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Sample records for steroid induction system

  1. Induction of steroidal 11 beta-hydroxylase of Cochliobolus lunatus.

    PubMed

    Zakelj-Mavric, M; Belic, I

    1991-01-01

    The induction of steroidal 11 beta-hydroxylase of Cochliobolus lunatus was studied and the effect of the structure of steroid inducers and additives on the extent of enzyme induction determined. 21-Hydroxyprogesterone was found to be the best inducer and Torlak peptone 1 the best additive. A certain parallelism was found between the induction of 11 beta-hydroxylase of Cochliobolus lunatus and 11 alpha-hydroxylase of Rhizopus nigricans. PMID:1997119

  2. Neuroactive steroids and central nervous system disorders.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Bckstrm, T; Sundstrm, I; Wahlstrm, G; Olsson, T; Zhu, D; Johansson, I M; Bjrn, I; Bixo, M

    2001-01-01

    Steroid hormones are vital for the cell life and affect a number of neuroendocrine and behavioral functions. In contrast to their endocrine actions, certain steroids have been shown to rapidly alter brain excitability and to produce behavioral effects within seconds to minutes. In this article we direct attention to this issue of neuroactive steroids by outlining several aspects of current interest in the field of steroid research. Recent advances in the neurobiology of neuroactive are described along with the impact of advances on drug design for central nervous system (CNS) disorders provoked by neuroactive steriods. The theme was selected in association with the clinical aspects and therapeutical potentials of the neuroactive steroids in CNS disorders. A wide range of topics relating to the neuroactive steroids are outlined, including steroid concentrations in the brain, premenstrual syndrome, estrogen and Alzheimer's disease, side effects of oral contraceptives, mental disorder in menopause, hormone replacement therapy, Catamenial epilepsy, and neuractive steroids in epilepsy treatment. PMID:11599309

  3. Steroids.

    PubMed

    Riad, Maggy; Mogos, Marianna; Thangathurai, Duraiyah; Lumb, Philip D

    2002-08-01

    Corticosteroids are considered to be essential stress hormones. They are secreted together with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in response to the pulsatile secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Changes in pulse amplitude are responsible for the diurnal rhythm in circulating ACTH and cortisol levels. Steroid levels increase immediately after injury, pain, fever, and hypovolemia in response to the stimulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion by various cytokines. The increase in steroid levels is typically proportional to the magnitude of stress, with serum cortisol values being highest in moribund patients and shortly before death. With severe and prolonged stress, steroid levels are increased for weeks to months and may be associated with hypertrophy of the adrenal cortex. Cortisol acts in concert with catecholamines to maintain the vascular tone, endothelial integrity, vascular permeability, and the distribution of total body water within the vascular compartment. It also potentiates the vasoconstrictor effects of catecholamines. Cortisol helps to stimulate lipolysis, inhibit protein synthesis, facilitate amino acid mobilization from muscle, induce the enzymes of gluconeogenesis, enhance secretion of glucagon, inhibit insulin secretion, and stimulate conversion of lactic acid to glycogen. Because of their anti-inflammatory properties, steroids have been proposed as therapeutic adjuvants in systemic inflammation and may protect the host against overshooting defense reactions by reducing the migration of leukocytes to the inflammatory sites and the incidence of neutrophil-mediated tissue injury and organ dysfunction. PMID:12386486

  4. Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from high school to the pros are testing athletes for steroid use, there's a growing chance the person will ... But maybe worst of all, any achievements the athlete made while on steroids could be questioned. Someone might say, "He didn' ...

  5. Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on the market. continue Dangers of Steroids Anabolic steroids cause many different types of problems. Less serious side effects include acne , oily hair, purple or red spots on the body, swelling of the legs and feet, and persistent ...

  6. Induction Heating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Induction heating technology, a magnetic non-deforming process, was developed by Langley researchers to join plastic and composite components in space. Under NASA license, Inductron Corporation uses the process to produce induction heating systems and equipment for numerous applications. The Torobonder, a portable system, comes with a number of interchangeable heads for aircraft repair. Other developments are the E Heating Head, the Toroid Joining Gun, and the Torobrazer. These products perform bonding applications more quickly, safely and efficiently than previous methods.

  7. Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may need to take corticosteroids to treat Arthritis Asthma Autoimmune diseases such as lupus and multiple sclerosis Skin conditions such as eczema and rashes Some kinds of cancer Steroids are strong medicines, and they can have side effects, including weakened bones and cataracts. Because of this, ...

  8. Nongenomic Actions of Adrenal Steroids in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Evanson, Nathan K.; Herman, James P.; Sakai, Randall R.; Krause, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    Mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that are released by the adrenal cortex in response to stress and hydromineral imbalance. Historically, adrenocorticosteroid actions are attributed to effects on gene transcription. More recently, however, it has become clear that genome-independent pathways represent an important facet of adrenal steroid actions. These hormones exert nongenomic effects throughout the body, but a significant portion of their actions are specific to the central nervous system. These actions are mediated by a variety of signalling pathways, and lead to physiologically meaningful events in vitro and in vivo. Here we review nongenomic effects of adrenal steroids in the central nervous system at the levels of behaviour, neural system activity, individual neurone activity, and subcellular signalling activity. A clearer understanding of adrenal steroid activity in the central nervous system will lead to a better ability both to treat human disease, and to reduce side-effects of steroid treatments already in use. PMID:20367759

  9. Inductive System Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.

    2004-01-01

    The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS uses nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. IMS is able to monitor the system by comparing real time operational data with these classes. We present a description of learning and monitoring method used by IMS and summarize some recent IMS results.

  10. ACTH-adrenal system and exogenous steroids.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, G; Perego, M; Alkabes, M; Palmieri, R

    1979-01-01

    The results obtained from a research on 100 patients of both sexes affected with bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive bronchopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, haematological disorders and some other pathological forms, all depending on steroid therapy, are reported in this paper. The treatment was carried out using a new chronopluricorticoid (Dutimelan 8 15). The clinical efficiency is comparable to that obtained by the traditional steroid treatment with the advantage that symptoms of hypercorticism were absent or insignificant. The authors believe that such excellent results are to be attributed to the particular chronopharmacological characteristics of this preparation. PMID:232569

  11. 'Inductive' charges on atoms in proteins: comparative docking with the extended steroid benchmark set and discovery of a novel SHBG ligand.

    PubMed

    Cherkasov, Artem; Shi, Zheng; Li, Yvonne; Jones, Steven J M; Fallahi, Magid; Hammond, Geoffrey L

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a novel iterative approach for calculation of partial charges in proteins within the framework of the 'molecular capacitance' model. The method operates by an effective 'inductive' electronegativity scale derived from a number of the conventional charge systems including CHARMM, AMBER, MMFF, OPLS, and PEOE among others. Our novel 'inductive' electronegativity equalization procedure allows rapid and conformation sensitive computation of adequate partial charges in proteins. Accuracy of the 'inductive' values was confirmed by their correlation with DFT-computed partial charges in common amino acids. A comparative docking study with an extended steroid data set not only illustrated the adequacy of 'inductive' protein charges but also demonstrated their superior performance compared to several conventional protein charging systems. Subsequent docking with 'inductive' charges resulted in identification of five potential leads as human Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) ligands from a commercial library of natural compounds. When the selected substances were evaluated for their ability to bind SHBG in vitro, three of them displaced testosterone from the SHBG steroid-binding site, and with one compound this was achieved at micromolar concentrations. PMID:16309292

  12. Inductive System Monitors Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software developed at Ames Research Center uses artificial intelligence and data mining techniques to build system-monitoring knowledge bases from archived or simulated sensor data. This information is then used to detect unusual or anomalous behavior that may indicate an impending system failure. Currently helping analyze data from systems that help fly and maintain the space shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS), the IMS has also been employed by data classes are then used to build a monitoring knowledge base. In real time, IMS performs monitoring functions: determining and displaying the degree of deviation from nominal performance. IMS trend analyses can detect conditions that may indicate a failure or required system maintenance. The development of IMS was motivated by the difficulty of producing detailed diagnostic models of some system components due to complexity or unavailability of design information. Successful applications have ranged from real-time monitoring of aircraft engine and control systems to anomaly detection in space shuttle and ISS data. IMS was used on shuttle missions STS-121, STS-115, and STS-116 to search the Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLEIDS) data for signs of possible damaging impacts during launch. It independently verified findings of the WLEIDS Mission Evaluation Room (MER) analysts and indicated additional points of interest that were subsequently investigated by the MER team. In support of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, IMS is being deployed as an anomaly detection tool on ISS mission control consoles in the Johnson Space Center Mission Operations Directorate. IMS has been trained to detect faults in the ISS Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) systems. In laboratory tests, it has already detected several minor anomalies in real-time CMG data. When tested on archived data, IMS was able to detect precursors of the CMG1 failure nearly 15 hours in advance of the actual failure event. In the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, IMS successfully performed real-time engine health analysis. IMS was able to detect simulated failures and actual engine anomalies in an F/A-18 aircraft during the course of 25 test flights. IMS is also being used in colla

  13. Influence of Triazine Herbicide Exposure on Guppies (Poecilia sphenops) Aromatase Activities, Altered Sex Steroid Concentration and Vitellogenin Induction

    PubMed Central

    Vasanth, S.; Arul, G.; Karthikeyeni, S.; Kumar, T. S. V.; Vignesh, V.; Manimegalai, M.; Bupesh, G.; Thirumurugan, R.; Subramanian, P.

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine, a herbicide is one the most toxic and sustaining pollutants in aquatic environment. It is detectable in surface water and in underground sources of drinking water. Many studies indicate that atrazine might be a potent endocrine disrupting xenobiotic. There are limited studies have revealed that the effects of atrazine on sex steroids hormones, vitellogenin and induction of aromatase, gonadosomatic index and hepatosomatic index. In this study, juvenile Poecilia sphenops fish was exposed to three different (0.83, 1.25 and 2.5 ppm) concentration of atrazine for 100 d. Changes in plasma and gonadal content and concentrations of sex steroids and vitellogenin protein in poecilia sphenops under laboratory conditions were assessed. The low level of the atrazine show estrogenic effect in males, as determined by a shortage of testosterone induction. Present study suggests that low induction of plasma vitellogenin and aromatase in male fish become suitable biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic chemicals. PMID:26009647

  14. Influence of Triazine Herbicide Exposure on Guppies (Poecilia sphenops) Aromatase Activities, Altered Sex Steroid Concentration and Vitellogenin Induction.

    PubMed

    Vasanth, S; Arul, G; Karthikeyeni, S; Kumar, T S V; Vignesh, V; Manimegalai, M; Bupesh, G; Thirumurugan, R; Subramanian, P

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine, a herbicide is one the most toxic and sustaining pollutants in aquatic environment. It is detectable in surface water and in underground sources of drinking water. Many studies indicate that atrazine might be a potent endocrine disrupting xenobiotic. There are limited studies have revealed that the effects of atrazine on sex steroids hormones, vitellogenin and induction of aromatase, gonadosomatic index and hepatosomatic index. In this study, juvenile Poecilia sphenops fish was exposed to three different (0.83, 1.25 and 2.5 ppm) concentration of atrazine for 100 d. Changes in plasma and gonadal content and concentrations of sex steroids and vitellogenin protein in poecilia sphenops under laboratory conditions were assessed. The low level of the atrazine show estrogenic effect in males, as determined by a shortage of testosterone induction. Present study suggests that low induction of plasma vitellogenin and aromatase in male fish become suitable biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic chemicals. PMID:26009647

  15. The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Anthony H.; Marczylo, Timothy H.; Willets, Jonathon M.; Konje, Justin C.

    2013-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed. PMID:24369462

  16. Multipurpose Vacuum Induction Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, M.; Kulkarni, Deepak; Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-11-01

    Multipurpose vacuum processing systems are cost effective; occupy less space, multiple functional under one roof and user friendly. A multipurpose vacuum induction system was designed, fabricated and installed in a record time of 6 months time at NFTDC Hyderabad. It was designed to function as a) vacuum induction melting/refining of oxygen free electronic copper/pure metals, b) vacuum induction melting furnace for ferrous materials c) vacuum induction melting for non ferrous materials d) large vacuum heat treatment chamber by resistance heating (by detachable coil and hot zone) e) bottom discharge vacuum induction melting system for non ferrous materials f) Induction heat treatment system and g) directional solidification /investment casting. It contains provision for future capacity addition. The attachments require to manufacture multiple shaped castings and continuous rod casting can be added whenever need arises. Present capacity is decided on the requirement for 10years of development path; presently it has 1.2 ton liquid copper handling capacity. It is equipped with provision for capacity addition up to 2 ton liquid copper handling capacity in future. Provision is made to carry out the capacity addition in easy steps quickly. For easy operational maintenance and troubleshooting, design was made in easily detachable sections. High vacuum system is also is detachable, independent and easily movable which is first of its kind in the country. Detailed design parameters, advantages and development history are presented in this paper.

  17. Comparison of simultaneous systemic steroid and hyperbaric oxygen treatment versus only steroid in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy Callioglu, Elif; Tuzuner, Arzu; Demirci, Sule; Cengiz, Ceyhun; Caylan, Refik

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective chart review to assess the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen treatment in sudden sensorineural hearing loss. 44 patients aged between 17-67 years diagnosed with idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss less than 30 days were admitted to our clinic Patients were treated with systemic steroid alone or systemic steroid plus hyperbaric oxygen therapy. In the comparison of two groups, there was no statistically significant difference of audiometric evaluation (P>0.0028) found in hearing improvement for each frequency on 5th day of the treatment and post treatment. Age (?45 and >45) and initial hearing level (?60 dB. And >60 dB.) does not seem to be an influential factor according to the results of the study (P>0.0007). The present study did not show more superior healing effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy added to systemic steroid therapy than steroid infusion alone. The results are consistent with those of some papers. However there are also conflicting data that support significant effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Routine administration of this therapy seems to be unnecessary in view of these results. PMID:26309671

  18. Mobile inductively coupled plasma system

    DOEpatents

    D`Silva, A.P.; Jaselskis, E.J.

    1999-03-30

    A system is described for sampling and analyzing a material located at a hazardous site. A laser located remotely from the hazardous site is connected to an optical fiber, which directs laser radiation proximate the material at the hazardous site. The laser radiation abates a sample of the material. An inductively coupled plasma is located remotely from the material. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated particles to a plasma, where they are dissociated, atomized and excited to provide characteristic optical reduction of the elemental constituents of the sample. An optical spectrometer is located remotely from the site. A second optical fiber is connected to the optical spectrometer at one end and the plasma source at the other end to carry the optical radiation from the plasma source to the spectrometer. 10 figs.

  19. Mobile inductively coupled plasma system

    DOEpatents

    D'Silva, Arthur P. (Ames, IA); Jaselskis, Edward J. (Ames, IA)

    1999-03-30

    A system for sampling and analyzing a material located at a hazardous site. A laser located remote from the hazardous site is connected to an optical fiber, which directs laser radiation proximate the material at the hazardous site. The laser radiation abates a sample of the material. An inductively coupled plasma is located remotely from the material. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated particles to a plasma, where they are dissociated, atomized and excited to provide characteristic optical reduction of the elemental constituents of the sample. An optical spectrometer is located remotely from the site. A second optical fiber is connected to the optical spectrometer at one end and the plasma source at the other end to carry the optical radiation from the plasma source to the spectrometer.

  20. Dual processing of sulfated steroids in the olfactory system of an anuran amphibian

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Alfredo; Hassenklöver, Thomas; Offner, Thomas; Fu, Xiaoyan; Holy, Timothy E.; Manzini, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Chemical communication is widespread in amphibians, but if compared to later diverging tetrapods the available functional data is limited. The existing information on the vomeronasal system of anurans is particularly sparse. Amphibians represent a transitional stage in the evolution of the olfactory system. Most species have anatomically separated main and vomeronasal systems, but recent studies have shown that in anurans their molecular separation is still underway. Sulfated steroids function as migratory pheromones in lamprey and have recently been identified as natural vomeronasal stimuli in rodents. Here we identified sulfated steroids as the first known class of vomeronasal stimuli in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. We show that sulfated steroids are detected and concurrently processed by the two distinct olfactory subsystems of larval Xenopus laevis, the main olfactory system and the vomeronasal system. Our data revealed a similar but partially different processing of steroid-induced responses in the two systems. Differences of detection thresholds suggest that the two information channels are not just redundant, but rather signal different information. Furthermore, we found that larval and adult animals excrete multiple sulfated compounds with physical properties consistent with sulfated steroids. Breeding tadpole and frog water including these compounds activated a large subset of sensory neurons that also responded to synthetic steroids, showing that sulfated steroids are likely to convey intraspecific information. Our findings indicate that sulfated steroids are conserved vomeronasal stimuli functioning in phylogenetically distant classes of tetrapods living in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. PMID:26441543

  1. Dual processing of sulfated steroids in the olfactory system of an anuran amphibian.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Alfredo; Hassenklver, Thomas; Offner, Thomas; Fu, Xiaoyan; Holy, Timothy E; Manzini, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Chemical communication is widespread in amphibians, but if compared to later diverging tetrapods the available functional data is limited. The existing information on the vomeronasal system of anurans is particularly sparse. Amphibians represent a transitional stage in the evolution of the olfactory system. Most species have anatomically separated main and vomeronasal systems, but recent studies have shown that in anurans their molecular separation is still underway. Sulfated steroids function as migratory pheromones in lamprey and have recently been identified as natural vomeronasal stimuli in rodents. Here we identified sulfated steroids as the first known class of vomeronasal stimuli in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. We show that sulfated steroids are detected and concurrently processed by the two distinct olfactory subsystems of larval Xenopus laevis, the main olfactory system and the vomeronasal system. Our data revealed a similar but partially different processing of steroid-induced responses in the two systems. Differences of detection thresholds suggest that the two information channels are not just redundant, but rather signal different information. Furthermore, we found that larval and adult animals excrete multiple sulfated compounds with physical properties consistent with sulfated steroids. Breeding tadpole and frog water including these compounds activated a large subset of sensory neurons that also responded to synthetic steroids, showing that sulfated steroids are likely to convey intraspecific information. Our findings indicate that sulfated steroids are conserved vomeronasal stimuli functioning in phylogenetically distant classes of tetrapods living in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. PMID:26441543

  2. Induction generator-induction motor wind-powered pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, M.S.; Lyra, R.O.C.; Silva, S.R.

    1997-12-31

    The energy storage matter plays an important role in wind-electric conversion systems for isolated applications. Having that in mind, two different approaches can be basically considered: either the immediate conversion of the generated electric energy, as in a water pumping system or electric energy storage for later use, as in a battery charging system. Due to some features such as no need of an external reactive power source and, sometimes, a gearbox, permanent-magnet synchronous generators have been broadly used in low rated power isolated systems. Despite that, system performance can be affected when the generator is feeding an inductive load (e.g., an induction motor) under variable-speed-variable-frequency operational conditions. Since there is no effective flux control, motor overload may occur at high wind speeds. Thus, good system performance can be obtained through additional control devices which may increase system cost. Although being rugged and cheap, induction machines always work as a reactive power drain; therefore, they demand an external reactive power source. Considering that, reactive static compensators appear as an attractive alternative to the cost x performance problem. In addition to that, different control strategies can be used so that system performance can be improved.

  3. Analysis of Steroid Hormones in a Typical Dairy Waste Disposal System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental loading of steroid hormones contained in dairy wastes may cause a potential adversely affect on the aquatic species. This work was to investigate the profile of steroid hormones in a typical dairy waste operation system and assess the potential risk of hormone contaminations result...

  4. Disseminated Dermal Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania siamensis In a Systemic Steroid Therapy Patient

    PubMed Central

    Noppakun, Nopadon; Kraivichian, Kanyarat; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania siamensis infection was recently reported from Thailand. Clinical presentation of L. siamensis infections is generally related to human immunodeficiency virus infection. Herein, disseminated dermal L. siamensis infection in a systemic steroid therapy patient from Myanmar is described. PMID:25371495

  5. [Possibilities of testing sex steroid effects in the uropoietic system].

    PubMed

    Voigt, R; Klinger, G; Schneider, H J

    1978-10-01

    Progesterone as the main representative of gestagen-effective sexual steroide does not cause allone a statistically significant dilation of the lumina of the ureters compared with the adequate values of the control urogrammes. The fact that in pregnant rabbits no dilation of the ureters and of the renal pelvis was to be found allows the suspicion that during the pregnancy of the animal species used there are other mechanical conditions than during the human gravidity. PMID:735464

  6. 14 CFR 25.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b) No... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system screens. 25.1105...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b) No... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system screens. 25.1105...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b) No... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system screens. 29.1105...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection....

  10. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system icing protection....

  11. 14 CFR 29.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b) No... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system screens. 29.1105...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system icing protection....

  13. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection....

  14. Analytical challenges for measuring steroid responses to stress, neurodegeneration and injury in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Michael; Guennoun, Rachida; Mattern, Claudia; Oudinet, Jean-Paul; Labombarda, Florencia; De Nicola, Alejandro F; Liere, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Levels of steroids in the adult central nervous system (CNS) show marked changes in response to stress, degenerative disorders and injury. However, their analysis in complex matrices such as fatty brain and spinal cord tissues, and even in plasma, requires accurate and precise analytical methods. Radioimmunoassays (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, even with prepurification steps, do not provide sufficient specificity, and they are at the origin of many inconsistent results in the literature. The analysis of steroids by mass spectrometric methods has become the gold standard for accurate and sensitive steroid analysis. However, these technologies involve multiple purification steps prone to errors, and they only provide accurate reference values when combined with careful sample workup. In addition, the interpretation of changes in CNS steroid levels is not an easy task because of their multiple sources: the endocrine glands and the local synthesis by neural cells. In the CNS, decreased steroid levels may reflect alterations of their biosynthesis, as observed in the case of chronic stress, post-traumatic stress disorders or depressive episodes. In such cases, return to normalization by administering exogenous hormones or by stimulating their endogenous production may have beneficial effects. On the other hand, increases in CNS steroids in response to acute stress, degenerative processes or injury may be part of endogenous protective or rescue programs, contributing to the resistance of neural cells to stress and insults. The aim of this review is to encourage a more critical reading of the literature reporting steroid measures, and to draw attention to the absolute need for well-validated methods. We discuss reported findings concerning changing steroid levels in the nervous system by insisting on methodological issues. An important message is that even recent mass spectrometric methods have their limits, and they only become reliable tools if combined with careful sample preparation. PMID:26301525

  15. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 25.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 27.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 27.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 25.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 29.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction...

  20. Widespread Capacity for Steroid Synthesis in the Avian Brain and Song System

    PubMed Central

    London, Sarah E.; Monks, D. Ashley; Wade, Juli; Schlinger, Barney A.

    2010-01-01

    Steroids exert powerful effects on the brains and behavior of many species, but measures and manipulations of endocrine physiology in songbirds often reveal unexplained connections between steroids and the brain. The zebra finch song system, a sensorimotor neural circuit sensitive to steroids throughout life, organizes and functions largely in apparent independence from gonadally derived steroids. We tested the hypothesis that the zebra finch brain has the capacity for de novo steroidogenesis and that neurally synthesized steroids, neurosteroids, may impact the song system. Using multiple techniques, we demonstrate that the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (CYP11A1), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase, the first three factors in the steroidogenic pathway, are expressed in both developing and adult zebra finch brain. Detailed expression mapping at posthatch d 20 (P20) and adult reveals widespread area-specific expression and coexpression patterns for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, CYP11A1, and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase, which suggest neurosteroids may modulate multiple brain functions, including sensory and motor systems. Notably, whereas expression of other steroidogenic genes such as aromatase has been essentially absent from the song system, each of the major song nuclei express at least a subset of steroidogenic genes described here, establishing the song system as a potential steroidogenic circuit. PMID:16935847

  1. NADP Regulates the Yeast GAL Induction System

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar,P.; Yao, Y.; Sternglanz, R.; Johnston, S.; Joshua-Tor, L.

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of the galactose-metabolizing genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on three core proteins: Gal4p, the transcriptional activator that binds to upstream activating DNA sequences (UASGAL); Gal80p, a repressor that binds to the carboxyl terminus of Gal4p and inhibits transcription; and Gal3p, a cytoplasmic transducer that, upon binding galactose and adenosine 5'-triphosphate, relieves Gal80p repression. The current model of induction relies on Gal3p sequestering Gal80p in the cytoplasm. However, the rapid induction of this system implies that there is a missing factor. Our structure of Gal80p in complex with a peptide from the carboxyl-terminal activation domain of Gal4p reveals the existence of a dinucleotide that mediates the interaction between the two. Biochemical and in vivo experiments suggests that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) plays a key role in the initial induction event.

  2. Quantitative structure-activity relationships in a series of endogenous and synthetic steroids exhibiting induction of CYP3A activity and hepatomegaly associated with increased DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D F; Ioannides, C; Parke, D V; Schulte-Hermann, R

    2000-11-15

    The results of a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study on a total of 14 steroids exhibiting induction of a CYP3A-associated activity and increase in liver weight/DNA synthesis is reported. It is found that different, but related, structural descriptors correlate with increase in ethylmorphine N-demethylase activity (r=0.92) and with the increase in liver weight (r=0.78) and DNA synthesis (r=0.78). Although there is a strong correlation between increase in liver weight and DNA content (r=0.999), neither of these correlated with ethylmorphine N-demethylase activity. These findings are discussed in the light of CYP3A induction, substrate specificity and inhibition; a proposed model of human CYP3A4 based on sequence homology with CYP102, a bacterial P450 of known crystal structure, demonstrates the possible mode of interaction between substrates and inhibitors within the putative active site. PMID:11162923

  3. Induction of ovulation of mature oocytes by the maturation-inducing steroid 17,20beta,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one in the spotted seatrout.

    PubMed

    Pinter, J; Thomas, P

    1999-08-01

    Incubation of mature, hydrated, follicle-enclosed oocytes of the spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, with the maturation-inducing steroid (MIS), 17,20beta,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20beta-S), for 9-12 h resulted in the appearance of ovulated oocytes in the culture media. The ovulation response was concentration-dependent and steroid-specific. The other teleost MIS, 17, 20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-P), was also a potent inducer of ovulation, whereas progesterone and 11-deoxycorticosterone did not stimulate ovulation above control levels and partially antagonized the action of 20beta-S. The agonist and antagonist activities of these steroids on ovulation are consistent with their relative binding affinities for the ovarian nuclear progestogen receptor previously characterized in this species. Both the RNA synthesis inhibitor actinomycin D and the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide blocked MIS-induced ovulation. This suggests that induction of ovulation by the MIS is through a genomic mechanism of action, and potentially involves the previously characterized nuclear progestogen receptor. Gonadotropin (hCG)-induced ovulation was blocked by addition of the steroid synthesis inhibitor cyanoketone, which was overcome by the addition of 20beta-S, but not pregnenolone. Thus, the most likely mechanism of gonadotropin-induced ovulation is an increase in the synthesis of the MIS. It is concluded that the processes of final oocyte maturation and ovulation are both regulated by the MIS. Whereas final oocyte maturation is mediated by the 20beta-S membrane receptor (P. Thomas and S. Das, 1997, Biol. Reprod. 57, 999-1007), ovulation is regulated by a genomic mechanism and is potentially mediated by the previously characterized nuclear progestogen receptor. PMID:10417233

  4. [Sex steroids and monoamines in the system of neuroendocrine regulation of amygdala functions].

    PubMed

    Akhmadeev, A V; Kalimullina, L B

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this review is a review of literature data, which characterize participation of monoamines brain systems and sex steroids in regulation (modulation) of the amygdalas' functions. Shown were characteristic noradrenergic, dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems and their representation in amygdala. Effect ofnoradrenaline, dopamine and serotonine on neurons of Amygdala was shown realized from appropriate cell receptors under modulated influence of sex steroids. Combined participation of monoamines and sex steroids occur in regulation of activity in cyclic centre of secretion and releasing of gonadotropins, constituted a base of forming adaptive (sexual, food and aggressive-defensive) behaviour, including stress reaction. The presented data could be used for understanding influence of gender factor on personality characteristics of humans, cognitive abilities and behavioural reactions, and also in application to development of optimal medicinal treatment of psychoneurological diseases. PMID:21874859

  5. Multichannel simultaneous magnetic induction measurement system (MUSIMITOS).

    PubMed

    Steffen, Matthias; Heimann, Konrad; Bernstein, Nina; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2008-06-01

    Non-contact heart and lung activity monitoring would be a desirable supplement to conventional monitoring techniques. Based on the potential of non-contact magnetic induction measurements, requirements for an adequate monitoring system were estimated. This formed the basis for the development of the presented extendable multichannel simultaneous magnetic induction measurement system (MUSIMITOS). Special focus was given to the dynamic behaviour and simultaneous multichannel measurements, so that the system allows for up to 14 receiver coils working simultaneously at 6 excitation frequencies. Moreover, a real-time software concept for online signal processing visualization in combination with a fast software demodulation is presented. Finally, first steps towards a clinical application are pointed out and technical performance as well as first in vivo measurements are presented. This paper covers some aspects previously presented in Steffen and Leonhardt (2007 Proc. 13th Int. Conf. on Electrical Bioimpedance and the 8th Conf. on Electrical Impedance Tomography, Graz 2007). PMID:18544830

  6. ROLE OF STEROID HORMONES AND DECIDUAL INDUCTION IN THE REGULATION OF ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHORIBOSYL TRANSFERASE ACTIVITY IN RAT ENDOMETRIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the effect of ovarian steroid hormones on enzyme activity, adenosine diphosphoribosyl transferase (ADPRT) was measured in endometrial nuclei isolated on estrus and on d 4 from rats ovariectomized on estrus (d 0) and treated d 0-3 with (a) vehicle, (b) 1 ug estrone/d (E)...

  7. Cybernetic systems based on inductive logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Robert L.

    2001-05-01

    Recent work in the area of inductive logic suggests that cybernetics might be quantified and reduced to engineering practice. If so, then there are considerable implications for engineering, science, and other fields. This paper attempts to capture the essential ideas of cybernetics cast in the light of inductive logic. The described inductive logic extends conventional logic by adding a conjugate logical domain of questions to the logical domain of assertions intrinsic to Boolean Algebra with which most are familiar. This was first posited and developed by Richard Cox. Interestingly enough, these two logical domains, one of questions and the other of assertions, only exist relative to one another with each possessing natural measures of entropy and probability, respectively. Examples are given that highlight the utility of cybernetic approaches to neuroscience, algorithm design, system engineering, and the design and understanding of defensive and offensive systems. For example, the application of cybernetic approaches to defense systems suggests that these systems possess a wavefunction which like quantum mechanics, collapses when we ``look'' through the eyes of the system sensors such as radars and optical sensors. .

  8. Corneal Bee Sting Controlled with Early Surgical Intervention and Systemic High-Dose Steroid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Moosang; Lee, Seung-Jun; Han, Sang Beom; Hyon, Joon Young

    2014-01-01

    A 34-year-old Asian woman presented with painful corneal bee sting. Examinations revealed severe corneal swelling with stinger stuck in deep stroma and endothelial cell loss. She was treated with early surgery including stinger removal and anterior chamber irrigation combined with systemic high-dose steroid therapy. Vision and corneal clarity was recovered in 5 days and no additional corneal endothelial damage was observed. This report suggests that early surgical intervention and high-dose steroid therapy appear to be a useful option in the treatment of corneal bee sting. PMID:25580326

  9. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system. 862.1385 Section 862.1385 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system. 862.1385 Section 862.1385 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system. 862.1385 Section 862.1385 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system. 862.1385 Section 862.1385 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system. 862.1385 Section 862.1385 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY...

  14. Typical applications of induction generators and control system considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Thode, H.W.; Azbill, D.C.

    1984-11-01

    Induction generators are seeing increasing use for energy recovery applications because of their inherent simplicity and ease of connection to an electrical power system. Often questions concerning induction generator control considerations are presented. These include power system short-circuit contribution, automatic reclosure after a power outage, power factor correction, system startup, and selfexcitation. Induction generator applications and control considerations often encountered are addressed, and some answers and ideas are provided for the engineer planning an induction generator energy recovery system.

  15. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 23.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 23.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each...

  17. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  18. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  19. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  20. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  1. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  2. Aspects of the progesterone response in Hortaea werneckii: Steroid detoxification, protein induction and remodelling of the cell wall.

    PubMed

    Krizanci? Bombek, Lidija; Lapornik, Ajda; Ukmar, Marjeta; Matis, Maja; Cresnar, Bronislava; Katalini?, Jasna Peter; Zakelj-Mavric, Marija

    2008-12-22

    Progesterone in sublethal concentrations temporarily inhibits growth of Hortaea werneckii. This study investigates some of the compensatory mechanisms which are activated in the presence of progesterone and are most probably contributing to escape from growth inhibition. These mechanisms lead on the one hand to progesterone biotransformation/detoxification but, on the other, are suggested to increase the resistance of H. werneckii to the steroid. Biotransformation can detoxify progesterone efficiently in the early logarithmic phase, with mostly inducible steroid transforming enzymes, while progesterone biotransformation/detoxification in the late logarithmic and stationary phases of growth is not very efficient. The relative contribution of constitutive steroid transforming enzymes to progesterone biotransformation is increased in these latter phases of growth. In the presence of progesterone, activation of the cell wall integrity pathway is suggested by the overexpression of Pck2 which was detected in the stationary as well as the logarithmic phase of growth of the yeast. Progesterone treated H. werneckii cells were found to be more resistant to cell lysis than mock treated cells, indicating for the first time changes in the yeast cell wall as a result of treatment with progesterone. PMID:18793662

  3. Inhaled Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You are here: Health Information > Medications > Asthma and Lung Diseases > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids ... used every day to maintain control of your lung disease and prevent symptoms. An inhaled steroid prevents and ...

  4. Steroid Receptor Coactivators: Servants and Masters for Control of Systems Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Stashi, Erin; York, Brian; O’Malley, Bert W.

    2014-01-01

    Coregulator recruitment to nuclear receptors (NRs) and other transcription factors is essential for proper metabolic gene regulation with coactivators enhancing and corepressors attenuating gene transcription. The Steroid Receptor Coactivator (SRC) family is composed of three homologous members (SRC-1, SRC-2, and SRC-3), which are uniquely important for mediating steroid hormone and mitogenic actions. An accumulating body of work highlights the diverse array of metabolic functions regulated by the SRCs, including systemic metabolite homeostasis, inflammation, and energy regulation. Here we discuss the cooperative and unique functions among the SRCs to provide a comprehensive atlas of systemic SRC metabolic regulation. Deciphering the fractional and synergistic contributions of the SRCs to metabolic homeostasis is critical to fully understand the networks underlying metabolic transcriptional regulation. PMID:24953190

  5. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ducts and air duct systems... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1103 Induction system ducts and air duct systems. (a) Each induction system duct upstream of the...

  6. Optimized coils for electromagnetic induction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Mark A.; Scott, Waymond R.

    2013-06-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems often use separate transmit and receive coils. In these systems, it is desirable for the transmit and receive coils to have minimal mutual coupling and a maximum eld product, thus maximizing the detection depth. We demonstrate that a pair of spiral coils can be optimized to achieve these desired properties. A mathematical representation is chosen for the coils that allows the coil pair to be optimized using an iterative convex method, which, due to its convexity, is very fast. We then present results showing both a pair of nonuniformly-wound, single-sided spiral coils and a pair of nonuniformly-wound, double-sided, spiral coils created with this optimization.

  7. Increased steroid hormone secretion in mouse Leydig tumor cells after induction of cholesterol translocation by sphingomyelin degradation.

    PubMed

    Prn, M I; Tenhunen, J; Slotte, J P

    1991-06-01

    The effects of sphingomyelin degradation on [3H]cholesterol transfer from the cell surface to mitochondria were examined in mouse Leydig tumor cells. These cells were used since they utilize cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis in the mitochondria, and also possess acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyl transferase (ACAT) activity in the endoplasmic reticulum. Exposure of glutaraldehyde-fixed mouse Leydig tumor cells to sphingomyelinase (50 mU/ml, 60 min) resulted in the degradation of about 50% of cell sphingomyelin, suggesting that only half of the sphingomyelin mass in these cells was located in the exoleaflet of the plasma membrane. The partial sphingomyelin degradation resulted in the translocation of cellular unesterified [3H]cholesterol from plasma membranes (cholesterol oxidase-susceptible) to intracellular compartments (oxidase-resistant). The fraction of [3H]cholesterol that was translocated, i.e., between 20 and 50%, varied with different [3H]cholesterol-labeling methods. Cholesterol translocation induced by sphingomyelin degradation subsequently led to the stimulation of ACAT activity, suggesting that a fraction of cell surface cholesterol was transported to the endoplasmic reticulum. The sphingomyelinase-induced [3H]cholesterol flow from the cell surface to the cell interior was also in part directed to the mitochondria, as evidenced by the increased secretion of [3H]steroid hormones. In addition, the cyclic AMP-induced activation of steroidogenesis was further enhanced by the sphingomyelinase-induced cholesterol translocation. Based on the current results, it seems evident that a significant portion of the translocated [3H]cholesterol made its way from plasma membranes into the mitochondria for steroidogenesis. PMID:2049410

  8. A portable magnetic induction measurement system (PIMS).

    PubMed

    Cordes, Axel; Foussier, Jérôme; Pollig, Daniel; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2012-04-01

    For contactless monitoring of ventilation and heart activity, magnetic induction measurements are applicable. As the technique is harmless for the human body, it is well suited for long-term monitoring solutions, e.g., bedside monitoring, monitoring of home care patients, and the monitoring of persons in critical occupations. For such settings, a two-channel portable magnetic induction system has been developed, which is small and light enough to be fitted in a chair or bed. Because demodulation, control, and filtering are implemented on a front-end digital signal processor, a PC is not required (except for visualization/data storage during research and development). The system can be connected to a local area network (LAN) or wireless network (WiFi), allowing to connect several devices to a large monitoring system, e.g., for a residential home for the elderly or a hospital with low-risk patients not requiring standard ECG monitoring. To visualize data streams, a Qt-based (Qt-framework by Nokia, Espoo, Finland) monitoring application has been developed, which runs on Netbook computers, laptops, or standard PCs. To induce and measure the magnetic fields, external coils and amplifiers are required. This article describes the system and presents results for monitoring respiration and heart activity in a (divan) bed and for respiration monitoring in a chair. Planar configurations and orthogonal coil setups were examined during the measurement procedures. The measurement data were streamed over a LAN to a monitoring PC running Matlab (The MathWorks Inc, Natick, MA, USA). PMID:22505496

  9. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction systems ducts and air duct... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1103 Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. (a) Each induction system duct upstream of the...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1103 Induction system ducts and air duct systems. (a) Each induction system duct upstream of the first... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ducts and air duct...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1103 Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. (a) Each induction system duct upstream of the first... it might cause a fire hazard. (b) Each duct must be strong enough to prevent induction system...

  12. Multi-system mitochondrial disorder with recurrent steroid-responsive eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Höger, Franz

    2009-11-01

    Though mitochondrial disorders due to a respiratory chain defect may manifest with haematological abnormalities such as anaemia, neutropenia, or thrombocytopenia, recurrent steroid-responsive eosinophilia has not been reported as a manifestation of a mitochondrial disorder. In a polymorbid 65-year old female recurrent erythema, asthma, chronic bronchitis, gastritis with eosinophilic granuloma, recurrent episodes of hypereosinophilia, and polyarthralgia suggested Churg–Strauss syndrome, which was excluded upon absence of eosinophilic vasculitis on any of the biopsies. However, corticosteroids were effective for hypereosinophilia. In addition to the hypereosinophilic syndrome a mitochondrial disorder with multi-system affection was diagnosed upon the clinical presentation and a muscle biopsy indicative of a mitochondrial disorder. Hypereosinophilia was interpreted as a manifestation of the mitochondrial disorder after exclusion of various differentials. Mitochondrial disease may go along with marked eosinophilia mimicking Churg–Strauss syndrome. Steroids may be useful to resolve episodic eosinophilia but may be ineffective for other features of mitochondrial disorders. PMID:19370352

  13. INDUCTIVE SYSTEM HEALTH MONITORING WITH STATISTICAL METRICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Model-based reasoning is a powerful method for performing system monitoring and diagnosis. Building models for model-based reasoning is often a difficult and time consuming process. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS processes nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. In particular, a clustering algorithm forms groups of nominal values for sets of related parameters. This establishes constraints on those parameter values that should hold during nominal operation. During monitoring, IMS provides a statistically weighted measure of the deviation of current system behavior from the established normal baseline. If the deviation increases beyond the expected level, an anomaly is suspected, prompting further investigation by an operator or automated system. IMS has shown potential to be an effective, low cost technique to produce system monitoring capability for a variety of applications. We describe the training and system health monitoring techniques of IMS. We also present the application of IMS to a data set from the Space Shuttle Columbia STS-107 flight. IMS was able to detect an anomaly in the launch telemetry shortly after a foam impact damaged Columbia's thermal protection system.

  14. Herbivores, vascular pathways, and systemic induction: facts and artifacts.

    PubMed

    Orians, Colin

    2005-10-01

    Over the past 10 years there has been tremendous growth in our understanding of molecular, chemical, and morphological induction of traits involved in the resistance of plants to herbivores. Although it is well established that the patterns of induction can be constrained by a plant's vascular architecture, studies often fail to account for these constraints. Failure to do so has the potential to severely underestimate both the patterns and extent of induction. Here I review (1) the evidence for vascular control of induced responses, (2) how interspecific variation in phyllotaxy influences spatial patterning of induction, (3) the factors, phloem transport and volatile production, that may break down vascular constraints and lead to more widespread induction, and (4) the experimental approaches that could be compromised when vascular architecture is not considered. I show that vascular constraints in systemic induction are commonplace, but vary among species. I suggest that when induction is more widespread than expected from patterns of phyllotaxy, differences in vascular connectivity and volatile production may be responsible. I argue that advances in the mechanisms of systemic induction, cross-talk between different signal transduction pathways, specificity of induction, costs and benefits of systemic induction, and the effects of induced changes on herbivores and their natural enemies require that experiments be designed to examine and/or control for vascular constraints in systemic induction. PMID:16195841

  15. Two-dimensional Inductive Position Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional inductive position sensing system uses four drive inductors arranged at the vertices of a parallelogram and a sensing inductor positioned within the parallelogram. The sensing inductor is movable within the parallelogram and relative to the drive inductors. A first oscillating current at a first frequency is supplied to a first pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a first diagonal of the parallelogram. A second oscillating current at a second frequency is supplied to a second pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a second diagonal of the parallelogram. As a result, the sensing inductor generates a first output voltage at the first frequency and a second output voltage at the second frequency. A processor determines a position of the sensing inductor relative to the drive inductors using the first output voltage and the second output voltage.

  16. The NGFI-B gene, a transcriptionally inducible member of the steroid receptor gene superfamily: genomic structure and expression in rat brain after seizure induction.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, M A; Milbrandt, J

    1989-01-01

    The NGFI-B cDNA was previously isolated by virtue of its induction by nerve growth factor (NGF) in PC12 cells. It encodes a 61-kilodalton protein that has two regions of extensive homology with members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor gene family. The rat NGFI-B gene is approximately 7.6 kilobases long and is interrupted by six introns. Although the exon-intron structure of the gene is similar to those of several other members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor gene family, there is a novel splice site within the DNA-binding domain which suggests that NGFI-B constitutes yet another evolutionary digression from a postulated common ancestral receptor gene. Primer extension and S1 nuclease protection assays were used to determine the transcription initiation site, which displayed the heterogeneity typical of genes that lack a TATA box. Sequence analysis of the 5' flanking region revealed several GC boxes but no identifiable TATA box. Four potential AP1 binding sites were identified at nucleotides -49, -78, -222, and -242. Neither the serum response element nor the CArG box element, two sequences found in other growth factor-inducible genes, was detected in this region of the growth factor-inducible NGFI-B gene. Nevertheless, results of nuclear runoff experiments demonstrated that the NGFI-B gene was transcriptionally activated by nerve growth factor in PC12 cells. In vivo, a rapid, dramatic increase in NGFI-B mRNA was observed in the cerebral cortex, midbrain, and cerebellum of animals that experienced a convulsant-induced seizure. Images PMID:2479823

  17. Induction accelerators for the phase rotator system

    SciTech Connect

    Reginato, Lou; Yu, Simon; Vanecek, Dave

    2001-07-30

    The principle of magnetic induction has been applied to the acceleration of high current beams in betatrons and a variety of induction accelerators. The linear induction accelerator (LIA) consists of a simple nonresonant structure where the drive voltage is applied to an axially symmetric gap that encloses a toroidal ferromagnetic material. The change in flux in the magnetic core induces an axial electric field that provides particle acceleration. This simple nonresonant (low Q) structure acts as a single turn transformer that can accelerate from hundreds of amperes to tens of kiloamperes, basically only limited by the drive impedance. The LIA is typically a low gradient structure that can provide acceleration fields of varying shapes and time durations from tens of nanoseconds to several microseconds. The efficiency of the LIA depends on the beam current and can exceed 50% if the beam current exceeds the magnetization current required by the ferromagnetic material. The acceleration voltage available is simply given by the expression V=A dB/dt. Hence, for a given cross section of material, the beam pulse duration influences the energy gain. Furthermore, a premium is put on minimizing the diameter, which impacts the total weight or cost of the magnetic material. The diameter doubly impacts the cost of the LIA since the power (cost) to drive the cores is proportional to the volume as well. The waveform requirements during the beam pulse makes it necessary to make provisions in the pulsing system to maintain the desired dB/dt during the useful part of the acceleration cycle. This is typically done two ways, by using the final stage of the pulse forming network (PFN) and by the pulse compensation network usually in close proximity of the acceleration cell. The choice of magnetic materials will be made by testing various materials both ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic. These materials will include the nickel-iron, silicon steel amorphous and various types of ferrites not only to determine the properties that are essential in this application but the energy losses in the magnetization process which directly impact the cost.

  18. Steroid receptor coactivators as therapeutic targets in the female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Szwarc, Maria M; Lydon, John P; O'Malley, Bert W

    2015-11-01

    The steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs/p160/NCOA) are a family of three transcriptional coregulators initially discovered to transactivate the transcriptional potency of steroid hormone receptors. Even though SRCs were also found to modulate the activity of multiple other transcription factors, their function is still strongly associated with regulation of steroid hormone action and many studies have found that they are critical for the regulation of reproductive biology. In the case of the female reproductive tract, SRCs have been found to play crucial roles in its physiology, ranging from ovulation, implantation, to parturition. Not surprisingly, SRCs' action has been linked to numerous abnormalities and debilitating disorders of female reproductive tissues, including infertility, cancer, and endometriosis. Many of these pathologies are still in critical need of therapeutic intervention and "proof-of-principle" studies have found that SRCs are excellent targets in pathological states. Therefore, small molecule modulators of SRCs' activity could be applied in the future in the treatment of many diseases of the female reproductive system. PMID:26151740

  19. Steroid Receptor RNA Activator bi-faceted genetic system: Heads or Tails?

    PubMed

    Cooper, Charlton; Vincett, Daniel; Yan, Yi; Hamedani, Mohammad K; Myal, Yvonne; Leygue, Etienne

    2011-11-01

    The Steroid Receptor RNA Activator (SRA) was first identified by Lanz et al. in 1999 as a functional non-coding RNA able to co-activate steroid nuclear receptors. Since this incipient study, our understanding of SRA as a broader co-regulator of nuclear receptors as well as other transcription factors has greatly expanded. Accumulated data has now revealed the diverse roles played by this transcript in both normal biological processes such as myogenesis and adipogenesis, as well as in mechanisms underlying diseases including cardio-myopathies and cancers. Remarkably, as early as 2000, SRA isoforms were identified that were also able to code for a protein now referred to as the Steroid Receptor RNA Activator Protein (SRAP). SRA and SRAP now define a very intriguing bi-faceted genetic system, where both RNA and protein products of the same gene play specific and sometime overlapping roles in cell biology. Due to its initial molecular characterization as an RNA, most reports have in the last ten years focused on the non-coding part of this twosome. As such, only a handful of laboratories have investigated the molecular and biological roles played by SRAP. The scope of this review is to summarize and discuss our current knowledge of the molecular features and functions specifically attributable to the coding nature of the bi-faceted products of the SRA1 gene. PMID:21771633

  20. Induction of steroid sulfatase expression in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells by insulin-like growth factor II.

    PubMed

    Sung, Chul-Hoon; Im, Hee-Jung; Park, Nahee; Kwon, Yeojung; Shin, Sangyun; Ye, Dong-Jin; Cho, Nam-Hyeon; Park, Young-Shin; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Donghak; Chun, Young-Jin

    2013-11-25

    Human steroid sulfatase (STS) plays an important role in regulating the formation of biologically active estrogens and may be a promising target for treating estrogen-mediated carcinogenesis. The molecular mechanism of STS gene expression, however, is still not clear. Growth factors are known to increase STS activity but the changes in STS expression have not been completely understood. To determine whether insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II can induce STS gene expression, the effects of IGF-II on STS expression were studied in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that IGF-II treatment significantly increased the expression of STS mRNA and protein in concentration- and time-dependent manners. To understand the signaling pathway by which IGF-II induces STS gene expression, the effects of specific PI3-kinase/Akt and NF-κB inhibitors were determined. When the cells were treated with IGF-II and PI3-kinase/Akt inhibitors, such as LY294002, wortmannin, or Akt inhibitor IV, STS expression induced by IGF-II was significantly blocked. Moreover, we found that NF-κB inhibitors, such as MG-132, bortezomib, Bay 11-7082 or Nemo binding domain (NBD) binding peptide, also strongly prevented IGF-II from inducing STS gene expression. We assessed whether IGF-II activates STS promoter activity using transient transfection with a luciferase reporter. IGF-II significantly stimulated STS reporter activity. Furthermore, IGF-II induced expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) 1 and 3, whereas it reduced estrone sulfotransferase (EST) gene expression, causing enhanced estrone and β-estradiol production. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that IGF-II induces STS expression via a PI3-kinase/Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway in PC-3 cells and may induce estrogen production and estrogen-mediated carcinogenesis. PMID:24055520

  1. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories under the operating conditions for which certification is requested. (b) Each reciprocating...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories under the operating conditions for which certification is requested. (b) Each reciprocating...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories under the operating conditions for which certification is requested. (b) Each reciprocating...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories under the operating conditions for which certification is requested. (b) Each reciprocating...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories under the operating conditions for which certification is requested. (b) Each reciprocating...

  6. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  7. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  8. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  9. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  10. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  11. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  12. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  13. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  14. Deltonin, a steroidal saponin, inhibits colon cancer cell growth in vitro and tumor growth in vivo via induction of apoptosis and antiangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Qing-Yi; Qing, Yong; Shu, Dan; He, Yang; Zhao, Ying-Lan; Li, Yi; Wang, Zhen-Ling; Zhang, Shi-Yuan; Xing, Zhi-hua; Xu, Cheng; Wei, Yu-Quan; Huang, Wen; Wu, Xiao-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Deltonin, a steroidal saponin, isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis Wright (DZW), has shown high-cytotoxic activity in cancer cells. However, its mechanisms and in vivo anti-cancer effects remain unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the effects and explored the anti-tumor mechanisms of deltonin on a panel of colon cancer cell lines and in a mouse model of murine colon cancer C26. Deltonin had more cytotoxic effect on C26 cells than 5-fluorouracil had, promoting dramatic G2-M phase arrest and apoptosis in C26 cells in a concentration-dependent manner; oral administration of deltonin significantly inhibited the tumor growth and prolonged survival of the tumor bearing mice. The deltonin treatment caused a noticeable apoptosis in tumor tissue, which associated with increased levels of Bax, activated caspase-3, caspase-9, and cleaved poly (ADPribose) polymerase, decreased pro-caspase-8, pro-caspase-9, Bcl-2 expression levels and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 activity; and dose-dependently inhibit angiogenesis. In conclusion, the findings in this study demonstrated that deltonin is an effective natural agent for cancer therapy, which may be mediated, in part, by induction of apoptosis, as well as involve mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, and inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:21471712

  15. Anabolic Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... from some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

  16. Steroidal Saponins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

    The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

  17. [Serotonine and sex steroids in the system of neuroendocrine regulation of amygdala functions].

    PubMed

    Akhmadeev, A V; Kalimullina, L B

    2013-01-01

    This review contains modern information about the representation of serotoninergic system in the Amygdala with detailed characteristics of the localization of serotonine fibers and serotonine receptors in nuclear and paleocortical structures. These data indicate the joint participation of serotonine and sex steroids in the regulation of the neuroedocrine function of Amygdala, which have a modulating effect on the secretion and release gonadotropine centers and sexual behavior centers in the hypothalamic area of the brain. The survey also gives information about changes in the exchange of serotonine in the Amygdala's structures in the process of alimentary, maternal, aggressive-defensive and emotional behavior. Systematizes the data on the role of serotonin and sex steroids in the mechanisms involved in the stress response of Amygdala, and its participation in the formation of mood, emotions and the genesis of depression. Presented data on changes in morphometric characteristics of brain structures caused by polymorphic variants of genes of serotoninergic systems and data on the asymmetry of its content. PMID:25438560

  18. [Serotonine and sex steroids in the system of neuroendocrine regulation of amygdala functions].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    This review contains modern information about the representation of serotoninergic system in the Amygdala with detailed characteristics of the localization of serotonine fibers and serotonine receptors in nuclear and paleocortical structures. These data indicate the joint participation of serotonine and sex steroids in the regulation of the neuroedocrine function of Amygdala, which have a modulating effect on the secretion and release gonadotropine centers and sexual behavior centers in the hypothalamic area of the brain. The survey also gives information about changes in the exchange of serotonine in the Amygdala's structures in the process of alimentary, maternal, aggressive-defensive and emotional behavior. Systematizes the data on the role of serotonin and sex steroids in the mechanisms involved in the stress response of Amygdala, and its participation in the formation of mood, emotions and the genesis of depression. Presented data on changes in morphometric characteristics of brain structures caused by polymorphic variants of genes of serotoninergic systems and data on the asymmetry of its content. PMID:25508091

  19. Steroid osteopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible.

  20. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system icing...) and has a liquid water content not less than 0.3 grams per cubic meter in the form of drops having...

  1. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system icing...) and has a liquid water content not less than 0.3 grams per cubic meter in the form of drops having...

  2. EVALUATION OF AN INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA, MULTICHANNEL SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    An inductively coupled plasma, multielement atomic emission spectrometric analysis system has been evaluated with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency's need for a rapid method for determination of trace elemental concentrations in water. Data are presented on detection...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System... effects of temperature extremes, rain, fuel, oil, and solvents to which it is expected to be exposed...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System... effects of temperature extremes, rain, fuel, oil, and solvents to which it is expected to be exposed...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System... effects of temperature extremes, rain, fuel, oil, and solvents to which it is expected to be exposed...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System... effects of temperature extremes, rain, fuel, oil, and solvents to which it is expected to be exposed...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System... effects of temperature extremes, rain, fuel, oil, and solvents to which it is expected to be exposed...

  8. Induction soldering of photovoltaic system components

    SciTech Connect

    Kumaria, Shashwat; de Leon, Briccio

    2015-11-17

    A method comprises positioning a pair of photovoltaic wafers in a side-by-side arrangement. An interconnect is placed on the pair of wafers such that the interconnect overlaps both wafers of the pair, solder material being provided between the interconnect and the respective wafers. A solder head is then located adjacent the interconnect, and the coil is energized to effect inductive heating of the solder material. The solder head comprises an induction coil shaped to define an eye, and a magnetic field concentrator located at least partially in the eye of the coil. The magnetic field concentrator defines a passage extending axially through the eye of the coil, and may be of a material with a high magnetic permeability.

  9. Comparative evaluation of low-level laser and systemic steroid therapy in adjuvant-enhanced arthritis of rat temporomandibular joint: A histological study

    PubMed Central

    Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Moghareabed, Ahmad; Allameh, Maryam; Baradaran, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has shown a promising effect in ameliorating symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this investigation was to compare the early and late anti-inflammatory effects of LLLT and betamethasone in RA. Materials and Methods: In this animal experimental study, after inducing a model of RA in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of 37 Wistar rats using adjuvant injection, they were randomly distributed into three experimental groups of 12 animals each: (1) LLLT group; (2) steroid group which received a single dose of betamethasone systemically; and (3) positive control group, which did not receive any treatment. One rat served as the negative control. Half of the animals in all the experimental groups were sacrificed on the 21st day after RA induction (early phase), and the other half were sacrificed 2 weeks later (late phase). Then, the severity of TMJ inflammation was assessed histologically in each group on a semi-quantitative scale. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare differences (? = 0.05). Results: The LLLT and steroid groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower inflammation mean scores in both early (5.66 [1.86] and 1.66 [1.21], respectively) and late phases of evaluation (1.16 [1.47] and 6.50 [1.04], respectively) compared to positive control group in early and late stages of assessment (11.66 [3.50] and 8.66 [1.36], respectively). However, the best results (P < 0.005) were achieved in early phase of the steroid group as well as late phase of the LLLT group. Conclusion: Within limitations of this study, it may be concluded that LLLT method has a long-term promising effect on reducing inflammation severity of TMJ similar to betamethasone in earlier stages. PMID:26005460

  10. [Comparative study of the C27-steroid-hydroxylating system from bovine liver mitochondria].

    PubMed

    Gilevich, S N; Gur'ev, O L; Shkumatov, V M; Chashchin, V L; Akhrem, A A

    1987-02-01

    A method for purification of C27-steroid hydroxylating cytochrome P-450 (cytochrome P-450(27)) from bovine liver mitochondria was developed. The purification procedure included enzyme extraction from submitochondrial particles with sodium cholate, ammonium sulfate fractionation and biospecific chromatography on cholate-Sepharose and adrenodoxin-Sepharose. The resulting enzyme preparation (317-fold purification, 16% yield) was not electrophoretically homogeneous but did not contain hemoprotein admixtures. The kinetic parameters of 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-triol 27-hydroxylation in a reconstituted system containing hepatoredoxin reductase, hepatoredoxin and cytochrome P-450(27) (Km = 23 microM, kcat = 0.3 s-1 at 25 degrees C) were determined. A reciprocal functional equivalency of hepatoredoxin reductase and adrenodoxin reductase as well as of hepatoredoxin and adrenodoxin in reconstituted systems of steroid 27-hydroxylation (liver) and cholesterol side chain cleavage (adrenal cortex) was established. This equivalency was thought to be due to the similarity in essential physico-chemical properties of reductase components which was especially well-pronounced in the case of hepatoredoxin and adrenodoxin. Estimation of the functional role of lysine, dicarboxylic acid and histidine residues in ferredoxin molecules by the chemical modification method revealed the similarity of the structural organization of their protein globules: the polar residues were shown to be essential for the maintenance of native conformation; dicarboxylic acid residues formed a binding domain for the interaction with electron transport proteins, whereas histidine residues seem to participate in electron transport. At the same time, cytochrome P-450(27) and cytochrome P-450 which split the side chain of cholesterol differ in their substrate specificity, immunochemical and catalytic properties. PMID:3567245

  11. Mycobacterium intracellulare infection of the shoulder and spine in a patient with steroid-treated systemic Lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Zvetina, J.R.; Rubinstein, H.; Demos, T.C.

    1982-05-01

    Atypical mycobacterial infections of bone are rare. A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus treated with steroids developed an M. intracellulare infection of the shoulder and spine. These infections are insidious and diagnosis is difficult. Marked involvement of one joint, large effusion, or aspirated small synovial fragments suggest an atypical tuberculous joint infection.

  12. A magnetic induction measurement system for adult vital sign monitoring: evaluation of capacitive and inductive effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavi, H.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic induction (MI) measurement technique could provide an unobtrusive contactless method for continuous monitoring of vital signs such as breathing and cardiac activity in bed. In this paper, we present a magnetic induction system to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring heart and lung activity and the preliminary measurement results. The excitation and detection coils are designed to be implemented in a single printed circuit board, allowing the use of the system in a bed with coils under the mattress. The electronic system is based on a 16 bit arbitrary waveform generator (PXI-5422, National instrument) operating at a sample rate of 200 MS/s for the excitation signal and the detected amplified signal is then, sampled at 100 MS/s by a 14 bit digitizer (PXI-5122, National Instruments). The preliminary results at 10 MHz show the ability of the system to detect solutions with different conductivities. However the capacitive effect is in the same order of magnitude as the inductive effect due to eddy currents. Safety of the system has been evaluated to be in accordance with the standards of human exposure to the magnetic fields.

  13. Psoriatic Erythroderma and Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis Suppression Due to Misuse of Systemic Steroid: Two Challenging Cases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gautam K; Chatterjee, Manas

    2015-01-01

    Adding corticosteroid in homeopathic pills, self medication of steroid in the backdrop permanent cure in cases of psoriasis is not very uncommon in clinical practice in Indian subcontinent. First case a 52 year man, a known case of psoriasis vulgaris with psoriatic arthropathy of 15 years duration received multiple modalities of therapies without any satisfactory response. He was on self medication of tab prednisolone 10 mg daily with Cushingoid features. Second case a 22 year old boy, a known case of psoriasis from last 06 years was on Homeopathic treatment with Cushinoid features. Tapering of systemic steroid in first case and discontinuation of homeopathic drug in second case resulted in erythroderma and features of adrenal insufficiiency. Investigation revealed low morning cortisol and low cortisol following ACTH stimulation suggestive of HPA axis suppression. Planned withdrawal of steroid under the cover of short acting systemic steroid for short duration along with combination of immunosuppressants and supportive care gave an excellent result in both the cases. PMID:25814713

  14. Annual sex steroid profiles and effects of gender and season on cytochrome P450 mRNA induction in Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.J.; Courtenay, S.C.; Wilson, C.E.

    1998-08-01

    As a preliminary step in a 4-year biomonitoring program, sex steroid levels, gonad weights, and diameter of vitellogenic oocytes were measured in tomcod collected bimonthly from the Miramichi and Kouchibouguac rivers from September 1993 to September 1994. As well as the reproductive indices, hepatic levels of cytochrome P4501A mRNA (CYP1A mRNA) were also measured. The preparatory period for spawning began in September, with maximal steroid levels in November, and spawning took place from late December to January. The CYP1A mRNA levels in female tomcod appeared inversely related to plasma steroids, with the lowest amounts of CYP1A mRNA coinciding with maximal steroids. The CYP1A mRNA levels in male tomcod did not exhibit this relationship. River-river comparisons of female tomcod showed significantly smaller vitellogenic oocytes in the Miramichi, along with lower plasma testosterone, estradiol, and relative gonad weight. Miramichi CYP1A mRNA levels were higher than Kouchibouguac in the fall but lower in the spring sample. The CYP1A mRNA-sex steroid relationship observed in this study will facilitate meaningful interpretation of data collected during the full 4-year study.

  15. Power factor control system for AC induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A power factor control system for use with ac induction motors was designed which samples lines voltage and current through the motor and decreases power input to the motor proportional to the detected phase displacement between current and voltage. This system provides, less power to the motor, as it is less loaded.

  16. Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

    2012-10-23

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

  17. 14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and induction system. (a) The fuel system of the engine must be designed and constructed to supply an appropriate mixture of fuel to the cylinders throughout the complete operating range of the engine under all flight and atmospheric conditions. (b) The intake passages of the engine through which air or fuel...

  18. 14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and induction system. (a) The fuel system of the engine must be designed and constructed to supply an appropriate mixture of fuel to the cylinders throughout the complete operating range of the engine under all flight and atmospheric conditions. (b) The intake passages of the engine through which air or fuel...

  19. Inductive coupling system for endovascular aneurysm repair monitoring.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cristina; Almeida, Nuno; Machado da Silva, José

    2012-01-01

    Endoleaks are one of the major concerns in the long-term follow-up of endovascular aneurysm repair treatment (EVAR). Therefore, periodic monitoring is required to detect eventual damages in an implanted stent-graft. A monitoring system for post EVAR procedure based on inductive-coupling which avoids the need to resorting to more complex biomedical imaging systems is presented here. Endoleaks are detected with capacitive pressure sensors placed in the stent-graft and monitored externally after the measure of the oscillation frequency provided by the LC circuit created by sensors and inductive coupling. PMID:22942038

  20. Icing-Protection Requirements for Reciprocating-Engine Induction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, Willard D; Rollin, Vern G; Mulholland, Donald R

    1950-01-01

    Despite the development of relatively ice-free fuel-metering systems, the widespread use of alternate and heated-air intakes, and the use of alcohol for emergency de-icing, icing of aircraft-engine induction systems is a serious problem. Investigations have been made to study and to combat all phases of this icing problem. From these investigations, criterions for safe operation and for design of new induction systems have been established. The results were obtained from laboratory investigations of carburetor-supercharger combinations, wind-tunnel investigations of air scoops, multicylinder-engine studies, and flight investigations. Characteristics of three forms of ice, impact, throttling, and fuel evaporation were studied. The effects of several factors on the icing characteristics were also studied and included: (1) atmospheric conditions, (2) engine and air-scoop configurations, including light-airplane system, (3) type fuel used, and (4) operating variables, such as power condition, use of a manifold pressure regulator, mixture setting, carburetor heat, and water-alcohol injection. In addition, ice-detection methods were investigated and methods of preventing and removing induction-system ice were studied. Recommendations are given for design and operation with regard to induction-system design.

  1. Systems modeling for heavy ion drivers - an induction linac example

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bangerter, R.O.; Faltens, A.

    1997-09-30

    A source-to-target model for a induction linac driver for heavy ion fusion has been developed and is described here. Design features for a reference case driver that meets the requirements of one current target design are given, and the systems analyses supporting the point design are discussed. Directions for future work are noted.

  2. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system ducts. 23.1103 Section 23.1103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... (1) Fireproof within the auxiliary power unit compartment; (2) Fireproof for a sufficient...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ducts. 23.1103 Section 23.1103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... (1) Fireproof within the auxiliary power unit compartment; (2) Fireproof for a sufficient...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system ducts. 23.1103 Section 23.1103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... (1) Fireproof within the auxiliary power unit compartment; (2) Fireproof for a sufficient...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system ducts. 23.1103 Section 23.1103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... (1) Fireproof within the auxiliary power unit compartment; (2) Fireproof for a sufficient...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ducts. 23.1103 Section 23.1103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... (1) Fireproof within the auxiliary power unit compartment; (2) Fireproof for a sufficient...

  7. Induction Curing of Thiol-acrylate and Thiolene Composite Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Sheng; Cramer, Neil B.; Stevens, Blake E.; Sani, Robert L.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    Induction curing is demonstrated as a novel type of in situ radiation curing that maintains most of the advantages of photocuring while eliminating the restriction of light accessibility. Induction curing is utilized to polymerize opaque composites comprised of thiol-acrylate and thiol-ene resins, nanoscale magnetic particles, and carbon nanotubes. Nanoscale magnetic particles are dispersed in the resin and upon exposure to the magnetic field, these particles lead to induction heating that rapidly initiates the polymerization. Heat transfer profiles and reaction kinetics of the samples are modeled during the reactions with varying induction heater power, species concentration, species type and sample thickness, and the model is compared with the experimental results. Thiol-ene polymerizations achieved full conversion between 1.5 minutes and 1 hour, depending on the field intensity and the composition, with the maximum reaction temperature decreasing from 146 87 C when the induction heater power was decreased from 8 3 kW. The polymerization reactions of the thiol-acrylate system were demonstrated to achieve full conversion between 0.6 and 30 minutes with maximum temperatures from 139 to 86 C. The experimental behavior was characterized and the temperature profile modeled for the thiol-acrylate composite comprised of sub100nm nickel particles and induction heater power in the range of 32 to 20 kW. A 9C average deviation was observed between the modeling and experimental results for the maximum temperature rise. The model also was utilized to predict reaction temperatures and kinetics for systems with varying thermal initiator concentration, initiator half-life, monomer molecular weight and temperature gradients in samples with varying thickness, thereby demonstrating that induction curing represents a designable and tunable polymerization method. Finally, induction curing was utilized to cure thiol-acrylate systems containing carbon nanotubes where 1 wt% carbon nanotubes resulted in systems where the storage modulus increased from 17.6 0.2 to 21.6 0.1 MPa and an electrical conductivity that increased from <10?7 to 0.33 0.5 S/m. PMID:21765552

  8. Induction Linac Systems Experiments for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1994-06-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory propose to build at LBL the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step toward the eventual goal of a heavy ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Though much smaller than a driver, ILSE will be at full driver scale in several important parameters. Nearly all accelerator components and beam manipulations required for a driver will be tested. It is expected that ILSE will be built in stages as funds and technical progress allow. The first stage, called Elise will include all of the electrostatic quadrupole focused parts of ILSE.

  9. Induction Curing of Thiol-acrylate and Thiolene Composite Systems.

    PubMed

    Ye, Sheng; Cramer, Neil B; Stevens, Blake E; Sani, Robert L; Bowman, Christopher N

    2011-06-28

    Induction curing is demonstrated as a novel type of in situ radiation curing that maintains most of the advantages of photocuring while eliminating the restriction of light accessibility. Induction curing is utilized to polymerize opaque composites comprised of thiol-acrylate and thiol-ene resins, nanoscale magnetic particles, and carbon nanotubes. Nanoscale magnetic particles are dispersed in the resin and upon exposure to the magnetic field, these particles lead to induction heating that rapidly initiates the polymerization. Heat transfer profiles and reaction kinetics of the samples are modeled during the reactions with varying induction heater power, species concentration, species type and sample thickness, and the model is compared with the experimental results. Thiol-ene polymerizations achieved full conversion between 1.5 minutes and 1 hour, depending on the field intensity and the composition, with the maximum reaction temperature decreasing from 146 - 87 C when the induction heater power was decreased from 8 - 3 kW. The polymerization reactions of the thiol-acrylate system were demonstrated to achieve full conversion between 0.6 and 30 minutes with maximum temperatures from 139 to 86 C. The experimental behavior was characterized and the temperature profile modeled for the thiol-acrylate composite comprised of sub100nm nickel particles and induction heater power in the range of 32 to 20 kW. A 9C average deviation was observed between the modeling and experimental results for the maximum temperature rise. The model also was utilized to predict reaction temperatures and kinetics for systems with varying thermal initiator concentration, initiator half-life, monomer molecular weight and temperature gradients in samples with varying thickness, thereby demonstrating that induction curing represents a designable and tunable polymerization method. Finally, induction curing was utilized to cure thiol-acrylate systems containing carbon nanotubes where 1 wt% carbon nanotubes resulted in systems where the storage modulus increased from 17.6 0.2 to 21.6 0.1 MPa and an electrical conductivity that increased from <10(-7) to 0.33 0.5 S/m. PMID:21765552

  10. Control of cascaded induction generator systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortmeyer, T. H.

    1984-12-01

    This report documents an investigation of the stability and control of cascaded doubly fed machines (CDFM). These machines are brushless variable speed constant frequency electric power generators with potential for application in aircraft. A previous analytical study indicated the CDFM system would be controllable in the subsynchronous operating mode with a passive RL load. The present study contains two steps. First is an investigation of the machine operation in the supersynchronous mode. The second step is an investigation of machine operation with output capacitors providing excitation VARs for the machine and load. Step 1 results show that the machines exhibit stability characteristics in the supersynchronous mode similar to those observed in the subsynchronous mode. Step 2 results show that output capacitors degrade the system performance, particularly at light loads. The results show that output current feedback can be employed to improve the system performance.

  11. Induction generators for stand-alone micro-hydro systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, N.P.A.

    1995-12-31

    Micro-hydro schemes have an output of less than 100 kW. They are usually installed to supply electricity to small communities in remote areas which the grid fails to reach. Most micro-hydro schemes are located in the mountainous regions of developing countries, such as the Andes and Himalaya. By using appropriate designs, local skills and local manufacture these schemes can be more cost-effective than large hydro projects. By using self-excited induction generators rather than synchronous generators cost savings and reliability improvements can be achieved, due to the simple construction and inherent robustness of cage induction machines. However, until recently the extra cost and complexity of the voltage and frequency control equipment has more than offset the advantages of using stand-alone induction generators. This paper describes a new approach to controlling induction generators on stand-alone micro-hydro systems. The turbine power-speed characteristic and the relatively high magnetic saturation of modern induction machines are used to reduce the control equipment required. The implementation of the control approach is described along with considerations regarding generator selection and efficiency.

  12. Structure of steroids and their diffusion through blood vessel walls in a counter-current system

    SciTech Connect

    McCracken, J.A.; Schramm, W.; Einer-Jensen, N.

    1984-03-01

    Several substances including prostaglandin F2 alpha, progesterone and /sup 85/krypton have been shown to be transferred from the venous side to the arterial side of the circulation in the ovarian vascular pedicle. Experiments were therefore carried out to study the transfer of three pairs of steroids (progesterone and 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone, C-21; androstenedione and testosterone, C-19; and estrone and estradiol-17 beta, C-18) in which each member of a pair differed by one hydroxyl group. Each pair of steroids, one labeled with /sup 3/H and the other with /sup 14/C, were infused in sequence for 30 minutes into a side branch of an ovarian vein near the hilus of the ovary with a rest period of 90 minutes between infusions. An increase in radioactivity in ovarian arterial plasma compared to the radioactivity in an equal volume of aortic plasma sampled simultaneously was used as the index for a direct transfer of steroids from the ovarian vein to the adjacent ovarian artery. All six steroids showed such a transfer which began 3 to 6 minutes after the start of each infusion and decreased rapidly after the infusion was stopped. The results of this study also showed that a larger quantity of the less polar (ketonic) form of each steroid pair examined was transferred than its hydroxyl counterpart.

  13. Pulse Detonation Engine Air Induction System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, R. J.; Hunter, L. G.; Couch, B. D.

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary mixed-compression inlet design concept for potential pulse-detonation engine (PDE) powered supersonic aircraft was defined and analyzed. The objectives of this research were to conceptually design and integrate an inlet/PDE propulsion system into a supersonic aircraft, perform time-dependent CFD analysis of the inlet flowfield, and to estimate the installed PDE cycle performance. The study was baselined to a NASA Mach 5 Waverider study vehicle in which the baseline over/under turboramjet engines were replaced with a single flowpath PDE propulsion system. As much commonality as possible was maintained with the baseline configuration, including the engine location and forebody lines. Modifications were made to the inlet system's external ramp angles and a rotating cowl lip was incorporated to improve off-design inlet operability and performance. Engines were sized to match the baseline vehicle study's ascent trajectory thrust requirement at Mach 1.2. The majority of this study was focused on a flight Mach number of 3.0. The time-dependent Navier Stokes CFD analyses of a two-dimensional approximation of the inlet was conducted for the Mach 3.0 condition. The Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems-developed FALCON CFD code with a two equation 'k-1' turbulence model was used. The downstream PDE was simulated by an array of four sonic nozzles in which the flow areas were rapidly varied in various opening/closing combinations. Results of the CFD study indicated that the inlet design concept operated successfully at the Mach 3.0 condition, satisfying mass capture, total pressure recovery, and operability requirements. Time-dependent analysis indicated that pressure and expansion waves from the simulated valve perturbations did not effect the inlet's operability or performance.

  14. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system ducts and air duct systems. 25.1103 Section 25.1103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... induction system duct must be fireproof for a sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system ducts and air duct systems. 25.1103 Section 25.1103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... induction system duct must be fireproof for a sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system ducts and air duct systems. 25.1103 Section 25.1103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... induction system duct must be fireproof for a sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power...

  17. Interaction of steroids with the transport system of glucose in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Lacko, L; Wittke, B; Geck, P

    1975-12-01

    Steroids inhibit the exchange transport of glucose in human erythrocytes. The extent of inhibition is roughly correlated to the affinity of the steroids to the membrane lipids. All C-21-steroids tested show a competitive inhibition while the C-19-steriods show different types of inhibition. 5Beta-androstane-3,17-dione acts as a competitive inhibitor. The inhibition by testosterone is of mixed type, while with androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and 5alpha-androstane-3,17-dione a non-competitive inhibition is observed. In this case two inhibitor molecules can be bound per transport molecule. The "non-competitive" inhibitors compete also to some extent with the glucose binding. This effect, however, is at high inhibitor concentrations masked by the more powerful non-competitive inhibition. Competitive and non-competitive inhibitors compete with each other. The structural requirements for the different types of inhibition are discussed. PMID:1202039

  18. Steroid hormones, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems during rescue of the corpus luteum in pigs.

    PubMed

    Przygrodzka, E; Kaczmarek, M M; Kaczynski, P; Ziecik, A J

    2016-02-01

    In order to characterize the transition of the corpora lutea (CL) from acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity to rescue of luteal function: i) the expression of 38 factors associated with steroids, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems and ii) concentrations of the main hormones responsible for maintenance of CL function in cyclic and pregnant pigs were examined. Additionally, the effect of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2 ? on luteal function during the estrous cycle and pregnancy was evaluated in vitro. Significantly up-regulated gene expression was revealed in CL collected on day 14 of the estrous cycle (CYP19A1, ESR2, PTGS2, HIF1A, and EDN1) and on days 12-14 of pregnancy (SCARB1, PGRMC1, STAR, HSD3B1, NR5A1, PTGFR, PTGER4, and VEGFA). Elevated concentrations of estradiol-17? and PGE2 occurred in CL on days 12 and 14 of pregnancy respectively, while an increased intraluteal PGF2 ? content was noted on day 14 of the estrous cycle. Both PGs increased the synthesis of progesterone by cultured luteal slices obtained on day 14 of pregnancy, in contrast to the action of PGF2 ? on the corresponding day of the estrous cycle. PGE2 stimulated cAMP production via PTGER2 and PTGER4, while PGF2 ? elevated the content of CREB in cultured luteal slices from CL of pregnant pigs. In silico analysis showed that infiltration of lymphocytes and apoptosis of microvascular endothelium were activated in CL on day 12 of the estrous cycle vs pregnancy. Summarizing, an abundance of E2 and PGE2 during pregnancy regulates specific pathways responsible for steroidogenesis, the prostanoid signaling system and angiogenesis during rescue from luteolysis in porcine CL. PMID:26577025

  19. Electromagnetic induction moisture measurement system acceptance test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this acceptance test plan (ATP) is to verify that the mechanical, electrical and software features of the ElectroMagnetic Induction (EMI) probe are operating as designed,and that the unit is ready for field service. The accepted EMI and Surface Moisture Measurement Systems (SMMS) will be used primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement of organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

  20. Performances of Induction System for Nanosecond Mode Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly; /SLAC

    2006-05-16

    An induction system comprises an array of single turn pulse transformers. Ferromagnetic cores of transformers are toroids that are stacked along the longitudinal core axis. Another name for this array is a fraction transformer or an adder. The primary and secondary windings of such a design have one turn. The step up mode is based on the number of primary pulse sources. The secondary windings are connected in series. Performances of such a system for the nanosecond range mode operation are different in comparison to the performances of traditional multi-turn pulse transformers, which are working on a 100+ nanosecond mode operation. In this paper, the author discusses which aspects are necessary to take into account for the high power nanosecond fractional transformer designs. The engineering method of the nanosecond induction system design is presented.

  1. Real-Time System Verification by Kappa-Induction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Lee S.

    2005-01-01

    We report the first formal verification of a reintegration protocol for a safety-critical, fault-tolerant, real-time distributed embedded system. A reintegration protocol increases system survivability by allowing a node that has suffered a fault to regain state consistent with the operational nodes. The protocol is verified in the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL), where bounded model checking and decision procedures are used to verify infinite-state systems by k-induction. The protocol and its environment are modeled as synchronizing timeout automata. Because k-induction is exponential with respect to k, we optimize the formal model to reduce the size of k. Also, the reintegrator's event-triggered behavior is conservatively modeled as time-triggered behavior to further reduce the size of k and to make it invariant to the number of nodes modeled. A corollary is that a clique avoidance property is satisfied.

  2. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:24685768

  3. Effects of a Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System on the Expression of Steroid Receptor Coregulators in Adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Jeon, Young Eun; Seo, Seok Kyo; Park, Joo Hyun; Yoon, Sun Och; Cho, SiHyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok

    2015-12-01

    Although the pathophysiology of adenomyosis has not been clarified, it is thought to be related to ectopic endometrium, which depends on hormonal regulation. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is effective for the medical treatment of adenomyosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which LNG-IUS ameliorates adenomyosis pathology remain unclear. This study was designed to compare the expression levels of steroid receptor coregulators in human endometrium of control and participants with adenomyosis and to determine whether LNG-IUS modulated their expression. Immunohistochemistry with H-scores was performed. Steroid receptor coactivators were shown to have significantly decreased expressions at the secretory phase in the LNG-IUS group when compared to the other groups. Expression of transcriptional intermediary factor 2 was lower in the LNG-IUS group than in both the control group (P = .015) and the untreated adenomyosis group (P = .019) during the secretory phase. Amplified in breast cancer 1 expression was higher in the stromal cells of the untreated adenomyosis group than in those of the controls (P = .017) during the secretory phase; however, levels were lower in the LNG-IUS group (P = .005). Nuclear receptor corepressor expression increased during the proliferative phase and decreased during the secretory phase in untreated adenomyosis; this pattern was reversed in the control and LNG-IUS groups. Thus, an altered expression of steroid receptor coregulators may play a role in adenomyosis development and treatment. PMID:26040939

  4. Prevention of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of femoral head in systemic lupus erythematosus by anti-coagulant.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, K; Tada, Y; Koarada, S; Tsukamoto, H; Horiuchi, T; Yoshizawa, S; Murai, K; Ueda, A; Haruta, Y; Ohta, A

    2006-01-01

    Although osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONF) is one of the serious complications in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated with corticosteroid therapy, there has been few trials of prevention of ONF described. We aimed to prevent ONF in steroid-treated SLE patients using anticoagulant, warfarin, conducting a multicenter prospective study. Sixty newly diagnosed SLE patients requiring 40 mg/day or more prednisolone were alternately assigned to either of two groups; a warfarin group and a control one. Warfarin (1 to approximately 5 mg/day) was started together with the beginning of steroid therapy and continued at least for three months. Patients were observed for the development of silent ONF by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and symptomatic ONF by plain radiography for over five years. The warfarin group consisted of 31 patients (62 hips) and the control one 29 patients (58 hips). Silent ONF developed in 13 hips (21%) and 19 hips (33%) in the warfarin group and the control group, respectively (P = 0.13). On the other hand, warfarin tended to prevent symptomatic ONF; only three hips of 62 (4.8 %) in the warfarin group and eight hips of 58 (14%) in the control group (P = 0.08) developed silent ONF. It was also found that silent ONF developed, if it did, very early; within three months in 16 of 18 patients (89%). Among risk factors for silent ONF, steroid pulse therapy was most outstanding and it seemed to overcome the effect of warfarin. Taken together, for the time being, anti-coagulant therapy, if not significantly sufficient, may be of use for the prevention of steroid-induced ONF in SLE. We consider that this study added to important evidence for the pathogenesis and prevention of ONF. PMID:16830881

  5. Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

    1982-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

  6. Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

  7. Modeling of single-phase induction motor loads in power system studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed-Zaid, S.; Kelly, J.A.; Jang, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    Single-phase induction motor loads can greatly influence system performance and voltage stability. This report is the result of investigations to improve power system dynamic performance simulation using improved models of these induction motor loads.

  8. Induction Motor Drive System using V-connection AC Chopper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Jun-Ichi; Tajima, Hirokazu; Ohsawa, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a novel induction motor drive system using a three-phase V-connection ac chopper that consists of two single-phase ac choppers. There are three new topics proposed in this paper. Firstly, this paper proves that the three-phase V-connection ac chopper can be operated properly only if the input and the output voltages are in synchronism . Secondly, a novel commutation method for ac chopper isproposed. The proposed commutation method combines the load current commutation and the input voltage commutation. Therefore, by applying the proposed commutation method, voltage and current surge around zero crossing of the input voltage and the load current do not occur. Thirdly, a novel high effciency control method for induction motor is proposed. The proposed control method does not require d-axis and q-axis current components, but uses only the magnitude ofthe primary current. The whole control system has a very simple structure. These new topics are confirmed by experimental results on a 750W general-purpose induction motor.

  9. Control system for an induction motor with energy recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1983-11-01

    A control circuit for an induction motor powered system is disclosed in which a power factor controlled servo loop is used to control, via the phase angle of firing of a triac, the power input to the motor, as a function of load placed on the motor by machinery of the powered system. Then, upon application of torque by this machinery to the motor, which tends to overspeed the motor, the firing angle of the triac is automatically set to a fixed, and relatively short, firing angle.

  10. Control system for an induction motor with energy recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A control circuit for an induction motor powered system is disclosed in which a power factor controlled servo loop is used to control, via the phase angle of firing of a triac, the power input to the motor, as a function of load placed on the motor by machinery of the powered system. Then, upon application of torque by this machinery to the motor, which tends to overspeed the motor, the firing angle of the triac is automatically set to a fixed, and relatively short, firing angle.

  11. Surface moisture measurement system electromagnetic induction probe calibration technique

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, R.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-08

    The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) is designed to measure the moisture concentration near the surfaces of the wastes located in the Hanford Site tank farms. This document describes a calibration methodology to demonstrate that the Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) moisture probe meets relevant requirements in the `Design Requirements Document (DRD) for the Surface Moisture Measurement System.` The primary purpose of the experimental tests described in this methodology is to make possible interpretation of EMI in-tank surface probe data to estimate the surface moisture.

  12. Sex steroids in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Martocchia, A; Stefanelli, M; Cola, S; Falaschi, P

    2011-01-01

    A sexual dysmorphism in the immune response has been described and females display an increased incidence of autoimmune diseases. Experimental data show that sex steroids influence immune cell development and have immunomodulatory effects. The distribution, the action (genomic and nongenomic), the sex and tissue-depending expression pattern of estrogen, progesterone and androgen receptors and their functional disruptions in corresponding receptor knockout animals will be discussed, pointing out the difference among sex steroid hormones. Recent advances indicate an immunomodulatory role of sex steroids in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. The outcomes of the clinical trials will help to find the best use of sex steroids in combination with current therapeutic drugs in autoimmune diseases. Sex steroid receptor modulating drugs will provide new therapeutic approaches in these pathologies. PMID:21463254

  13. Investigation of inductively coupled ultrasonic transducer system for NDE.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cheng Huan; Croxford, Anthony J; Wilcox, Paul D

    2013-06-01

    Inductive coupling offers a simple solution to wirelessly probe ultrasonic transducers. This paper investigates the theory and feasibility of such an inductively coupled transducer system in the context of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications. The noncontact interface is based on electromagnetic coupling between three coils; one of the coils is physically connected to the transducer, the other two are in a separate probing unit, where they are connected to the transmit and receive channels of the instrumentation. The complete system is modeled as a three-port network with the measured impedance of a bonded piezoelectric ceramic disc representing a sensor attached to an arbitrary solid substrate. The developed transmission line model is a function of the physical parameters of the electromagnetic system, such as the number of turns and diameter of each coil, and their separation. This model provides immediate predictions of electrical input impedance and pulse-echo response. The model has been validated experimentally and a sensitivity analysis of the input parameters performed. This has enabled optimization of the various parameters. Inductively coupled transducer systems have been built for both bulk and guided wave examples. By using chirped excitation and baseline subtraction, inspection distance of up to 700 mm is achieved in single-shot, guided-wave pulse-echo mode measurements with a 5 mm separation between the probing coils and transducer coil on an aluminum plate structure. In the bulk wave example, a delamination in an 8.9-mm-thick carbon fiber composite specimen is successfully identified from the changes in the arrival time of a reflected pulse. PMID:25004474

  14. Predicting In-Hospital Treatment Failure (≤7 days) in Patients with COPD Exacerbation Using Antibiotics and Systemic Steroids.

    PubMed

    Crisafulli, Ernesto; Torres, Antoni; Huerta, Arturo; Guerrero, Mónica; Gabarrús, Albert; Gimeno, Alexandra; Martinez, Raquel; Soler, Néstor; Fernández, Laia; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Menéndez, Rosario

    2016-02-01

    Although pharmacological treatment of COPD exacerbation (COPDE) includes antibiotics and systemic steroids, a proportion of patients show worsening of symptoms during hospitalization that characterize treatment failure. The aim of our study was to determine in-hospital predictors of treatment failure (≤ 7 days). Prospective data on 110 hospitalized COPDE patients, all treated with antibiotics and systemic steroids, were collected; on the seventh day of hospitalization, patients were divided into treatment failure (n = 16) or success (n = 94). Measures of inflammatory serum biomarkers were recorded at admission and at day 3; data on clinical, laboratory, microbiological, and severity, as well data on mortality and readmission, were also recorded. Patients with treatment failure had a worse lung function, with higher serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 8, and IL-10 at admission, and CRP and IL-8 at day 3. Longer length of hospital stay and duration of antibiotic therapy, higher total doses of steroids and prevalence of deaths and readmitted were found in the treatment failure group. In the multivariate analysis, +1 mg/dL of CRP at admission (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.13) and use of penicillins or cephalosporins (OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 1.26 to 25.07) were independent variables increasing risk of treatment failure, whereas cough at admission (OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.75) reduces risk of failure. In hospitalized COPDE patients CRP at admission and use of specific class of antibiotics predict in-hospital treatment failure, while presence of cough has a protective role. PMID:26451913

  15. Sex steroid-independent effects of photostimulation on the song-control system of white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis).

    PubMed

    Robertson, Brian D; Hasstedt, Michael R; Vandermeer, Caitlin L; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2014-08-01

    Brain nuclei within the song-control system of songbirds are seasonally plastic during adulthood. These nuclei are larger in birds exposed to long, spring-like days than short, winter-like days. There is overwhelming evidence that this effect is mediated by testosterone (T). However, castration studies have also demonstrated that photostimulation has gonad-independent effects on song-control system plasticity, but these studies rarely control for extra-gonadal sources of T. In this study, we used anti-androgen and anti-estrogen treatments in combination with castration to determine the sex steroid-independent effects of photostimulation on HVC size and doublecortin immunoreactivity in white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis). Birds were kept on short days or photostimulated for 1 month. Photostimulated birds were intact, castrated and treated with anti-androgens and anti-estrogens, or castrated and treated with T. HVC volumes of photostimulated birds were significantly larger than short-day birds. HVC volume of castrated birds given anti-androgens/-estrogens was significantly larger than short-day birds, indicating a sex steroid-independent effect of photostimulation. Similar results were observed for RA. The number of migrating neurons (immunoreactive for doublecortin) in HVC did not differ between treatment groups. Our data support the view that photostimulation alone can drive song-control system nuclei growth, and that concurrent exposure to T potentiates this growth. Moreover, these effects do not appear dependent on modulation of neuron migration. PMID:24818971

  16. Induction of potato steroidal glycoalkaloid biosynthetic pathway by overexpression of cDNA encoding primary metabolism HMG-CoA reductase and squalene synthase.

    PubMed

    Ginzberg, Idit; Thippeswamy, Muddarangappa; Fogelman, Edna; Demirel, Ufuk; Mweetwa, Alice M; Tokuhisa, James; Veilleux, Richard E

    2012-06-01

    Potato steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are toxic secondary metabolites whose total content in tubers must be regulated. SGAs are biosynthesized by the sterol branch of the mevalonic acid/isoprenoid pathway. In a previous study, we showed a correlation between SGA levels and the abundance of transcript coding for HMG-CoA reductase 1 (HMG1) and squalene synthase 1 (SQS1) in potato tissues and potato genotypes varying in SGA content. Here, Solanum tuberosum cv. Desire (low SGA producer) was transformed with a gene construct containing the coding region of either HMG1 or SQS1 of Solanum chacoense Bitt. clone 8380-1, a high SGA producer. SGA levels in transgenic HMG-plants were either greater than (in eight of 14 plants) or no different from untransformed controls, whereas only four of 12 SQS-transgenics had greater SGA levels than control, as determined by HPLC. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to estimate relative steady-state transcript levels of isoprenoid-, steroid-, and SGA-related genes in leaves of the transgenic plants compared to nontransgenic controls. HMG-transgenic plants exhibited increased transcript accumulation of SQS1, sterol C24-methyltransferase type1 (SMT1), and solanidine glycosyltransferase 2 (SGT2), whereas SQS-transgenic plants, had consistently lower transcript levels of HMG1 and variable SMT1 and SGT2 transcript abundance among different transgenics. HMG-transgenic plants exhibited changes in transcript accumulation for some sterol biosynthetic genes as well. Taken together, the data suggest coordinated regulation of isoprenoid metabolism and SGA secondary metabolism. PMID:22205426

  17. The Data Acquisition System for a Kinetic Inductance Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Capasso, L.; Marchetti, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Data Acquisition System (DAQ) and the Front-End electronics for an array of Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) are described. KIDs are superconductive detectors, in which electrons are organized in Cooper pairs. Any incident radiation could break a pair generating a couple of quasi-particles that increase the inductance of the detector. The DAQ system we developed is a hardware/software co-design, based on state machines and on a microprocessor embedded into an FPGA. A commercial DAC/ADC board is used to interface the FPGA to the array of KIDs. The DAQ system generates a Stimulus signal suitable for an array of up to 128 KIDs. Such signal is up-mixed with a 3 GHz carrier wave and it then excites the KIDs array. The read-out signal from the detector is down-mixed with respect to the 3 GHz sine wave and recovered Stimulus is read back by the ADC device. The microprocessor stores read out data via a PCI express bus (PCIe) into an external disk. It also computes the Fast Fourier Transform of the acquired read out signal: this allows extrapolating which KID interacted and the energy of the impinging radiation. Simulations and tests have been performed successfully and experimental results are presented.

  18. Steroids (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Testing Talking to Kids About Steroids Stories about athletes and steroids seem to pop up regularly in the news. ... to produce muscle and prevent muscle breakdown. Some athletes take steroids in the hopes that they will improve their ...

  19. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... continue to abuse steroids despite physical problems, high costs to buy the drugs, and negative effects on their relationships. These behaviors reflect steroids' addictive potential. Research has further found that some steroid users turn ...

  20. The Detector System for the Stratospheric Kinetic Inductance Polarimeter ( Skip)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Araujo, D.; Bradford, K. J.; Chapman, D.; Day, P. K.; Didier, J.; Doyle, S.; Eriksen, H. K.; Flanigan, D.; Groppi, C.; Hillbrand, S.; Jones, G.; Limon, M.; Mauskopf, P.; McCarrick, H.; Miller, A.; Mroczkowski, T.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, B.; Smiley, B.; Sobrin, J.; Wehus, I. K.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2014-09-01

    The stratospheric kinetic inductance polarimeter is a proposed balloon-borne experiment designed to study the cosmic microwave background, the cosmic infrared background and Galactic dust emission by observing 1,133 deg of sky in the Northern Hemisphere with launches from Kiruna, Sweden. The instrument contains 2,317 single-polarization, horn-coupled, aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors ( Lekids). The Lekids will be maintained at 100 mK with an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The polarimeter operates in two configurations, one sensitive to a spectral band centered on 150 GHz and the other sensitive to 260 and 350 GHz bands. The detector readout system is based on the ROACH-1 board, and the detectors will be biased below 300 MHz. The detector array is fed by an F/2.4 crossed-Dragone telescope with a 500 mm aperture yielding a 15 arcmin FWHM beam at 150 GHz. To minimize detector loading and maximize sensitivity, the entire optical system will be cooled to 1 K. Linearly polarized sky signals will be modulated with a metal-mesh half-wave plate that is mounted at the telescope aperture and rotated by a superconducting magnetic bearing. The observation program consists of at least two, 5-day flights beginning with the 150 GHz observations.

  1. Topical Steroid-Damaged Skin

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anil; Roga, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder. PMID:25284849

  2. Localization and regulation of reproductive steroid receptors in the raphe serotonin system of male macaques.

    PubMed

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Phu, Kenny; Belikova, Yelena; Bethea, Sarah C

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) and serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) mRNAs are increased by the androgens, testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in serotonin neurons of male macaques. In addition, we observed that serotonin in axons of a terminal region were markedly decreased by aromatase inhibition and lack of estradiol (E) from metabolism of T. These observations implicated androgen receptors (AR) and estrogen receptors (ER) in the transduction of steroid hormone actions in serotonin neurons. Due to the longer treatment period employed, the expression of the cognate nuclear receptors was sought. We used single and double immunohistochemistry to quantitate and phenotypically localize AR, ER? and ER? in the dorsal raphe of male macaques. Male Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) were castrated for 5-7 months and then treated for 3 months with [1] placebo, [2] T, [3] DHT (non-aromatizable androgen) plus ATD (steroidal aromatase inhibitor), or [4] Flutamide (FLUT; androgen antagonist) plus ATD (n = 5/group). After single labeling of each receptor, quantitative image analysis was applied and receptor positive neurons were counted. Double-label of raphe neurons for each receptor plus TPH2 determined whether the receptors were localized in serotonin neurons. There were significantly more AR-positive neurons in T- and DHT+ATD-treated groups (p = 0.0014) compared to placebo or FLUT+ATD-treated groups. There was no difference in the number of positive-neurons stained for ER? or ER?? Double-immunohistochemistry revealed that serotonin neurons did not contain AR. Rather, AR-positive nuclei were found in neighboring cells that are likely neurons. However, approximately 40% of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons contained ER? or ER?? In conclusion, the stimulatory effect of androgens on TPH2 and SERT mRNA expression is mediated indirectly by neighboring neurons contain AR. The stimulatory effect of E, derived from T metabolism, on serotonin transport is partially mediated directly via nuclear ERs. PMID:25908331

  3. Steroid induction of therapy-resistant cytokeratin-5-positive cells in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer through a BCL6-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Goodman, C R; Sato, T; Peck, A R; Girondo, M A; Yang, N; Liu, C; Yanac, A F; Kovatich, A J; Hooke, J A; Shriver, C D; Mitchell, E P; Hyslop, T; Rui, H

    2016-03-17

    Therapy resistance remains a major problem in estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-positive breast cancer. A subgroup of ERα-positive breast cancer is characterized by mosaic presence of a minor population of ERα-negative cancer cells expressing the basal cytokeratin-5 (CK5). These CK5-positive cells are therapy resistant and have increased tumor-initiating potential. Although a series of reports document induction of the CK5-positive cells by progestins, it is unknown if other 3-ketosteroids share this ability. We now report that glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids effectively expand the CK5-positive cell population. CK5-positive cells induced by 3-ketosteroids lacked ERα and progesterone receptors, expressed stem cell marker, CD44, and displayed increased clonogenicity in soft agar and broad drug-resistance in vitro and in vivo. Upregulation of CK5-positive cells by 3-ketosteroids required induction of the transcriptional repressor BCL6 based on suppression of BCL6 by two independent BCL6 small hairpin RNAs or by prolactin. Prolactin also suppressed 3-ketosteroid induction of CK5+ cells in T47D xenografts in vivo. Survival analysis with recursive partitioning in node-negative ERα-positive breast cancer using quantitative CK5 and BCL6 mRNA or protein expression data identified patients at high or low risk for tumor recurrence in two independent patient cohorts. The data provide a mechanism by which common pathophysiological or pharmacologic elevations in glucocorticoids or other 3-ketosteroids may adversely affect patients with mixed ERα+/CK5+ breast cancer. The observations further suggest a cooperative diagnostic utility of CK5 and BCL6 expression levels and justify exploring efficacy of inhibitors of BCL6 and 3-ketosteroid receptors for a subset of ERα-positive breast cancers. PMID:26096934

  4. Steroid induction of therapy-resistant cytokeratin-5-positive cells in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer through a BCL6-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, C R; Sato, T; Peck, A R; Girondo, M A; Yang, N; Liu, C; Yanac, A F; Kovatich, A J; Hooke, J A; Shriver, C D; Mitchell, E P; Hyslop, T; Rui, H

    2016-01-01

    Therapy resistance remains a major problem in estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-positive breast cancer. A subgroup of ERα-positive breast cancer is characterized by mosaic presence of a minor population of ERα-negative cancer cells expressing the basal cytokeratin-5 (CK5). These CK5-positive cells are therapy resistant and have increased tumor-initiating potential. Although a series of reports document induction of the CK5-positive cells by progestins, it is unknown if other 3-ketosteroids share this ability. We now report that glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids effectively expand the CK5-positive cell population. CK5-positive cells induced by 3-ketosteroids lacked ERα and progesterone receptors, expressed stem cell marker, CD44, and displayed increased clonogenicity in soft agar and broad drug-resistance in vitro and in vivo. Upregulation of CK5-positive cells by 3-ketosteroids required induction of the transcriptional repressor BCL6 based on suppression of BCL6 by two independent BCL6 small hairpin RNAs or by prolactin. Prolactin also suppressed 3-ketosteroid induction of CK5+ cells in T47D xenografts in vivo. Survival analysis with recursive partitioning in node-negative ERα-positive breast cancer using quantitative CK5 and BCL6 mRNA or protein expression data identified patients at high or low risk for tumor recurrence in two independent patient cohorts. The data provide a mechanism by which common pathophysiological or pharmacologic elevations in glucocorticoids or other 3-ketosteroids may adversely affect patients with mixed ERα+/CK5+ breast cancer. The observations further suggest a cooperative diagnostic utility of CK5 and BCL6 expression levels and justify exploring efficacy of inhibitors of BCL6 and 3-ketosteroid receptors for a subset of ERα-positive breast cancers. PMID:26096934

  5. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  6. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the

  7. Induction of cell-specific apoptosis and protection of mice from cancer challenge by a steroid positive compound from Zornia diphylla (L.) Pers

    PubMed Central

    Arunkumar, R.; Nair, S. Ajikumaran; Subramoniam, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Zornia diphylla (L.) Pers is an ethnomedical herb. The aim of the study is to scientifically verify the traditional use of Z. diphylla as an anticancer medicine. Materials and Methods: Different extracts, fractions, and chemical isolates of the whole plant were screened for cytotoxicity to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) cells by the Trypan blue exclusion method and MTT assay. Column chromatographic and preparative TLC techniques were used for the isolation of active fraction (AF) and active principle. Cytotoxicity of AF to different cell types was tested. The apoptotic activity of AF was evaluated by morphological observations, nuclear condensation, and comet assay. In vivo antitumor activity of AF was determined in DLA-challenged mice. Short-term (29 days) preliminary toxicity evaluation of AF was done in mice. Results: n-Hexane extract (but not water and ethanol extracts) showed significant cytotoxicity. AF, isolated from n-hexane extract, induced apoptotic cell death (in vitro) to DLA cells, but not to normal thymocytes and macrophages. A steroid positive active principle was isolated which showed 100% cytotoxicity at 5 ?g/mL level. Interestingly, AF (50 mg/kg) protected all the mice challenged with one million DLA cells/mouse. AF (up to 10 times higher than the therapeutic dose) did not exhibit any conspicuous adverse toxic symptoms in the toxicity evaluation. Conclusion: Z. diphylla (AF) showed promising in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity against DLA cells, and it was devoid of any toxicity to mice in short-term toxicity evaluation. The herb is promising for the development of a valuable anticancer medicine. PMID:23129958

  8. Implantable flexible pressure measurement system based on inductive coupling.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cristina C; Sepúlveda, Alexandra T; Almeida, Nuno; Wardle, Brian L; da Silva, José Machado; Rocha, Luís A

    2015-02-01

    One of the currently available treatments for aortic aneurysms is endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). In spite of major advances in the operating techniques, complications still occur and lifelong surveillance is recommended. In order to reduce and even eliminate the commonly used surveillance imaging exams, as well as to reduce follow-up costs, new technological solutions are being pursued. In this paper, we describe the development, including design and performance characterization, of a flexible remote pressure measurement system based on inductive-coupling for post-EVAR monitoring purposes. The telemetry system architecture and operation are described and main performance characteristics discussed. The implantable sensor details are provided and its model is presented. Simulations with the reading circuit and the sensor's model were performed and compared with measurements carried out with air and a phantom as media, in order to characterize the telemetry system and validate the models. The transfer characteristic curve (pressure versus frequency) of the monitoring system was obtained with measurements performed with the sensor inside a controlled pressure vacuum chamber. Additional experimental results which proof the system functionality were obtained within a hydraulic test bench that emulates the aorta. Several innovative aspects, when compared to the state of the art, both in the sensor and in the telemetry system were achieved. PMID:25347867

  9. Adolescent Steroid Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

  10. Forward and reverse control system for induction motors

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.T.

    1987-09-15

    A control system for controlling the direction of rotation of a rotor of an induction motor includes an array of five triacs with one of the triacs applying a current of fixed phase to the windings of the rotor and four of the triacs being switchable to apply either hot ac current or return ac current to the stator windings so as to reverse the phase of current in the stator relative to that of the rotor and thereby reverse the direction of rotation of the rotor. Switching current phase in the stator is accomplished by operating the gates of pairs of the triacs so as to connect either hot ac current or return ac current to the input winding of the stator. 1 fig.

  11. Development of a linear induction motor based artificial muscle system.

    PubMed

    Gruber, A; Arguello, E; Silva, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the design of a linear induction motor based on electromagnetic interactions. The engine is capable of producing a linear movement from electricity. The design consists of stators arranged in parallel, which produce a magnetic field sufficient to displace a plunger along its axial axis. Furthermore, the winding has a shell and cap of ferromagnetic material that amplifies the magnetic field. This produces a force along the length of the motor that is similar to that of skeletal muscle. In principle, the objective is to use the engine in the development of an artificial muscle system for prosthetic applications, but it could have multiple applications, not only in the medical field, but in other industries. PMID:24111159

  12. Toroid Joining Gun. [thermoplastic welding system using induction heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. D.; Fox, R. L.; Swaim, R J.

    1985-01-01

    The Toroid Joining Gun is a low cost, self-contained, portable low powered (100-400 watts) thermoplastic welding system developed at Langley Research Center for joining plastic and composite parts using an induction heating technique. The device developed for use in the fabrication of large space sructures (LSST Program) can be used in any atmosphere or in a vacuum. Components can be joined in situ, whether on earth or on a space platform. The expanded application of this welding gun is in the joining of thermoplastic composites, thermosetting composites, metals, and combinations of these materials. Its low-power requirements, light weight, rapid response, low cost, portability, and effective joining make it a candidate for solving many varied and unique bonding tasks.

  13. Factors affecting the induction of 11 alpha-hydroxylase of progesterone in the filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans.

    PubMed

    Hudnik-Plevnik, T; Cresnar, B

    1990-05-01

    The 11 alpha-hydroxylase of progesterone was induced in the filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans ATCC 6227b with different steroids as inducers and the induction process was optimized in regard to the age of the mycelium, to the concentration of the inducer and to the time of induction. Deoxycorticosterone and testosterone, steroids with higher polarity of the side-chain than progesterone, although poorer substrates for in vivo hydroxylation than progesterone, induced more enzyme compared to progesterone. Other alterations in the steroidal ring system examined diminished the induction capability of the inducing steroid to different extent. The highest 11 alpha-hydroxylating activity, if expressed on the basis of mycelial wet weight, was achieved with 18 h old mycelium which was induced for 2 h with 0.30 mM deoxycorticosterone. PMID:2362437

  14. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. 29.1103 Section 29.1103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. 29.1103 Section 29.1103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. 29.1103 Section 29.1103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow...

  17. Low Inductance pulser system drives a fast magnet at DARHT.

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, E. A.; Bartsch, R. R.; Custer, D. M.; Ekdahl, C. A.; Montoya, R. R.; Smith, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    The DARHT facility [Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test] uses bremsstrahlung radiation from focused electron beams to produce radiographs. To produce a smaller spot size and, thus, a higher quality radiograph, one must be able to control the emittance of the electron beam. To that end, it is necessary to measure emittance. Emittance is measured by focusing the electron beam to a small size, such that the size is dominated by the emittance, as opposed to the space charge. Our electron beam, at 2 kA, 18 MV and 2 ps, would destroy any imaging target, were the full beam to be focused to minimal spot size for the full beam duration. The solution is to focus the beam for a short duration, a few tens of nanoseconds, using a fast solenoid magnet. This paper reports details of the pulsed power system used to drive the segmented magnet. The system consists of twenty pulsers, driving 60 cables to feed two headers on the magnet. The magnet itself consists of 12 individual loops, each segmented in three parts, for inductance reduction. The system is designed to produce one kilogauss over a 15-cm diameter and 60-cm length. The pulsers incorporate spark gaps that produce the main pulse with a half sine period of 125 ns and also clip the tail of the pulse to prevent refocusing of the beam. A five-to-one ratio between the first and second current peaks has been demonstrated [same polarity peaks].

  18. A measurement system and image reconstruction in magnetic induction tomography.

    PubMed

    Vauhkonen, M; Hamsch, M; Igney, C H

    2008-06-01

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a technique for imaging the internal conductivity distribution of an object. In MIT current-carrying coils are used to induce eddy currents in the object and the induced voltages are sensed with other coils. From these measurements, the internal conductivity distribution of the object can be reconstructed. In this paper, we introduce a 16-channel MIT measurement system that is capable of parallel readout of 16 receiver channels. The parallel measurements are carried out using high-quality audio sampling devices. Furthermore, approaches for reconstructing MIT images developed for the 16-channel MIT system are introduced. We consider low conductivity applications, conductivity less than 5 S m(-1), and we use a frequency of 10 MHz. In the image reconstruction, we use time-harmonic Maxwell's equation for the electric field. This equation is solved with the finite element method using edge elements and the images are reconstructed using a generalized Tikhonov regularization approach. Both difference and static image reconstruction approaches are considered. Results from simulations and real measurements collected with the Philips 16-channel MIT system are shown. PMID:18544825

  19. Module Eight: Induction; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The module covers in greater depth electromagnetic induction, its effects, and how it is used to advantage in electrical circuits; and the physical components, called inductors, designed to take advantage of the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. This module is divided into four lessons: electromagnetism; inductors and flux density, inducing…

  20. Birdsong and the neural production of steroids

    PubMed Central

    Remage-Healey, Luke; London, Sarah E.; Schinger, Barney A.

    2009-01-01

    The forebrain circuits involved in singing and audition (the ‘song system’) in songbirds exhibit a remarkable capacity to synthesize and respond to steroid hormones. This review considers how local brain steroid production impacts the development, sexual differentiation, and activity of song system circuitry. The songbird forebrain contains all of the enzymes necessary for the de novo synthesis of steroids - including neuroestrogens - from cholesterol. Steroid production enzymes are found in neuronal cell bodies, but they are also expressed in pre-synaptic terminals in the song system, indicating a novel mode of brain steroid delivery to local circuits. The song system expresses nuclear hormone receptors, consistent with local action of brain-derived steroids. Local steroid production also occurs in brain regions that do not express nuclear hormone receptors, suggesting a non-classical mode-of-action. Recent evidence indicates that local steroid levels can change rapidly within the forebrain, in a manner similar to traditional neuromodulators. Lastly, we consider growing evidence for modulatory interactions between brain-derived steroids and neurotransmitter/neuropeptide networks within the song system. Songbirds have therefore emerged as a rich and powerful model system to explore the neural and neurochemical regulation of social behavior. PMID:19589382

  1. A linear induction motor control system for magnetically levitated carrier system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azukizawa, Teruo; Morishita, Mimpei; Kanda, Shuji; Tamura, Noboru; Yokoyama, Toyohiko

    1989-05-01

    A electromagnetic suspension system has been developed that cuts off electric power-collecting devices from a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system makes it possible to transport materials with no mechanical contact at all between the vehicle and ground facilities. A control system for linear induction motors used in the magnetically levitated carrier system is described. The system was developed to transport materials in an environment which must be kept free from even microscopic dust motes and trivial noise. The linear induction motor control method used for positioning a vehicle at the station is described along with several kinds of switches without any mechanical motion in the ground facilities. A supervisory control system for the magnetically levitated carrier system is also discussed.

  2. Steroid mediated lysis of lymphoblasts requires the DNA binding region of the steroid hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Harbour, D V; Chambon, P; Thompson, E B

    1990-01-01

    Glucocorticoids kill certain types of lymphoblasts, but the mechanisms are unknown. It is clear that sufficient numbers of functional glucocorticoid receptors are required to mediate lysis, but whether they do so through the classical model of steroid hormone activation and modulation of gene expression has not been established. In this report we have asked which region(s) of the steroid receptor are important for mediating lysis in leukemic T lymphoblasts. CEM-ICR 27 leukemic lymphoblasts, a clone of CEM cells which lack functional glucocorticoid receptors and therefore are neither lysed by dexamethasone nor capable of showing glutamine synthetase induction, were provided with steroid receptors by DNA transfections of various receptor gene constructs. We measured steroid mediated lysis, receptor number and induction of glutamine synthetase in the transfected cells. Our results provide evidence that the lysis mechanism in the ICR27 lymphoblasts is restored when functional receptor number is restored. The DNA binding region specifying high affinity for GRE sites is required. Lysis is mediated by any steroid that allows for activation of the receptor containing such a region. Our data support the view that steroid-mediated cell death occurs by a process requiring direct interaction of steroid-receptor complexes with the genome. PMID:1968525

  3. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and are not the same as the anabolic steroids used illegally by some athletes for bodybuilding. Corticosteroids do not affect the liver or cause sterility Available as pills and syrups. Often ... lung disease, routine daily steroid pills may be required. Because long-term treatment ...

  4. Epidural Steroid Injections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cycle of pain and inflammation and allow the body to compensate for the condition. In this way, the injections can provide benefits that outlast the effects of the steroid itself. How Are Epidural Steroid Injections Performed? There ...

  5. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lead to violence. What are the other health effects of anabolic steroids? Aside from mental problems, steroid use commonly causes severe acne. It also causes the body to swell, especially in the hands and feet. ...

  6. Steroids (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body to grow larger and stronger. However, the effects of too much testosterone circulating in the body can be harmful over time. Dangers of Anabolic Steroids Steroids are dangerous for two reasons: they are ...

  7. Pesticide- and sex steroid analogue-induced endocrine disruption differentially targets hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal system during gametogenesis in teleosts - A review.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2015-08-01

    Pesticide-induced endocrine disruption often mimics sex steroidal action resulting in physiological functional disarray of hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) system at multiple levels. Among various group of pesticides, organochlorine and organophosphate family of pesticides are known to impart sex steroidal mimicking activity with slightly higher resemblance to estrogens when compared to androgenic action. This review will highlight the effects of organochlorine (for e.g. endosulfan) and organophosphate (for e.g. malathion) pesticides in comparison with sex-steroid analogue-induced changes on HHG axis during gametogenesis in few teleost fish models. Interestingly, the effects of these compounds have produced differential effects in juveniles and adults which also vary based on exposure dosage and duration. Further, the treatments had caused at times sexually dimorphic effects indicating that the action of these compounds bring out serious implications in sexual development. A comprehensive overview has been provided by considering all these aspects to recognize the adverse impacts of pesticide-induced endocrine disruption with special reference to endosulfan and malathion as those had been applied even today or used before for controlling agricultural pests in several Asian countries including India. This review also compares the effects of sex-steroid analogues where in sex reversal to reproductive dysfunction is evident, which may imply the extent of sexual plasticity in teleosts compared to other vertebrates. PMID:25637674

  8. Detection of speaking with a new respiratory inductive plethysmography system.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Frank H; Handke, Eva M; Roth, Walton T

    2003-01-01

    The LifeShirt system, a garment with integrated sensors connected to a handheld computer, allows recording of a wide variety of clinically important cardiorespiratory data continuously for extended periods outside the laboratory or clinic. The device includes sensors for assessment of physical activity and posture since both can affect physiological activation and need to be controlled. Speaking is another potential confounding factor in the interpretation of physiological data. Auditory speech recording is problematic because it can pick up sources other than the person's voice (external microphone) or is obtrusive (throat microphone). The abdominal and thoracic calibrated respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) sensors integrated in the LifeShirt system might be an adequate alternative for detecting speech. In a laboratory experiment we determined respiratory parameters indicative of speech. Eighteen subjects were instructed to sit quietly, write, and speak continuously, for 4 min each. Nine parameters were derived from the RIP signals and averaged over each minute. In addition, nine variability parameters were computed as their coefficients of breath-by-breath variation. Inspiratory/expiratory time (IE-ratio) best distinguished speaking from writing with 98% correct classification at a cutoff criterion of 0.52. This criterion was equally successful in distinguishing speaking from sitting quietly. Discriminant analyses indicated that linear combinations of IE-ratio and a variety of other parameters did not reliably improve classification accuracy across tasks and replications. These results demonstrate the high efficacy of RIP-derived IE-ratio for speech detection and suggest that auditory recording is not necessary for detection of speech in ambulatory assessment. PMID:12724882

  9. Clinical Practice of Steroid Avoidance in Pediatric Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nehus, E; Liu, C; Hooper, D K; Macaluso, M; Kim, M-O

    2015-08-01

    Steroid-avoidance protocols have recently gained popularity in pediatric kidney transplantation. We investigated the clinical practice of steroid avoidance among 9494 kidney transplant recipients at 124 transplant centers between 2000 and 2012 in the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database. The practice of steroid avoidance increased during the study period and demonstrated significant variability among transplant centers. From 2008 to 2012, 39% of transplant centers used steroid avoidance in <10% of all discharged transplant recipients. Twenty-one percent of transplant centers practiced steroid avoidance in 10-40% of transplant recipients, and 40% of transplant centers used steroid avoidance in >40% of discharged patients. Children receiving steroid avoidance more frequently received induction with lymphocyte-depleting agents. Repeat kidney transplants were the least likely to receive steroid avoidance. Children who received a deceased donor kidney, underwent pretransplant dialysis, were highly sensitized, or had glomerular kidney disease or delayed graft function were also less likely to receive steroid avoidance. The variation in practice between centers remained highly significant (p?steroid avoidance among transplant centers remain unexplained and may reflect uncertainty about the safety and efficacy of steroid-avoidance protocols. PMID:25908489

  10. Allantoin transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by two induction systems.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, T G; Chisholm, V T; Cho, H J; Yoo, H S

    1987-01-01

    We show that the allantoin transport system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to two induction systems, one mediated by allophanate or its analog oxalurate and the other mediated by allantoin or its analog hydantoin acetate. The effects of the two inducers were additive in strain M85. Like other allantoin pathway genes, oxalurate-mediated induction of allantoin transport required a functional DAL81 gene product. Hydantoin acetate-mediated induction of the system, on the other hand, occurred normally in dal81 mutants. This suggests that induction was not only mediated by two separate inducers, but also involved different regulatory proteins. Induction is probably a transcriptionally regulated process, because addition of hydantoin acetate or oxalurate to the culture medium increased the steady-state levels of mRNA encoded by a gene required for allantoin transport (DAL4). Images PMID:2820939

  11. The Role of Inductive Expert Systems Generators in the Social Science Research Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garson, G. David

    Most of what may be construed as political science has always proceeded through induction, which depends heavily on the insight, intuition, and personal brilliance of the particular author. Another approach that is closely associated with the early induction through examples is the expert system. The outcomes of this approach are not measures of

  12. NDCX-II PULSED POWER SYSTEM AND INDUCTION CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, W.L.; Reginato, L.L.; Leitner, M.

    2009-06-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is currently finalizing the design of NDCX-II, the second phase of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, which will use an ion beam to explore Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target hydrodynamics. The ion induction accelerator will include induction cells and Blumleins from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A test stand has been built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test refurbished ATA induction cells and pulsed power hardware for voltage holding and ability to produce various compression and acceleration waveforms. The performance requirements, design modifications, and test results will be presented.

  13. Space fabrication demonstration system. [beam builder and induction fastening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The development effort on the composite beam cap fabricator was completed within cost and close to abbreviated goals. The design and analysis of flight weight primary and secondary beam builder structures proceeded satisfactorily but remains curtailed until further funding is made available to complete the work. The induction fastening effort remains within cost and schedule constraints. Tests of the LARC prototype induction welder is continuing in an instrumented test stand comprised of a Dumore drill press (air over oil feed for variable applied loads) and a dynamometer to measure actual welding loads. Continued testing shows that the interface screening must be well impregnated with resin to ensure proper flow when bonding graphite-acrylic lap shear samples. Specimens prepared from 0.030 inch thick graphite-polyethersulfone are also available for future induction fastening evaluation.

  14. Antiphospholipids Syndrome Complicated by a Systemic Capillary Leak-Like Syndrome Treated With Steroids and Intravenous Immunoglobulins: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Prete, Marcella; Urso, Livio; Fatone, Maria Celeste; Pinto, Vincenzo; Perosa, Federico

    2016-02-01

    This report describes the onset of systemic capillary leak (SCL)-like syndrome in a 30-year-old woman with antiphospholipids syndrome (APS) during puerperium.Twelve hours after a cesarean section, she presented a sudden fever and abdominal pains followed by dyspnea, severe edema of the limbs and pelvis.Computer tomography shows congestion of interstitial pulmonary parenchyma, pericardial and pleural effusion, edema of intestinal wall and of perivisceral adipose tissue, and periportal lymphedema. Laboratory tests showed neutrophilic leukocytosis, hypoalbuminemia, and an increase of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. Because fever and raised inflammation parameters are not observed in idiopathic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS; Clarkson disease), a diagnosis of SCL-like syndrome was made.Albumin solution, high-dose methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) infusion were administered with a rapid improvement of her clinical condition.The prompt treatment with steroids and IVIG likely prevented the life-threatening shock syndrome that can occur in SCLS, with acute hypotensive attacks, and severe limbs edema requiring fasciotomy.All clinical and laboratory findings supported autoinflammation as the underlying pathogenic mechanism of the syndrome. The data indicate that SCL-like syndrome can be considered a novel clinical syndrome, which can complicate APS. PMID:26844485

  15. Power factor control system for ac induction motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1981-05-01

    A power control circuit for an induction motor is disclosed in which a servo loop is used to control power input by controlling the power factor of motor operation. The power factor is measured by summing the voltage and current derived square wave signals.

  16. Towards a Clinical Induction System for School Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licata, Joseph W.; Ellett, Chad D.

    This paper explains the clinical induction experience for beginning school principals. It reflects two themes: emphasis on supervised practice and demonstrated competence as well as networking and collaboration among stakeholders. Generally, it describes the intricacies of an experimental program developed by Louisiana State University faculty in

  17. Power factor control system for ac induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A power control circuit for an induction motor is disclosed in which a servo loop is used to control power input by controlling the power factor of motor operation. The power factor is measured by summing the voltage and current derived square wave signals.

  18. System analysis and design for the resonant inductive nearfield generation system (RINGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alinger, Dustin James

    The Resonant Inductive Near-field Generation System (RINGS) is a technology demonstrator experiment which will allow for the first ever testing of electromagnetic formation flight (EMFF) algorithms in a full six degree of freedom environment on board the International Space Station (ISS). RINGS is a hybrid design, which, in addition to providing EMFF capabilities, also allows for wireless power transfer (WPT) via resonant inductive coupling. This thesis presents an overview of the mechanical and electrical design of the RINGS experiment, as well as simulation techniques used to model various system parameters in both EMFF and WPT operational modes. Also presented is an analytical and experimental investigation of the influence of the proximity effect on a multi-layer flat spiral coil made from ribbon wire.

  19. ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY AND STEROID HORMONES IN SWINE WASTEWATER PROCESSED THROUGH A LAGOON CONSTRUCTED-WETLAND SYSTEM.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons and treatment wetlands are used world-wide to treat wastewater from dense livestock production facilities. However, there is very limited data on the hormonal activity of the wastewater effluent produced by these treatment systems. The objectives of this experiment were to measur...

  20. System and method of adjusting the equilibrium temperature of an inductively-heated susceptor

    SciTech Connect

    Matsen, Marc R; Negley, Mark A; Geren, William Preston

    2015-02-24

    A system for inductively heating a workpiece may include an induction coil, at least one susceptor face sheet, and a current controller coupled. The induction coil may be configured to conduct an alternating current and generate a magnetic field in response to the alternating current. The susceptor face sheet may be configured to have a workpiece positioned therewith. The susceptor face sheet may be formed of a ferromagnetic alloy having a Curie temperature and being inductively heatable to an equilibrium temperature approaching the Curie temperature in response to the magnetic field. The current controller may be coupled to the induction coil and may be configured to adjust the alternating current in a manner causing a change in at least one heating parameter of the susceptor face sheet.

  1. Steroid extraction in a microchannel system--mathematical modelling and experiments.

    PubMed

    Znidarsic-Plazl, Polona; Plazl, Igor

    2007-07-01

    The continuous ethyl acetate extraction of progesterone and 11alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, a reactant and the product of the biotransformation step involved in corticosteroid production, was studied in a microchannel at different flow velocities. In addition, non-steady state batch extraction without mixing was performed and modelled in order to verify the theoretically predicted parameters. In order to analyze experimental data and to forecast microreactor performance, a three-dimensional mathematical model with convection and diffusion terms was developed considering the velocity profile for laminar flow of two parallel phases in a microchannel at steady-state conditions. For the numerical solution of a complex equation system, non-equidistant finite differences were used. Very good agreement between model calculations and experimental data was achieved without any fitting procedure. Due to the efficient phase separation and high extraction yields obtained, the micro scale extraction units were found to be a promising tool for the development of an integrated system of 11alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone by Rhizopus nigricans in the form of pellets. PMID:17594008

  2. Testing the effects of long-acting steroids in edema and ecchymosis after closed rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Santiago; Wuesthoff, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Steroids have proven to be of some benefit in rhinoplasty edema and ecchymosis when administered at a high and repeated dose. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of single-dose, long-acting intramuscular steroids on postoperative edema and ecchymosis after closed rhinoplasty with osteotomies compared with placebo. METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was performed. Fifty-four patients were randomly assigned to two groups: 28 received a single dose of long-acting dexamethasone (mean [± SD] dose 16±4 mg) immediately before anesthetic induction; the remaining 26 received an intramuscular injection of saline solution. The same surgeon performed all surgeries, with patients under general anesthesia. Acetaminophen was the only analgesic used to control postoperative pain. High-resolution digital photographs were taken on postoperative days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Scoring was performed separately for eyelid swelling and ecchymosis by an independent observer using a graded scale (0 to 5) for edema and a scoring system (0 to 13) for ecchymosis. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in terms of age, sex or amount of bleeding during surgery were found between the two groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in the decrease of both ecchymosis and edema between placebo and high-dose, long-acting dexamethasone. A statistically significant difference in operation time was found, favouring the steroid group. No severe complications were observed due to steroid use. DISCUSSION: Osteotomies are basically a form of (controlled) trauma, with considerable disruption of the abundant blood vessels in this facial region and, therefore, are associated with with undesirable effects. A recent meta-analysis failed to show benefits of the use of steroids after postoperative day 3. Only a trend toward reduction in edema and ecchymosis with the use of long-acting steroids compared with placebo was demonstrated in the present study. CONCLUSION: There was no benefit in administering single-dose, long-acting steroids in patients undergoing closed rhinoplasty with osteotomies. PMID:25114618

  3. Systemic signalling in photosynthetic induction of Rumex?K-1 (Rumex patientia??Rumex tianschaious) leaves.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fei; Jin, Li-Qiao; Zhang, Zi-Shan; Gao, Hui-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    The rapid induction of photosynthesis is critical for plants under light-fleck environment. Most previous studies about photosynthetic induction focused upon single leaf, but they did not consider the systemic integrity of plant. Here, we verified whether systemic signalling is involved in photosynthetic induction. Rumex?K-1 (Rumex patientia??Rumex tianschaious) plants were grown under light-fleck condition. After whole night dark adaptation, different numbers of leaves (system leaf or SL) were pre-illuminated with light, and then the photosynthetic induction of other leaves (target leaf or TL) was investigated. This study showed that the pre-illumination of SL promoted photosynthetic induction in TL. This promotion was independent of the number of SL, the light intensity on SL and the distance between SL and TL, indicating that this systemic signalling is non-dose-dependent. More interestingly, the photosynthetic induction was promoted by only the pre-illumination of morphological upper leaf rather than the pre-illumination of morphological lower leaf, indicating that the transfer of this signal is directional. The results showed that the transfer of this systemic signalling depends upon the phloem. This systemic signalling helps plants to use light energy more efficiently under light flecks. PMID:25124181

  4. Power Control of New Wind Power Generation System with Induction Generator Excited by Voltage Source Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morizane, Toshimitsu; Kimura, Noriyuki; Taniguchi, Katsunori

    This paper investigates advantages of new combination of the induction generator for wind power and the power electronic equipment. Induction generator is popularly used for the wind power generation. The disadvantage of it is impossible to generate power at the lower rotor speed than the synchronous speed. To compensate this disadvantage, expensive synchronous generator with the permanent magnets is sometimes used. In proposed scheme, the diode rectifier is used to convert the real power from the induction generator to the intermediate dc voltage, while only the reactive power necessary to excite the induction generator is supplied from the voltage source converter (VSC). This means that the rating of the expensive VSC is minimized and total cost of the wind power generation system is decreased compared to the system with synchronous generator. Simulation study to investigate the control strategy of proposed system is performed. The results show the reduction of the VSC rating is prospective.

  5. Developmental Programming: Does Prenatal Steroid Excess Disrupt the Ovarian VEGF System in Sheep?

    PubMed

    Ortega, Hugo Hctor; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Sreedharan, Shilpa; del Lujn Velzquez, Melisa Mara; Salvetti, Natalia Raquel; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T), but not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), excess disrupts ovarian cyclicity and increases follicular recruitment and persistence. We hypothesized that the disruption in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system contributes to the enhancement of follicular recruitment and persistence in prenatal T-treated sheep. The impact of T/DHT treatments from Days 30 to 90 of gestation on VEGFA, VEGFB, and their receptor (VEGFR-1 [FLT1], VEGFR-2 [KDR], and VEGFR-3 [FLT4]) protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry on Fetal Days 90 and 140, 22 wk, 10 mo (postpubertal), and 21 mo (adult) of age. Arterial morphometry was performed in Fetal Day 140 and postpubertal ovaries. VEGFA and VEGFB expression were found in granulosa cells at all stages of follicular development with increased expression in antral follicles. VEGFA was present in theca interna, while VEGFB was present in theca interna/externa and stromal cells. All three receptors were expressed in the granulosa, theca, and stromal cells during all stages of follicular development. VEGFR-3 increased with follicular differentiation with the highest level seen in the granulosa cells of antral follicles. None of the members of the VEGF family or their receptor expression were altered by age or prenatal T/DHT treatments. At Fetal Day 140, area, wall thickness, and wall area of arteries from the ovarian hilum were larger in prenatal T- and DHT-treated females, suggestive of early androgenic programming of arterial differentiation. This may facilitate increased delivery of endocrine factors and thus indirectly contribute to the development of the multifollicular phenotype. PMID:26178718

  6. Thermodynamic induction effects exhibited in nonequilibrium systems with variable kinetic coefficients.

    PubMed

    Patitsas, S N

    2014-01-01

    A nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory demonstrating an induction effect of a statistical nature is presented. We have shown that this thermodynamic induction can arise in a class of systems that have variable kinetic coefficients (VKC). In particular if a kinetic coefficient associated with a given thermodynamic variable depends on another thermodynamic variable then we have derived an expression that can predict the extent of the induction. The amount of induction is shown to be proportional to the square of the driving force. The nature of the intervariable coupling for the induction effect has similarities with the Onsager symmetry relations, though there is an important sign difference as well as the magnitudes not being equal. Thermodynamic induction adds nonlinear terms that improve the stability of stationary states, at least within the VKC class of systems. Induction also produces a term in the expression for the rate of entropy production that could be interpreted as self-organization. Many of these results are also obtained using a variational approach, based on maximizing entropy production, in a certain sense. Nonequilibrium quantities analogous to the free energies of equilibrium thermodynamics are introduced. PMID:24580173

  7. Acceleration units for the Induction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE)

    SciTech Connect

    Faltens, A.; Brady, V.; Brodzik, D.; Hansen, L.; Laslett, L.J.; Mukherjee, S.; Bubp, D.; Ravenscroft, D.; Reginato, L.

    1989-03-01

    The design of a high current heavy ion induction linac driver for inertial confinement fusion is optimized by adjusting the acceleration units along the length of the accelerator to match the beam current, energy, and pulse duration at any location. At the low energy end of the machine the optimum is a large number of electrostatically focused parallel beamlets, whereas at higher energies the optimum is a smaller number of magnetically focused beams. ILSE parallels this strategy by using 16 electrostatically focused beamlets at the low end followed by 4 magnetically focused beams after beam combining. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Scaling and Systems Considerations in Pulsed Inductive Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Performance scaling in pulsed inductive thrusters is discussed in the context of previous experimental studies and modeling results. Two processes, propellant ionization and acceleration, are interconnected where overall thruster performance and operation are concerned, but they are separated here to gain physical insight into each process and arrive at quantitative criteria that should be met to address or mitigate inherent inductive thruster difficulties. The effects of preionization in lowering the discharge energy requirements relative to a case where no preionization is employed, and in influencing the location of the initial current sheet, are described. The relevant performance scaling parameters for the acceleration stage are reviewed, emphasizing their physical importance and the numerical values required for efficient acceleration. The scaling parameters are then related to the design of the pulsed power train providing current to the acceleration stage. The impact of various choices in pulsed power train and circuit topology selection are reviewed, paying special attention to how these choices mitigate or exacerbate switching, lifetime, and power consumption issues.

  9. A study of carburetor/induction system icing in general aviation accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obermayer, R. W.; Roe, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    An assessment of the frequency and severity of carburetor/induction icing in general-aviation accidents was performed. The available literature and accident data from the National Transportation Safety Board were collected. A computer analysis of the accident data was performed. Between 65 and 90 accidents each year involve carburetor/induction system icing as a probable cause/factor. Under conditions conducive to carburetor/induction icing, between 50 and 70 percent of engine malfunction/failure accidents (exclusive of those due to fuel exhaustion) are due to carburetor/induction system icing. Since the evidence of such icing may not remain long after an accident, it is probable that the frequency of occurrence of such accidents is underestimated; therefore, some extrapolation of the data was conducted. The problem of carburetor/induction system icing is particularly acute for pilots with less than 1000 hours of total flying time. The severity of such accidents is about the same as any accident resulting from a forced landing or precautionary landing. About 144 persons, on the average, are exposed to death and injury each year in accidents involving carburetor/induction icing as a probable cause/factor.

  10. System modeling for the longitudinal beam dynamics control problem in heavy ion induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, A.N.

    1993-05-17

    We address the problem of developing system models that are suitable for studying the control of the longitudinal beam dynamics in induction accelerators for heavy ions. In particular, we present the preliminary results of our efforts to devise a general framework for building detailed, integrated models of accelerator systems consisting of pulsed power modular circuits, induction cells, beam dynamics, and control system elements. Such a framework will permit us to analyze and design the pulsed power modulators and the control systems required to effect precise control over the longitudinal beam dynamics.

  11. The Escherichia coli CRISPR system protects from ? lysogenization, lysogens, and prophage induction.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Rotem; Qimron, Udi

    2010-12-01

    We show that phage lysogenization, lysogens, and prophage induction are all targeted by CRISPR. The results demonstrate that genomic DNA is not immune to the CRISPR system, that the CRISPR system does not require noncytoplasmic elements, and that the system protects from phages entering and exiting the lysogenic cycle. PMID:20889749

  12. Dynamic Performance of Subway Vehicle with Linear Induction Motor System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pingbo; Luo, Ren; Hu, Yan; Zeng, Jing

    The light rail vehicle with Linear Induction Motor (LIM) bogie, which is a new type of urban rail traffic tool, has the advantages of low costs, wide applicability, low noise, simple maintenance and better dynamic behavior. This kind of vehicle, supported and guided by the wheel and rail, is not driven by the wheel/rail adhesion force, but driven by the electromagnetic force between LIM and reaction plate. In this paper, three different types of suspensions and their characteristic are discussed with considering the interactions both between wheel and rail and between LIM and reaction plate. A nonlinear mathematical model of the vehicle with LIM bogie is set up by using the software SIMPACK, and the electromechanical model is also set up on Simulink roof. Then the running behavior of the LIM vehicle is simulated, and the influence of suspension on the vehicle dynamic performance is investigated.

  13. Induction motor control system with voltage controlled oscillator circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.; Currie, J. R.; Reid, H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A voltage controlled oscillator circuit is reported in which there are employed first and second differential amplifiers. The first differential amplifier, being employed as an integrator, develops equal and opposite slopes proportional to an input voltage, and the second differential amplifier functions as a comparator to detect equal amplitude positive and negative selected limits and provides switching signals which gate a transistor switch. The integrating differential amplifier is switched between charging and discharging modes to provide an output of the first differential amplifier which upon the application of wave shaping provides a substantially sinusoidal output signal. A two phased version with a second integrator provides a second 90 deg phase shifted output for induction motor control.

  14. Inductance effects in the high-power transmitter crowbar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daeges, J.; Bhanji, A.

    1987-01-01

    The effective protection of a klystron in a high-power transmitter requires the diversion of all stored energy in the protected circuit through an alternate low-impedance path, the crowbar, such that less than 1 joule of energy is dumped into the klystron during an internal arc. A scheme of adding a bypass inductor in the crowbar-protected circuit of the high-power transmitter was tested using computer simulations and actual measurements under a test load. Although this scheme has several benefits, including less power dissipation in the resistor, the tests show that the presence of inductance in the portion of the circuit to be protected severely hampers effective crowbar operation.

  15. Method and system for determining induction motor speed

    DOEpatents

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Bharadwaj, Raj M.

    2004-03-30

    A non-linear, semi-parametric neural network-based adaptive filter is utilized to determine the dynamic speed of a rotating rotor within an induction motor, without the explicit use of a speed sensor, such as a tachometer, is disclosed. The neural network-based filter is developed using actual motor current measurements, voltage measurements, and nameplate information. The neural network-based adaptive filter is trained using an estimated speed calculator derived from the actual current and voltage measurements. The neural network-based adaptive filter uses voltage and current measurements to determine the instantaneous speed of a rotating rotor. The neural network-based adaptive filter also includes an on-line adaptation scheme that permits the filter to be readily adapted for new operating conditions during operations.

  16. The relaxant effect of sex steroids in rat myometrium is independent of the gamma-amino butyric acid system.

    PubMed

    Perusqua, M; Villaln, C M

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of action on the uterine-relaxant effect of sex steroids has been suggested to involve an interaction with gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors. However, other lines of evidence do not seem to support this suggestion. In view of this controversy, this study was designed to investigate the potential relaxant effect of GABA, muscimol (a GABA(A) receptor agonist), testosterone, progesterone and their 5-reduced metabolites in rat uterus at different endocrine stages (pregnant, nonpregnant and estrogenized), with particular emphasis on verifying if the relaxant effect of steroids involves an interaction with GABA(A) receptors. Contractions from uterine rings were recorded by isometric method, the sequential addition of either GABA (at different concentrations) on the spontaneous and KCl-induced contraction or muscimol (also at different concentrations) on the contraction induced by KCl was devoid of any significant effect. In contrast, the sequential addition of progesterone relaxed the tonic KCl-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect of progesterone was mimicked by its 5-reduced metabolites. The 5(beta)-configured isomers were more potent than progesterone and the 5(alpha)-configured ones. Interestingly, the relaxation produced by the above steroids was not blocked by the GABA(A) receptor antagonists, picrotoxin or bicuculline, but was reversed by calcium. Taken together, the above findings suggest that the relaxant action of the sex steroids analyzed in this study is not mediated by an interaction with GABA(A) receptors, instead a blockade of calcium influx appears to be responsible. PMID:8786697

  17. Optimal efficiency vector control of induction motor drive system for drum washing machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won Cheol; Yu, Jae Sung; Jang, Bong An; Won, Chung Yuen

    2005-12-01

    In home appliances, electric energy is optimally controlled by using power electronics technology, creating a comfortable environment in terms of energy saving, low sound generation, and reduced time consumption. Usually simplicity and robustness make the three phase induction motor attractive for use in domestic appliance, including washing machines. Two main types of domestic washing machine have evolved. We focus on efficiency of the front loading machine favored in Europe, which has a horizontal drum axis. This paper presents the control algorithm for optimal efficiency drives of an induction motor for drum washing machine. This system uses a simple model of the induction motor that include equations of the iron losses. The proposed optimal efficiency control algorithm calculates commands of the reference torque and flux currents for the flux oriented control of the induction motor. The proposed algorithm is verified through digital simulation.

  18. Deposition Of Materials Using A Simple Planar Coil Radio Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasma System

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K. H.; Wong, C. S.; Yap, S. L.; Gan, S. N.

    2009-07-07

    A planar coil RF inductively coupled plasma (PC-RFICP) systems is set up for the purpose of thin film deposition. The system is powered by a 13.56 MHz, 550 W, 50 OMEGA RF generator. The RF power is transferred to the plasma via a planar induction coil. The impedance matching unit consists of an air core step-down transformer and a tunable vacuum capacitor. This system is used for the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film on silicon substrate, and hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) film.

  19. Anabolic steroid abuse.

    PubMed

    Landry, G L; Primos, W A

    1990-01-01

    Anabolic steroids are capable of increasing strength and muscle bulk in certain individuals when combined with a proper diet and an intense training program. Any steroid that is anabolic is also androgenic. Anabolic steroids are fraught with numerous side effects, a few of which are potentially life threatening, and some of which are permanent. Most of the side effects are mild and reversible. Use of anabolic steroids in sports is as much a moral issue as a medical one. Drug testing has not been a very successful means to eradicate abuse in the sporting arena. Education alone is probably not the answer to stopping anabolic steroid abuse but is an essential first step in combating this problem. Use of anabolic steroids in athletes is a form of cheating, and use will likely continue, especially if the rewards for success in sports remain so high. Physicians should avoid condemning individuals who choose to use anabolic steroids and encourage discussion of use with their health providers. PMID:2264527

  20. Magnetic induction system for two-stage gun projectile velocity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, R L; Konrad, C H

    1984-05-01

    A magnetic induction technique for measuring projectile velocities has been implemented on Sandia's two-stage light gas gun. The system has been designed to allow for projectile velocity measurements to an accuracy of approx. 0.2 percent. The velocity system has been successfully tested in a velocity range of 3.5 km/s to 6.5 km/s.

  1. Numerical analysis of superscatterer applied in inductive coupling system to equivalently expand and move coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingyi; Luo, Xudong; Yao, Chen; Li, Yuncheng; Tang, Houjun

    2015-10-01

    Superscatterer is typically made of complementary media for expanding the scope of scattering. The fact that superscatterer can make object appear bigger than its geometric size provides the possibility of equivalently enlarging and moving coils in inductive coupling system. In this paper, we demonstrate that the superscatterer without perfect electrical conductor can also expand the distribution of magnetic field with a source inside. Based on transformation optics, a spherical superscatterer is designed and simulated especially in near field. A model of two-coil inductive coupling system is numerically analyzed to prove the enhancement on mutual coupling by superscatterer. Finally, we also discuss the simplification of such superscatterer for fabrication concerns.

  2. Field oriented control of an induction machine in a high frequency link power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sul, Seung K.; Lipo, Thomas A.

    1988-01-01

    A field-oriented controlled induction machine drive operating with a high-frequency single-phase sinusoidal voltage link is presented. System performance is investigated by computer simulation and is verified by a test on a prototype system. A novel control loop to minimize the link voltage fluctuation is proposed. The capability of rapid demagnetization of the induction machine by current regulation is investigated. A current-modulation technique termed mode control is proposed, and its performance is compared with that of the conventional delta-modulation technique.

  3. Method and graphs for the evaluation of air-induction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brajnikoff, George B

    1953-01-01

    Graphs have been developed for rapid evaluation of air-induction systems from considerations of their aerodynamic-performance parameters in combination with power-plant characteristics. The graphs cover the range of supersonic Mach numbers to 3.0. Examples are presented for an air-induction system and engine combination of two Mach numbers and two altitudes in order to illustrate the method and application of the graphs. The examples show that jet-engine characteristics impose restrictions on the use of fixed inlets if the maximum net thrusts are to be realized at all flight conditions. (author)

  4. Circulating gonadotropins and ovarian adiponectin system are modulated by acupuncture independently of sex steroid or ?-adrenergic action in a female hyperandrogenic rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Alvi, Asif; Johansson, Julia; Sun, Miao; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2015-09-01

    Acupuncture with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation, or electroacupuncture (EA), reduces endocrine and reproductive dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), likely by modulating sympathetic nerve activity or sex steroid synthesis. To test this hypothesis, we induced PCOS in rats by prepubertal implantation of continuous-release letrozole pellets (200?g/day) or vehicle. Six weeks later, rats were treated for 5-6 weeks with low-frequency EA 5 days/week, subcutaneous injection of 17?-estradiol (2.0?g) every fourth day, or a ?-adrenergic blocker (propranolol hydrochloride, 0.1?mg/kg) 5 days/week. Letrozole controls were handled without needle insertion or injected with sesame oil every fourth day. Estrous cyclicity, ovarian morphology, sex steroids, gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor I, bone mineral density, and gene and protein expression in ovarian tissue were measured. Low-frequency EA induced estrous-cycle changes, decreased high levels of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and the LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, decreased high ovarian gene expression of adiponectin receptor 2, and increased expression of adiponectin receptor 2 protein and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. EA also increased cortical bone mineral density. Propranolol decreased ovarian expression of Foxo3, Srd5a1, and Hif1a. Estradiol decreased circulating LH, induced estrous cycle changes, and decreased ovarian expression of Adipor1, Foxo3, and Pik3r1. Further, total bone mineral density was higher in the letrozole-estradiol group. Thus, EA modulates the circulating gonadotropin levels independently of sex steroids or ?-adrenergic action and affects the expression of ovarian adiponectin system. PMID:25963796

  5. Sex steroid hormone fluctuations and morphological changes of the reproductive system of the female of Octopus vulgaris throughout the annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Di Cosmo, A; Di Cristo, C; Paolucci, M

    2001-01-01

    Sex steroids (17beta-estradiol and progesterone) and morphological variations of the reproductive system of the female of Octopus vulgaris from the Bay of Naples were followed over a period of 2 years. The increase in the ovary weight was independent of body weight as demonstrated by the gonado-somatic index (GSI). Both 17beta-estradiol and progesterone have been detected in the ovary of O. vulgaris, and their concentrations changed in correlation with the ovarian development. No 17beta-estradiol or progesterone was found in the hemolymph. 3beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity has been detected in the ovary, indicating that in the female of O. vulgaris the reproductive system is a source of sex steroid hormones. According to the morphological changes of the ovary, the ovarian cycle can be divided into the following phases: previtellogenesis; early vitellogenesis, full vitellogenesis and late vitellogenesis. The morphological changes of the oviducts and oviducal glands throughout the reproductive cycle were in accordance with their role in the transport and secretion of gelatinous coat covering the eggs, as well as in sperm storage and sperm reactivation during fertilization. J. Exp. Zool. 289:33-47, 2001. PMID:11169491

  6. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...— (i) 100 degrees F.; or (ii) If a fluid deicing system is used, at least 40 degrees F. (b) Turbine engine. (1) It must be shown that each turbine engine and its air inlet system can operate throughout the.... (2) Each turbine engine must idle for 30 minutes on the ground, with the air bleed available...

  7. 14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... engine fuel system against foreign particles in the fuel must be specified. The applicant must show that foreign particles passing through the prescribed filtering means will not critically impair engine...

  8. 14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... engine fuel system against foreign particles in the fuel must be specified. The applicant must show that foreign particles passing through the prescribed filtering means will not critically impair engine...

  9. A magnetic induction heating system with multi-cascaded coils and adjustable magnetic circuit for hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Fang; Chao, Hsuan-Yi; Chang, Hsun-Hao; Lin, Xi-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of cancer cells that cannot survive in an environment with temperature over 42 °C, a magnetic induction heating system for cancer treatment is developed in this work. First, the methods and analyses for designing the multi-cascaded coils magnetic induction hyperthermia system are proposed, such as internal impedance measurement of power generator, impedance matching of coils, and analysis of the system. Besides, characteristics of the system are simulated by a full-wave package for engineering optimization. Furthermore, by considering the safety factor of patients, a two-sectional needle is designed for hyperthermia. Finally, this system is employed to test the liver of swine in ex-vivo experiments, and through Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain and NADPH oxidase activity assay, the feasibility of this system is verified. PMID:25379959

  10. Isolation, partial length sequence and expression of steroid inducible hps 70 gene from Rhizopus nigricans.

    PubMed

    Cernila, B; Cresnar, B; Breskvar, K

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans responds to addition of different steroids into growth medium with induction of hydroxylation system and that some steroids provoke stress response. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether those steroids provoke induction of Hsp70 gene(s), well studied markers of stress response in different cells and organisms. The expression studies of fungal Hsp70 gene(s) using Northern blot analysis showed that fungal hsp70 mRNA was upregulated after treatment of mycelia with deoxycorticosterone and testosterone, but not after exposure to progesterone. In addition, expression of fungal Hsp70 mRNA was elevated after exposure of mycelia to heat shock (32 degrees C), ethanol, heavy metal (CuSO4), and oxidative stressor (H2O2), whereas treatment of mycelia with osmotic stressor (KCl) didn't have any influence on stress protein expression. The partial nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence homology search revealed that the cDNA clone (lambda hs20/2), isolated from cDNA library prepared from heat shock treated fungal mycelia, contained Hsp70 gene of DnaK subfamily. PMID:10653154

  11. A combined lift and propulsion system of a steel plate by transverse flux linear induction motors

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashiya, H.; Ohsaki, H.; Masada, E.

    1999-09-01

    To realize a non-contacting conveyance of a steel plate, a combined lift and propulsion system of a steel plate by transverse flux linear induction motors (LIMs) is proposed. By introducing the DC biased AC feeding to the LIM< a steel plate is supported stably and efficiently. In this paper, after showing the advantages of the system, the magnetic levitation experiments are carried out to investigate the feasibility of the system.

  12. An overview of electromagnetic inductance tomography: description of three different systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyton, A. J.; Yu, Z. Z.; Lyon, G.; Al-Zeibak, S.; Ferreira, J.; Velez, J.; Linhares, F.; Borges, A. R.; Xiong, H. L.; Saunders, N. H.; Beck, M. S.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a general overview of electromagnetic inductance tomography (EMT). A general introduction is given together with a description of the theoretical background of the technique. Three examples of different EMT systems are discussed and images produced using several different image reconstruction techniques are presented. A discussion of the main features of the techniques is included and some potential applications are suggested.

  13. Rituximab for Remission Induction and Maintenance in Refractory Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Coronel Restrepo, Nicols; Tobn, Gabriel J.; Echeverri, Andrs F.; Muoz-Buitrn, Evelyn; Castro, Andres Mauricio; Bejarano, Mercedes Andrade; Caas, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with high morbidity if untreated. Sometimes, despite aggressive treatments, the disease remains active with cumulative organic damage. We conducted a retrospective and descriptive observational study of patients with SLE refractory to conventional treatment who were treated with rituximab (RTX) as remission induction therapy and maintenance. There was a significant reduction in the conventional immunosuppressive drug dose and the number of relapses of disease. RTX appeared to be effective and safe for the induction and maintenance of remission in patient with SLE refractory to conventional treatment. PMID:24527208

  14. Analysis of Power Converter Losses in Vector Control System of a Self-Excited Induction Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai?, Mateo; Vukadinovi?, Dinko; Poli?, Miljenko

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides analysis of losses in the hysteresis-driven three-phase power converter with IGBTs and free-wheeling diodes. The converter under consideration is part of the self-excited induction generator (SEIG) vector control system. For the analysis, the SEIG vector control system is used in which the induction generator iron losses are taken into account. The power converter losses are determined by using a suitable loss estimation algorithm reported in literature. The chosen algorithm allows the power converter losses to be determined both by type (switching/conduction losses) and by converter component (IGBT/diode losses). The overall power converter losses are determined over wide ranges of rotor speed, dc-link voltage and load resistance, and subsequently used for offline correction of the overall control system's losses (efficiency) obtained through control system simulations with an ideal power converter. The control system's efficiency values obtained after the correction are compared with the measured values.

  15. Heat-killed yeast protects diabetic ketoacidotic-steroid treated mice from pulmonary mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guanpingsheng; Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2014-06-17

    Previous studies have shown that vaccination with heat-killed yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (HKY), protects mice against systemic candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis or coccidioidomycosis. Here we sought to define the potential use of HKY as a vaccine to protect mice from mucormycosis. Mice were vaccinated with different regimens of HKY prior to induction of diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidotic (DKA) mice were then treated with steroids prior to intratracheal challenge with Rhizopus oryzae. All regimens of HKY vaccine improved survival of DKA mice and reduced fungal burden in the primary target organ, lungs, as determined by qPCR. Furthermore, compared to mice vaccinated with diluent, vaccination with HKY substantially increased the mouse immune response as determined by detection of increased anti-Rhizopus antibody titers. Our results show that HKY protects steroid-treated DKA mice from pulmonary R. oryzae infection. Considering its demonstrated efficacy against other fungal infections, HKY is a promising candidate for development as a panfungal vaccine. PMID:24814556

  16. Inductive monitoring system constructed from nominal system data and its use in real-time system monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), its software implementations, hardware embodiments and applications. Training data is received, typically nominal system data acquired from sensors in normally operating systems or from detailed system simulations. The training data is formed into vectors that are used to generate a knowledge database having clusters of nominal operating regions therein. IMS monitors a system's performance or health by comparing cluster parameters in the knowledge database with incoming sensor data from a monitored-system formed into vectors. Nominal performance is concluded when a monitored-system vector is determined to lie within a nominal operating region cluster or lies sufficiently close to a such a cluster as determined by a threshold value and a distance metric. Some embodiments of IMS include cluster indexing and retrieval methods that increase the execution speed of IMS.

  17. Induction of apoptosis of lymphocytes in rat mucosal immune system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Wan-Dai; Song, Yu-Gang; Zhou, Dian-Yuan

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To undergo apoptosis during negative and positive selection processes in rat mucosal immune system which are implicated in the pathogenesis of various mucosal diseases. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, intravenously or intraperitoneally, an apoptosis was recognized by morphological hallmark under light and electronmicroscopy, and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was visualized immunohistochemically. RESULTS: The apoptosis of mucosal lymphocytes in the digestive tract, as well as in trachea, uterus and lacrimal gland was induced by cycloheximide ( > 1.0 mgkg-1 body weight), which were located mainly in lamina propria and germinal centers of lymphoid nodules. At the same time, a portion of crypt epithelial cells of proliferating zone in small and large intestine, and the epithelial cells in genital tract were also found to undergo apoptosis. Immunostainings showed that apoptotic cells expressed proliferating cell nuclear antigen. CONCLUSION: Apoptosis of lymphocytes in mucosal immune system can be induced by cycloheximide. This model will facilitate the understanding of normal mucosal immune system and its role in the pathogenesis of related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:11819221

  18. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids

    PubMed Central

    Kicman, A T

    2008-01-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophicandrogenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided. PMID:18500378

  19. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E. )

    1989-12-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4{prime}-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit {sup 3}H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations.

  20. SALT segmented primary mirror: commissioning capacitive edge sensing system and performance comparison with inductive sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buous, Sebastien; Menzies, John; Gajjar, Hitesh

    2008-07-01

    The SAMS (Segment Alignment Measurement System) is a capacitance-based edge sensing solution for the active alignment of the 10m SALT segmented primary mirror. Commissioning and calibrating the system has been an ongoing task in an attempt to counteract the unfavourable response of the sensors to high humidity conditions and high dust levels. Several solutions were implemented and tested including real-time feedback systems and the application of corrective functions. In parallel with the continuing efforts to improve the performance of the capacitive sensors, we have also been testing a prototype inductive sensor developed by Fogale Nanotech that is of a very similar flexible plate construction. In this paper we present the results obtained and performance gains achieved thus far with the capacitive edge-sensing system as well as a performance comparison of the Fogale inductive sensor to the capacitive edge sensor.

  1. Transient performance of parallel operated wind driven self excited induction generator system

    SciTech Connect

    Sakkoury, K.S.

    1995-12-31

    The transient performance of an isolated network containing a number of parallel connected SEIGs [Self Excited Induction Generators] is studied when loaded by a single motor. The control technique used to switch on or off any of the system machines is explained. For motor starting, two different techniques are studied employing starting capacitors or soft starting method. The system performance during and after the switching action takes place is investigated.

  2. A novel misoprostol delivery system for induction of labor: clinical utility and patient considerations

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Megan L; Wing, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    Induction of labor is one of the most commonly performed obstetric procedures and will likely become more common as the reproductive population in developed nations changes. As the proportion of women undergoing induction grows, there is a constant search for more efficacious ways to induce labor while maintaining fetal and maternal safety as well as patient satisfaction. With almost half of induced labors requiring cervical ripening, methods for achieving active labor and vaginal delivery are constantly being investigated. Prostaglandins have been shown to be effective induction agents, and specifically vaginal misoprostol, used off-label, have been widely utilized to initiate cervical ripening and active labor. The challenge is to administer this medication accurately while maintaining the ability to discontinue the medication when needed. The misoprostol vaginal insert initiates cervical ripening utilizing a delivery system that controls medication release and can be rapidly removed. This paper reviews the design, development, and clinical utility of the misoprostol vaginal insert for induction of labor as well as patient considerations related to the delivery system. PMID:25960635

  3. Investigation of Icing Characteristics of Typical Light Airplane Engine Induction Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, W. D.

    1949-01-01

    The icing characteristics of two typical light-airplane engine induction systems were investigated using the carburetors and manifolds of engines in the horsepower ranges from 65 to 85 and 165 to 185. The smaller system consisted of a float-type carburetor with an unheated manifold and the larger system consisted of a single-barrel pressure-type carburetor with an oil-jacketed manifold. Carburetor-air temperature and humidity limits of visible and serious Icing were determined for various engine power conditions. Several.methods of achieving ice-free induction systems are discussed along with estimates of surface heating requirements of the various induct ion-system components. A study was also made of the icing characteristics of a typical light-airplane air scoop with an exposed filter and a modified system that provided a normal ram inlet with the filter located in a position to Induce inertia separation of the free water from the charge air. The principle of operation of float-type carburetors is proved to make them inherently more susceptible to icing at the throttle plate than pressure-type carburetors.. The results indicated that proper jacketing and heating of all parts exposed to the fuel spray can satisfactorily reduce or eliminate icing in the float-type carburetor and the manifold. Pressure-type carburetors can be protected from serious Icing by proper location of the fuel-discharge nozzle combined with suitable application of heat to critical parts.

  4. Cost/performance analysis of an induction linac driver system for inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hovingh, J.; Brady, V.O.; Faltens, A.; Hoyer, E.H.; Lee, E.P.

    1985-11-01

    A linear induction accelerator that produces a beam of energetic (approx. =10 GeV) heavy (CAapprox.200) ions is a prime candidate as a driver for inertial fusion. Continuing developments in amorphous iron for use in accelerating modules represent a potentially large reduction in the driver cost and an increase in the driver efficiency. Additional insulator developments may also represent a potentially large reduction in the driver cost. The efficiency and cost of the induction linac system is discussed as a function of output energy and pulse repetition frequency for several beam charge states, numbers of beams and beam particle species. Accelerating modules and transport modules will be described. Large cost leverage items will be identified as a guide to future research activities and technology of development that can yield further substantial reductions in the accelerator system cost and improvement in the accelerator system efficiency. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Stability synthesis of control system in current fed inverter driven induction motor

    SciTech Connect

    Veda, R.; Irisa, T.; Ito, T.; Mochizuki, T.; Sonoda, T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of synthesizing a stabilizing control system in current fed inverter driven induction motor (CFIDIM). The method is focused on rotor dynamics and a concept of ''damping torque coefficient (DTC)'' is introduced concerning the electrical torque. At first the control system is synthesized on the assumption that an induction motor is driven by an ideally controllable current source. Then perturbed linearized technique indicates that the system can be stabilized if the stator current or frequency is controlled so as to make the DTC positive by feeding back a signal composed of rotor speed. Next, based on this fact, an approach of synthesizing the converter output voltage is presented under a fixed stator frequency. This result clarifies that the stable operation can be achieved by controlling the voltage in proportion to the acceleration of rotor speed or the deviation of electrical torque. These analytical results are verified with laboratory field tests.

  6. Caudal epidural steroid injections.

    PubMed

    Ogoke, B A

    2000-07-01

    The caudal approach to the epidural space was first reported in 1901. Injection of steroids to treat low back pain was introduced in 1952. Caudal epidural steroid injection is a safe, effective technique when performed with appropriate care under fluoroscopic visualization. Caudal epidural injections are associated with inaccurate needle placement when performed blindly in a substantial number of patients, resulting in intravascular injections as well as other complications. This review will discuss anatomic and technical considerations of caudal epidural injections, along with advantages, disadvantages, complications, and indications. PMID:16906188

  7. Development of a respiratory inductive plethysmography module supporting multiple sensors for wearable systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengbo; Zheng, Jiewen; Wu, Hao; Wang, Weidong; Wang, Buqing; Liu, Hongyun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an RIP module with the features of supporting multiple inductive sensors, no variable frequency LC oscillator, low power consumption, and automatic gain adjustment for each channel. Based on the method of inductance measurement without using a variable frequency LC oscillator, we further integrate pulse amplitude modulation and time division multiplexing scheme into a module to support multiple RIP sensors. All inductive sensors are excited by a high-frequency electric current periodically and momentarily, and the inductance of each sensor is measured during the time when the electric current is fed to it. To improve the amplitude response of the RIP sensors, we optimize the sensing unit with a matching capacitor parallel with each RIP sensor forming a frequency selection filter. Performance tests on the linearity of the output with cross-sectional area and the accuracy of respiratory volume estimation demonstrate good linearity and accurate lung volume estimation. Power consumption of this new RIP module with two sensors is very low. The performance of respiration measurement during movement is also evaluated. This RIP module is especially desirable for wearable systems with multiple RIP sensors for long-term respiration monitoring. PMID:23201991

  8. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... site Citation Site Map Print Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids Home / Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter ... to build muscle faster. The Brain's Response to Anabolic Steroids Hi, my name's Sara Bellum. Welcome to my ...

  9. Use of fuzzy inference system for condition monitoring of induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janier, Josefina B.; Zaim Zaharia, M. F.; Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abd.

    2012-09-01

    Three phase induction motors are commonly used in industry due to its robustness, simplicity of its construction and high reliability. The tasks performed by these motors grow increasingly complex because of modern industries hence there is a need to determine the faults. Early detection of faults will reduce an unscheduled machine downtime that can upset production deadlines and may cause heavy financial losses. This paper is focused in developing a computer based system using Fuzzy Inference system's membership function. An unusual increase in vibration of the motor could be an indicator of faulty condition hence the vibration of the motor of an induction motor was used as an input, whereas the output is the motor condition. An inference system of the Fuzzy Logic was created to classify the vibration characteristics of the motor which is called vibration analysis. The system classified the motor of the gas distribution pump condition as from 'acceptable' to 'monitor closely'. The early detection of unusual increase in vibration of the induction motor is an important part of a predictive maintenance for motor driven machinery.

  10. A current monitoring system for diagnosing electrical failures in induction motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, G. G.; Verucchi, C. J.; Gelso, E. R.

    2006-05-01

    Induction motors are critical components in industrial processes. A motor failure may yield an unexpected interruption at the industrial plant, with consequences in costs, product quality, and safety. Many of these faulty situations in three phase induction motors have an electrical reason. Among different detection approaches proposed in the literature, those based on stator current monitoring are advantageous due to its non-invasive properties. One of these techniques resorts to spectrum analysis of machine line current. Another non-invasive technique is the Extended Park's Vector Approach, which allows the detection of inter-turn short circuits in the stator winding. This article presents the development of an on-line current monitoring system that uses both techniques for fault detection and diagnosis in the stator and in the rotor. Based on experimental observations and on the knowledge of the electrical machine, a knowledge-based system was constructed in order to carry out the diagnosis task from these estimated data.

  11. Effects of Induction-System Icing on Aircraft-Engine Operating Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Howard C., Jr.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a multicylinder aircraft engine on a dynamometer stand to determine the effect of induction-system icing on engine operating characteristics and to compare the results with those of a previous laboratory investigation in which only the carburetor and the engine-stage supercharger assembly from the engine were used. The experiments were conducted at simulated glide power, low cruise power, and normal rated power through a range of humidity ratios and air temperatures at approximately sea-level pressure. Induction-system icing was found to occur within approximately the same limits as those established by the previous laboratory investigation after making suitable allowances for the difference in fuel volatility and throttle angles. Rough operation of the engine was experienced when ice caused a marked reduction in the air flow. Photographs of typical ice formations from this investigation indicate close similarity to icing previously observed in the laboratory.

  12. Investigation of Shaft Voltage in Wind Turbine Systems with Induction Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adabi, Jafar; Zare, Firuz

    This paper presents the analysis of shaft voltage in different configurations of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and an induction generator (IG) with a back-to-back inverter in wind turbine applications. Detailed high frequency model of the proposed systems have been developed based on existing capacitive couplings in IG & DFIG structures and common mode voltage sources. In this research work, several arrangements of DFIG based wind energy conversion systems (WES) are investigated in case of shaft voltage calculation and its mitigation techniques. Placements of an LC line filter in different locations and its effects on shaft voltage elimination are studied via Mathematical analysis and simulations. A pulse width modulation (PWM) technique and a back-to-back inverter with a bidirectional buck converter have been presented to eliminate the shaft voltage in a DFIG wind turbine.

  13. Dynamic Average-Value Modeling of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahab, Azin

    In a Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind energy conversion system, the rotor of a wound rotor induction generator is connected to the grid via a partial scale ac/ac power electronic converter which controls the rotor frequency and speed. In this research, detailed models of the DFIG wind energy conversion system with Sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulation (SPWM) scheme and Optimal Pulse-Width Modulation (OPWM) scheme for the power electronic converter are developed in detail in PSCAD/EMTDC. As the computer simulation using the detailed models tends to be computationally extensive, time consuming and even sometimes not practical in terms of speed, two modified approaches (switching-function modeling and average-value modeling) are proposed to reduce the simulation execution time. The results demonstrate that the two proposed approaches reduce the simulation execution time while the simulation results remain close to those obtained using the detailed model simulation.

  14. Liquid-metal MHD energy conversion system incorporating an inductive accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, G.A.; Breev, V.V.; Dmitriev, K.I.; Karasev, B.G.; Lavrent'ev, I.V.

    1982-04-01

    In the present work we perform optimization calculations for a liquid-metal MHD energy conversion system which includes an inductive accumulator and which has, on the one hand, a powerful electric power of up to 1 GJ and, on the other hand, a capability for obtaining the necessary power output by means of a rapid transfer to the load of the stored energy in the accumulator.

  15. Delta-Type Solutions for the Non-Hermitian System of Induction Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allilueva, A. I.; Shafarevich, A. I.

    2015-11-01

    We study asymptotic solutions for the non-Hermitian system of induction equations, describing magnetic field in a highly conducting fluid. We suppose that the velocity field of the fluid has a jump near 2D surface in 3D space. We prove that the solution has ?-type singularity near this surface. We construct the complete asymptotic expansion of the solution and study the dependence of the weak limit on the profile of the velocity field.

  16. Steroids. A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

    This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history

  17. Steroids. A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

    This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history…

  18. The gated induction system of a systemic floral inhibitor, antiflorigen, determines obligate short-day flowering in chrysanthemums.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Yohei; Narumi, Takako; Oda, Atsushi; Nakano, Yoshihiro; Sumitomo, Katsuhiko; Fukai, Seiichi; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu

    2013-10-15

    Photoperiodic floral induction has had a significant impact on the agricultural and horticultural industries. Changes in day length are perceived in leaves, which synthesize systemic flowering inducers (florigens) and inhibitors (antiflorigens) that determine floral initiation at the shoot apex. Recently, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) was found to be a florigen; however, the identity of the corresponding antiflorigen remains to be elucidated. Here, we report the identification of an antiflorigen gene, Anti-florigenic FT/TFL1 family protein (AFT), from a wild chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum seticuspe) whose expression is mainly induced in leaves under noninductive conditions. Gain- and loss-of-function analyses demonstrated that CsAFT acts systemically to inhibit flowering and plays a predominant role in the obligate photoperiodic response. A transient gene expression assay indicated that CsAFT inhibits flowering by directly antagonizing the flower-inductive activity of CsFTL3, a C. seticuspe ortholog of FT, through interaction with CsFDL1, a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor FD homolog of Arabidopsis. Induction of CsAFT was triggered by the coincidence of phytochrome signals with the photosensitive phase set by the dusk signal; flowering occurred only when night length exceeded the photosensitive phase for CsAFT induction. Thus, the gated antiflorigen production system, a phytochrome-mediated response to light, determines obligate photoperiodic flowering response in chrysanthemums, which enables their year-round commercial production by artificial lighting. PMID:24082137

  19. Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Paran basin: a comparative study in a three-river system.

    PubMed

    Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Paschoalini, Alessandro Loureiro; Cruz, Cludia Kelly Fernandes da; Rocha, Rita de Cssia Gimenes Alcntara de; Senhorini, Jos Augusto; Ribeiro, Dirceu Marzulo; Formagio, Paulo Srgio; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paran River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colmbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guau River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17?-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guau River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish. PMID:23616136

  20. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

  1. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and

  2. Nonprescription Steroids on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Christen L.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Patapis, Nicholas S.; Festinger, David S.; Forman, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular websites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March and June, 2006 revealed that approximately half of the websites advocated their “safe” use, and roughly one-third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The websites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the websites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment and policy are discussed. PMID:22080724

  3. Bilateral posterior subcapsular cataracts associated with long-term intranasal steroid use.

    PubMed

    Liu, Anthony; Manche, Edward E

    2011-08-01

    The use of systemic steroids has been established as a risk factor for the development of posterior subcapsular cataracts. In recent decades, the use of nasal topical steroids has increased in an effort to decrease systemic side effects. Current evidence of an association between nasal steroid use and cataract formation is contradictory. We present a case of rapid-onset bilateral posterior subcapsular cataracts in a young healthy patient with a history of long-term nasal steroid use. PMID:21782102

  4. A transcription activator-like effector (TALE) induction system mediated by proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Matthew F; Politz, Mark C; Johnson, Charles B; Markley, Andrew L; Pfleger, Brian F

    2016-04-01

    Simple and predictable trans-acting regulatory tools are needed in the fields of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering to build complex genetic circuits and optimize the levels of native and heterologous gene products. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are bacterial virulence factors that have recently gained traction in biotechnology applications owing to their customizable DNA-binding specificity. In this work we expanded the versatility of these transcription factors to create an inducible TALE system by inserting tobacco-etch virus (TEV) protease recognition sites into the TALE backbone. The resulting engineered TALEs maintain transcriptional repression of their target genes in Escherichia coli, but are degraded after induction of the TEV protease, thereby promoting expression of the previously repressed target gene of interest. This TALE-TEV technology enables both repression and induction of plasmid or chromosomal target genes in a manner analogous to traditional repressor proteins but with the added flexibility of being operator-agnostic. PMID:26854666

  5. Laser sampling system for an inductively-coupled atomic emission spectrometer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-15

    A laser sampling system was attached to a Perkin Elmer Optima 3000 inductively-coupled plasma, atomic emission spectrometer that was already installed and operating in the Chemistry and Geochemistry Department at the Colorado School of Mines. The use of the spectrometer has been highly successful. Graduate students and faculty from at least four different departments across the CSM campus have used the instrument. The final report to NSF is appended to this final report. Appendices are included which summarize several projects utilizing this instrument: acquisition of an inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer for the geochemistry program; hydrogen damage susceptibility assessment for high strength steel weldments through advanced hydrogen content analysis, 1996 and 1997 annual reports; and methods for determination of hydrogen distribution in high strength steel welds.

  6. The electron-optical system of the LIU-2 induction accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A.

    2014-09-01

    The electron-optical system (EOS) of an induction accelerator for generation of an electron beam with an energy of 2 MeV, a current of 2 kA, an impulse duration of 2 10-7 s, and a geometric output emittance not exceeding the thermal value of it is described. The EOS consists of two parts. The first part is a diode gun with a perveance of 2 10-6 A/B3/2 and a cathode-anode voltage of 1 MeV. The second part is an accelerating tube with uniform distribution of the same accelerating voltage. A beam is transported at a distance of about 4 m from the cathode and focused on a spot with a diameter of about 1 mm. The compliance tests results of the linear-induction accelerator precisely conform to the calculated design parameters.

  7. Targeted Induction of Ceramide Degradation Leads to Improved Systemic Metabolism and Reduced Hepatic Steatosis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jonathan Y; Holland, William L; Kusminski, Christine M; Sun, Kai; Sharma, Ankit X; Pearson, Mackenzie J; Sifuentes, Angelica J; McDonald, Jeffrey G; Gordillo, Ruth; Scherer, Philipp E

    2015-08-01

    Sphingolipids have garnered attention for their role in insulin resistance and lipotoxic cell death. We have developed transgenic mice inducibly expressing acid ceramidase that display a reduction in ceramides in adult mouse tissues. Hepatic overexpression of acid ceramidase prevents hepatic steatosis and prompts improvements in insulin action in liver and adipose tissue upon exposure to high-fat diet. Conversely, overexpression of acid ceramidase within adipose tissue also prevents hepatic steatosis and systemic insulin resistance. Induction of ceramidase activity in either tissue promotes a lowering of hepatic ceramides and reduced activation of the ceramide-activated protein kinase C isoform PKC?, though the induction of ceramidase activity in the adipocyte prompts more rapid resolution of hepatic steatosis than overexpression of the enzyme directly in the liver. Collectively, our observations suggest the existence of a rapidly acting "cross-talk" between liver and adipose tissue sphingolipids, critically regulating glucose metabolism and hepatic lipid uptake. PMID:26190650

  8. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    PubMed Central

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; McCauley, Lisa M. Beck; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the ease of quantification and experimental manipulation, the zebra finch song system has great potential for use in undergraduate labs. Unfortunately, the underlying costs prohibit use of this system in undergraduate labs. Further, the time required to perform a developmental study renders such undertakings unrealistic within a single academic term. We have overcome these barriers by creating digital tools, including an image library of song nuclei from zebra finch brains. Students using this library replicate and extend a published experiment examining the dose of estradiol required to masculinize the female zebra finch brain. We have used this library for several terms, and students not only obtain significant experimental results but also make gains in understanding content, experimental controls, and inferential statistics (analysis of variance and post hoc tests). We have provided free access to these digital tools at the following website: http://mdcune.psych.ucla.edu/modules/birdsong. PMID:21633071

  9. System Design for Ocean Sensor Data Transmission Based on Inductive Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ming; Liu, Fei; Zong, Yuan; Hong, Feng

    Ocean observation is the precondition to explore and utilize ocean. How to acquire ocean data in a precise, efficient and real-time way is the key question of ocean surveillance. Traditionally, there are three types of methods for ocean data transmission: underwater acoustic, GPRS via mobile network and satellite communication. However, none of them can meet the requirements of efficiency, accuracy, real-time and low cost at the same time. In this paper, we propose a new wireless transmission system for underwater sensors, which established on FGR wireless modules, combined with inductive coupling lab and offshore experiments confirmed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed wireless transmission system.

  10. An inductively powered telemetry system for temperature, EKG, and activity monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.; Lund, G. F.; Williams, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    An implant telemetry system for the simultaneous monitoring of temperature, activity, and EKG from small animals, such as rats, was designed with the feature that instead of a battery the system is energized by an inductive field. A 250 kHz resonant coil surrounds the cage (30 x 30 x 20 cm) and provides the approximately 100 microns of power required to operate the implant transmitter while allowing the animal unrestrained movement in the cage. The implant can also be battery operated if desired. RF transmission is in the 8-10 MHz band, which allows the use of a simple, essentially single IC chip, receiver.

  11. An inductively powered telemetry system for temperature, EKG, and activity monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.; Lund, G. F.; Williams, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    An implant telemetry system for the simultaneous monitoring of temperature, activity, and EKG from small animals, such as rats, has recently been designed with the novel feature that instead of a battery the system is energized by an inductive field. A 250 kHz resonant coil surrounds the cage (30 x 30 x 20 cm) and provides the approximately 100 microwatt of power required to operate the implant transmitter while allowing the animal unrestrained movement in the cage. The implant can also be battery operated if desired. RF transmission is in the 8-10 MHz band, which allows the use of a simple, essentially single IC chip, receiver.

  12. Integration and control of an induction-coupled plasma system and facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.K.; Cunningham, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    Plasma systems have been used for a number of industrial and aerospace applications over the last 35 years. Recent efforts to remediate environmental problems are increasing the number of applications. A proprietary process known as Plasma Energy Recycle and Conversion (PERC{trademark}) is being developed by Plasma Technology, Inc. of Santa Fe, NM, to eliminate waste material cleanly and efficiently. This process uses a radio frequency (RF) induction-coupled plasma (ICP) system to heat a thermal reactor to high temperatures for this purpose. The principle components of this facility include the RF heater and a vacuum tube power supply, a modular thermal reactor, auxiliary support equipment such as vacuum, cooling water and gaseous supply systems, controls, instrumentation and data acquisition systems. This paper provides an overview of the Sverdrup-provided or modified facility design requirements and principle systems and components.

  13. The minimization of the extraneous electromagnetic fields of an inductive power transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, James; Sutton, Robert

    2013-04-01

    The efficiency of inductive wireless power transfer (IPT) systems has been extensively studied. However, the electromagnetic compatibility of such systems is at least as important as the efficiency and has received much less attention. We consider the net magnetic dipole moment of the system as a figure of merit. That is, we seek to minimize the magnitude of the net dipole moment in order to minimize both the near magnetic fields and the radiated power. A 20 kHz, 3.3 kW, IPT system, representative of typical wireless vehicular battery charging systems, is considered and it is seen that one particular value of load impedance minimizes the net dipole moment while another, distinct, value maximizes efficiency. Thus, efficiency must be traded off, at least to some extent, in order to minimize extraneous electromagnetic fields.

  14. Steroid Receptor-Associated Immunophilins: A Gateway to Steroid Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak, Thomas; Cluning, Carmel; Ward, Bryan K

    2015-01-01

    The steroid receptor-associated immunophilins FKBP51, FKBP52, CyP40 and PP5 have specific roles in steroid receptor function that impact steroid hormone-binding affinity, nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and transcriptional activation of target genes in a tissue-specific manner. Aberrant expression of these functionally unique immunophilins has the potential to cause steroid-based diseases, including breast and prostate cancer, diabetes and related metabolic disorders, male and female infertility and major depressive disorders. This review addresses the function of these proteins as co-chaperones in steroid receptor-Hsp90 complexes and extensively covers current knowledge of the link between the steroid receptor-associated immunophilins and human disease. An improved understanding of their mechanisms of action has revealed opportunities for molecular therapies to enhance or inhibit cellular processes under immunophilin control that contribute both to human health and disease. PMID:26224894

  15. Steroids in teleost fishes: A functional point of view.

    PubMed

    Tokarz, Janina; Möller, Gabriele; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Adamski, Jerzy

    2015-11-01

    Steroid hormones are involved in the regulation of a variety of processes like embryonic development, sex differentiation, metabolism, immune responses, circadian rhythms, stress response, and reproduction in vertebrates. Teleost fishes and humans show a remarkable conservation in many developmental and physiological aspects, including the endocrine system in general and the steroid hormone related processes in particular. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about steroid hormone biosynthesis and the steroid hormone receptors in teleost fishes and compares the findings to the human system. The impact of the duplicated genome in teleost fishes on steroid hormone biosynthesis and perception is addressed. Additionally, important processes in fish physiology regulated by steroid hormones, which are most dissimilar to humans, are described. We also give a short overview on the influence of anthropogenic endocrine disrupting compounds on steroid hormone signaling and the resulting adverse physiological effects for teleost fishes. By this approach, we show that the steroidogenesis, hormone receptors, and function of the steroid hormones are reasonably well understood when summarizing the available data of all teleost species analyzed to date. However, on the level of a single species or a certain fish-specific aspect of physiology, further research is needed. PMID:26102270

  16. Steroid-associated hip joint collapse in bipedal emus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li-Zhen; Liu, Zhong; Lei, Ming; Peng, Jiang; He, Yi-Xin; Xie, Xin-Hui; Man, Chi-Wai; Huang, Le; Wang, Xin-Luan; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Xiao, De-Ming; Wang, Da-Ping; Chen, Yang; Feng, Jian Q; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Ge; Qin, Ling

    2013-01-01

    In this study we established a bipedal animal model of steroid-associated hip joint collapse in emus for testing potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of steroid-associated joint collapse in preclinical settings. Five adult male emus were treated with a steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) induction protocol using combination of pulsed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and methylprednisolone (MPS). Additional three emus were used as normal control. Post-induction, emu gait was observed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and blood was collected for routine examination, including testing blood coagulation and lipid metabolism. Emus were sacrificed at week 24 post-induction, bilateral femora were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. Asymmetric limping gait and abnormal MRI signals were found in steroid-treated emus. SAON was found in all emus with a joint collapse incidence of 70%. The percentage of neutrophils (Neut %) and parameters on lipid metabolism significantly increased after induction. Micro-CT revealed structure deterioration of subchondral trabecular bone. Histomorphometry showed larger fat cell fraction and size, thinning of subchondral plate and cartilage layer, smaller osteoblast perimeter percentage and less blood vessels distributed at collapsed region in SAON group as compared with the normal controls. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed poor mineral matrix and more osteo-lacunae outline in the collapsed region in SAON group. The combination of pulsed LPS and MPS developed in the current study was safe and effective to induce SAON and deterioration of subchondral bone in bipedal emus with subsequent femoral head collapse, a typical clinical feature observed in patients under pulsed steroid treatment. In conclusion, bipedal emus could be used as an effective preclinical experimental model to evaluate potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of ON-induced hip joint collapse in patients. PMID:24204675

  17. Steroid-Associated Hip Joint Collapse in Bipedal Emus

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Li-Zhen; Liu, Zhong; Lei, Ming; Peng, Jiang; He, Yi-Xin; Xie, Xin-Hui; Man, Chi-Wai; Huang, Le; Wang, Xin-Luan; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Xiao, De-Ming; Wang, Da-Ping; Chen, Yang; Feng, Jian Q.; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Ge; Qin, Ling

    2013-01-01

    In this study we established a bipedal animal model of steroid-associated hip joint collapse in emus for testing potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of steroid-associated joint collapse in preclinical settings. Five adult male emus were treated with a steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) induction protocol using combination of pulsed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and methylprednisolone (MPS). Additional three emus were used as normal control. Post-induction, emu gait was observed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and blood was collected for routine examination, including testing blood coagulation and lipid metabolism. Emus were sacrificed at week 24 post-induction, bilateral femora were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. Asymmetric limping gait and abnormal MRI signals were found in steroid-treated emus. SAON was found in all emus with a joint collapse incidence of 70%. The percentage of neutrophils (Neut %) and parameters on lipid metabolism significantly increased after induction. Micro-CT revealed structure deterioration of subchondral trabecular bone. Histomorphometry showed larger fat cell fraction and size, thinning of subchondral plate and cartilage layer, smaller osteoblast perimeter percentage and less blood vessels distributed at collapsed region in SAON group as compared with the normal controls. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed poor mineral matrix and more osteo-lacunae outline in the collapsed region in SAON group. The combination of pulsed LPS and MPS developed in the current study was safe and effective to induce SAON and deterioration of subchondral bone in bipedal emus with subsequent femoral head collapse, a typical clinical feature observed in patients under pulsed steroid treatment. In conclusion, bipedal emus could be used as an effective preclinical experimental model to evaluate potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of ON-induced hip joint collapse in patients. PMID:24204675

  18. Induction of the Yersinia Type 3 Secretion System As an All-or-None Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, David J.; Rosqvist, Roland; Schesser, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Summary Pathogenic Yersinia spp. possess a protein secretion system, designated as type 3, that plays a clear role in promoting their survival vis--vis the macrophage. Inductive expression of the Yersinia type 3 secretion system (T3SS), triggered either by host cell contact, or, in the absence of host cells, by a reduction in extracellular calcium ion levels, is accompanied by a withdrawal from the bacterial division cycle. Here we analyzed Ca2+-dependent induction of the T3SS at the single cell level to understand how Yersinia coordinate their pro-survival and growth-related activities. We utilized a novel high-throughput quantitative microscopy approach as well as flow cytometry to determine how Ca2+ levels, T3SS expression, and cellular division are interrelated. Our analysis showed that there is a high degree of homogeneity in terms of T3SS expression levels among a population of Y. pseudotuberculosis cells following the removal of Ca2+ and that T3SS expression appear to be independent of the cellular division cycle. Unexpectedly, our analysis showed that Ca2+ levels are inversely related to the initiation of inductive T3SS expression, and not to the intensity of activation once initiated, thus providing a basis for the seemingly graded response of T3SS activation observed in bulk-level analyses. The properties of the system described here display both similarities and differences with that of the lac operon first described 50 years ago by Novick and Weiner. PMID:17825321

  19. Improvements in the measurement system of a biological Magnetic Induction Tomographical experimental setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brs, N. B.; Martins, R. C.; Serra, A. C.

    2010-07-01

    Magnetic Induction Tomography (MIT) is an imaging technique that allows mapping the internal structure complex conductivity of a body. In this paper a feasibility study to implement a higher resolution MIT system for biological tissues is carried out. Recent improvements in measured signal stability and accuracy as well as a much improved angular resolution measurement of the multi-coil setup are presented which, together with a new mechanical design allows obtaining longer stable and more accurate acquisitions. This allows improving the number of measurements without trends or external perturbations, leading to a better conductivity resolution and to an enhanced image reconstruction. Throughout the paper experimental data is used to consolidate results.

  20. Mach 6.5 air induction system design for the Beta 2 two-stage-to-orbit booster vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Midea, Anthony C.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary, two-dimensional, mixed compression air induction system is designed for the Beta II Two Stage to Orbit booster vehicle to minimize installation losses and efficiently deliver the required airflow. Design concepts, such as an external isentropic compression ramp and a bypass system were developed and evaluated for performance benefits. The design was optimized by maximizing installed propulsion/vehicle system performance. The resulting system design operating characteristics and performance are presented. The air induction system design has significantly lower transonic drag than similar designs and only requires about 1/3 of the bleed extraction. In addition, the design efficiently provides the integrated system required airflow, while maintaining adequate levels of total pressure recovery. The excellent performance of this highly integrated air induction system is essential for the successful completion of the Beta II booster vehicle mission.

  1. A magnetic induction tomography system for samples with conductivities below 10 S m-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, S.; Williams, R. J.; Gough, W.; Griffiths, H.

    2008-04-01

    A 16-channel magnetic induction tomography (MIT) system has been constructed for imaging samples with low conductivities (<10 S m-1) such as biological tissues or ionized water in pipelines. The system has a fixed operating frequency of 10 MHz and employs heterodyne downconversion of the received signals, to 10 kHz, to reduce phase instabilities during signal distribution and processing. The real and imaginary components of the received signal, relative to a synchronous reference, are measured using a digital lock-in amplifier. Images are reconstructed using a linearized reconstruction method based on inversion of a sensitivity matrix with Tikhonov regularization. System performance measurements and images of a pipeline phantom and a human leg in vivo are presented. The average phase precision of the MIT system is 17 millidegrees.

  2. Computational models of an inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anele, A. O.; Hamam, Y.; Chassagne, L.; Linares, J.; Alayli, Y.; Djouani, K.

    2015-09-01

    One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that the models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV.

  3. Development of a plasma coating system for induction melting zirconium in a graphite crucible

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, E.L.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1993-05-26

    A plasma coating system has been developed for induction melting zirconium at 1900 C using a graphite crucible. This laminated coating system consists of plasma spraying the following materials onto the graphite: (1) molybdenum or tungsten, (2) a 50% blend by weight of the metal powder and calcia-stabilized zirconium oxide, and (3) calcia-stabilized zirconia followed by painting a final coating of nonstabilized zirconia on top of the plasma-sprayed coating system. Zirconium was melted in argon using both laminating systems without any degradation of the graphite crucible and with only a minimal amount of carbon absorption. This novel approach that is being proposed as an alternative method of melting zirconium alloys offers substantial cost savings over the standard practice of electric arc melting using a consumable electrode.

  4. Fluid-dynamic characterization of a radio-frequency induction thermal plasma system for nanoparticle synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, V.; Deschenaux, C.; Ghedini, E.; Gherardi, M.; Jaeggi, C.; Leparoux, M.; Mani, V.; Sanibondi, P.

    2012-08-01

    The fluid flow in a radio-frequency induction thermal plasma (RF-ITP) system for the synthesis of nanoparticles has been characterized using three- and two-dimensional modelling supported by enthalpy probe and calorimetric measurements in order to provide insights for the improvement of the process. The RF-ITP system is composed of a commercial inductively coupled plasma torch mounted on a reaction chamber that is equipped with viewports for diagnostics. The three-dimensional model predicted an almost axisymmetric temperature field in the reaction chamber in agreement with enthalpy probe measurements performed along two perpendicular scan axes, whereas recirculating flow patterns resulted in being strongly non-axisymmetric. Temperature profiles at two distances (60 mm and 100 mm) from the torch outlet have been calculated using two-dimensional modelling and compared with enthalpy probe measurements for different operating conditions with the aim of validating the predictive ability of the modelling tool. Calorimetric measurements have been performed in order to estimate the power coupled to the torch, which is usually an arbitrary input parameter for the models. Poor agreement was obtained between energy balances from modelling and from calorimetric measurements and, starting from this, a discussion on the uncertainties in the calculation of the radiative losses has been proposed. Finally, new insights for the improvement of the process of nanoparticle synthesis in the RF-ITP system are suggested.

  5. A Power-Efficient Wireless Capacitor Charging System Through an Inductive Link.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-10-01

    A power-efficient wireless capacitor charging system for inductively powered applications has been presented. A bank of capacitors can be directly charged from an ac source by generating a current through a series charge injection capacitor and a capacitor charger circuit. The fixed charging current reduces energy loss in switches, while maximizing the charging efficiency. An adaptive capacitor tuner compensates for the resonant capacitance variations during charging to keep the amplitude of the ac input voltage at its peak. We have fabricated the capacitor charging system prototype in a 0.35-μm 4-metal 2-poly standard CMOS process in 2.1 mm(2) of chip area. It can charge four pairs of capacitors sequentially. While receiving 2.7-V peak ac input through a 2-MHz inductive link, the capacitor charging system can charge each pair of 1 μF capacitors up to ±2 V in 420 μs, achieving a high measured charging efficiency of 82%. PMID:24678284

  6. A Power-Efficient Wireless Capacitor Charging System Through an Inductive Link

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    A power-efficient wireless capacitor charging system for inductively powered applications has been presented. A bank of capacitors can be directly charged from an ac source by generating a current through a series charge injection capacitor and a capacitor charger circuit. The fixed charging current reduces energy loss in switches, while maximizing the charging efficiency. An adaptive capacitor tuner compensates for the resonant capacitance variations during charging to keep the amplitude of the ac input voltage at its peak. We have fabricated the capacitor charging system prototype in a 0.35-μm 4-metal 2-poly standard CMOS process in 2.1 mm2 of chip area. It can charge four pairs of capacitors sequentially. While receiving 2.7-V peak ac input through a 2-MHz inductive link, the capacitor charging system can charge each pair of 1 μF capacitors up to ±2 V in 420 μs, achieving a high measured charging efficiency of 82%. PMID:24678284

  7. Effect of composting on the fate of steroids in beef cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Devivo, Shannon; Johnson, Leslie; Snow, Daniel D; Kranz, William L; Mader, Terry L; Shapiro, Charles A; van Donk, Simon J; Shelton, David P; Tarkalson, David D; Zhang, Tian C

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the fate of steroid hormones in beef cattle manure composting is evaluated. The fate of 16 steroids and metabolites was evaluated in composted manure from beef cattle administered growth promotants and from beef cattle with no steroid hormone implants. The fate of estrogens (primary detected as estrone), androgens, progesterone, and the fusarium metabolite and implant α-zearalanol was monitored in manure compost piles. First-order decay rates were calculated for steroid half-lives in compost and ranged from 8 d for androsterone to 69 d for 4-androstenedione. Other steroid concentration data could not be fit to first-order decay models, which may indicate that microbial processes may result in steroid production or synthesis in composting systems. We demonstrate that composting is an effective strategy to remove steroid hormones from manure. Total steroid hormone removal in composted beef cattle manure ranged from 79 to 87%. PMID:24216367

  8. Therapeutic uses of contraceptive steroids.

    PubMed

    Starks, G C

    1984-09-01

    During the past 20 years, contraceptive steroids have undergone significant changes as the result of an increased understanding of their metabolic, pharmacologic, and hormonal activities. During this time, prospective and retrospective epidemiologic studies have elucidated several noncontraceptive health benefits of oral contraceptive steroids, including their therapeutic effects for endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, polycystic ovarian disease, and benign breast disease. From this review it appears that the benefits of oral contraceptive steroids in young, healthy, nonsmoking women far outweigh their more publicized, infrequent risks. PMID:6470632

  9. Steroid hormones as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Guillette, L.J. Jr.; Rooney, A.A.; Crain, D.A.; Orlando, E.F.

    1999-07-01

    Xenobiotic compounds introduced into the environment by human activity have been shown to adversely affect the endocrine system of wildlife. Various species exhibit abnormalities of (1) plasma sex steroid hormones, (2) altered steroid synthesis form the gonad in vitro and (3) altered steroidogenic enzyme function. These endpoints are sensitive and relatively easy to measure quantitatively with reliability and precision. These observations have led to the conclusion that sex steroid hormones could be markers of exposure to, and altered function from, endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs). However, there are serious limitations in the use of steroid hormones as generalized markers of EDC exposure. Steroid hormones exhibit seasonal, ontogenetic, gender and species-specific variation. Moreover, the regulation of sex steroid plasma concentrations is a relatively complex phenomenon capable of short-term (minutes-hours) alteration due to environmental inputs, such as acute stress--an activational response. Alterations in steroids synthesis and degradation also can be a response to altered embryonic development due to EDC exposure--an organizational response. If steroid hormones are to be used as biomarkers, then closely controlled, well designed sampling has to be performed. Additionally, an appreciation of the variation possible in endocrine responses among the species to be studied must be obtained.

  10. The Regulation of Steroid Action by Sulfation and Desulfation

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Jonathan W.; Gilligan, Lorna C.; Idkowiak, Jan; Arlt, Wiebke

    2015-01-01

    Steroid sulfation and desulfation are fundamental pathways vital for a functional vertebrate endocrine system. After biosynthesis, hydrophobic steroids are sulfated to expedite circulatory transit. Target cells express transmembrane organic anion-transporting polypeptides that facilitate cellular uptake of sulfated steroids. Once intracellular, sulfatases hydrolyze these steroid sulfate esters to their unconjugated, and usually active, forms. Because most steroids can be sulfated, including cholesterol, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and estrone, understanding the function, tissue distribution, and regulation of sulfation and desulfation processes provides significant insights into normal endocrine function. Not surprisingly, dysregulation of these pathways is associated with numerous pathologies, including steroid-dependent cancers, polycystic ovary syndrome, and X-linked ichthyosis. Here we provide a comprehensive examination of our current knowledge of endocrine-related sulfation and desulfation pathways. We describe the interplay between sulfatases and sulfotransferases, showing how their expression and regulation influences steroid action. Furthermore, we address the role that organic anion-transporting polypeptides play in regulating intracellular steroid concentrations and how their expression patterns influence many pathologies, especially cancer. Finally, the recent advances in pharmacologically targeting steroidogenic pathways will be examined. PMID:26213785

  11. Steroid biosynthesis in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehan; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Vihma, Veera

    2015-11-01

    Tissue-specific expression of steroidogenic enzymes allows the modulation of active steroid levels in a local manner. Thus, the measurement of local steroid concentrations, rather than the circulating levels, has been recognized as a more accurate indicator of the steroid action within a specific tissue. Adipose tissue, one of the largest endocrine tissues in the human body, has been established as an important site for steroid storage and metabolism. Locally produced steroids, through the enzymatic conversion from steroid precursors delivered to adipose tissue, have been proven to either functionally regulate adipose tissue metabolism, or quantitatively contribute to the whole body's steroid levels. Most recently, it has been suggested that adipose tissue may contain the steroidogenic machinery necessary for the initiation of steroid biosynthesis de novo from cholesterol. This review summarizes the evidence indicating the presence of the entire steroidogenic apparatus in adipose tissue and discusses the potential roles of local steroid products in modulating adipose tissue activity and other metabolic parameters. PMID:25846979

  12. Design of an Inductive Power Transfer System with Flexible Coils for Body-worn Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clare, L. R.; Burrow, S. G.; Stark, B. H.; Grabham, N. J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes an IPT (Inductive Power Transfer) system for body worn electronics, and investigates the challenges for an IPT system that arise specifically in this scenario. Principally, these are: highly variable coil coupling through time-varying miss-alignment and coil separation; a requirement that one or both of the coils must be wearable and thus flexible; and proximity to the human body introducing limits on the maximum EM field. The highly variable coupling results in a system that must operate effectively with a large range of received powers, whilst the constraints on the realisation of the coils typically reduce the Q-factor; the human exposure considerations limit both the maximum field strengths that the wearer of a receiver coil might experience, and also the field strengths that a 3rd party might be exposed to, for instance when approaching the transmit coil.

  13. Hybrid renewable energy system using doubly-fed induction generator and multilevel inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Eshita

    The proposed hybrid system generates AC power by combining solar and wind energy converted by a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The DFIG, driven by a wind turbine, needs rotor excitation so the stator can supply a load or the grid. In a variable-speed wind energy system, the stator voltage and its frequency vary with wind speed, and in order to keep them constant, variable-voltage and variable-frequency rotor excitation is to be provided. A power conversion unit supplies the rotor, drawing power either from AC mains or from a PV panel depending on their availability. It consists of a multilevel inverter which gives lower harmonic distortion in the stator voltage. Maximum power point tracking techniques have been implemented for both wind and solar power. The complete hybrid renewable energy system is implemented in a PSIM-Simulink interface and the wind energy conversion portion is realized in hardware using dSPACE controller board.

  14. Sex steroids and bone.

    PubMed

    Manolagas, S C; Kousteni, S; Jilka, R L

    2002-01-01

    The adult skeleton is periodically remodeled by temporary anatomic structures that comprise juxtaposed osteoclast and osteoblast teams and replace old bone with new. Estrogens and androgens slow the rate of bone remodeling and protect against bone loss. Conversely, loss of estrogen leads to increased rate of remodeling and tilts the balance between bone resorption and formation in favor of the former. Studies from our group during the last 10 years have elucidated that estrogens and androgens decrease the number of remodeling cycles by attenuating the birth rate of osteoclasts and osteoblasts from their respective progenitors. These effects result, in part, from the transcriptional regulation of genes responsible for osteoclastogenesis and mesenchymal cell replication and/or differentiation and are exerted through interactions of the ligand-activated receptors with other transcription factors. However, increased remodeling alone cannot explain why loss of sex steroids tilts the balance of resorption and formation in favor of the former. Estrogens and androgens also exert effects on the lifespan of mature bone cells: pro-apoptotic effects on osteoclasts but anti-apoptotic effects on osteoblasts and osteocytes. These latter effects stem from a heretofore unexpected function of the classical "nuclear" sex steroid receptors outside the nucleus and result from activation of a Src/Shc/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signal transduction pathway probably within preassembled scaffolds called caveolae. Strikingly, estrogen receptor (ER) alpha or beta or the androgen receptor can transmit anti-apoptotic signals with similar efficiency, irrespective of whether the ligand is an estrogen or an androgen. More importantly, these nongenotropic, sex-nonspecific actions are mediated by the ligand-binding domain of the receptor and can be functionally dissociated from transcriptional activity with synthetic ligands. Taken together, these lines of evidence strongly suggest that, in sex steroid deficiency, loss of transcriptional effects may be responsible for the increased osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis and thereby the increased rate of bone remodeling. Loss of nongenotropic anti-apoptotic effects on mature osteoblasts and osteocytes, in combination with an opposite effect on the lifespan of mature osteoclasts, may be responsible for the imbalance between formation and resorption and the progressive loss of bone mass and strength. Elucidation of the dual function of sex steroid receptors has important pathophysiologic and pharmacologic implications. Specifically, synthetic ligands of the ER that can evoke the nongenotropic but not the genotropic signal may be bone anabolic agents, as opposed to natural estrogens or selective estrogen receptor modulators that are antiresorptive agents. The same ligands may also circumvent the side effects associated with conventional hormone replacement therapy. PMID:12017554

  15. Inductive displacement sensors with a notch filter for an active magnetic bearing system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Seng-Chi; Le, Dinh-Kha; Nguyen, Van-Sum

    2014-01-01

    Active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems support rotating shafts without any physical contact, using electromagnetic forces. Each radial AMB uses two pairs of electromagnets at opposite sides of the rotor. This allows the rotor to float in the air gap, and the machine to operate without frictional losses. In active magnetic suspension, displacement sensors are necessary to detect the radial and axial movement of the suspended object. In a high-speed rotating machine equipped with an AMB, the rotor bending modes may be limited to the operating range. The natural frequencies of the rotor can cause instability. Thus, notch filters are a useful circuit for stabilizing the system. In addition, commercial displacement sensors are sometimes not suitable for AMB design, and cannot filter the noise caused by the natural frequencies of rotor. Hence, implementing displacement sensors based on the AMB structure is necessary to eliminate noises caused by natural frequency disturbances. The displacement sensor must be highly sensitive in the desired working range, and also exhibit a low interference noise, high stability, and low cost. In this study, we used the differential inductive sensor head and lock-in amplifier for synchronous demodulation. In addition, an active low-pass filter and a notch filter were used to eliminate disturbances, which caused by natural frequencies. As a consequence, the inductive displacement sensor achieved satisfactory linearity, high sensitivity, and disturbance elimination. This sensor can be easily produced for AMB applications. A prototype of these displacement sensors was built and tested. PMID:25029281

  16. Inductive Displacement Sensors with a Notch Filter for an Active Magnetic Bearing System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Seng-Chi; Le, Dinh-Kha; Nguyen, Van-Sum

    2014-01-01

    Active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems support rotating shafts without any physical contact, using electromagnetic forces. Each radial AMB uses two pairs of electromagnets at opposite sides of the rotor. This allows the rotor to float in the air gap, and the machine to operate without frictional losses. In active magnetic suspension, displacement sensors are necessary to detect the radial and axial movement of the suspended object. In a high-speed rotating machine equipped with an AMB, the rotor bending modes may be limited to the operating range. The natural frequencies of the rotor can cause instability. Thus, notch filters are a useful circuit for stabilizing the system. In addition, commercial displacement sensors are sometimes not suitable for AMB design, and cannot filter the noise caused by the natural frequencies of rotor. Hence, implementing displacement sensors based on the AMB structure is necessary to eliminate noises caused by natural frequency disturbances. The displacement sensor must be highly sensitive in the desired working range, and also exhibit a low interference noise, high stability, and low cost. In this study, we used the differential inductive sensor head and lock-in amplifier for synchronous demodulation. In addition, an active low-pass filter and a notch filter were used to eliminate disturbances, which caused by natural frequencies. As a consequence, the inductive displacement sensor achieved satisfactory linearity, high sensitivity, and disturbance elimination. This sensor can be easily produced for AMB applications. A prototype of these displacement sensors was built and tested. PMID:25029281

  17. Four Pulse Drive System for the Beam Induction Cells for DARHT Axis 2

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, J.; Carlson, R.; Melton, J.; Fockler, J.

    1999-06-28

    The proposed drive system allows for the generation of up to four (4) high-quality radiographic pulses along one line-of-sight, having arbitrary pulse spacing ({approximately}500 ns), using demonstrated technologies. This concept uses a four-pulse drive system to drive both a 16-MeV ensemble of 250-kV, 4-kA induction cells and a four-pulse, 4-MeV injector. The key to this approach lies in the method used to combine four pulses from different generators in a manner that does not compromise the voltage flatness requirement of {+-} 1%. The induction cells use core material for only a single pulse. A simple reverse bias circuit is used to reset the cores between pulses, and the insulator has been redesigned to withstand the reverse reset voltage. This approach can be installed in stages so that the facility can be used for dual axis radiography while implementing the multi-pulsing capability. A dual double-pulse format has been identified which provides a sequence of two pulses along one line-of-sight within a 2-{micro}sec window. The 2-{micro}sec windows can be separated by arbitrary time intervals of 2- to 10-{micro}sec.

  18. Using a Computer Algebra System to Facilitate the Learning of Mathematical Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Alasdair

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical induction is one of the major proof techniques taught to mathematics students in the first years of their undergraduate degrees. In addition to its importance to mathematics, induction is also required for computer science and related disciplines. However, even if the concepts of a proof by induction are taught and understood, many…

  19. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems

    SciTech Connect

    Luong, E.

    1999-05-10

    This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 {+-} 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 {+-} 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 {+-} 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 {+-} 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and {beta}-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of {sup 13}C{sup +} with {sup 12}C{sup 1}H{sup +} comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or {beta}-cyclodextrin.

  20. A Novel Method for Improving Overload Capability of Stand-alone Power System Based on a Flywheel Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Miao-Miao; Kato, Shuhei; Sumitani, Hideo; Shimada, Ryuichi

    Stand-alone power systems are widely used in islands and remote areas. With the rapid advances in the new energy technology, stand-alone power systems have got a rapid development. However, their overload capability is very poor. In this paper, a novel method to improve the overload performance of the stand-alone power system is proposed by using a flywheel induction motor. The flywheel induction motor is composed of a flywheel disk connected to a squirrel cage induction motor. It is controlled to supply the overload power of the stand-alone power supply by charging and discharging. The proposed system is characterized by the following three points: 1) Simple configuration; The flywheel induction motor is directly connected to the inverter-controlled load without any converters. 2) Simple frequency control; The expected active power flow is realized by a small change of the stand-alone power side inverter's output frequency. 3) Low cost system; A decreased power capacity demand for the stand-alone power supply is realized by adding a low cost flywheel induction motor. Experimental results are provided to verify the proposed system.

  1. Non-reproductive effects of sex steroids: their immunoregulatory role.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Cruz, Samira; Togno-Pierce, Cristian; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Sex hormones play an important role as modulators of the immune system. A growing body of evidence shows reciprocal relationship between sex steroids and the immune system. Since the innate immune response determines the type of adaptive immune response, hormonal effects on the innate immune response may affect subsequent adaptive immunity. The sex steroids estrogens, progesterone and testosterone regulate growth, differentiation, survival and function of many cell types involved in homeostasis and immunity. The presence of sex steroid receptors on immune cells indicates that sex steroids may exert their biological effects by binding to these receptors. Sex steroids and immunity are closely connected, and their mutual regulation is involved in the maintenance of immune balance. Understanding the mechanisms of action of sex steroids on immune cells is important for further progress in the development of novel therapies for chronic diseases associated to immune dysregulation. This review describes the effects of sex steroids on the different immune system cells, and the possible implications of these effects on the incidence of many diseases. PMID:21463251

  2. The in vitro effects of new non-steroidal antiinflammatory compounds on antioxidant system of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Orhan, H; Doğruer, D S; Cakir, B; Sahin, G; Sahin, M F

    1999-07-01

    It has been reported by our group that some benzoxazolone and benzothiazolone derivatives showed significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity [DOGRUER et al. 1997]. It has been speculated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can act as the free radical scavengers and possess antioxidant activity. It is also well documented that oxidative stress can play an important role in the side effects of many xenobiotics including NSAIDs. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of six of the above mentioned benzoxazolone and benzothiazolone derivatives bearing 2-pyridylaminocarbonylmetyl moiety at the position 3 (I) on the antioxidant system-related parameters of human erythrocytes have been investigated. Diclofenac and nimesulid were also tested in the same systems as the control, because they are commonly used as NSAIDs. Our results showed that these compounds made significant changes in the antioxidant system of human erythrocyte. PMID:10445404

  3. A wearable respiration monitoring system based on digital respiratory inductive plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Huang, Bang-Yu; Wang, Bo; Lin, Shao-Jie; Xu, Xiao-Wen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a wearable device for continuous monitoring of respiration signal and the associated algorithm for signal evaluations. The device took advantages of a proven respiratory inductive plethysmograph (RIP) technology and a wireless body sensor networks (BSN) development platform. The textile RIP sensor was integrated into a suit that could be comfortably worn around thorax or abdomen for monitoring respiration during sleep. A smart signal processing algorithm was implemented for extracting the dynamic respiration rate. The results of in-situ experiments from ten healthy subjects suggested that our system worked as intended. Due to the high reliability and low cost of our system it is believed to meet the future demands on home-based monitoring and diagnosis of sleep disorder-related diseases. PMID:19963862

  4. Development of a dental implant mobility measurement system using an inductive sensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Seung; Lee, Woo-Jin; Choi, Soon-Chul; Lee, Sam-Sun; Heo, Min-Suk; Heo, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of dental implant stability is an important factor for diagnosis of implant treatment. In this study, we have developed a new system for measuring dental implant mobility. Movement of the implant was measured by an inductive sensor and an amplification adaptor was developed to multiply movement of the implant. Impulse response signal of the implant was acquired and power spectrum analysis was applied for the signal. Various implant-tissue interfacial conditions were simulated in an in vitro experiment and average peak frequency of the power spectrum was calculated for each condition. Artificial implantation model of acryl was fabricated and holes of different levels of depth and diameter were drilled. Two types of impression materials were used to fix the dental implant into the hole. The peak frequency showed linear relationship (P-value<0.01) with the depth and the diameter of the hole. Differentiability of the system was evaluated by ANOVA test. PMID:22254323

  5. Simulation study for a new magnetic induction tomography coil system with weakly perturbing in conducting background.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ziyi; Liu, Peiguo; Zhou, Dongming; Zhang, Liang; Lei, Hengdong

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical magnetic induction tomography (MIT) aims to reconstruct the passive electrical properties within biological tissues, especially the electrical conductivity. A weak perturbation inside a conducting object is put in the improved MIT coil system which uses the two-arm Archimedean spiral coil as the excitation coil and the circular coil as the receiver coil. The forward problem for this model is calculated by three-dimension electromagnetic simulation experiments. Under the different simulation conditions, the phase shift of voltage induced in the receiver coil is compared with that for the common model using the circular coil as the excitation and receiver coil. The results show that the sensitivity to the improved model is much higher than that to the common model except for the case that the perturbation appears in y-axis, which effectively confirms the previous conclusions and indicates that the improved coil system has the potential advantage for MIT image reconstruction. PMID:25570161

  6. Induction Motor Drive System Based on Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liying; Zhang, Yongli; Yao, Qingmei

    It is difficult to establish an exact mathematical model for the induction motor and the robustness is poor of the vector control system using PI regulator. This paper adopts the linear active disturbance rejection controller (LADRC) to control inductor motor. LADRC doesn't need the exact mathematical model of motor and it can not only estimate but also compensate the general disturbance that includes the coupling items in model of motor and parameters perturbations by linear extended state observer (LESO), so the rotor flux and torque fully decouple. As a result, the performance is improved. To prove the above control scheme, the proposed control system has been simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK, and the comparison was made with PID. Simulation results show that LADRC' has better performance and robustness than PID.

  7. Optical control, diagnostic and power supply system for a solid state induction modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Saethre, R.; Kirbie, H.; Hickman, B.; Lee, B.; Ollis, C.

    1997-06-01

    A new high speed optical control, diagnostic and power supply system has been developed for a solid state induction modulator. The modulator consists of a large array of field effect transistors (FETs) that switch a high-voltage pulse across a tape-wound magnetic core. The FETs within the modulator are mounted on numerous circuit boards that are stacked in series for high-voltage operation. The new optical system overcomes the issue of voltage isolation by supplying each circuit board with optically coupled control power and high bandwidth signal information. An optical fiber is used to transmit laser light to a custom photovoltaic cell that provides dc power to the on-board control circuits. Optical fiber technology is again used to convey a pulse that contains detailed analog features to the FET gate controls. Diagnostic data and status information are also obtained from each board by similar optical methods. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Roles of Steroids in Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inability of nematodes to biosynthesize steroids de novo and the resulting dependence of parasitic nematodes upon their hosts have enhanced the importance of elucidating the metabolism of sterols and the hormonal and other functions of steroids in nematodes. Biochemical research has revealed th...

  9. Are Steroids Worth the Risk?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can also affect how aggressive a person is. Athletes sometimes take anabolic steroids because of their testosterone-like effects. Another group ... and medical associations. In spite of this, some athletes continue to take steroids because they think it gives them a competitive ...

  10. Crystallization of steroids in gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkura, S. Narayana; Devanarayanan, S.

    1991-03-01

    The crystal growth and characterization of certain steriods, viz., cholesterol, cholesteryl acetate, β-sitosterol, progesterone and testosterone, in a silica gel medium is discussed. The present study shows that the single test tube diffusion method can be used to grow crystals of steroids in a silica gel medium by the reduction of steroid solubility.

  11. Steroid estrogens, nonylphenol ethoxylate metabolites, and other wastewater contaminants in groundwater affected by a residential septic system on cape cod, MA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swartz, C.H.; Reddy, S.; Benotti, M.J.; Yin, H.; Barber, L.B.; Brownawell, Bruce J.; Rudel, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Septic systems serve approximately 25% of U.S. households and may be an important source of estrogenic and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWC) to groundwater. We monitored several estrogenic OWC, including nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol mono- and diethoxycarboxylates (NP1EC and NP2EC), the steroid hormones 17??-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and their glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, and other OWC such as methylene blue active substances (MBAS), caffeine and its degradation product paraxanthine, and two fluorescent whitening agents in a residential septic system and in downgradient groundwater. E1 and E2 were present predominantly as free estrogens in groundwater, and near-source groundwater concentrations of all OWC were highest in the suboxic to anoxic portion of the wastewater plume, where concentrations of most OWC were similar to those observed in the septic tank on the same day. NP and NP2EC were up to 6- to 30-fold higher, and caffeine and paraxanthine were each 60-fold lower than septic tank concentrations, suggesting net production and removal, respectively, of these constituents. At the most shallow, oxic depth, concentrations of all OWC except for NP2EC were substantially lower than in the tank and in deeper wells. Yet boron, specific conductance, and the sum of nitrate-and ammonia-nitrogen were highest at this shallow depth, suggesting preferential losses of OWC along the more oxic flow lines. As far as 6.0 m downgradient, concentrations of many OWC were within a factor of 2 of near-source concentrations. The results suggest that there is the potential for migration of these OWC, which are unregulated and not routinely monitored, in groundwater. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  12. Electromechanical performance of induction motor/drive systems subjected to voltage sags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunaboylu, Serdar N.

    Induction Motors are workhorses for many industries. They are extensively utilized in industrial variable-frequency drive (VFD) or adjustable-speed drive (ASD) applications as well as constant speed applications. Recent advances in power electronics have made AC motor drives an economically viable solution for ASD applications traditionally dominated by dc motor drives. In this study, electromechanical performance variables of an Induction Motor (IM) have been studied during the balanced voltage sags. For this purpose a laboratory prototype of an industrial mixer has been designed. IM has been coupled to a speed reducer that is worm gear type with a ratio 10 to 1. Then the reducer is vertically coupled to a food process mixer within a metal canister. The mixer represents a high friction load with practically zero inertia. Voltage, current, speed, and power measurements have been collected and compared with the simulation results from Simnon. An open-loop control Volts per Hertz boost strategy has been used in order to compensate the speed loss during the three-phase balanced voltage sags. Both compensated and uncompensated cases have been run and compared with simulation results. Results are verified with a reasonably good agreement that the total system modeling is successful and boost compensation circuit is effective.

  13. Characterization of stratification for an opaque highly stable magnetorheological fluid using vertical axis inductance monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Lei; Choi, Young-Tai; Liao, Chang-Rong; Wereley, Norman M.

    2015-05-01

    A key requirement for the commercialization of various magnetorheological fluid (MRF)-based applications is sedimentation stability. In this study, a high viscosity linear polysiloxane (HVLP), which has been used for shock absorbers in heavy equipment, is proposed as a new carrier fluid in highly stable MRFs. The HVLP is known to be a thixotropic (i.e., shear thinning) fluid that shows very high viscosity at very low shear rate and low viscosity at higher shear rate. In this study, using the shear rheometer, the significant thixotropic behavior of the HVLP was experimentally confirmed. In addition, a HVLP carrier fluid-based MRF (HVLP MRF) with 26 vol. % was synthesized and its sedimentation characteristics were experimentally investigated. But, because of the opacity of the HVLP MRF, no mudline can be visually observed. Hence, a vertical axis inductance monitoring system (VAIMS) applied to a circular column of fluid was used to evaluate sedimentation behavior by correlating measured inductance with the volume fraction of dispersed particles (i.e., Fe). Using the VAIMS, Fe concentration (i.e., volume fraction) was monitored for 28 days with a measurement taken every four days, as well as one measurement after 96 days to characterize long-term sedimentation stability. Finally, the concentration of the HVLP MRF as a function of the depth in the column and time, as well as the concentration change versus the depth in the column, are presented and compared with those of a commercially available MRF (i.e., Lord MRF-126CD).

  14. Renal Transplantation Using Belatacept Without Maintenance Steroids or Calcineurin Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Allan D.; Guasch, Antonio; Xu, He; Cheeseman, Jennifer; Mead, Sue I.; Ghali, Ada; Mehta, Aneesh K.; Wu, Dona; Gebel, Howard; Bray, Robert; Horan, John; Kean, Leslie S.; Larsen, Christian P.; Pearson, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Kidney transplantation remains limited by toxicities of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and steroids. Belatacept is a less toxic CNI alternative, but existing regimens rely on steroids and have higher rejection rates. Experimentally, donor bone marrow and sirolimus promote belatacepts efficacy. To investigate a belatacept-based regimen without CNIs or steroids, we transplanted recipients of live donor kidneys using alemtuzumab induction, monthly belatacept and daily sirolimus. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive unfractionated donor bone marrow. After 1 year, patients were allowed to wean from sirolimus. Patients were followed clinically and with surveillance biopsies. Twenty patients were transplanted, all successfully. Mean creatinine (eGFR) was 1.100.07mg/dl (893.56ml/min) and 1.130.07 mg/dl (and 883.48 ml/min) at 12- and 36-months, respectively. Excellent results were achieved irrespective of bone marrow infusion. Ten patients elected oral immunosuppressant weaning, seven of whom were maintained rejection-free on monotherapy belatacept. Those failing to wean were successfully maintained on belatacept-based regimens supplemented by oral immunosuppression. Seven patients declined immunosuppressant weaning and three patients were denied weaning for associated medical conditions; all remained rejection-free. Belatacept and sirolimus effectively prevent kidney allograft rejection without CNIs or steroids when used following alemtuzumab induction. Selected, immunologically low-risk patients can be maintained solely on once monthly intravenous belatacept. PMID:24684552

  15. MR damper-based semiactive control system using electromagnetic induction device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hyung-Jo; Jang, Dong-Doo; Koo, Jeong-Hoi

    2009-03-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) damper-based semiactive control systems can be considered as one of the most advantageous control systems for natural hazard mitigation in the field of civil engineering because MR dampers have many good features such as small power requirement, reliability, and low price to manufacture. Those systems require feedback control and power supply parts to efficiently reduce the structural responses. The control system becomes complex when a lot of MR dampers are applied to large-scale civil structures, such as cable-stayed bridges and high-rise buildings, resulting in difficulties in its implementation and maintenance. To overcome the above difficulties, a new-class MR damper-based control system was recently proposed by replacing feedback control and power supply parts with an electromagnetic induction (EMI) part consisting of permanent magnets and a coil. According to the Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, an EMI part produces electrical energy (i.e., electromotive force or induced voltage) from mechanical energy (i.e., reciprocal motions of an MR damper), which is proportional to the rate of the change of the movement of a damper. From this characteristic of an EMI part, it might be used as a response sensing device as well as an alternative power supply. In addition, some control algorithms used in the MR damper-based semiactive control systems require the measurement information on the response related to the relative velocity of the damper. In this study, the sensing capability of an EMI part is preliminarily examined for an application to the MR damper-based semiactive control system. To this end, experimental tests are carried out using the real-scale stay cable employing an MR damper with an EMI part. It is demonstrated from the tests that an EMI part could exactly extract the dynamic characteristics of the stay cable so that it might be used as a sensing device for estimating the tension force of the stay cable. In addition, numerical simulations are performed to verify the control performance of the MR damper-based semiactive control system adopting an EMI part as a power supply as well as a velocity sensor and the maximum energy dissipation algorithm, which requires the information on the relative velocity, as a control algorithm. The numerical result validates that the proposed control system can reduce the vibration of the stay cable effectively.

  16. Computer expert system for spectral line simulation and selection in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pengyuan; Ying, Hai; Wang, Xiaoru; Huang, Benli

    1996-07-01

    This paper is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta, Part B (SAB). This hardcopy text, comprising the main body and an appendix, is accompanied by a disk with programs, data files and a brief manual. The main body discusses purpose, design principle and usage of the computer software for the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) expert system. The appendix provides a brief instruction on the manipulation of the demonstration program and relevant information on accessing the diskette. The computer software of the expert system has been developed in C++ language to simulate spectra and to select analytical lines in ICP-AES. This expert system is based on a comprehensive model of non-LTE ICP-AES, which includes expertise in plasma discharges, analyte ionization and excitation, and spectral-line shapes. The system also provides several databases in which essential elemental and spectral data are stored. A logic reasoning engine is utilized for selection of the best analytical line with a main criterion of minimizing the true detection limit. The system is user-friendly with pop-up menus, an editor for database operation, and a graphic interface for the display of simulated spectra. The system can simulate spectra and predict spectral interferences with good accuracy.

  17. [Constitution of a Real-time Monitoring System of Cerebral Hemorrhage with Magnetic Induction].

    PubMed

    Peng, Bin; Tang, Qinghua; Sun, Jian; Qin, Mingxin; Pan, Wencai; Du, Zhenwei; Zhang, Zhao; Li, Shangbin

    2015-04-01

    The real-time monitoring of cerebral hemorrhage can reduce its disability and fatality rates greatly. On the basis of magnetic induction phase shift, we in this study used filter and amplifier hardware module, NI-PXI data-acquisition system and LabVIEW software to set up an experiment system. We used Band-pass sample method and correlation phase demodulation algorithm in the system. In order to test and evaluate the performance of the system, we carried out saline simulation experiments of brain hemorrhage. We also carried out rabbit cerebral hemorrhage experiments. The results of both saline simulation and animal experiments suggested that our monitoring system had a high phase detection precision, and it needed only about 0.030 4s to finish a single phase shift measurement, and the change of phase shift was directly proportional to the volume of saline or blood. The experimental results were consistent with theory. As a result, this system has the ability of real-time monitoring the progression of cerebral hemorrhage precisely, with many distinguished features, such as low cost, high phase detection precision, high sensitivity of response so that it has showed a good application prospect. PMID:26211268

  18. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and

  19. The Influence of Sex Steroid Hormones on Gingiva of Women

    PubMed Central

    Markou, Eleni; Eleana, Boura; Lazaros, Tsalikis; Antonios, Konstantinides

    2009-01-01

    Steroid sex hormones have a significant effect on different organ systems. As far as gingiva are concerned, they can influence the cellular proliferation, differentiation and growth of keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Estrogen is mainly responsible for alterations in blood vessels and progesterone stimulates the production of inflammatory mediators. In addition, some micro-organisms found in the human mouth synthesize enzymes needed for steroid synthesis and catabolism. In women, during puberty, ovulation and pregnancy, there is an increase in the production of sex steroid hormones which results in increased gingival inflammation, characterized by gingival enlargement, increased gingival bleeding and crevicular fluid flow and microbial changes. PMID:19812718

  20. Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Protein-Protein Interactions in the Cytochrome CYP11A1 (P450scc)-Containing Steroid Hydroxylase System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yd; Frantsuzov, Pa; Zllner, A.; Medvedeva, Nv; Archakov, Ai; Reinle, W.; Bernhardt, R.

    2011-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) were used for monitoring of the procedure for cytochrome CYP11A1 monomerization in solution without phospholipids. It was shown that the incubation of 100 ?M CYP11A1 with 12% Emulgen 913 in 50 mM KP, pH 7.4, for 10 min at T = 22C leads to dissociation of hemoprotein aggregates to monomers with the monomerization degree of (82 4)%. Following the monomerization procedure, CYP11A1 remained functionally active. AFM was employed to detect and visualize the isolated proteins as well as complexes formed between the components of the cytochrome CYP11A1-dependent steroid hydroxylase system. Both Ad and AdR were present in solution as monomers. The typical heights of the monomeric AdR, Ad and CYP11A1 images were measured by AFM and were found to correspond to the sizes 1.6 0.2 nm, 1.0 0.2 nm and 1.8 0.2 nm, respectively. The binary Ad/AdR and AdR/CYP11A1mon complexes with the heights 2.2 0.2 nm and 2.8 0.2 nm, respectively, were registered by use of AFM. The Ad/CYP11A1mon complex formation reaction was kinetically characterized based on optical biosensor data. In addition, the ternary AdR/Ad/CYP11A1 complexes with a typical height of 4 1 nm were AFM registered.

  1. CLIPPERS: chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids. Review of an increasingly recognized entity within the spectrum of inflammatory central nervous system disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dudesek, A; Rimmele, F; Tesar, S; Kolbaske, S; Rommer, P S; Benecke, R; Zettl, U K

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a recently defined inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) disorder, prominently involving the brainstem and in particular the pons. The condition features a combination of clinical symptoms essentially referable to brainstem pathology and a characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance with punctate and curvilinear gadolinium enhancement peppering the pons. The radiological distribution is focused in the pons and adjacent rhombencephalic structures such as the cerebellar peduncles, cerebellum, medulla and the midbrain. While the lesion burden with a perivascular pattern is typically most dense in these pontine and peripontine regions, enhancing lesions may additionally extend into the spinal cord and supratentorial structures such as the thalamus, basal ganglia, capsula interna, corpus callosum and the cerebral white matter. Another core feature is clinical and radiological responsiveness to glucocorticosteroid (GCS)-based immunosuppression. As withdrawal of GCS treatment results commonly in disease exacerbation, long-term immunosuppressive therapy appears to be mandatory for sustained improvement. Diagnosis of CLIPPERS is challenging, and requires careful exclusion of alternative diagnoses. A specific serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker for the disorder is currently not known. Pathogenesis of CLIPPERS remains poorly understood, and the nosological position of CLIPPERS has still to be established. Whether CLIPPERS represents an independent, actual new disorder or a syndrome that includes aetiologically heterogeneous diseases and/or their prestages remains a debated and not finally clarified issue. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of this condition and its differential diagnoses, given that CLIPPERS constitutes a treatable condition and that patients may benefit from an early introduction of GCS ensued by long-term immunosuppression. Based on previous reports in literature??currently encompassing more than 50 reported cases of CLIPPERS??this review addresses clinical features, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses and therapeutic management of this peculiar disorder. PMID:24028073

  2. Neuroactive steroids and peripheral myelin proteins.

    PubMed

    Magnaghi, V; Cavarretta, I; Galbiati, M; Martini, L; Melcangi, R C

    2001-11-01

    The present review summarizes observations obtained in our laboratories which underline the importance of neuroactive steroids (i.e., progesterone (PROG), dihydroprogesterone (5alpha-DH PROG), tetrahydroprogesterone (3alpha, 5alpha-TH PROG), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5alpha-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diol (3alpha-diol)) in the control of the gene expression of myelin proteins (i.e. glycoprotein Po (Po) and the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22)) in the peripheral nervous system. Utilizing different in vivo (aged and adult male rats) and in vitro (Schwann cell cultures) experimental models, we have observed that neuroactive steroids are able to stimulate the mRNA levels of Po and PMP22. The effects of these neuroactive steroids, which are able to interact with classical (progesterone receptor, PR, and androgen receptor, AR) and non-classical (GABA(A) receptor) steroid receptors is further supported by our demonstration in sciatic nerve and/or Schwann cells of the presence of these receptors. On the basis of the observations obtained in the Schwann cells cultures, we suggest that the stimulatory effect of neuroactive steroids on Po is acting through PR, while that on PMP22 needs the GABA(A) receptor. The present findings might be of importance for the utilization of specific receptor ligands as new therapeutical approaches for the rebuilding of the peripheral myelin, particularly in those situations in which the synthesis of Po and PMP22 is altered (i.e. demyelinating diseases like Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A and type 1B, hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and the Djrine-Sottas syndrome, aging, and after peripheral injury). PMID:11744100

  3. Injection of steroids intralesional in central giant cell granuloma cases (giant cell tumor): Is it free of systemic complications or not? A case report

    PubMed Central

    El Hadidi, Yasser Nabil; Ghanem, Amr Amin; Helmy, Iman

    2015-01-01

    Central giant tumors commonly occur in long bones. In the oral and maxillofacial region, a counterpart coined with the term Central giant cell granuloma exists. Choung and Kaban classified central giant cell granulomas based on clinical and radiographic findings. The classification includes aggressive and non-aggressive variants. However, to date there has been no molecular method of distinguishing the variants. Different lines of treatment had been reported. The aggressive form showed high recurrence rates with conservative surgical treatment. Intra-lesional steroid, calcitonin, interferon, bisphosphonates and denosumab; have been administered as a treatment lines. Several reports support the injection of intra lesional steroids and its successful outcome. An Egyptian, nine years old female presented with a facial swelling affecting lower left side of the mandible. Biopsy confirmed it to be a CGCG. The treatment plan was intralesional steroid injections to avoid resection of the mandible. The treatment showed acceptable progress but was associated with cushinoid appearance of patient. This forced the operating team to halt the steroid injections and resolute to adjunctive surgical curettage yet sparing the mandible from resection. One-year follow up showed no recurrence, however, the patient still suffers mild cushinoid appearance. PMID:25699662

  4. Electrical engineering and nontechnical design variables of multiple inductive loop systems for auditoriums.

    PubMed

    Alterovitz, Gil

    2004-01-01

    This research analyzed both engineering and nontechnical issues involved in the use of Induction Loop Amplification (ILA) devices in auditoriums or large gathering places for hard-of-hearing individuals. A variety of parameters need to be taken into account to determine an optimal shape/configuration for the ILA device. In many cases, an optimal configuration is different from those proposed for classroom use (Ross, 1969; Hodgson, 1986; Clevenger, 1992). Experimental results were obtained for a double-loop configuration in such a setting (a university gymnasium/auditorium in this case). The results demonstrate that a double-loop configuration is a viable possibility for auditorium use. Several variables using this configuration were examined, and experimentation was done. Various implications, including consequent nontechnical issues specific to this application, are discussed as well. Technical and nontechnical aspects of the ILA configuration need to be examined together when designing an optimal system. PMID:15304441

  5. Measurement of the target current by inductive probe during laser interaction on terawatt laser system PALS

    SciTech Connect

    Cikhardt, J.; Klír, D.; Řezáč, K.; Krása, J.; De Marco, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Velyhan, A.; Krouský, E.; Cikhardtová, B.; Kubeš, P.; Kravárik, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Skála, J.

    2014-10-15

    Measurements of the return-current flowing through a solid target irradiated with the sub-nanosecond kJ-class Prague Asterix Laser System is reported. A new inductive target probe was developed which allows us measuring the target current derivative in a kA/ns range. The dependences of the target current on the laser pulse energy for cooper, graphite, and polyethylene targets are reported. The experiment shows that the target current is proportional to the deposited laser energy and is strongly affected by the shot-to-shot fluctuations. The corresponding maximum target charge exceeded a value of 10 μC. A return-current dependence of the electromagnetic pulse produced by the laser-target interaction is presented.

  6. Multiphysics Modeling of an Annular Linear Induction Pump With Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbane, J.; Polzin, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    An annular linear induction pump (ALIP) that could be used for circulating liquid-metal coolant in a fission surface power reactor system is modeled in the present work using the computational COMSOL Multiphysics package. The pump is modeled using a two-dimensional, axisymmetric geometry and solved under conditions similar to those used during experimental pump testing. Real, nonlinear, temperature-dependent material properties can be incorporated into the model for both the electrically-conducting working fluid in the pump (NaK-78) and structural components of the pump. The intricate three-phase coil configuration of the pump is implemented in the model to produce an axially-traveling magnetic wave that is qualitatively similar to the measured magnetic wave. The model qualitatively captures the expected feature of a peak in efficiency as a function of flow rate.

  7. Measurement of the target current by inductive probe during laser interaction on terawatt laser system PALS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikhardt, J.; Krása, J.; De Marco, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Velyhan, A.; Krouský, E.; Cikhardtová, B.; Klír, D.; Řezáč, K.; Ullschmied, J.; Skála, J.; Kubeš, P.; Kravárik, J.

    2014-10-01

    Measurements of the return-current flowing through a solid target irradiated with the sub-nanosecond kJ-class Prague Asterix Laser System is reported. A new inductive target probe was developed which allows us measuring the target current derivative in a kA/ns range. The dependences of the target current on the laser pulse energy for cooper, graphite, and polyethylene targets are reported. The experiment shows that the target current is proportional to the deposited laser energy and is strongly affected by the shot-to-shot fluctuations. The corresponding maximum target charge exceeded a value of 10 μC. A return-current dependence of the electromagnetic pulse produced by the laser-target interaction is presented.

  8. Use of an AC induction motor system for producing finger movements in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Proudlock, F A; Scott, J J

    1998-12-01

    This report describes the set-up and evaluation of a novel system for producing precise finger movements, for tests of movement perception. The specifications were to construct a system using commercially available components that were easy to use but which offered both flexibility and also high precision control. The system was constructed around an industrial AC induction motor with an optical encoder, controlled by an AC servo digital control module that could be programmed using a simple, high-level language. This set-up fulfilled the requirements regarding position and velocity control for a range of movements and also the facility for the subject to move the joint voluntarily while still attached to the motor. However a number of problems were encountered, the most serious being the level of vibration and the inability to vary the torque during movements. The vibration was reduced to the point where it did not affect the subject, by the introduction of mechanical dampening using an anti-vibration coupling and a pneumatic splint. The torque control could not be modified during rotation and so the system could only be operated using constant torque for any given movement. PMID:9874151

  9. Evaluation of a Closed Loop Inductive Power Transmission System on an Awake Behaving Animal Subject

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Mehdi; Kwon, Ki Yong; Zhang, Fei; Oweiss, Karim; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents in vivo experimental results for a closed loop wireless power transmission system to implantable devices on an awake behaving animal subject. In this system, wireless power transmission takes place across an inductive link, controlled by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. Induced voltage on the implantable secondary coil is rectified, digitized by a 10-bit analog to digital converter, and transmitted back to the primary via back telemetry. Transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) circuitry were mounted on the back of an adult rat with a nominal distance of ~7 mm between their coils. Our experiments showed that the closed loop system was able to maintain the Rx supply voltage at the designated 3.8 V despite changes in the coils relative distance and alignment due to animal movements. The Tx power consumption changed between 410 ~ 560 mW in order to deliver 27 mW to the receiver. The open loop system, on the other hand, showed undesired changes in the Rx supply voltage while the Tx power consumption was constant at 660 mW. PMID:22256112

  10. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    SciTech Connect

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca

    2014-11-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens/AR mediate sperm death which is a novel field of investigation in sperm biology.

  11. Vectorial Command of Induction Motor Pumping System Supplied by a Photovoltaic Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhlouf, Messaoud; Messai, Feyrouz; Benalla, Hocine

    2011-01-01

    With the continuous decrease of the cost of solar cells, there is an increasing interest and needs in photovoltaic (PV) system applications following standard of living improvements. Water pumping system powered by solar-cell generators are one of the most important applications. The fluctuation of solar energy on one hand, and the necessity to optimise available solar energy on the other, it is useful to develop new efficient and flexible modes to control motors that entrain the pump. A vectorial control of an asynchronous motor fed by a photovoltaic system is proposed. This paper investigates a photovoltaic-electro mechanic chain, composed of a PV generator, DC-AC converter, a vector controlled induction motor and centrifugal pump. The PV generator is forced to operate at its maximum power point by using an appropriate search algorithm integrated in the vector control. The optimization is realized without need to adding a DC-DC converter to the chain. The motor supply is also ensured in all insolation conditions. Simulation results show the effectiveness and feasibility of such an approach.

  12. Manchester code telemetry system for well logging using quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive resonance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Chen, Jianjun; Cao, Zhang; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance method is proposed to improve the recovery of MIL-STD-1553 Manchester code with several frequency components from attenuated, distorted, and drifted signal for data telemetry in well logging, and corresponding telemetry system is developed. Required resonant frequency and quality factor are derived, and the quasi-parallel LC resonant circuit is established at the receiving end of the logging cable to suppress the low-pass filtering effect caused by the distributed capacitance of the cable and provide balanced pass for all the three frequency components of the Manchester code. The performance of the method for various encoding frequencies and cable lengths at different bit energy to noise density ratios (Eb/No) have been evaluated in the simulation. A 5 km single-core cable used in on-site well logging and various encoding frequencies were employed to verify the proposed telemetry system in the experiment. Results obtained demonstrate that the telemetry system is feasible and effective to improve the code recovery in terms of anti-attenuation, anti-distortion, and anti-drift performances, decrease the bit error rate, and increase the reachable transmission rate and distance greatly. PMID:25085159

  13. Manchester code telemetry system for well logging using quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijun; Chen, Jianjun; Cao, Zhang; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance method is proposed to improve the recovery of MIL-STD-1553 Manchester code with several frequency components from attenuated, distorted, and drifted signal for data telemetry in well logging, and corresponding telemetry system is developed. Required resonant frequency and quality factor are derived, and the quasi-parallel LC resonant circuit is established at the receiving end of the logging cable to suppress the low-pass filtering effect caused by the distributed capacitance of the cable and provide balanced pass for all the three frequency components of the Manchester code. The performance of the method for various encoding frequencies and cable lengths at different bit energy to noise density ratios (Eb/No) have been evaluated in the simulation. A 5 km single-core cable used in on-site well logging and various encoding frequencies were employed to verify the proposed telemetry system in the experiment. Results obtained demonstrate that the telemetry system is feasible and effective to improve the code recovery in terms of anti-attenuation, anti-distortion, and anti-drift performances, decrease the bit error rate, and increase the reachable transmission rate and distance greatly.

  14. Steroids in Athletics: One University's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Mike

    1990-01-01

    Presents an account of one university's experience in conducting an investigation into possible steroid use by student athletes and the development of a program to deal with the problem. Discusses why athletes use steroids and how steroids are taken. Concludes it is likely many steroid-related deaths of athletes go undetected. (Author/ABL)

  15. Industrial and Compendial Steroid Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grg, Sndor

    The aim of this section is to give an overview of the requirements of steroid analysis in pharmaceutical industry and to cover the methodological aspects of these requirements with regard to quality control of bulk steroid drugs and drug formulations. Although this is an important area, the challenges here are not comparable with those in biological-clinical steroid analysis, which was the sole topic of the first edition of this book. This is reflected by the much smaller number of research publications dealing with this pharmaceutical area of steroid analyses. Only a few (more or less obsolete) books are available (Grg and Szsz, 1978; Grg, 1983, 1989). The newer developments in this area are summarised in a comprehensive review (Grg, 2004), on which this chapter is based.

  16. Are Steroids Worth the Risk?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body hair. Testosterone levels can also affect how aggressive a person is. Athletes sometimes take anabolic steroids ... balding or hair loss weight gain mood swings aggression problems sleeping high blood pressure greater chance of ...

  17. Inactivation of delta 5-3-oxo steroid isomerase with active-site-directed acetylenic steroids.

    PubMed Central

    Penning, T M; Covey, D F; Talalay, P

    1981-01-01

    Several steroid analogues containing conjugated acetylenic ketone groups as part of a seco-ring structure or as substituents on the intact steroid system are irreversible inhibitors of delta 5-3-oxo steroid isomerase (EC 5.3.3.1) from Pseudomonas testosteroni. Thus 10 beta-(1-oxoprop-2-ynyl)oestr-4-ene-3,17-dione (I), 5,10-seco-oestr-4-yne-3,10,17-trione (II), 17 beta-hydroxy-5,10-seco-oestr-4-yne-3,10-dione (III) and 17 beta-(1-oxoprop-2-ynyl)androst-4-en-3-one (IV) irreversibly inactivate isomerase in a time-dependent manner. In all cases saturation kinetics are observed. Protection against inactivation is afforded by the powerful competitive inhibitor 19-nortestosterone. The inhibition constants (Ki) for 19-nortestosterone obtained from such experiments are in good agreement with those determined from conventional competitive-inhibition studies of enzyme activity. These compounds thus appear to be active-site directed. In every case the inactivated enzyme could be dialysed without return of activity, indicating that a stable covalent bond probably had formed between the steroid and enzyme. Compound (I) is a very potent inhibitor of isomerase [Ki = 66.0 microM and k+2 = 12.5 x 10(-3) s-1 (where Ki is the dissociation constant of the reversible enzyme-inhibitor complex and k+2 is the rate constant for the inactivation reaction of the enzyme-inhibitor complex)] giving half-lives of inactivation of 30-45 s at saturation. It is argued that the basic-amino-acid residue that abstracts the intramolecularly transferred 4 beta-proton in the reaction mechanism could form a Michael-addition product with compound (I). In contrast, although compound (IV) has a lower inhibition constant (Ki = 14.5 microM), it is a relatively poor alkylating agent (k+2 = 0.13 x 10(-3) s-1). If the conjugated acetylenic ketone groups are replaced by alpha-hydroxyacetylene groups, the resultant analogues of steroids (I)-(IV) are reversible competitive inhibitors with Ki values in the range 27-350 microM. The enzyme binds steroids in the C19 series with functionalized acetylenic substituents at C-17 in preference to steroids in the C18 series bearing similar groups in the ring structure or as C-10 substituents. In the 5,10-seco-steroid series the presence of hydroxy groups at both C-3 and C-17 is deleterious to binding by the enzyme. PMID:7305923

  18. Steroid metabolism with intestinal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Groh, H; Schade, K; Hörhold-Schubert, C

    1993-01-01

    As a result of the metabolic activities of numerous anaerobic microorganisms with sterols, bile acids and steroid hormones as substrates in connection with the enterohepatic circulation of these compounds, the intestine may be considered as an "endocrine" active site or organ. The review summarizes transformations of steroids by anaerobic intestinal bacteria, the physiological and supposed pathophysiological meaning thereof. The aim is to recommend further investigation in this field with respect to both the elucidation of the reactions and biological responses. PMID:8478793

  19. [Animal models for steroid-induced osteonecrosis].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takuaki; Miyanishi, Keita; Motomura, Goro; Nishida, Kenjiro; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Sueishi, Katsuo

    2007-06-01

    We describe that high-dose methylprednisolone (20 mg/kg) can induce multifocal osteonecrosis (ON) in conjunction with thrombocytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, and hyperlipemia. Detailed clinical and laboratory evaluations of coagulation system are recommended in those patients who develop manifestations of an abnormal lipid metabolism shortly after high-dose corticosteroid therapy. Moreover, we investigated the effects of the combination treatment with an anticoagulant (warfarin) plus a lipid-lowering agent (probucol) on prevention of steroid-induced osteonecrosis (ON) in this animal model. The incidence of ON in warfarin plus probucol (5%) was significantly lower than that observed in the control group (70%) (p <0.0001). Our results experimentally showed that the combined use of an anticoagulant and a lipid-lowering agent helps prevent steroid-induced ON in rabbits. PMID:17548927

  20. Non-steroidal drug-induced glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Razeghinejad, M R; Pro, M J; Katz, L J

    2011-08-01

    Numerous systemically used drugs are involved in drug-induced glaucoma. Most reported cases of non-steroidal drug-induced glaucoma are closed-angle glaucoma (CAG). Indeed, many routinely used drugs that have sympathomimetic or parasympatholytic properties can cause pupillary block CAG in individuals with narrow iridocorneal angle. The resulting acute glaucoma occurs much more commonly unilaterally and only rarely bilaterally. CAG secondary to sulfa drugs is a bilateral non-pupillary block type and is due to forward movement of iris-lens diaphragm, which occurs in individuals with narrow or open iridocorneal angle. A few agents, including antineoplastics, may induce open-angle glaucoma. In conclusion, the majority of cases with glaucoma secondary to non-steroidal medications are of the pupillary block closed-angle type and preventable if the at-risk patients are recognized and treated prophylactically. PMID:21637303

  1. A Triple-Loop Inductive Power Transmission System for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byunghun; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-02-01

    A triple-loop wireless power transmission (WPT) system equipped with closed-loop global power control, adaptive transmitter (Tx) resonance compensation (TRC), and automatic receiver (Rx) resonance tuning (ART) is presented. This system not only opposes coupling and load variations but also compensates for changes in the environment surrounding the inductive link to enhance power transfer efficiency (PTE) in applications such as implantable medical devices (IMDs). The Tx was built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader, operating at 13.56 MHz. A local Tx loop finds the optimal capacitance in parallel with the Tx coil by adjusting a varactor. A global power control loop maintains the received power at a desired level in the presence of changes in coupling distance, coil misalignments, and loading. Moreover, a local Rx loop is implemented inside a power management integrated circuit (PMIC) to avoid PTE degradation due to the Rx coil surrounding environment and process variations. The PMIC was fabricated in a 0.35- μm 4M2P standard CMOS process with 2.54 mm(2) active area. Measurement results show that the proposed triple-loop system improves the overall PTE by up to 10.5% and 4.7% compared to a similar open- and single closed-loop system, respectively, at nominal coil distance of 2 cm. The added TRC and ART loops contribute 2.3% and 1.4% to the overall PTE of 13.5%, respectively. This is the first WPT system to include three loops to dynamically compensate for environment and circuit variations and improve the overall power efficiency all the way from the driver output in Tx to the load in Rx. PMID:25667358

  2. Induction machine Direct Torque Control system based on fuzzy adaptive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shi-ping; Yu, Yan; Jiao, Zhen-gang; Gu, Shu-sheng

    2009-07-01

    Direct Torque Control technology is a high-performance communication control method, it uses the space voltage vector method, and then to the inverter switch state control, to obtain high torque dynamic performance. But none of the switching states is able to generate the exact voltage vector to produce the desired changes in torque and flux in most of the switching instances. This causes a high ripple in torque. To solve this problem, a fuzzy implementation of Direct Torque Control of Induction machine is presented here. Error of stator flux, error of motor electromagnetic torque and position of angle of flux are taken as fuzzy variables. In order to further solve nonlinear problem of variation parameters in direct torque control system, the paper proposes a fuzzy parameter PID adaptive control method which is suitable for the direct torque control of an asynchronous motor. The generation of its fuzzy control is obtained by analyzing and optimizing PID control step response and combining expert's experience. For this reason, it carries out fuzzy work to PID regulator of motor speed to achieve to regulate PID parameters. Therefore the control system gets swifter response velocity, stronger robustness and higher precision of velocity control. The computer simulated results verify the validity of this novel method.

  3. A multi-channel magnetic induction tomography measurement system for human brain model imaging.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zheng; Luo, Haijun; He, Wei; He, Chuanhong; Song, Xiaodong; Zahng, Zhanglong

    2009-06-01

    This paper proposes a multi-channel magnetic induction tomography measurement system for biological conductivity imaging in a human brain model. A hemispherical glass bowl filled with a salt solution is used as the human brain model; meanwhile, agar blocks of different conductivity are placed in the solution to simulate the intracerebral hemorrhage. The excitation and detection coils are fixed co-axially, and the axial gradiometer is used as the detection coil in order to cancel the primary field. On the outer surface of the glass bowl, 15 sensor units are arrayed in two circles as measurement parts, and a single sensor unit for cancelling the phase drift is placed beside the glass bowl. The phase sensitivity of our system is 0.204 degrees /S m(-1) with the excitation frequency of 120 kHz and the phase noise is in the range of -0.03 degrees to +0.05 degrees . Only the coaxial detection coil is available for each excitation coil; therefore, 15 phase data are collected in each measurement turn. Finally, the two-dimensional images of conductivity distribution are obtained using an interpolation algorithm. The frequency-varying experiment indicates that the imaging quality becomes better as the excitation frequency is increased. PMID:19491435

  4. Measurements of collisionless heating effects in the H-mode of an inductively coupled plasma system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaka-Ul-Islam, Mujahid; Graham, Bill; Gans, Timo; Niemi, Kari; O'Connell, Deborah

    2013-09-01

    Inductively coupled plasma systems (ICPs) for processing applications are often operated at low pressures, in the near-collisionless regime. In this regime, the electron mean free path is comparable or larger than the plasma dimensions. The electron dynamics in such ICPs has been investigated here, using phase and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy (PROES) and Langmuir probe measurements. The PROES measurements are also used to calculate the Fourier harmonics components of the 2D excitation (in the radial axial plane). The experimental system is a standard GEC cell with the axial gap of ~4 cm, powered by 13.56 MHz RF power supply. The gas pressure was varied between 0.5 - 2 Pa. The PROES measurements and Fourier harmonics components confirm many of the previous simulation results in comparable operational regimes. The results show that in the 2D (radial-axial) plane, the plasma power is deposited in a spatially non-uniform and non-linear manner, with axial layers of positive and negative power absorption. The contribution of these nonlinear effects decreases with an increase in the pressure, as observed in previous experimental and simulation results.

  5. A Digital Readout System For The CSO Microwave Kinetic Inductance Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max-Moerbeck, Walter; Mazin, B. A.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2007-12-01

    Submillimeter galaxies are important to the understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Determination of the spectral energy distribution in the millimeter and submillimeter regimes allows important and powerful diagnostics. Our group is developing a camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) using Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). MKIDs are superconducting devices whose impedance changes with the absorption of photons. The camera will have 600 spatial pixels and 4 bands at 750 μm, 850 μm, 1.1 mm and 1.3 mm. For each spatial pixel of the camera the radiation is coupled to the MKIDs using phased-array antennas. This signal is split into 4 different bands using filters and detected using the superconductor as part of a MKID's resonant circuit. The detection process consists of measurement of the changes in the transmission through the resonator when it is illuminated. By designing resonant circuits to have different resonant frequencies and high transmission out resonance, MKIDs can be frequency-domain multiplexed. This allows the simultaneous readout of many detectors through a single coaxial cable. The readout system makes use of microwave IQ modulation and is based on commercial electronics components operating at room temperature. The basic readout has been demonstrated on the CSO. We are working on the implementation of an improved design to be tested on a prototype system with 6x6 pixels and 4 colors next April on the CSO.

  6. Steroid hormone influence on melanomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Mitkov, Mario; Joseph, Richard; Copland, John

    2015-12-01

    Disparities in the prognosis and incidence of melanoma between male and female patients have led clinicians to explore the influence of steroid hormones on the development and progression of this malignancy. A better understanding of the disparities of melanoma behavior between sexes and ages could lead to improved prevention and treatment options. There are multiple themes in the literature that unify the physiologic functions of estrogen and androgen receptors; herein we discuss and map their pathways. Overall, it is important to understand that the differences in melanoma behavior between the sexes are multifactorial and likely involve interactions between the immune system, endocrine system, and environment, namely UV-radiation. Melanoma deserves a spot among hormone-sensitive tumors, and if tamoxifen is re-introduced for future therapy, tissue ratios of estrogen receptors should be obtained beforehand to assess their therapeutic predictive value. Because androgens, estrogens, and their receptors are involved in signaling of commonly mutated melanoma pathways, potential synergistic properties of the recently developed molecular kinase inhibitors that target those pathways may exist. PMID:26415591

  7. Steroid characteristics of mineralocorticoid adrenocortical hypertension.

    PubMed

    Biglieri, E G; Kater, C E

    1991-10-01

    Adrenocortical causes of hypertension are established by examining the mineralocorticoid hormones produced in the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata. In the zona glomerulosa, aldosterone excess leads to hypertension, hypokalemia, and suppressed plasma renin activity, with increased concentrations of urinary aldosterone (either as the 18-glucuronide or free aldosterone) as an index of its production. Identifying a tumor by computed tomography scan verifies the diagnosis of a correctable lesion. If no tumor is found, several maneuvers are used to identify primary adrenal hyperplasia, a disorder with autonomous aldosterone production, for which reduction of adrenal mass is curative. The zona fasciculata has two major pathways: the 17-deoxy pathway, where deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and corticosterone are the significant steroids, and the 17-hydroxy pathway, which leads to cortisol production. Tumors of the 17-deoxy pathway, DOC-producing adenomas, have increased concentrations of DOC and its precursor steroids, normal concentrations of cortisol, and suppression of aldosterone production secondary to suppression of the renin system. Two enzymatic defects in the zona fasciculata, 11 beta- and 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency, can be first readily identified by the virilization in the former, hypogonadal features in the latter. Steroid patterns are diagnostic. DOC is produced in excess in both deficiencies and is the cause of the hypertension. Deficient or impaired 11 beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase in the apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome or after licorice ingestion retards the conversion of cortisol to inactive cortisone in the kidney, leading to mineralocorticoid hypertension; this leads to suppression of the renin system and subsequently of aldosterone. PMID:1914200

  8. Pulsed IR inductive lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razhev, A. M.; Churkin, D. S.; Kargapol'tsev, E. S.

    2014-07-01

    Pulsed inductive discharge is a new alternative method of pumping active gas laser media. The work presents results of experimental investigations of near, mid, and far IR inductive gas lasers (H2, HF, and CO2) operating at different transitions of atoms and molecules with different mechanisms of formation of inversion population. The excitation systems of a pulsed inductive cylindrical discharge (pulsed inductively coupled plasma) and pulsed RF inductive discharge in the gases are developed. Various gas mixtures including H2, N2, He, Ne, F2, NF3, and SF6 are used. Characteristics of near IR H2 laser radiation are investigated. Maximal pulse peak power of 7?kW is achieved. The possibility of using a pulsed inductive discharge as a new method of pumping HF laser active medium is demonstrated. The pulsed RF inductive CO2 laser is created and a total efficiency of 17% is achieved.

  9. Sjgren's, Steroids, and Subcutaneous Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Christian Y; Evans, Samuel J

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman presented with 4 months of non-productive cough. She reported progressive dyspnea, anorexia, fatigue, and weight loss over 3 months. She had no prior history of autoimmune disease or occupational exposures. She denied fever, sweats, chills, or recent travel. Review of systems was positive for dry eyes and mouth. Exam was notable only for bilateral basilar crackles, left greater than right. Serology revealed positive ANA, SSA, and SSB antibodies. PFTs showed a moderately severe restrictive pattern with severely impaired diffusion. Chest CT showed diffuse, ground glass like interstitial infiltrates. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and biopsies was negative for infection or malignancy. She was subsequently started on Prednisone, 1 mg/kg daily, for presumed Sjgren's associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). On 4 week follow up, she noted improvement on steroid therapy with decreased dyspnea, fatigue, and increased appetite. However, the patient then complained of new symptoms of bubbles under her neck. Chest X-ray confirmed subcutaneous emphysema without pneumothroax. She presented to the ER and CT chest showed extensive mediastinal air without pneumothorax. The patient was discharged and her pneumomediastinum resolved without intervention. Sjgren's syndrome presents with pulmonary disease in 10%-20% of affected individuals, most often in females (9:1) aged 4060.1 ILD is the most common respiratory presentation, followed by small airways disease, xerotrachea, and bronchial obstruction.2 ILD is typically diagnosed 5 years after THE onset symptoms. Pneumomediastinum is a reportedly rare complication of ILD with an unclear etiology at this time.3,4 Spontaneous pneumomediastinum has been well documented, primarily with dermatomyositis and other mixed connective tissue disorders; but not seen in primary Sjgren's syndrome.4,5 Current theories of dermatomyositis-associated pneumomediastinum suggest that it could be related to a ruptured pulmonary bleb,4,5 vasculitis-induced,4 versus alveolar wall weakening due to steroid treatment.3 Our case demonstrates the rare complication of pneumomediastinum with another autoimmune process that has yet to be extensively documented in the literature.

  10. Steroids and genes related to steroid biosynthesis in the female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Thongbuakaew, Tipsuda; Siangcham, Tanapan; Suwansa-Ard, Saowaros; Elizur, Abigail; Cummins, Scott F; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prapee

    2016-03-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is important to many Asian countries due to its high economic value as an aquaculture product. With demand increasing, there is requirement for a better understanding of the biosynthetic components that regulate its growth and reproduction, including steroids, in order to help increase production. Vertebrate-type steroids and their receptors were identified in crustaceans and implicated in reproduction. In this study, we presented the sex steroids estradiol and progesterone by LC-MS/MS in female M. rosenbergii, and reveal steroidogenic-related genes by in silico analysis of de novo assembled transcriptomes. Comparative analysis with other species was performed to confirm their putative role, as well as tissue-specific and quantitative gene expression. We reveal 29 transcripts that encode for steroidogenic-related proteins, including steroidogenic enzymes, a nuclear steroid hormone receptors, and a steroidogenic factor. Moreover, we identified for the first time the presence of steroidogenic factor 1, StAR-related lipid transfer protein, estradiol receptor- and progesterone-like protein in M. rosenbergii. Those targeted for gene expression analysis (3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, estrogen sulfotransferase and progesterone receptor-like) showed widespread expression within many tissues, and at relatively high levels in the central nervous system (CNS) during ovarian maturation. In summary, we provide further evidence for the existence of steroidogenic pathways in crustaceans, which may be useful for advancing prawn aquaculture. PMID:26774430

  11. Assessing the feasibility of detecting a hemorrhagic type stroke using a 16 channel magnetic induction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekdouk, B.; Ktistis, C.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.

    2010-04-01

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) has been proposed as a possible method for imaging stroke in the human brain. Hemorrhagic stroke is characterized by local blood accumulation in the brain and exhibits a greater change in conductivity with frequency compared to other tissues which is observed in the frequency range of interest [1-10] MHz. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of detecting hemorrhagic stroke using absolute and frequency difference imaging. For this purpose, a model of the head originally obtained from MRI and X-ray data was used, to which a large stroke (50 ml) was added. In addition, a model of a 16 channel circular array MIT system was employed. The received coil induced voltages were computed using a custom eddy current solver, based on the finite difference method. For absolute imaging, the induced voltages at the receiver coils were calculated from various coil combinations at 10 MHz frequency together with anticipated systematic errors and biases (orientation and displacement of the coils, movement of the head). The induced voltage noise due to these systematic inaccuracies was compared with the voltage change due to the stroke. In order to decrease the impact of this noise, frequency difference was also considered, whereby measurements were performed at another frequency (1MHz) and subtracted. Comparison results are presented and a realistic picture is delivered with to regard the required mechanical stability and electronics accuracy for this particular medical application

  12. A comparative study of virtual hand prosthesis control using an inductive tongue control system.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Daniel; Sebelius, Fredrik; Jensen, Stig; Bentsen, Bo; Popović, Dejan B; Andreasen Struijk, Lotte N S

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the time required to activate a grasp or function of a hand prosthesis when using an electromyogram (EMG) based control scheme and when using a control scheme combining EMG and control signals from an inductive tongue control system (ITCS). Using a cross-over study design, 10 able-bodied subjects used a computer model of a hand and completed simulated grasping exercises. The time required to activate grasps was recorded and analyzed for both control schemes. End session mean activation times (ATs; seconds) for the EMG control scheme grasps 1 -5 were 0.80, 1.51, 1.95, 2.93, and 3.42; for the ITCS control scheme grasps 1 ‒5 they were 1.19, 1.89, 1.75, 2.26, and 1.80. Mean AT for grasps 1 and 2 was statistically significant in favor of the EMG control scheme (p = 0.030; p = 0.004). For grasp 3 no statistical significance occurred, and for grasps 4 and 5 there was a statistical significance in favour of the ITCS control scheme (p = 0.048; p = 0.004). Based on the amount of training and the achieved level of performance, it is concluded that the proposed ITCS control scheme can be used as a means of enhancing prosthesis control. PMID:26479838

  13. An Inductively Powered Scalable 32-Channel Wireless Neural Recording System-on-a-Chip for Neuroscience Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Bae; Lee, Hyung-Min; Kiani, Mehdi; Jow, Uei-Ming; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    We present an inductively powered 32-channel wireless integrated neural recording (WINeR) system-on-a-chip (SoC) to be ultimately used for one or more small freely behaving animals. The inductive powering is intended to relieve the animals from carrying bulky batteries used in other wireless systems, and enables long recording sessions. The WINeR system uses time-division multiplexing along with a novel power scheduling method that reduces the current in unused low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) to cut the total SoC power consumption. In addition, an on-chip high-efficiency active rectifier with optimized coils help improve the overall system power efficiency, which is controlled in a closed loop to supply stable power to the WINeR regardless of the coil displacements. The WINeR SoC has been implemented in a 0.5-m standard complementary metaloxide semiconductor process, measuring 4.9 3.3 mm2 and consuming 5.85 mW at 1.5 V when 12 out of 32 LNAs are active at any time by power scheduling. Measured input-referred noise for the entire system, including the receiver located at 1.2 m, is 4.95 Vrms in the 1 Hz~10 kHz range when the system is inductively powered with 7-cm separation between aligned coils. PMID:23850753

  14. Topical steroid abuse: its use as a depigmenting agent.

    PubMed Central

    Nnoruka, Edith; Okoye, Obiefuna

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to document prevalence, motives and observed complications of steroid use as a depigmenting agent amongst African blacks in southeast Nigeria. This practice is very common in the African environment. Consecutive new patients attending the dermatology clinic of the University of Nigeria TeachingHospital, Enugu, from June to December 2004 were recruited. Active substances of products used were determined from packages, while unknown concoctions were analyzed. Chi-squared and Fischer tests were used for statistical analysis, with a significant threshold fixed at 5%. Females aged 18-69 years accounted for 75% (414) of patients. Main topical steroids used by both women and men were class-1 steroids, and these were often compounded with other bleaching products. Median duration of usage was 9 years +/- 1.3. Disorders observed included steroid-induced acne (45.3%), macular hyperpigmentation of face (37.2%), mycoses (40.4%), striae (28.3%), telangiectasis (21.3%), hypertrichosis (13.9%) and diabetes mellitus (2.1%). Duration of utilization of these topical steroids was significantly associated with severe local and systemic consequences, while withdrawal of the offending steroids usually resulted in severe withdrawal dermatitis that was unpleasant to patients. This may suggest that discontinuation is impossible. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16775916

  15. Manipal Cervical Scoring System by Transvaginal Ultrasound in Predicting Successful Labour Induction

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Neha; Bhakta, Rajesh; Kumar, Pratap; Rai, Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Induction of labour (IOL) nowadays is a common procedure in obstetric practice. The success of IOL largely depends upon favourability or readiness cervix which is traditionally assessed by manual examination and Scored as Bishop Score. However, this method is limited by subjectivity and reproducibility and though done in all the patients prior to IOL, several studies have demonstrated poor correlation between Bishop Score and outcome of labour. Objective To evaluate the role of preinduction transvaginal ultrasonographic (TVS) cervical assessment in predicting labour outcome and to compare its performance against Bishop Score in patients undergoing induction of labour (IOL). Setting A tertiary medical college hospital in Southern India. Design Prospective observational and investigational study. Materials and Methods Transvaginal ultrasound was performed in 131 patients who underwent labour induction at term with intact membranes and live fetus. Bishop Score was assessed by pervaginal examination and was compared with preinduction TVS cervical Score (parameters being cervical length, funneling, position of cervix and distance of presenting part from external os). Labour was induced within one hour of cervical assessment. The labour induction was considered successful if patient could get into active labour i.e., onset of regular uterine contractions (at interval of 2-3 minutes) and cervical dilatation of 4 cm or greater within 24 hours of induction. Results Labour induction was successful in 86.9% of patients. At cut off Scores of ? 4, TVS cervical Score performed better than Bishop Score (Sensitivity 77% vs. 65%, Specificity 93% vs. 86%). ROC analysis indicated that Area Under Curve (AUC) was more for TVS Score (0.90, 95% CI 0.84 0.95), compared to Bishop Score. It was found that an increase in cervical length and distance from the os by 1 mm from their means were associated with an increase in odds for failure of induction and there by caesarean delivery by 6.5% and 11% respectively. Conclusion In women experiencing labour induction, transvaginal ultrasound score comprising of five different parameters indicated success of induction better than Bishop Score. Further, two of its components (longer cervical length and increased distance of presenting part from external os) demonstrated significant and independent prediction of the likelihood of failure of induction and risk of operative delivery. PMID:26155521

  16. [Mass spectrometry for steroid assays].

    PubMed

    Dufour-Rainfray, Diane; Moal, Valrie; Cloix, Lucie; Mathieu, Elisabeth; Gauchez, Anne-Sophie; Brossaud, Julie; Corcuff, Jean-Benot; Fraissinet, Franois; Collet, Christine; Boux de Casson, Florence; Guilloteau, Denis; Emond, Patrick; Reynier, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormone measurement, first developed with radioimmunoassay, is now becoming easier with the use of automated platforms of immunoassay. However, some hormones remain uneasily detectable because of their low blood concentration, their structural homology or the presence of interferences. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can be considered as an alternative to immunoassays. This approach allows the simultaneous determination of several parameters thanks to its selectivity led by the detector mass spectrometer and the separate dimension of chromatography liquid. In addition, recourse to UHPLC (ultra high performance liquid chromatography) allows improving selectivity and sensitivity while limiting the samples volumes. The "ready-to-use" kits are now available and added to the "homemade" techniques developed by laboratories, thus giving opportunity for measurement of a wide steroid panel with only one sample. Finally, mass spectrometry methods, including a prior extraction step, allow the use of varied biological fluids (blood, urine, saliva). Also, several clinical indications could gain from mass spectrometry, especially when hormone levels are low, when several steroids have to be identified, when the sample volume is low. However, this technology represents an important financial investment and in-depth staff training. In addition, some steroids are not easily quantifiable by mass spectrometry. It is likely by immunoassay and mass spectrometry, well-matched technologies, that we could answer the best to clinical questions about steroids. PMID:25582724

  17. Steroidal Saponins in Oat Bran.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junli; Wang, Pei; Wu, Wenbin; Zhao, Yantao; Idehen, Emmanuel; Sang, Shengmin

    2016-02-24

    Saponins are one type of widespread defense compound in the plant kingdom and have been exploited for the production of lead compounds with diverse pharmacological properties in drug discovery. Oats contain two unique steroidal saponins, avenacoside A, 1, and avenacoside B, 2. However, the chemical composition, the levels of these saponins in commercial oat products, and their health effects are still largely unknown. In this study, we directly purified 5 steroidal saponins (1-5) from a methanol extract of oat bran, characterized their structures by analyzing their MS and NMR spectra, and also tentatively identified 11 steroidal saponins (6-16) on the basis of their tandem mass spectra (MS(n), n = 2-3). Among the five purified saponins, 5 is a new compound and 4 is purified from oats for the first time. Using HPLC-MS techniques, a complete profile of oat steroidal saponins was determined, and the contents of the two primary steroidal saponins, 1 and 2, were quantitated in 15 different commercial oat products. The total levels of these two saponins vary from 49.6 to 443.0 mg/kg, and oat bran or oatmeal has higher levels of these two saponins than cold oat cereal. Furthermore, our results on the inhibitory effects of 1 and 2 against the growth of human colon cancer cells HCT-116 and HT-29 showed that both had weak activity, with 2 being more active than 1. PMID:26852819

  18. Effects of voltage unbalance and system harmonics on the performance of doubly fed induction wind generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Morgan Mozhgan

    Inherent difficulties in management of electric power in the presence of an increasing demand for more energy, non-conventional loads such as digital appliances, and non-sustainable imported fossil fuels has initiated a multi-folded effort by many countries to restructure the way electric energy is generated, dispatched, and consumed. Smart power grid is the manifestation of many technologies that would eventually transforms the existing power grid into a more flexible, fault resilient, and intelligent system. Integration of distributed renewable energy sources plays a central role in successful implementation of this transformation. Among the renewable options, wind energy harvesting offers superior engineering and economical incentives with minimal environmental impacts. Doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) have turned into a serious contender for wind energy generators due to their flexibility in control of active and reactive power with minimal silicon loss. Significant presence of voltage unbalance and system harmonics in finite inertia transmission lines can potentially undermine the reliability of these wind generators. The present dissertation has investigated the impacts of system unbalances and harmonics on the performance of the DFIG. Our investigation indicates that these effects can result in an undesirable undulation in the rotor shaft which can potentially invoke mechanical resonance, thereby causing catastrophic damages to the installations and the power grid. In order to remedy the above issue, a control solution for real time monitoring of the system unbalance and optimal excitation of the three phase rotor currents in a DFIG is offered. The optimal rotor currents will create appropriate components of the magneto-motive force in the airgap that will actively compensate the undesirable magnetic field originated by the stator windings. Due to the iterative nature of the optimization procedure, field reconstruction method has been incorporated. Field reconstruction method provides high precision results at a considerably faster pace as compared to finite element method. Our results indicate that by just-in-time detection of the system unbalance and employment of the optimal rotor currents damaging torque pulsation can be effectively eliminated. The side effects of the proposed method in changing the core, copper, and silicon losses are minor and well justified when reliability of the wind generation units are considered.

  19. The Maltodextrin System of Escherichia coli: Glycogen-Derived Endogenous Induction and Osmoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Dippel, Renate; Bergmiller, Tobias; Bhm, Alex; Boos, Winfried

    2005-01-01

    Strains of Escherichia coli lacking MalQ (maltodextrin glucanotransferase or amylomaltase) are endogenously induced for the maltose regulon by maltotriose that is derived from the degradation of glycogen (glycogen-dependent endogenous induction). A high level of induction was dependent on the presence of MalP, maltodextrin phosphorylase, while expression was counteracted by MalZ, maltodextrin glucosidase. Glycogen-derived endogenous induction was sensitive to high osmolarity. This osmodependence was caused by MalZ. malZ, the gene encoding this enzyme, was found to be induced by high osmolarity even in the absence of MalT, the central regulator of all mal genes. The osmodependent expression of malZ was neither RpoS nor OmpR dependent. In contrast, the malPQ operon, whose expression was also increased at a high osmolarity, was partially dependent on RpoS. In the absence of glycogen, residual endogenous induction of the mal genes that is sensitive to increasing osmolarity can still be observed. This glycogen-independent endogenous induction is not understood, and it is not affected by altering the expression of MalP, MalQ, and MalZ. In particular, its independence from MalZ suggests that the responsible inducer is not maltotriose. PMID:16321937

  20. Steroid degradation in Comamonas testosteroni.

    PubMed

    Horinouchi, Masae; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2012-03-01

    Steroid degradation by Comamonas testosteroni and Nocardia restrictus have been intensively studied for the purpose of obtaining materials for steroid drug synthesis. C. testosteroni degrades side chains and converts single/double bonds of certain steroid compounds to produce androsta-1,4-diene 3,17-dione or the derivative. Following 9?-hydroxylation leads to aromatization of the A-ring accompanied by cleavage of the B-ring, and aromatized A-ring is hydroxylated at C-4 position, cleaved at ?4 by meta-cleavage, and divided into 2-hydroxyhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (A-ring) and 9,17-dioxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostan-5-oic acid (B,C,D-ring) by hydrolysis. Reactions and the genes involved in the cleavage and the following degradation of the A-ring are similar to those for bacterial biphenyl degradation, and 9,17-dioxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostan-5-oic acid degradation is suggested to be mainly ?-oxidation. Genes involved in A-ring aromatization and degradation form a gene cluster, and the genes involved in ?-oxidation of 9,17-dioxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostan-5-oic acid also comprise a large cluster of more than 10 genes. The DNA region between these two main steroid degradation gene clusters contain 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene, ?5,3-ketosteroid isomerase gene, genes for inversion of an ?-oriented-hydroxyl group to a ?-oriented-hydroxyl group at C-12 position of cholic acid, and genes possibly involved in the degradation of a side chain at C-17 position of cholic acid, indicating this DNA region of more than 100kb to be a steroid degradation gene hot spot of C. testosteroni. Article from a special issue on steroids and microorganisms. PMID:21056662

  1. Low-power low-voltage current readout circuit for inductively powered implant system.

    PubMed

    Haider, Mohammad R; Islam, Syed K; Mostafa, Salwa; Mo Zhang; Taeho Oh

    2010-08-01

    Low voltage and low power are two key requirements for on-chip realization of wireless power and data telemetry for applications in biomedical sensor instrumentation. Batteryless operation and wireless telemetry facilitate robust, reliable, and longer lifetime of the implant unit. As an ongoing research work, this paper demonstrates a low-power low-voltage sensor readout circuit which could be easily powered up with an inductive link. This paper presents two versions of readout circuits that have been designed and fabricated in bulk complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processes. Either version can detect a sensor current in the range of 0.2 μA to 2 μA and generate square-wave data signal whose frequency is proportional to the sensor current. The first version of the circuit is fabricated in a 0.35-μ m CMOS process and it can generate an amplitude-shift-keying (ASK) signal while consuming 400 μ W of power with a 1.5-V power supply. Measurement results indicate that the ASK chip generates 76 Hz to 500 Hz frequency of a square-wave data signal for the specified sensor current range. The second version of the readout circuit is fabricated in a 0.5-μ m CMOS process and produces a frequency-shift-keying (FSK) signal while consuming 1.675 mW of power with a 2.5-V power supply. The generated data frequency from the FSK chip is 1 kHz and 9 kHz for the lowest and the highest sensor currents, respectively. Measurement results confirm the functionalities of both prototype schemes. The prototype circuit has potential applications in the monitoring of blood glucose level, lactate in the bloodstream, and pH or oxygen in a physiological system/environment. PMID:23853366

  2. Hardware for quasi-single-shot multifrequency magnetic induction tomography (MIT): the Graz Mk2 system.

    PubMed

    Scharfetter, H; Kstinger, A; Issa, S

    2008-06-01

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) has been suggested by several groups for the contact-less mapping of the passive electrical properties of tissues via AC magnetic fields in the frequency range between several tens of kHz and several tens of MHz. Multifrequency MIT as an analog to multifrequency EIT has been tried and first image reconstructions have been demonstrated with phantoms. MIT appears to yield comparable images to EIT but offers the advantage of being non-contacting. In the beta-dispersion range of most tissues the method is challenging because the signals are very small and buried in noise. In order to minimize drifts and systematic errors fast data acquisition is therefore pivotal. This paper presents a method for single-shot MIT which allows us to acquire the data for a multifrequency image with an analog bandwidth of 50 kHz-1.5 MHz which covers a good part of the beta-dispersion of many tissues. The transmit (TX) coils are simultaneously driven by individual power amplifiers with a multisinus pattern with up to 3 A(pp). The amplifiers are configured as current sources so as not to perturb the excitation fields by inappropriately terminated coils. The separation of the different TX channels after reception is achieved by splitting up the carrier frequencies into individual subcarriers with a narrow spacing of at most 300 Hz. In this way every TX coil is identifiable by its own subcarrier but the whole excitation band is contained within a few kHz. The real and imaginary parts of the received signals are extracted efficiently with FFT. The system noise and the sources for low-frequency perturbations are analyzed and characterized. PMID:18544831

  3. A multifrequency magnetic induction tomography system using planar gradiometers: data collection and calibration.

    PubMed

    Rosell-Ferrer, J; Merwa, R; Brunner, P; Scharfetter, H

    2006-05-01

    We developed a 14-channel multifrequency magnetic induction tomography system (MF-MIT) for biomedical applications. The excitation field is produced by a single coil and 14 planar gradiometers are used for signal detection. The object under measurement was rotated (16 steps per turn) to obtain a full data set for image reconstruction. We make measurements at frequencies from 50 kHz to 1 MHz using a single frequency excitation signal or a multifrequency signal containing several frequencies in this range. We used two acquisition boards giving a total of eight synchronous channels at a sample rate of 5 MS s(-1) per channel. The real and imaginary parts of DeltaB/B(0) were calculated using coherent demodulation at all injected frequencies. Calibration, averaging and drift cancellation techniques were used before image reconstruction. A plastic tank filled with saline (D = 19 cm) and with conductive and/or paramagnetic perturbations was measured for calibration and test purposes. We used a FEM model and an eddy current solver to evaluate the experimental results and to reconstruct the images. Measured equivalent input noise voltage for each channel was 2 nV Hz(-1/2). Using coherent demodulation, with an integration time of 20 ms, the measured STD for the magnitude was 7 nV(rms) (close to the theoretical value only taking into account the amplifier's thermal noise). For long acquisition times the drift in the signal produced a bigger effect than the input noise (typical STD was 10 nV with a maximum of 35 nV at one channel) but this effect was reduced using a drift cancellation technique based on averaging. We were able to image a 2 S m(-1) agar sphere (D = 4 cm) inside the tank filled with saline of 1 S m(-1). PMID:16636418

  4. Mutual Inductance Problem for a System Consisting of a Current Sheet and a Thin Metal Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, J. P.; Wincheski, B.; Nath, S.; Namkung, M.

    1993-01-01

    Rapid inspection of aircraft structures for flaws is of vital importance to the commercial and defense aircraft industry. In particular, inspecting thin aluminum structures for flaws is the focus of a large scale R&D effort in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community. Traditional eddy current methods used today are effective, but require long inspection times. New electromagnetic techniques which monitor the normal component of the magnetic field above a sample due to a sheet of current as the excitation, seem to be promising. This paper is an attempt to understand and analyze the magnetic field distribution due to a current sheet above an aluminum test sample. A simple theoretical model, coupled with a two dimensional finite element model (FEM) and experimental data will be presented in the next few sections. A current sheet above a conducting sample generates eddy currents in the material, while a sensor above the current sheet or in between the two plates monitors the normal component of the magnetic field. A rivet or a surface flaw near a rivet in an aircraft aluminum skin will disturb the magnetic field, which is imaged by the sensor. Initial results showed a strong dependence of the flaw induced normal magnetic field strength on the thickness and conductivity of the current-sheet that could not be accounted for by skin depth attenuation alone. It was believed that the eddy current imaging method explained the dependence of the thickness and conductivity of the flaw induced normal magnetic field. Further investigation, suggested the complexity associated with the mutual inductance of the system needed to be studied. The next section gives an analytical model to better understand the phenomenon.

  5. The Spatial Effects of Antenna Configuration in a Large Area Inductively Coupled Plasma System for Flat Panel Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seon-Geun, Oh; Young-Jun, Lee; Jae-Hong, Jeon; Jong-Hyeon, Seo; Hee-Hwan, Choe

    2014-08-01

    Spatial distributions of plasma parameters such as electron density, electron temperature and electric potential were investigated using a commercial simulation software (COMSOLTM) to predict the effects of antenna configuration in a large area inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system for flat panel displays. Nine planar antenna sets were evenly placed above a ceramic window. While the electron density was influenced by both the input current and gas pressure, the electron temperature and electric potential were dominantly affected by the gas pressure.

  6. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... same as anabolic steroids, used illegally by some athletes for bodybuilding. Corticosteroids do not affect the liver or cause sterility. Does the body make steroids? Corticosteroids are similar to cortisol, a hormone produced ...

  7. Hypochlorite Oxidation of Select Androgenic Steroids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroid hormones are vital for regulation of various biological functions including sexual development. Elevated concentrations of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids have been shown to adversely affect normal development in indigenous aqueous species. Androgens and their s...

  8. Steroids for Treating Cancer (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and the health risks they incur from abusing anabolic steroids drugs that were originally intended for people with ... that he or she will not be taking anabolic steroids, but rather corticosteroids . Corticosteroids are made from a ...

  9. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy: a computer controlled, scanning monochromator system for the rapid determination of the elements

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    A computer controlled, scanning monochromator system specifically designed for the rapid, sequential determination of the elements is described. The monochromator is combined with an inductively coupled plasma excitation source so that elements at major, minor, trace, and ultratrace levels may be determined, in sequence, without changing experimental parameters other than the spectral line observed. A number of distinctive features not found in previously described versions are incorporated into the system here described. Performance characteristics of the entire system and several analytical applications are discussed.

  10. Electrical Engineering and Nontechnical Design Variables of Multiple Inductive Loop Systems for Auditoriums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alterovitz, Gil

    2004-01-01

    This research analyzed both engineering and nontechnical issues involved in the use of Induction Loop Amplification (ILA) devices in auditoriums or large gathering places for hard-of-hearing individuals. A variety of parameters need to be taken into account to determine an optimal shape/configuration for the ILA device. In many cases, an optimal

  11. Steroid and sterol hormone action

    SciTech Connect

    Spelsberg, T.C.; Kumar, R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 21 selections. Some of the titles are: Estrogen control of vitellogenin gene transcription and mRNA stability; Inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor conversion to the DNA-binding state and inhibition of subunit dissociation; Steroid regulation of rRNA synthesis; Messenger RNA-S14 as a model of thyroid hormone action at the hepatocellular level; and The oxysterol receptor.

  12. Adolescents and Steroids: A User Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids ("steroids") are synthetic derivatives of the natural male hormone testosterone. They were first used non-medically by elite athletes seeking to improve performance. More recently, however, steroid use has filtered down to high school and junior high school levels. The purpose of this study was to describe adolescent…

  13. The benefits of steroids versus steroids plus antivirals for treatment of Bells palsy: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether steroids plus antivirals provide a better degree of facial muscle recovery in patients with Bells palsy than steroids alone. Design Meta-analysis. Data sources PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies published in all languages from 1984 to January 2009. Additional studies were identified from cited references. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared steroids with the combination of steroids and antivirals for the treatment of Bells palsy were included in this study. At least one month of follow-up and a primary end point of at least partial facial muscle recovery, as defined by a House-Brackmann grade of at least 2 (complete palsy is designated a grade of 6) or an equivalent score on an alternative recognised scoring system, were required. Review methods Two authors independently reviewed studies for methodological quality, treatment regimens, duration of symptoms before treatment, length of follow-up, and outcomes. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated and pooled using a random effects model. Results Six trials were included, a total of 1145 patients; 574 patients received steroids alone and 571 patients received steroids and antivirals. The pooled odds ratio for facial muscle recovery showed no benefit of steroids plus antivirals compared with steroids alone (odds ratio 1.50, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 2.69; P=0.18). A one study removed analysis showed that the highest quality studies had the greatest effect on the lack of difference between study arms shown by the odds ratio. Subgroup analyses assessing causes of heterogeneity defined a priori (time from symptom onset to treatment, length of follow-up, and type of antiviral studied) showed no benefit of antivirals in addition to that provided by steroids. Conclusions Antivirals did not provide an added benefit in achieving at least partial facial muscle recovery compared with steroids alone in patients with Bells palsy. This study does not, therefore, support the routine use of antivirals in Bells palsy. Future studies should use improved herpes virus diagnostics and newer antivirals to assess whether combination therapy benefits patients with more severe facial paralysis at study entry. PMID:19736282

  14. Side chain hydroxylation of C27-steroids and vitamin D3 by a cytochrome P-450 enzyme system isolated from human liver mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Oftebro, H.; Saarem, K.; Bjoerkhem, I.; Pedersen, J.I.

    1981-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to obtain information on the involvement of cytochrome P-450 in the 26-hydroxylation on bile acid intermediates and in the 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D3 in human liver mitochondria. Cytochrome P-450 was solubilized from human liver mitochondria and purified two times to a specific content of 0.125 nmol per mg protein. Furthermore, a ferredoxin was isolated from the mitochondria and partly purified. This iron-sulfur protein had properties similar to bovine adrenal ferredoxin. A mitochondrial NADPH-ferredoxin reductase was also isolated and purified to homogeneity. This enzyme was a flavoprotein with properties very similar to the bovine adrenal NADPH-ferredoxin reductase. The cytochrome P-450 preparation catalyzed 26-hydroxylation of C27-steroids and 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D3 when reconstructed with NADPH, the ferredoxin and the ferredoxin reductase. With different substrates the following turnover numbers (nmol product X nmol P-450(-1) X min-1) were found: cholesterol, 8; 5-cholestene-3 beta, 7 alpha-diol, 10; 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, 23; 7 alpha, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, 27; 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha-diol, 28; 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-triol, 41; and vitamin D3, 0.16. The hydroxylation reactions were inhibited by CO and metyrapone. The human liver mitochondrial ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase could be replaced by adrenal ferredoxin and adrenal ferredoxin reductase without reduction of activity, but they could not be replaced by microsomal NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase. It is concluded that human liver mitochondria contain cytochrome P-450 involved in the oxidation of the side chain of C27-steroids and vitamin D3.

  15. Identification of Plant Model of Linear Induction Motors for Traction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Yuichiro; Koseki, Takafumi

    A linear induction motor (LIM) is suitable for use in trains; the motor can be used in both wheel-suspended and contact-less types such as Linear Metro and HSST trains in Japan. The LIM has the end winding as well as asymmetrical winding. The end-effect is a major problem in the LIM, and it makes the analysis, design, and control of motors difficult. In this paper, the combination method of numerical analysis and equivalent circuit of the LIM is described in order to design a high-performance controller of the LIM includeing the end effect. A sample basic field-oriented control scheme that is based on the plant model is applied to the LIM in order to check the control performance; the theory of rotary induction motor is used for the verification.

  16. Generalized hidden-mapping ridge regression, knowledge-leveraged inductive transfer learning for neural networks, fuzzy systems and kernel methods.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhaohong; Choi, Kup-Sze; Jiang, Yizhang; Wang, Shitong

    2014-12-01

    Inductive transfer learning has attracted increasing attention for the training of effective model in the target domain by leveraging the information in the source domain. However, most transfer learning methods are developed for a specific model, such as the commonly used support vector machine, which makes the methods applicable only to the adopted models. In this regard, the generalized hidden-mapping ridge regression (GHRR) method is introduced in order to train various types of classical intelligence models, including neural networks, fuzzy logical systems and kernel methods. Furthermore, the knowledge-leverage based transfer learning mechanism is integrated with GHRR to realize the inductive transfer learning method called transfer GHRR (TGHRR). Since the information from the induced knowledge is much clearer and more concise than that from the data in the source domain, it is more convenient to control and balance the similarity and difference of data distributions between the source and target domains. The proposed GHRR and TGHRR algorithms have been evaluated experimentally by performing regression and classification on synthetic and real world datasets. The results demonstrate that the performance of TGHRR is competitive with or even superior to existing state-of-the-art inductive transfer learning algorithms. PMID:24710838

  17. Role of salicylic acid in induction of plant defense system in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; War, Mohd Yousf; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2011-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), a plant hormone plays an important role in induction of plant defense against a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses through morphological, physiological and biochemical mechanisms. A series of experiments were carried out to evaluate the biochemical response of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants to a range of SA concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM). Water treated plants were maintained as control. Activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated and amounts of total phenols, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and proteins were calculated after 96 h of treatment. Plants responded very quickly to SA at 1.5 mM and showed higher induction of POD and PPO activities, besides the higher accumulation of phenols, H2O2 and proteins. Plants treated with SA at 2 mM showed phytotoxic symptoms. These results suggest that SA at 1.5 mM is safe to these plants and could be utilized for the induction of plant defense. PMID:22057329

  18. Inductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan; Swendsen, Haruka

    2010-03-01

    Inductive reasoning entails using existing knowledge or observations to make predictions about novel cases. We review recent findings in research on category-based induction as well as theoretical models of these results, including similarity-based models, connectionist networks, an account based on relevance theory, Bayesian models, and other mathematical models. A number of touchstone empirical phenomena that involve taxonomic similarity are described. We also examine phenomena involving more complex background knowledge about premises and conclusions of inductive arguments and the properties referenced. Earlier models are shown to give a good account of similarity-based phenomena but not knowledge-based phenomena. Recent models that aim to account for both similarity-based and knowledge-based phenomena are reviewed and evaluated. Among the most important new directions in induction research are a focus on induction with uncertain premise categories, the modeling of the relationship between inductive and deductive reasoning, and examination of the neural substrates of induction. A common theme in both the well-established and emerging lines of induction research is the need to develop well-articulated and empirically testable formal models of induction. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271241

  19. Minireview: Recent Advances in Extranuclear Steroid Receptor Actions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The participation of extranuclear steroid receptor signaling in organ physiology and the impact for pathobiology has increasingly been demonstrated. Important functions of membrane estrogen receptors in the cardiovascular system demonstrate new mechanisms of rapid steroid signaling to gene regulation, preventing cardiovascular disease and maintaining healthy arterial function. In cancer cells, kinase signaling initiated by extranuclear estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors modulates transcriptional events in the nucleus, which in turn regulate proliferation, migration, and invasion. Important mediators of cross talk between cytoplasmic and nuclear steroid receptor signaling are the proline-, glutamic acid-, and leucine-rich protein-1 and paxillin proteins, both of which modulate membrane and nuclear receptor pool signaling to promote a variety of cell biological functions. PMID:22028449

  20. The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), beyond xenobiotic metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Changcheng; Verma, Suman; Blumberg, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) (also known as pregnane X receptor or PXR) is a nuclear hormone receptor activated by a diverse array of endogenous hormones, dietary steroids, pharmaceutical agents, and xenobiotic compounds. SXR has an enlarged, flexible, hydrophobic ligand binding domain (LBD) which is remarkably divergent across mammalian species and SXR exhibits considerable differences in its pharmacology among mammals. The broad response profile of SXR has led to the development of "the steroid and xenobiotic sensor hypothesis". SXR has been established as a xenobiotic sensor that coordinately regulates xenobiotic clearance in the liver and intestine via induction of genes involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. In the past few years, research has revealed new and mostly unsuspected roles for SXR in modulating inflammation, bone homeostasis, vitamin D metabolism, lipid homeostasis, energy homeostasis and cancer. The identification of SXR as a xenobiotic sensor has provided an important tool for studying new mechanisms through which diet, chemical exposure, and environment ultimately impact health and disease. The discovery and pharmacological development of new PXR modulators might represent an interesting and innovative therapeutic approach to combat various diseases. PMID:19240808

  1. Alcoholic Hepatitis: Steroids vs. Pentoxifylline

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Laura; Gobejishvili, Leila; Crittenden, Neil; Barve, Shirish; McClain, Craig J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) remains a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality in the United States and is actually increasing in certain areas of Europe. Thus, there is a pressing need for new therapies/approaches. Major barriers for reducing morbidity, mortality, and costs of care include: lack of translational animal and human studies of new therapies for AH; limited trials of combination therapies in AH targeted at specific disease mechanisms (e.g., gut permeability, cytokines, oxidative stress); limited studies on non-invasive, non-mortality end points; few studies on mechanisms of steroid non-responsiveness; and inadequate prognostic indicators, to name only a few. In spite of these gaps, we have made major advances in understanding mechanisms for AH and appropriate therapies for AH. This article reviews mechanisms and rationale for use of steroids and pentoxifylline in AH and future directions in therapy. PMID:23750115

  2. The Steroid Metabolome of Adrenarche

    PubMed Central

    Rege, Juilee; Rainey, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenarche is an endocrine developmental process whereby humans and select nonhuman primates increase adrenal output of a series of steroids, especially dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). The timing of adrenarche varies between primates, but in humans, serum levels of DHEAS are seen to increase around 6 years of age. This phenomenon corresponds with the development and expansion of the zona reticularis (ZR) of the adrenal gland. The physiological phenomena that trigger the onset of adrenarche are still unknown; however the biochemical pathways leading to this event have been elucidated in detail. There are numerous reviews examining the process of adrenarche, most of which, have focused on the changes within the adrenal as well as the phenotypic results of adrenarche. This article reviews the recent and past studies that show the breadth of changes in the circulating steroid metabolome that occurs during the process of adrenarche. PMID:22715193

  3. Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, as well as pulmonary hypertension. Whether such differences are inherent and/or whether sex steroids play a role in modulating these differences is currently under investigation. The purpose of this review is to define sex differences in lung structure/function under normal and specific disease states, with exploration of whether and how sex hormone signaling mechanisms may explain these clinical observations. Focusing on adult age groups, the review addresses the following: 1) inherent sex differences in lung anatomy and physiology; 2) the importance of certain time points in life such as puberty, pregnancy, menopause, and aging; 3) expression and signaling of sex steroid receptors under normal vs. disease states; 4) potential interplay between different sex steroids; 5) the question of whether sex steroids are beneficial or detrimental to the lung; and 6) the potential use of sex steroid signaling as biomarkers and therapeutic avenues in lung diseases. The importance of focusing on sex differences and sex steroids in the lung lies in the increasing incidence of lung diseases in women and the need to address lung diseases across the life span. PMID:22240244

  4. Effects of systemic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on nociception during tail ischaemia and on reperfusion hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Gelgor, L.; Butkow, N.; Mitchell, D.

    1992-01-01

    1. We have investigated the effects of five non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on nociception during ischaemia and on reperfusion hyperalgesia in rats. 2. We induced tail ischaemia in conscious rats by applying a tourniquet at the base of the tail until the rats exhibited co-ordinated escape behaviour when we released the tourniquet. 3. We assessed hyperalgesia by measuring the tail flick latency following tail immersion in water at 49 degrees C, before applying and immediately after releasing the tourniquet, and then at 30 min intervals for 2 h. 4. Intraperitoneal injection of NSAIDs prior to applying the tourniquet had no effect on the co-ordinated escape behaviour during ischaemia, nor on tail flick latency in the absence of prior ischaemia. However all the drugs attenuated reperfusion hyperalgesia in a log dose-dependent manner. Doses required to abolish hyperalgesia, were indomethacin 5 mg kg-1, diclofenac sodium 42 mg kg-1, ibuprofen 54 mg kg-1, dipyrone 168 mg kg-1 and paracetamol 170 mg kg-1. 5. We conclude that the mechanisms underlying nociception during ischaemia are not the same as those underlying reperfusion hyperalgesia. Moreover our procedure provides a rapid and more humane method for measuring the antinociceptive potency of NSAIDs. PMID:1559131

  5. Modular inductive power transmission system for high misalignment electric vehicle application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Chun; Chau, K. T.; Liu, Chunhua; Ching, Tze Wood; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    This paper gives a design method of power transmitter for electric vehicle wireless charging applications. Uniform magnetic field is targeted for better modular application and misalignment adaption. Rectangular coil and spiral windings are specially selected for evaluation. The compound winding is chosen for optimization. The magnetic flux density is studied by calculating the mutual inductance per area. By optimally choosing the turns and pitch distances of the spiral winding, a uniform magnetic field is achieved. Using finite element analysis, the performances of the transmitter are evaluated, including its tolerance to misalignment.

  6. Evaluation of steroidomics by liquid chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry as a powerful analytical strategy for measuring human steroid perturbations.

    PubMed

    Jeanneret, Fabienne; Tonoli, David; Rossier, Michel F; Saugy, Martial; Boccard, Julien; Rudaz, Serge

    2016-01-22

    This review presents the evolution of steroid analytical techniques, including gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), immunoassay (IA) and targeted liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and it evaluates the potential of extended steroid profiles by a metabolomics-based approach, namely steroidomics. Steroids regulate essential biological functions including growth and reproduction, and perturbations of the steroid homeostasis can generate serious physiological issues; therefore, specific and sensitive methods have been developed to measure steroid concentrations. GC-MS measuring several steroids simultaneously was considered the first historical standard method for analysis. Steroids were then quantified by immunoassay, allowing a higher throughput; however, major drawbacks included the measurement of a single compound instead of a panel and cross-reactivity reactions. Targeted LC-MS methods with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) were then introduced for quantifying a small steroid subset without the problems of cross-reactivity. The next step was the integration of metabolomic approaches in the context of steroid analyses. As metabolomics tends to identify and quantify all the metabolites (i.e., the metabolome) in a specific system, appropriate strategies were proposed for discovering new biomarkers. Steroidomics, defined as the untargeted analysis of the steroid content in a sample, was implemented in several fields, including doping analysis, clinical studies, in vivo or in vitro toxicology assays, and more. This review discusses the current analytical methods for assessing steroid changes and compares them to steroidomics. Steroids, their pathways, their implications in diseases and the biological matrices in which they are analysed will first be described. Then, the different analytical strategies will be presented with a focus on their ability to obtain relevant information on the steroid pattern. The future technical requirements for improving steroid analysis will also be presented. PMID:26195035

  7. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that engine... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  11. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  18. Cardiovascular effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Melchert, R B; Welder, A A

    1995-09-01

    Evidence has accumulated over the pst several years which associates androgenic-anabolic steroid (AAS) use with sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarction, altered serum lipoproteins, and cardiac hypertrophy in humans who habitually use these drugs. Even though some experimental data obtained from animals correlate well with the human findings, the adverse cardiovascular effects of AAS use are poorly understood. The evidence presented in this review suggests that there are at least four hypothetical models of AAS-induced adverse cardiovascular effects: 1) an atherogenic model involving the effects of AAS on lipoprotein concentrations; 2) a thrombosis model involving the effects of AAS on clotting factors and platelets; 3) a vasospasm model involving the effects of AAS on the vascular nitric oxide system; and 4) a direct myocardial injury model involving the effects of AAS on individual myocardial cells. Future studies should be directed at determining the exact mechanisms responsible for AAS-induced adverse cardiovascular effects, at determining the relative contribution of each of these models, and at identifying other possible contributing factors such as metabolism of these steroids and the effects of potential metabolites on various target organs. PMID:8531623

  19. Steroids and endocrine disruptors-History, recent state of art and open questions.

    PubMed

    Hampl, Richard; Kubátová, Jana; Stárka, Luboslav

    2016-01-01

    This introductory chapter provides an overview of the levels and sites at which endocrine disruptors (EDs) affect steroid actions. In contrast to the special issue of Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology published three years ago and devoted to EDs as such, this paper focuses on steroids. We tried to point to more recent findings and opened questions. EDs interfere with steroid biosynthesis and metabolism either as inhibitors of relevant enzymes, or at the level of their expression. Particular attention was paid to enzymes metabolizing steroid hormones to biologically active products in target cells, such as aromatase, 5α-reductase and 3β-, 11β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. An important target for EDs is also steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR), responsible for steroid precursor trafficking to mitochondria. EDs influence receptor-mediated steroid actions at both genomic and non-genomic levels. The remarkable differences in response to various steroid-receptor ligands led to a more detailed investigation of events following steroid/disruptor binding to the receptors and to the mapping of the signaling cascades and nuclear factors involved. A virtual screening of a large array of EDs with steroid receptors, known as in silico methods (computer simulation), is another promising approach for studying quantitative structure activity relationships and docking. New data may be expected on the effect of EDs on steroid hormone binding to selective plasma transport proteins, namely transcortin and sex hormone-binding globulin. Little information is available so far on the effects of EDs on the major hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal axes, of which the kisspeptin/GPR54 system is of particular importance. Kisspeptins act as stimulators for hormone-induced gonadotropin secretion and their expression is regulated by sex steroids via a feed-back mechanism. Kisspeptin is now believed to be one of the key factors triggering puberty in mammals, and various EDs affect its expression and function. Finally, advances in analytics of EDs, especially those persisting in the environment, in various body fluids (plasma, urine, seminal fluid, and follicular fluid) are mentioned. Surprisingly, relatively scarce information is available on the simultaneous determination of EDs and steroids in the same biological material. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Endocrine disruptors & steroids'. PMID:24816231

  20. Endogenous steroid profiling in the athlete biological passport.

    PubMed

    Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Saugy, Martial; Saudan, Christophe

    2010-03-01

    The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) is an individual electronic document that collects data regarding a specific athlete that is useful in differentiating between natural physiologic variations of selected biomarkers and deviations caused by artificial manipulations. A subsidiary of the endocrine module of the ABP, that which here is called Athlete Steroidal Passport (ASP), collects data on markers of an altered metabolism of endogenous steroidal hormones measured in urine samples. The ASP aims to identify not only doping with anabolic-androgenic steroids, but also most indirect steroid doping strategies such as doping with estrogen receptor antagonists and aromatase inhibitors. Development of specific markers of steroid doping, use of the athlete's previous measurements to define individual limits, with the athlete becoming his or her own reference, the inclusion of heterogeneous factors such as the UDPglucuronosyltransferase B17 genotype of the athlete, the knowledge of potentially confounding effects such as heavy alcohol consumption, the development of an external quality control system to control analytical uncertainty, and finally the use of Bayesian inferential methods to evaluate the value of indirect evidence have made the ASP a valuable alternative to deter steroid doping in elite sports. The ASP can be used to target athletes for gas chromatography/combustion/ isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) testing, to withdraw temporarily the athlete from competing when an abnormality has been detected, and ultimately to lead to an antidoping infraction if that abnormality cannot be explained by a medical condition. Although the ASP has been developed primarily to ensure fairness in elite sports, its application in endocrinology for clinical purposes is straightforward in an evidence-based medicine paradigm. PMID:20122450

  1. A review of steroids from Sarcophyton species.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Muhammad Sulaiman; Al-Footy, Khalid O; Ayyad, Seif-Eldin N; Al-Lihaibi, Sultan S; Alarif, Walied M

    2016-04-01

    This review reports the structural diversity of steroids from Sarcophyton species based on literature from the beginning of marine steroid research until now. There are 65 compounds studied from eight species. Most of them are polyhydroxy-type steroids of C-27-C-31 carbon skeleton. Their biological activities are highly diverse ranging from cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic to antiosteoporosis properties. PMID:26299957

  2. Statin therapy decreases the risk of osteonecrosis in patients receiving steroids.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, J W

    2001-05-01

    Osteonecrosis is a devastating complication of systemic steroid use. Prolonged steroid use produces a hyperlipidemic state in most patients and puts them at risk for osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. The fat content within the femoral head increases, resulting in increased intracortical pressure that may lead to sinusoidal collapse and osteonecrosis. Statins are lipid-clearing agents that dramatically reduce lipid levels in blood and tissues. Statins are widely used to prevent cardiovascular disease and have been shown to reduce the adverse effects of steroids on lipid metabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of statin drugs affects later development of osteonecrosis in patients receiving steroids. The records of 284 patients who were taking statin drugs at the time they were started on high dose steroids were examined to determine whether osteonecrosis had developed. The patients remained on statin drugs during the entire time of steroid exposure. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to verify the osteonecrosis unless it was visible by radiograph. After an average of 7.5 years (minimum followup, 5 years), only three patients (1%) from the group had osteonecrosis develop. This 1% incidence is much less than the 3% to 20% incidence usually reported for patients receiving high-dose steroids. Statins may offer some protection against having osteonecrosis develop when steroid treatment is necessary. PMID:11347831

  3. A critical appraisal of the misoprostol removable, controlled-release vaginal delivery system of labor induction

    PubMed Central

    Patte, Charlotte; Deruelle, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Induction of labor is a major issue in pregnancy management. Finding strategies to increase rate and decrease time to vaginal delivery is an important goal, but maternal or neonatal safety must remain the primary objective. Misoprostol is a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin used off label to ripen the cervix and induce labor. The misoprostol vaginal insert (MVI) was designed to allow a controlled-release delivery of misoprostol (from 50 to 200 μg) with a removal tape. The objective of this review was to make a critical appraisal of this device referring to the literature. Methods A literature search was performed in the PubMed and Cochrane databases using the keywords “vaginal misoprostol insert”. Results Several studies compared different doses of MVI (50, 100, 150, and 200 μg) with the 10 mg dinoprostone insert. The 100 μg MVI compared with the dinoprostone vaginal insert (DVI) showed similar efficacy and no significant differences in cesarean delivery rate. MVI 200 μg compared with DVI showed a reduced time to vaginal delivery and oxytocin need but had an increased risk of uterine hyperstimulation. The rate of hyperstimulation syndrome was two to three times more frequent with the 200 μg MVI than the 100 μg. Conclusion Current data suggest that the 100 μg MVI would provide the best balance between efficacy and safety. Further studies should be performed to evaluate this dose, especially in high-risk situations needing induction of labor. PMID:26648758

  4. Steroid metabolism by monkey and human spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalakshmi, M.; Sehgal, A.; Pruthi, J.S.; Anand-Kumar, T.C.

    1983-05-01

    Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from monkey and human were washed and incubated with tritium labelled androgens or estradiol to study the pattern of spermatozoa steroid metabolism. When equal concentrations of steroid substrates were used for incubation, monkey and human spermatozoa showed very similar pattern of steroid conversion. Spermatozoa from both species converted testosterone mainly to androstenedione, but reverse conversion of androstenedione to testosterone was negligible. Estradiol-17 beta was converted mainly to estrone. The close similarity between the spermatozoa of monkey and men in their steroid metabolic pattern indicates that the rhesus monkey could be an useful animal model to study the effect of drugs on the metabolic pattern of human spermatozoa.

  5. Induction voidmeter

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, T.T.; Roop, C.J.; Schmidt, K.J.; Brewer, J.

    1983-12-21

    An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; means for applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and means for detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

  6. Induction voidmeter

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas T. (Downers Grove, IL); Roop, Conard J. (Lockport, IL); Schmidt, Kenneth J. (Midlothian, IL); Brewer, John (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1986-01-01

    An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge circuit, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

  7. The role of cytochrome P450(11 alpha) in detoxification of steroids in the filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans.

    PubMed

    Breskvar, K; Ferencak, Z; Hudnik-Plevnik, T

    1995-03-01

    The evidence was presented that steroid hydroxylating enzyme complex induced by substrate in the filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans (R. nigricans) alleviated toxic effect(s) of the steroid on fungal growth. The growth inhibition of fungal mycelium observed in steroid-containing culture(s) became much more obvious when fungal mycelia were grown in the simultaneous presence of inducing steroid and the P450(11 alpha) inhibitor metyrapone. On the other hand, in experiments where we followed the fate of radioactively labelled progesterone added to the mycelial suspension, we noticed that steroid, after being initially accumulated in the microorganism, was, after some time, released from it; the latter phenomenon was not observed if induction of 11 alpha-hydroxylase was prevented by cycloheximide. Results of experiments presented in this communication can be regarded as the first strong indication that the biological role of P450(11 alpha) induction in R. nigricans is in removal of steroids which are toxic for the mycelium. PMID:7696148

  8. Steroids, triterpenoids and molecular oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Summons, Roger E; Bradley, Alexander S; Jahnke, Linda L; Waldbauer, Jacob R

    2006-01-01

    There is a close connection between modern-day biosynthesis of particular triterpenoid biomarkers and presence of molecular oxygen in the environment. Thus, the detection of steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons far back in Earth history has been used to infer the antiquity of oxygenic photosynthesis. This prompts the question: were these compounds produced similarly in the past? In this paper, we address this question with a review of the current state of knowledge surrounding the oxygen requirement for steroid biosynthesis and phylogenetic patterns in the distribution of steroid and triterpenoid biosynthetic pathways. The hopanoid and steroid biosynthetic pathways are very highly conserved within the bacterial and eukaryotic domains, respectively. Bacteriohopanepolyols are produced by a wide range of bacteria, and are methylated in significant abundance at the C2 position by oxygen-producing cyanobacteria. On the other hand, sterol biosynthesis is sparsely distributed in distantly related bacterial taxa and the pathways do not produce the wide range of products that characterize eukaryotes. In particular, evidence for sterol biosynthesis by cyanobacteria appears flawed. Our experiments show that cyanobacterial cultures are easily contaminated by sterol-producing rust fungi, which can be eliminated by treatment with cycloheximide affording sterol-free samples. Sterols are ubiquitous features of eukaryotic membranes, and it appears likely that the initial steps in sterol biosynthesis were present in their modern form in the last common ancestor of eukaryotes. Eleven molecules of O2 are required by four enzymes to produce one molecule of cholesterol. Thermodynamic arguments, optimization of function and parsimony all indicate that an ancestral anaerobic pathway is highly unlikely. The known geological record of molecular fossils, especially steranes and triterpanes, is notable for the limited number of structural motifs that have been observed. With a few exceptions, the carbon skeletons are the same as those found in the lipids of extant organisms and no demonstrably extinct structures have been reported. Furthermore, their patterns of occurrence over billion year time-scales correlate strongly with environments of deposition. Accordingly, biomarkers are excellent indicators of environmental conditions even though the taxonomic affinities of all biomarkers cannot be precisely specified. Biomarkers are ultimately tied to biochemicals with very specific functional properties, and interpretations of the biomarker record will benefit from increased understanding of the biological roles of geologically durable molecules. PMID:16754609

  9. Sex steroid ablation: an immunoregenerative strategy for immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Velardi, E; Dudakov, J A; van den Brink, M R M

    2015-06-01

    Age-related decline in thymic function is a well-described process that results in reduced T-cell development and thymic output of new naïve T cells. Thymic involution leads to reduced response to vaccines and new pathogens in otherwise healthy individuals; however, reduced thymic function is particularly detrimental in clinical scenarios where the immune system is profoundly depleted such as after chemotherapy, radiotherapy, infection and shock. Poor thymic function and restoration of immune competence has been correlated with an increased risk of opportunistic infections, tumor relapse and autoimmunity. Apart from their primary role in sex dimorphism, sex steroid levels profoundly affect the immune system in general and, in fact, age-related thymic involution has been at least partially attributed to the increase in sex steroids at puberty. Subsequently it has been demonstrated that the removal of sex steroids, or sex steroid ablation (SSA), triggers physiologic changes that ultimately lead to thymic re-growth and improved T-cell reconstitution in settings of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Although the cellular and molecular process underlying these regenerative effects are still poorly understood, SSA clearly represents an attractive therapeutic approach to enhance thymic function and restore immune competence in immunodeficient individuals. PMID:26039214

  10. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  11. Linear induction accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

    1988-06-21

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  12. The mutual inductance calculation between circular and quadrilateral coils at arbitrary attitudes using a rotation matrix for airborne transient electromagnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yanju; Wang, Hongyuan; Lin, Jun; Guan, Shanshan; Feng, Xue; Li, Suyi

    2014-12-01

    Performance testing and calibration of airborne transient electromagnetic (ATEM) systems are conducted to obtain the electromagnetic response of ground loops. It is necessary to accurately calculate the mutual inductance between transmitting coils, receiving coils and ground loops to compute the electromagnetic responses. Therefore, based on Neumann's formula and the measured attitudes of the coils, this study deduces the formula for the mutual inductance calculation between circular and quadrilateral coils, circular and circular coils, and quadrilateral and quadrilateral coils using a rotation matrix, and then proposes a method to calculate the mutual inductance between two coils at arbitrary attitudes (roll, pitch, and yaw). Using coil attitude simulated data of an ATEM system, we calculate the mutual inductance of transmitting coils and ground loops at different attitudes, analyze the impact of coil attitudes on mutual inductance, and compare the computational accuracy and speed of the proposed method with those of other methods using the same data. The results show that the relative error of the calculation is smaller and that the speed-up is significant compared to other methods. Moreover, the proposed method is also applicable to the mutual inductance calculation of polygonal and circular coils at arbitrary attitudes and is highly expandable.

  13. Simultaneous operation of a polychromator and monochromator on a single-source inductively coupled plasma emission system

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J M; Heine, D R; Rogers, C W

    1982-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) is a popular analytical technique for routine multielement analysis. An argon plasma, which is sustained by a radio-frequency field, serves as the atomization excitation source for emission spectroscopy. With commercial instrumentation the atomic emission is monitored with either a direct reader (polychromator) or a scanning monochromator. The topic of this paper is the development of software for simultaneous operation of both the polychromator and the monochromator with a single plasma source. The hardware for this system includes an LSI-11/23 as the main computer with satellite FALCON SBC-11/21 single-board computers for hardware control and data acquisition. TSX-Plus, a multi-user operating system, is being employed for software development on the LSI-11/23.

  14. Electron dynamics and frequency coupling in a radio-frequency capacitively biased planar coil inductively coupled plasma system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaka-ul-Islam, M.; O'Connell, D.; Graham, W. G.; Gans, T.

    2015-08-01

    The electron dynamics in a planar coil inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system with a capacitively biased electrode is investigated using space and phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy. The two power source frequencies are exact multiple of each other and phase-locked. In this configuration, the system is investigated when the coil is operated in both E-mode and H-mode. The results show that in a phase synchronized RF biased ICP, the electrode bias power couples with the capacitive contribution of the coil, in both E-mode and H-modes, similar to dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (2f-CCPs). It is also demonstrated that in H-mode, the phase between the electrode bias frequency and the ICP coil frequency influences the electron heating, similar to the electrical asymmetry effect in 2f-CCPs.

  15. Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Facts and Fiction What You Should Know About Marijuana Concentrates/ Honey Butane Oil Consequences How Drugs Alter Brain Development and Affect ... Marijuana Featured Articles What You Should Know About Marijuana Concentrates/ Honey Butane Oil A marijuana concentrate is a powerful substance that ...

  16. Steroids as γ-secretase modulators

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Joo In; Ladd, Thomas B.; Kukar, Thomas; Price, Ashleigh R.; Moore, Brenda D.; Koo, Edward H.; Golde, Todd E.; Felsenstein, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation and accumulation of Aβ42 play an initiating role in Alzheimer's disease (AD); thus, selective lowering of Aβ42 by γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) remains a promising approach to AD therapy. Based on evidence suggesting that steroids may influence Aβ production, we screened 170 steroids at 10 μM for effects on Aβ42 secreted from human APP-overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary cells. Many acidic steroids lowered Aβ42, whereas many nonacidic steroids actually raised Aβ42. Studies on the more potent compounds showed that Aβ42-lowering steroids were bonafide GSMs and Aβ42-raising steroids were inverse GSMs. The most potent steroid GSM identified was 5β-cholanic acid (EC50=5.7 μM; its endogenous analog lithocholic acid was virtually equipotent), and the most potent inverse GSM identified was 4-androsten-3-one-17β-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (EC50=6.25 μM). In addition, we found that both estrogen and progesterone are weak inverse GSMs with further complex effects on APP processing. These data suggest that certain endogenous steroids may have the potential to act as GSMs and add to the evidence that cholesterol, cholesterol metabolites, and other steroids may play a role in modulating Aβ production and thus risk for AD. They also indicate that acidic steroids might serve as potential therapeutic leads for drug optimization/development.—Jung, J. I., Ladd, T. B., Kukar, T., Price, A. R., Moore, B. D., Koo, E. H., Golde, T. E., Felsenstein, K. M. Steroids as γ-secretase modulators. PMID:23716494

  17. Stress, Ethanol, and Neuroactive Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Biggio, Giovanni; Concas, Alessandra; Follesa, Paolo; Sanna, Enrico; Serra, Mariangela

    2010-01-01

    Neurosteroids play a crucial role in stress, alcohol dependence and withdrawal, and other physiological and pharmacological actions by potentiating or inhibiting neurotransmitter action. This review article focuses on data showing that the interaction among stress, ethanol, and neuroactive steroids may result in plastic molecular and functional changes of GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission. The molecular mechanisms by which stress-ethanol-neuroactive steroids interactions can produce plastic changes in GABAA receptors have been studied using different experimental models in vivo and in vitro in order to provide useful evidence and new insights into the mechanisms through which acute and chronic ethanol and stress exposure modulate the activity of GABAergic synapses. We show detailed data on a) the effect of acute and chronic stress on peripheral and brain neurosteroid levels and GABAA receptor gene expression and function; b) ethanol-stimulated brain steroidogenesis; c) plasticity of GABAA receptor after acute and chronic ethanol exposure. The implications of these new mechanistic insights to our understanding of the effects of ethanol during stress are also discussed. The understanding of these neurochemical and molecular mechanisms may shed new light on the physiopathology of diseases, such as anxiety, in which GABAergic transmission play a pivotal role. These data may also lead to the need for new anxiolytic, hypnotic and anticonvulsant selective drugs devoid of side effects. PMID:17555824

  18. Targeting the Androgen Receptor with Steroid Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a major therapeutic target in prostate cancer pharmacology. Progression of prostate cancer has been linked to elevated expression of AR in malignant tissue, suggesting that AR plays a central role in prostate cancer cell biology. Potent therapeutic agents can be precisely crafted to specifically target AR, potentially averting systemic toxicities associated with nonspecific chemotherapies. In this review, we describe various strategies to generate steroid conjugates that can selectively engage AR with high potency. Analogies to recent developments in nonsteroidal conjugates targeting AR are also evaluated. Particular focus is placed on potential applications in AR pharmacology. The review culminates with a description of future prospects for targeting AR. PMID:24936953

  19. Cardiotonic Steroids as Modulators of Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Orellana, Ana Maria; Kinoshita, Paula Fernanda; Leite, Jacqueline Alves; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko; Scavone, Cristoforo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiotonic steroids (CTS) are a class of specific ligands of the Na+, K+- ATPase (NKA). NKA is a P-type ATPase that is ubiquitously expressed and although well known to be responsible for the maintenance of the cell electrochemical gradient through active transport, NKA can also act as a signal transducer in the presence of CTS. Inflammation, in addition to importantly driving organism defense and survival mechanisms, can also modulate NKA activity and memory formation, as well as being relevant to many chronic illnesses, neurodegenerative diseases, and mood disorders. The aim of the current review is to highlight the recent advances as to the role of CTS and NKA in inflammatory process, with a particular focus in the central nervous system. PMID:26909067

  20. CONTAMINANT INTERACTIONS WITH STEROID RECEPTORS: EVIDENCE FOR RECEPTOR BINDING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroid receptors are important determinants of endocrine disrupter consequences. As the most frequently proposed mechanism of endocrine-disrupting contaminant (EDC) action, steroid receptors are not only targets of natural steroids but are also commonly sites of nonsteroidal com...

  1. Performance of an Annular Linear Induction Pump with Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Schoenfeld, Michael; Pearson, J. Boise; Webster, Kenneth; Godfroy, Thomas; Adkins, Harold E., Jr.; Werner, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Results of performance testing of an annular linear induction pump are presented. The pump electromagnetically pumps liquid metal through a circuit specially designed to allow for quantification of the performance. Testing was conducted over a range of conditions, including frequencies of 33, 36, 39, and 60 Hz, liquid metal temperatures from 125 to 525 C, and input voltages from 5 to 120 V. Pump performance spanned a range of flow rates from roughly 0.16 to 5.7 L/s (2.5 to 90 gpm), and pressure head less than 1 to 90 kPa (less than 0.145 to 13 psi). The maximum efficiency measured during testing was slightly greater than 6%. The efficiency was fairly insensitive to input frequency from 33 to 39 Hz, and was markedly lower at 60 Hz. In addition, the efficiency decreased as the NaK temperature was raised. The performance of the pump operating on a variable frequency drive providing 60 Hz power compared favorably with the same pump operating on 60 Hz power drawn directly from the electrical grid.

  2. Anabolic-androgenic steroids: in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Kochakian, C D; Welder, A A

    1993-06-01

    Testosterone and related steroids at physiological concentrations positively stimulate in cell culture a number of reactions in a variety of tissues from different species of animals. Cells maintained in cell culture provide a means to study toxic effects in target organs and also the mechanism of action of these steroids. PMID:8331026

  3. Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Steroid Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Kent F.; Kleiman, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    Used Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory and Profile of Mood States to assess psychological characteristics in 72 adolescent males: 24 adolescent athletes who reported steroid use, 24 athletes with no steroid use, and 24 nonathletes. Although some personality variables differentiated between athletes and nonathletes, no personality variables

  4. Steroids Update, Part 1 and Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Calvin; Duda, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Part 1 of this two-part article describes the views of a physician who believes that athletes who want to take steroids are best protected by receiving a prescription and monitoring. Part 2 discusses the more general view of physicians that steroids should not be prescribed but perhaps should be monitored. (MT)

  5. How to Stop Steroid Medicines Safely

    MedlinePLUS

    ... side effects include thin skin, a higher blood sugar level, dry mouth, irregular menstrual cycles, increased blood pressure and weakened bones. Because of these side effects, steroids are usually only used for a short time. Your body naturally makes steroids by itself. When your body ...

  6. Steroids: To Test or to Educate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2006-01-01

    In February 2005, The Dallas Morning News published a multipart series on steroid use among high school students in Texas. The paper's four-month investigation was wide-ranging, but shined a particular spotlight upon alleged abuses in the 13,700-student Grapevine-Colleyville Independent School District, north of Dallas. Use of steroids and other

  7. Steroids: To Test or to Educate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2006-01-01

    In February 2005, The Dallas Morning News published a multipart series on steroid use among high school students in Texas. The paper's four-month investigation was wide-ranging, but shined a particular spotlight upon alleged abuses in the 13,700-student Grapevine-Colleyville Independent School District, north of Dallas. Use of steroids and other…

  8. Hardware and software design for a National Instrument-based magnetic induction tomography system for prospective biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hsin-Yu; Soleimani, Manuchehr

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a new and emerging type of tomography technique that is able to map the passive electromagnetic properties (in particular conductivity) of an object. Excitation coils are used to induce eddy currents in the medium, and the magnetic field produced by the induced eddy current is then sensed by the receiver coils. Because of its non-invasive and contactless feature, it becomes an attractive technique for many applications (especially in biomedical area) compared to traditional contact electrode-based electrical impedance tomography. Due to the low contrast in conductivity between biological tissues, an accurate and stable hardware system is necessary. Most MIT systems in the literature employ external signal generators, power amplifiers and highly stable down-conversion electronics to obtain a satisfactory phase measurement. However, this would increase design complexity substantially. In this paper, a National Instrument-based MIT system is developed at the University of Bath, aiming for biomedical applications. The system utilizes National Instrument products to accomplish all signal driving, switching and data acquisition tasks, which ease the system design whilst providing satisfactory performance. This paper presents a full-scaled medical MIT system, from the sensor and system hardware design, eddy current model verification to the image reconstruction software: the performance of this MIT instrumentation system is characterized in detail, including the system accuracy and system stability. The methods of solving eddy current problem are presented. The reconstructed images of detecting the presence of saline solutions are also included in this paper, which show the capability of national instrument products to be developed into a full-scaled biomedical MIT system, by demonstrating the practical experimental results. PMID:22531316

  9. Development of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis after Anabolic Steroid Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Herlitz, Leal C.; Markowitz, Glen S.; Farris, Alton B.; Schwimmer, Joshua A.; Stokes, Michael B.; Kunis, Cheryl; Colvin, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse adversely affects the endocrine system, blood lipids, and the liver, but renal injury has not been described. We identified an association of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and proteinuria in a cohort of 10 bodybuilders (six white and four Hispanic; mean body mass index 34.7) after long-term abuse of anabolic steroids. The clinical presentation included proteinuria (mean 10.1 g/d; range 1.3 to 26.3 g/d) and renal insufficiency (mean serum creatinine 3.0 mg/dl; range 1.3 to 7.8 mg/dl); three (30%) patients presented with nephrotic syndrome. Renal biopsy revealed FSGS in nine patients, four of whom also had glomerulomegaly, and glomerulomegaly alone in one patient. Three biopsies revealed collapsing lesions of FSGS, four had perihilar lesions, and seven showed ?40% tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Among eight patients with mean follow-up of 2.2 yr, one progressed to ESRD, the other seven received renin-angiotensin system blockade, and one also received corticosteroids. All seven patients discontinued anabolic steroids, leading to weight loss, stabilization or improvement in serum creatinine, and a reduction in proteinuria. One patient resumed anabolic steroid abuse and suffered relapse of proteinuria and renal insufficiency. We hypothesize that secondary FSGS results from a combination of postadaptive glomerular changes driven by increased lean body mass and potential direct nephrotoxic effects of anabolic steroids. Because of the expected rise in serum creatinine as a result of increased muscle mass in bodybuilders, this complication is likely underrecognized. PMID:19917783

  10. Ovarian steroids, stem cells and uterine leiomyoma: therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Moravek, Molly B.; Yin, Ping; Ono, Masanori; Coon V, John S.; Dyson, Matthew T.; Navarro, Antonia; Marsh, Erica E.; Chakravarti, Debabrata; Kim, J. Julie; Wei, Jian-Jun; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor in women and is thought to arise from the clonal expansion of a single myometrial smooth muscle cell transformed by a cellular insult. Leiomyomas cause a variety of symptoms, including abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, bladder or bowel dysfunction, and recurrent pregnancy loss, and are the most common indication for hysterectomy in the USA. A slow rate of cell proliferation, combined with the production of copious amounts of extracellular matrix, accounts for tumor expansion. A common salient feature of leiomyomas is their responsiveness to steroid hormones, thus providing an opportunity for intervention. METHODS A comprehensive search of PUBMED was conducted to identify peer-reviewed literature published since 1980 pertinent to the roles of steroid hormones and somatic stem cells in leiomyoma, including literature on therapeutics that target steroid hormone action in leiomyoma. Reviewed articles were restricted to English language only. Studies in both animals and humans were reviewed for the manuscript. RESULTS Estrogen stimulates the growth of leiomyomas, which are exposed to this hormone not only through ovarian steroidogenesis, but also through local conversion of androgens by aromatase within the tumors themselves. The primary action of estrogen, together with its receptor estrogen receptor α (ERα), is likely mediated via induction of progesterone receptor (PR) expression, thereby allowing leiomyoma responsiveness to progesterone. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the growth of leiomyoma through a set of key genes that regulate both apoptosis and proliferation. Given these findings, aromatase inhibitors and antiprogestins have been developed for the treatment of leiomyoma, but neither treatment results in complete regression of leiomyoma, and tumors recur after treatment is stopped. Recently, distinct cell populations were discovered in leiomyomas; a small population showed stem-progenitor cell properties, and was found to be essential for ovarian steroid-dependent growth of leiomyomas. Interestingly, these stem-progenitor cells were deficient in ERα and PR and instead relied on the strikingly higher levels of these receptors in surrounding differentiated cells to mediate estrogen and progesterone action via paracrine signaling. CONCLUSIONS It has been well established that estrogen and progesterone are involved in the proliferation and maintenance of uterine leiomyoma, and the majority of medical treatments currently available for leiomyoma work by inhibiting steroid hormone production or action. A pitfall of these therapeutics is that they decrease leiomyoma size, but do not completely eradicate them, and tumors tend to regrow once treatment is stopped. The recent discovery of stem cells and their paracrine interactions with more differentiated cell populations within leiomyoma has the potential to provide the missing link between developing therapeutics that temper leiomyoma growth and those that eradicate them. PMID:25205766

  11. Diverse biological responses to different cardiotonic steroids.

    PubMed

    Dvela, Moran; Rosen, Haim; Feldmann, Tomer; Nesher, Maoz; Lichtstein, David

    2007-12-01

    Cardiotonic steroids (CS) such as ouabain, digoxin and bufalin, are steroidal drugs prepared from the seeds and dried leaves of the genus Digitalis, and the skin and parotid gland of amphibians, are used as a cardiac stimulant. Steroids similar or identical to the cardiotonic steroids were identified in human tissues. The available literature unequivocally supports the notion that these endogenous CS function as hormones in mammals. Recent studies show that although similar in structure, the different CS exhibit diverse biological responses. This was shown at the molecular, cellular, tissue and whole animal levels. This review summarizes these diversities, raises a possible explanation for their presence and discusses their implication on the physiological role of the different steroids. PMID:17964766

  12. Anabolic steroid use in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Potteiger, J A; Stilger, V G

    1994-03-01

    Recent surveys indicate that the use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (anabolic steroids) is prevalent among adolescent athletes, particularly those in high school. The cost of clinical drug testing makes it impractical to use random testing to identify users of these ergogenic aids. The athletic trainer is often in a position to identify anabolic steroid users if he/she knows the clinical signs and symptoms. In this article, we briefly discuss the history of anabolic steroid use, how they work, their potentially dangerous side effects, evidence of increased use by adolescent athletes, and a list of clinical signs and symptoms. Finally, we suggest strategies that may help athletic trainers counsel athletes about anabolic steroid use. PMID:16558265

  13. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Green River Shale By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Using a Desolvating Nebulizer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, F.; Clarke, D.; Moody, S.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is applied to a geological sample for the determination of rare earth elements (REEs) using a specialized nebulizer system. The low flow desolvating nebulizer has been shown to decrease metal oxide formation which leads to a reduction in mass spectral interferences. Traditional nebulizers and spray chambers may be suitable for similar sample types, but reduction of water vapor loading to the plasma can improve REE detection limits for quadrupole-based ICP-MS. The Green River formation holds the largest oil shale deposits in the world and understanding the elemental composition of these samples is important in its study. A certified reference material, USGS Green River Shale (SGR-1), was microwave digested prior to analysis, and recoveries of REEs compared to historical values are discussed.

  14. Robust Wind Turbine System Against Voltage Sag with Induction Generators Interfaced to the Grid by Power Electronic Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinas, Marta; Naess, Bjarne; Gullvik, William; Undeland, Tore

    An electrical system for wind turbines using cage induction generator with back to back converters for connection to the network is experimentally tested under short circuit conditions in a 55kW generator set-up. 50% voltage sag is realized in the laboratory set-up to investigate the performance of the power electronic converters control under the newly introduced grid codes. Standard vector control techniques are implemented with the aim to maintain balance between generated power and power supplied to the grid. The robustness of the power electronics converter is experimentally analyzed under the short circuit for different settings of the converter nominal current and the converters are found to be robust against voltage sags.

  15. Facilitated Intranasal Induction of Mucosal and Systemic Immunity to Mutans Streptococcal Glucosyltransferase Peptide Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel J.; King, William F.; Barnes, Leigh A.; Trantolo, Debra; Wise, Donald L.; Taubman, Martin A.

    2001-01-01

    Synthetic peptide vaccines which are derived from functional domains of Streptococcus mutans glucosyltransferases (GTF) have been shown to induce protective immunity in Sprague-Dawley rats after subcutaneous injection in the salivary gland region. Since mucosal induction of salivary immunity would be preferable in humans, we explored methods to induce mucosal antibody in the rat to the GTF peptide vaccines HDS and HDS-GLU after intranasal administration. Several methods of facilitation of the immune response were studied: the incorporation of peptides in bioadhesive poly(d,l-lactide-coglycolide) (PLGA) microparticles, the use of monoepitopic (HDS) or diepitopic (HDS-GLU) peptide constructs, or the use of mucosal adjuvants. Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses were not detected after intranasal administration of diepitopic HDS-GLU peptide constructs in alum or after incorporation into PLGA microparticles. However, significant primary and secondary salivary IgA and serum IgG antibody responses to HDS were induced in all rats when cholera holotoxin (CT) or a detoxified mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (R192G LT) were intranasally administered with HDS peptide constructs in PLGA. Coadministration of LT with HDS resulted in predominantly IgG2a responses in the serum, while coadministration with CT resulted in significant IgG1 and IgG2a responses to HDS. Serum IgG antibody, which was induced to the HDS peptide construct by coadministration with these adjuvants, also bound intact mutans streptococcal GTF in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and inhibited its enzymatic activity. Thus, immune responses which are potentially protective for dental caries can be induced to peptide-based GTF vaccines after mucosal administration if combined with the CT or LT R192G mucosal adjuvant. PMID:11447149

  16. Space shuttle main engine anomaly data and inductive knowledge based systems: Automated corporate expertise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modesitt, Kenneth L.

    1987-01-01

    Progress is reported on the development of SCOTTY, an expert knowledge-based system to automate the analysis procedure following test firings of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The integration of a large-scale relational data base system, a computer graphics interface for experts and end-user engineers, potential extension of the system to flight engines, application of the system for training of newly-hired engineers, technology transfer to other engines, and the essential qualities of good software engineering practices for building expert knowledge-based systems are among the topics discussed.

  17. Fecal steroids and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Owen, R W; Dodo, M; Thompson, M H; Hill, M J

    1987-01-01

    The fecal steroid profiles of healthy subjects were compared with those of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The multicomponent profiles did not differ qualitatively in that CRC patients, like control subjects, had similar fecal steroids. The major bile acids detected in fecal extracts were lithocholic acid (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA). The major sterol of animal origin was cholesterol and its bacterial metabolite coprostanol, whereas the major plant sterols were beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, and their corresponding bacterial metabolites. CRC patients excreted higher amounts of total major bile acids (LCA and DCA) than did the control group, but this difference was not significant. However, the LCA-to-DCA ratio was much higher in the CRC group [(1.43, p less than 0.01) compared with the control group (0.72)]. The control group excreted significantly higher amounts of total neutral sterols (p less than 0.001), sterols of animal origin (p less than 0.001), and plant sterols (p less than 0.001) compared with the CRC group; the plant sterols represented a much lower proportion of excreted total neutral sterols in the CRC group (p greater than 0.001) compared with the control group. We propose the following hypotheses. The LCA-to-DCA ratio may be an important discriminant market for CRC susceptibility. The fecal LCA-to-DCA ratio may depend on the differential hepatic synthesis of their respective precursors chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and cholic acid. Hepatic synthesis of CDCA may be increased by more efficient conservation of dietary cholesterol because it has been shown that cholesterol of exogenous origin is the main precursor of this bile acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3562296

  18. An adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller for sensorless vector-controlled induction motor drive systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shun-Yuan; Tseng, Chwan-Lu; Lin, Shou-Chuang; Chiu, Chun-Jung; Chou, Jen-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller (FCMAC) in the speed sensorless vector control of an induction motor (IM) drive system. The proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC comprised a supervisory controller, integral sliding surface, and an adaptive FCMAC. The integral sliding surface was employed to eliminate steady-state errors and enhance the responsiveness of the system. The adaptive FCMAC incorporated an FCMAC with a compensating controller to perform a desired control action. The proposed controller was derived using the Lyapunov approach, which guarantees learning-error convergence. The implementation of three intelligent control schemes--the adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC, adaptive sliding FCMAC, and adaptive sliding CMAC--were experimentally investigated under various conditions in a realistic sensorless vector-controlled IM drive system. The root mean square error (RMSE) was used as a performance index to evaluate the experimental results of each control scheme. The analysis results indicated that the proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC substantially improved the system performance compared with the other control schemes. PMID:25815450

  19. Glutathione-dependent induction of local and systemic defense against oxidative stress by exogenous melatonin in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; He, Jie; Yang, Xiaozhen; Li, Xin; Luo, Dan; Wei, Chunhua; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xian

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is involved in defending against oxidative stress caused by various environmental stresses in plants. In this study, the roles of exogenous melatonin in regulating local and systemic defense against photooxidative stress in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and the involvement of redox signaling were examined. Foliar or rhizospheric treatment with melatonin enhanced tolerance to photooxidative stress in both melatonin-treated leaves and untreated systemic leaves. Increased melatonin levels are capable of increasing glutathione (reduced glutathione [GSH]) redox status. Application of H2 O2 and GSH also induced tolerance to photooxidative stress, while inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation and GSH synthesis compromised melatonin-induced local and systemic tolerance to photooxidative stress. H2 O2 treatment increased the GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, while inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation prevented a melatonin-induced increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio. Additionally, inhibition of GSH synthesis blocked H2 O2 -induced photooxidative stress tolerance, whereas scavenging or inhibition of H2 O2 production attenuated but did not abolish GSH-induced tolerance to photooxidative stress. These results strongly suggest that exogenous melatonin is capable of inducing both local and systemic defense against photooxidative stress and melatonin-enhanced GSH/GSSG ratio in a H2 O2 -dependent manner is critical in the induction of tolerance. PMID:26681257

  20. An Adaptive Supervisory Sliding Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller for Sensorless Vector-Controlled Induction Motor Drive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shun-Yuan; Tseng, Chwan-Lu; Lin, Shou-Chuang; Chiu, Chun-Jung; Chou, Jen-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller (FCMAC) in the speed sensorless vector control of an induction motor (IM) drive system. The proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC comprised a supervisory controller, integral sliding surface, and an adaptive FCMAC. The integral sliding surface was employed to eliminate steady-state errors and enhance the responsiveness of the system. The adaptive FCMAC incorporated an FCMAC with a compensating controller to perform a desired control action. The proposed controller was derived using the Lyapunov approach, which guarantees learning-error convergence. The implementation of three intelligent control schemes—the adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC, adaptive sliding FCMAC, and adaptive sliding CMAC—were experimentally investigated under various conditions in a realistic sensorless vector-controlled IM drive system. The root mean square error (RMSE) was used as a performance index to evaluate the experimental results of each control scheme. The analysis results indicated that the proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC substantially improved the system performance compared with the other control schemes. PMID:25815450

  1. Linear induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, R.J.

    1986-06-01

    The development of linear induction accelerators has been motivated by applications requiring high-pulsed currents of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capability of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high for rf accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multi-stage induction machine, but the 50-MeV, 10-kA Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL is the highest voltage machine in existence at this time. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high-repetition rates practical, and this capability for high-average power is very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines in the future. This paper surveys the US induction linac technology with primary emphasis on electron machines. A simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam is given, to illustrate many of the general issues that bound the design space of induction linacs.

  2. Experimental system, and its evaluation for the control of surgically inducted infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tevebaugh, M. D.; Nelson, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The effect is reported to design, fabricate, test and evaluate a prototype experimental system for the control of surgically induced infections. The purpose is to provide the cleanest possible environment within a hospital surgery room and eliminate contamination sources that could cause infections during surgery. The system design is described. The system provides for a portable laminar flow clean room, a full bubble helmet system with associated communications and ventilation subsystems for operating room personnel, and surgical gowns that minimize the migration of bacteria. The development test results consisting of portability, laminar flowrate, air flow pattern, electrostatic buildup, noise level, ventilation, human factors, electrical and material compatibility tests are summarized. The conclusions are that the experimental system is effective in reducing the airborne and wound contamination although the helmets and gowns may not be a significant part of this reduction. Definitive conclusions with regard to the infection rate cannot be made at this time.

  3. Measurement of Steroid Concentrations in Brain Tissue: Methodological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Taves, Matthew D.; Ma, Chunqi; Heimovics, Sarah A.; Saldanha, Colin J.; Soma, Kiran K.

    2011-01-01

    It is well recognized that steroids are synthesized de novo in the brain (neurosteroids). In addition, steroids circulating in the blood enter the brain. Steroids play numerous roles in the brain, such as influencing neural development, adult neuroplasticity, behavior, neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease. In order to understand the regulation and functions of steroids in the brain, it is important to directly measure steroid concentrations in brain tissue. In this brief review, we discuss methods for the detection and quantification of steroids in the brain. We concisely present the major advantages and disadvantages of different technical approaches at various experimental stages: euthanasia, tissue collection, steroid extraction, steroid separation, and steroid measurement. We discuss, among other topics, the potential effects of anesthesia and saline perfusion prior to tissue collection; microdissection via Palkovits punch; solid phase extraction; chromatographic separation of steroids; and immunoassays and mass spectrometry for steroid quantification, particularly the use of mass spectrometry for steroid profiling. Finally, we discuss the interpretation of local steroid concentrations, such as comparing steroid levels in brain tissue with those in the circulation (plasma vs. whole blood samples; total vs. free steroid levels). We also present reference values for a variety of steroids in different brain regions of adult rats. This brief review highlights some of the major methodological considerations at multiple experimental stages and provides a broad framework for designing studies that examine local steroid levels in the brain as well as other steroidogenic tissues, such as thymus, breast, and prostate. PMID:22654806

  4. Sex steroid signaling: implications for lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Sathish, Venkatachalem; Martin, Yvette N; Prakash, Y S

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing recognition that sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone) have biological and pathophysiological actions in peripheral, non-reproductive organs, including the lung. Clinically, sex differences in the incidence, morbidity and mortality of lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer and pulmonary hypertension have been noted, although intrinsic sex differences vs. the roles of sex steroids are still not well-understood. Accordingly, it becomes important to ask the following questions: 1) Which sex steroids are involved? 2) How do they affect different components of the lung under normal circumstances? 3) How does sex steroid signaling change in or contribute to lung disease, and in this regard, are sex steroids detrimental or beneficial? As our understanding of sex steroid signaling in the lung improves, it is important to consider whether such information can be used to develop new therapeutic strategies to target lung diseases, perhaps in both sexes or in a sex-specific manner. In this review, we focus on the basics of sex steroid signaling, and the current state of knowledge regarding how they influence structure and function of specific lung components across the life span and in the context of some important lung diseases. We then summarize the potential for sex steroids as useful biomarkers and therapeutic targets in these lung diseases as a basis for future translational research in the area of gender and individualized medicine. PMID:25595323

  5. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Marta C.; Jiménez, Pedro; Miranda-Brito, Carolina; Valdez, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include the penetration and permanence of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that only have one host, reciprocal, intricate interactions occur. Evidence indicates that steroid hormones have an influence on the development and course of parasitic infections. The host gender's susceptibility to infection, and the related differences in the immune response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well-known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In most, but not all parasitosis the host's hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course, and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activates immune responses that end up affecting the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones, such as ecdysteroids and sex steroids, and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid-like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium cysticerci and tapeworms, and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. In-depth knowledge of the parasite's endocrine properties will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and may also help designing tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations. PMID:26175665

  6. Theoretical foundation for real-time prostate localization using an inductively coupled transmitter and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer system.

    PubMed

    McGary, John E

    2004-01-01

    Real-time, 3D localization of the prostate for intensity-modulated radiotherapy can be accomplished with passively charged radio frequency transmitters and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers. The overall system design consists of an external dipole antenna as a power source for charging a microchip implant transmitter and SQUID magnetometers for signal detection. An external dipole antenna charges an on-chip capacitor through inductive coupling in the near field region through a small implant inductor. The charge and discharge sequence between the external antenna and the implant circuit can be defined by half duplex, full duplex, or sequential operations. The resulting implant discharge current creates an alternating magnetic field through the inductor. The field is detected by the surrounding magnetometers, and the location of the implant transmitter can be calculated. Problems associated with this system design are interrelated with the signal strength at the detectors, detector sensitivity, and charge time of the implant capacitor. The physical parameters required for optimizing the system for real-time applications are the operating frequency, implant inductance and capacitance, the external dipole current and loop radius, the detector distance, and mutual inductance. Consequently, the sequential operating mode is the best choice for real-time localization for constraints requiring positioning within 1 s due to the mutual inductance and detector sensitivity. We present the theoretical foundation for designing a real-time, 3D prostate localization system including the associated physical parameters and demonstrate the feasibility and physical limitations for such a system. PMID:15738919

  7. Simulation of Trolleybus Traction Induction Drive With Supercapacitor Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazis, V.; Latkovskis, L.; Grigans, L.

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the possibilities of saving the regenerative braking energy in koda 24Tr type trolleybuses by installing the onboard supercapacitor energy storage system (ESS) and improving its performance with automated switching to the autonomous traction mode. Proposed is an ESS control system with constant DC bus voltage in the supercapacitor charging mode and supercapacitor current proportional to the AC drive current in the discharging mode. The authors investigate stability of the trolleybus ESS control system operating together with AC traction drive in various overhead voltage failure modes. The co-simulation of ESS operation was done by Matlab/Simulink AC drive and PSIM ESS continuous models.

  8. Effect of Iron Availability on Induction of Systemic Resistance to Fusarium Wilt of Chickpea by Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed Central

    Saikia, Ratul; Srivastava, Alok K.; Singh, Kiran; Lee, Min-Woong

    2005-01-01

    Selected isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf4-92 and PfRsC5) and P. aeruginosa (PaRsG18 and PaRsG27) were examined for growth promotion and induced systemic resistance against Fusarium wilt of chickpea. Significant increase in plant height was observed in Pseudomonas treated plants. However, plant growth was inhibited when isolates of Pseudomonas were used in combination with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (FocRs1). It was also observed that the Pseudomonas spp. was colonized in root of chickpea and significantly suppressed the disease in greenhouse condition. Rock wool bioassay technique was used to study the effect of iron availability on the induction of systemic resistance to Fusarium wilt of chickpea mediated by the Pseudomonas spp. All the isolates of Pseudomonas spp. showed greater disease control in the induced systemic resistance (ISR) bioassay when iron availability in the nutrient solution was low. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that all the bacterial isolates produced more salicylic acid (SA) at low iron (10µM EDDHA) than high iron availability (10µFe3+ EDDHA). Except PaRsG27, all the three isolates produced more pseudobactin at low iron than high iron availability. PMID:24049472

  9. The sympathetic nervous system tonically inhibits peripheral interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 induction by central lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    De Luigi, A; Terreni, L; Sironi, M; De Simoni, M G

    1998-04-01

    To study the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the induction of inflammatory cytokines elicited by central lipopolysaccharide, sympathetic chemical denervation was performed by intraperitoneal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine. Rats received the neurotoxin according to the following schedule: 50 mg/kg on days 1 and 2, 100 mg/kg on days 3, 4 and 7. On day 8, lipopolysaccharide (2.5 microg/6 microl/rat) was injected intracerebroventricularly and rats were killed 2 h later. 6-Hydroxydopamine reduced noradrenaline and dopamine content in the spleen by 88.7% and 88.8% respectively, without affecting striatal contents indicating that the chemical sympathectomy had been effective and selective. In sympathectomized rats, lipopolysaccharide raised interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 serum levels more than in control rats given the vehicle. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels in sympathectomized rats were no different from those in vehicle-treated rats. Interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 messenger RNA expression, measured by northern blot analysis, was clearly detectable in adrenals and spleen of rats given lipopolysaccharide. Sympathectomy increased lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 messenger RNA in adrenals and spleen. Corticosterone basal levels were raised by central lipopolysaccharide and not further changed by sympathectomy. The present study shows that sympathetic nervous system denervation enhances the synthesis and production of peripheral interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 in rats given central lipopolysaccharide and suggests a tonic inhibitory control of the sympathetic nervous system on these inflammatory cytokines. PMID:9502262

  10. Non-contact multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy system for industrial-scale bio-impedance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Toole, M. D.; Marsh, L. A.; Davidson, J. L.; Tan, Y. M.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.

    2015-03-01

    Biological tissues have a complex impedance, or bio-impedance, profile which changes with respect to frequency. This is caused by dispersion mechanisms which govern how the electromagnetic field interacts with the tissue at the cellular and molecular level. Measuring the bio-impedance spectra of a biological sample can potentially provide insight into the sample’s properties and its cellular structure. This has obvious applications in the medical, pharmaceutical and food-based industrial domains. However, measuring the bio-impedance spectra non-destructively and in a way which is practical at an industrial scale presents substantial challenges. The low conductivity of the sample requires a highly sensitive instrument, while the demands of industrial-scale operation require a fast high-throughput sensor of rugged design. In this paper, we describe a multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy (MIS) system suitable for industrial-scale, non-contact, spectroscopic bio-impedance measurement over a bandwidth of 156 kHz-2.5 MHz. The system sensitivity and performance are investigated using calibration and known reference samples. It is shown to yield rapid and consistently sensitive results with good long-term stability. The system is then used to obtain conductivity spectra of a number of biological test samples, including yeast suspensions of varying concentration and a range of agricultural produce, such as apples, pears, nectarines, kiwis, potatoes, oranges and tomatoes.

  11. High Incidences of Invasive Fungal Infections in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Receiving Induction Chemotherapy without Systemic Antifungal Prophylaxis: A Prospective Observational Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Hsiang-Chi; Yao, Ming; Wu, Un-In; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Lin, Chien-Ting; Li, Chi-Cheng; Wu, Shang-Ju; Hou, Hsin-An; Chou, Wen-Chien; Huang, Shang-Yi; Tsay, Woei; Chen, Yao-Chang; Chen, Yee-Chun; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Tien, Hwei-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is an important complication for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients receiving induction chemotherapy. However, the epidemiological information is not clear in Southeastern Asia, an area of potential high incidences of IFIs. To clarify it, we enrolled 298 non-M3 adult AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy without systemic anti-fungal prophylaxis from Jan 2004 to Dec 2009, when we applied a prospective diagnostic and treatment algorithm for IFIs. Their demographic parameters, IFI characters, and treatment outcome were collected for analysis. The median age of these patients was 51 years. Standard induction chemotherapy was used for 246 (82.6%) patients, and 66.8% of patients achieved complete remission (CR) or partial remission. The incidence of all-category IFIs was 34.6% (5.7% proven IFIs, 5.0% probable IFIs and 23.8% possible IFIs). Candida tropicalis was the leading pathogen among yeast, and lower respiratory tract was the most common site for IFIs (75.4%, 80/106). Standard induction chemotherapy and failure to CR were identified as risk factors for IFIs. The presence of IFI in induction independently predicted worse survival (hazard ratio 1.536 (1.1002.141), p value = 0.012). Even in those who survived from the initial IFI insults after 3 months, the presence of IFIs in induction still predicted a poor long-term survival. This study confirms high incidences of IFIs in Southeastern Asia, and illustrates potential risk factors; poor short-term and long-term outcomes are also demonstrated. This epidemiological information will provide useful perspectives for anti-fungal prophylaxis and treatment for AML patients during induction, so that best chances of cure and survival can be provided. PMID:26061179

  12. Induction of amino acid transport system A in rat hepatocytes is blocked by tunicamycin.

    PubMed

    Barber, E F; Handlogten, M E; Kilberg, M S

    1983-10-10

    Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes respond to hormones or amino acid deprivation by increasing System A-mediated neutral amino acid transport. Previous reports have shown this stimulation to be dependent on RNA and protein synthesis, whereas the present report describes the inhibition of System A by tunicamycin (TM), an inhibitor of asparagine-linked glycoprotein biosynthesis. The basal System A activity, as monitored by Na+-dependent 2-aminoisobutyric acid uptake, was decreased by TM when hepatocytes were cultured for 24 h in the presence of the antibiotic. System Gly activity was also sensitive to TM, whereas the activities of Systems L1, L2, and N were relatively resistant and that of System ASC was only moderately affected. The increase in System A-mediated uptake after incubation of hepatocytes in the absence of amino acids (i.e. adaptive control) was almost completely abolished by including TM. Likewise, stimulation of hepatic 2-aminoisobutyric acid transport by glucagon, dexamethasone, insulin, or vasopressin was also blocked by the inhibitor. When glucagon alone or glucagon plus dexamethasone was added, the inhibition by TM was transient such that the degree of inhibition decreased with incubation time after the initial 2 h. Addition of TM to cells which had been treated previously for 2 h to 4 h with glucagon and dexamethasone blocked any further increase in transport indicating that the glycoprotein component of System A must be continually synthesized to sustain the increase in activity. Treatment of hepatocytes with various lectins did not inhibit 2-aminoisobutyric acid transport. PMID:6352704

  13. Characterization of a novel non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qun-Yi; Zhang, Meng; State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai ; Hallis, Tina M.; DeRosier, Therese A.; Yue, Jian-Min; Ye, Yang; Mais, Dale E.; MPI Research, Mattawan, MI ; Wang, Ming-Wei; State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai

    2010-01-15

    Selective antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are desirable for the treatment of hypercortisolemia associated with Cushing's syndrome, psychic depression, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and glaucoma. NC3327, a non-steroidal small molecule with potent binding affinity to GR (K{sub i} = 13.2 nM), was identified in a high-throughput screening effort. As a full GR antagonist, NC3327 greatly inhibits the dexamethasone (Dex) induction of marker genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, but has a minimal effect on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a GR responsive pro-inflammatory gene. Interestingly, the compound recruits neither coactivators nor corepressors to the GR complex but competes with glucocorticoids for the interaction between GR and a coactivator peptide. Moreover, NC3327 does not trigger GR nuclear translocation, but significantly blocks Dex-induced GR transportation to the nucleus, and thus appears to be a 'competitive' GR antagonist. Therefore, the non-steroidal compound, NC3327, may represent a new class of GR antagonists as potential therapeutics for a variety of cortisol-related endocrine disorders.

  14. Homologous Series of Liquid Crystalline Steroidal Lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Thiemann, T.; Vill, V.

    1997-03-01

    Steroids are an important source of chiral mesophases. The melting behavior and mesomorphic properties of homologous series of steroidal derivatives have been extracted from the literature, tabulated, and discussed. The tables provide the reader with an evaluated compilation of the type of mesophases found for the individual compounds, including their transition temperatures. Where the literature gives more than one set of data for a specific substance, one has been chosen as the main reference, but all alternatives are listed in the footnotes. The data can be used for statistical analysis to show the specific role of substructures within the steroidal framework. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital American Institute of Physics and American Chemical Society}

  15. Investigations and system design for simultaneous energy and data transmission through inductively coupled resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C.; Lloret Fuentes, E.; Buchholz, M.

    2015-11-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) with simultaneous data transmission through coupled magnetic resonators is investigated in this paper. The development of this system is dedicated to serve as a basis for applications in the field of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), for example tracking vital parameters remotely, charge and control sensors and so on. Due to these different scenarios we consider, it is important to have a system which is reliable under the circumstance of changing positioning of the receiving device. State of the art radio systems would be able to handle this. Nevertheless, energy harvesting from far field sources is not sufficient to power the devices additionally on mid-range distances. For this reason, coupled magnetic resonant circuits are proposed as a promising alternative, although suffering from more complex positioning dependency. Based on measurements on a simple prototype system, an equivalent circuit description is used to model the transmission system dependent on different transmission distances and impedance matching conditions. Additionally, the simulation model is used to extract system parameters such as coupling coefficients, coil resistance and self-capacitance, which cannot be calculated in a simple and reliable way. Furthermore, a mathematical channel model based on the schematic model has been built in MATLAB©. It is used to point out the problems occurring in a transmission system with variable transmission distance, especially the change of the passband's centre frequency and its bandwidth. Existing solutions dealing with this distance dependent behaviour, namely the change of the transmission frequency dependent on distance and the addition of losses to the resonators to increase the bandwidth, are considered as not inventive. First, changing the transmission frequency increases the complexity in the data transmission system and would use a disproportional total bandwidth compared to the actually available bandwidth. Additionally, adding losses causes a decrease in the energy transmission efficiency. Based on these facts, we consider a system that changes the channel itself by tuning the resonant coils in a way that the passband is always at a fixed frequency. This would overcome the previously described issues, and additionally could allow for the possibility to run several independent transmission systems in parallel without disturbing each other.

  16. SJNNV down-regulates RGNNV replication in European sea bass by the induction of the type I interferon system.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Carlos; Garcia-Rosado, Esther; Borrego, Juan J; Alonso, M Carmen

    2016-01-01

    European sea bass is highly susceptible to the betanodavirus RGNNV genotype, although the SJNNV genotype has also been detected in this fish species. The coexistence of both genotypes may affect the replication of both viruses by viral interaction or by stimulation of the host antiviral defense system in which the IFN I system plays a key role. IFN I triggers the transcription of interferon-stimulated genes, including Mx genes, whose expression has been used as a reporter of IFN I activity. The present study evaluated the effect of a primary exposure to an SJNNV isolate on a subsequent RGNNV infection and analyzed the role of the IFN I system in controlling VNNV infections in sea bass using different in vivo approaches. VNNV infection and Mx transcription were comparatively evaluated after single infections, superinfection (SJ+RG) and co-infection (poly I:C+RG). The single RGNNV infection resulted in a 24% survival rate, whereas the previous SJNNV or poly I:C inoculation increased the survival rate up to 96 and 100%, respectively. RGNNV replication in superinfection was reduced compared with RGNNV replication after a single inoculation. Mx transcription analysis shows differential induction of the IFN I system by both isolates. SJNNV was a potent Mx inducer, whereas RGNNV induced lower Mx transcription and did not interfere with the IFN I system triggered by SJNNV or poly I:C. This study demonstrates that an antiviral state exists after SJNNV and poly I:C injection, suggesting that the IFN I system plays an important role against VNNV infections in sea bass. PMID:26743933

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF BINARY MASS SPECTRA OF TOXIC COMPOUNDS WITH AN INDUCTIVE EXPERT SYSTEM AND COMPARISON WITH SIMCA CLASS MODELING (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of an inexpensive, inductive rule-building expert system, 1ST CLASS, using the ID3 algorithm was compared to that of SIMCA class modeling in classifying the binary mass spectra of 78 toxic and related compounds. The compressed mass spectra consisted of 17 masses c...

  18. Development of a Native Escherichia coli Induction System for Ionic Liquid Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Frederix, Marijke; Htter, Kimmo; Leu, Jessica; Batth, Tanveer S.; Turner, William J.; Regg, Thomas L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Adams, Paul D.; Keasling, Jay D.; Thelen, Michael P.; Dunlop, Mary J.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2014-01-01

    The ability to solubilize lignocellulose makes certain ionic liquids (ILs) very effective reagents for pretreating biomass prior to its saccharification for biofuel fermentation. However, residual IL in the aqueous sugar solution can inhibit the growth and function of biofuel-producing microorganisms. In E. coli this toxicity can be partially overcome by the heterologous expression of an IL efflux pump encoded by eilA from Enterobacter lignolyticus. In the present work, we used microarray analysis to identify native E. coli IL-inducible promoters and develop control systems for regulating eilA gene expression. Three candidate promoters, PmarR, PydfO, and PydfA, were selected and compared to the IPTG-inducible PlacUV5 system for controlling expression of eilA. The PydfA and PmarR based systems are as effective as PlacUV5 in their ability to rescue E. coli from typically toxic levels of IL, thereby eliminating the need to use an IPTG-based system for such tolerance engineering. We present a mechanistic model indicating that inducible control systems reduce target gene expression when IL levels are low. Selected-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry analysis revealed that at high IL concentrations EilA protein levels were significantly elevated under the control of PydfA and PmarR in comparison to the other promoters. Further, in a pooled culture competition designed to determine fitness, the strain containing pPmarR-eilA outcompeted strains with other promoter constructs, most significantly at IL concentrations above 150 mM. These results indicate that native promoters such as PmarR can provide effective systems for regulating the expression of heterologous genes in host engineering and simplify the development of industrially useful strains. PMID:24983352

  19. [Infliximab in moderate to severe steroid-dependent or steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Mocciaro, Filippo; Orlando, Ambrogio; Scimeca, Daniela; Cottone, Mario

    2007-11-01

    Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha plays a main role in ulcerative colitis. Thirteen male and 8 female affected by moderate to severe steroid-dependent or refractory-severe ulcerative colitis were treated with 5 mg/kg of infliximab (Remicade). At 12 week efficacy, steroid-sparing, colectomy and side effects were evaluated. In steroid-dependent group (13 patients): 8 patients had a clinical benefit (7 obtained a clinical remission, 54%), 8 (61.5%) discontinued steroids, 1 patient underwent surgery. In steroid-severe refractory group (8 patients): 3 patients (37.5%) had a clinical remission, 2 (25%) had a clinical response and 3 (37.5%) underwent colectomy. One mild infusion reaction and one adverse event (itch) were observed. Infliximab is an effective and safe therapy in patients with moderate to severe steroid dependent and refractory ulcerative colitis. PMID:18044405

  20. An Improved SF6 System for the FXR Induction Linac Blumlein Switches

    SciTech Connect

    DeHope, W; Kihara, R; Griffin, K L; Ong, M; Ross, T

    2007-06-16

    The now-mature FXR (Flash X-Ray) radiographic facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will be briefly described with emphasis on its pulsed power system. The heart of each accelerating cell's pulse forming Blumlein is it's sulfur hexafluoride-based triggered closing switch. FXR's recent upgrade to a recirculating SF{sub 6} gas reclamation system will be described and the resulting accelerator performance and reliability improvements documented. This was accompanied by a detailed switch breakdown study on FXR's Test Stand and the recent analysis of the resulting statistics will be shown.

  1. A Comprehensive Induction System: A Key to the Retention of Highly Qualified Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gujarati, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that teacher quality is the single greatest factor affecting student achievement. However, it is not simply enough to recruit highly qualified candidates and place them into the schools where they are needed the most; the United States needs a system to support and retain these teachers. This essay posits that school districts

  2. Smart pitch control strategy for wind generation system using doubly fed induction generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Syed Ahmed

    A smart pitch control strategy for a variable speed doubly fed wind generation system is presented in this thesis. A complete dynamic model of DFIG system is developed. The model consists of the generator, wind turbine, aerodynamic and the converter system. The strategy proposed includes the use of adaptive neural network to generate optimized controller gains for pitch control. This involves the generation of controller parameters of pitch controller making use of differential evolution intelligent technique. Training of the back propagation neural network has been carried out for the development of an adaptive neural network. This tunes the weights of the network according to the system states in a variable wind speed environment. Four cases have been taken to test the pitch controller which includes step and sinusoidal changes in wind speeds. The step change is composed of both step up and step down changes in wind speeds. The last case makes use of scaled wind data collected from the wind turbine installed at King Fahd University beach front. Simulation studies show that the differential evolution based adaptive neural network is capable of generating the appropriate control to deliver the maximum possible aerodynamic power available from wind to the generator in an efficient manner by minimizing the transients.

  3. Modulation of the avian immune system: suppression versus induction of immunity.

    PubMed

    Rautenschlein, S; Neumann, U

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of the potential, but also of the vulnerability of the avian immune system is not only of academic interest. The intact immune system, beginning in the embryo, is of central significance to safeguarding health and productivity in poultry flocks. Interactions between cellular and soluble constituents of the avian immune system on one hand, and the nature of immunosuppressants on the other, determine whether the avian immune system is able to cope with microbial and non-microbial challenges. Modulation of the immune response can be achieved in the classical way by specific vaccinations or possibly in the future by DNA vaccination. Cytokine inducing compounds may provide additional tools to enhance immune reactivity. The future will tell whether these approaches will be applicable in disease preventation or treatment in poultry medicine. In concert with these tools, however, strict hygiene measures from incubation until production, slaughter and processing are equally of vital significance as part of disease prevention strategies, ultimately leading to high quality food products originating from animal production. PMID:15061484

  4. Characteristics of Steroid Users in an Adolescent School Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlaf, Edward M.; Smart, Reginald G.

    1992-01-01

    Examined rates of steroid use among Ontario adolescent students. Findings from 3,892 students revealed that 1.1 percent reported using steroids over past year. Steroid users were significantly more likely to use stimulants, caffeine, and relaxants than were nonsteroid users. Demographically, steroid users were significantly more likely to be male…

  5. Characteristics of Steroid Users in an Adolescent School Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlaf, Edward M.; Smart, Reginald G.

    1992-01-01

    Examined rates of steroid use among Ontario adolescent students. Findings from 3,892 students revealed that 1.1 percent reported using steroids over past year. Steroid users were significantly more likely to use stimulants, caffeine, and relaxants than were nonsteroid users. Demographically, steroid users were significantly more likely to be male

  6. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  7. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  8. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  9. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  10. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  11. Metabolic effects of contraceptive steroids.

    PubMed

    Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Nath, Anita

    2011-06-01

    Estrogen and progestins have been used by millions of women as effective combined contraceptives. The safety of hormonal contraceptives has been documented by years of follow-up and serious adverse events that may be related to their use are rare in the young population exposed to these agents. The balance between the benefits and the risks of contraceptive steroids is generally positive in particular when comparing to the risks of pregnancy and especially in women with risk factors. The metabolic changes induced by the synthetic steroids used in contraception, such as lipoprotein changes, insulin response to glucose, and coagulation factors have been considered as potential markers of cardiovascular and venous risk. Observations of these effects have led to modifications of the composition of hormonal contraceptive in order to minimize these changes and hence potentially decrease the risks. The synthetic estrogen Ethinyl-Estradiol (EE) exerts a stronger effect that natural estradiol (E2) on hepatic metabolism including estrogen-dependent markers such as liver proteins. This stronger hepatic impact of EE has been related to its 17?-ethinyl group which prevents the inactivation of the molecule and results in a more pronounced hepatic effect of EE as compared to estradiol. Due to its strong activity, administering EE via a non-oral route does not prevent its impact on liver proteins. In order to circumvent the metabolic changes induced by EE, newer products using more natural compounds such as estradiol (E2) and estradiol valerate (E2V) have been introduced. The synthetic progestins used for contraception are structurally related either to testosterone (T) (estranes and gonanes) or to progesterone (pregnanes and 19-norpregnanes). Several new progestins have been designed to bind more specifically to the progesterone receptor and to minimize side-effects related to androgenic, estrogenic or glucocorticoid receptor interactions. Dienogest (DNG), and drospirenone (DRSP) and the 19-norpregnanes including Nestorone (NES), nomegestrol acetate (NOMAc) and trimegestone (TMG) have been combined with estrogen either EE or E2 or estradiol valerate (E2V). Risks and benefits of the newer progestins used in contraception depend upon the type of molecular structure, the type and dose of estrogen associated in a combination and the route of administration. The lower metabolic impact of estradiol-based combinations may result in an improved safety profile, but large surveillance studies are warranted to confirm this plausible hypothesis. So far, the contraindications and warnings for use of current COCs also apply to the estradiol-based COCs. PMID:21538049

  12. Improved direct torque control of an induction generator used in a wind conversion system connected to the grid.

    PubMed

    Abdelli, Radia; Rekioua, Djamila; Rekioua, Toufik; Tounzi, Abdelmounam

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a modulated hysteresis direct torque control (MHDTC) applied to an induction generator (IG) used in wind energy conversion systems (WECs) connected to the electrical grid through a back-to-back converter. The principle of this strategy consists in superposing to the torque reference a triangular signal, as in the PWM strategy, with the desired switching frequency. This new modulated reference is compared to the estimated torque by using a hysteresis controller as in the classical direct torque control (DTC). The aim of this new approach is to lead to a constant frequency and low THD in grid current with a unit power factor and a minimum voltage variation despite the wind variation. To highlight the effectiveness of the proposed method, a comparison was made with classical DTC and field oriented control method (FOC). The obtained simulation results, with a variable wind profile, show an adequate dynamic of the conversion system using the proposed method compared to the classical approaches. PMID:23615169

  13. Environmental Assessment for the proposed Induction Linac System Experiments in Building 51B at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), (DOE/EA-1087) evaluating the proposed action to modify existing Building 51B at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to install and conduct experiments on a new Induction Linear Accelerator System. LBNL is located in Berkeley, California and operated by the University of California (UC). The project consists of placing a pre-fabricated building inside Building 51B to house a new 10 MeV heavy ion linear accelerator. A control room and other support areas would be provided within and directly adjacent to Building 51B. The accelerator system would be used to conduct tests, at reduced scale and cost, many features of a heavy-ion accelerator driver for the Department of Energy`s inertial fusion energy program. Based upon information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  14. Comparison of laser ablation and dried solution aerosol as sampling systems in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Coedo, A G; Padilla, I; Dorado, M T

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes a study designed to determine the possibility of using a dried aerosol solution for calibration in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The relative sensitivities of tested materials mobilized by laser ablation and by aqueous nebulization were established, and the experimentally determined relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) were used in conjunction with aqueous calibration for the analysis of solid steel samples. To such a purpose a set of CRM carbon steel samples (SS-451/1 to SS-460/1) were sampled into an ICP-MS instrument by solution nebulization using a microconcentric nebulizer with membrane desolvating (D-MCN) and by laser ablation (LA). Both systems were applied with the same ICP-MS operating parameters and the analyte signals were compared. The RSF (desolvated aerosol response/ablated solid response) values were close to 1 for the analytes Cr, Ni, Co, V, and W, about 1.3 for Mo, and 1.7 for As, P, and Mn. Complementary tests were carried out using CRM SS-455/1 as a solid standard for one-point calibration, applying LAMTRACE software for data reduction and quantification. The analytical results are in good agreement with the certified values in all cases, showing that the applicability of dried aerosol solutions is a good alternative calibration system for laser ablation sampling. PMID:15606963

  15. Low temperature synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes in an inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition system.

    PubMed

    Weng, Cheng-Hui; Yang, Chao-Shun; Lin, Hsuan; Tsai, Chuen-Horng; Leou, Keh-Chyang

    2008-05-01

    In this work, we present a parametric study on the low temperature synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) CVD system using dry bi-layered catalytic thin-films (Fe/Al and Ni/Al, deposited by electron-beam evaporation method) as the catalysts. With a low substrate temperature of 550 degrees C and above, SWNTs were successfully synthesized on both catalysts, as revealed from the characteristic peaks of SWNTs in the micro-Raman spectra. By the reduction of plasma power and the shortening of the process times, the lowest synthesis temperature of SWNTs achieved in our system was approached to 500 degrees C on Ni/Al catalysts; on the other hands, the lowest temperature for Fe/Al catalysts was 550 degrees C. Our results suggest that as compared with Fe/Al, Ni/Al is more favorable for plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD) synthesis of SWNTs at low temperatures. This work can be used for further improvements and better understanding on the production processes of SWNTs by PECVD methods. PMID:18572678

  16. Sleep-active neuron specification and sleep induction require FLP-11 neuropeptides to systemically induce sleep

    PubMed Central

    Turek, Michal; Besseling, Judith; Spies, Jan-Philipp; König, Sabine; Bringmann, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is an essential behavioral state. It is induced by conserved sleep-active neurons that express GABA. However, little is known about how sleep neuron function is determined and how sleep neurons change physiology and behavior systemically. Here, we investigated sleep in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is induced by the single sleep-active neuron RIS. We found that the transcription factor LIM-6, which specifies GABAergic function, in parallel determines sleep neuron function through the expression of APTF-1, which specifies the expression of FLP-11 neuropeptides. Surprisingly FLP-11, and not GABA, is the major component that determines the sleep-promoting function of RIS. FLP-11 is constantly expressed in RIS. At sleep onset RIS depolarizes and releases FLP-11 to induce a systemic sleep state. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12499.001 PMID:26949257

  17. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... abruptly. Follow your healthcare provider's recommendations. As your body adjusts to a lower steroid dose, you may notice some withdrawal side effects. These may include an increase in breathing difficulty ...

  18. Steroids/Nutritional Supplements/Antibiotics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... showed some promise in preserving muscle strength. Anabolic steroids have attracted much attention from body builders and athletes who wish to "bulk up" their muscle mass, and the numerous harmful side effects of their use (including liver and kidney damage, ...

  19. Steroids: Pharmacology, Complications, and Practice Delivery Issues

    PubMed Central

    Ericson-Neilsen, William; Kaye, Alan David

    2014-01-01

    Background Since their identification nearly 80 years ago, steroids have played a prominent role in the treatment of many disease states. Many of the clinical roles of steroids are related to their potent antiinflammatory and immune-modulating properties. Methods This review summarizes the basic pharmacology, complications, and practice delivery issues regarding steroids. Results Clinically relevant side effects of steroids are common and problematic. Side effects can occur at a wide range of doses and vary depending on the route of administration. The full spectrum of side effects can be present even in patients taking low doses. Conclusions Practitioners must be aware that these drugs might exacerbate a preexisting condition or present a new medical condition. Knowledge of the clinical implications of prescribing these agents is critical. PMID:24940130

  20. [Steroid use in free time bodybuilders].

    PubMed

    Michels-Lucht, Felicitas; Schirmer, Jan; Klauer, Thomas; Freyberger, Harald; Lucht, Michael

    2011-12-01

    A sample of 74 male bodybuilders was analyzed for relationships between steroid abuse (abuse n=31; no abuse n=43) and self-esteem (Multidimensionale Selbstwertskala MSWS), body-image (Body-Image Questionnaire FK-ASA) as well as teasing (Physical Appearance Related Teasing Scale PARTS). In a logistic regression analysis age (p=0.001), low values for body expression (p=0.036) and high self-esteem (p=0.024) predicted steroid intake; training frequency or teasing experiences showed no effect. Contrary to earlier findings high and not low self-esteem was associated with steroid abuse. Because of the overlap between constructs narcissism and self-esteem further studies should disentangle the role of narcissism and self-esteem for steroid abuse in bodybuilders. PMID:22161857

  1. Conjugation of steroids with PAMAM nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chanphai, P; Bekale, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2015-12-01

    We studied the binding process between polyamidoamine PAMAN-G4 dendrimer and testosterone and its aliphatic (alip) and aromatic (arom) dimers in aqueous solution at pH 7.4. Multiple spectroscopic methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and molecular modeling were used to characterize the steroid binding process to PAMAM-G4 nanoparticles. Thermodynamic parameters ?S, ?H and ?G showed steroid-PAMAM bindings occur via hydrophobic, H-bonding and van der Waals contacts. The binding affinity is testosterone>testosterone-aromatic dimer>testosterone-aliphatic dimer. Transmission electron microscopy showed significant changes in carrier morphology with major changes in the diameter of the polymer aggregate as steroid encapsulation occurred. Modeling also showed that testosterone is located in the interior cavity of PAMAM with the free binding energy of -9.36kcal/mol, indicating of spontaneous steroid-polymer interaction at room temperature. PMID:26590896

  2. Absorption of antigens after oral immunisation and the simultaneous induction of specific systemic tolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Swarbrick, E T; Stokes, C R; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Antigenic proteins may be absorbed intact. We report here results from in vivo experiments in mice showing that the prior feeding of protein antigen may reduce the subsequent absorption of that antigen without altering its elimination from the circulation. This may be a function of local immunity. We have also shown that the same feeding regime can paradoxically induce a state of systemic tolerance and suggest that the two phenomena contribute to the safe handling of these antigens. PMID:428823

  3. Trichoderma mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling is involved in induction of plant systemic resistance.

    PubMed

    Viterbo, Ada; Harel, Michal; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Chet, Ilan; Mukherjee, Prasun K

    2005-10-01

    The role of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) TmkA in inducing systemic resistance in cucumber against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. lacrymans was investigated by using tmkA loss-of-function mutants of Trichoderma virens. In an assay where Trichoderma spores were germinated in proximity to cucumber roots, the mutants were able to colonize the plant roots as effectively as the wild-type strain but failed to induce full systemic resistance against the leaf pathogen. Interactions with the plant roots enhanced the level of tmkA transcript in T. virens and its homologue in Trichoderma asperellum. At the protein level, we could detect the activation of two forms reacting to the phospho-p44/42 MAPK antibody. Biocontrol experiments demonstrated that the tmkA mutants retain their biocontrol potential against Rhizoctonia solani in soil but are not effective against Sclerotium rolfsii in reducing disease incidence. Our results show that, unlike in many plant-pathogen interactions, Trichoderma TmkA MAPK is not involved in limited root colonization. Trichoderma, however, needs MAPK signaling in order to induce full systemic resistance in the plant. PMID:16204544

  4. Trichoderma Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Is Involved in Induction of Plant Systemic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Viterbo, Ada; Harel, Michal; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Chet, Ilan; Mukherjee, Prasun K.

    2005-01-01

    The role of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) TmkA in inducing systemic resistance in cucumber against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. lacrymans was investigated by using tmkA loss-of-function mutants of Trichoderma virens. In an assay where Trichoderma spores were germinated in proximity to cucumber roots, the mutants were able to colonize the plant roots as effectively as the wild-type strain but failed to induce full systemic resistance against the leaf pathogen. Interactions with the plant roots enhanced the level of tmkA transcript in T. virens and its homologue in Trichoderma asperellum. At the protein level, we could detect the activation of two forms reacting to the phospho-p44/42 MAPK antibody. Biocontrol experiments demonstrated that the tmkA mutants retain their biocontrol potential against Rhizoctonia solani in soil but are not effective against Sclerotium rolfsii in reducing disease incidence. Our results show that, unlike in many plant-pathogen interactions, Trichoderma TmkA MAPK is not involved in limited root colonization. Trichoderma, however, needs MAPK signaling in order to induce full systemic resistance in the plant. PMID:16204544

  5. Commensal microbiota stimulate systemic neutrophil migration through induction of Serum amyloid A

    PubMed Central

    Kanther, Michelle; Tomkovich, Sarah; Sun, Xiaolun; Grosser, Melinda R.; Koo, Jaseol; Flynn, Edward J.; Jobin, Christian; Rawls, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neutrophils serve critical roles in inflammatory responses to infection and injury, and mechanisms governing their activity represent attractive targets for controlling inflammation. The commensal microbiota is known to regulate the activity of neutrophils and other leucocytes in the intestine, but the systemic impact of the microbiota on neutrophils remains unknown. Here we utilized in vivo imaging in gnotobiotic zebrafish to reveal diverse effects of microbiota colonization on systemic neutrophil development and function. The presence of a microbiota resulted in increased neutrophil number and myeloperoxidase expression, and altered neutrophil localization and migratory behaviours. These effects of the microbiota on neutrophil homeostasis were accompanied by an increased recruitment of neutrophils to injury. Genetic analysis identified the microbiota-induced acute phase protein serum amyloid A (Saa) as a host factor mediating microbial stimulation of tissue-specific neutrophil migratory behaviours. In vitro studies revealed that zebrafish cells respond to Saa exposure by activating NF-κB, and that Saa-dependent neutrophil migration requires NF-κB-dependent gene expression. These results implicate the commensal microbiota as an important environmental factor regulating diverse aspects of systemic neutrophil development and function, and reveal a critical role for a Saa-NF-κB signalling axis in mediating neutrophil migratory responses. PMID:24373309

  6. Laboratory Investigation of Ice Formation and Elimination in the Induction System of a Large Twin-engine Cargo Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colis, William D

    1947-01-01

    The icing characteristics, the de-icing rate with hot air, and the effect of impact ice on fuel metering and mixture distribution have been determined in a laboratory investigation of that part of the engine induction system consisting of a three-barrel injection-type carburetor and a supercharger housing with spinner-type fuel injection from an 18-cylinder radial engine used on a large twin-engine cargo airplane. The induction system remained ice-free at carburetor-air temperatures above 36 F regardless of the moisture content of the air. Between carburetor-air temperatures of 32 F and 36 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious throttling ice formed in the carburetor because of expansion cooling of the air; at carburetor-air temperatures below 32 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious impact-ice formations occurred, Spinner-type fuel injection at the entrance to the supercharger and heating of the supercharger-inlet elbow and the guide vanes by the warn oil in the rear engine housing are design features that proved effective in eliminating fuel-evaporation icing and minimized the formation of throttling ice below the carburetor. Air-flow recovery time with fixed throttle was rapidly reduced as the inlet -air wet -bulb temperature was increased to 55 F; further temperature increase produced negligible improvement in recovery time. Larger ice formations and lower icing temperatures increased the time required to restore proper air flow at a given wet-bulb temperature. Impact-ice formations on the entrance screen and the top of the carburetor reduced the over-all fuel-air ratio and increased the spread between the over-all ratio and the fuel-air ratio of the individual cylinders. The normal spread of fuel-air ratio was increased from 0.020 to 0.028 when the left quarter of the entrance screen was blocked in a manner simulating the blocking resulting from ice formations released from upstream duct walls during hot-air de-icing.

  7. The Efficacy of Nasal Steroids in Treatment of Otitis Media with Effusion: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed; Nofal, Ahmad Abdel-Fattah; Khazbak, Alaa Omar; Sayed, Ahmad Ebrahim El; Hassan, Mohammad Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Otitis media with effusion (OME) continues to be an important pediatric clinical problem, and more studies are needed to decide the proper treatment for it. Objective To assess the efficacy of nasal steroids in the management of OME by comparing its results with that of oral steroid and that of nasal saline spray as placebo. Methods This study was carried on 60 patients with OME who were divided into three groups: in group 1, 20 patients received mometasone furoate spray, one puff in each nostril daily, for 3 months; in group 2, 20 patients received oral prednisolone, 5 mg three times per day for the first 3 weeks; in group 3, 20 patients received nasal saline spray, one puff in each nostril daily for 3 months. Results A highly significant difference between systemic or topical (nasal spray) steroid therapy and saline nasal spray was detected (p < 0.001), and the difference between systemic and topical steroid was nonsignificant (p > 0.05). Conclusion Nasal steroid spray can be used as an effective treatment for OME, giving a significant result similar to systemic steroid. Further studies are needed to investigate its use for longer duration and in recurrent cases. PMID:26491474

  8. Steroids in the assessment of prenatal development.

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, G.; Kitchin, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for identifying the fetus at risk and monitoring fetal well-being as pregnancy progresses are now an established part of prenatal care in the Western World. In this short review the use of steroids in the assessment of prenatal development is discussed. The metabolism of oestrogens, progestogens, corticosteroids and androgens during pregnancy is outlined and the relative merits, in terms of usefulness and practicability, of urinary and plasma steroid assays are discussed. PMID:792854

  9. Avascular necrosis secondary to postoperative steroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Hurel, S J; Kendall-Taylor, P

    1997-08-01

    Hypothalamic and pituitary tumours may present with vague symptoms owing to excess or lack of hormone production, including diabetes insipidus. Corticosteroids are commonly employed to limit cerebral oedema and at much lower doses to treat secondary hypocorticalism. Continuation of steroids at inappropriately high doses predisposes to the development of avascular necrosis as in the case we describe in a young woman of 34 years. This is a potentially preventable crippling disorder. When prescribing steroids the lowest effective dose should be used. PMID:9337938

  10. Estimation of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system by using joint inversion of multicoil electromagnetic induction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib; Moghadas, Davood; Jadoon, Aurangzeb; Missimer, Thomas M.; Al-Mashharawi, Samir K.; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2015-05-01

    Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) is becoming a useful tool for soil characterization due to its fast measurement capability and sensitivity to soil moisture and salinity. In this research, a new EMI system (the CMD mini-Explorer) is used for subsurface characterization of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system via a joint inversion approach of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. EMI measurements were conducted across a farm where Acacia trees are irrigated with brackish water. In situ measurements of vertical bulk electrical conductivity (σb) were recorded in different pits along one of the transects to calibrate the EMI measurements and to compare with the modeled electrical conductivity (σ) obtained by the joint inversion of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. Estimates of σ were then converted into the universal standard of soil salinity measurement (i.e., electrical conductivity of a saturated soil paste extract - ECe). Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) was repeatedly measured with the CMD mini-Explorer to investigate the temperature stability of the new system at a fixed location, where the ambient air temperature increased from 26°C to 46°C. Results indicate that the new EMI system is very stable in high temperature environments, especially above 40°C, where most other approaches give unstable measurements. In addition, the distribution pattern of soil salinity is well estimated quantitatively by the joint inversion of multicomponent EMI measurements. The approach of joint inversion of EMI measurements allows for the quantitative mapping of the soil salinity distribution pattern and can be utilized for the management of soil salinity.

  11. Induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Whitney H.

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  12. Steroidal saponins from Dioscorea preussii.

    PubMed

    Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Tanaka, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Mirjolet, Jean-Franois; Duchamp, Olivier; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2014-09-01

    Three new steroidal saponins, named diospreussinosides A-C (1-3), along with two known ones (4, 5) were isolated from rhizomes of Dioscorea preussii. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry as (25S)-17?,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), (25S)-17?,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), and (24S,25R)-17?,24,25-trihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (3). The spirostane-type skeleton of compound 3 possessing an unusual dihydroxylation pattern on the F-ring is reported for the first time. Cytotoxicity of compounds 2-5 was evaluated against two human colon carcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and HCT 116). PMID:24928475

  13. A methodology for two-dimensional finite element analysis of electromagnetically driven flow in induction stirring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natarajan, T.T. ); El-Kaddah, N. )

    1999-05-01

    Induction technologies are extensively used for stirring of molten metal by means of electromagnetic forces generated from the interaction between induced currents in the melt and the associated magnetic field. The range of applications extends from scrap melting in induction furnaces to melt stirring in continuous casting. This paper describes an integral closure approach for 2-D analysis of electromagnetically driven flow in inductively coupled molten metal using the finite-element method. This methodology, which restricts the solution domain to the conduction region(s), was demonstrated for flows generated by complex electromagnetic fields, and computed results were found to be in good agreement with measurements.

  14. Inadequate induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 causes systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Minoru; Tsutsui, Hiroko; Xinshou, Ouyang; Tokumoto, Masanori; Watanabe, Dai; Shima, Yoshihito; Yoshimoto, Tomohiro; Hirakata, Hideki; Kawase, Ichiro; Nakanishi, Kenji; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu; Naka, Tetsuji

    2004-02-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1 is a cytokine-inducible, negative regulatory molecule of Janus kinases (JAK) and its deficiency causes hyper-response to various cytokines. SOCS-1(-/-) mice spontaneously develop a fatal disease depending on aberrantly activated lymphocytes. Here, we show that partial restoration of SOCS-1 in lymphoid cells rescues SOCS-1(-/-) mice from the early-onset fatal disease, indicating that SOCS-1 expression in vivo is especially required in lymphocytes. However, SOCS-1 expression in these SOCS-1-restored mutant mice (E( micro )-SOCS-1(-/-) mice) was insufficient for proper down-regulation of its target signaling, and these mice spontaneously exhibit hyperactivation of lymphocytes, an increase in the levels of serum Ig and anti-DNA autoantibodies, and glomerulonephritis with glomerular IgG deposition. These phenotypes resemble those of murine systemic autoimmune diseases, models for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Interestingly, similar phenotypes were also observed in adult female SOCS-1(+/-) mice, indicating that the autoimmune phenotypes of these mice can be ascribed primarily to the inadequate expression of SOCS-1. In addition, autoimmune phenotypes were not observed in SOCS-1(+/-)CD4(-/-) mice, suggesting that autoimmunity is dependent on hyper-activated CD4(+) T cells. Our findings also suggest that insufficient expression of SOCS-1 results in impaired function of CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells, which may contribute to aberrant activation of CD4(+) T cells. These findings suggest that dysfunction of SOCS-1 can be a pathogenic factor of systemic autoimmune diseases such as SLE. PMID:14734616

  15. 14 CFR 23.1101 - Induction air preheater design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction air preheater design. 23.1101... Induction System 23.1101 Induction air preheater design. Each exhaust-heated, induction air preheater must be designed and constructed to (a) Ensure ventilation of the preheater when the induction...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1101 - Induction air preheater design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction air preheater design. 23.1101... Induction System 23.1101 Induction air preheater design. Each exhaust-heated, induction air preheater must be designed and constructed to (a) Ensure ventilation of the preheater when the induction...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1101 - Induction air preheater design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction air preheater design. 23.1101... Induction System 23.1101 Induction air preheater design. Each exhaust-heated, induction air preheater must be designed and constructed to (a) Ensure ventilation of the preheater when the induction...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1101 - Induction air preheater design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction air preheater design. 23.1101... Induction System § 23.1101 Induction air preheater design. Each exhaust-heated, induction air preheater must be designed and constructed to— (a) Ensure ventilation of the preheater when the induction...

  19. New steroid derivative with hypoglycemic activity

    PubMed Central

    Lauro, Figueroa-Valverde; Francisco, Díaz-Cedillo; Lenin, Hau-Heredia; Elodia, García-Cervera; Eduardo, Pool-Gómez; Marcela, Rosas-Nexticapa; Bety, Sarabia-Alcocer

    2014-01-01

    Data indicates that some steroid derivatives may induce changes on glucose levels; nevertheless, data are very confusing. Therefore, more pharmacological data are needed to characterize the activity induced by the steroid derivatives on glucose levels. The aim of this study was to synthesize a new steroid derivative for evaluate its hypoglycemic activity. The effects of steroid derivative on glucose concentration were evaluated in a diabetic animal model using glibenclamide and metformin as controls. In addition, the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate was bound to Tc-99m using radioimmunoassay methods, to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the steroid derivative over time. The results showed that the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate induces changes on the glucose levels in similar form than glibenclamide. Other data showed that the biodistribution of Tc-99m-steroid derivativein brain was higher in comparison with spleen, stomach, intestine liver and kidney. In conclusion, the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate exerts hypoglycemic activity and this phenomenon could depend of its physicochemical properties which could be related to the degree of lipophilicity of the steroidderivative. PMID:25550906

  20. Independent elaboration of steroid hormone signaling pathways in metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Gabriel V.; Tavares, Raquel; Dauphin-Villemant, Chantal; Demeneix, Barbara A.; Baker, Michael E.; Laudet, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Steroid hormones regulate many physiological processes in vertebrates, nematodes, and arthropods through binding to nuclear receptors (NR), a metazoan-specific family of ligand-activated transcription factors. The main steps controlling the diversification of this family are now well-understood. In contrast, the origin and evolution of steroid ligands remain mysterious, although this is crucial for understanding the emergence of modern endocrine systems. Using a comparative genomic approach, we analyzed complete metazoan genomes to provide a comprehensive view of the evolution of major enzymatic players implicated in steroidogenesis at the whole metazoan scale. Our analysis reveals that steroidogenesis has been independently elaborated in the 3 main bilaterian lineages, and that steroidogenic cytochrome P450 enzymes descended from those that detoxify xenobiotics. PMID:19571007