction of more than 50%. CONCLUSIONS. Levamisole appears to be effective in prolonging the duration of remission and decreasing the steroid dose in children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome. PMID:20852369

Madani, Abbas; Isfahani, Seyed-Taher; Rahimzadeh, Nahid; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Hoseini, Rozita; Moghtaderi, Mastaneh; Mohseni, Parvin; Ataiee, Nematollah

2010-10-01

368

Independent induction of two blue light-dependent monovalent anion transport systems in the plasma membrane of Monoraphidium braunii.  

PubMed

In the plasma membrane of the green alga Monoraphidium braunii there are at least two monovalent anion transport systems. One of them is specific for bicarbonate. This transport system is activated by blue light and its induction is triggered by a decrease in the external CO2 concentration. The second transport system is responsible for nitrate uptake at least. This transport system is also activated by blue light and its induction occurs when there is no ammonium in the external medium. Both transport systems are synthesized independently. Hence, when M. braunii cells grow with nitrate as the only nitrogen source under high CO2, they have a nitrate transport system but lack a bicarbonate transporter. Conversely, cells grown with ammonium under low CO2, have a bicarbonate transport system but lack a nitrate transporter. Both transport systems are induced in cells irradiated with white light in the absence of a carbon source, suggesting that there may be precursors in the plasma membrane that only need the synthesis and assembly of some component(s) to become fully active. The induction of nitrate and nitrite reductases, however, only takes place when a carbon source is supplied to the cells. PMID:12177130

Mora, Cristina; Witt, Federico G; Aparicio, Pedro J; Quiñones, Miguel A

2002-09-01

369

Steroids. Building a better you?  

PubMed

The use of anabolic steroids was first reported in the 1950s among weight lifters seeking to gain an edge in strength and muscle size. Since then, anabolic steroids have been used to augment strength and appearance. Today, steroids reach far beyond the world of professional athletes to high school locker rooms, neighborhood gyms, and suburban fitness centers. An estimated one million Americans use anabolic steroids for nonmedical purposes, supporting an illicit $400 million market. PMID:15038237

Berlin, B

1999-03-01

370

Elucidation of regulatory elements that control damage induction and competence induction of the Bacillus subtilis SOS system.  

PubMed Central

A novel consensus sequence (GAAC-N4-GTTC) has been identified within the promoter regions of DNA damage-inducible (din) genes from Bacillus subtilis. This sequence has been proposed to function as an operator site that is required for regulation of the SOS system of B. subtilis. To test this hypothesis, a deletion analysis of the dinA and recA promoter regions was utilized. A single consensus sequence is sufficient and necessary for damage-inducible regulation of the dinA and recA promoters. Deletion of the consensus sequences upstream of these promoters derepressed their expression under uninduced conditions. In addition, this deletion analysis has further defined sequences upstream of the recA promoter that are required for expression of the recA gene in cells that have differentiated to the state of natural competence. Northern (RNA) hybridization and S1 nuclease protection experiments have demonstrated that the damage-inducible and competence-inducible recA-specific transcripts initiate from a single promoter. Mutations within the comA, srfA, and degU loci each completely abolish the competence-inducible expression of the recA gene. Images

Cheo, D L; Bayles, K W; Yasbin, R E

1993-01-01

371

Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

372

Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

373

Development of a tunable wide-range gene induction system useful for the study of streptococcal toxin-antitoxin systems.  

PubMed

Despite the plethora of genetic tools that have been developed for use in Streptococcus mutans, the S. mutans genetic system still lacks an effective gene induction system exhibiting low basal expression and strong inducibility. Consequently, we created two hybrid gene induction cassettes referred to as Xyl-S1 and Xyl-S2. Both Xyl-S cassettes are xylose inducible and controlled by the Bacillus megaterium xylose repressor. The Xyl-S cassettes each demonstrated >600-fold-increased reporter activity in the presence of 1.2% (wt/vol) xylose. However, the Xyl-S1 cassette yielded a much higher maximum level of gene expression, whereas the Xyl-S2 cassette exhibited much lower uninduced basal expression. The cassettes also performed similarly in Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii, which suggests that they are likely to be useful in a variety of streptococci. We demonstrate how both Xyl-S cassettes are particularly useful for the study of toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules using both the previously characterized S. mutans mazEF TA module and a previously uncharacterized HicAB TA module in S. mutans. HicAB TA modules are widely distributed among bacteria and archaea, but little is known about their function. We show that HicA serves as the toxin component of the module, while HicB serves as the antitoxin. Our results suggest that, in contrast to that of typical TA modules, HicA toxicity in S. mutans is modest at best. The implications of these results for HicAB function are discussed. PMID:23934493

Xie, Zhoujie; Qi, Fengxia; Merritt, Justin

2013-08-09

374

Nongenomic actions of steroid hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroid hormones modulate many physiological processes. The effects of steroids that are mediated by the modulation of gene expression are known to occur with a time lag of hours or even days. Research that has been carried out mainly in the past decade has identified other responses to steroids that are much more rapid and take place in seconds or

Ralf Lösel; Martin Wehling

2003-01-01

375

Power-Quality Improvement of a Stand-Alone Induction Generator Using a STATCOM With Battery Energy Storage System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a STATCOM with a self-oscillating bidirectional dc-dc converter for interfacing battery energy storage in a stand-alone induction generator system. The self-oscillation mode is based on relay feedback control with hysteresis. To reduce the output current ripple, an LCL filter is connected between the half bridge of this dc-dc converter and the energy storage system. The other side

J. A. Barrado; R. Grino; H. Valderrama-Blavi

2010-01-01

376

Characterization and Implementation of a Continuos Flow Trace Metal Preconcentration System for Inductively Couples Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous flow pre-concentration system for analysis of trace metals in natural waters was characterized and used to determine the copper(II) and lead(II) concentrations in seawater from Penobscot Bay, Maine. Pre-concentrated samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). System characterization involved elucidation of the thermodynamic complexation constants, KCu(II) and KPb(II), for Cu(II) and Pb(II) with the

Robert N Sibley

1992-01-01

377

Experimental Study on a Voltage Source Inverter-fed Induction Motor Traction System Connected to Fuel Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the experimental results of a test to drive two induction motors through a VVVF inverter by 25kW class proton membrane type fuel cells (PEMFCs). The experiments are aimed at verifying the compatibility between the drive system for the railway vehicle traction and FCs. This paper describes test results of powering, powering-off procedure, and simulated slip-readhesion control test, respectively. Through the experiments, we obtained useful knowledge required in designing the fuel cell drive system.

Furuya, Takemasa; Kondo, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Takamitsu

378

A Comparison of Two Methods of Inductive Knowledge Acquisition for Medical Knowledge-Based Systems  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the use of inductive machine learning for knowledge acquisition, and compares two inductive learning programs, CRLS and C4, with respect to their classification accuracy and comprehensibility on the task of generating decision rules by induction from two medical databases. Each program shows the ability to outperform the other in classification accuracy, depending on the database and the nature of the data. Decision trees and criteria tables are compared and contrasted with respect to comprehensibility, and both are seen to have advantages and drawbacks.

Spackman, Kent A.

1990-01-01

379

Suppression and coherent control of free-induction-decay emission in multilevel systems  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, I study the coherent control and suppression of the free-induction-decay emission associated with the decay from an excited multilevel atom to its ground state. It is shown here that a strong and ultrashort coupling pulse, resonant with the excited states and a lower state other than the ground state, can induce destructive quantum interferences in the decay process. The suppression is temporary and the free-induction-decay signal reappears one quantum-beat period (of the excited states) later. A sequence of equally spaced, ultrashort coupling pulses can control the moment the free-induction-decay emission occurs.

Araujo, Luis E. E. de [Instituto de Fisica 'Gleb Wataghin', Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo 13083-970 (Brazil)

2006-10-15

380

Steroids. A Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

381

Synthesis of steroid hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods have been developed for preparing steroid hormones (including estrogens, anabolics, contraceptives, and provitamins of the D group), which are important in medicine and veterinary practice, and also insect ecdysis hormones, which are promising materials for use in combating insects that are harmful to crops. A scheme of total synthesis has been developed into a process flow plan and has

I. V. Torgov

1982-01-01

382

Steroids. A Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

383

Steroids, aspirin, and inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of adrenal corticosteroids to both suppress inflammation and compromise host defenses has been well documented. Recently, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments, based on our new knowledge of the cell biology of inflammation and the biochemistry of the phagocytic cell itself, has provided new insights into the mechanism of steroid action in the inflammatory process.

Ernest Katler; Gerald Weissmann

1977-01-01

384

Steroid psychosis: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is built upon a time-framed perspective to unfold the growth of evidence and the shifting of focus from primary affective short-term reactions to later findings of cognitive deficits and possible permanent impairment linked to steroid treatment. An incidence related to dosage has been documented and delirium and withdrawal symptoms have been reported in later studies. A hypothesis of

François Sirois

2003-01-01

385

Steroid and sterol 7-hydroxylation: ancient pathways.  

PubMed

B-ring hydroxylation is a major metabolic pathway for cholesterols and some steroids. In liver, 7 alpha-hydroxylation of cholesterols, mediated by CYP7A and CYP39A1, is the rate-limiting step of bile acid synthesis and metabolic elimination. In brain and other tissues, both sterols and some steroids including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are prominently 7 alpha-hydroxylated by CYP7B. The function of extra-hepatic steroid and sterol 7-hydroxylation is unknown. Nevertheless, 7-oxygenated cholesterols are potent regulators of cell proliferation and apoptosis; 7-oxygenated derivatives of DHEA, pregnenolone, and androstenediol can have major effects in the brain and in the immune system. The receptor targets involved remain obscure. It is argued that B-ring modification predated steroid evolution: non-enzymatic oxidation of membrane sterols primarily results in 7-oxygenation. Such molecules may have provided early growth and stress signals; a relic may be found in hydroxylation at the symmetrical 11-position of glucocorticoids. Early receptor targets probably included intracellular sterol sites, some modern steroids may continue to act at these targets. 7-Hydroxylation of DHEA may reflect conservation of an early signaling pathway. PMID:12398993

Lathe, Richard

2002-11-01

386

Steroid receptor expression in the fish inner earvaries with sex, social status, and reproductive state  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gonadal and stress-related steroid hormones are known to influence auditory function across vertebrates but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for steroid-mediated auditory plasticity at the level of the inner ear remain unknown. The presence of steroid receptors in the ear suggests a direct pathway for hormones to act on the peripheral auditory system, but little is known about

Karen P Maruska; Russell D Fernald

2010-01-01

387

Steroid Hormones, Dendritic Remodeling and Neuronal Death: Insights from Insect Metamorphosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroid hormones influence neuronal structure and function throughout the animal kingdom, via highly conserved receptor proteins. Insights into steroid effects on neurons and behavior have come from a range of vertebrate species including reptiles, amphibians, fish, birds, rodents and primates. In many instances, steroid hormones regulate the volume of particular regions of the nervous system by affecting both the number

1999-01-01

388

SOURCES, PRESENCE, ANALYSIS, AND FATE OF STEROID SEX HORMONES IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS - A REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural and synthetic steroid sex hormones, including those administered to humans and livestock as pharmaceuticals, constitute an important class of environmental endocrine disruptors. Steroid sex hormones generally have high biological activities at low concentrations, and in river systems steroid sex hormones have been linked to various adverse effects on fish, including altered sex ratios, intersex fish, and diminished reproduction. In

Robert B. Young; Thomas Borch

2009-01-01

389

Nongenomic Steroid-Triggered Oocyte Maturation: Of Mice and Frogs  

PubMed Central

Luteinizing hormone (LH) mediates many important processes in ovarian follicles, including cumulus cell expansion, changes in gap junction expression and activity, sterol and steroid production, and the release of paracrine signaling molecules. All of these functions work together to trigger oocyte maturation (meiotic progression) and subsequent ovulation. Many laboratories are interested in better understanding both the extra-oocyte follicular processes that trigger oocyte maturation, as well as the intra-oocyte molecules and signals that regulate meiosis. Multiple model systems have been used to study LH-effects in the ovary, including fish, frogs, mice, rats, pigs, and primates. Here we provide a brief summary of oocyte maturation, focusing primarily on steroid-triggered meiotic progression in frogs and mice. Furthermore, we present new studies that implicate classical steroid receptors rather than alternative non-classical membrane steroid receptors as the primary regulators of steroid-mediated oocyte maturation in both of these model systems.

Deng, James; Carbajal, Liliana; Evaul, Kristen; Rasar, Melissa; Jamnongjit, Michelle; Hammes, Stephen R

2009-01-01

390

Multiple components and induction mechanism of the chitinolytic system of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus chitonophagus.  

PubMed

Thermococcus chitonophagus produces several, cellular and extracellular chitinolytic enzymes following induction with various types of chitin and chitin oligomers, as well as cellulose. Factors affecting the anaerobic culture of this archaeon, such as optimal temperature, agitation speed and type of chitin, were investigated. A series of chitinases, co-isolated with the major, cell membrane-associated endochitinase (Chi70), and a periplasmic chitobiase (Chi90) were subsequently isolated. In addition, a distinct chitinolytic activity was detected in the culture supernatant and partially purified. This enzyme exhibited an apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa (Chi50) and was optimally active at 80 degrees C and pH 6.0. Chi50 was classified as an exochitinase based on its ability to release chitobiose as the exclusive hydrolysis product of colloidal chitin. A multi-component enzymatic apparatus, consisting of an extracellular exochitinase (Chi50), a periplasmic chitobiase (Chi90) and at least one cell-membrane-anchored endochitinase (Chi70), seems to be sufficient for effective synergistic in vivo degradation of chitin. Induction with chitin stimulates the coordinated expression of a combination of chitinolytic enzymes exhibiting different specificities for polymeric chitin and its degradation products. Among all investigated potential inducers and nutrient substrates, colloidal chitin was the strongest inducer of chitinase synthesis, whereas the highest growth rate was obtained following the addition of yeast extract and/or peptone to the minimal, mineralic culture medium in the absence of chitin. In rich medium, chitin monomer acted as a repressor of total chitinolytic activity, indicating the presence of a negative feedback regulatory mechanism. Despite the undisputable fact that the multi-component chitinolytic system of this archaeon is strongly induced by chitin, it is clear that, even in the absence of any chitinous substrates, there is low-level, basal, constitutive production of chitinolytic enzymes, which can be attributed to the presence of traces of chito-oligosaccharides and other structurally related molecules (in the undefined, rich, non-inducing medium) that act as potential inducers of chitinolytic activity. The low, basal and constitutive levels of chitinase gene expression may be sufficient to initiate chitin degradation and to release soluble oligomers, which, in turn, induce chitinase synthesis. PMID:15322771

Andronopoulou, Evi; Vorgias, Constantinos E

2004-08-21

391

Heat-map visualization of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based quantitative signatures on steroid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormalities in steroid hormones are responsible for the development and prevention of endocrine diseases. Due to their biochemical\\u000a roles in endocrine system, the quantitative evaluation of steroid hormones is needed to elucidate altered expression of steroids.\\u000a Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) profiling of 70 urinary steroids, containing 22 androgens, 18 estrogens, 15\\u000a corticoids, 13 progestins, and 2 sterols, were validated and

Ju-Yeon Moon; Hyun-Jin Jung; Myeong Hee Moon; Bong Chul Chung; Man Ho Choi

2009-01-01

392

The Anti-Lung Cancer Activities of Steroidal Saponins of P. polyphylla Smith var. chinensis (Franch.) Hara through Enhanced Immunostimulation in Experimental Lewis Tumor-Bearing C57BL/6 Mice and Induction of Apoptosis in the A549 Cell Line.  

PubMed

P. polyphylla Smith var. chinensis (Franch.) Hara (PPSCFH) has been used as medicinal Paris for the prevention and treatment of cancers in China for thousands of years. Its main components, steroidal saponins (PRS), have been confirmed to inhibit tumor growth. In the present study, the immunostimulation of PRS was investigated in Lewis bearing-C57BL/6 mice while the induction of apoptosis in A549 cells was also studied. The treatment with PRS (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg) significantly inhibited tumor, volume, and weight in the C57BL/6 mice. The rates of inhibition of PRS (at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg) were 26.49 ± 17.30%, 40.32 ± 18.91% and 54.94 ± 16.48%, respectively. The spleen and thymus indexes were increased remarkably, while the levels of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-?, IL-8 and IL-10 in serum were decreased according to ELISA assays. For A549 cells, Hoechst 33342 staining and annexin V/PI by flow cytometry showed that PRS (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mg/mL) induced nuclear changes of A549 cells with DNA condensation and fragmentations of chromatin, as well as inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, PRS could also attenuate the over-generation of intracellular ROS. Western blotting analysis showed a significant decrease on the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines MCP-1, IL-6 and TGF-?1, as well as cell adhesion molecule ICAM-1, by treatment with PRS. Our results demonstrated that the inhibition of PRS on tumor growth might be associated with the amelioration of inflammation responses, induction of apoptosis, as well as the decrease of ROS. These results suggested that PRS implied a potential therapeutic effect in the lung cancer treatment. PMID:24141243

Li, Yu; Gu, Jun-Fei; Zou, Xi; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Jiang, Jun; Qin, Dong; Zhou, Jin-Yong; Liu, Bao-Xin-Zi; Zhu, Yun-Tao; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Feng, Liang; Wang, Rui-Ping

2013-10-17

393

Secondary Resistance Identification of an Induction-Motor Applied Model Reference Adaptive System and Its Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction-motor torque is not accurately controlled when the estimated secondary resistance of an induction-motor model in a vector controller differs from the true secondary resistance. An algorithm which identifies the secondary resistance on-line is developed. The motor operating condition for secondary resistance identification, the stable identifier organization, and the experimental investigation confirming the identification algorithm performance are presented. The algorithm

Hidehiko Sugimoto; Shinzo Tamai

1987-01-01

394

Neuropsychopharmacological properties of neuroactive steroids.  

PubMed

In addition to the well-known genomic effects of steroid molecules via intracellular steroid receptors, certain steroids rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with neurotransmitter-gated ion channels. Several of these steroids accumulate in the brain after local synthesis or after metabolism of adrenal steroids. The 3alpha-hydroxy ring A-reduced pregnane steroids allopregnanolone and tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone have been thought not to interact with intracellular receptors, but enhance gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated chloride currents, whereas pregnenolone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate display functional antagonistic properties at GABA(A) receptors. We demonstrated that these neuroactive steroids can regulate also gene expression via the progesterone receptor after intracellular oxidation. Thus, in physiological concentrations these neuroactive steroids regulate neuronal function through their concurrent influence on transmitter-gated ion channels and gene expression. When administered in animal studies, memory-enhancing effects have been shown for pregnenolone sulfate and DHEA. The 3alpha-hydroxy ring A-reduced neuroactive steroids predominantly display anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and hypnotic activities. Sleep studies evaluating the effects of progesterone as a precursor molecule for these neuroactive steroids revealed a sleep electroencephalogram pattern similar to that obtained by the administration of benzodiazepines. These findings extend the concept of a "cross-talk" between membrane and nuclear hormone effects and provide a new role for the therapeutic application of these steroids in neurology and psychiatry. PMID:10323676

Rupprecht, R; Holsboer, F

395

Steroids and the Management of Macular Edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macular edema (ME) is a condition which is usually secondary to an underlying disease process. It is most commonly seen following venous occlusive disease, diabetic retinopathy and posterior segment inflammatory disease. The treatment of ME varies, depending upon the underlying etiology, and has led to varying degrees of success. Traditionally, the main treatment options have included topical and systemic steroids,

Shani Golan; Anat Loewenstein

2010-01-01

396

Use of X-ray crystallography for the characterization of single crystals grown in steroid containing transdermal drug delivery systems 1 Presented in part at the 11th AAPS meeting, San Diego, CA, USA, November 6–10, 1994. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Target of the study was to characterize crystals which had grown in steroid-containing matrix patches during short-term storage and to thereby establish a rationale for the inhibition of crystal formation in those patches in general. Matrix type transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) containing either 2.2% gestodene or 3.3% estradiol were free of crystals directly after their production. However, crystals of

Ralph Lipp; Anke Müller-Fahrnow

1999-01-01

397

Design and stability study of an induction motor vector control system with extended rotor-flux and rotor-resistance Gopinath observer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the synthesis of an extended Gopinath observer (EGO) and analyzes the asymptotic stability of a vector control system for a squirrel-cage induction motor that contains in its loop an EGO. The extended Gopinath observer proposed in this paper is designated to estimate the rotor flux components and the rotor resistance of the induction motor. This work presents

O. Stoicuta; T. C. Pana

2009-01-01

398

Enzyme-activated inhibitors of steroidal hydroxylases.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP450) of the steroid biosynthetic pathways are highly substrate specific in comparison to the variable specificities of hepatic CYP450 enzymes. Both groups of enzymes catalyze the reductive cleavage of molecular oxygen with transfer of oxygen to the substrate to form hydroxylated derivatives. Those steroids formed in endocrine tissues represent highly specific endocrine/autocrine hormones with enhanced biological potency, while hepatic hydroxylation of steroids reduces their endocrine bioactivities and enhances urinary elimination. Changes of the hormonal milieu of endocrine and peripheral tissues are associated with the development of hyperplastic and/or malignant conditions. Hormone deprivation induces regression of endocrine dependent growth via apoptosis and may also alter growth of hormone insensitive cells by the induction of negative growth factors. Biosynthetic CYP450 enzymes of those steroids that mediate specific disease processes are potential therapeutic targets for selective intervention. This objective can be accomplished by the design of specific pseudo-substrate analogs that will be activated during enzyme-directed catalysis to produce a reactive functional group in the enzyme's active site that will either tightly or irreversibly bind and inactivate the host enzyme. The CYP450 enzymes that hydroxylate the C19 carbon of androgens (aromatase) and the C18 carbon of corticosterone (aldosterone synthase) were selected as target enzymes because they are terminal enzymes of biosynthetic pathways which hydroxylate specific angular methyl groups. Hypersecretion of their respective hormonal products, estrogens and aldosterone, are associated with specific disease conditions. Substrate analogs containing ethynyl, vinyl, or nitrile groups attached to the C19 or C18 methyl groups were enzyme-activated inhibitors. The ethynyl analogs, 19-acetylenic androstenedione (Plomestane) and 18-acetylenic deoxycorticosterone, had nanomolar inhibitory constants (Ki values) and were irreversible inactivators of their target enzymes in animal models. PMID:7857870

Johnston, J O; Wright, C L; Holbert, G W

1995-01-01

399

Real-Time Simulation of a Wind Energy System Based on the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the real-time digital simulation of a grid-connected wind turbine generator system (WTGS) based on a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). A 1.5-MW WTGS is the basis for model development. First a detailed electromagnetic transient model for the WTGS is developed in the MATLAB\\/SIMULINK environment. This model includes the complete aerodynamic, mechanical and electrical components of the wind turbine,

Lok-Fu Pak; Venkata Dinavahi

2009-01-01

400

DSP based stator flux oriented control of doubly-fed induction generator for wind power generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the control of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) for wind energy conversion system by employing stator flux oriented control in the rotor-side converter. The control algorithm is implemented in digital environment using DSP TMS320F2812 processor. A decoupling term has been developed for the cross coupling of d-q stator flux components, and computer simulations as well as laboratory experiments,

B. Chitti Babu; K. B. Mohanty

2012-01-01

401

Stability Analysis of a Wind Energy Conversion System Based on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator Fed by a Matrix Converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the performance of a grid-connected wind energy conversion system (WECS), based on a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) fed by a matrix converter (MC), is presented. The MC replaces the back-to-back converters conventionally used to control a DFIG. The MC is operated with close-to-unity power factor at the grid side. Stability issues related to the operation of

Roberto Cardenas; RubÉn Pena; GermÁn Tobar; Jon Clare; Patrick Wheeler; Greg Asher

2009-01-01

402

Complex actions of sex steroids in adipose tissue, the cardiovascular system, and brain: Insights from basic science and clinical studies.  

PubMed

Recent publications describing the results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and other studies reporting the impact of hormone therapy on aging women have spurred reexamination of the broad use of estrogens and progestins during the postmenopausal years. Here, we review the complex pharmacology of these hormones, the diverse and sometimes opposite effects that result from the use of different estrogenic and progestinic compounds, given via different delivery routes in different concentrations and treatment sequence, and to women of different ages and health status. We examine our new and growing appreciation of the role of estrogens in the immune system and the inflammatory response, and we pose the concept that estrogen's interface with this system may be at the core of some of the effects on multiple physiological systems, such as the adipose/metabolic system, the cardiovascular system, and the central nervous system. We compare and contrast clinical and basic science studies as we focus on the actions of estrogens in these systems because the untoward effects of hormone therapy reported in the WHI were not expected. The broad interpretation and publicity of the results of the WHI have resulted in a general condemnation of all hormone replacement in postmenopausal women. In fact, careful review of the extensive literature suggests that data resulting from the WHI and other recent studies should be interpreted within the narrow context of the study design. We argue that these results should encourage us to perform new studies that take advantage of a dialogue between basic scientists and clinician scientists to ensure appropriate design, incorporation of current knowledge, and proper interpretation of results. Only then will we have a better understanding of what hormonal compounds should be used in which populations of women and at what stages of menopausal/postmenopausal life. PMID:16763155

Turgeon, Judith L; Carr, Molly C; Maki, Pauline M; Mendelsohn, Michael E; Wise, Phyllis M

2006-06-09

403

Transient Response of the Induction Coil Loading Impedance and rf Inverter System in the Initial Startup Phase of rf Induction Thermal Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generation and sustainment of rf induction thermal plasmas in atmospheric pressure range require a high voltage in the initial startup phase and a high rf power during the steady state sustainment phase. The high rf electrostatic filed induced between induction coil conductor wound around a glass discharge tube generates surface electrostatic discharges in which the discharge current flows through the dielectric glass tube. After several hundreds microseconds the electrostatic discharges grow sufficiently to transfer to a volumetric electromagnetic discharge which is maintained by the inductive electric field. During this discharge mode transition, the loading impedance of the induction coil changes significantly. This loading impedance change of the induction coil leads a deviation from a series resonance condition of the LCR output circuit including the induction coil, which strongly affects the output characteristics of a semiconductor rf inverter power supply. In this paper transient response of the induction coil impedance in the initial startup phase of the rf thermal plasma generation is studied experimentally. Dynamic interactions of the rf inverter power supply with generated rf plasmas are also investigated and strong deterioration of the inverter output efficiency is found experimentally. Preliminary frequency tracking experiments show a successful improvement of the inverter output efficiency and absorbed rf power in the generated plasma.

Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Ukai, Hiroshi; Razzak, M. A.; Takamura, Shuichi

404

Role of microsomal steroid hydroxylases in ?7-steroid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

CYP17 (steroid 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase) is a key enzyme in steroid hormone biosynthesis. It catalyzes two independent reactions at the same active center and has a unique ability to differentiate ?(4)-steroids and ?(5)-steroids in the 17,20-lyase reaction. The present work presents a complex experimental analysis of the role of CYP17 in the metabolism of 7-dehydrosteroids. The data indicate the existence of a possible alternative pathway of steroid hormone biosynthesis using 7-dehydrosteroids. The major reaction products of CYP17 catalyzed hydroxylation of 7-dehydropregnenolone have been identified. Catalytic activity of CYP17 from different species with 7-dehydropregnenolone has been estimated. It is shown that CYP21 cannot use ?(5)-?(7) steroids as a substrate. PMID:23586722

Sushko, T A; Gilep, A A; Yantsevich, A V; Usanov, S A

2013-03-01

405

Neuroactive steroids and affective disorders.  

PubMed

Neuroactive steroids modulate neurotransmission through modulation of specific neurotransmitter receptors such as gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors. Preclinical studies suggested that neuroactive steroids may modulate anxiety and depression-related behaviour and may contribute to the therapeutical effects of antidepressant drugs. Attenuations of such neuroactive steroids have been observed during major depression and in several anxiety disorders, suggesting a pathophysiological role in such psychiatric conditions. In panic disorder patients a dysequilibrium of neuroactive steroid composition has been observed, which may represent a counterregulatory mechanism against the occurrence of spontaneous panic attacks. Furthermore, alterations of 3alpha-reduced pregnane steroids during major depression were corrected by successful treatment with antidepressant drugs. However in contrast, non-pharmacological antidepressant treatment strategies did not affect neuroactive steroid composition. In addition, changes in neuroactive steroid concentrations after mirtazapine therapy occurred independently from the clinical response, thereby suggesting that changes in neuroactive steroid concentrations more likely reflect direct pharmacological effects of antidepressants rather than clinical improvement in general. Nevertheless, the effects of antidepressant pharmacotherapy on the composition of neuroactive steroids may contribute to the alleviation of certain depressive symptoms, such as amelioration of anxiety, inner tension or sleep disturbances. Moreover, first studies investigating the therapeutical effects of dehydroepiandrosterone revealed promising results in the treatment of major depression. In conclusion, neuroactive steroids are important endogenous modulators of depression and anxiety and may provide a basis for development of novel therapeutic agents in the treatment of affective disorders. PMID:16831459

Eser, D; Schüle, C; Baghai, T C; Romeo, E; Uzunov, D P; Rupprecht, R

2006-07-10

406

[A highly efficient system for induction of female flowers in derooted seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. grown on the medium].  

PubMed

This paper reported the synergistic effect of KT and IAA, and the effects of age of seedlings, length of hypocotyls, nitrogen contents and NH(+)(4)-N/TN ratio on the induction of female flowers in derooted seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. for the establishment of an efficient system for the induction of female flowers. When cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with KT 3.0 mg/L and IAA 0.01 mg/L, an induction rate of 28% was obtained for the 7-day-old derooted seedlings with 1/2 hypocotyl, 12% and 26% higher than when cultured with KT 3.0 mg/L alone and IAA 0.01 mg/L alone, respectively, while no female flowers was formed on the control medium, which indicates that KT and IAA have an evident synergistic effect on the induction of female flowers. Experiment was done with N concentration of 60-90 mmol/L or with NH(+)(4)-N/TN ratio of 12.5%-50% (total N kept at 80 mmol/L), with lengths of hypocotyls of 0-4/4, and with different ages of seedlings of 5-8-day-old, the highest induction rate of 40%, 48% and 57% for female flowers was achieved on medium of N 80 mmol/L (NH(+)(4)-N/TN 37.5%), from seedlings with 1/4 hypocotyl and from the treatment using 6-day-old seedlings respectively. PMID:17452802

Huang, Zuo-Xi; Duan, Hui-Guo; Qing, Dong-Hong; Wang, Fang; Liu, Lan

2007-04-01

407

Prion induction involves an ancient system for the sequestration of aggregated proteins and heritable changes in prion fragmentation.  

PubMed

When the translation termination factor Sup35 adopts the prion state, [PSI(+)], the read-through of stop codons increases, uncovering hidden genetic variation and giving rise to new, often beneficial, phenotypes. Evidence suggests that prion induction involves a process of maturation, but this has never been studied in detail. To do so, we used a visually tractable prion model consisting of the Sup35 prion domain fused to GFP (PrD-GFP) and overexpressed it to achieve induction in many cells simultaneously. PrD-GFP first assembled into Rings as previously described. Rings propagated for many generations before the protein transitioned into a Dot structure. Dots transmitted the [PSI(+)] phenotype through mating and meiosis, but Rings did not. Surprisingly, the underlying amyloid conformation of PrD-GFP was identical in Rings and Dots. However, by electron microscopy, Rings consisted of very long uninterrupted bundles of fibers, whereas Dot fibers were highly fragmented. Both forms were deposited at the IPOD, a biologically ancient compartment for the deposition of irreversibly aggregated proteins that we propose is the site of de novo prion induction. We find that oxidatively damaged proteins are also localized there, helping to explain how proteotoxic stresses increase the rate of prion induction. Curing PrD-GFP prions, by inhibiting Hsp104's fragmentation activity, reversed the induction process: Dot cells produced Rings before PrD-GFP reverted to the soluble state. Thus, formation of the genetically transmissible prion state is a two-step process that involves an ancient system for the asymmetric inheritance of damaged proteins and heritable changes in the extent of prion fragmentation. PMID:20421488

Tyedmers, Jens; Treusch, Sebastian; Dong, Jijun; McCaffery, J Michael; Bevis, Brooke; Lindquist, Susan

2010-04-26

408

New approach to coupled magnetic and thermal problem in induction heating system with traveling conducting plate using cubic interpolated pseudo-particle method  

SciTech Connect

The induction heating systems are often used in the steel making process. In an engineering point of view, it is important to investigate the distribution of the temperature in the systems. Here, a new approach to the induction heating system with traveling conducting plate is presented. The magnetic and thermal field are calculated by the finite element method. The velocity effect is treated by the cubic interpolated pseudo-particle method. The result demonstrates that the new approach is suitable for the problem.

Tani, Koji; Yamada, Takashi [Japan Research Inst., Ltd., Nishiku, Osaka (Japan)

1997-03-01

409

Steroid estrogens, nonylphenol ethoxylate metabolites, and other wastewater contaminants in groundwater affected by a residential septic system on cape cod, MA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Septic systems serve approximately 25% of U.S. households and may be an important source of estrogenic and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWC) to groundwater. We monitored several estrogenic OWC, including nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol mono- and diethoxycarboxylates (NP1EC and NP2EC), the steroid hormones 17??-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and their glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, and other OWC such as methylene blue active substances (MBAS), caffeine and its degradation product paraxanthine, and two fluorescent whitening agents in a residential septic system and in downgradient groundwater. E1 and E2 were present predominantly as free estrogens in groundwater, and near-source groundwater concentrations of all OWC were highest in the suboxic to anoxic portion of the wastewater plume, where concentrations of most OWC were similar to those observed in the septic tank on the same day. NP and NP2EC were up to 6- to 30-fold higher, and caffeine and paraxanthine were each 60-fold lower than septic tank concentrations, suggesting net production and removal, respectively, of these constituents. At the most shallow, oxic depth, concentrations of all OWC except for NP2EC were substantially lower than in the tank and in deeper wells. Yet boron, specific conductance, and the sum of nitrate-and ammonia-nitrogen were highest at this shallow depth, suggesting preferential losses of OWC along the more oxic flow lines. As far as 6.0 m downgradient, concentrations of many OWC were within a factor of 2 of near-source concentrations. The results suggest that there is the potential for migration of these OWC, which are unregulated and not routinely monitored, in groundwater. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

Swartz, C. H.; Reddy, S.; Benotti, M. J.; Yin, H.; Barber, L. B.; Brownawell, B. J.; Rudel, R. A.

2006-01-01

410

Sex steroids and schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The peak in incidence for schizophrenia is during late adolescence for both sexes, but within this time frame the peak is both earlier and steeper for males. Additionally, women have a second peak in incidence following menopause. Two meta-analyses have reported that men have an overall ?40% greater chance of developing schizophrenia than do women (Aleman et al., 2003; McGrath et al., 2004). These and other findings have led to the suggestion that ovarian hormones may be protective against schizophrenia. Less explored is the potential role of testosterone in schizophrenia, although disruptions in steroid levels have also been reported in men with the illness. The relationship between increased gonadal hormone release per se and peri-adolescent vulnerability for psychiatric illness is difficult to tease apart from other potentially contributory factors in clinical studies, as adolescence is a turbulent period characterized by many social and biological changes. Despite the obvious opportunity provided by animal research, surprisingly little basic science effort has been devoted to this important issue. On the other hand, the animal work offers an understanding of the many ways in which gonadal steroids exert a powerful impact on the brain, both shaping its development and modifying its function during adulthood. Recently, investigators using preclinical models have described a greater male vulnerability to neurodevelopmental insults that are associated with schizophrenia; such studies may provide clinically relevant insights into the role of gonadal steroids in psychiatric illness. PMID:21603930

Markham, Julie A

2012-09-01

411

An Inverter-Driven Induction Motor System with a Deadlock Breaking Capability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Induction motors are very widely used in various industrial applications. In semiconductor manufacturing processes, deadlock failure of pumps may occur by the adhering of glass material contained in the gas to the rotor. This can lead to the shutdown of the manufacturing plant. Therefore, a countermeasure to prevent deadlocking of a motor is required. This paper proposes a method for generating an impulse torque in an induction motor fed by an inverter. The proposed inverter circuit is composed of a conventional inverter and a few additional relays. The on-and-off control of the relays supplies an appropriate magnetizing current and a large torque current from the dc-link capacitor. In experiment, a 1.5-kW cage-type induction motor generated a torque that was approximately seven times larger than the rated torque of the motor. This large impulse torque is useful for breaking the motor deadlock.

Ichikawa, Takuto; Yoshida, Toshiya; Miyashita, Osamu

412

Bilateral patellar tendon ruptures without predisposing systemic disease or steroid use: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture occurs rarely and is even rarer in patients without systemic disease or predisposing conditions. We present a case of bilateral, midsubstance patellar tendon ruptures along with a partial anterior cruciate ligament tear from a fall from a standing height in an otherwise healthy adult without any predisposing conditions. Most patients that sustain a tendon rupture have risk factors for tendonopathy including chronic renal disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, or exposure to medications (such as corticosteroids or fluoroquinolones). Currently, there are approximately 50 reported cases of bilateral patellar tendon rupture in the scientific literature; however, only a small minority occurred in patients without any predisposing factors. Most of the reports of a bilateral tendon rupture without systemic disease occurred in the inferior pole of the tendon, with only a few of these occurring in the midsubstance. Because of the rarity of this event in a patient without systemic disease, this condition is often misdiagnosed. Emergency physicians should maintain a high degree of suspicion in those patients with concerning clinical and/or radiographic findings. PMID:21185665

Sibley, Ted; Algren, D Adam; Ellison, Stefanie

2010-12-24

413

Neuroactive steroids in periphery and cerebrospinal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some peripheral steroids penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB), providing at least substances for the CNS steroid metabolome. That is why the predictive value of the peripheral steroids appears to be comparable with that of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) steroids. The concentrations of the CSF steroids are pronouncedly lower in comparison with the ones in circulation. The available data indicate that

R. Kancheva; M. Hill; Z. Novák; J. Chrastina; L. Kancheva; L. Stárka

2011-01-01

414

Sexual functioning of male anabolic steroid abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of anabolic steroid use on male sexual behavior were assessed using a structured clinical interview administered to male body builders currently using steroids, and to two comparison groups (body builders with a past but not current history of steroid use, and a group of “natural” body builders who had never used steroids). Current anabolic steroid users had a

Howard B. Moss; George L. Panzak; Ralph E. Tarter

1993-01-01

415

Inductive Policy: The Pragmatics of Bias Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the currently accepted model of inductive bias by identifying six categories of bias and separates inductive bias from the policy for its selection (the inductive policy). We analyze existing “bias selection” systems, examining the similarities and differences in their inductive policies, and identify three techniques useful for building inductive policies. We then present a framework for representing

Foster John Provost; Bruce G. Buchanan

1995-01-01

416

Therapeutic uses of contraceptive steroids.  

PubMed

During the past 20 years, contraceptive steroids have undergone significant changes as the result of an increased understanding of their metabolic, pharmacologic, and hormonal activities. During this time, prospective and retrospective epidemiologic studies have elucidated several noncontraceptive health benefits of oral contraceptive steroids, including their therapeutic effects for endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, polycystic ovarian disease, and benign breast disease. From this review it appears that the benefits of oral contraceptive steroids in young, healthy, nonsmoking women far outweigh their more publicized, infrequent risks. PMID:6470632

Starks, G C

1984-09-01

417

The magnetic induction dependence of the quantum Hall resistivity of graphene two-dimensional electron system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic induction dependence of the Hall resistivity in graphene monolayer measured by Wu et al. (2009) is examined using the recently proposed zero-mass Dirac electron-hole field model. The calculated Hall resistivity curve agrees with the experiment perfectly.

Yamada, Kazuhiro; Uchida, Tomohisa; Iizuka, Jun; Fujita, Maho; Toyoda, Tadashi

2013-02-01

418

Improved Condition Monitoring System for Induction Machines Using a Model-Based Fault Detection Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to their reliability, robustness and simple construction squirrel-cage induction motors are widely used in industry. However, faults like broken rotor bars, rotor eccentricity, bearing and winding faults can occur during normal operation of the motor. Techniques for the detection of these faults have been researched since more than ten years. Although hundreds of papers are published year by year

Loránd SZABÓ; Károly Ágoston BIRÓ; Dénes FODOR

419

A wearable respiration monitoring system based on digital respiratory inductive plethysmography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a wearable device for continuous monitoring of respiration signal and the associated algorithm for signal evaluations. The device took advantages of a proven respiratory inductive plethysmograph (RIP) technology and a wireless body sensor networks (BSN) development platform. The textile RIP sensor was integrated into a suit that could be comfortably worn around thorax or abdomen

Dan Wu; Lei Wang; Yuan-Ting Zhang; Bang-Yu Huang; Bo Wang; Shao-Jie Lin; Xiao-Wen Xu

2009-01-01

420

Low Curie temperature material for induction heating self-temperature controlling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents low Curie temperature magnetic materials for induction heating. These materials are alloys based on SUS430. The magnetization decreases with increasing amount of additives. In order to increase the saturation magnetization, while keeping the Curie temperature constant, rare earth materials were added in this study. The compositions of alloys were investigated to realize a suitable Curie temperature. The

Takashi Todaka; Tomoyasu Kishino; Masato Enokizono

2008-01-01

421

Study of Parameter Sensitivity in High-Performance Inverter-Fed Induction Motor Drive Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vector control schemes are used in inverter-fed induction motor drives to obtain high performance. Crucial to the success of the vector control scheme is the knowledge of the instantaneous position of the rotor flux. The position of the rotor flux is measured in the direct scheme and estimated in the indirect schemes. Since the estimation of the flux position requires

R. Krishnan; Frank C. Doran

1987-01-01

422

Induction system for internal combustion engine having multiple inlet valves per combustion chamber  

SciTech Connect

In an internal combustion engine a combustion chamber is described comprising: first and second inlet valves, the first inlet valve being arranged to open at a first predetermined timing prior the end of the exhaust phase of the engine. The second inlet valve is arranged to open essentially at the end of the exhaust phase; a first conduit leading from a source of air to the first inlet valve; a second induction conduit leading from the source of air to the second inlet valve; an engine throttle valve operatively interposed between the source of air and the first and second induction conduits; a flow control valve disposed in the first induction conduit for cutting off communication between the source of air and the first inlet valve when the engine is operating in a first mode and for permitting the communication when the engine is operating under a second mode; and an air bleed formed only in the first induction conduit at a location downstream of and proximate the flow control valve for permitting a controlled amount of air to enter the first inlet conduit.

Aoyama, S.; Fujii, H.; Kato, M.

1986-12-16

423

Non-intrusive measurement of induction heating systems active power through the proximate electromagnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper studies the possibility of measuring the active power in induction heating applications by using the proximate electromagnetic field to extract information about the power factor of the device. The investigation of the magnetic field in the device proximity uses a coil sensor included in the domain of finite element field computation. I. INTRODUCTION A precise enough measurement of

M. Stamate; P. Taras; V. Fireteanu

2011-01-01

424

Shunt voltage regulators for autonomous induction generators. Part II: circuits and systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt. I, see ibid., p.262-5. The paper presents different kinds of circuits used for autonomous induction generator output voltage regulation. Operation of SVC (static VAr compensator) and STATCON (static condenser) based voltage regulators is explained, and the advantages and disadvantages of each type are shown. Different control strategies of voltage source and current source inverter based STATCONs are discussed.

Alon Kuperman; Raul Rabinovici

2004-01-01

425

A study of sectional tracks in roadway inductive power transfer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inductive power transfer (IPT) to a vehicle which is moving along the road can provide maximum charging flexibility and huge weight and size reduction in charge-storage battery inside the vehicle. Existing research focuses on the efficiency improvement of the energy coupling of the pickup windings with a long current-carrying primary track without considering track distance. In this paper, a IPT

Wei Zhang; Siu-Chung Wong; Chi K. Tse; Qianhong Chen

2011-01-01

426

Modeling of Wind Turbines Based on Doubly-Fed Induction Generators for Power System Stability Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with modeling of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) and the corresponding converter for stability studies. To enable efficient computation, a reduced-order DFIG model is developed that restricts the calculation to the fundamental frequency component. However, the model enhancement introduced in this paper allows the consideration of the alternating components of the rotor current as well, which is

Istvan Erlich; JÖrg Kretschmann; Jens Fortmann; Stephan Mueller-Engelhardt; Holger Wrede

2007-01-01

427

Design and Optimization of Circular Magnetic Structures for Lumped Inductive Power Transfer Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solution that enables safe, efficient, and convenient overnight recharging of electric vehicles is needed. Inductive power transfer (IPT) is capable of meeting these needs, however, the main limiting factor is the performance of the magnetic structures (termed power pads) that help transfer power efficiently. These should transfer 2-5 kW with a large air gap and have good toler- ance

Mickel Budhia; Grant A. Covic; John T. Boys

2011-01-01

428

Planar system for magnetic induction conductivity measurement using a sensor matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the performance of an axial gradiometer sensor for magnetic induction tomography was investigated and the results of measurements to determine the precision and sensitivity of the sensor were undertaken. In the first part of the study a single gradiometer sensor was used and the noise and drift were measured for two excitation current values at a single

C. H. Riedel; M. Keppelen; S. Nani; R. D. Merges; O. Dössel

2004-01-01

429

Supermizer-energy saving system for 3-phase AC induction motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hitherto, mechanical devices such as dampers and valves have been often used to regulate the amount of flowing fluid-air or water, for fans, blowers or pumps with induction motors powered by the commercial mains supply. With this arrangement, only marginal reduction in power consumption is achieved even if the amount of flowing fluid is decreased, on account of the constant

T. Hatanaka

1995-01-01

430

Comparison Between Control Systems in a Doubly Fed Induction Generator Connected to an Electric Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of doubly fed induction generator proper for dynamic studies is connected to a mechanical wind turbine model and to a simple electric grid to perform several simulations. The generator model rejects stator electric transients, a common assumption made in transient stability analysis. Aerodynamic effects are represented by a typical power coefficient-tip speed ratio transfer function, so that the

Pablo Ledesma; Julio Usaola; Jose Luis Rodr ´ iguez; Juan Carlos Burgos

431

In Vivo Induction of Oocyte Maturation and Ovulation in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The maturation of fish oocytes is a well-characterized system induced by progestins via non-genomic actions. In a previous study, we demonstrated that diethylstilbestrol (DES), a non-steroidal estrogen, induces fish oocyte maturation via the membrane progestin receptor (mPR). Here, we attempted to evaluate the effect of DES as an environmental endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) upon fish oocyte maturation using live zebrafish. DES triggered oocyte maturation within several hours in vivo when administrated directly into the surrounding water. The natural teleost maturation-inducing hormone, 17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-DHP) also induced oocyte maturation in vivo. Steroids such as testosterone, progesterone or 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone were also effective in vivo. Further studies indicated that externally applied 17,20beta-DHP even induced ovulation. In contrast to 17,20beta -DHP, DES induced maturation but not ovulation. Theoretically this assay system provides a means to distinguish pathways involved in the induction of ovulation, which are known to be induced by genomic actions from the pathway normally involved in the induction of oocyte maturation, a typical non-genomic action-dependent pathway. In summary, we have demonstrated the effect of EDCs on fish oocyte maturation in vivo. To address the effects, we have explored a conceptually new approach to distinguish between the genomic and non-genomic actions induced by steroids. The assay can be applied to screens of progestin-like effects upon oocyte maturation and ovulation for small molecules of pharmacological agents or EDCs.

Tokumoto, Toshinobu; Yamaguchi, Toshiya; Ii, Sanae; Tokumoto, Mika

2011-01-01

432

Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Protein-Protein Interactions in the Cytochrome CYP11A1 (P450scc)-Containing Steroid Hydroxylase System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) were used for monitoring of the procedure for cytochrome CYP11A1 monomerization in solution without phospholipids. It was shown that the incubation of 100 ?M CYP11A1 with 12% Emulgen 913 in 50 mM KP, pH 7.4, for 10 min at T = 22°C leads to dissociation of hemoprotein aggregates to monomers with the monomerization degree of (82 ± 4)%. Following the monomerization procedure, CYP11A1 remained functionally active. AFM was employed to detect and visualize the isolated proteins as well as complexes formed between the components of the cytochrome CYP11A1-dependent steroid hydroxylase system. Both Ad and AdR were present in solution as monomers. The typical heights of the monomeric AdR, Ad and CYP11A1 images were measured by AFM and were found to correspond to the sizes 1.6 ± 0.2 nm, 1.0 ± 0.2 nm and 1.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively. The binary Ad/AdR and AdR/CYP11A1mon complexes with the heights 2.2 ± 0.2 nm and 2.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively, were registered by use of AFM. The Ad/CYP11A1mon complex formation reaction was kinetically characterized based on optical biosensor data. In addition, the ternary AdR/Ad/CYP11A1 complexes with a typical height of 4 ± 1 nm were AFM registered.

Ivanov, Yd; Frantsuzov, Pa; Zöllner, A.; Medvedeva, Nv; Archakov, Ai; Reinle, W.; Bernhardt, R.

2010-12-01

433

Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Protein-Protein Interactions in the Cytochrome CYP11A1 (P450scc)-Containing Steroid Hydroxylase System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) were used for monitoring of the procedure for cytochrome CYP11A1 monomerization in solution without phospholipids. It was shown that the incubation of 100 ?M CYP11A1 with 12% Emulgen 913 in 50 mM KP, pH 7.4, for 10 min at T = 22°C leads to dissociation of hemoprotein aggregates to monomers with the monomerization degree of (82 ± 4)%. Following the monomerization procedure, CYP11A1 remained functionally active. AFM was employed to detect and visualize the isolated proteins as well as complexes formed between the components of the cytochrome CYP11A1-dependent steroid hydroxylase system. Both Ad and AdR were present in solution as monomers. The typical heights of the monomeric AdR, Ad and CYP11A1 images were measured by AFM and were found to correspond to the sizes 1.6 ± 0.2 nm, 1.0 ± 0.2 nm and 1.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively. The binary Ad/AdR and AdR/CYP11A1mon complexes with the heights 2.2 ± 0.2 nm and 2.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively, were registered by use of AFM. The Ad/CYP11A1mon complex formation reaction was kinetically characterized based on optical biosensor data. In addition, the ternary AdR/Ad/CYP11A1 complexes with a typical height of 4 ± 1 nm were AFM registered.

Ivanov, Yd; Frantsuzov, Pa; Zöllner, A.; Medvedeva, Nv; Archakov, Ai; Reinle, W.; Bernhardt, R.

2011-12-01

434

Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Protein-Protein Interactions in the Cytochrome CYP11A1 (P450scc)-Containing Steroid Hydroxylase System  

PubMed Central

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) were used for monitoring of the procedure for cytochrome CYP11A1 monomerization in solution without phospholipids. It was shown that the incubation of 100 ?M CYP11A1 with 12% Emulgen 913 in 50 mM KP, pH 7.4, for 10 min at T = 22°C leads to dissociation of hemoprotein aggregates to monomers with the monomerization degree of (82 ± 4)%. Following the monomerization procedure, CYP11A1 remained functionally active. AFM was employed to detect and visualize the isolated proteins as well as complexes formed between the components of the cytochrome CYP11A1-dependent steroid hydroxylase system. Both Ad and AdR were present in solution as monomers. The typical heights of the monomeric AdR, Ad and CYP11A1 images were measured by AFM and were found to correspond to the sizes 1.6 ± 0.2 nm, 1.0 ± 0.2 nm and 1.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively. The binary Ad/AdR and AdR/CYP11A1mon complexes with the heights 2.2 ± 0.2 nm and 2.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively, were registered by use of AFM. The Ad/CYP11A1mon complex formation reaction was kinetically characterized based on optical biosensor data. In addition, the ternary AdR/Ad/CYP11A1 complexes with a typical height of 4 ± 1 nm were AFM registered.

2011-01-01

435

Steroid-free immunosuppression after renal transplantation—long-term experience from a single centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. A steroid-free immunosuppressive protocol may improve the general well-being of patients, but long-term renal graft survival has been a concern. Methods. In a retrospective clinical study, 329 consecutive transplantations with renal grafts at our centre during the period 1995-2004, were followed for up to 9.3 years. Patients mainly received steroid-free immunosuppression with an initial induction with antithymocyte globulin or

Mohamad El-Faramawi; Nils Rohr; Bente Jespersen

2006-01-01

436

Induction: Making the Leap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides a critical examination of a variety of approaches to induction focusing especially upon Australia and other Pacific Rim countries. The question of the purposes induction serves for graduate teachers, experienced teachers and education systems is addressed in terms of whether it is a technical exercise which preserves the…

Ling, Lorraine M.

2009-01-01

437

Characterization of a novel non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are desirable for the treatment of hypercortisolemia associated with Cushing’s syndrome, psychic depression, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and glaucoma. NC3327, a non-steroidal small molecule with potent binding affinity to GR (Ki=13.2nM), was identified in a high-throughput screening effort. As a full GR antagonist, NC3327 greatly inhibits the dexamethasone (Dex) induction of marker genes

Qun-Yi Li; Meng Zhang; Tina M. Hallis; Therese A. DeRosier; Jian-Min Yue; Yang Ye; Dale E. Mais; Ming-Wei Wang

2010-01-01

438

Induction therapy in pancreas transplantation.  

PubMed

Induction therapy, the initial high-dose bolus of immunosuppression given perioperatively to transplant patients, is almost ubiquitous in pancreas transplantation. Despite the frequent use, scientific data on the risks and benefits of induction therapy are scarce, especially as it concerns use specifically for pancreas transplantation. Indeed, none of the currently used induction agents are approved as induction therapy for pancreas transplantation, yet potential benefit is largely extrapolated from trials in kidney transplant recipients. This review summarizes which induction therapy agents are available both now and historically, their mechanisms of action, and provides an overview of the published literature describing the use of these agents in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant and solitary pancreas transplant recipients. In summary, there are two multicenter randomized trials, several single-center randomized trials, and many other single-center descriptive reports. Overall, the main benefit of induction therapy is the ability to wean steroids earlier, and the main downside is a higher risk of opportunistic infections. Despite a lack of solid evidence, over 90% of pancreas transplants performed annually in the United States receive some type of induction immunosuppression. PMID:23672537

Niederhaus, Silke V; Kaufman, Dixon B; Odorico, Jon S

2013-05-15

439

Potato Steroidal Glycoalkaloids: Biosynthesis and Genetic Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potato steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are important components of plant resistance against pests and pathogens but can\\u000a be toxic to humans at high levels. SGAs derive their toxicity from anticholinesterase activity affecting the central nervous\\u000a system and the disruptive effects on cell membrane integrity affecting the digestive system and other organs. Accordingly,\\u000a current safety regulations limit their content in the

Idit Ginzberg; James G. Tokuhisa; Richard E. Veilleux

2009-01-01

440

Steroid psychosis: a review for neurosurgeons.  

PubMed

Steroids are beneficial in neurological illness, but have many serious side effects. Having observed several patients with severe steroid psychoses, which greatly prolonged their hospitalizations, the authors sought to improve understanding of this entity. A literature review was conducted. The incidence of severe psychiatric symptoms was estimated in a meta-analysis of 2,555 patients to be 5.7 % and the incidence of any psychiatric symptoms was 18.6 % in patients receiving >80 mg/day of prednisone (12 mg/day dexamethasone). Dose is not predictive of time of onset, severity, type, or duration of symptoms. Symptoms can develop rapidly following exposure to even low doses and with oral, epidural, or intra-articular administration. Glucocorticoid effects on the brain fall into three categories: genomic, non-genomic, and neurotrophic/neurotoxic and can be permanent. Excessive glucocorticoid exposure may result in decreased production of endogenous neurosteroid molecules, resulting in unopposed glucocorticoid effects. Treatment includes early recognition, steroid withdrawal when appropriate, reduction in stimulation, and medication. Atypical antipsychotics like olanzapine and risperidone may cause fewer dystonic reactions and extrapyramidal symptoms than typical antipsychotics like haloperidol, and therefore, are often recommended as first line treatment. Steroids are powerful medications with many undesirable side effects. They should be used with caution. More research is needed on their effects on the human central nervous system. PMID:22763760

Ross, Donald A; Cetas, Justin S

2012-07-05

441

Steroid induced osteoporosis: an opportunity for prevention?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine the frequency with which osteoporosis prophylaxis is given to corticosteroid treated hospital inpatients. METHODS--All patients receiving systemic corticosteroids in a large teaching hospital over a three month period were identified through routine prescription monitoring by hospital ward pharmacists. Coprescription of antiosteoporotic therapy was recorded, along with other relevant details such as steroid dose, actual, or intended duration of therapy, and indication for therapy. RESULTS--Corticosteroids were prescribed to 214 patients over the study period, giving an average rate of 2.5 new prescriptions each day. Indications included: chest disease (n = 84; 39.2%), cancer (n = 17; 7.9%), inflammatory bowel disease (n = 16; 7.5%), rheumatoid arthritis/connective tissue disease (n = 16; 7.5%), and renal diseases (n = 7; 3.3%). One hundred and twelve patients (52.3%) were receiving short term steroid therapy (less than four months); 66 (37%) were receiving medium/long term steroid therapy (four months or more). In 36 cases (16.8%) the duration of therapy was unknown. Only 12 of the 214 patients (5.6%) received any form of osteoporosis prophylaxis. The prevalence of prophylaxis was similarly low in postmenopausal women (six of 93; 6.4%) and in patients receiving high dose long term steroid therapy (two of 25; 8%). CONCLUSIONS--Systemic corticosteroids are used frequently in hospital practice for a wide range of indications, but few patients receive co-prescription of prophylaxis against osteoporosis. This is true even in high risk groups such as postmenopausal women and those on high dose long term steroid therapy. Identification of individuals by the mechanism used in this study provides an opportunity by which all corticosteroid treated patients could be detected and offered osteoporosis prophylaxis before serious loss of bone density has occurred.

Peat, I D; Healy, S; Reid, D M; Ralston, S H

1995-01-01

442

Steroids/Nutritional Supplements/Antibiotics  

MedlinePLUS

Steroids/Nutritional Supplements/Antibiotics There are multiple steroid/supplemental treatments for Duchenne although there is little agreement ( ... creatine and Duchenne continue. back to top Anabolic steroids These, which act to build tissues in the ...

443

How to Stop Steroid Medicines Safely  

MedlinePLUS

... body aches. These problems are sometimes called steroid withdrawal symptoms. If you have any of these symptoms ... over. What can I do to prevent steroid withdrawal symptoms? Never stop taking your steroid medicine unless ...

444

Alterations in Procoagulant, Anticoagulant, and Fibrinolytic Systems Before and After Start of Induction Chemotherapy in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.  

PubMed

Induction chemotherapy is associated with increased thrombosis risk in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this prospective study, we explored the effects of ALL and induction chemotherapy on the procoagulant, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic systems in 20 children with ALL. The levels of d-dimer, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, protein C, antithrombin III, and thrombin-activated fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) were elevated at diagnosis. These changes were not related with peripheral blast count. The levels of fibrinogen, d-dimer, coagulation inhibitors, and plasminogen decreased, whereas the levels of tissue factor pathway inhibitor and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 increased progressively following prednisolone monotherapy, administration of vincristine plus daunorubicin, and l-asparaginase. The levels of factor VIII, d-dimer, and TAFI remained elevated during the study period. In conclusion, coagulation activation and impaired fibrinolysis already exist at diagnosis, whereas induction chemotherapy leads to reactivation of coagulation and progressive impairment in fibrinolytic and anticoagulant capacities in childhood ALL. PMID:22751908

Albayrak, Meryem; Gürsel, Turkiz; Kaya, Zuhre; Koçak, Ulker

2012-06-29

445

Minireview: Extranuclear Steroid Receptors: Roles in Modulation of Cell Functions  

PubMed Central

Steroid receptors existing outside the nucleus are increasingly being recognized in many organs and cell types, impacting the biology of bone, the heart and blood vessels, and the central nervous system. Some controversy exists as to the nature of the receptors at the plasma membrane. However, compelling evidence has been advanced that at least some classical steroid receptors mediate steroid ligand actions originating as signaling from the cell surface. Here I review the recent findings in this evolving field emphasizing the in vivo impact of these receptor pools with a focus on estrogen receptors.

2011-01-01

446

Effects and applications of arthropod steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) in mammals.  

PubMed

Zooecdysteroids (arthropod steroid hormones) regulate the development of arthropods and probably many other invertebrates. Phytoecdysteroids are analogues occurring in a wide range of plant species, where they contribute to the deterrence of phytophagous invertebrates. The purpose of this short review is to summarise findings on the occurrence, metabolism and pharmacological effects of ecdysteroids in mammalian systems and to draw attention to their potential applications, particularly in gene-switch technology, where ecdysteroid analogues (steroidal and non-steroidal) can be used as effective and potent elicitors. PMID:17065383

Dinan, Laurence; Lafont, René

2006-10-01

447

Vitrification of high level nuclear waste inside ambient temperature disposal containers using inductive heating: The SMILE system  

SciTech Connect

A new approach, termed SMILE (Small Module Inductively Loaded Energy), for the vitrification of high level nuclear wastes (HLW) is described. Present vitrification systems liquefy the HLW solids and associated frit material in large high temperature melters. The molten mix is then poured into small ({approximately}1 m{sup 3}) disposal canisters, where it solidifies and cools. SMILE eliminates the separate, large high temperature melter. Instead, the BLW solids and frit melt inside the final disposal containers, using inductive heating. The contents then solidify and cool in place. The SMILE modules and the inductive heating process are designed so that the outer stainless can of the module remains at near ambient temperature during the process cycle. Module dimensions are similar to those of present disposal containers. The can is thermally insulated from the high temperature inner container by a thin layer of refractory alumina firebricks. The inner container is a graphite crucible lined with a dense alumina refractory that holds the HLW and fiit materials. After the SMILE module is loaded with a slurry of HLW and frit solids, an external multi-turn coil is energized with 30-cycle AC current. The enclosing external coil is the primary of a power transformer, with the graphite crucible acting as a single turn ``secondary.`` The induced current in the ``secondary`` heats the graphite, which in turn heats the HLW and frit materials. The first stage of the heating process is carried out at an intermediate temperature to drive off remnant liquid water and water of hydration, which takes about 1 day. The small fill/vent tube to the module is then sealed off and the interior temperature raised to the vitrification range, i.e., {approximately}1200C. Liquefaction is complete after approximately 1 day. The inductive heating then ceases and the module slowly loses heat to the environment, allowing the molten material to solidify and cool down to ambient temperature.

Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Barletta, R.

1996-03-01

448

Identification of Plant Model of Linear Induction Motors for Traction System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linear induction motor (LIM) is suitable for use in trains; the motor can be used in both wheel-suspended and contact-less types such as Linear Metro and HSST trains in Japan. The LIM has the end winding as well as asymmetrical winding. The end-effect is a major problem in the LIM, and it makes the analysis, design, and control of motors difficult. In this paper, the combination method of numerical analysis and equivalent circuit of the LIM is described in order to design a high-performance controller of the LIM includeing the end effect. A sample basic field-oriented control scheme that is based on the plant model is applied to the LIM in order to check the control performance; the theory of rotary induction motor is used for the verification.

Nozaki, Yuichiro; Koseki, Takafumi

449

The neuropsychopharmacological potential of neuroactive steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to the well-known genomic effects of steroid molecules via intracellular steroid receptors, certain steroids rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with neurotransmitter-gated ion channels. Several of these steroids accumulate in the brain after local synthesis or after metabolism of adrenal steroids. The 3?-hydroxy ring A-reduced pregnane steroids allopregnanolone and tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone have been thought not to interact with intracellular

Rainer Rupprecht

1997-01-01

450

Induction of Thioltransferase and Thioredoxin\\/Thioredoxin Reductase Systems in Cultured Porcine Lenses under Oxidative Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. In view of the important antioxidant roles of thiol- transferase (TTase), thioredoxin (Trx), and thioredoxin reduc- tase (TR) in the lens, the present study was conducted to investigate the induction of these cytosolic enzymes in re- sponse to H2O2 stress in cultured lenses. METHODS. Porcine lenses were cultured, exposed to H2O2 for various lengths of time between 0 and

Sungchur Moon; M. Rohan Fernando; Marjorie F. Lou

2005-01-01

451

Innovative development of electromagnetic induction-based fluid-heating system using resonant PWM inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel prototype of a new conceptual electromagnetic induction-based fluid heating appliance using a series capacitor-compensated load resonant high-frequency IGBT inverter, which operates using phase-shifted PWM and a power factor correction scheme. Its operating characteristics in a steady-state are illustrated and evaluated on the basis of computer-aided circuit simulation and experimental results. Promising cost-effective applications of this

A. Kajiyama; B. Guo; M. Nakaoka; Y. Uchihori

1997-01-01

452

Induction of Fuzzy Rules by Means of Artificial Immune Systems in Bioinformatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fuzzy Rule Induction (FRI) is one of the main areas of research in the field of computational intelligence. Recently FRI has\\u000a been successfully employed in the field of data mining in bioinformatics[34, 38]. Thanks to its flexibility and potentialities\\u000a FRI allowed researchers to extract rules that can be easily modeled in natural language and submitted to experts in the field

Filippo Menolascina; Vitoantonio Bevilacqua; Mariadele Zarrilli; Giuseppe Mastronardi

2009-01-01

453

CONTROL OF A DOUBLY-FED INDUCTION GENERATOR FOR WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper deals with a variable speed device to produce electrical energy on a power network, based on a doubly-fed induction machine used in generating mode,(DFIG). This device is intended toequip nacelles of wind turbines. First, a mathematical model of the machine written in an appropriate d-q reference frame is established to investigate simulations. In order to control the

F. Poitiers; M. Machmoum

454

Effect of Age and Early Intervention with a Systemic Steroid, Intravenous Immunoglobulin or Amniotic Membrane Transplantation on the Ocular Outcomes of Patients with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose This retrospective observational case series of fifty-one consecutive patients referred to the eye clinic with acute-stage Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) from 1995 to 2011 examines the effect of early treatment with a systemic corticosteroid or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) on the ocular outcomes in patients with SJS or TEN. Methods All patients were classified by age (?18 years vs. >18 years) and analyzed by treatment modality and early intervention with systemic corticosteroids (?5 days), IVIG (?6 days), or amniotic membrane graft transplantation (AMT) (?15 days). The main outcomes were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) and ocular involvement scores (OIS, 0-12), which were calculated based on the presence of superficial punctate keratitis, epithelial defect, conjunctivalization, neovascularization, corneal opacity, keratinization, hyperemia, symblepharon, trichiasis, mucocutaneous junction involvement, meibomian gland involvement, and punctal damage. Results The mean logMAR and OIS scores at the initial visit were not significantly different in the pediatric group (logMAR = 0.44, OIS = 2.76, n = 17) or the adult group (logMAR = 0.60, OIS = 2.21, n = 34). At the final follow-up, the logMAR and OIS had improved significantly in the adult group (p = 0.0002, p = 0.023, respectively), but not in the pediatric group. Early intervention with IVIG or corticosteroids significantly improved the mean BCVA and OIS in the adult group (p = 0.043 and p = 0.024, respectively for IVIG; p = 0.002 and p = 0.034, respectively for corticosteroid). AMT was found to be associated with a significantly improved BCVA or OIS in the late treatment group or the group with a better initial OIS (p = 0.043 and p = 0.043, respectively for BCVA; p = 0.042 and p = 0.041, respectively for OIS). Conclusions Our findings suggest that patients with SJS or TEN who are aged 18 years or less have poorer ocular outcomes than older patients and that early treatment with steroid or immunoglobulin therapy improves ocular outcomes.

Kim, Kyeong Hwan; Park, Sung Wook; Wee, Won Ryang

2013-01-01

455

Novel Re-adhesion Control of Single-Inverter Multiple-Induction-Motors Drives for the Rolling Stock Traction System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the field of the rolling stock traction system, it is demanded to suppress the slip-slide phenomenon between wheels and rails for the purpose of providing passengers comfortable ride feelings and keeping the train time schedule even in rainy days. One solution for this demand is to adopt both the re-adhesion control and the vector control. Considering this situation, we have already developed a high performance motor drive method for the rolling stock traction system, in which a single inverter drives multiple induction motors by adopting a novel stator-flux-oriented vector control. In this paper, we propose a novel re-adhesion control method for the single-inverter multiple-induction-motors drive system. The proposed method is investigated through simulations, in which the unbalanced condition of the motor load and speed caused by the differences of the wheel diameters are taken into account. Then the experimental results are brought about, which are obtained from a miniature experimental equipment capable of simulating the real rolling stock traction system in terms of the wheel diameter differences and the adhesion between the wheels and rails.

Matsumoto, Yasushi; Eguchi, Naoya; Kawamura, Atsuo

456

Esophageal perforations masked by steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esophageal perforation is usually an acute, life-threatening event, and its diagnosis can be established on the basis of obvious clinical and radiographic findings. This article describes two cases whereby symptoms of esophageal perforations were masked by concomitant administration of steroids, thus causing marked delay in diagnosis and treatment. Esophageal rupture should be considered when patients receiving steroids develop unexplained fever

Linas M. Klygis; Rome Jutabha; Michael B. McCrohan; Arvydas D. Vanagunas

1993-01-01

457

Steroidal saponins from Sansevieria trifasciata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanol extract of the whole plant of Sansevieria trifasciata has yielded 12 steroidal saponins, 10 of which are new constituents. The respective structures of the new compounds have been shown by the spectroscopic evidence, and alkaline- and acid-catalysed degradation. This is the first report of the isolation of steroidal saponins from S. trifasciata.

Yoshihiro Mimaki; Toshihiro Inoue; Minpei Kuroda; Yutaka Sashida

1996-01-01

458

Steroidal saponins from Sansevieria trifasciata.  

PubMed

The methanol extract of the whole plant of Sansevieria trifasciata has yielded 12 steroidal saponins, 10 of which are new constituents. The respective structures of the new compounds have been shown by the spectroscopic evidence, and alkaline- and acid-catalysed degradation. This is the first report of the isolation of steroidal saponins from S. trifasciata. PMID:8987911

Mimaki, Y; Inoue, T; Kuroda, M; Sashida, Y

1996-12-01

459

Fecal steroids and colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fecal steroid profiles of healthy subjects were compared with those of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The multicomponent profiles did not differ qualitatively in that CRC patients, like control subjects, had similar fecal steroids. The major bile acids detected in fecal extracts were lithocholic acid (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA). The major sterol of animal origin was cholesterol and its

Robert W. Owen; Motoaki Dodo; Michael H. Thompson; Michael J. Hill

1987-01-01

460

Rupture of the triceps tendon associated with steroid injections.  

PubMed

Rupture of the triceps mechanism is an uncommon injury that has been recognized with increasing frequency in recent years. It has been proposed that such injuries commonly accompany fractures of the radial head and must be actively evaluated in the presence of such a fracture. We present a unique case of isolated rupture of the triceps tendon in an athlete who was lifting weights. This case was complicated by a history of olecranon bursitis that had been treated with numerous local steroid injections, as well as a history of anabolic steroid abuse. Both systemic steroids and local injections may predispose tendons to rupture. Triceps tendon ruptures may result in uniformly good to excellent results if recognized and treated surgically. This case also serves as a reminder of the risks of treating inflamed tissues with local steroid injections, especially in strength athletes who place high demands on their musculoskeletal structures. Finally, this case documents a second case of triceps mechanism rupture in an athlete who has abused anabolic steroids. A study by Hunter et al. suggests that oral steroid abuse may be associated with detrimental effects on the mechanical properties of connective tissue, demonstrating another negative effect of anabolic steroid use in athletes. PMID:8346768

Stannard, J P; Bucknell, A L

461

Mass spectrometry of steroid systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mass spectra of epimeric secondary and tertiary alcohols of the series of 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxy-cyclohexanol was studied. The alcohols in the cis-l, 4-OH\\/H configuration are considerably more easily dehydrated under electron impact than their trans-1, 4-OH\\/H epimers.

V. S. Bul'fson; V. I. Zaretskii; V. G. Zaikin; A. A. Akhrem; A. V. Kamernitskii; A. M. Prokhoda

1968-01-01

462

Severe and Steroid-Resistant Crohn’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with moderate to severe disease and patients with steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent disease differ in their management, as the latter groups usually include patients with less acute situations. Systemic corticosteroids represent the mainstay of the management of moderate to severe disease and remain the first-line therapy in this setting. Infliximab is the choice alternative for patients who do not respond

Pierre Michetti; Christian Mottet; Pascal Juillerat; Christian Felley; John-Paul Vader; Bernard Burnand; Jean-Jacques Gonvers; Florian Froehlich

2005-01-01

463

Neuroactive Steroids in Brain and Relevance to Mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression and anxiety often affect women in relation to reproductive events like menarche, premenstrual periods, post-partum\\u000a and perimenopause. A prominent example of the interaction between mood, neuroactive-steroids and the GABA system is premenstrual\\u000a dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Severe premenstrual negative mood symptoms occur in 3–8% of women. Sex and stress hormones are\\u000a metabolized to neuroactive steroids with effects on brain function

Torbjörn Bückström; Lotta Andréen; Marie Bixo; Inger Björn; Guillén Fernández; Inga-Maj Johansson; Per Lundgren; Magnus Löfgren; Sigrid Nyberg; Gianna Ragagnin; Inger Sundström-Poromaa; Jessica Strömberg; Frank van Broekhoven; Guido van Wingen; Ming-De Wang

464

Steroid regulation of drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 (P450) monooxygenases are capable of catalyzing metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous compounds, such as bile acids, fatty acids, retinoids, steroids, drugs and other xenobiotics. The enzymes, belonging to CYP1, CYP2 and CYP3 families are primarily involved in the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. P450-mediated defense mechanism protects organisms from the potentially toxic effects of xenobiotics to which they are exposed. The adaptive transcriptional induction of P450s by xenobiotics is mediated by aromatic hydrocarbon receptor of Per-ARNT-Sim family, and nuclear hormone receptors, including pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and glucocorticoid receptor. In addition to the receptor-mediated induction, endogenous factors (developmental, sex or hormonal factors) can also modulate P450 expression. Steroid hormones are biologically active compounds, controlling many physiological processes via endocrine signaling pathways and contributing to the transcriptional regulation of drug metabolizing P450s. Any change in P450 activities influences the rate of activation or inactivation of drugs. Exposure to xenobiotics (drugs, environmental pollutants) can exert changes in endocrine function both directly as hormone agonists/antagonists or indirectly altering the rates of hormone metabolism and consequently the circulating levels of hormones. Modulation of P450 expression by xenobiotics can affect the subsequent metabolism of not only foreign chemicals, but also steroid hormones. Perturbation in hormone metabolism leads to the imbalance in sexual and reproductive development, and in glucose, lipid and salt/water homeostasis. The purpose of this review is to highlight the interplay between drug-metabolizing P450s and steroid hormones as well as the interactions of xenosensor with steroid signaling pathways. PMID:21395541

Monostory, Katalin; Dvorak, Zdenek

2011-02-01

465

Steroid Signaling System Responds Differently to Temperature and Hormone Manipulation in the Red-Eared Slider Turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), a Reptile with Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many reptiles, including the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Temperature determines gonadal sex during the middle of embryogenesis, or the temperature-sensitive period (TSP), when gonadal sex is labile to both temperature and hormones – particularly estrogen. The biological actions of steroid hormones are mediated by their receptors as defined here as the classic transcriptional

M. Ramsey; D. Crews

2007-01-01

466

Prolonged Alterations in the Serotonin Neural System Following the Cessation of Adolescent Anabolic–Androgenic Steroid Exposure in Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), anabolic–androgenic steroid (AAS) exposure during adolescence facilitates offensive aggression that is modulated, in part, by serotonin (5-HT) signaling and development and by signaling and expression of 5-HT1B receptors. To examine whether these effects are persistent or reversible, the authors administered AAS to hamsters, then examined them for aggression at 1, 4, 11, 18, or 25 days

Jill M. Grimes; Richard H. Melloni Jr

2006-01-01

467

Microemulsion and micellar electrokinetic chromatography of steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixture of ten steroids was separated by microemulsion and micellar (SDS and glycodeoxyholate) electrokinetic chromatography systems. Separations were done on a 50 cm (to the detector) × 50 ?m I.D. fused-silica capillary. Complete separation of all the test compounds in the micellar mode was obtained with glycodeoxycholate (50 mM) in 25 mM borate buffer, pH 6.5, as the micelle-forming

L. Vomastová; I. Mikšík; Z. Deyl

1996-01-01

468

[Anabolic steroids and sports].  

PubMed

Anabolic steroids are derivatives of androgens with less androgenic and stronger anabolic actions. They should be used for therapeutic indications only. Their misuse to improve physical performance is unethical (doping), illegal and of doubtful pharmacological value. Together with intense muscular exercise and high-protein diet, anabolics due to their anabolic and anti-catabolic actions possibly increase physical performance and enhance recovery in athletes where added strength is a great advantage. In most sport disciplines a beneficial effect has not been demonstrated. Like all active drugs, anabolics can cause side-effects. They depend on structure, dosage and duration of administration. The misuse by athletes of high doses during long periods should be a particular motivation for doctors, teachers and coaches to discourage athletes from using anabolic drugs. The dangers of overdosing and long-term use are emphasized, search for untoward side- and after- effects by regular and careful controls is recommended. PMID:3798929

Kopera, H

1986-09-30

469

Esteróides anabolizantes: mecanismos de ação e efeitos sobre o sistema cardiovascular Anabolic steroids: action mechanisms and effects on the cardiovascular system Esteroides anabólicos: mecanismos de acción y efecto sobre el sistema cardiovascular  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anabolic androgenic steroids are ergogenic aids commonly used by athletes in search of better performances. However, the use of these substances by individuals who are not athletes with aesthetic aims is becoming an increasing problem in fitness and sport centers. This behavior has favored the indiscriminate and abusive use of these steroids, exposing their users to health risks. Anabolic steroids

Fernando Lima Rocha; Fernanda Roberta Roque; Edilamar Menezes de Oliveira

470

Role of Sex Steroid Hormones in Bacterial-Host Interactions  

PubMed Central

Sex steroid hormones play important physiological roles in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues, including immune cells. These hormones exert their functions by binding to either specific intracellular receptors that act as ligand-dependent transcription factors or membrane receptors that stimulate several signal transduction pathways. The elevated susceptibility of males to bacterial infections can be related to the usually lower immune responses presented in males as compared to females. This dimorphic sex difference is mainly due to the differential modulation of the immune system by sex steroid hormones through the control of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines expression, as well as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expression and antibody production. Besides, sex hormones can also affect the metabolism, growth, or virulence of pathogenic bacteria. In turn, pathogenic, microbiota, and environmental bacteria are able to metabolize and degrade steroid hormones and their related compounds. All these data suggest that sex steroid hormones play a key role in the modulation of bacterial-host interactions.

Garcia-Gomez, Elizabeth; Gonzalez-Pedrajo, Bertha; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

2013-01-01

471

Convergence of Multiple Mechanisms of Steroid Hormone Action  

PubMed Central

Steroid hormones modulate a wide array of physiological processes including development, metabolism, and reproduction in various species. It is generally believed that these biological effects are predominantly mediated by their binding to specific intracellular receptors resulting in conformational change, dimerization, and recruitment of coregulators for transcription-dependent genomic actions (classical mechanism). In addition, to their cognate ligands, intracellular steroid receptors can also be activated in a “ligand-independent” manner by other factors including neurotransmitters. Recent studies indicate that rapid, nonclassical steroid effects involve extranuclear steroid receptors located at the membrane, which interact with cytoplasmic kinase signaling molecules and G-proteins. The current review deals with various mechanisms that function together in an integrated manner to promote hormone-dependent actions on the central and sympathetic nervous systems.

Mani, S. K.; Mermelstein, P. G.; Tetel, M. J.; Anesetti, G.

2013-01-01

472

Inactivation of delta 5-3-oxo steroid isomerase with active-site-directed acetylenic steroids.  

PubMed Central

Several steroid analogues containing conjugated acetylenic ketone groups as part of a seco-ring structure or as substituents on the intact steroid system are irreversible inhibitors of delta 5-3-oxo steroid isomerase (EC 5.3.3.1) from Pseudomonas testosteroni. Thus 10 beta-(1-oxoprop-2-ynyl)oestr-4-ene-3,17-dione (I), 5,10-seco-oestr-4-yne-3,10,17-trione (II), 17 beta-hydroxy-5,10-seco-oestr-4-yne-3,10-dione (III) and 17 beta-(1-oxoprop-2-ynyl)androst-4-en-3-one (IV) irreversibly inactivate isomerase in a time-dependent manner. In all cases saturation kinetics are observed. Protection against inactivation is afforded by the powerful competitive inhibitor 19-nortestosterone. The inhibition constants (Ki) for 19-nortestosterone obtained from such experiments are in good agreement with those determined from conventional competitive-inhibition studies of enzyme activity. These compounds thus appear to be active-site directed. In every case the inactivated enzyme could be dialysed without return of activity, indicating that a stable covalent bond probably had formed between the steroid and enzyme. Compound (I) is a very potent inhibitor of isomerase [Ki = 66.0 microM and k+2 = 12.5 x 10(-3) s-1 (where Ki is the dissociation constant of the reversible enzyme-inhibitor complex and k+2 is the rate constant for the inactivation reaction of the enzyme-inhibitor complex)] giving half-lives of inactivation of 30-45 s at saturation. It is argued that the basic-amino-acid residue that abstracts the intramolecularly transferred 4 beta-proton in the reaction mechanism could form a Michael-addition product with compound (I). In contrast, although compound (IV) has a lower inhibition constant (Ki = 14.5 microM), it is a relatively poor alkylating agent (k+2 = 0.13 x 10(-3) s-1). If the conjugated acetylenic ketone groups are replaced by alpha-hydroxyacetylene groups, the resultant analogues of steroids (I)-(IV) are reversible competitive inhibitors with Ki values in the range 27-350 microM. The enzyme binds steroids in the C19 series with functionalized acetylenic substituents at C-17 in preference to steroids in the C18 series bearing similar groups in the ring structure or as C-10 substituents. In the 5,10-seco-steroid series the presence of hydroxy groups at both C-3 and C-17 is deleterious to binding by the enzyme.

Penning, T M; Covey, D F; Talalay, P

1981-01-01

473

Development of steroid sulfatase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Hydrolysis of biologically inactive steroid sulfates to unconjugated steroids by steroid sulfatase (STS) is strongly implicated in rendering estrogenic stimulation to hormone-dependent cancers such as those of the breast. Considerable progress has been made in the past two decades with regard to the discovery, design and development of STS inhibitors. We outline historical aspects of their development, cumulating in the discovery of the first clinical trial candidate STX64 (BN83495, Irosustat) and other sulfamate-based inhibitors. The development of reversible STS inhibitors and the design of dual inhibitors of both aromatase and STS is also discussed. PMID:21238537

Woo, L W Lawrence; Purohit, Atul; Potter, Barry V L

2011-01-14

474

Steroids in Athletics: One University's Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an account of one university's experience in conducting an investigation into possible steroid use by student athletes and the development of a program to deal with the problem. Discusses why athletes use steroids and how steroids are taken. Concludes it is likely many steroid-related deaths of athletes go undetected. (Author/ABL)

Lopez, Mike

1990-01-01