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Sample records for steroid induction system

  1. Induction of steroidal 11 beta-hydroxylase of Cochliobolus lunatus.

    PubMed

    Zakelj-Mavric, M; Belic, I

    1991-01-01

    The induction of steroidal 11 beta-hydroxylase of Cochliobolus lunatus was studied and the effect of the structure of steroid inducers and additives on the extent of enzyme induction determined. 21-Hydroxyprogesterone was found to be the best inducer and Torlak peptone 1 the best additive. A certain parallelism was found between the induction of 11 beta-hydroxylase of Cochliobolus lunatus and 11 alpha-hydroxylase of Rhizopus nigricans. PMID:1997119

  2. Steroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Steroids KidsHealth > For Kids > Steroids Print A A A ... a good idea to avoid them. What Are Steroids? "Steroids" has more than one meaning. Your body ...

  3. Steroids.

    PubMed

    Applezweig, N

    1969-05-17

    The structure, sources, synthesis, economics, and the present and future marketing of male and female sex steroids and corticoids are summarized. Physiologically, and historically in industry, steroids were made from cholesterol. Now most steroids are produced from diosgenin, an akaloid from the Mexican Dioscorea plant. Other sources are stigmasterol from soybeans, hecogenin from sissal waste, bile acids, and total synthesis. Unlike prices of corticoids which have been low for lack of patent protection, prices of sex steroids, especially oral contraceptives, have fallen only 50%, although doses have decreased 90%. There are 735 million women of fertile age, so prices could fall to an unlikely $1 per year without hurting sales. The major companies and subsidiaries, patent holders, and licencees of steroids in South America, U.S., Europe, Iron Curtain countries, Asia, and Africa were listed with their products. In the future oral contraceptives will be joined with minipills, injectables, once monthly pills, and steroid treatment of menopause. Postcoital pills and pills taken for delayed menses may be developed, but used clandestinely because of government and moral barriers. Corticoids are now used an analogs, with a growing market for topical ointments. Steroids will find uses in domestic animal estrus control, rat control, and insect hormones isolated from plant sources for insect control. PMID:12255132

  4. Induction Heating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Induction heating technology, a magnetic non-deforming process, was developed by Langley researchers to join plastic and composite components in space. Under NASA license, Inductron Corporation uses the process to produce induction heating systems and equipment for numerous applications. The Torobonder, a portable system, comes with a number of interchangeable heads for aircraft repair. Other developments are the E Heating Head, the Toroid Joining Gun, and the Torobrazer. These products perform bonding applications more quickly, safely and efficiently than previous methods.

  5. Nongenomic Actions of Adrenal Steroids in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Evanson, Nathan K.; Herman, James P.; Sakai, Randall R.; Krause, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    Mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that are released by the adrenal cortex in response to stress and hydromineral imbalance. Historically, adrenocorticosteroid actions are attributed to effects on gene transcription. More recently, however, it has become clear that genome-independent pathways represent an important facet of adrenal steroid actions. These hormones exert nongenomic effects throughout the body, but a significant portion of their actions are specific to the central nervous system. These actions are mediated by a variety of signalling pathways, and lead to physiologically meaningful events in vitro and in vivo. Here we review nongenomic effects of adrenal steroids in the central nervous system at the levels of behaviour, neural system activity, individual neurone activity, and subcellular signalling activity. A clearer understanding of adrenal steroid activity in the central nervous system will lead to a better ability both to treat human disease, and to reduce side-effects of steroid treatments already in use. PMID:20367759

  6. Inductive System Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.

    2004-01-01

    The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS uses nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. IMS is able to monitor the system by comparing real time operational data with these classes. We present a description of learning and monitoring method used by IMS and summarize some recent IMS results.

  7. Role of neuroactive steroids in the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Giatti, Silvia; Pesaresi, Marzia; Calabrese, Donato; Mitro, Nico; Caruso, Donatella; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Several reviews have so far pointed out on the relevant physiological and pharmacological role exerted by neuroactive steroids in the central nervous system. In the present review we summarize observations indicating that synthesis and metabolism of neuroactive steroids also occur in the peripheral nerves. Interestingly, peripheral nervous system is also a target of their action. Indeed, as here reported neuroactive steroids are physiological regulators of peripheral nerve functions and they may also represent interesting therapeutic tools for different types of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:22654839

  8. ACTH-adrenal system and exogenous steroids.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, G; Perego, M; Alkabes, M; Palmieri, R

    1979-01-01

    The results obtained from a research on 100 patients of both sexes affected with bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive bronchopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, haematological disorders and some other pathological forms, all depending on steroid therapy, are reported in this paper. The treatment was carried out using a new chronopluricorticoid (Dutimelan 8 15). The clinical efficiency is comparable to that obtained by the traditional steroid treatment with the advantage that symptoms of hypercorticism were absent or insignificant. The authors believe that such excellent results are to be attributed to the particular chronopharmacological characteristics of this preparation. PMID:232569

  9. Neuroactive steroids and the peripheral nervous system: An update.

    PubMed

    Giatti, Silvia; Romano, Simone; Pesaresi, Marzia; Cermenati, Gaia; Mitro, Nico; Caruso, Donatella; Tetel, Marc J; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Melcangi, Roberto C

    2015-11-01

    In the present review we summarize observations to date supporting the concept that neuroactive steroids are synthesized in the peripheral nervous system, regulate the physiology of peripheral nerves and exert notable neuroprotective actions. Indeed, neuroactive steroids have been recently proposed as therapies for different types of peripheral neuropathy, like for instance those occurring during aging, chemotherapy, physical injury and diabetes. Moreover, pharmacological tools able to increase the synthesis of neuroactive steroids might represent new interesting therapeutic strategy to be applied in case of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25824325

  10. Steroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormones that your adrenal glands make to fight stress associated with illnesses and injuries. They reduce inflammation and affect the immune system. You may need to take corticosteroids to treat ...

  11. Inductive System Monitors Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software developed at Ames Research Center uses artificial intelligence and data mining techniques to build system-monitoring knowledge bases from archived or simulated sensor data. This information is then used to detect unusual or anomalous behavior that may indicate an impending system failure. Currently helping analyze data from systems that help fly and maintain the space shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS), the IMS has also been employed by data classes are then used to build a monitoring knowledge base. In real time, IMS performs monitoring functions: determining and displaying the degree of deviation from nominal performance. IMS trend analyses can detect conditions that may indicate a failure or required system maintenance. The development of IMS was motivated by the difficulty of producing detailed diagnostic models of some system components due to complexity or unavailability of design information. Successful applications have ranged from real-time monitoring of aircraft engine and control systems to anomaly detection in space shuttle and ISS data. IMS was used on shuttle missions STS-121, STS-115, and STS-116 to search the Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLEIDS) data for signs of possible damaging impacts during launch. It independently verified findings of the WLEIDS Mission Evaluation Room (MER) analysts and indicated additional points of interest that were subsequently investigated by the MER team. In support of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, IMS is being deployed as an anomaly detection tool on ISS mission control consoles in the Johnson Space Center Mission Operations Directorate. IMS has been trained to detect faults in the ISS Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) systems. In laboratory tests, it has already detected several minor anomalies in real-time CMG data. When tested on archived data, IMS was able to detect precursors of the CMG1 failure nearly 15 hours in advance of the actual failure event. In the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, IMS successfully performed real-time engine health analysis. IMS was able to detect simulated failures and actual engine anomalies in an F/A-18 aircraft during the course of 25 test flights. IMS is also being used in colla

  12. Influence of Triazine Herbicide Exposure on Guppies (Poecilia sphenops) Aromatase Activities, Altered Sex Steroid Concentration and Vitellogenin Induction

    PubMed Central

    Vasanth, S.; Arul, G.; Karthikeyeni, S.; Kumar, T. S. V.; Vignesh, V.; Manimegalai, M.; Bupesh, G.; Thirumurugan, R.; Subramanian, P.

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine, a herbicide is one the most toxic and sustaining pollutants in aquatic environment. It is detectable in surface water and in underground sources of drinking water. Many studies indicate that atrazine might be a potent endocrine disrupting xenobiotic. There are limited studies have revealed that the effects of atrazine on sex steroids hormones, vitellogenin and induction of aromatase, gonadosomatic index and hepatosomatic index. In this study, juvenile Poecilia sphenops fish was exposed to three different (0.83, 1.25 and 2.5 ppm) concentration of atrazine for 100 d. Changes in plasma and gonadal content and concentrations of sex steroids and vitellogenin protein in poecilia sphenops under laboratory conditions were assessed. The low level of the atrazine show estrogenic effect in males, as determined by a shortage of testosterone induction. Present study suggests that low induction of plasma vitellogenin and aromatase in male fish become suitable biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic chemicals. PMID:26009647

  13. Single-center experience in pediatric renal transplantation using thymoglobulin induction and steroid minimization.

    PubMed

    Warejko, Jillian K; Hmiel, S Paul

    2014-12-01

    Our center has offered thymoglobulin induction with steroid minimization to our pediatric renal transplant patients for the last 10 yr. Steroid minimization or avoidance has shown favorable results in survival, kidney function, and growth in previous studies of pediatric patients. We report our experience with this protocol over the past 10 yr with respect to patient/graft survival, acute rejection episodes, renal function, linear growth, bone density, cardiovascular risk factors, and opportunistic infections. A retrospective chart review was performed for pediatric renal transplant patients on the steroid-minimized protocol between January 2002 and December 2011 on an intention to treat basis. Patient demographics, height, weight, serum creatinine, iGFR, biopsies, and survival data were collected. Height and weight z-scores were calculated with EpiInfo 7, using the CDC 2000 growth charts. Survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. eGFR was calculated using the original and modified Schwartz equations. Forty-four pediatric patients were identified, aged 13 months to 19 yr. Five-yr survival was 95.5% for males and 94.4% for females. Only five patients had biopsy-proven ACR, two of which were at more than 12 months post-transplantation. Height delta z-scores from transplant to one, three, and five yr were 0.34, 0.38, and 0.79, respectively. Weight delta z-scores from transplant to one, three, and five yr were 0.87, 0.79, and 0.84, respectively. Mean original Schwartz eGFR was 84.3 ± 15.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , modified Schwartz eGFR was 59.3 ± 11.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , and iGFR was 64.2 ± 8.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at three yr. Of 18 subjects who had a bone density exam, none had a z-score less than -2 on DEXA exam at one-yr post-transplantation. Fifty-one percent of patients were on antihypertensives at the time of transplant compared with 43% at one-yr post-transplantation. Three yr post-transplantation, the average LDL was <100 mg/dL, and average total cholesterol was <200 mg/dL. There were no clinical episodes of EBV or CMV infection. A steroid-minimized protocol with thymoglobulin induction is safe and provides favorable improvement in linear growth, stable graft function, stable or improved cardiovascular risk factors, and normal bone density in pediatric renal transplant patients. PMID:25311592

  14. The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Anthony H.; Marczylo, Timothy H.; Willets, Jonathon M.; Konje, Justin C.

    2013-01-01

    The “endocannabinoid system (ECS)” comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed. PMID:24369462

  15. Multipurpose Vacuum Induction Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, M.; Kulkarni, Deepak; Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-11-01

    Multipurpose vacuum processing systems are cost effective; occupy less space, multiple functional under one roof and user friendly. A multipurpose vacuum induction system was designed, fabricated and installed in a record time of 6 months time at NFTDC Hyderabad. It was designed to function as a) vacuum induction melting/refining of oxygen free electronic copper/pure metals, b) vacuum induction melting furnace for ferrous materials c) vacuum induction melting for non ferrous materials d) large vacuum heat treatment chamber by resistance heating (by detachable coil and hot zone) e) bottom discharge vacuum induction melting system for non ferrous materials f) Induction heat treatment system and g) directional solidification /investment casting. It contains provision for future capacity addition. The attachments require to manufacture multiple shaped castings and continuous rod casting can be added whenever need arises. Present capacity is decided on the requirement for 10years of development path; presently it has 1.2 ton liquid copper handling capacity. It is equipped with provision for capacity addition up to 2 ton liquid copper handling capacity in future. Provision is made to carry out the capacity addition in easy steps quickly. For easy operational maintenance and troubleshooting, design was made in easily detachable sections. High vacuum system is also is detachable, independent and easily movable which is first of its kind in the country. Detailed design parameters, advantages and development history are presented in this paper.

  16. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1385 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system. (a) Identification. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system is a...

  17. Comparison of simultaneous systemic steroid and hyperbaric oxygen treatment versus only steroid in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy Callioglu, Elif; Tuzuner, Arzu; Demirci, Sule; Cengiz, Ceyhun; Caylan, Refik

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective chart review to assess the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen treatment in sudden sensorineural hearing loss. 44 patients aged between 17-67 years diagnosed with idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss less than 30 days were admitted to our clinic Patients were treated with systemic steroid alone or systemic steroid plus hyperbaric oxygen therapy. In the comparison of two groups, there was no statistically significant difference of audiometric evaluation (P>0.0028) found in hearing improvement for each frequency on 5th day of the treatment and post treatment. Age (≤45 and >45) and initial hearing level (≤60 dB. And >60 dB.) does not seem to be an influential factor according to the results of the study (P>0.0007). The present study did not show more superior healing effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy added to systemic steroid therapy than steroid infusion alone. The results are consistent with those of some papers. However there are also conflicting data that support significant effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Routine administration of this therapy seems to be unnecessary in view of these results. PMID:26309671

  18. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1385 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test...

  19. Mobile inductively coupled plasma system

    DOEpatents

    D'Silva, Arthur P.; Jaselskis, Edward J.

    1999-03-30

    A system for sampling and analyzing a material located at a hazardous site. A laser located remote from the hazardous site is connected to an optical fiber, which directs laser radiation proximate the material at the hazardous site. The laser radiation abates a sample of the material. An inductively coupled plasma is located remotely from the material. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated particles to a plasma, where they are dissociated, atomized and excited to provide characteristic optical reduction of the elemental constituents of the sample. An optical spectrometer is located remotely from the site. A second optical fiber is connected to the optical spectrometer at one end and the plasma source at the other end to carry the optical radiation from the plasma source to the spectrometer.

  20. Mobile inductively coupled plasma system

    DOEpatents

    D`Silva, A.P.; Jaselskis, E.J.

    1999-03-30

    A system is described for sampling and analyzing a material located at a hazardous site. A laser located remotely from the hazardous site is connected to an optical fiber, which directs laser radiation proximate the material at the hazardous site. The laser radiation abates a sample of the material. An inductively coupled plasma is located remotely from the material. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated particles to a plasma, where they are dissociated, atomized and excited to provide characteristic optical reduction of the elemental constituents of the sample. An optical spectrometer is located remotely from the site. A second optical fiber is connected to the optical spectrometer at one end and the plasma source at the other end to carry the optical radiation from the plasma source to the spectrometer. 10 figs.

  1. Steroid catabolism in marine and freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    James, Margaret O

    2011-11-01

    Steroids play important roles in regulating many physiological functions in marine and freshwater fish. Levels of active steroid in blood and tissues are determined by the balance between synthetic and catabolic processes. This review examines what is known about pathways of catabolism of steroids, primarily sex steroids, in marine and freshwater fish. Cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms present in hepatic microsomes catalyze steroid hydroxylation to metabolites with lower or no activity at estrogen or androgen receptors. Important pathways of steroid catabolism to readily excreted metabolites are glucuronidation and sulfonation of hydroxyl groups. Estradiol, testosterone, DHEA and hydroxylated metabolites of these and other steroids readily form glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in those fish species where these pathways have been examined. Little is known, however, of the structure and function of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes involved in steroid conjugation in fish. Glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of steroids may be transported into and out of cells by organic anion transporter proteins and multi-drug resistance proteins, and there is growing evidence that these proteins play important roles in steroid conjugate transport and elimination. Induction or inhibition of any of these pathways by environmental chemicals can result in alteration of the natural balance of steroid hormones and could lead to disruption of the endocrine system. Recent studies in this area are presented, with particular focus on phase II (conjugative) pathways. PMID:20955793

  2. Dual processing of sulfated steroids in the olfactory system of an anuran amphibian

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Alfredo; Hassenklöver, Thomas; Offner, Thomas; Fu, Xiaoyan; Holy, Timothy E.; Manzini, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Chemical communication is widespread in amphibians, but if compared to later diverging tetrapods the available functional data is limited. The existing information on the vomeronasal system of anurans is particularly sparse. Amphibians represent a transitional stage in the evolution of the olfactory system. Most species have anatomically separated main and vomeronasal systems, but recent studies have shown that in anurans their molecular separation is still underway. Sulfated steroids function as migratory pheromones in lamprey and have recently been identified as natural vomeronasal stimuli in rodents. Here we identified sulfated steroids as the first known class of vomeronasal stimuli in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. We show that sulfated steroids are detected and concurrently processed by the two distinct olfactory subsystems of larval Xenopus laevis, the main olfactory system and the vomeronasal system. Our data revealed a similar but partially different processing of steroid-induced responses in the two systems. Differences of detection thresholds suggest that the two information channels are not just redundant, but rather signal different information. Furthermore, we found that larval and adult animals excrete multiple sulfated compounds with physical properties consistent with sulfated steroids. Breeding tadpole and frog water including these compounds activated a large subset of sensory neurons that also responded to synthetic steroids, showing that sulfated steroids are likely to convey intraspecific information. Our findings indicate that sulfated steroids are conserved vomeronasal stimuli functioning in phylogenetically distant classes of tetrapods living in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. PMID:26441543

  3. Dual processing of sulfated steroids in the olfactory system of an anuran amphibian.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Alfredo; Hassenklöver, Thomas; Offner, Thomas; Fu, Xiaoyan; Holy, Timothy E; Manzini, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Chemical communication is widespread in amphibians, but if compared to later diverging tetrapods the available functional data is limited. The existing information on the vomeronasal system of anurans is particularly sparse. Amphibians represent a transitional stage in the evolution of the olfactory system. Most species have anatomically separated main and vomeronasal systems, but recent studies have shown that in anurans their molecular separation is still underway. Sulfated steroids function as migratory pheromones in lamprey and have recently been identified as natural vomeronasal stimuli in rodents. Here we identified sulfated steroids as the first known class of vomeronasal stimuli in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. We show that sulfated steroids are detected and concurrently processed by the two distinct olfactory subsystems of larval Xenopus laevis, the main olfactory system and the vomeronasal system. Our data revealed a similar but partially different processing of steroid-induced responses in the two systems. Differences of detection thresholds suggest that the two information channels are not just redundant, but rather signal different information. Furthermore, we found that larval and adult animals excrete multiple sulfated compounds with physical properties consistent with sulfated steroids. Breeding tadpole and frog water including these compounds activated a large subset of sensory neurons that also responded to synthetic steroids, showing that sulfated steroids are likely to convey intraspecific information. Our findings indicate that sulfated steroids are conserved vomeronasal stimuli functioning in phylogenetically distant classes of tetrapods living in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. PMID:26441543

  4. Analysis of Steroid Hormones in a Typical Dairy Waste Disposal System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental loading of steroid hormones contained in dairy wastes may cause a potential adversely affect on the aquatic species. This work was to investigate the profile of steroid hormones in a typical dairy waste operation system and assess the potential risk of hormone contaminations result...

  5. Inhaled Steroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medications > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids What are some common inhaled steroids? How are ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system.... (c) Supercharged reciprocating engines. For each engine having a supercharger to pressurize the...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system.... (c) Supercharged reciprocating engines. For each engine having a supercharger to pressurize the...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system.... (c) Supercharged reciprocating engines. For each engine having a supercharger to pressurize the...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system.... (c) Supercharged reciprocating engines. For each engine having a supercharger to pressurize the...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system screens. 29.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b)...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system screens. 25.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b)...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system screens. 29.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b)...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system ducts. 23.1103 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1103 Induction system ducts. (a) Each induction system duct must have a drain to prevent...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system ducts. 23.1103 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1103 Induction system ducts. (a) Each induction system duct must have a drain to prevent...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system screens. 25.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b)...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system screens. 29.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b)...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system screens. 25.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b)...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system screens. 25.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b)...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system screens. 29.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b)...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ducts. 23.1103 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1103 Induction system ducts. (a) Each induction system duct must have a drain to prevent...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system screens. 23.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system screens. 29.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b)...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system screens. 23.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system screens. 23.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system screens. 23.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ducts. 23.1103 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1103 Induction system ducts. (a) Each induction system duct must have a drain to prevent...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system screens. 25.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b)...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system screens. 23.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system ducts. 23.1103 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1103 Induction system ducts. (a) Each induction system duct must have a drain to prevent...

  14. [Possibilities of testing sex steroid effects in the uropoietic system].

    PubMed

    Voigt, R; Klinger, G; Schneider, H J

    1978-10-01

    Progesterone as the main representative of gestagen-effective sexual steroide does not cause allone a statistically significant dilation of the lumina of the ureters compared with the adequate values of the control urogrammes. The fact that in pregnant rabbits no dilation of the ureters and of the renal pelvis was to be found allows the suspicion that during the pregnancy of the animal species used there are other mechanical conditions than during the human gravidity. PMID:735464

  15. Cylindrical Induction Melter Modicon Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, G.E.

    1998-04-01

    In the last several years an extensive R{ampersand}D program has been underway to develop a vitrification system to stabilize Americium (Am) and Curium (Cm) inventories at SRS. This report documents the Modicon control system designed for the 3 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM).

  16. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 27.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 27.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction...

  18. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 27.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction...

  19. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 27.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 29.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 29.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 27.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 29.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction...

  4. Widespread Capacity for Steroid Synthesis in the Avian Brain and Song System

    PubMed Central

    London, Sarah E.; Monks, D. Ashley; Wade, Juli; Schlinger, Barney A.

    2010-01-01

    Steroids exert powerful effects on the brains and behavior of many species, but measures and manipulations of endocrine physiology in songbirds often reveal unexplained connections between steroids and the brain. The zebra finch song system, a sensorimotor neural circuit sensitive to steroids throughout life, organizes and functions largely in apparent independence from gonadally derived steroids. We tested the hypothesis that the zebra finch brain has the capacity for de novo steroidogenesis and that neurally synthesized steroids, neurosteroids, may impact the song system. Using multiple techniques, we demonstrate that the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (CYP11A1), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase, the first three factors in the steroidogenic pathway, are expressed in both developing and adult zebra finch brain. Detailed expression mapping at posthatch d 20 (P20) and adult reveals widespread area-specific expression and coexpression patterns for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, CYP11A1, and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase, which suggest neurosteroids may modulate multiple brain functions, including sensory and motor systems. Notably, whereas expression of other steroidogenic genes such as aromatase has been essentially absent from the song system, each of the major song nuclei express at least a subset of steroidogenic genes described here, establishing the song system as a potential steroidogenic circuit. PMID:16935847

  5. NADP Regulates the Yeast GAL Induction System

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar,P.; Yao, Y.; Sternglanz, R.; Johnston, S.; Joshua-Tor, L.

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of the galactose-metabolizing genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on three core proteins: Gal4p, the transcriptional activator that binds to upstream activating DNA sequences (UASGAL); Gal80p, a repressor that binds to the carboxyl terminus of Gal4p and inhibits transcription; and Gal3p, a cytoplasmic transducer that, upon binding galactose and adenosine 5'-triphosphate, relieves Gal80p repression. The current model of induction relies on Gal3p sequestering Gal80p in the cytoplasm. However, the rapid induction of this system implies that there is a missing factor. Our structure of Gal80p in complex with a peptide from the carboxyl-terminal activation domain of Gal4p reveals the existence of a dinucleotide that mediates the interaction between the two. Biochemical and in vivo experiments suggests that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) plays a key role in the initial induction event.

  6. Induction of ovulation of mature oocytes by the maturation-inducing steroid 17,20beta,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one in the spotted seatrout.

    PubMed

    Pinter, J; Thomas, P

    1999-08-01

    Incubation of mature, hydrated, follicle-enclosed oocytes of the spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, with the maturation-inducing steroid (MIS), 17,20beta,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20beta-S), for 9-12 h resulted in the appearance of ovulated oocytes in the culture media. The ovulation response was concentration-dependent and steroid-specific. The other teleost MIS, 17, 20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-P), was also a potent inducer of ovulation, whereas progesterone and 11-deoxycorticosterone did not stimulate ovulation above control levels and partially antagonized the action of 20beta-S. The agonist and antagonist activities of these steroids on ovulation are consistent with their relative binding affinities for the ovarian nuclear progestogen receptor previously characterized in this species. Both the RNA synthesis inhibitor actinomycin D and the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide blocked MIS-induced ovulation. This suggests that induction of ovulation by the MIS is through a genomic mechanism of action, and potentially involves the previously characterized nuclear progestogen receptor. Gonadotropin (hCG)-induced ovulation was blocked by addition of the steroid synthesis inhibitor cyanoketone, which was overcome by the addition of 20beta-S, but not pregnenolone. Thus, the most likely mechanism of gonadotropin-induced ovulation is an increase in the synthesis of the MIS. It is concluded that the processes of final oocyte maturation and ovulation are both regulated by the MIS. Whereas final oocyte maturation is mediated by the 20beta-S membrane receptor (P. Thomas and S. Das, 1997, Biol. Reprod. 57, 999-1007), ovulation is regulated by a genomic mechanism and is potentially mediated by the previously characterized nuclear progestogen receptor. PMID:10417233

  7. Multichannel simultaneous magnetic induction measurement system (MUSIMITOS).

    PubMed

    Steffen, Matthias; Heimann, Konrad; Bernstein, Nina; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2008-06-01

    Non-contact heart and lung activity monitoring would be a desirable supplement to conventional monitoring techniques. Based on the potential of non-contact magnetic induction measurements, requirements for an adequate monitoring system were estimated. This formed the basis for the development of the presented extendable multichannel simultaneous magnetic induction measurement system (MUSIMITOS). Special focus was given to the dynamic behaviour and simultaneous multichannel measurements, so that the system allows for up to 14 receiver coils working simultaneously at 6 excitation frequencies. Moreover, a real-time software concept for online signal processing visualization in combination with a fast software demodulation is presented. Finally, first steps towards a clinical application are pointed out and technical performance as well as first in vivo measurements are presented. This paper covers some aspects previously presented in Steffen and Leonhardt (2007 Proc. 13th Int. Conf. on Electrical Bioimpedance and the 8th Conf. on Electrical Impedance Tomography, Graz 2007). PMID:18544830

  8. ROLE OF STEROID HORMONES AND DECIDUAL INDUCTION IN THE REGULATION OF ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHORIBOSYL TRANSFERASE ACTIVITY IN RAT ENDOMETRIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the effect of ovarian steroid hormones on enzyme activity, adenosine diphosphoribosyl transferase (ADPRT) was measured in endometrial nuclei isolated on estrus and on d 4 from rats ovariectomized on estrus (d 0) and treated d 0-3 with (a) vehicle, (b) 1 ug estrone/d (E)...

  9. Androgenic anabolic steroid abuse and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Vanberg, Paul; Atar, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been linked to a variety of different cardiovascular side effects. In case reports, acute myocardial infarction is the most common event presented, but other adverse cardiovascular effects such as left ventricular hypertrophy, reduced left ventricular function, arterial thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and several cases of sudden cardiac death have also been reported. However, to date there are no prospective, randomized, interventional studies on the long-term cardiovascular effects of abuse of AAS. In this review we have studied the relevant literature regarding several risk factors for cardiovascular disease where the effects of AAS have been scrutinized:(1) Echocardiographic studies show that supraphysiologic doses of AAS lead to both morphologic and functional changes of the heart. These include a tendency to produce myocardial hypertrophy (Fig. 3), a possible increase of heart chamber diameters, unequivocal alterations of diastolic function and ventricular relaxation, and most likely a subclinically compromised left ventricular contractile function. (2) AAS induce a mild, but transient increase of blood pressure. However, the clinical significance of this effect remains modest. (3) Furthermore, AAS confer an enhanced pro-thrombotic state, most prominently through an activation of platelet aggregability. The concomitant effects on the humoral coagulation cascade are more complex and include activation of both pro-coagulatory and fibrinolytic pathways. (4) Users of AAS often demonstrate unfavorable measurements of vascular reactivity involving endothelial-dependent or endothelial-independent vasodilatation. A degree of reversibility seems to be consistent, though. (5) There is a comprehensive body of evidence documenting that AAS induce various alterations of lipid metabolism. The most prominent changes are concomitant elevations of LDL and decreases of HDL, effects that increase the risk of coronary artery disease. And finally, (6) the use of AAS appears to confer an increased risk of life-threatening arrhythmia leading to sudden death, although the underlying mechanisms are still far from being elucidated. Taken together, various lines of evidence involving a variety of pathophysiologic mechanisms suggest an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in users of anabolic androgenic steroids. PMID:20020375

  10. Combined Intratympanic and Systemic Steroid Therapy for Poor-Prognosis Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Arastou, Shima; Tajedini, Ardavan; Borghei, Pedram

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined intratympanic and systemic steroid therapy compared with systemic steroid therapy alone in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) patients with poor prognostic factors. Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) who had at least one poor prognostic factor (age greater than 40 years, hearing loss more than 70 db, or greater than a 2-week delay between the onset of hearing loss and initiation of therapy) were included in this study. Patients were randomized to the intervention group (combined intratympanic and systemic steroid therapy) or the control group (systemic steroid therapy alone). All patients received oral treatment with systemic prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day for 10 days), acyclovir (2 g/day for 10 days, divided into four doses), triamterene H (daily), and omeprazole (daily, during steroid treatment), and were advised to follow a low salt diet. The intervention group also received intratympanic dexamethasone injections (0.4 ml of 4 mg/ml dexamethasone) two times a week for two consecutive weeks (four injections in total). A significant hearing improvement was defined as at least a 15-db decrease in pure tone average (PTA). Results: Among all participants,44 patients(57.14%) showed significant improvement in hearing evaluation. More patients showed hearing improvement in the intervention group than in the control group (27 patients (75%) versus 17 patients (41.4%), respectively; P=0.001). Conclusion: The combination of intratympanic dexamethasone and systemic prednisolone is more effective than systemic prednisolone alone in the treatment of poor-prognosis SSNHL. PMID:24303415

  11. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system filters. 23.1107 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1107 Induction system filters. If an air filter is used to protect the engine against...

  12. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  13. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  14. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  15. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  16. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  17. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  18. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  19. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system filters. 23.1107 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1107 Induction system filters. If an air filter is used to protect the engine against...

  20. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  1. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  2. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane....

  3. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system filters. 23.1107 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1107 Induction system filters. If an air filter is used to protect the engine against...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system filters. 23.1107 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1107 Induction system filters. If an air filter is used to protect the engine against...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system filters. 23.1107 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1107 Induction system filters. If an air filter is used to protect the engine against...

  6. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Medications > Quick-Relief Medications > Oral Steroids Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups) How are steroid pills and ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

  7. Control of plasma sex steroid-binding protein (SBP) in the little brown bat: effects of photoperiod and orchiectomy on the induction of SBP in immature males.

    PubMed

    Damassa, D A; Gustafson, A W

    1984-12-01

    Immature male little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus lucifugus) exhibit striking increases in plasma levels of sex steroid-binding protein (SBP) when aroused prematurely from the latter half of hibernation. To identify some of the factors that control this induction, the effects of castration, photoperiod manipulation, and season (early vs. late hibernation) were studied. During the latter half of hibernation, the elevation of plasma SBP levels induced by premature arousal was found to be similar in intact and castrated males. Since castration completely abolished the postarousal rise in plasma testosterone levels, and estradiol concentrations remained low (less than 10 pg/ml) in both groups, changes in gonadal steroids are apparently not responsible for these increases in SBP. The induction of SBP in males aroused late in hibernation also appeared to be independent of whether animals were maintained under long [16 h of light, 8 h of darkness (16L:8D)] or short (8L:16D) photoperiods. Three weeks after arousal, plasma SBP concentrations in the intact groups were 228 +/- 17 nM (mean +/- SE; 16L:8D) and 271 +/- 5 (8L:16D), while in the castrated groups, SBP levels were 256 +/- 43 (16L:8D) and 231 +/- 19 (8L:16D). In addition, comparable degrees of gonadal activation, including increases in testicular weight, rises in circulating testosterone, and initiation of spermatogenesis, were observed in both the long and the short photoperiod groups. During the first half of hibernation, the induction of SBP was similarly unaffected by castration. However, at this time, photoperiod had a marked effect on SBP induction. Only males maintained under a long photoperiod after arousal from early hibernation exhibited increased levels of SBP (158 +/- 51 nM) and evidence of gonadal activity. The animals housed under a short photoperiod had lower levels of SBP (44 +/- 22 nM) and exhibited no gonadal activation. In general, responses seen in animals aroused during the first half of hibernation were reduced compared to those observed after arousal during the second half of hibernation. Thus, the postarousal increase in SBP appears to be independent of gonadal secretions, but can be influenced by photoperiod during early hibernation. PMID:6437797

  8. Steroid Receptor Coactivators: Servants and Masters for Control of Systems Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Stashi, Erin; York, Brian; O’Malley, Bert W.

    2014-01-01

    Coregulator recruitment to nuclear receptors (NRs) and other transcription factors is essential for proper metabolic gene regulation with coactivators enhancing and corepressors attenuating gene transcription. The Steroid Receptor Coactivator (SRC) family is composed of three homologous members (SRC-1, SRC-2, and SRC-3), which are uniquely important for mediating steroid hormone and mitogenic actions. An accumulating body of work highlights the diverse array of metabolic functions regulated by the SRCs, including systemic metabolite homeostasis, inflammation, and energy regulation. Here we discuss the cooperative and unique functions among the SRCs to provide a comprehensive atlas of systemic SRC metabolic regulation. Deciphering the fractional and synergistic contributions of the SRCs to metabolic homeostasis is critical to fully understand the networks underlying metabolic transcriptional regulation. PMID:24953190

  9. A portable magnetic induction measurement system (PIMS).

    PubMed

    Cordes, Axel; Foussier, Jérôme; Pollig, Daniel; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2012-04-01

    For contactless monitoring of ventilation and heart activity, magnetic induction measurements are applicable. As the technique is harmless for the human body, it is well suited for long-term monitoring solutions, e.g., bedside monitoring, monitoring of home care patients, and the monitoring of persons in critical occupations. For such settings, a two-channel portable magnetic induction system has been developed, which is small and light enough to be fitted in a chair or bed. Because demodulation, control, and filtering are implemented on a front-end digital signal processor, a PC is not required (except for visualization/data storage during research and development). The system can be connected to a local area network (LAN) or wireless network (WiFi), allowing to connect several devices to a large monitoring system, e.g., for a residential home for the elderly or a hospital with low-risk patients not requiring standard ECG monitoring. To visualize data streams, a Qt-based (Qt-framework by Nokia, Espoo, Finland) monitoring application has been developed, which runs on Netbook computers, laptops, or standard PCs. To induce and measure the magnetic fields, external coils and amplifiers are required. This article describes the system and presents results for monitoring respiration and heart activity in a (divan) bed and for respiration monitoring in a chair. Planar configurations and orthogonal coil setups were examined during the measurement procedures. The measurement data were streamed over a LAN to a monitoring PC running Matlab (The MathWorks Inc, Natick, MA, USA). PMID:22505496

  10. Increased steroid hormone secretion in mouse Leydig tumor cells after induction of cholesterol translocation by sphingomyelin degradation.

    PubMed

    Pörn, M I; Tenhunen, J; Slotte, J P

    1991-06-01

    The effects of sphingomyelin degradation on [3H]cholesterol transfer from the cell surface to mitochondria were examined in mouse Leydig tumor cells. These cells were used since they utilize cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis in the mitochondria, and also possess acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyl transferase (ACAT) activity in the endoplasmic reticulum. Exposure of glutaraldehyde-fixed mouse Leydig tumor cells to sphingomyelinase (50 mU/ml, 60 min) resulted in the degradation of about 50% of cell sphingomyelin, suggesting that only half of the sphingomyelin mass in these cells was located in the exoleaflet of the plasma membrane. The partial sphingomyelin degradation resulted in the translocation of cellular unesterified [3H]cholesterol from plasma membranes (cholesterol oxidase-susceptible) to intracellular compartments (oxidase-resistant). The fraction of [3H]cholesterol that was translocated, i.e., between 20 and 50%, varied with different [3H]cholesterol-labeling methods. Cholesterol translocation induced by sphingomyelin degradation subsequently led to the stimulation of ACAT activity, suggesting that a fraction of cell surface cholesterol was transported to the endoplasmic reticulum. The sphingomyelinase-induced [3H]cholesterol flow from the cell surface to the cell interior was also in part directed to the mitochondria, as evidenced by the increased secretion of [3H]steroid hormones. In addition, the cyclic AMP-induced activation of steroidogenesis was further enhanced by the sphingomyelinase-induced cholesterol translocation. Based on the current results, it seems evident that a significant portion of the translocated [3H]cholesterol made its way from plasma membranes into the mitochondria for steroidogenesis. PMID:2049410

  11. Herbivores, vascular pathways, and systemic induction: facts and artifacts.

    PubMed

    Orians, Colin

    2005-10-01

    Over the past 10 years there has been tremendous growth in our understanding of molecular, chemical, and morphological induction of traits involved in the resistance of plants to herbivores. Although it is well established that the patterns of induction can be constrained by a plant's vascular architecture, studies often fail to account for these constraints. Failure to do so has the potential to severely underestimate both the patterns and extent of induction. Here I review (1) the evidence for vascular control of induced responses, (2) how interspecific variation in phyllotaxy influences spatial patterning of induction, (3) the factors, phloem transport and volatile production, that may break down vascular constraints and lead to more widespread induction, and (4) the experimental approaches that could be compromised when vascular architecture is not considered. I show that vascular constraints in systemic induction are commonplace, but vary among species. I suggest that when induction is more widespread than expected from patterns of phyllotaxy, differences in vascular connectivity and volatile production may be responsible. I argue that advances in the mechanisms of systemic induction, cross-talk between different signal transduction pathways, specificity of induction, costs and benefits of systemic induction, and the effects of induced changes on herbivores and their natural enemies require that experiments be designed to examine and/or control for vascular constraints in systemic induction. PMID:16195841

  12. INDUCTIVE SYSTEM HEALTH MONITORING WITH STATISTICAL METRICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Model-based reasoning is a powerful method for performing system monitoring and diagnosis. Building models for model-based reasoning is often a difficult and time consuming process. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS processes nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. In particular, a clustering algorithm forms groups of nominal values for sets of related parameters. This establishes constraints on those parameter values that should hold during nominal operation. During monitoring, IMS provides a statistically weighted measure of the deviation of current system behavior from the established normal baseline. If the deviation increases beyond the expected level, an anomaly is suspected, prompting further investigation by an operator or automated system. IMS has shown potential to be an effective, low cost technique to produce system monitoring capability for a variety of applications. We describe the training and system health monitoring techniques of IMS. We also present the application of IMS to a data set from the Space Shuttle Columbia STS-107 flight. IMS was able to detect an anomaly in the launch telemetry shortly after a foam impact damaged Columbia's thermal protection system.

  13. Multi-system mitochondrial disorder with recurrent steroid-responsive eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Höger, Franz

    2009-11-01

    Though mitochondrial disorders due to a respiratory chain defect may manifest with haematological abnormalities such as anaemia, neutropenia, or thrombocytopenia, recurrent steroid-responsive eosinophilia has not been reported as a manifestation of a mitochondrial disorder. In a polymorbid 65-year old female recurrent erythema, asthma, chronic bronchitis, gastritis with eosinophilic granuloma, recurrent episodes of hypereosinophilia, and polyarthralgia suggested Churg–Strauss syndrome, which was excluded upon absence of eosinophilic vasculitis on any of the biopsies. However, corticosteroids were effective for hypereosinophilia. In addition to the hypereosinophilic syndrome a mitochondrial disorder with multi-system affection was diagnosed upon the clinical presentation and a muscle biopsy indicative of a mitochondrial disorder. Hypereosinophilia was interpreted as a manifestation of the mitochondrial disorder after exclusion of various differentials. Mitochondrial disease may go along with marked eosinophilia mimicking Churg–Strauss syndrome. Steroids may be useful to resolve episodic eosinophilia but may be ineffective for other features of mitochondrial disorders. PMID:19370352

  14. Two-dimensional Inductive Position Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional inductive position sensing system uses four drive inductors arranged at the vertices of a parallelogram and a sensing inductor positioned within the parallelogram. The sensing inductor is movable within the parallelogram and relative to the drive inductors. A first oscillating current at a first frequency is supplied to a first pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a first diagonal of the parallelogram. A second oscillating current at a second frequency is supplied to a second pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a second diagonal of the parallelogram. As a result, the sensing inductor generates a first output voltage at the first frequency and a second output voltage at the second frequency. A processor determines a position of the sensing inductor relative to the drive inductors using the first output voltage and the second output voltage.

  15. Induction accelerators for the phase rotator system

    SciTech Connect

    Reginato, Lou; Yu, Simon; Vanecek, Dave

    2001-07-30

    The principle of magnetic induction has been applied to the acceleration of high current beams in betatrons and a variety of induction accelerators. The linear induction accelerator (LIA) consists of a simple nonresonant structure where the drive voltage is applied to an axially symmetric gap that encloses a toroidal ferromagnetic material. The change in flux in the magnetic core induces an axial electric field that provides particle acceleration. This simple nonresonant (low Q) structure acts as a single turn transformer that can accelerate from hundreds of amperes to tens of kiloamperes, basically only limited by the drive impedance. The LIA is typically a low gradient structure that can provide acceleration fields of varying shapes and time durations from tens of nanoseconds to several microseconds. The efficiency of the LIA depends on the beam current and can exceed 50% if the beam current exceeds the magnetization current required by the ferromagnetic material. The acceleration voltage available is simply given by the expression V=A dB/dt. Hence, for a given cross section of material, the beam pulse duration influences the energy gain. Furthermore, a premium is put on minimizing the diameter, which impacts the total weight or cost of the magnetic material. The diameter doubly impacts the cost of the LIA since the power (cost) to drive the cores is proportional to the volume as well. The waveform requirements during the beam pulse makes it necessary to make provisions in the pulsing system to maintain the desired dB/dt during the useful part of the acceleration cycle. This is typically done two ways, by using the final stage of the pulse forming network (PFN) and by the pulse compensation network usually in close proximity of the acceleration cell. The choice of magnetic materials will be made by testing various materials both ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic. These materials will include the nickel-iron, silicon steel amorphous and various types of ferrites not only to determine the properties that are essential in this application but the energy losses in the magnetization process which directly impact the cost.

  16. Sex differences in neuroactive steroid levels in the nervous system of diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Pesaresi, Marzia; Maschi, Omar; Giatti, Silvia; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Caruso, Donatella; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2010-01-01

    Neuropathy and encephalopathy represent important complications of diabetes. Recent observations obtained in experimental models have suggested that, in male rats, neuroactive steroids are protective agents and that their levels in peripheral (PNS) and central (CNS) nervous system are strongly affected by the disease. It is interesting to highlight that incidence, progression and severity of diabetic neuropathy and diabetic encephalopathy are different in the two sexes. Consequently, it is important to determine the changes in neuroactive steroid levels in the PNS and the CNS of both males and females. To this aim, we have evaluated the levels of neuroactive steroids such as, pregnenolone, progesterone and its metabolites, testosterone and its metabolites, and dehydroepiandrosterone in different CNS regions (i.e., cerebral cortex, cerebellum and spinal cord) and in the sciatic nerve of control and diabetic (i.e., induced by streptozotocin) male and female rats. Data obtained by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry indicate that the levels of neuroactive steroids show sex and regional differences in control animals. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes resulted in a strong general decrease in neuroactive steroid levels, in both the PNS and the CNS. In addition, the effects of diabetes on neuroactive steroid levels also show sex and regional differences. These findings may have strong implications for the development of new sex-oriented therapies for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy and diabetic encephalopathy, based on the use of neuroactive steroids. PMID:19422828

  17. Steroid Receptor RNA Activator bi-faceted genetic system: Heads or Tails?

    PubMed

    Cooper, Charlton; Vincett, Daniel; Yan, Yi; Hamedani, Mohammad K; Myal, Yvonne; Leygue, Etienne

    2011-11-01

    The Steroid Receptor RNA Activator (SRA) was first identified by Lanz et al. in 1999 as a functional non-coding RNA able to co-activate steroid nuclear receptors. Since this incipient study, our understanding of SRA as a broader co-regulator of nuclear receptors as well as other transcription factors has greatly expanded. Accumulated data has now revealed the diverse roles played by this transcript in both normal biological processes such as myogenesis and adipogenesis, as well as in mechanisms underlying diseases including cardio-myopathies and cancers. Remarkably, as early as 2000, SRA isoforms were identified that were also able to code for a protein now referred to as the Steroid Receptor RNA Activator Protein (SRAP). SRA and SRAP now define a very intriguing bi-faceted genetic system, where both RNA and protein products of the same gene play specific and sometime overlapping roles in cell biology. Due to its initial molecular characterization as an RNA, most reports have in the last ten years focused on the non-coding part of this twosome. As such, only a handful of laboratories have investigated the molecular and biological roles played by SRAP. The scope of this review is to summarize and discuss our current knowledge of the molecular features and functions specifically attributable to the coding nature of the bi-faceted products of the SRA1 gene. PMID:21771633

  18. Steroid receptor coactivators as therapeutic targets in the female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Szwarc, Maria M; Lydon, John P; O'Malley, Bert W

    2015-11-01

    The steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs/p160/NCOA) are a family of three transcriptional coregulators initially discovered to transactivate the transcriptional potency of steroid hormone receptors. Even though SRCs were also found to modulate the activity of multiple other transcription factors, their function is still strongly associated with regulation of steroid hormone action and many studies have found that they are critical for the regulation of reproductive biology. In the case of the female reproductive tract, SRCs have been found to play crucial roles in its physiology, ranging from ovulation, implantation, to parturition. Not surprisingly, SRCs' action has been linked to numerous abnormalities and debilitating disorders of female reproductive tissues, including infertility, cancer, and endometriosis. Many of these pathologies are still in critical need of therapeutic intervention and "proof-of-principle" studies have found that SRCs are excellent targets in pathological states. Therefore, small molecule modulators of SRCs' activity could be applied in the future in the treatment of many diseases of the female reproductive system. PMID:26151740

  19. Induction of steroid sulfatase expression in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells by insulin-like growth factor II.

    PubMed

    Sung, Chul-Hoon; Im, Hee-Jung; Park, Nahee; Kwon, Yeojung; Shin, Sangyun; Ye, Dong-Jin; Cho, Nam-Hyeon; Park, Young-Shin; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Donghak; Chun, Young-Jin

    2013-11-25

    Human steroid sulfatase (STS) plays an important role in regulating the formation of biologically active estrogens and may be a promising target for treating estrogen-mediated carcinogenesis. The molecular mechanism of STS gene expression, however, is still not clear. Growth factors are known to increase STS activity but the changes in STS expression have not been completely understood. To determine whether insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II can induce STS gene expression, the effects of IGF-II on STS expression were studied in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that IGF-II treatment significantly increased the expression of STS mRNA and protein in concentration- and time-dependent manners. To understand the signaling pathway by which IGF-II induces STS gene expression, the effects of specific PI3-kinase/Akt and NF-κB inhibitors were determined. When the cells were treated with IGF-II and PI3-kinase/Akt inhibitors, such as LY294002, wortmannin, or Akt inhibitor IV, STS expression induced by IGF-II was significantly blocked. Moreover, we found that NF-κB inhibitors, such as MG-132, bortezomib, Bay 11-7082 or Nemo binding domain (NBD) binding peptide, also strongly prevented IGF-II from inducing STS gene expression. We assessed whether IGF-II activates STS promoter activity using transient transfection with a luciferase reporter. IGF-II significantly stimulated STS reporter activity. Furthermore, IGF-II induced expression of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) 1 and 3, whereas it reduced estrone sulfotransferase (EST) gene expression, causing enhanced estrone and β-estradiol production. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that IGF-II induces STS expression via a PI3-kinase/Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway in PC-3 cells and may induce estrogen production and estrogen-mediated carcinogenesis. PMID:24055520

  20. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  1. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  2. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  3. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  4. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Induction System § 23.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating... power or thrust setting in a manner acceptable to the Administrator. (c) Reciprocating engines with Superchargers. For airplanes with reciprocating engines having superchargers to pressurize the air before...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Induction System § 23.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating... power or thrust setting in a manner acceptable to the Administrator. (c) Reciprocating engines with Superchargers. For airplanes with reciprocating engines having superchargers to pressurize the air before...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Induction System § 23.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating... power or thrust setting in a manner acceptable to the Administrator. (c) Reciprocating engines with Superchargers. For airplanes with reciprocating engines having superchargers to pressurize the air before...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Induction System § 23.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating... power or thrust setting in a manner acceptable to the Administrator. (c) Reciprocating engines with Superchargers. For airplanes with reciprocating engines having superchargers to pressurize the air before...

  9. [Steroid-induced myopathy].

    PubMed

    Polunina, A G; Isaev, F V; Dem'ianova, M A

    2012-01-01

    Physiological effects of glucocorticoids include the inhibition of protein synthesis and the increase in catabolic processes in muscles. Consequently, a long-term intake of steroids in high doses causes myopathy. Myopathic effects of glucocorticoids are observed during systemic as well as inhallatory use. Most frequently, steroid myopathy manifests as the weakness and hypotrophy of lower limbs muscles, weakness of respiratory muscles, dysphonia. Prevention and treatment of steroid myopathy include limitation of indications for long-term usage of glucocorticoids, alternating regimens of treatment, adequate physical activity. The current data demonstrate the efficacy of vitamin D and amino acids mixtures in the prevention and treatment of steroid myopathy. PMID:23250613

  10. Deltonin, a steroidal saponin, inhibits colon cancer cell growth in vitro and tumor growth in vivo via induction of apoptosis and antiangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Qing-Yi; Qing, Yong; Shu, Dan; He, Yang; Zhao, Ying-Lan; Li, Yi; Wang, Zhen-Ling; Zhang, Shi-Yuan; Xing, Zhi-hua; Xu, Cheng; Wei, Yu-Quan; Huang, Wen; Wu, Xiao-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Deltonin, a steroidal saponin, isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis Wright (DZW), has shown high-cytotoxic activity in cancer cells. However, its mechanisms and in vivo anti-cancer effects remain unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the effects and explored the anti-tumor mechanisms of deltonin on a panel of colon cancer cell lines and in a mouse model of murine colon cancer C26. Deltonin had more cytotoxic effect on C26 cells than 5-fluorouracil had, promoting dramatic G2-M phase arrest and apoptosis in C26 cells in a concentration-dependent manner; oral administration of deltonin significantly inhibited the tumor growth and prolonged survival of the tumor bearing mice. The deltonin treatment caused a noticeable apoptosis in tumor tissue, which associated with increased levels of Bax, activated caspase-3, caspase-9, and cleaved poly (ADPribose) polymerase, decreased pro-caspase-8, pro-caspase-9, Bcl-2 expression levels and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 activity; and dose-dependently inhibit angiogenesis. In conclusion, the findings in this study demonstrated that deltonin is an effective natural agent for cancer therapy, which may be mediated, in part, by induction of apoptosis, as well as involve mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, and inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:21471712

  11. Low bioavailability and traditional systemic steroids in IBD: can the former take over the latter?

    PubMed

    Fasci Spurio, Federica; Aratari, Annalisa; Margagnoni, Giovanna; Clemente, Valeria; Moretti, Alessandra; Papi, Claudio

    2013-03-01

    Systemic corticosteroids have been used to treat active inflammatory bowel disease for over 50 years by virtue of their unquestionable efficacy in inducing clinical remission rapidly in the vast majority of patients. Nevertheless, traditional corticosteroids are associated to a plethora of potentially serious side effects due to their systemic metabolism; for this reason, interest has lately been growing in newer steroid compounds characterized by a high topical anti-inflammatory activity and a low systemic bioavailability. These compounds, namely budesonide and beclomethasone dipropionate--regarding the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease--can be administered orally and thanks to sophisticated delivery systems are conveyed specifically to the inflamed gut mucosa where they exert their anti-inflammatory action. After intestinal absorption, these drugs are promptly and efficiently inactivated by the liver, so that only inactive molecules reach the systemic circulation. This review revises the main clinical trials, meta-analyses and observational studies conducted on traditional and newer steroids, and critically interprets the main results achieved by these studies. PMID:23539393

  12. Anabolic Steroids

    MedlinePlus

    Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

  13. Cardiac effects of anabolic steroids

    PubMed Central

    Payne, J R; Kotwinski, P J; Montgomery, H E

    2004-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse in athletes has been associated with a wide range of adverse conditions, including hypogonadism, testicular atrophy, impaired spermatogenesis, gynaecomastia, and psychiatric disturbance. But what effect does steroid abuse have on the cardiovascular system? PMID:15084526

  14. Steroidal Saponins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

    The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

  15. Intra-arterial injection of sclerosants: Report of three cases treated with systemic steroids.

    PubMed

    Parsi, Kurosh; Hannaford, Patricia

    2016-05-01

    Intra-arterial injection of sclerosants is a significant but uncommon complication of sclerotherapy that may result in extensive tissue necrosis and in rare cases digit or limb amputation. We have managed three cases in the past 10 years. One patient was referred for immediate treatment following intra-arterial injection of liquid polidocanol. The other two had undergone foam sclerotherapy with polidocanol and sodium tetradecyl sulphate, respectively. All patients were treated with a combination of oral steroids (prednisone 0.5-1 mg/kg) and systemic anticoagulants (enoxaparin 1.5 mg/kg daily subcutaneous injection). One case progressed to skin ulceration where prednisone was started five days after the adverse event and prematurely stopped after four weeks. The other cases did not progress to necrosis or other long-term sequelae. In these patients, prednisone was commenced immediately and slowly reduced over the following 12 weeks. The inflammation that follows ischemia plays a significant role in tissue necrosis and the immediate management of this adverse event may benefit from anti-inflammatory measures and in particular systemic steroid therapy unless contraindicated. PMID:25837790

  16. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. 29.1103 Section 29.1103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1103 Induction systems ducts and air...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ducts and air duct systems. 25.1103 Section 25.1103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1103 Induction system ducts and air...

  18. Combination Therapy with Systemic Steroids, an Antiviral Agent, Anticoagulants, and Stellate Ganglion Block for Treatment of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Kyou; Lee, Jong Dae; Park, Moo Kyun; Lee, Byung Don

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is commonly defined as a loss of at least 30 dB in three contiguous frequencies occurring within 3 days. Systemic steroid administration has become the most widely accepted treatment option for SSNHL. Since viral infection and vascular compromise are considered specific causes of SSNHL, antiviral agents, anticoagulants, and stellate ganglion block have been used for its treatment, although the evidence of their effectiveness is weak. The present study evaluated the hearing recovery rate in the combination therapy group (systemic steroids, antiviral agent, anticoagulants, and stellate ganglion block) in comparison with patients treated with systemic steroids alone. Subjects and Methods A total of 85 patients diagnosed with SSNHL were treated with combination therapy (group A, 46 patients) or systemic steroids only (group B, 39 patients). Hearing improvement was defined as a hearing gain of more than slight improvement using Siegel's criteria. All patients were treated with a 10-day course of systemic steroids (10-mg dexamethasone for 5 days, followed by tapering for 5 days). Acyclovir, heparin, and stellate ganglion block were included in the group A treatment regimen. Results The overall rate of hearing improvement was 60.9% (28/46 patients) in group A, which was significantly higher than that (38.5%, 15/39 patients) in group B. The distribution of prognostic factors was not significantly different between the two groups with the exception of the degree of initial hearing loss, which was more severe in group A. Upon analysis according to prognostic factors, group A showed a better hearing improvement recovery rate than group B in patients with hearing loss >70 dB, age >41 years, dizziness, and early treatment (<1 week). Conclusions Thus SSNHL patients treated with combination therapy have a higher likelihood of hearing improvement than those treated with systemic steroids alone. PMID:24653874

  19. EVALUATION OF AN INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA, MULTICHANNEL SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    An inductively coupled plasma, multielement atomic emission spectrometric analysis system has been evaluated with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency's need for a rapid method for determination of trace elemental concentrations in water. Data are presented on detection...

  20. Induction soldering of photovoltaic system components

    SciTech Connect

    Kumaria, Shashwat; de Leon, Briccio

    2015-11-17

    A method comprises positioning a pair of photovoltaic wafers in a side-by-side arrangement. An interconnect is placed on the pair of wafers such that the interconnect overlaps both wafers of the pair, solder material being provided between the interconnect and the respective wafers. A solder head is then located adjacent the interconnect, and the coil is energized to effect inductive heating of the solder material. The solder head comprises an induction coil shaped to define an eye, and a magnetic field concentrator located at least partially in the eye of the coil. The magnetic field concentrator defines a passage extending axially through the eye of the coil, and may be of a material with a high magnetic permeability.

  1. An alternative isolated wind electric pumping system using induction machines

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, M.S.; Lyra, R.O.C.; Silva, S.R.

    1999-12-01

    An isolated variable speed variable frequency wind electric pumping system is proposed. Induction machines are used both in the generation unit as well as in the pumping unit and a static VAR compensator is used for providing the magnetizing currents of both machines. An indirect induction generator stator flux control strategy is adopted. System steady state and dynamic operation is studied basing on simulation and experimental results.

  2. Steroid osteopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible.

  3. Comparative evaluation of low-level laser and systemic steroid therapy in adjuvant-enhanced arthritis of rat temporomandibular joint: A histological study

    PubMed Central

    Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Moghareabed, Ahmad; Allameh, Maryam; Baradaran, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has shown a promising effect in ameliorating symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this investigation was to compare the early and late anti-inflammatory effects of LLLT and betamethasone in RA. Materials and Methods: In this animal experimental study, after inducing a model of RA in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of 37 Wistar rats using adjuvant injection, they were randomly distributed into three experimental groups of 12 animals each: (1) LLLT group; (2) steroid group which received a single dose of betamethasone systemically; and (3) positive control group, which did not receive any treatment. One rat served as the negative control. Half of the animals in all the experimental groups were sacrificed on the 21st day after RA induction (early phase), and the other half were sacrificed 2 weeks later (late phase). Then, the severity of TMJ inflammation was assessed histologically in each group on a semi-quantitative scale. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare differences (α = 0.05). Results: The LLLT and steroid groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower inflammation mean scores in both early (5.66 [±1.86] and 1.66 [±1.21], respectively) and late phases of evaluation (1.16 [±1.47] and 6.50 [±1.04], respectively) compared to positive control group in early and late stages of assessment (11.66 [±3.50] and 8.66 [±1.36], respectively). However, the best results (P < 0.005) were achieved in early phase of the steroid group as well as late phase of the LLLT group. Conclusion: Within limitations of this study, it may be concluded that LLLT method has a long-term promising effect on reducing inflammation severity of TMJ similar to betamethasone in earlier stages. PMID:26005460

  4. [Comparative study of the C27-steroid-hydroxylating system from bovine liver mitochondria].

    PubMed

    Gilevich, S N; Gur'ev, O L; Shkumatov, V M; Chashchin, V L; Akhrem, A A

    1987-02-01

    A method for purification of C27-steroid hydroxylating cytochrome P-450 (cytochrome P-450(27)) from bovine liver mitochondria was developed. The purification procedure included enzyme extraction from submitochondrial particles with sodium cholate, ammonium sulfate fractionation and biospecific chromatography on cholate-Sepharose and adrenodoxin-Sepharose. The resulting enzyme preparation (317-fold purification, 16% yield) was not electrophoretically homogeneous but did not contain hemoprotein admixtures. The kinetic parameters of 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-triol 27-hydroxylation in a reconstituted system containing hepatoredoxin reductase, hepatoredoxin and cytochrome P-450(27) (Km = 23 microM, kcat = 0.3 s-1 at 25 degrees C) were determined. A reciprocal functional equivalency of hepatoredoxin reductase and adrenodoxin reductase as well as of hepatoredoxin and adrenodoxin in reconstituted systems of steroid 27-hydroxylation (liver) and cholesterol side chain cleavage (adrenal cortex) was established. This equivalency was thought to be due to the similarity in essential physico-chemical properties of reductase components which was especially well-pronounced in the case of hepatoredoxin and adrenodoxin. Estimation of the functional role of lysine, dicarboxylic acid and histidine residues in ferredoxin molecules by the chemical modification method revealed the similarity of the structural organization of their protein globules: the polar residues were shown to be essential for the maintenance of native conformation; dicarboxylic acid residues formed a binding domain for the interaction with electron transport proteins, whereas histidine residues seem to participate in electron transport. At the same time, cytochrome P-450(27) and cytochrome P-450 which split the side chain of cholesterol differ in their substrate specificity, immunochemical and catalytic properties. PMID:3567245

  5. Mycobacterium intracellulare infection of the shoulder and spine in a patient with steroid-treated systemic Lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Zvetina, J.R.; Rubinstein, H.; Demos, T.C.

    1982-05-01

    Atypical mycobacterial infections of bone are rare. A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus treated with steroids developed an M. intracellulare infection of the shoulder and spine. These infections are insidious and diagnosis is difficult. Marked involvement of one joint, large effusion, or aspirated small synovial fragments suggest an atypical tuberculous joint infection.

  6. Steroid biotransformations in biphasic systems with Yarrowia lipolytica expressing human liver cytochrome P450 genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Yarrowia lipolytica efficiently metabolizes and assimilates hydrophobic compounds such as n-alkanes and fatty acids. Efficient substrate uptake is enabled by naturally secreted emulsifiers and a modified cell surface hydrophobicity and protrusions formed by this yeast. We were examining the potential of recombinant Y. lipolytica as a biocatalyst for the oxidation of hardly soluble hydrophobic steroids. Furthermore, two-liquid biphasic culture systems were evaluated to increase substrate availability. While cells, together with water soluble nutrients, are maintained in the aqueous phase, substrates and most of the products are contained in a second water-immiscible organic solvent phase. Results For the first time we have co-expressed the human cytochromes P450 2D6 and 3A4 genes in Y. lipolytica together with human cytochrome P450 reductase (hCPR) or Y. lipolytica cytochrome P450 reductase (YlCPR). These whole-cell biocatalysts were used for the conversion of poorly soluble steroids in biphasic systems. Employing a biphasic system with the organic solvent and Y. lipolytica carbon source ethyl oleate for the whole-cell bioconversion of progesterone, the initial specific hydroxylation rate in a 1.5 L stirred tank bioreactor was further increased 2-fold. Furthermore, the product formation was significantly prolonged as compared to the aqueous system. Co-expression of the human CPR gene led to a 4-10-fold higher specific activity, compared to the co-overexpression of the native Y. lipolytica CPR gene. Multicopy transformants showed a 50-70-fold increase of activity as compared to single copy strains. Conclusions Alkane-assimilating yeast Y. lipolytica, coupled with the described expression strategies, demonstrated its high potential for biotransformations of hydrophobic substrates in two-liquid biphasic systems. Especially organic solvents which can be efficiently taken up and/or metabolized by the cell might enable more efficient bioconversion as compared to aqueous systems and even enable simple, continuous or at least high yield long time processes. PMID:22876969

  7. A magnetic induction measurement system for adult vital sign monitoring: evaluation of capacitive and inductive effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavi, H.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic induction (MI) measurement technique could provide an unobtrusive contactless method for continuous monitoring of vital signs such as breathing and cardiac activity in bed. In this paper, we present a magnetic induction system to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring heart and lung activity and the preliminary measurement results. The excitation and detection coils are designed to be implemented in a single printed circuit board, allowing the use of the system in a bed with coils under the mattress. The electronic system is based on a 16 bit arbitrary waveform generator (PXI-5422, National instrument) operating at a sample rate of 200 MS/s for the excitation signal and the detected amplified signal is then, sampled at 100 MS/s by a 14 bit digitizer (PXI-5122, National Instruments). The preliminary results at 10 MHz show the ability of the system to detect solutions with different conductivities. However the capacitive effect is in the same order of magnitude as the inductive effect due to eddy currents. Safety of the system has been evaluated to be in accordance with the standards of human exposure to the magnetic fields.

  8. Psoriatic Erythroderma and Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis Suppression Due to Misuse of Systemic Steroid: Two Challenging Cases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gautam K; Chatterjee, Manas

    2015-01-01

    Adding corticosteroid in homeopathic pills, self medication of steroid in the backdrop permanent cure in cases of psoriasis is not very uncommon in clinical practice in Indian subcontinent. First case a 52 year man, a known case of psoriasis vulgaris with psoriatic arthropathy of 15 years duration received multiple modalities of therapies without any satisfactory response. He was on self medication of tab prednisolone 10 mg daily with Cushingoid features. Second case a 22 year old boy, a known case of psoriasis from last 06 years was on Homeopathic treatment with Cushinoid features. Tapering of systemic steroid in first case and discontinuation of homeopathic drug in second case resulted in erythroderma and features of adrenal insufficiiency. Investigation revealed low morning cortisol and low cortisol following ACTH stimulation suggestive of HPA axis suppression. Planned withdrawal of steroid under the cover of short acting systemic steroid for short duration along with combination of immunosuppressants and supportive care gave an excellent result in both the cases. PMID:25814713

  9. Power factor control system for AC induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A power factor control system for use with ac induction motors was designed which samples lines voltage and current through the motor and decreases power input to the motor proportional to the detected phase displacement between current and voltage. This system provides, less power to the motor, as it is less loaded.

  10. Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

    2012-10-23

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

  11. Annual sex steroid profiles and effects of gender and season on cytochrome P450 mRNA induction in Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.J.; Courtenay, S.C.; Wilson, C.E.

    1998-08-01

    As a preliminary step in a 4-year biomonitoring program, sex steroid levels, gonad weights, and diameter of vitellogenic oocytes were measured in tomcod collected bimonthly from the Miramichi and Kouchibouguac rivers from September 1993 to September 1994. As well as the reproductive indices, hepatic levels of cytochrome P4501A mRNA (CYP1A mRNA) were also measured. The preparatory period for spawning began in September, with maximal steroid levels in November, and spawning took place from late December to January. The CYP1A mRNA levels in female tomcod appeared inversely related to plasma steroids, with the lowest amounts of CYP1A mRNA coinciding with maximal steroids. The CYP1A mRNA levels in male tomcod did not exhibit this relationship. River-river comparisons of female tomcod showed significantly smaller vitellogenic oocytes in the Miramichi, along with lower plasma testosterone, estradiol, and relative gonad weight. Miramichi CYP1A mRNA levels were higher than Kouchibouguac in the fall but lower in the spring sample. The CYP1A mRNA-sex steroid relationship observed in this study will facilitate meaningful interpretation of data collected during the full 4-year study.

  12. Inductive coupling system for endovascular aneurysm repair monitoring.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cristina; Almeida, Nuno; Machado da Silva, José

    2012-01-01

    Endoleaks are one of the major concerns in the long-term follow-up of endovascular aneurysm repair treatment (EVAR). Therefore, periodic monitoring is required to detect eventual damages in an implanted stent-graft. A monitoring system for post EVAR procedure based on inductive-coupling which avoids the need to resorting to more complex biomedical imaging systems is presented here. Endoleaks are detected with capacitive pressure sensors placed in the stent-graft and monitored externally after the measure of the oscillation frequency provided by the LC circuit created by sensors and inductive coupling. PMID:22942038

  13. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the adrenal or pituitary glands and gonadal disorders....

  14. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases of the adrenal or pituitary glands and gonadal disorders....

  15. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intended to measure corticosteroids that possess a dihydroxyacetone ER01FE93.028 moiety on the steroid nucleus in urine. Corticosteroids with this chemical configuration include cortisol, cortisone...

  16. Icing-Protection Requirements for Reciprocating-Engine Induction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, Willard D; Rollin, Vern G; Mulholland, Donald R

    1950-01-01

    Despite the development of relatively ice-free fuel-metering systems, the widespread use of alternate and heated-air intakes, and the use of alcohol for emergency de-icing, icing of aircraft-engine induction systems is a serious problem. Investigations have been made to study and to combat all phases of this icing problem. From these investigations, criterions for safe operation and for design of new induction systems have been established. The results were obtained from laboratory investigations of carburetor-supercharger combinations, wind-tunnel investigations of air scoops, multicylinder-engine studies, and flight investigations. Characteristics of three forms of ice, impact, throttling, and fuel evaporation were studied. The effects of several factors on the icing characteristics were also studied and included: (1) atmospheric conditions, (2) engine and air-scoop configurations, including light-airplane system, (3) type fuel used, and (4) operating variables, such as power condition, use of a manifold pressure regulator, mixture setting, carburetor heat, and water-alcohol injection. In addition, ice-detection methods were investigated and methods of preventing and removing induction-system ice were studied. Recommendations are given for design and operation with regard to induction-system design.

  17. Systemic steroids as an aid to the management of Idiopathic Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy (IPCV): A descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sudhalkar, Aditya; Balakrishnan, Divya; Jalali, Subhadra; Narayanan, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the role of systemic steroids in improving visual acuity, preventing recurrence and hastening pigment epithelial detachment resolution in IPCV patients. Methods Retrospective computer assisted comparative case series of consecutive patients with documented IPCV who did and did not receive systemic steroids as part of their treatment regimen between 2007 and 2012. Patients who had systemic contraindication to steroid therapy were excluded from the steroid arm. Data collected included demographics, the best corrected visual acuity, details of the ocular and systemic exam, the treatment offered, the follow-up period and the final visual and anatomic outcomes. Outcome measures included the final BCVA, the time to resolution of the associated pigment epithelial detachment (PED, if present), the recurrence rate and the associated side effects, if any. Appropriate statistical analysis was done. Statistical significance: p < 0.05. Results 14 patients (14 eyes) had received systemic steroids in the stated period; these were compared with 26 consecutive patients (26 eyes) who did not. Mean age: 59.24 vs 62.38 years (A vs B). Mean baseline BCVA: 1.86 ± 1.24 logMAR vs 2.12 ± 1.48 logMAR (A vs B). 8 females in Group A and 14 in Group B. 11 patients in group A and 19 in group B had associated systemic hypertension. Therapy consisted of laser photocoagulation, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, photodynamic therapy or a combination of these. Mean follow-up: 43.21 ± 11.32 months (Group A) vs 48.24 ± 9.75 months (Group B). BCVA at three months was significantly better (0.84 ± 0.74 logMAR vs 1.16 ± 0.89 (p = 0.039). Final BCVA: 0.86 ± 0.78 logMAR (Group A) vs 1.29 ± 0.92 (Group B, p = 0.042). 7 patients in group A and 12 in Group B had a recurrence (insignificant difference). 1 patient in Group A and 7 in Group B had unresolved disease (persistent PED) at the end of follow-up (OR: 4.60; 95% CI 1.7–11.10). Conclusion Steroids appear to improve visual acuity and accelerate the resolution of the PEDs in patients with IPCV and large PEDs, but do not seem to influence recurrence. PMID:26949352

  18. Electromagnetic induction moisture measurement system acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.J.

    1996-10-07

    This document presents the results of the acceptance test for the hardware and software that was developed to operate the ElectroMagnetic Induction (EMI) moisture measurement system to be used for in-tank moisture measurements. This document satisfies EP 4.1, ``Design Verification Requirements``.

  19. Systems modeling for heavy ion drivers - an induction linac example

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bangerter, R.O.; Faltens, A.

    1997-09-30

    A source-to-target model for a induction linac driver for heavy ion fusion has been developed and is described here. Design features for a reference case driver that meets the requirements of one current target design are given, and the systems analyses supporting the point design are discussed. Directions for future work are noted.

  20. 14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel and induction system. 33.35 Section 33.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.35...

  1. 14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel and induction system. 33.35 Section 33.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.35...

  2. 14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel and induction system. 33.35 Section 33.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.35...

  3. 14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel and induction system. 33.35 Section 33.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.35...

  4. Induction Linac Systems Experiments for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1994-06-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory propose to build at LBL the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step toward the eventual goal of a heavy ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Though much smaller than a driver, ILSE will be at full driver scale in several important parameters. Nearly all accelerator components and beam manipulations required for a driver will be tested. It is expected that ILSE will be built in stages as funds and technical progress allow. The first stage, called Elise will include all of the electrostatic quadrupole focused parts of ILSE.

  5. Induction Curing of Thiol-acrylate and Thiolene Composite Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Sheng; Cramer, Neil B.; Stevens, Blake E.; Sani, Robert L.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    Induction curing is demonstrated as a novel type of in situ radiation curing that maintains most of the advantages of photocuring while eliminating the restriction of light accessibility. Induction curing is utilized to polymerize opaque composites comprised of thiol-acrylate and thiol-ene resins, nanoscale magnetic particles, and carbon nanotubes. Nanoscale magnetic particles are dispersed in the resin and upon exposure to the magnetic field, these particles lead to induction heating that rapidly initiates the polymerization. Heat transfer profiles and reaction kinetics of the samples are modeled during the reactions with varying induction heater power, species concentration, species type and sample thickness, and the model is compared with the experimental results. Thiol-ene polymerizations achieved full conversion between 1.5 minutes and 1 hour, depending on the field intensity and the composition, with the maximum reaction temperature decreasing from 146 – 87 °C when the induction heater power was decreased from 8 – 3 kW. The polymerization reactions of the thiol-acrylate system were demonstrated to achieve full conversion between 0.6 and 30 minutes with maximum temperatures from 139 to 86 °C. The experimental behavior was characterized and the temperature profile modeled for the thiol-acrylate composite comprised of sub100nm nickel particles and induction heater power in the range of 32 to 20 kW. A 9°C average deviation was observed between the modeling and experimental results for the maximum temperature rise. The model also was utilized to predict reaction temperatures and kinetics for systems with varying thermal initiator concentration, initiator half-life, monomer molecular weight and temperature gradients in samples with varying thickness, thereby demonstrating that induction curing represents a designable and tunable polymerization method. Finally, induction curing was utilized to cure thiol-acrylate systems containing carbon nanotubes where 1 wt% carbon nanotubes resulted in systems where the storage modulus increased from 17.6 ± 0.2 to 21.6 ± 0.1 MPa and an electrical conductivity that increased from <10−7 to 0.33 ± 0.5 S/m. PMID:21765552

  6. Induction Curing of Thiol-acrylate and Thiolene Composite Systems.

    PubMed

    Ye, Sheng; Cramer, Neil B; Stevens, Blake E; Sani, Robert L; Bowman, Christopher N

    2011-06-28

    Induction curing is demonstrated as a novel type of in situ radiation curing that maintains most of the advantages of photocuring while eliminating the restriction of light accessibility. Induction curing is utilized to polymerize opaque composites comprised of thiol-acrylate and thiol-ene resins, nanoscale magnetic particles, and carbon nanotubes. Nanoscale magnetic particles are dispersed in the resin and upon exposure to the magnetic field, these particles lead to induction heating that rapidly initiates the polymerization. Heat transfer profiles and reaction kinetics of the samples are modeled during the reactions with varying induction heater power, species concentration, species type and sample thickness, and the model is compared with the experimental results. Thiol-ene polymerizations achieved full conversion between 1.5 minutes and 1 hour, depending on the field intensity and the composition, with the maximum reaction temperature decreasing from 146 - 87 °C when the induction heater power was decreased from 8 - 3 kW. The polymerization reactions of the thiol-acrylate system were demonstrated to achieve full conversion between 0.6 and 30 minutes with maximum temperatures from 139 to 86 °C. The experimental behavior was characterized and the temperature profile modeled for the thiol-acrylate composite comprised of sub100nm nickel particles and induction heater power in the range of 32 to 20 kW. A 9°C average deviation was observed between the modeling and experimental results for the maximum temperature rise. The model also was utilized to predict reaction temperatures and kinetics for systems with varying thermal initiator concentration, initiator half-life, monomer molecular weight and temperature gradients in samples with varying thickness, thereby demonstrating that induction curing represents a designable and tunable polymerization method. Finally, induction curing was utilized to cure thiol-acrylate systems containing carbon nanotubes where 1 wt% carbon nanotubes resulted in systems where the storage modulus increased from 17.6 ± 0.2 to 21.6 ± 0.1 MPa and an electrical conductivity that increased from <10(-7) to 0.33 ± 0.5 S/m. PMID:21765552

  7. Control of cascaded induction generator systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortmeyer, T. H.

    1984-12-01

    This report documents an investigation of the stability and control of cascaded doubly fed machines (CDFM). These machines are brushless variable speed constant frequency electric power generators with potential for application in aircraft. A previous analytical study indicated the CDFM system would be controllable in the subsynchronous operating mode with a passive RL load. The present study contains two steps. First is an investigation of the machine operation in the supersynchronous mode. The second step is an investigation of machine operation with output capacitors providing excitation VARs for the machine and load. Step 1 results show that the machines exhibit stability characteristics in the supersynchronous mode similar to those observed in the subsynchronous mode. Step 2 results show that output capacitors degrade the system performance, particularly at light loads. The results show that output current feedback can be employed to improve the system performance.

  8. The olfactory system is affected by steroid aerosol treatment in mice.

    PubMed

    Mucignat-Caretta, C; Bondí, M; Rubini, A; Calabrese, F; Barbato, A

    2009-12-01

    Asthma needs continuous treatment often for years. In humans, some drugs are administered via aerosol, therefore they come in contact with both respiratory and olfactory mucosa. We explored the possibility that antiasthma corticosteroid treatment could influence the olfactory function by passage through the nose. A group of mice was exposed twice daily for 42 days to fluticasone propionate aerosol and was compared with a control group. Olfactory behavior, respiratory mechanics, histology, and immunoreactivity in the olfactory system were assessed. Fluticasone-treated mice were slower in retrieving a piece of hidden food, but both groups were similarly fast when the food was visible. When a clearly detectable odor was present in the environment, all mice behaved in a similar way. Respiratory mechanics indices were similar in all mice except for the viscose resistance, which was reduced in fluticasone-treated mice. Olfactory mucosa of fluticasone-treated mice was thicker than that of controls. Slight but consistent differences in staining were present for Olfactory Marker Protein but not for other proteins. A mild impairment of olfactory function is present in mice chronically treated with fluticasone aerosol, apparently accompanied by slight modifications of the olfactory receptor cells, and suggests monitoring of olfactory function modifications in long-term steroid users. PMID:19801453

  9. Steroid-refractory GVHD: T-cell attack within a vulnerable endothelial system.

    PubMed

    Luft, Thomas; Dietrich, Sascha; Falk, Christine; Conzelmann, Michael; Hess, Michael; Benner, Axel; Neumann, Frank; Isermann, Berend; Hegenbart, Ute; Ho, Anthony D; Dreger, Peter

    2011-08-11

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) and can be readily controlled by systemic high-dose steroids in many patients. However, patients whose GVHD is refractory to this therapy have a poor prognosis. Refractory patients have ongoing end-organ damage despite effective immunosuppression with second-line regimens, suggesting pathomechanisms independent from the initiating T-cell attack. To explore whether endothelial damage might contribute to GVHD refractoriness and to study the role of angiopoietin-2 (ANG2) in this process, we have compared kinetics of T-cell activation markers and markers of endothelial dysfunction in the serum of patients with sensitive (n = 23) and refractory GVHD (n = 25). Longitudinal measurements of soluble FAS ligand along with other immune markers demonstrate that refractory patients are not exposed to an overwhelming or unresponsive T-cell attack. However, in contrast to sensitive GVHD, refractory GVHD was associated with rising thrombomodulin levels and high ANG2/ vascular endothelial-derived growth factor ratios. Patients with refractory GVHD showed significantly increased ANG2 levels already before SCT. These results suggest that endothelial cell vulnerability and dysfunction, rather than refractory T-cell activity, drives treatment refractoriness of GVHD and opens new avenues for prediction and control of this devastating condition. PMID:21636856

  10. Pulse Detonation Engine Air Induction System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, R. J.; Hunter, L. G.; Couch, B. D.

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary mixed-compression inlet design concept for potential pulse-detonation engine (PDE) powered supersonic aircraft was defined and analyzed. The objectives of this research were to conceptually design and integrate an inlet/PDE propulsion system into a supersonic aircraft, perform time-dependent CFD analysis of the inlet flowfield, and to estimate the installed PDE cycle performance. The study was baselined to a NASA Mach 5 Waverider study vehicle in which the baseline over/under turboramjet engines were replaced with a single flowpath PDE propulsion system. As much commonality as possible was maintained with the baseline configuration, including the engine location and forebody lines. Modifications were made to the inlet system's external ramp angles and a rotating cowl lip was incorporated to improve off-design inlet operability and performance. Engines were sized to match the baseline vehicle study's ascent trajectory thrust requirement at Mach 1.2. The majority of this study was focused on a flight Mach number of 3.0. The time-dependent Navier Stokes CFD analyses of a two-dimensional approximation of the inlet was conducted for the Mach 3.0 condition. The Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems-developed FALCON CFD code with a two equation 'k-1' turbulence model was used. The downstream PDE was simulated by an array of four sonic nozzles in which the flow areas were rapidly varied in various opening/closing combinations. Results of the CFD study indicated that the inlet design concept operated successfully at the Mach 3.0 condition, satisfying mass capture, total pressure recovery, and operability requirements. Time-dependent analysis indicated that pressure and expansion waves from the simulated valve perturbations did not effect the inlet's operability or performance.

  11. Structure of steroids and their diffusion through blood vessel walls in a counter-current system

    SciTech Connect

    McCracken, J.A.; Schramm, W.; Einer-Jensen, N.

    1984-03-01

    Several substances including prostaglandin F2 alpha, progesterone and /sup 85/krypton have been shown to be transferred from the venous side to the arterial side of the circulation in the ovarian vascular pedicle. Experiments were therefore carried out to study the transfer of three pairs of steroids (progesterone and 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone, C-21; androstenedione and testosterone, C-19; and estrone and estradiol-17 beta, C-18) in which each member of a pair differed by one hydroxyl group. Each pair of steroids, one labeled with /sup 3/H and the other with /sup 14/C, were infused in sequence for 30 minutes into a side branch of an ovarian vein near the hilus of the ovary with a rest period of 90 minutes between infusions. An increase in radioactivity in ovarian arterial plasma compared to the radioactivity in an equal volume of aortic plasma sampled simultaneously was used as the index for a direct transfer of steroids from the ovarian vein to the adjacent ovarian artery. All six steroids showed such a transfer which began 3 to 6 minutes after the start of each infusion and decreased rapidly after the infusion was stopped. The results of this study also showed that a larger quantity of the less polar (ketonic) form of each steroid pair examined was transferred than its hydroxyl counterpart.

  12. Steroid hormones, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems during rescue of the corpus luteum in pigs.

    PubMed

    Przygrodzka, E; Kaczmarek, M M; Kaczynski, P; Ziecik, A J

    2016-02-01

    In order to characterize the transition of the corpora lutea (CL) from acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity to rescue of luteal function: i) the expression of 38 factors associated with steroids, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems and ii) concentrations of the main hormones responsible for maintenance of CL function in cyclic and pregnant pigs were examined. Additionally, the effect of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2 α on luteal function during the estrous cycle and pregnancy was evaluated in vitro. Significantly up-regulated gene expression was revealed in CL collected on day 14 of the estrous cycle (CYP19A1, ESR2, PTGS2, HIF1A, and EDN1) and on days 12-14 of pregnancy (SCARB1, PGRMC1, STAR, HSD3B1, NR5A1, PTGFR, PTGER4, and VEGFA). Elevated concentrations of estradiol-17β and PGE2 occurred in CL on days 12 and 14 of pregnancy respectively, while an increased intraluteal PGF2 α content was noted on day 14 of the estrous cycle. Both PGs increased the synthesis of progesterone by cultured luteal slices obtained on day 14 of pregnancy, in contrast to the action of PGF2 α on the corresponding day of the estrous cycle. PGE2 stimulated cAMP production via PTGER2 and PTGER4, while PGF2 α elevated the content of CREB in cultured luteal slices from CL of pregnant pigs. In silico analysis showed that infiltration of lymphocytes and apoptosis of microvascular endothelium were activated in CL on day 12 of the estrous cycle vs pregnancy. Summarizing, an abundance of E2 and PGE2 during pregnancy regulates specific pathways responsible for steroidogenesis, the prostanoid signaling system and angiogenesis during rescue from luteolysis in porcine CL. PMID:26577025

  13. Steroids (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Steroids KidsHealth > For Parents > Steroids Print A A A ... your child isn't at risk. What Are Steroids? Drugs commonly referred to as "steroids" are classified ...

  14. Performances of Induction System for Nanosecond Mode Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly; /SLAC

    2006-05-16

    An induction system comprises an array of single turn pulse transformers. Ferromagnetic cores of transformers are toroids that are stacked along the longitudinal core axis. Another name for this array is a fraction transformer or an adder. The primary and secondary windings of such a design have one turn. The step up mode is based on the number of primary pulse sources. The secondary windings are connected in series. Performances of such a system for the nanosecond range mode operation are different in comparison to the performances of traditional multi-turn pulse transformers, which are working on a 100+ nanosecond mode operation. In this paper, the author discusses which aspects are necessary to take into account for the high power nanosecond fractional transformer designs. The engineering method of the nanosecond induction system design is presented.

  15. Real-Time System Verification by Kappa-Induction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Lee S.

    2005-01-01

    We report the first formal verification of a reintegration protocol for a safety-critical, fault-tolerant, real-time distributed embedded system. A reintegration protocol increases system survivability by allowing a node that has suffered a fault to regain state consistent with the operational nodes. The protocol is verified in the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL), where bounded model checking and decision procedures are used to verify infinite-state systems by k-induction. The protocol and its environment are modeled as synchronizing timeout automata. Because k-induction is exponential with respect to k, we optimize the formal model to reduce the size of k. Also, the reintegrator's event-triggered behavior is conservatively modeled as time-triggered behavior to further reduce the size of k and to make it invariant to the number of nodes modeled. A corollary is that a clique avoidance property is satisfied.

  16. Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

  17. Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

    1982-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

  18. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:24685768

  19. Effects of a Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System on the Expression of Steroid Receptor Coregulators in Adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Jeon, Young Eun; Seo, Seok Kyo; Park, Joo Hyun; Yoon, Sun Och; Cho, SiHyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok

    2015-12-01

    Although the pathophysiology of adenomyosis has not been clarified, it is thought to be related to ectopic endometrium, which depends on hormonal regulation. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is effective for the medical treatment of adenomyosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which LNG-IUS ameliorates adenomyosis pathology remain unclear. This study was designed to compare the expression levels of steroid receptor coregulators in human endometrium of control and participants with adenomyosis and to determine whether LNG-IUS modulated their expression. Immunohistochemistry with H-scores was performed. Steroid receptor coactivators were shown to have significantly decreased expressions at the secretory phase in the LNG-IUS group when compared to the other groups. Expression of transcriptional intermediary factor 2 was lower in the LNG-IUS group than in both the control group (P = .015) and the untreated adenomyosis group (P = .019) during the secretory phase. Amplified in breast cancer 1 expression was higher in the stromal cells of the untreated adenomyosis group than in those of the controls (P = .017) during the secretory phase; however, levels were lower in the LNG-IUS group (P = .005). Nuclear receptor corepressor expression increased during the proliferative phase and decreased during the secretory phase in untreated adenomyosis; this pattern was reversed in the control and LNG-IUS groups. Thus, an altered expression of steroid receptor coregulators may play a role in adenomyosis development and treatment. PMID:26040939

  20. Prevention of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of femoral head in systemic lupus erythematosus by anti-coagulant.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, K; Tada, Y; Koarada, S; Tsukamoto, H; Horiuchi, T; Yoshizawa, S; Murai, K; Ueda, A; Haruta, Y; Ohta, A

    2006-01-01

    Although osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONF) is one of the serious complications in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated with corticosteroid therapy, there has been few trials of prevention of ONF described. We aimed to prevent ONF in steroid-treated SLE patients using anticoagulant, warfarin, conducting a multicenter prospective study. Sixty newly diagnosed SLE patients requiring 40 mg/day or more prednisolone were alternately assigned to either of two groups; a warfarin group and a control one. Warfarin (1 to approximately 5 mg/day) was started together with the beginning of steroid therapy and continued at least for three months. Patients were observed for the development of silent ONF by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and symptomatic ONF by plain radiography for over five years. The warfarin group consisted of 31 patients (62 hips) and the control one 29 patients (58 hips). Silent ONF developed in 13 hips (21%) and 19 hips (33%) in the warfarin group and the control group, respectively (P = 0.13). On the other hand, warfarin tended to prevent symptomatic ONF; only three hips of 62 (4.8 %) in the warfarin group and eight hips of 58 (14%) in the control group (P = 0.08) developed silent ONF. It was also found that silent ONF developed, if it did, very early; within three months in 16 of 18 patients (89%). Among risk factors for silent ONF, steroid pulse therapy was most outstanding and it seemed to overcome the effect of warfarin. Taken together, for the time being, anti-coagulant therapy, if not significantly sufficient, may be of use for the prevention of steroid-induced ONF in SLE. We consider that this study added to important evidence for the pathogenesis and prevention of ONF. PMID:16830881

  1. Modeling of single-phase induction motor loads in power system studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed-Zaid, S.; Kelly, J.A.; Jang, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    Single-phase induction motor loads can greatly influence system performance and voltage stability. This report is the result of investigations to improve power system dynamic performance simulation using improved models of these induction motor loads.

  2. Induction Motor Drive System using V-connection AC Chopper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Jun-Ichi; Tajima, Hirokazu; Ohsawa, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a novel induction motor drive system using a three-phase V-connection ac chopper that consists of two single-phase ac choppers. There are three new topics proposed in this paper. Firstly, this paper proves that the three-phase V-connection ac chopper can be operated properly only if the input and the output voltages are in synchronism . Secondly, a novel commutation method for ac chopper isproposed. The proposed commutation method combines the load current commutation and the input voltage commutation. Therefore, by applying the proposed commutation method, voltage and current surge around zero crossing of the input voltage and the load current do not occur. Thirdly, a novel high effciency control method for induction motor is proposed. The proposed control method does not require d-axis and q-axis current components, but uses only the magnitude ofthe primary current. The whole control system has a very simple structure. These new topics are confirmed by experimental results on a 750W general-purpose induction motor.

  3. Pharmacological effects of althesin and its steroidal components on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Al-Khawashki, M I; Ghaleb, H A; El-Gawhary, N; Madkour, M K; Radwan, A M; El-Sherbiny, A M

    1980-06-01

    Althesin and its two steroidal components elicited, despite a deficit vasopressor effect by their solvent vehicle Cremophor El, a well-marked hypotensive activity appearing abruptly after i.v. injection in chloralosed cats. This vasodepressor effect which was weaker and shorter lasting with alphadolone acetate than alphaxalone proved to be one-cholinergic, nonhistaminergic, not mediated via any ganglionic blocking activity and ;mostly attributable to central depressant action on vasomotor tone. An appreciable direct myocardial inhibition and a much weaker direct peripheral vasodilatation were shown to be contributory factors to the hypotension. ECG studies in chloralosed cats indicated the occurrence of mild grade bradycardia or else no evident change in the heart rate under the influence of althesin and its steroidal components. A definite protective influence for althesin mainly due to alphaxalone against adrenaline induced arrhythmia in chloralosed cats was also demonstrated. PMID:7464566

  4. Surface moisture measurement system electromagnetic induction probe calibration technique

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, R.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-08

    The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) is designed to measure the moisture concentration near the surfaces of the wastes located in the Hanford Site tank farms. This document describes a calibration methodology to demonstrate that the Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) moisture probe meets relevant requirements in the `Design Requirements Document (DRD) for the Surface Moisture Measurement System.` The primary purpose of the experimental tests described in this methodology is to make possible interpretation of EMI in-tank surface probe data to estimate the surface moisture.

  5. Control system for an induction motor with energy recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A control circuit for an induction motor powered system is disclosed in which a power factor controlled servo loop is used to control, via the phase angle of firing of a triac, the power input to the motor, as a function of load placed on the motor by machinery of the powered system. Then, upon application of torque by this machinery to the motor, which tends to overspeed the motor, the firing angle of the triac is automatically set to a fixed, and relatively short, firing angle.

  6. The Noise Level Optimization for Induction Magnetometer of SEP System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Fang, G.

    2011-12-01

    The Surface Electromagnetic Penetration (SEP) System, subsidized by the SinoProbe Plan in China, is designed for 3D conductivity imaging in geophysical mineral exploration, underground water distribution exploration, oil and gas reservoir exploration. Both the Controlled Source Audio Magnetotellurics (CSAMT) method and Magnetotellurics (MT) method can be surveyed by SEP system. In this article, an optimization design is introduced, which can minimize the noise level of the induction magnetometer for SEP system magnetic field's acquisition. The induction magnetometer transfers the rate of the magnetic field's change to voltage signal by induction coil, and amplified it by Low Noise Amplifier The noise parts contributed to the magnetometer are: the coil's thermal noise, the equivalent input voltage and current noise of the pre-amplifier. The coil's thermal noise is decided by coil's DC resistance. The equivalent input voltage and current noise of the pre-amplifier depend on the amplifier's type and DC operation condition. The design here optimized the DC operation point of pre-amplifier, adjusted the DC current source, and realized the minimum of total noise level of magnetometer. The calculation and test results show that: the total noise is about 1pT/√Hz, the thermal noise of coils is 1.7nV/√Hz, the preamplifier equivalent input voltage and current noise is 3nV/ √Hz and 0.1pA/√Hz, the weight of the magnetometer is 4.5kg and meet the requirement of SEP system.

  7. Investigation of inductively coupled ultrasonic transducer system for NDE.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cheng Huan; Croxford, Anthony J; Wilcox, Paul D

    2013-06-01

    Inductive coupling offers a simple solution to wirelessly probe ultrasonic transducers. This paper investigates the theory and feasibility of such an inductively coupled transducer system in the context of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications. The noncontact interface is based on electromagnetic coupling between three coils; one of the coils is physically connected to the transducer, the other two are in a separate probing unit, where they are connected to the transmit and receive channels of the instrumentation. The complete system is modeled as a three-port network with the measured impedance of a bonded piezoelectric ceramic disc representing a sensor attached to an arbitrary solid substrate. The developed transmission line model is a function of the physical parameters of the electromagnetic system, such as the number of turns and diameter of each coil, and their separation. This model provides immediate predictions of electrical input impedance and pulse-echo response. The model has been validated experimentally and a sensitivity analysis of the input parameters performed. This has enabled optimization of the various parameters. Inductively coupled transducer systems have been built for both bulk and guided wave examples. By using chirped excitation and baseline subtraction, inspection distance of up to 700 mm is achieved in single-shot, guided-wave pulse-echo mode measurements with a 5 mm separation between the probing coils and transducer coil on an aluminum plate structure. In the bulk wave example, a delamination in an 8.9-mm-thick carbon fiber composite specimen is successfully identified from the changes in the arrival time of a reflected pulse. PMID:25004474

  8. Sex steroids in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Martocchia, A; Stefanelli, M; Cola, S; Falaschi, P

    2011-01-01

    A sexual dysmorphism in the immune response has been described and females display an increased incidence of autoimmune diseases. Experimental data show that sex steroids influence immune cell development and have immunomodulatory effects. The distribution, the action (genomic and nongenomic), the sex and tissue-depending expression pattern of estrogen, progesterone and androgen receptors and their functional disruptions in corresponding receptor knockout animals will be discussed, pointing out the difference among sex steroid hormones. Recent advances indicate an immunomodulatory role of sex steroids in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. The outcomes of the clinical trials will help to find the best use of sex steroids in combination with current therapeutic drugs in autoimmune diseases. Sex steroid receptor modulating drugs will provide new therapeutic approaches in these pathologies. PMID:21463254

  9. Predicting In-Hospital Treatment Failure (≤7 days) in Patients with COPD Exacerbation Using Antibiotics and Systemic Steroids.

    PubMed

    Crisafulli, Ernesto; Torres, Antoni; Huerta, Arturo; Guerrero, Mónica; Gabarrús, Albert; Gimeno, Alexandra; Martinez, Raquel; Soler, Néstor; Fernández, Laia; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Menéndez, Rosario

    2016-02-01

    Although pharmacological treatment of COPD exacerbation (COPDE) includes antibiotics and systemic steroids, a proportion of patients show worsening of symptoms during hospitalization that characterize treatment failure. The aim of our study was to determine in-hospital predictors of treatment failure (≤ 7 days). Prospective data on 110 hospitalized COPDE patients, all treated with antibiotics and systemic steroids, were collected; on the seventh day of hospitalization, patients were divided into treatment failure (n = 16) or success (n = 94). Measures of inflammatory serum biomarkers were recorded at admission and at day 3; data on clinical, laboratory, microbiological, and severity, as well data on mortality and readmission, were also recorded. Patients with treatment failure had a worse lung function, with higher serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 8, and IL-10 at admission, and CRP and IL-8 at day 3. Longer length of hospital stay and duration of antibiotic therapy, higher total doses of steroids and prevalence of deaths and readmitted were found in the treatment failure group. In the multivariate analysis, +1 mg/dL of CRP at admission (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.13) and use of penicillins or cephalosporins (OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 1.26 to 25.07) were independent variables increasing risk of treatment failure, whereas cough at admission (OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.75) reduces risk of failure. In hospitalized COPDE patients CRP at admission and use of specific class of antibiotics predict in-hospital treatment failure, while presence of cough has a protective role. PMID:26451913

  10. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the auxiliary power unit must be capable of resisting the maximum heat conditions likely to occur. (f) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be constructed of materials that will not...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the auxiliary power unit must be capable of resisting the maximum heat conditions likely to occur. (f) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be constructed of materials that will not...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... resisting the maximum heat conditions likely to occur. (f) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be constructed of materials that will not absorb or trap hazardous quantities of flammable...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the auxiliary power unit must be capable of resisting the maximum heat conditions likely to occur. (f) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be constructed of materials that will not...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... resisting the maximum heat conditions likely to occur. (f) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be constructed of materials that will not absorb or trap hazardous quantities of flammable...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the auxiliary power unit must be capable of resisting the maximum heat conditions likely to occur. (f) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be constructed of materials that will not...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... resisting the maximum heat conditions likely to occur. (f) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be constructed of materials that will not absorb or trap hazardous quantities of flammable...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... resisting the maximum heat conditions likely to occur. (f) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be constructed of materials that will not absorb or trap hazardous quantities of flammable...

  18. Induction of potato steroidal glycoalkaloid biosynthetic pathway by overexpression of cDNA encoding primary metabolism HMG-CoA reductase and squalene synthase.

    PubMed

    Ginzberg, Idit; Thippeswamy, Muddarangappa; Fogelman, Edna; Demirel, Ufuk; Mweetwa, Alice M; Tokuhisa, James; Veilleux, Richard E

    2012-06-01

    Potato steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are toxic secondary metabolites whose total content in tubers must be regulated. SGAs are biosynthesized by the sterol branch of the mevalonic acid/isoprenoid pathway. In a previous study, we showed a correlation between SGA levels and the abundance of transcript coding for HMG-CoA reductase 1 (HMG1) and squalene synthase 1 (SQS1) in potato tissues and potato genotypes varying in SGA content. Here, Solanum tuberosum cv. Desirée (low SGA producer) was transformed with a gene construct containing the coding region of either HMG1 or SQS1 of Solanum chacoense Bitt. clone 8380-1, a high SGA producer. SGA levels in transgenic HMG-plants were either greater than (in eight of 14 plants) or no different from untransformed controls, whereas only four of 12 SQS-transgenics had greater SGA levels than control, as determined by HPLC. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to estimate relative steady-state transcript levels of isoprenoid-, steroid-, and SGA-related genes in leaves of the transgenic plants compared to nontransgenic controls. HMG-transgenic plants exhibited increased transcript accumulation of SQS1, sterol C24-methyltransferase type1 (SMT1), and solanidine glycosyltransferase 2 (SGT2), whereas SQS-transgenic plants, had consistently lower transcript levels of HMG1 and variable SMT1 and SGT2 transcript abundance among different transgenics. HMG-transgenic plants exhibited changes in transcript accumulation for some sterol biosynthetic genes as well. Taken together, the data suggest coordinated regulation of isoprenoid metabolism and SGA secondary metabolism. PMID:22205426

  19. Fasting increases aggression and differentially modulates local and systemic steroid levels in male zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Fokidis, H Bobby; Prior, Nora H; Soma, Kiran K

    2013-11-01

    Aggression enables individuals to obtain and retain limited resources. Studies of the neuroendocrine regulation of aggression have focused on territorial and reproductive contexts. By contrast, little is understood concerning the neuroendocrine regulation of aggression over other resources, such as food. Here, we developed a paradigm to examine the role of steroids in food-related aggression. In groups of male zebra finches, a 6-hour fast decreased body mass and increased aggressive interactions among subjects that competed for a point source feeder. Fasting also dramatically altered circulating steroid levels by decreasing plasma testosterone but not estradiol (E2). By contrast, both plasma corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations were elevated with fasting. Interestingly, short-term access to food (15 minutes) after fasting normalized circulating steroid levels. Fasting increased corticosterone levels in a wide range of peripheral tissues but increased DHEA levels specifically in adrenal glands and liver; these effects were quickly normalized with refeeding. DHEA can be metabolized within specific brain regions to testosterone and E2, which promote the expression of aggression. We measured E2 in microdissected brain regions and found that fasting specifically increased local E2 levels in 3 regions: the periaqueductal gray, ventral tegmental area, and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. These regions are part of the vertebrate social behavior network and regulate the expression of aggression. Together, these data suggest that fasting stimulates secretion of DHEA from the adrenals and liver and subsequent conversion of DHEA to E2 within specific brain regions, to enable individuals to compete for limited food resources. PMID:23939990

  20. The Data Acquisition System for a Kinetic Inductance Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Capasso, L.; Marchetti, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Data Acquisition System (DAQ) and the Front-End electronics for an array of Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) are described. KIDs are superconductive detectors, in which electrons are organized in Cooper pairs. Any incident radiation could break a pair generating a couple of quasi-particles that increase the inductance of the detector. The DAQ system we developed is a hardware/software co-design, based on state machines and on a microprocessor embedded into an FPGA. A commercial DAC/ADC board is used to interface the FPGA to the array of KIDs. The DAQ system generates a Stimulus signal suitable for an array of up to 128 KIDs. Such signal is up-mixed with a 3 GHz carrier wave and it then excites the KIDs array. The read-out signal from the detector is down-mixed with respect to the 3 GHz sine wave and recovered Stimulus is read back by the ADC device. The microprocessor stores read out data via a PCI express bus (PCIe) into an external disk. It also computes the Fast Fourier Transform of the acquired read out signal: this allows extrapolating which KID interacted and the energy of the impinging radiation. Simulations and tests have been performed successfully and experimental results are presented.

  1. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... continue to abuse steroids despite physical problems, high costs to buy the drugs, and negative effects on their relationships. These behaviors reflect steroids' addictive potential. Research has further found that some steroid users turn ...

  2. Epidural Steroid Injections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Assessment Tools Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysial (Facet) Joint Injections Surgical Options Nonsurgical Treatments Alternative Medicine Epidural Steroid Injections General Information Why Get an Epidural Steroid ...

  3. The Detector System for the Stratospheric Kinetic Inductance Polarimeter ( Skip)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Araujo, D.; Bradford, K. J.; Chapman, D.; Day, P. K.; Didier, J.; Doyle, S.; Eriksen, H. K.; Flanigan, D.; Groppi, C.; Hillbrand, S.; Jones, G.; Limon, M.; Mauskopf, P.; McCarrick, H.; Miller, A.; Mroczkowski, T.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, B.; Smiley, B.; Sobrin, J.; Wehus, I. K.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2014-09-01

    The stratospheric kinetic inductance polarimeter is a proposed balloon-borne experiment designed to study the cosmic microwave background, the cosmic infrared background and Galactic dust emission by observing 1,133 deg of sky in the Northern Hemisphere with launches from Kiruna, Sweden. The instrument contains 2,317 single-polarization, horn-coupled, aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors ( Lekids). The Lekids will be maintained at 100 mK with an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The polarimeter operates in two configurations, one sensitive to a spectral band centered on 150 GHz and the other sensitive to 260 and 350 GHz bands. The detector readout system is based on the ROACH-1 board, and the detectors will be biased below 300 MHz. The detector array is fed by an F/2.4 crossed-Dragone telescope with a 500 mm aperture yielding a 15 arcmin FWHM beam at 150 GHz. To minimize detector loading and maximize sensitivity, the entire optical system will be cooled to 1 K. Linearly polarized sky signals will be modulated with a metal-mesh half-wave plate that is mounted at the telescope aperture and rotated by a superconducting magnetic bearing. The observation program consists of at least two, 5-day flights beginning with the 150 GHz observations.

  4. Topical Steroid-Damaged Skin

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anil; Roga, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder. PMID:25284849

  5. Control of sex steroid-binding protein (SBP) in the male little brown bat: relationship of plasma thyroxine levels to the induction of plasma SBP in immature males.

    PubMed

    Kwiecinski, G G; Damassa, D A; Gustafson, A W

    1986-08-01

    The seasonally reproductive male little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus lucifugus) exhibits marked increases in plasma concentrations of sex steroid-binding protein (SBP) in the spring following arousal from hibernation. In this species an increase in SBP levels is induced prematurely in male bats aroused during the first half of hibernation and housed under long photoperiods; however, this rise is inhibited in bats housed under short photoperiods. In order to investigate the physiological role of the thyroid gland in the regulation of plasma SBP activity, plasma total thyroxine (T4) and SBP concentrations were determined in immature male little brown bats prematurely aroused from the first half of hibernation and maintained on either a short or long photoperiod. For this purpose a radioimmunoassay for the measurement of total T4 in bat plasma was established and validated. The results showed that immature male little brown bats aroused prematurely from hibernation and housed under a long spring-like photoperiod exhibited marked increases in plasma T4 and SBP concentrations, while animals housed under a short photoperiod showed only marginal increases in SBP, and plasma T4 remained undetectable. These results suggest that the thyroid gland, through the action of T4, may normally play an important role in the control of the post-arousal rise in plasma SBP concentrations in the little brown bat. PMID:3746164

  6. Modulation of systemic interleukin-6 induction by central interleukin-1.

    PubMed

    De Simoni, M G; De Luigi, A; Gemma, L; Sironi, M; Manfridi, A; Ghezzi, P

    1993-10-01

    Centrally administered interleukin (IL)-1 [both alpha and beta forms, 200 ng/rat intracerebroventricularly (icv)] results in a larger increase in serum IL-6 than after systemic injection, indicating the brain's role in the acute phase response. This action was prevented by the IL-1-receptor antagonist IL-1Ra (20 micrograms/rat icv). Neither antiserum against corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) nor the alpha-helical-CRF antagonist (25 micrograms/rat icv) affected IL-6 induction by central IL-1 beta, which, however, was significantly prevented by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone [3 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip)]. Naloxone, the opiate antagonist, but not naloxone methiodide, its quaternary salt that does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier (both administered at 10 mg/kg ip), antagonized this action of IL-1 beta. After intracerebroventricular IL-1 beta, IL-6 levels in brain areas (striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus) were extremely low, suggesting that the brain does not significantly contribute to IL-6 synthesis in this condition. The results show that induction of high serum IL-6 levels by central IL-1 beta is mediated by brain IL-1 receptors and is sensitive to inhibition by corticosteroids. The inhibitory effect of naloxone suggests that central opiates are required for this action of IL-1 beta. PMID:8238440

  7. Steroid induction of therapy-resistant cytokeratin-5-positive cells in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer through a BCL6-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, C R; Sato, T; Peck, A R; Girondo, M A; Yang, N; Liu, C; Yanac, A F; Kovatich, A J; Hooke, J A; Shriver, C D; Mitchell, E P; Hyslop, T; Rui, H

    2016-01-01

    Therapy resistance remains a major problem in estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-positive breast cancer. A subgroup of ERα-positive breast cancer is characterized by mosaic presence of a minor population of ERα-negative cancer cells expressing the basal cytokeratin-5 (CK5). These CK5-positive cells are therapy resistant and have increased tumor-initiating potential. Although a series of reports document induction of the CK5-positive cells by progestins, it is unknown if other 3-ketosteroids share this ability. We now report that glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids effectively expand the CK5-positive cell population. CK5-positive cells induced by 3-ketosteroids lacked ERα and progesterone receptors, expressed stem cell marker, CD44, and displayed increased clonogenicity in soft agar and broad drug-resistance in vitro and in vivo. Upregulation of CK5-positive cells by 3-ketosteroids required induction of the transcriptional repressor BCL6 based on suppression of BCL6 by two independent BCL6 small hairpin RNAs or by prolactin. Prolactin also suppressed 3-ketosteroid induction of CK5+ cells in T47D xenografts in vivo. Survival analysis with recursive partitioning in node-negative ERα-positive breast cancer using quantitative CK5 and BCL6 mRNA or protein expression data identified patients at high or low risk for tumor recurrence in two independent patient cohorts. The data provide a mechanism by which common pathophysiological or pharmacologic elevations in glucocorticoids or other 3-ketosteroids may adversely affect patients with mixed ERα+/CK5+ breast cancer. The observations further suggest a cooperative diagnostic utility of CK5 and BCL6 expression levels and justify exploring efficacy of inhibitors of BCL6 and 3-ketosteroid receptors for a subset of ERα-positive breast cancers. PMID:26096934

  8. Steroid induction of therapy-resistant cytokeratin-5-positive cells in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer through a BCL6-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Goodman, C R; Sato, T; Peck, A R; Girondo, M A; Yang, N; Liu, C; Yanac, A F; Kovatich, A J; Hooke, J A; Shriver, C D; Mitchell, E P; Hyslop, T; Rui, H

    2016-03-17

    Therapy resistance remains a major problem in estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-positive breast cancer. A subgroup of ERα-positive breast cancer is characterized by mosaic presence of a minor population of ERα-negative cancer cells expressing the basal cytokeratin-5 (CK5). These CK5-positive cells are therapy resistant and have increased tumor-initiating potential. Although a series of reports document induction of the CK5-positive cells by progestins, it is unknown if other 3-ketosteroids share this ability. We now report that glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids effectively expand the CK5-positive cell population. CK5-positive cells induced by 3-ketosteroids lacked ERα and progesterone receptors, expressed stem cell marker, CD44, and displayed increased clonogenicity in soft agar and broad drug-resistance in vitro and in vivo. Upregulation of CK5-positive cells by 3-ketosteroids required induction of the transcriptional repressor BCL6 based on suppression of BCL6 by two independent BCL6 small hairpin RNAs or by prolactin. Prolactin also suppressed 3-ketosteroid induction of CK5+ cells in T47D xenografts in vivo. Survival analysis with recursive partitioning in node-negative ERα-positive breast cancer using quantitative CK5 and BCL6 mRNA or protein expression data identified patients at high or low risk for tumor recurrence in two independent patient cohorts. The data provide a mechanism by which common pathophysiological or pharmacologic elevations in glucocorticoids or other 3-ketosteroids may adversely affect patients with mixed ERα+/CK5+ breast cancer. The observations further suggest a cooperative diagnostic utility of CK5 and BCL6 expression levels and justify exploring efficacy of inhibitors of BCL6 and 3-ketosteroid receptors for a subset of ERα-positive breast cancers. PMID:26096934

  9. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  10. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the

  11. Implantable flexible pressure measurement system based on inductive coupling.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cristina C; Sepúlveda, Alexandra T; Almeida, Nuno; Wardle, Brian L; da Silva, José Machado; Rocha, Luís A

    2015-02-01

    One of the currently available treatments for aortic aneurysms is endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). In spite of major advances in the operating techniques, complications still occur and lifelong surveillance is recommended. In order to reduce and even eliminate the commonly used surveillance imaging exams, as well as to reduce follow-up costs, new technological solutions are being pursued. In this paper, we describe the development, including design and performance characterization, of a flexible remote pressure measurement system based on inductive-coupling for post-EVAR monitoring purposes. The telemetry system architecture and operation are described and main performance characteristics discussed. The implantable sensor details are provided and its model is presented. Simulations with the reading circuit and the sensor's model were performed and compared with measurements carried out with air and a phantom as media, in order to characterize the telemetry system and validate the models. The transfer characteristic curve (pressure versus frequency) of the monitoring system was obtained with measurements performed with the sensor inside a controlled pressure vacuum chamber. Additional experimental results which proof the system functionality were obtained within a hydraulic test bench that emulates the aorta. Several innovative aspects, when compared to the state of the art, both in the sensor and in the telemetry system were achieved. PMID:25347867

  12. Induction of cell-specific apoptosis and protection of mice from cancer challenge by a steroid positive compound from Zornia diphylla (L.) Pers

    PubMed Central

    Arunkumar, R.; Nair, S. Ajikumaran; Subramoniam, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Zornia diphylla (L.) Pers is an ethnomedical herb. The aim of the study is to scientifically verify the traditional use of Z. diphylla as an anticancer medicine. Materials and Methods: Different extracts, fractions, and chemical isolates of the whole plant were screened for cytotoxicity to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) cells by the Trypan blue exclusion method and MTT assay. Column chromatographic and preparative TLC techniques were used for the isolation of active fraction (AF) and active principle. Cytotoxicity of AF to different cell types was tested. The apoptotic activity of AF was evaluated by morphological observations, nuclear condensation, and comet assay. In vivo antitumor activity of AF was determined in DLA-challenged mice. Short-term (29 days) preliminary toxicity evaluation of AF was done in mice. Results: n-Hexane extract (but not water and ethanol extracts) showed significant cytotoxicity. AF, isolated from n-hexane extract, induced apoptotic cell death (in vitro) to DLA cells, but not to normal thymocytes and macrophages. A steroid positive active principle was isolated which showed 100% cytotoxicity at 5 μg/mL level. Interestingly, AF (50 mg/kg) protected all the mice challenged with one million DLA cells/mouse. AF (up to 10 times higher than the therapeutic dose) did not exhibit any conspicuous adverse toxic symptoms in the toxicity evaluation. Conclusion: Z. diphylla (AF) showed promising in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity against DLA cells, and it was devoid of any toxicity to mice in short-term toxicity evaluation. The herb is promising for the development of a valuable anticancer medicine. PMID:23129958

  13. Forward and reverse control system for induction motors

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.T.

    1987-09-15

    A control system for controlling the direction of rotation of a rotor of an induction motor includes an array of five triacs with one of the triacs applying a current of fixed phase to the windings of the rotor and four of the triacs being switchable to apply either hot ac current or return ac current to the stator windings so as to reverse the phase of current in the stator relative to that of the rotor and thereby reverse the direction of rotation of the rotor. Switching current phase in the stator is accomplished by operating the gates of pairs of the triacs so as to connect either hot ac current or return ac current to the input winding of the stator. 1 fig.

  14. Development of a linear induction motor based artificial muscle system.

    PubMed

    Gruber, A; Arguello, E; Silva, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the design of a linear induction motor based on electromagnetic interactions. The engine is capable of producing a linear movement from electricity. The design consists of stators arranged in parallel, which produce a magnetic field sufficient to displace a plunger along its axial axis. Furthermore, the winding has a shell and cap of ferromagnetic material that amplifies the magnetic field. This produces a force along the length of the motor that is similar to that of skeletal muscle. In principle, the objective is to use the engine in the development of an artificial muscle system for prosthetic applications, but it could have multiple applications, not only in the medical field, but in other industries. PMID:24111159

  15. Toroid Joining Gun. [thermoplastic welding system using induction heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. D.; Fox, R. L.; Swaim, R J.

    1985-01-01

    The Toroid Joining Gun is a low cost, self-contained, portable low powered (100-400 watts) thermoplastic welding system developed at Langley Research Center for joining plastic and composite parts using an induction heating technique. The device developed for use in the fabrication of large space sructures (LSST Program) can be used in any atmosphere or in a vacuum. Components can be joined in situ, whether on earth or on a space platform. The expanded application of this welding gun is in the joining of thermoplastic composites, thermosetting composites, metals, and combinations of these materials. Its low-power requirements, light weight, rapid response, low cost, portability, and effective joining make it a candidate for solving many varied and unique bonding tasks.

  16. Factors affecting the induction of 11 alpha-hydroxylase of progesterone in the filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans.

    PubMed

    Hudnik-Plevnik, T; Cresnar, B

    1990-05-01

    The 11 alpha-hydroxylase of progesterone was induced in the filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans ATCC 6227b with different steroids as inducers and the induction process was optimized in regard to the age of the mycelium, to the concentration of the inducer and to the time of induction. Deoxycorticosterone and testosterone, steroids with higher polarity of the side-chain than progesterone, although poorer substrates for in vivo hydroxylation than progesterone, induced more enzyme compared to progesterone. Other alterations in the steroidal ring system examined diminished the induction capability of the inducing steroid to different extent. The highest 11 alpha-hydroxylating activity, if expressed on the basis of mycelial wet weight, was achieved with 18 h old mycelium which was induced for 2 h with 0.30 mM deoxycorticosterone. PMID:2362437

  17. Adolescent Steroid Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

  18. Evaluation of neuroactive steroid levels by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in central and peripheral nervous system: effect of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Donatella; Scurati, Samuele; Maschi, Omar; De Angelis, Leonardo; Roglio, Ilaria; Giatti, Silvia; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Melcangi, Roberto C

    2008-01-01

    The nervous system is a target for physiological and protective effects of neuroactive steroids. Consequently, the assessment of their levels in nervous structures under physiological and pathological conditions is a top priority. To this aim, identification and quantification of pregnenolone (PREG), progesterone (PROG), dihydroprogesterone (DHP), tetrahydroprogesterone (THP), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5alpha-androstan-3alpha, 17beta-diol (3alpha-diol), 17alpha- and 17beta-estradiol (17alpha-E and 17beta-E) by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been set up. After validation, this method was applied to determine the levels of neuroactive steroids in central (i.e., cerebral cortex, cerebellum and spinal cord) and peripheral (i.e., brachial nerve) nervous system of control and diabetic rats. In controls only the brachial nerve had detectable levels of all these neuroactive steroids. In contrast, 17alpha-E in cerebellum, 17alpha-E, 17beta-E, DHP and THP in cerebral cortex, and 17alpha-E, 17beta-E and DHP in spinal cord were under the detection limit. Diabetes, induced by injection with streptozotocin, strongly affected the levels of some neuroactive steroids. In particular, the levels of PREG, PROG and T in cerebellum, of PROG, T and 3alpha-diol in cerebral cortex, of PROG, DHT and 3alpha-diol in spinal cord and of PREG, DHP, THP, T, DHT and 3alpha-diol in brachial nerve were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the data here reported demonstrate that the LC-MS/MS method allows the assessment of neuroactive steroids in the nervous system with high sensitivity and specificity and that diabetes strongly affects their levels, providing a further basis for new therapeutic tools based on neuroactive steroids aimed at counteracting diabetic neuropathy. PMID:17686551

  19. Rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries develop hypertension and increased sympathetic nervous system activity

    PubMed Central

    Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Ploj, Karolina; Larsson, Britt-Mari; Holmäng, Agneta

    2005-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction, abdominal obesity, hyperandrogenism, hypertension, and insulin resistance. Methods Our objectives in this study were (1) to estimate sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM) activity by measuring mean systolic blood pressure (MSAP) in rats with estradiol valerate (EV)-induced PCO; (2) to estimate alpha1a and alpha2a adrenoceptor expression in a brain area thought to mediate central effects on MSAP regulation and in the adrenal medulla; (3) to assess hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation by measuring adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) levels in response to novel-environment stress; and (4) to measure abdominal obesity, sex steroids, and insulin sensitivity. Results The PCO rats had significantly higher MSAP than controls, higher levels of alpha1a adrenoceptor mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and lower levels of alpha2a adrenoceptor mRNA in the PVN and adrenal medulla. After exposure to stress, PCO rats had higher ACTH and CORT levels. Plasma testosterone concentrations were lower in PCO rats, and no differences in insulin sensitivity or in the weight of intraabdominal fat depots were found. Conclusion Thus, rats with EV-induced PCO develop hypertension and increased sympathetic and HPA-axis activity without reduced insulin sensitivity, obesity, or hyperandrogenism. These findings may have implications for mechanisms underlying hypertension in PCOS. PMID:16146570

  20. Dendritic growth gated by a steroid hormone receptor underlies increases in activity in the developing Drosophila locomotor system

    PubMed Central

    Zwart, Maarten F.; Randlett, Owen; Evers, Jan Felix; Landgraf, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    As animals grow, their nervous systems also increase in size. How growth in the central nervous system is regulated and its functional consequences are incompletely understood. We explored these questions, using the larval Drosophila locomotor system as a model. In the periphery, at neuromuscular junctions, motoneurons are known to enlarge their presynaptic axon terminals in size and strength, thereby compensating for reductions in muscle excitability that are associated with increases in muscle size. Here, we studied how motoneurons change in the central nervous system during periods of animal growth. We find that within the central nervous system motoneurons also enlarge their postsynaptic dendritic arbors, by the net addition of branches, and that these scale with overall animal size. This dendritic growth is gated on a cell-by-cell basis by a specific isoform of the steroid hormone receptor ecdysone receptor-B2, for which functions have thus far remained elusive. The dendritic growth is accompanied by synaptic strengthening and results in increased neuronal activity. Electrical properties of these neurons, however, are independent of ecdysone receptor-B2 regulation. We propose that these structural dendritic changes in the central nervous system, which regulate neuronal activity, constitute an additional part of the adaptive response of the locomotor system to increases in body and muscle size as the animal grows. PMID:24043825

  1. Module Eight: Induction; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The module covers in greater depth electromagnetic induction, its effects, and how it is used to advantage in electrical circuits; and the physical components, called inductors, designed to take advantage of the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. This module is divided into four lessons: electromagnetism; inductors and flux density, inducing…

  2. Towards a Formalised Teacher Induction System: The Macau Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vong, Sou-Kuan; Wong, Matilda

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of teacher induction not only for sustaining teacher retention and reducing attrition, but also for supporting beginning teachers, helping them develop professionally as they progress within the profession and enhancing effective teaching and learning. While acknowledging the importance of teacher induction,…

  3. Relationship of food intake to the induction of plasma sex steroid-binding protein and testicular activity in immature male little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus lucifugus).

    PubMed

    Damassa, D A; Gustafson, A W

    1985-07-01

    Immature male little brown bats were aroused prematurely from their first hibernation and fed ad libitum (Group AL) or given a restricted diet (Group FR). All animals were weighed daily and the food intake of Group FR males was restricted to maintain their body weights at or near initial post-arousal values (5.3-6.8 g). The average body weights of Group AL males increased during the first week after arousal and then stabilized at a level which was 20% higher than those of Group FR males. The post-arousal induction of plasma SBP was similar in Groups FR and AL: plasma SBP activity was significantly increased 1 week after arousal and by 3 weeks had reached levels which were more than 10-fold higher than those of immature hibernating males which served as controls. Although food restriction had no effect on plasma SBP levels, it did inhibit reproductive development. Arousal-induced increases in testicular and epididymal (head/body) weights in Group FR males were less than 50% of those in Group AL males. However, histological examination of the testes revealed similar degrees of spermatogenic activation in both groups. Plasma testosterone concentrations were increased markedly in Groups FR and AL; values were generally lower in Group FR but wide individual variations were observed. Despite these elevated peripheral testosterone values, the accessory sex glands in both groups remained unstimulated. PMID:3930716

  4. Birdsong and the neural production of steroids

    PubMed Central

    Remage-Healey, Luke; London, Sarah E.; Schinger, Barney A.

    2009-01-01

    The forebrain circuits involved in singing and audition (the ‘song system’) in songbirds exhibit a remarkable capacity to synthesize and respond to steroid hormones. This review considers how local brain steroid production impacts the development, sexual differentiation, and activity of song system circuitry. The songbird forebrain contains all of the enzymes necessary for the de novo synthesis of steroids - including neuroestrogens - from cholesterol. Steroid production enzymes are found in neuronal cell bodies, but they are also expressed in pre-synaptic terminals in the song system, indicating a novel mode of brain steroid delivery to local circuits. The song system expresses nuclear hormone receptors, consistent with local action of brain-derived steroids. Local steroid production also occurs in brain regions that do not express nuclear hormone receptors, suggesting a non-classical mode-of-action. Recent evidence indicates that local steroid levels can change rapidly within the forebrain, in a manner similar to traditional neuromodulators. Lastly, we consider growing evidence for modulatory interactions between brain-derived steroids and neurotransmitter/neuropeptide networks within the song system. Songbirds have therefore emerged as a rich and powerful model system to explore the neural and neurochemical regulation of social behavior. PMID:19589382

  5. A linear induction motor control system for magnetically levitated carrier system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azukizawa, Teruo; Morishita, Mimpei; Kanda, Shuji; Tamura, Noboru; Yokoyama, Toyohiko

    1989-05-01

    A electromagnetic suspension system has been developed that cuts off electric power-collecting devices from a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system makes it possible to transport materials with no mechanical contact at all between the vehicle and ground facilities. A control system for linear induction motors used in the magnetically levitated carrier system is described. The system was developed to transport materials in an environment which must be kept free from even microscopic dust motes and trivial noise. The linear induction motor control method used for positioning a vehicle at the station is described along with several kinds of switches without any mechanical motion in the ground facilities. A supervisory control system for the magnetically levitated carrier system is also discussed.

  6. Participation of the opioid system in the regulation of prolactin secretion in androgenized rats: effect of ovarian steroids.

    PubMed

    Soaje, M; Deis, R P

    1999-04-23

    We examined the role of the opioid system on the regulation of prolactin secretion in neonatally androgenized rats and evaluated the participation of ovarian steroids in this regulation. Androgenized rats exhibited an increase of prolactin secretion with higher serum circulating levels in the afternoon (1800) than in the morning (1000). The administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone (2 mg/kg, 30 min before decapitation) reduced serum prolactin levels in both groups. To identify the opioid receptor subtypes involved in this regulation, opioid agonists were administered i.c.v. 15 min before the decapitation (1000). The mu-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin) caused a significant increase in serum prolactin concentration. The selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U-50, 488H (trans-(+/-)-3,4-dichloro-N-[2(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl]-benzene acetamide methane sulfonate salt) induced a small but significant increase in serum prolactin levels but no effect was observed after administration of the delta-opioid agonist DPDPE ([D-Pen2, D-Pen5]-enkephalin). The role of oestradiol and the opioid system in the continuous secretion of prolactin was also study. Chronic gonadectomy (3-4 weeks) reduced serum prolactin concentrations measured at 1000 but the administration of naloxone had no effect. Three days of oestrogen treatment (2 microg/rat in oil) restored serum prolactin levels compared with ovariectomized animals and this effect was abolished by naloxone treatment. Interestingly, acute ovariectomy or administration of tamoxifen to intact androgenized rats did not prevent the continuous secretion of prolactin observed in these animals and naloxone treatment reduced serum prolactin levels in both groups of rats. We also examine the participation of adrenal progesterone and the endogenous opioid peptides on the regulation of prolactin levels in androgenized rats. After adrenalectomy, no changes in serum prolactin levels (1000) were observed compared with the control animal and naloxone treatment significantly reduced circulating prolactin levels. Progesterone treatment to intact androgenized rats significantly increased prolactin levels and the administration of naloxone blocked the stimulatory effect of the steroid. These results suggest that the opioid system play a role in the regulation of prolactin secretion in androgenized rats modulated by the persistence of oestrogen action. Moreover, the presence or absence of progesterone did not modify the regulation of prolactin secretion by the opioids. The mu- and kappa-opioid receptor subtypes are the ones involved in the modulation of pituitary prolactin secretion. PMID:10355593

  7. Detection of speaking with a new respiratory inductive plethysmography system.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Frank H; Handke, Eva M; Roth, Walton T

    2003-01-01

    The LifeShirt system, a garment with integrated sensors connected to a handheld computer, allows recording of a wide variety of clinically important cardiorespiratory data continuously for extended periods outside the laboratory or clinic. The device includes sensors for assessment of physical activity and posture since both can affect physiological activation and need to be controlled. Speaking is another potential confounding factor in the interpretation of physiological data. Auditory speech recording is problematic because it can pick up sources other than the person's voice (external microphone) or is obtrusive (throat microphone). The abdominal and thoracic calibrated respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) sensors integrated in the LifeShirt system might be an adequate alternative for detecting speech. In a laboratory experiment we determined respiratory parameters indicative of speech. Eighteen subjects were instructed to sit quietly, write, and speak continuously, for 4 min each. Nine parameters were derived from the RIP signals and averaged over each minute. In addition, nine variability parameters were computed as their coefficients of breath-by-breath variation. Inspiratory/expiratory time (IE-ratio) best distinguished speaking from writing with 98% correct classification at a cutoff criterion of 0.52. This criterion was equally successful in distinguishing speaking from sitting quietly. Discriminant analyses indicated that linear combinations of IE-ratio and a variety of other parameters did not reliably improve classification accuracy across tasks and replications. These results demonstrate the high efficacy of RIP-derived IE-ratio for speech detection and suggest that auditory recording is not necessary for detection of speech in ambulatory assessment. PMID:12724882

  8. Pesticide- and sex steroid analogue-induced endocrine disruption differentially targets hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal system during gametogenesis in teleosts - A review.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2015-08-01

    Pesticide-induced endocrine disruption often mimics sex steroidal action resulting in physiological functional disarray of hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) system at multiple levels. Among various group of pesticides, organochlorine and organophosphate family of pesticides are known to impart sex steroidal mimicking activity with slightly higher resemblance to estrogens when compared to androgenic action. This review will highlight the effects of organochlorine (for e.g. endosulfan) and organophosphate (for e.g. malathion) pesticides in comparison with sex-steroid analogue-induced changes on HHG axis during gametogenesis in few teleost fish models. Interestingly, the effects of these compounds have produced differential effects in juveniles and adults which also vary based on exposure dosage and duration. Further, the treatments had caused at times sexually dimorphic effects indicating that the action of these compounds bring out serious implications in sexual development. A comprehensive overview has been provided by considering all these aspects to recognize the adverse impacts of pesticide-induced endocrine disruption with special reference to endosulfan and malathion as those had been applied even today or used before for controlling agricultural pests in several Asian countries including India. This review also compares the effects of sex-steroid analogues where in sex reversal to reproductive dysfunction is evident, which may imply the extent of sexual plasticity in teleosts compared to other vertebrates. PMID:25637674

  9. Randomised controlled trial of azathioprine and 5‐aminosalicylic acid for treatment of steroid dependent ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ardizzone, S; Maconi, G; Russo, A; Imbesi, V; Colombo, E; Porro, G Bianchi

    2006-01-01

    Background and aim There are limited evidence based data concerning the use of azathioprine in ulcerative colitis. We aimed to compare the efficacy of azathioprine and oral 5‐aminosalicylic acid in inducing remission of steroid dependent ulcerative colitis. Methods Seventy two patients with steroid dependent ulcerative colitis were admitted to this investigator‐blind study. Steroid dependence was defined as a requirement for steroid therapy ⩾10 mg/day during the preceding six months, with at least two attempts to discontinue the medication. The disease had to be clinically and endoscopically active at study entry, and all patients were taking systemic prednisolone (40 mg/day). Patients were randomised to receive azathioprine 2 mg/kg/day or oral 5‐aminosalicylic acid 3.2 g/day, for a six month follow up period. The outcome of the treatment was defined as (1) success, indicating induction of clinical and endoscopic remission and steroid discontinuation, or (2) failure, indicating the absence of clinical and endoscopic remission and therefore the need for at least one further cycle of systemic steroids to control symptoms, apart from the initial one, or colectomy. Results Significantly more patients in the azathioprine than in the 5‐aminosalicylic acid group had clinical and endoscopic remission, and discontinued steroid therapy, both in the intention to treat (azathioprine v 5‐aminosalicylic acid: 19/36 patients (53%) v 7/36 (21%); odds ratio (OR) 4.78 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.57–14.5)) and per protocol (azathioprine v 5‐aminosalicylic acid: 19/33 patients (58%) v 7/34 (21%); OR 5.26 (95% CI 1.59–18.1)) analysis. Conclusions Azathioprine is significantly more effective than 5‐aminosalicylic acid in inducing clinical and endoscopic remission and avoiding steroid requirement in the treatment of steroid dependent ulcerative colitis. PMID:15972298

  10. The Role of Inductive Expert Systems Generators in the Social Science Research Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garson, G. David

    Most of what may be construed as political science has always proceeded through induction, which depends heavily on the insight, intuition, and personal brilliance of the particular author. Another approach that is closely associated with the early induction through examples is the expert system. The outcomes of this approach are not measures of…

  11. Inductive Energy Storage Systems and Photoconductive Semiconductor Opening Switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Chun Chieh

    Conventional opening switches suffer drawbacks such as single shot operation, triggering jitter, non-controllable conduction time, slow opening time, etc. Because of a limited capability of the existing switches, the development of high power photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS's) in this application has been prompted. Since the switch is laser activated, it can have a jitter free triggering. As the switch is turned off by terminating the laser illumination, its turn-off time can be determined by either the carrier recombination time inside the switch or the optical pulse fall-time, whichever is slower. Hence, its conduction period is controllable and its opening time can be on the order of nanosecond. This makes the PCSS be the fastest opening switch among all the existing ones. In this work, the pulse forming theories in the dual of the LC generator, the current charged transmission line (CCTL), and the dual of the Blumlein line (DBL) which are charged with a voltage source are discussed for the first time. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the feasibility of using a 5 mm cube GaAs p-i-n diode PCSS to generate multi-kilovolt pulses from the CCTL and the DBL. These experimental results clearly illustrate that the PCSS can be treated as an ideal opening switch when it is activated by a nearly square laser pulse. Also, the potential of employing the PCSS in these two inductive systems to obtain voltage/power gain through electrical pulse compression has been realized for the first time. By combining the experimental waveforms with an appropriate circuit model, the switch dynamic resistance during the closing and opening period has been computed and analyzed. The calculated results strongly suggest that the switch on-resistance can be as low as few ohms and the abnormal conduction of the switch during the opening stage might be related to the "lock-on" effect observed in the closing switch experiments. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  12. NDCX-II PULSED POWER SYSTEM AND INDUCTION CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, W.L.; Reginato, L.L.; Leitner, M.

    2009-06-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is currently finalizing the design of NDCX-II, the second phase of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, which will use an ion beam to explore Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target hydrodynamics. The ion induction accelerator will include induction cells and Blumleins from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A test stand has been built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test refurbished ATA induction cells and pulsed power hardware for voltage holding and ability to produce various compression and acceleration waveforms. The performance requirements, design modifications, and test results will be presented.

  13. Space fabrication demonstration system. [beam builder and induction fastening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The development effort on the composite beam cap fabricator was completed within cost and close to abbreviated goals. The design and analysis of flight weight primary and secondary beam builder structures proceeded satisfactorily but remains curtailed until further funding is made available to complete the work. The induction fastening effort remains within cost and schedule constraints. Tests of the LARC prototype induction welder is continuing in an instrumented test stand comprised of a Dumore drill press (air over oil feed for variable applied loads) and a dynamometer to measure actual welding loads. Continued testing shows that the interface screening must be well impregnated with resin to ensure proper flow when bonding graphite-acrylic lap shear samples. Specimens prepared from 0.030 inch thick graphite-polyethersulfone are also available for future induction fastening evaluation.

  14. Antiphospholipids Syndrome Complicated by a Systemic Capillary Leak-Like Syndrome Treated With Steroids and Intravenous Immunoglobulins: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Prete, Marcella; Urso, Livio; Fatone, Maria Celeste; Pinto, Vincenzo; Perosa, Federico

    2016-02-01

    This report describes the onset of systemic capillary leak (SCL)-like syndrome in a 30-year-old woman with antiphospholipids syndrome (APS) during puerperium.Twelve hours after a cesarean section, she presented a sudden fever and abdominal pains followed by dyspnea, severe edema of the limbs and pelvis.Computer tomography shows congestion of interstitial pulmonary parenchyma, pericardial and pleural effusion, edema of intestinal wall and of perivisceral adipose tissue, and periportal lymphedema. Laboratory tests showed neutrophilic leukocytosis, hypoalbuminemia, and an increase of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. Because fever and raised inflammation parameters are not observed in idiopathic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS; Clarkson disease), a diagnosis of SCL-like syndrome was made.Albumin solution, high-dose methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) infusion were administered with a rapid improvement of her clinical condition.The prompt treatment with steroids and IVIG likely prevented the life-threatening shock syndrome that can occur in SCLS, with acute hypotensive attacks, and severe limbs edema requiring fasciotomy.All clinical and laboratory findings supported autoinflammation as the underlying pathogenic mechanism of the syndrome. The data indicate that SCL-like syndrome can be considered a novel clinical syndrome, which can complicate APS. PMID:26844485

  15. Antiphospholipids Syndrome Complicated by a Systemic Capillary Leak-Like Syndrome Treated With Steroids and Intravenous Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Prete, Marcella; Urso, Livio; Fatone, Maria Celeste; Pinto, Vincenzo; Perosa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This report describes the onset of systemic capillary leak (SCL)-like syndrome in a 30-year-old woman with antiphospholipids syndrome (APS) during puerperium. Twelve hours after a cesarean section, she presented a sudden fever and abdominal pains followed by dyspnea, severe edema of the limbs and pelvis. Computer tomography shows congestion of interstitial pulmonary parenchyma, pericardial and pleural effusion, edema of intestinal wall and of perivisceral adipose tissue, and periportal lymphedema. Laboratory tests showed neutrophilic leukocytosis, hypoalbuminemia, and an increase of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. Because fever and raised inflammation parameters are not observed in idiopathic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS; Clarkson disease), a diagnosis of SCL-like syndrome was made. Albumin solution, high-dose methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) infusion were administered with a rapid improvement of her clinical condition. The prompt treatment with steroids and IVIG likely prevented the life-threatening shock syndrome that can occur in SCLS, with acute hypotensive attacks, and severe limbs edema requiring fasciotomy. All clinical and laboratory findings supported autoinflammation as the underlying pathogenic mechanism of the syndrome. The data indicate that SCL-like syndrome can be considered a novel clinical syndrome, which can complicate APS. PMID:26844485

  16. Power factor control system for ac induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A power control circuit for an induction motor is disclosed in which a servo loop is used to control power input by controlling the power factor of motor operation. The power factor is measured by summing the voltage and current derived square wave signals.

  17. System analysis and design for the resonant inductive nearfield generation system (RINGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alinger, Dustin James

    The Resonant Inductive Near-field Generation System (RINGS) is a technology demonstrator experiment which will allow for the first ever testing of electromagnetic formation flight (EMFF) algorithms in a full six degree of freedom environment on board the International Space Station (ISS). RINGS is a hybrid design, which, in addition to providing EMFF capabilities, also allows for wireless power transfer (WPT) via resonant inductive coupling. This thesis presents an overview of the mechanical and electrical design of the RINGS experiment, as well as simulation techniques used to model various system parameters in both EMFF and WPT operational modes. Also presented is an analytical and experimental investigation of the influence of the proximity effect on a multi-layer flat spiral coil made from ribbon wire.

  18. System and method of adjusting the equilibrium temperature of an inductively-heated susceptor

    DOEpatents

    Matsen, Marc R; Negley, Mark A; Geren, William Preston

    2015-02-24

    A system for inductively heating a workpiece may include an induction coil, at least one susceptor face sheet, and a current controller coupled. The induction coil may be configured to conduct an alternating current and generate a magnetic field in response to the alternating current. The susceptor face sheet may be configured to have a workpiece positioned therewith. The susceptor face sheet may be formed of a ferromagnetic alloy having a Curie temperature and being inductively heatable to an equilibrium temperature approaching the Curie temperature in response to the magnetic field. The current controller may be coupled to the induction coil and may be configured to adjust the alternating current in a manner causing a change in at least one heating parameter of the susceptor face sheet.

  19. ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY AND STEROID HORMONES IN SWINE WASTEWATER PROCESSED THROUGH A LAGOON CONSTRUCTED-WETLAND SYSTEM.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons and treatment wetlands are used world-wide to treat wastewater from dense livestock production facilities. However, there is very limited data on the hormonal activity of the wastewater effluent produced by these treatment systems. The objectives of this experiment were to measur...

  20. Liquid-metal MHD-generator system with an inductive energy storage unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, G. A.; Breev, V. V.; Dmitriev, K. I.; Karasev, B. G.; Lavrentev, I. V.

    1982-06-01

    The paper examines a liquid-metal MHD generator system intended as an electrical energy source for a thermonuclear reactor. The optimal characteristics of the system are examined, and it is shown, by feeding the inductive energy storage unit from the MHD generator, it is possible to achieve a total efficiency of 40% for a stored energy of 10-1000 MJ in the inductive unit.

  1. Testing the effects of long-acting steroids in edema and ecchymosis after closed rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Santiago; Wuesthoff, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Steroids have proven to be of some benefit in rhinoplasty edema and ecchymosis when administered at a high and repeated dose. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of single-dose, long-acting intramuscular steroids on postoperative edema and ecchymosis after closed rhinoplasty with osteotomies compared with placebo. METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was performed. Fifty-four patients were randomly assigned to two groups: 28 received a single dose of long-acting dexamethasone (mean [± SD] dose 16±4 mg) immediately before anesthetic induction; the remaining 26 received an intramuscular injection of saline solution. The same surgeon performed all surgeries, with patients under general anesthesia. Acetaminophen was the only analgesic used to control postoperative pain. High-resolution digital photographs were taken on postoperative days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Scoring was performed separately for eyelid swelling and ecchymosis by an independent observer using a graded scale (0 to 5) for edema and a scoring system (0 to 13) for ecchymosis. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in terms of age, sex or amount of bleeding during surgery were found between the two groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in the decrease of both ecchymosis and edema between placebo and high-dose, long-acting dexamethasone. A statistically significant difference in operation time was found, favouring the steroid group. No severe complications were observed due to steroid use. DISCUSSION: Osteotomies are basically a form of (controlled) trauma, with considerable disruption of the abundant blood vessels in this facial region and, therefore, are associated with with undesirable effects. A recent meta-analysis failed to show benefits of the use of steroids after postoperative day 3. Only a trend toward reduction in edema and ecchymosis with the use of long-acting steroids compared with placebo was demonstrated in the present study. CONCLUSION: There was no benefit in administering single-dose, long-acting steroids in patients undergoing closed rhinoplasty with osteotomies. PMID:25114618

  2. Steroid extraction in a microchannel system--mathematical modelling and experiments.

    PubMed

    Znidarsic-Plazl, Polona; Plazl, Igor

    2007-07-01

    The continuous ethyl acetate extraction of progesterone and 11alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, a reactant and the product of the biotransformation step involved in corticosteroid production, was studied in a microchannel at different flow velocities. In addition, non-steady state batch extraction without mixing was performed and modelled in order to verify the theoretically predicted parameters. In order to analyze experimental data and to forecast microreactor performance, a three-dimensional mathematical model with convection and diffusion terms was developed considering the velocity profile for laminar flow of two parallel phases in a microchannel at steady-state conditions. For the numerical solution of a complex equation system, non-equidistant finite differences were used. Very good agreement between model calculations and experimental data was achieved without any fitting procedure. Due to the efficient phase separation and high extraction yields obtained, the micro scale extraction units were found to be a promising tool for the development of an integrated system of 11alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone by Rhizopus nigricans in the form of pellets. PMID:17594008

  3. Patellar Tendon Rupture after Lateral Release without Predisposing Systemic Disease or Steroid Use

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgi, S.; Notarnicola, A.; Vicenti, G.; Moretti, B.

    2015-01-01

    Arthroscopic technique for lateral release is the most widely used procedure for the correction of recurrent dislocations of the patella. In the relevant literature, several complications of lateral release are described, but the spontaneous patellar tendon rupture has never been suggested as a possible complication of this surgical procedure. Patellar tendon rupture is a rather infrequent and often unilateral lesion. Nevertheless, in case of systemic diseases (LES, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic renal insufficiency) that can weaken collagen structures, bilateral patellar tendon ruptures are described. We report a case of a 24-year-old girl with spontaneous rupture of patellar tendon who, at the age of 16, underwent an arthroscopic lateral release for recurrent dislocation of the patella. This is the first case of described spontaneous patellar tendon rupture that occurred some years after an arthroscopic lateral release. PMID:25960904

  4. [Gender and the effects of steroid hormones in the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Brandt, N; Vierk, R; Fester, L; Zhou, L; Imholz, P; Rune, G M

    2014-09-01

    Degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, the incidence and prevalence of which vary between men and women, often manifest in the hippocampus. Neurosteroids are hormones that are synthesized in the CNS, and it is here that they exert their influence. Estrogen and testosterone are examples of neurosteroid hormones. In the hippocampus, an area of the brain closely associated with learning and memory, the local synthesis of estrogen in females, but not in males, is essential for the plasticity and stability of the synapses. The inhibition of estrogen synthesis in the female hippocampus causes a reduction in long-term potentiation (LTP), an electrophysiological parameter of learning and memory, thus resulting in a significant loss of synapses. In light of this, the fact that estrogen has been attributed with many neuroprotective functions in degenerative diseases of the CNS suggests that therapeutic concepts involving the use of estrogen are possibly only effective in women, but not in men. These findings similarly provide a basis for explaining the gender dimorphism that has been found in certain degenerative illnesses of the CNS. PMID:25091372

  5. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment. PMID:26125159

  6. Switching from systemic steroids to ciclesonide restores the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis

    PubMed Central

    Ciebiada, Maciej; Górski, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Treatment of difficult asthma with oral corticosteroids (OCS) may suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Aim In this study we have checked if the substitution of OCS with very high doses of ciclesonide may restore the adrenal function without losing the control of the disease. Material and methods In 5 patients with difficult, uncontrolled asthma despite treatment with OCS, inhaled and systemic glucocorticosteroids were replaced with very high doses of ciclesonide (1600–2400 µg/day). The symptoms of asthma and the lung function were assessed at baseline and on the 28th, 56th and 70th day of treatment, whereas the levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the morning were measured at baseline and on the 28th and the 56th day of treatment. Results In all patients, the control of asthma symptoms, measured with Asthma Control Test questionnaire, improved from the mean score of 9.4 to 19.8 in 70 days. In 4 subjects force expiratory volume in 1 s improved gradually through the entire study reaching a mean improvement of 585 ml in 70 days. The ACTH levels were normalized in 3 patients after 28 days of observation and in all patients after 56 days. The cortisol level was normalized in 4 patients after 28 days and in another subject after 56 days of treatment with ciclesonide. Conclusions Switching from prednisone to very high doses of ciclesonide normalized the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis function and also improved the disease control and the lung function in these 5 patients with difficult asthma. PMID:25097469

  7. Scaling and Systems Considerations in Pulsed Inductive Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Performance scaling in pulsed inductive thrusters is discussed in the context of previous experimental studies and modeling results. Two processes, propellant ionization and acceleration, are interconnected where overall thruster performance and operation are concerned, but they are separated here to gain physical insight into each process and arrive at quantitative criteria that should be met to address or mitigate inherent inductive thruster difficulties. The effects of preionization in lowering the discharge energy requirements relative to a case where no preionization is employed, and in influencing the location of the initial current sheet, are described. The relevant performance scaling parameters for the acceleration stage are reviewed, emphasizing their physical importance and the numerical values required for efficient acceleration. The scaling parameters are then related to the design of the pulsed power train providing current to the acceleration stage. The impact of various choices in pulsed power train and circuit topology selection are reviewed, paying special attention to how these choices mitigate or exacerbate switching, lifetime, and power consumption issues.

  8. A study of carburetor/induction system icing in general aviation accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obermayer, R. W.; Roe, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    An assessment of the frequency and severity of carburetor/induction icing in general-aviation accidents was performed. The available literature and accident data from the National Transportation Safety Board were collected. A computer analysis of the accident data was performed. Between 65 and 90 accidents each year involve carburetor/induction system icing as a probable cause/factor. Under conditions conducive to carburetor/induction icing, between 50 and 70 percent of engine malfunction/failure accidents (exclusive of those due to fuel exhaustion) are due to carburetor/induction system icing. Since the evidence of such icing may not remain long after an accident, it is probable that the frequency of occurrence of such accidents is underestimated; therefore, some extrapolation of the data was conducted. The problem of carburetor/induction system icing is particularly acute for pilots with less than 1000 hours of total flying time. The severity of such accidents is about the same as any accident resulting from a forced landing or precautionary landing. About 144 persons, on the average, are exposed to death and injury each year in accidents involving carburetor/induction icing as a probable cause/factor.

  9. System modeling for the longitudinal beam dynamics control problem in heavy ion induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, A.N.

    1993-05-17

    We address the problem of developing system models that are suitable for studying the control of the longitudinal beam dynamics in induction accelerators for heavy ions. In particular, we present the preliminary results of our efforts to devise a general framework for building detailed, integrated models of accelerator systems consisting of pulsed power modular circuits, induction cells, beam dynamics, and control system elements. Such a framework will permit us to analyze and design the pulsed power modulators and the control systems required to effect precise control over the longitudinal beam dynamics.

  10. Induction motor control system with voltage controlled oscillator circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.; Currie, J. R.; Reid, H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A voltage controlled oscillator circuit is reported in which there are employed first and second differential amplifiers. The first differential amplifier, being employed as an integrator, develops equal and opposite slopes proportional to an input voltage, and the second differential amplifier functions as a comparator to detect equal amplitude positive and negative selected limits and provides switching signals which gate a transistor switch. The integrating differential amplifier is switched between charging and discharging modes to provide an output of the first differential amplifier which upon the application of wave shaping provides a substantially sinusoidal output signal. A two phased version with a second integrator provides a second 90 deg phase shifted output for induction motor control.

  11. Method and system for determining induction motor speed

    DOEpatents

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Bharadwaj, Raj M.

    2004-03-30

    A non-linear, semi-parametric neural network-based adaptive filter is utilized to determine the dynamic speed of a rotating rotor within an induction motor, without the explicit use of a speed sensor, such as a tachometer, is disclosed. The neural network-based filter is developed using actual motor current measurements, voltage measurements, and nameplate information. The neural network-based adaptive filter is trained using an estimated speed calculator derived from the actual current and voltage measurements. The neural network-based adaptive filter uses voltage and current measurements to determine the instantaneous speed of a rotating rotor. The neural network-based adaptive filter also includes an on-line adaptation scheme that permits the filter to be readily adapted for new operating conditions during operations.

  12. Inductance effects in the high-power transmitter crowbar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daeges, J.; Bhanji, A.

    1987-01-01

    The effective protection of a klystron in a high-power transmitter requires the diversion of all stored energy in the protected circuit through an alternate low-impedance path, the crowbar, such that less than 1 joule of energy is dumped into the klystron during an internal arc. A scheme of adding a bypass inductor in the crowbar-protected circuit of the high-power transmitter was tested using computer simulations and actual measurements under a test load. Although this scheme has several benefits, including less power dissipation in the resistor, the tests show that the presence of inductance in the portion of the circuit to be protected severely hampers effective crowbar operation.

  13. Dynamic Performance of Subway Vehicle with Linear Induction Motor System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Pingbo; Luo, Ren; Hu, Yan; Zeng, Jing

    The light rail vehicle with Linear Induction Motor (LIM) bogie, which is a new type of urban rail traffic tool, has the advantages of low costs, wide applicability, low noise, simple maintenance and better dynamic behavior. This kind of vehicle, supported and guided by the wheel and rail, is not driven by the wheel/rail adhesion force, but driven by the electromagnetic force between LIM and reaction plate. In this paper, three different types of suspensions and their characteristic are discussed with considering the interactions both between wheel and rail and between LIM and reaction plate. A nonlinear mathematical model of the vehicle with LIM bogie is set up by using the software SIMPACK, and the electromechanical model is also set up on Simulink roof. Then the running behavior of the LIM vehicle is simulated, and the influence of suspension on the vehicle dynamic performance is investigated.

  14. Optimal efficiency vector control of induction motor drive system for drum washing machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won Cheol; Yu, Jae Sung; Jang, Bong An; Won, Chung Yuen

    2005-12-01

    In home appliances, electric energy is optimally controlled by using power electronics technology, creating a comfortable environment in terms of energy saving, low sound generation, and reduced time consumption. Usually simplicity and robustness make the three phase induction motor attractive for use in domestic appliance, including washing machines. Two main types of domestic washing machine have evolved. We focus on efficiency of the front loading machine favored in Europe, which has a horizontal drum axis. This paper presents the control algorithm for optimal efficiency drives of an induction motor for drum washing machine. This system uses a simple model of the induction motor that include equations of the iron losses. The proposed optimal efficiency control algorithm calculates commands of the reference torque and flux currents for the flux oriented control of the induction motor. The proposed algorithm is verified through digital simulation.

  15. Deposition Of Materials Using A Simple Planar Coil Radio Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasma System

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K. H.; Wong, C. S.; Yap, S. L.; Gan, S. N.

    2009-07-07

    A planar coil RF inductively coupled plasma (PC-RFICP) systems is set up for the purpose of thin film deposition. The system is powered by a 13.56 MHz, 550 W, 50 OMEGA RF generator. The RF power is transferred to the plasma via a planar induction coil. The impedance matching unit consists of an air core step-down transformer and a tunable vacuum capacitor. This system is used for the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film on silicon substrate, and hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) film.

  16. The reciprocal relation of mutual inductance in a coupled circuit system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dake

    2012-09-01

    The reciprocal relation of mutual inductance in a coupled circuit system is demonstrated theoretically. An alternating-current (AC) analysis is employed to investigate energy conservation in the system, with the only assumption being the steady-state operation of the circuit. This method can be adopted for teaching electromagnetism at the introductory level, provided the students have an adequate background in calculus.

  17. Anabolic steroid abuse.

    PubMed

    Landry, G L; Primos, W A

    1990-01-01

    Anabolic steroids are capable of increasing strength and muscle bulk in certain individuals when combined with a proper diet and an intense training program. Any steroid that is anabolic is also androgenic. Anabolic steroids are fraught with numerous side effects, a few of which are potentially life threatening, and some of which are permanent. Most of the side effects are mild and reversible. Use of anabolic steroids in sports is as much a moral issue as a medical one. Drug testing has not been a very successful means to eradicate abuse in the sporting arena. Education alone is probably not the answer to stopping anabolic steroid abuse but is an essential first step in combating this problem. Use of anabolic steroids in athletes is a form of cheating, and use will likely continue, especially if the rewards for success in sports remain so high. Physicians should avoid condemning individuals who choose to use anabolic steroids and encourage discussion of use with their health providers. PMID:2264527

  18. Method and graphs for the evaluation of air-induction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brajnikoff, George B

    1953-01-01

    Graphs have been developed for rapid evaluation of air-induction systems from considerations of their aerodynamic-performance parameters in combination with power-plant characteristics. The graphs cover the range of supersonic Mach numbers to 3.0. Examples are presented for an air-induction system and engine combination of two Mach numbers and two altitudes in order to illustrate the method and application of the graphs. The examples show that jet-engine characteristics impose restrictions on the use of fixed inlets if the maximum net thrusts are to be realized at all flight conditions. (author)

  19. Field oriented control of an induction machine in a high frequency link power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sul, Seung K.; Lipo, Thomas A.

    1988-01-01

    A field-oriented controlled induction machine drive operating with a high-frequency single-phase sinusoidal voltage link is presented. System performance is investigated by computer simulation and is verified by a test on a prototype system. A novel control loop to minimize the link voltage fluctuation is proposed. The capability of rapid demagnetization of the induction machine by current regulation is investigated. A current-modulation technique termed mode control is proposed, and its performance is compared with that of the conventional delta-modulation technique.

  20. Numerical analysis of superscatterer applied in inductive coupling system to equivalently expand and move coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingyi; Luo, Xudong; Yao, Chen; Li, Yuncheng; Tang, Houjun

    2015-10-01

    Superscatterer is typically made of complementary media for expanding the scope of scattering. The fact that superscatterer can make object appear bigger than its geometric size provides the possibility of equivalently enlarging and moving coils in inductive coupling system. In this paper, we demonstrate that the superscatterer without perfect electrical conductor can also expand the distribution of magnetic field with a source inside. Based on transformation optics, a spherical superscatterer is designed and simulated especially in near field. A model of two-coil inductive coupling system is numerically analyzed to prove the enhancement on mutual coupling by superscatterer. Finally, we also discuss the simplification of such superscatterer for fabrication concerns.

  1. Comparing 193 nm photoresist roughening in an inductively coupled plasma system and vacuum beam system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, M. J.; Nest, D. G.; Chung, T.-Y.; Graves, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    We present a comparison of blanket 193 nm photoresist (PR) roughening and chemical modifications of samples processed in a well-characterized argon (Ar) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system and an ultra-high vacuum beam system. In the ICP system, PR samples are irradiated with Ar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and Ar ions, while in the vacuum beam system, samples are irradiated with either a Xe-line VUV source or Ar-lamp VUV source with Ar ions. Sample temperature, photon flux, ion flux and ion energy are controlled and measured. The resulting chemical modifications to bulk 193 nm PR and surface roughness are analysed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrate that under VUV-only conditions in the vacuum beam and ICP (with no substrate bias applied) systems 193 nm PR does not roughen. However, roughness increases with simultaneous high energy (>70 eV) ion bombardment and VUV irradiation and is a function of VUV fluence, substrate temperature and photon-to-ion flux ratio. PR processed in the ICP system experiences increased etching, probably due to release of H- and O-containing gaseous products and subsequent chemical etching, in contrast to samples in the vacuum beam system where etch-products are rapidly pumped away. The surface roughness structure and behaviour, however, remain similar and this is attributed to the synergy between VUV-photon and positive ions.

  2. A comparison of discrimination capabilities of time- and frequency-domain electromagnetic induction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilaka, Sailaja V.; Faircloth, Daniel L.; Riggs, Lloyd S.; Baginski, Michael E.

    2005-06-01

    This paper discusses the ability of time and frequency domain electromagnetic induction systems to discriminate unexploded ordnance from clutter. Toward this end, time and frequency domain electromagnetic induction systems were built and the responses of a wide variety of targets including loops, spheres, cylinders and inert UXOs were measured. Also, time and frequency responses of test targets are numerically modeled using finite element methods to validate the experimental work. Target information is more distinct in the frequency domain than time domain. Moreover, discrimination performance of the frequency domain electromagnetic induction system was enhanced by almost a factor of two when the usual the low frequency spectrum (30 Hz to 24 kHz) was extended down to extremely low frequencies (1 Hz to 30 Hz). However, data acquisition at extremely low frequencies is a time consuming process especially if data averaging is required to achieve acceptable SNR. Therefore, in practice, it would be better to have two operating modes when using a frequency domain electromagnetic induction system; one with very few operating frequencies and the other operating in the entire band (1 Hz to 24 kHz). Once a target location is marked using the first mode, the system can be used as a "cued" sensor in the second mode, thus improving the discrimination.

  3. A magnetic induction heating system with multi-cascaded coils and adjustable magnetic circuit for hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Fang; Chao, Hsuan-Yi; Chang, Hsun-Hao; Lin, Xi-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of cancer cells that cannot survive in an environment with temperature over 42 °C, a magnetic induction heating system for cancer treatment is developed in this work. First, the methods and analyses for designing the multi-cascaded coils magnetic induction hyperthermia system are proposed, such as internal impedance measurement of power generator, impedance matching of coils, and analysis of the system. Besides, characteristics of the system are simulated by a full-wave package for engineering optimization. Furthermore, by considering the safety factor of patients, a two-sectional needle is designed for hyperthermia. Finally, this system is employed to test the liver of swine in ex-vivo experiments, and through Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain and NADPH oxidase activity assay, the feasibility of this system is verified. PMID:25379959

  4. A combined lift and propulsion system of a steel plate by transverse flux linear induction motors

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashiya, H.; Ohsaki, H.; Masada, E.

    1999-09-01

    To realize a non-contacting conveyance of a steel plate, a combined lift and propulsion system of a steel plate by transverse flux linear induction motors (LIMs) is proposed. By introducing the DC biased AC feeding to the LIM< a steel plate is supported stably and efficiently. In this paper, after showing the advantages of the system, the magnetic levitation experiments are carried out to investigate the feasibility of the system.

  5. Isolation, partial length sequence and expression of steroid inducible hps 70 gene from Rhizopus nigricans.

    PubMed

    Cernila, B; Cresnar, B; Breskvar, K

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans responds to addition of different steroids into growth medium with induction of hydroxylation system and that some steroids provoke stress response. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether those steroids provoke induction of Hsp70 gene(s), well studied markers of stress response in different cells and organisms. The expression studies of fungal Hsp70 gene(s) using Northern blot analysis showed that fungal hsp70 mRNA was upregulated after treatment of mycelia with deoxycorticosterone and testosterone, but not after exposure to progesterone. In addition, expression of fungal Hsp70 mRNA was elevated after exposure of mycelia to heat shock (32 degrees C), ethanol, heavy metal (CuSO4), and oxidative stressor (H2O2), whereas treatment of mycelia with osmotic stressor (KCl) didn't have any influence on stress protein expression. The partial nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence homology search revealed that the cDNA clone (lambda hs20/2), isolated from cDNA library prepared from heat shock treated fungal mycelia, contained Hsp70 gene of DnaK subfamily. PMID:10653154

  6. Analysis of Power Converter Losses in Vector Control System of a Self-Excited Induction Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bašić, Mateo; Vukadinović, Dinko; Polić, Miljenko

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides analysis of losses in the hysteresis-driven three-phase power converter with IGBTs and free-wheeling diodes. The converter under consideration is part of the self-excited induction generator (SEIG) vector control system. For the analysis, the SEIG vector control system is used in which the induction generator iron losses are taken into account. The power converter losses are determined by using a suitable loss estimation algorithm reported in literature. The chosen algorithm allows the power converter losses to be determined both by type (switching/conduction losses) and by converter component (IGBT/diode losses). The overall power converter losses are determined over wide ranges of rotor speed, dc-link voltage and load resistance, and subsequently used for offline correction of the overall control system's losses (efficiency) obtained through control system simulations with an ideal power converter. The control system's efficiency values obtained after the correction are compared with the measured values.

  7. Inductive monitoring system constructed from nominal system data and its use in real-time system monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), its software implementations, hardware embodiments and applications. Training data is received, typically nominal system data acquired from sensors in normally operating systems or from detailed system simulations. The training data is formed into vectors that are used to generate a knowledge database having clusters of nominal operating regions therein. IMS monitors a system's performance or health by comparing cluster parameters in the knowledge database with incoming sensor data from a monitored-system formed into vectors. Nominal performance is concluded when a monitored-system vector is determined to lie within a nominal operating region cluster or lies sufficiently close to a such a cluster as determined by a threshold value and a distance metric. Some embodiments of IMS include cluster indexing and retrieval methods that increase the execution speed of IMS.

  8. Induction of apoptosis of lymphocytes in rat mucosal immune system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Wan-Dai; Song, Yu-Gang; Zhou, Dian-Yuan

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To undergo apoptosis during negative and positive selection processes in rat mucosal immune system which are implicated in the pathogenesis of various mucosal diseases. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, intravenously or intraperitoneally, an apoptosis was recognized by morphological hallmark under light and electronmicroscopy, and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was visualized immunohistochemically. RESULTS: The apoptosis of mucosal lymphocytes in the digestive tract, as well as in trachea, uterus and lacrimal gland was induced by cycloheximide ( > 1.0 mgkg-1 body weight), which were located mainly in lamina propria and germinal centers of lymphoid nodules. At the same time, a portion of crypt epithelial cells of proliferating zone in small and large intestine, and the epithelial cells in genital tract were also found to undergo apoptosis. Immunostainings showed that apoptotic cells expressed proliferating cell nuclear antigen. CONCLUSION: Apoptosis of lymphocytes in mucosal immune system can be induced by cycloheximide. This model will facilitate the understanding of normal mucosal immune system and its role in the pathogenesis of related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:11819221

  9. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids

    PubMed Central

    Kicman, A T

    2008-01-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic–androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided. PMID:18500378

  10. Theory of partial agonist activity of steroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Carson C.; Ong, Karen M.; Kagan, Benjamin; Simons, S. Stoney

    2015-01-01

    The different amounts of residual partial agonist activity (PAA) of antisteroids under assorted conditions have long been useful in clinical applications but remain largely unexplained. Not only does a given antagonist often afford unequal induction for multiple genes in the same cell but also the activity of the same antisteroid with the same gene changes with variations in concentration of numerous cofactors. Using glucocorticoid receptors as a model system, we have recently succeeded in constructing from first principles a theory that accurately describes how cofactors can modulate the ability of agonist steroids to regulate both gene induction and gene repression. We now extend this framework to the actions of antisteroids in gene induction. The theory shows why changes in PAA cannot be explained simply by differences in ligand affinity for receptor and requires action at a second step or site in the overall sequence of reactions. The theory also provides a method for locating the position of this second site, relative to a concentration limited step (CLS), which is a previously identified step in glucocorticoid-regulated transactivation that always occurs at the same position in the overall sequence of events of gene induction. Finally, the theory predicts that classes of antagonist ligands may be grouped on the basis of their maximal PAA with excess added cofactor and that the members of each class differ by how they act at the same step in the overall gene induction process. Thus, this theory now makes it possible to predict how different cofactors modulate antisteroid PAA, which should be invaluable in developing more selective antagonists. PMID:25984562

  11. Transient performance of parallel operated wind driven self excited induction generator system

    SciTech Connect

    Sakkoury, K.S.

    1995-12-31

    The transient performance of an isolated network containing a number of parallel connected SEIGs [Self Excited Induction Generators] is studied when loaded by a single motor. The control technique used to switch on or off any of the system machines is explained. For motor starting, two different techniques are studied employing starting capacitors or soft starting method. The system performance during and after the switching action takes place is investigated.

  12. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E. )

    1989-12-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4{prime}-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit {sup 3}H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations.

  13. Neuroactive steroids: focus on human brain.

    PubMed

    Melcangi, R C; Panzica, G; Garcia-Segura, L M

    2011-09-15

    Studies in experimental animals have revealed important roles of neuroactive steroids in the control of central nervous system functions during physiological and pathological conditions, suggesting that they may represent good candidates for the development of neuroprotective strategies for neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Even if the characterization of the roles played by neuroactive steroids in humans is still at the beginning, several data are already available showing that they may be synthesized within the human CNS. Among the different enzymes, a prominent role is dedicated to aromatase that synthesizes estradiol whose neuroprotective effects have been described in experimental animals. Neuroactive steroid levels are modified by neurodegenerative conditions (i.e. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, multiple sclerosis) or in other mental diseases (i.e. schizophrenia), and may have an important role in physiological conditions, as the reorganization of grey and white matter during human puberty and adolescence or as a consequence of emotional responses. The interaction of some neuroactive steroids (i.e., allopregnanolone and isopregnanolone) with GABA-A receptor is particularly important in mood disorders. The presumptive role of estradiol and progesterone in neuroprotection is here discussed by comparing contradictory data that have been collected in humans. In conclusion, the state of the art of our knowledge of the role of neuroactive steroids in the normal and pathological human brain suggests several lines of future therapeutic developments in the treatments of neurological, neurodegenerative and affective disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuroactive Steroids: Focus on Human Brain. PMID:21704130

  14. Systemic induction of monoterpene biosynthesis in Origanumxmajoricum by soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Banchio, Erika; Bogino, Pablo C; Santoro, Maricel; Torres, Lorena; Zygadlo, Julio; Giordano, Walter

    2010-01-13

    Italian oregano (Origanumxmajoricum) was subjected to root system inoculation with three species of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, Azospirillum brasilense), and essential oil (EO) content and plant growth were measured. Composition of monoterpenes, a major EO component, was analyzed qualitative and quantitatively by gas chromatography. Total EO yield for plants inoculated with P. fluorescens or A. brasilense was 3.57 and 3.41 microg/mg fresh weight, respectively, approximately 2.5-fold higher than controls, without change of quantitative oil composition. The major EO compounds, cis- and trans-sabinene hydrate, gamma-terpinene, carvacrol, and thymol, showed increased biosynthesis. Carvacrol was the only terpene showing significant increase of R% in plants inoculated with A. brasilense. Plant growth parameters (shoot and root fresh and dry weights, numbers of leaves and nodes) were evaluated. Shoot fresh weight was significantly increased by all three PGPR species, but only P. fluorescens and A. brasilense increased root dry weight. These two species have clear commercial potential for economic cultivation of O.xmajoricum. Knowledge of the factors affecting yield and accumulation of monoterpenes is essential for improving production of these economically important plant compounds. PMID:20000572

  15. Investigation of Icing Characteristics of Typical Light Airplane Engine Induction Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, W. D.

    1949-01-01

    The icing characteristics of two typical light-airplane engine induction systems were investigated using the carburetors and manifolds of engines in the horsepower ranges from 65 to 85 and 165 to 185. The smaller system consisted of a float-type carburetor with an unheated manifold and the larger system consisted of a single-barrel pressure-type carburetor with an oil-jacketed manifold. Carburetor-air temperature and humidity limits of visible and serious Icing were determined for various engine power conditions. Several.methods of achieving ice-free induction systems are discussed along with estimates of surface heating requirements of the various induct ion-system components. A study was also made of the icing characteristics of a typical light-airplane air scoop with an exposed filter and a modified system that provided a normal ram inlet with the filter located in a position to Induce inertia separation of the free water from the charge air. The principle of operation of float-type carburetors is proved to make them inherently more susceptible to icing at the throttle plate than pressure-type carburetors.. The results indicated that proper jacketing and heating of all parts exposed to the fuel spray can satisfactorily reduce or eliminate icing in the float-type carburetor and the manifold. Pressure-type carburetors can be protected from serious Icing by proper location of the fuel-discharge nozzle combined with suitable application of heat to critical parts.

  16. Cost/performance analysis of an induction linac driver system for inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hovingh, J.; Brady, V.O.; Faltens, A.; Hoyer, E.H.; Lee, E.P.

    1985-11-01

    A linear induction accelerator that produces a beam of energetic (approx. =10 GeV) heavy (CAapprox.200) ions is a prime candidate as a driver for inertial fusion. Continuing developments in amorphous iron for use in accelerating modules represent a potentially large reduction in the driver cost and an increase in the driver efficiency. Additional insulator developments may also represent a potentially large reduction in the driver cost. The efficiency and cost of the induction linac system is discussed as a function of output energy and pulse repetition frequency for several beam charge states, numbers of beams and beam particle species. Accelerating modules and transport modules will be described. Large cost leverage items will be identified as a guide to future research activities and technology of development that can yield further substantial reductions in the accelerator system cost and improvement in the accelerator system efficiency. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Stability synthesis of control system in current fed inverter driven induction motor

    SciTech Connect

    Veda, R.; Irisa, T.; Ito, T.; Mochizuki, T.; Sonoda, T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of synthesizing a stabilizing control system in current fed inverter driven induction motor (CFIDIM). The method is focused on rotor dynamics and a concept of ''damping torque coefficient (DTC)'' is introduced concerning the electrical torque. At first the control system is synthesized on the assumption that an induction motor is driven by an ideally controllable current source. Then perturbed linearized technique indicates that the system can be stabilized if the stator current or frequency is controlled so as to make the DTC positive by feeding back a signal composed of rotor speed. Next, based on this fact, an approach of synthesizing the converter output voltage is presented under a fixed stator frequency. This result clarifies that the stable operation can be achieved by controlling the voltage in proportion to the acceleration of rotor speed or the deviation of electrical torque. These analytical results are verified with laboratory field tests.

  18. Development of a respiratory inductive plethysmography module supporting multiple sensors for wearable systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengbo; Zheng, Jiewen; Wu, Hao; Wang, Weidong; Wang, Buqing; Liu, Hongyun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an RIP module with the features of supporting multiple inductive sensors, no variable frequency LC oscillator, low power consumption, and automatic gain adjustment for each channel. Based on the method of inductance measurement without using a variable frequency LC oscillator, we further integrate pulse amplitude modulation and time division multiplexing scheme into a module to support multiple RIP sensors. All inductive sensors are excited by a high-frequency electric current periodically and momentarily, and the inductance of each sensor is measured during the time when the electric current is fed to it. To improve the amplitude response of the RIP sensors, we optimize the sensing unit with a matching capacitor parallel with each RIP sensor forming a frequency selection filter. Performance tests on the linearity of the output with cross-sectional area and the accuracy of respiratory volume estimation demonstrate good linearity and accurate lung volume estimation. Power consumption of this new RIP module with two sensors is very low. The performance of respiration measurement during movement is also evaluated. This RIP module is especially desirable for wearable systems with multiple RIP sensors for long-term respiration monitoring. PMID:23201991

  19. Use of fuzzy inference system for condition monitoring of induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janier, Josefina B.; Zaim Zaharia, M. F.; Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abd.

    2012-09-01

    Three phase induction motors are commonly used in industry due to its robustness, simplicity of its construction and high reliability. The tasks performed by these motors grow increasingly complex because of modern industries hence there is a need to determine the faults. Early detection of faults will reduce an unscheduled machine downtime that can upset production deadlines and may cause heavy financial losses. This paper is focused in developing a computer based system using Fuzzy Inference system's membership function. An unusual increase in vibration of the motor could be an indicator of faulty condition hence the vibration of the motor of an induction motor was used as an input, whereas the output is the motor condition. An inference system of the Fuzzy Logic was created to classify the vibration characteristics of the motor which is called vibration analysis. The system classified the motor of the gas distribution pump condition as from 'acceptable' to 'monitor closely'. The early detection of unusual increase in vibration of the induction motor is an important part of a predictive maintenance for motor driven machinery.

  20. Anabolic steroid boosts weight.

    PubMed

    1996-09-01

    A randomized study of nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) showed that the anabolic steroid can increase weight in people with HIV infections. The group receiving nandrolone experienced a greater increase both in fat-free mass and body cell mass (although the latter measure did not reach statistical significance) than those on placebo. Deca-Durabolin had little to do with two occurrences of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the study group, but until further studies are completed, caution is advised when using this steroid in patients with KS. A new study comparing nandrolone to growth hormone in patients with wasting is slated to begin in the next 3 or 4 months. PMID:11363845

  1. A current monitoring system for diagnosing electrical failures in induction motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, G. G.; Verucchi, C. J.; Gelso, E. R.

    2006-05-01

    Induction motors are critical components in industrial processes. A motor failure may yield an unexpected interruption at the industrial plant, with consequences in costs, product quality, and safety. Many of these faulty situations in three phase induction motors have an electrical reason. Among different detection approaches proposed in the literature, those based on stator current monitoring are advantageous due to its non-invasive properties. One of these techniques resorts to spectrum analysis of machine line current. Another non-invasive technique is the Extended Park's Vector Approach, which allows the detection of inter-turn short circuits in the stator winding. This article presents the development of an on-line current monitoring system that uses both techniques for fault detection and diagnosis in the stator and in the rotor. Based on experimental observations and on the knowledge of the electrical machine, a knowledge-based system was constructed in order to carry out the diagnosis task from these estimated data.

  2. Investigation of Shaft Voltage in Wind Turbine Systems with Induction Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adabi, Jafar; Zare, Firuz

    This paper presents the analysis of shaft voltage in different configurations of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and an induction generator (IG) with a back-to-back inverter in wind turbine applications. Detailed high frequency model of the proposed systems have been developed based on existing capacitive couplings in IG & DFIG structures and common mode voltage sources. In this research work, several arrangements of DFIG based wind energy conversion systems (WES) are investigated in case of shaft voltage calculation and its mitigation techniques. Placements of an LC line filter in different locations and its effects on shaft voltage elimination are studied via Mathematical analysis and simulations. A pulse width modulation (PWM) technique and a back-to-back inverter with a bidirectional buck converter have been presented to eliminate the shaft voltage in a DFIG wind turbine.

  3. Dynamic Average-Value Modeling of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahab, Azin

    In a Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind energy conversion system, the rotor of a wound rotor induction generator is connected to the grid via a partial scale ac/ac power electronic converter which controls the rotor frequency and speed. In this research, detailed models of the DFIG wind energy conversion system with Sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulation (SPWM) scheme and Optimal Pulse-Width Modulation (OPWM) scheme for the power electronic converter are developed in detail in PSCAD/EMTDC. As the computer simulation using the detailed models tends to be computationally extensive, time consuming and even sometimes not practical in terms of speed, two modified approaches (switching-function modeling and average-value modeling) are proposed to reduce the simulation execution time. The results demonstrate that the two proposed approaches reduce the simulation execution time while the simulation results remain close to those obtained using the detailed model simulation.

  4. Bringing GC-MS profiling of steroids into clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Choi, Man Ho; Chung, Bong Chul

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities of steroid biosynthesis and excretion are responsible for the development and prevention of endocrine disorders, such as metabolic syndromes, cancers, and neurodegenerative diseases. Due to their biochemical roles in endocrine system, qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroid hormones in various biological specimens is needed to elucidate their altered expression. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based steroid profiling can reveal the states of metabolites in biological systems and provide comprehensive insights by allowing comparisons between metabolites present in cells, tissues, or organisms. In addition, the activities of many enzymes related to steroid metabolism often lead to hormonal imbalances that have serious consequences, and which are responsible for the progress of hormone-dependent diseases. In contrast to immunoaffinity-based enzyme assays, MS-based methods are more reproducible in quantification. In particular, high-resolution gas chromatographic (GC) separation of steroids with similar chemical structures can be achieved to provide rapid and reproducible results with excellent purification. GC-MS profiling therefore has been widely used for steroid analysis, and offers the basis for techniques that can be applied to large-scale clinical studies. Recent advances in analytical technologies combined with inter-disciplinary strategies, such as physiology and bioinformatics, will help in understanding the biochemical roles of steroid hormones. Therefore, comprehensive analytical protocols in steroid analysis for different research purposes may contribute to the elucidation of complex metabolic processes relevant to steroid function in many endocrine disorders, and in the identification of diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:24965919

  5. Steroids. A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

    This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history…

  6. Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Paraná basin: a comparative study in a three-river system.

    PubMed

    Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Paschoalini, Alessandro Loureiro; Cruz, Cláudia Kelly Fernandes da; Rocha, Rita de Cássia Gimenes Alcântara de; Senhorini, José Augusto; Ribeiro, Dirceu Marzulo; Formagio, Paulo Sérgio; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paraná River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guaçu River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17β-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guaçu River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish. PMID:23616136

  7. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

  8. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and

  9. The electron-optical system of the LIU-2 induction accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A.

    2014-09-01

    The electron-optical system (EOS) of an induction accelerator for generation of an electron beam with an energy of 2 MeV, a current of 2 kA, an impulse duration of 2 × 10-7 s, and a geometric output emittance not exceeding the thermal value of it is described. The EOS consists of two parts. The first part is a diode gun with a perveance of 2 × 10-6 A/B3/2 and a cathode-anode voltage of 1 MeV. The second part is an accelerating tube with uniform distribution of the same accelerating voltage. A beam is transported at a distance of about 4 m from the cathode and focused on a spot with a diameter of about 1 mm. The compliance tests results of the linear-induction accelerator precisely conform to the calculated design parameters.

  10. Laser sampling system for an inductively-coupled atomic emission spectrometer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-15

    A laser sampling system was attached to a Perkin Elmer Optima 3000 inductively-coupled plasma, atomic emission spectrometer that was already installed and operating in the Chemistry and Geochemistry Department at the Colorado School of Mines. The use of the spectrometer has been highly successful. Graduate students and faculty from at least four different departments across the CSM campus have used the instrument. The final report to NSF is appended to this final report. Appendices are included which summarize several projects utilizing this instrument: acquisition of an inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer for the geochemistry program; hydrogen damage susceptibility assessment for high strength steel weldments through advanced hydrogen content analysis, 1996 and 1997 annual reports; and methods for determination of hydrogen distribution in high strength steel welds.

  11. A transcription activator-like effector (TALE) induction system mediated by proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Matthew F; Politz, Mark C; Johnson, Charles B; Markley, Andrew L; Pfleger, Brian F

    2016-04-01

    Simple and predictable trans-acting regulatory tools are needed in the fields of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering to build complex genetic circuits and optimize the levels of native and heterologous gene products. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are bacterial virulence factors that have recently gained traction in biotechnology applications owing to their customizable DNA-binding specificity. In this work we expanded the versatility of these transcription factors to create an inducible TALE system by inserting tobacco-etch virus (TEV) protease recognition sites into the TALE backbone. The resulting engineered TALEs maintain transcriptional repression of their target genes in Escherichia coli, but are degraded after induction of the TEV protease, thereby promoting expression of the previously repressed target gene of interest. This TALE-TEV technology enables both repression and induction of plasmid or chromosomal target genes in a manner analogous to traditional repressor proteins but with the added flexibility of being operator-agnostic. PMID:26854666

  12. Analysis of grid connected induction generators driven by hydro/wind turbines under realistic system constraints

    SciTech Connect

    urthy, S.S.; Jha, C.S. ); Rao, P.S.N. )

    1990-03-01

    Results of an investigation dealing with the behavior of grid connected induction generators (GCIG) driven by typical prime movers such as mini-hydro/wind turbines are presented. Certain practical operational problems of such systems are identified. Analytical techniques are developed to study the behavior of such systems. The system consists of the induction generator (IG) feeding a 11 kV grid through a step up transformer and a transmission line. Terminal capacitors to compensate for the lagging VAR are included in the study. Computer simulation is carried out to predict the system performance at the given input power from the turbine. Effects of variations in grid voltage, frequency, input power and terminal capacitance on the machine and system performance are studied. Analysis of self excitation conditions on disconnection of supply has been carried out. Behavior of a 200 kW hydel system and 55/11 kW 22 kW wind driven system corresponding to actual field conditions are presented and discussed.

  13. Effective induction of protective systemic immunity with nasally-administered vaccines adjuvanted with IL-1

    PubMed Central

    Gwinn, William M.; Kirwan, Shaun M.; Wang, Sheena H.; Ashcraft, Kathleen A.; Sparks, Neil L.; Doil, Catherine R.; Tlusty, Tom G.; Casey, Leslie S.; Hollingshead, Susan K.; Briles, David E.; Dondero, Richard S.; Hickey, Anthony J.; Foster, W. Michael; Staats, Herman F.

    2010-01-01

    IL-1α and IL-1β were evaluated for their ability to provide adjuvant activity for the induction of serum antibody responses when nasally-administered with protein antigens in mice and rabbits. In mice, intranasal (i.n.) immunization with pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) or tetanus toxoid (TT) combined with IL-1β induced protective immunity that was equivalent to that induced by parenteral immunization. Nasal immunization of awake (i.e., not anesthetized) rabbits with IL-1-adjuvanted vaccines induced highly variable serum antibody responses and was not as effective as parenteral immunization for the induction of antigen-specific serum IgG. However, i.n. immunization of deeply anesthetized rabbits with rPA + IL-1α consistently induced rPA-specific serum IgG ELISA titers that were not significantly different than those induced by intramuscular (IM) immunization with rPA + alum although lethal toxin neutralizing titers induced by nasal immunization were lower than those induced by IM immunization. Gamma scintigraphy demonstrated that the enhanced immunogenicity of nasal immunization in anesthetized rabbits correlated with an increased nasal retention of i.n. delivered non-permeable radio-labeled colloidal particles. Our results demonstrate that, in mice, IL-1 is an effective adjuvant for nasally-administered vaccines for the induction of protective systemic immunity and that in non-rodent species, effective induction of systemic immunity with nasally-administered vaccines may require formulations that ensure adequate retention of the vaccine within the nasal cavity. PMID:20723629

  14. Nonprescription Steroids on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Christen L.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Patapis, Nicholas S.; Festinger, David S.; Forman, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular websites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March and June, 2006 revealed that approximately half of the websites advocated their “safe” use, and roughly one-third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The websites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the websites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment and policy are discussed. PMID:22080724

  15. An inductively powered telemetry system for temperature, EKG, and activity monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.; Lund, G. F.; Williams, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    An implant telemetry system for the simultaneous monitoring of temperature, activity, and EKG from small animals, such as rats, was designed with the feature that instead of a battery the system is energized by an inductive field. A 250 kHz resonant coil surrounds the cage (30 x 30 x 20 cm) and provides the approximately 100 microns of power required to operate the implant transmitter while allowing the animal unrestrained movement in the cage. The implant can also be battery operated if desired. RF transmission is in the 8-10 MHz band, which allows the use of a simple, essentially single IC chip, receiver.

  16. System Design for Ocean Sensor Data Transmission Based on Inductive Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ming; Liu, Fei; Zong, Yuan; Hong, Feng

    Ocean observation is the precondition to explore and utilize ocean. How to acquire ocean data in a precise, efficient and real-time way is the key question of ocean surveillance. Traditionally, there are three types of methods for ocean data transmission: underwater acoustic, GPRS via mobile network and satellite communication. However, none of them can meet the requirements of efficiency, accuracy, real-time and low cost at the same time. In this paper, we propose a new wireless transmission system for underwater sensors, which established on FGR wireless modules, combined with inductive coupling lab and offshore experiments confirmed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed wireless transmission system.

  17. An inductively powered telemetry system for temperature, EKG, and activity monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.; Lund, G. F.; Williams, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    An implant telemetry system for the simultaneous monitoring of temperature, activity, and EKG from small animals, such as rats, has recently been designed with the novel feature that instead of a battery the system is energized by an inductive field. A 250 kHz resonant coil surrounds the cage (30 x 30 x 20 cm) and provides the approximately 100 microwatt of power required to operate the implant transmitter while allowing the animal unrestrained movement in the cage. The implant can also be battery operated if desired. RF transmission is in the 8-10 MHz band, which allows the use of a simple, essentially single IC chip, receiver.

  18. Integrated design method of MR damper and electromagnetic induction system for structural control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Heon-Jae; Moon, Seok-Jun; Jung, Hyung-Jo; Huh, Young-Cheol; Jang, Dong-Doo

    2008-03-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are one of the most advantageous control devices for civil engineering applications to natural hazard mitigation due to many good features such as small power requirement, reliability, and low price to manufacture. To reduce the responses of a structural system by using MR dampers, a control system including a power supply, control algorithm, and sensors is needed. The control system becomes complex, however, when a lot of MR dampers are applied to large-scale civil structures, such as cable-stayed bridges and high-rise buildings. Thus, it is difficult to install and/or maintain the MR damper-based control system. To overcome the above difficulties, a smart passive system was proposed, which is based on an MR damper system. The smart passive system consists of an MR damper and an electromagnetic induction (EMI) system that uses a permanent magnet and a coil. According to the Faraday law of induction, the EMI system that is attached to the MR damper can produce electric energy and the produced energy is applied to the MR damper to vary the damping characteristics of the damper. Thus, the smart passive system does not require any power at all. Besides the output of electric energy is proportional to input loads such as earthquakes, which means the smart passive system has adaptability by itself without any controller or sensors. In this paper, the integrated design method of a large-scale MR damper and Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) system is presented. Since the force of an MR damper is controllable by altering the input current generated from an EMI part, it is necessary to design an MR damper and an EMI part simultaneously. To do this, design parameters of an EMI part consisting of permanent magnet and coil as well as those of an MR damper consisting of a hydraulic-type cylinder and a magnetic circuit that controls the magnetic flux density in a fluid-flow path are considered in the integrated design procedure. As an example, a smart passive control system for reducing stay cable responses is considered in this investigation and it will be fabricated and tested through experiment in the future.

  19. Lack of sensorial innervation in the newborn female rats affects the activity of hypothalamic monoaminergic system and steroid hormone secretion during puberty.

    PubMed

    Quiróz, Ubaldo; Morales-Ledesma, Leticia; Morán, Carolina; Trujillo, Angélica; Domínguez, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    There is evidence that sensory innervation plays a role regulating ovarian functions, including fertility.Since sensory denervation by means of capsaicin in newborn female rats results in a lower response togonadotropins, the present study analyzed the effects that sensory denervation by means of capsaicin in neonatal rats has on the concentration of monoamines in the anterior(AH) and medium (MH) hypothalamus, and on steroid hormone levels in serum. Groups of newborn female rats were injected subcutaneously with capsaicin and killed at 10, 20, and 30 days of age and on the first vaginal estrous.The concentrations of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin(5-HT), and their metabolites in the AH and MH were measured using HPLC, and the levels of estradiol (E),progesterone (P), testosterone (T), FSH, and luteinizing hormone using radioimmunoanalysis. The results show thatat 20 days of age, capsaicin-treated rats have lowernoradrenergic and serotonergic activities in the AH, and that the dopaminergic activity was lower in the MH. These results suggest that the sensorial system connections within the monoaminergic systems of the AH and MH are different.Capsaicin-treated animals had lower T, E, and P levels than in the control group, suggesting that the lower activity in the AH monoaminergic system and lower hormonesecretion could be explained by the blockade of information mediated by the sensory innervation (probably substance P), mainly between the ovary and the AH. PMID:24122121

  20. Integration and control of an induction-coupled plasma system and facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.K.; Cunningham, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    Plasma systems have been used for a number of industrial and aerospace applications over the last 35 years. Recent efforts to remediate environmental problems are increasing the number of applications. A proprietary process known as Plasma Energy Recycle and Conversion (PERC{trademark}) is being developed by Plasma Technology, Inc. of Santa Fe, NM, to eliminate waste material cleanly and efficiently. This process uses a radio frequency (RF) induction-coupled plasma (ICP) system to heat a thermal reactor to high temperatures for this purpose. The principle components of this facility include the RF heater and a vacuum tube power supply, a modular thermal reactor, auxiliary support equipment such as vacuum, cooling water and gaseous supply systems, controls, instrumentation and data acquisition systems. This paper provides an overview of the Sverdrup-provided or modified facility design requirements and principle systems and components.

  1. No role for bacterially produced salicylic Acid in rhizobacterial induction of systemic resistance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ran, L X; van Loon, L C; Bakker, P A H M

    2005-11-01

    ABSTRACT The role of bacterially produced salicylic acid (SA) in the induction of systemic resistance in plants by rhizobacteria is far from clear. The strong SA producer Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r induces resistance in radish but not in Arabidopsis thaliana, whereas application of SA leads to induction of resistance in both plant species. In this study, we compared P. fluorescens WCS374r with three other SA-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas strains, P. fluorescens WCS417r and CHA0r, and P. aeruginosa 7NSK2 for their abilities to produce SA under different growth conditions and to induce systemic resistance in A. thaliana against bacterial speck, caused by P. syringae pv. tomato. All strains produced SA in vitro, varying from 5 fg cell(-1) for WCS417r to >25 fg cell(-1) for WCS374r. Addition of 200 muM FeCl(3) to standard succinate medium abolished SA production in all strains. Whereas the incubation temperature did not affect SA production by WCS417r and 7NSK2, strains WCS374r and CHA0r produced more SA when grown at 33 instead of 28 degrees C. WCS417r, CHA0r, and 7NSK2 induced systemic resistance apparently associated with their ability to produce SA, but WCS374r did not. Conversely, a mutant of 7NSK2 unable to produce SA still triggered induced systemic resistance (ISR). The possible involvement of SA in the induction of resistance was evaluated using SA-nonaccumulating transgenic NahG plants. Strains WCS417r, CHA0r, and 7NSK2 induced resistance in NahG Arabidopsis. Also, WCS374r, when grown at 33 or 36 degrees C, triggered ISR in these plants, but not in ethylene-insensitive ein2 or in non-plant pathogenesis- related protein-expressing npr1 mutant plants, irrespective of the growth temperature of the bacteria. These results demonstrate that, whereas WCS374r can be manipulated to trigger ISR in Arabidopsis, SA is not the primary determinant for the induction of systemic resistance against bacterial speck disease by this bacterium. Also, for the other SAproducing strains used in this study, bacterial determinants other than SA must be responsible for inducing resistance. PMID:18943367

  2. Reduced models of doubly fed induction generator system for wind turbine simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, P.; Hansen, A. D.; Lund, T.; Bindner, H.

    2006-07-01

    This article compares three reduced models with a detailed model of a doubly fed induction generator system for wind turbine applications. The comparisons are based on simulations only. The main idea is to provide reduced generator models which are appropriate to simulate normal wind turbine operation in aeroelastic wind turbine models, e.g. for control system design or structural design of the wind turbine. The electrical behaviour such as grid influence will therefore not be considered. The work presented in this article shows that with an ideal, undisturbed grid the dynamics of the doubly fed induction generator system is very well represented by the dynamics due to the generator inertia and the generator control system, whereas the electromagnetic characteristics of the generator can be represented by the steady state relations. The parameters for the proposed models are derived from parameters typically available from the generator data sheet and from the controller settings. Thus the models are simple to apply in any case where the generator data sheet is available. Copyright

  3. Steroids in teleost fishes: A functional point of view.

    PubMed

    Tokarz, Janina; Möller, Gabriele; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Adamski, Jerzy

    2015-11-01

    Steroid hormones are involved in the regulation of a variety of processes like embryonic development, sex differentiation, metabolism, immune responses, circadian rhythms, stress response, and reproduction in vertebrates. Teleost fishes and humans show a remarkable conservation in many developmental and physiological aspects, including the endocrine system in general and the steroid hormone related processes in particular. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about steroid hormone biosynthesis and the steroid hormone receptors in teleost fishes and compares the findings to the human system. The impact of the duplicated genome in teleost fishes on steroid hormone biosynthesis and perception is addressed. Additionally, important processes in fish physiology regulated by steroid hormones, which are most dissimilar to humans, are described. We also give a short overview on the influence of anthropogenic endocrine disrupting compounds on steroid hormone signaling and the resulting adverse physiological effects for teleost fishes. By this approach, we show that the steroidogenesis, hormone receptors, and function of the steroid hormones are reasonably well understood when summarizing the available data of all teleost species analyzed to date. However, on the level of a single species or a certain fish-specific aspect of physiology, further research is needed. PMID:26102270

  4. Steroid-associated hip joint collapse in bipedal emus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li-Zhen; Liu, Zhong; Lei, Ming; Peng, Jiang; He, Yi-Xin; Xie, Xin-Hui; Man, Chi-Wai; Huang, Le; Wang, Xin-Luan; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Xiao, De-Ming; Wang, Da-Ping; Chen, Yang; Feng, Jian Q; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Ge; Qin, Ling

    2013-01-01

    In this study we established a bipedal animal model of steroid-associated hip joint collapse in emus for testing potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of steroid-associated joint collapse in preclinical settings. Five adult male emus were treated with a steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) induction protocol using combination of pulsed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and methylprednisolone (MPS). Additional three emus were used as normal control. Post-induction, emu gait was observed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and blood was collected for routine examination, including testing blood coagulation and lipid metabolism. Emus were sacrificed at week 24 post-induction, bilateral femora were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. Asymmetric limping gait and abnormal MRI signals were found in steroid-treated emus. SAON was found in all emus with a joint collapse incidence of 70%. The percentage of neutrophils (Neut %) and parameters on lipid metabolism significantly increased after induction. Micro-CT revealed structure deterioration of subchondral trabecular bone. Histomorphometry showed larger fat cell fraction and size, thinning of subchondral plate and cartilage layer, smaller osteoblast perimeter percentage and less blood vessels distributed at collapsed region in SAON group as compared with the normal controls. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed poor mineral matrix and more osteo-lacunae outline in the collapsed region in SAON group. The combination of pulsed LPS and MPS developed in the current study was safe and effective to induce SAON and deterioration of subchondral bone in bipedal emus with subsequent femoral head collapse, a typical clinical feature observed in patients under pulsed steroid treatment. In conclusion, bipedal emus could be used as an effective preclinical experimental model to evaluate potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of ON-induced hip joint collapse in patients. PMID:24204675

  5. Steroid-Associated Hip Joint Collapse in Bipedal Emus

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Li-Zhen; Liu, Zhong; Lei, Ming; Peng, Jiang; He, Yi-Xin; Xie, Xin-Hui; Man, Chi-Wai; Huang, Le; Wang, Xin-Luan; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Xiao, De-Ming; Wang, Da-Ping; Chen, Yang; Feng, Jian Q.; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Ge; Qin, Ling

    2013-01-01

    In this study we established a bipedal animal model of steroid-associated hip joint collapse in emus for testing potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of steroid-associated joint collapse in preclinical settings. Five adult male emus were treated with a steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) induction protocol using combination of pulsed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and methylprednisolone (MPS). Additional three emus were used as normal control. Post-induction, emu gait was observed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and blood was collected for routine examination, including testing blood coagulation and lipid metabolism. Emus were sacrificed at week 24 post-induction, bilateral femora were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. Asymmetric limping gait and abnormal MRI signals were found in steroid-treated emus. SAON was found in all emus with a joint collapse incidence of 70%. The percentage of neutrophils (Neut %) and parameters on lipid metabolism significantly increased after induction. Micro-CT revealed structure deterioration of subchondral trabecular bone. Histomorphometry showed larger fat cell fraction and size, thinning of subchondral plate and cartilage layer, smaller osteoblast perimeter percentage and less blood vessels distributed at collapsed region in SAON group as compared with the normal controls. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed poor mineral matrix and more osteo-lacunae outline in the collapsed region in SAON group. The combination of pulsed LPS and MPS developed in the current study was safe and effective to induce SAON and deterioration of subchondral bone in bipedal emus with subsequent femoral head collapse, a typical clinical feature observed in patients under pulsed steroid treatment. In conclusion, bipedal emus could be used as an effective preclinical experimental model to evaluate potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of ON-induced hip joint collapse in patients. PMID:24204675

  6. Steroid Receptor-Associated Immunophilins: A Gateway to Steroid Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak, Thomas; Cluning, Carmel; Ward, Bryan K

    2015-01-01

    The steroid receptor-associated immunophilins FKBP51, FKBP52, CyP40 and PP5 have specific roles in steroid receptor function that impact steroid hormone-binding affinity, nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and transcriptional activation of target genes in a tissue-specific manner. Aberrant expression of these functionally unique immunophilins has the potential to cause steroid-based diseases, including breast and prostate cancer, diabetes and related metabolic disorders, male and female infertility and major depressive disorders. This review addresses the function of these proteins as co-chaperones in steroid receptor-Hsp90 complexes and extensively covers current knowledge of the link between the steroid receptor-associated immunophilins and human disease. An improved understanding of their mechanisms of action has revealed opportunities for molecular therapies to enhance or inhibit cellular processes under immunophilin control that contribute both to human health and disease. PMID:26224894

  7. Mach 6.5 air induction system design for the Beta II Two-Stage-to-Orbit booster vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midea, Anthony C.

    1991-09-01

    A preliminary, two-dimensional, mixed compression air induction system is designed for the Beta II Two-Stage-to-Orbit booster vehicle to minimize installation losses and efficiently deliver the required airflow. Design concepts, such as an external isentropic compression ramp and a bypass system, are developed and evaluated for performance benefits. The design is optimized by maximizing installed propulsion/vehicle system performance, and the resulting system design operating characteristics and performance are presented. The air induction system design has significantly lower transonic drag than similar designs, and only requires approximately 1/3 of the bleed extraction. In addition, the design efficiently provides the integrated system required airflow, while maintaining adequate levels of total pressure recovery. The excellent performance of this highly integrated air induction system is essential for the successful completion of the Beta II booster vehicle mission.

  8. Mach 6.5 air induction system design for the Beta 2 two-stage-to-orbit booster vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Midea, Anthony C.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary, two-dimensional, mixed compression air induction system is designed for the Beta II Two Stage to Orbit booster vehicle to minimize installation losses and efficiently deliver the required airflow. Design concepts, such as an external isentropic compression ramp and a bypass system were developed and evaluated for performance benefits. The design was optimized by maximizing installed propulsion/vehicle system performance. The resulting system design operating characteristics and performance are presented. The air induction system design has significantly lower transonic drag than similar designs and only requires about 1/3 of the bleed extraction. In addition, the design efficiently provides the integrated system required airflow, while maintaining adequate levels of total pressure recovery. The excellent performance of this highly integrated air induction system is essential for the successful completion of the Beta II booster vehicle mission.

  9. Computational models of an inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anele, A. O.; Hamam, Y.; Chassagne, L.; Linares, J.; Alayli, Y.; Djouani, K.

    2015-09-01

    One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that the models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV.

  10. A Power-Efficient Wireless Capacitor Charging System Through an Inductive Link

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    A power-efficient wireless capacitor charging system for inductively powered applications has been presented. A bank of capacitors can be directly charged from an ac source by generating a current through a series charge injection capacitor and a capacitor charger circuit. The fixed charging current reduces energy loss in switches, while maximizing the charging efficiency. An adaptive capacitor tuner compensates for the resonant capacitance variations during charging to keep the amplitude of the ac input voltage at its peak. We have fabricated the capacitor charging system prototype in a 0.35-μm 4-metal 2-poly standard CMOS process in 2.1 mm2 of chip area. It can charge four pairs of capacitors sequentially. While receiving 2.7-V peak ac input through a 2-MHz inductive link, the capacitor charging system can charge each pair of 1 μF capacitors up to ±2 V in 420 μs, achieving a high measured charging efficiency of 82%. PMID:24678284

  11. A Power-Efficient Wireless Capacitor Charging System Through an Inductive Link.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-10-01

    A power-efficient wireless capacitor charging system for inductively powered applications has been presented. A bank of capacitors can be directly charged from an ac source by generating a current through a series charge injection capacitor and a capacitor charger circuit. The fixed charging current reduces energy loss in switches, while maximizing the charging efficiency. An adaptive capacitor tuner compensates for the resonant capacitance variations during charging to keep the amplitude of the ac input voltage at its peak. We have fabricated the capacitor charging system prototype in a 0.35-μm 4-metal 2-poly standard CMOS process in 2.1 mm(2) of chip area. It can charge four pairs of capacitors sequentially. While receiving 2.7-V peak ac input through a 2-MHz inductive link, the capacitor charging system can charge each pair of 1 μF capacitors up to ±2 V in 420 μs, achieving a high measured charging efficiency of 82%. PMID:24678284

  12. Effect of composting on the fate of steroids in beef cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Devivo, Shannon; Johnson, Leslie; Snow, Daniel D; Kranz, William L; Mader, Terry L; Shapiro, Charles A; van Donk, Simon J; Shelton, David P; Tarkalson, David D; Zhang, Tian C

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the fate of steroid hormones in beef cattle manure composting is evaluated. The fate of 16 steroids and metabolites was evaluated in composted manure from beef cattle administered growth promotants and from beef cattle with no steroid hormone implants. The fate of estrogens (primary detected as estrone), androgens, progesterone, and the fusarium metabolite and implant α-zearalanol was monitored in manure compost piles. First-order decay rates were calculated for steroid half-lives in compost and ranged from 8 d for androsterone to 69 d for 4-androstenedione. Other steroid concentration data could not be fit to first-order decay models, which may indicate that microbial processes may result in steroid production or synthesis in composting systems. We demonstrate that composting is an effective strategy to remove steroid hormones from manure. Total steroid hormone removal in composted beef cattle manure ranged from 79 to 87%. PMID:24216367

  13. Steroid hormones as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Guillette, L.J. Jr.; Rooney, A.A.; Crain, D.A.; Orlando, E.F.

    1999-07-01

    Xenobiotic compounds introduced into the environment by human activity have been shown to adversely affect the endocrine system of wildlife. Various species exhibit abnormalities of (1) plasma sex steroid hormones, (2) altered steroid synthesis form the gonad in vitro and (3) altered steroidogenic enzyme function. These endpoints are sensitive and relatively easy to measure quantitatively with reliability and precision. These observations have led to the conclusion that sex steroid hormones could be markers of exposure to, and altered function from, endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs). However, there are serious limitations in the use of steroid hormones as generalized markers of EDC exposure. Steroid hormones exhibit seasonal, ontogenetic, gender and species-specific variation. Moreover, the regulation of sex steroid plasma concentrations is a relatively complex phenomenon capable of short-term (minutes-hours) alteration due to environmental inputs, such as acute stress--an activational response. Alterations in steroids synthesis and degradation also can be a response to altered embryonic development due to EDC exposure--an organizational response. If steroid hormones are to be used as biomarkers, then closely controlled, well designed sampling has to be performed. Additionally, an appreciation of the variation possible in endocrine responses among the species to be studied must be obtained.

  14. The Regulation of Steroid Action by Sulfation and Desulfation

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Jonathan W.; Gilligan, Lorna C.; Idkowiak, Jan; Arlt, Wiebke

    2015-01-01

    Steroid sulfation and desulfation are fundamental pathways vital for a functional vertebrate endocrine system. After biosynthesis, hydrophobic steroids are sulfated to expedite circulatory transit. Target cells express transmembrane organic anion-transporting polypeptides that facilitate cellular uptake of sulfated steroids. Once intracellular, sulfatases hydrolyze these steroid sulfate esters to their unconjugated, and usually active, forms. Because most steroids can be sulfated, including cholesterol, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and estrone, understanding the function, tissue distribution, and regulation of sulfation and desulfation processes provides significant insights into normal endocrine function. Not surprisingly, dysregulation of these pathways is associated with numerous pathologies, including steroid-dependent cancers, polycystic ovary syndrome, and X-linked ichthyosis. Here we provide a comprehensive examination of our current knowledge of endocrine-related sulfation and desulfation pathways. We describe the interplay between sulfatases and sulfotransferases, showing how their expression and regulation influences steroid action. Furthermore, we address the role that organic anion-transporting polypeptides play in regulating intracellular steroid concentrations and how their expression patterns influence many pathologies, especially cancer. Finally, the recent advances in pharmacologically targeting steroidogenic pathways will be examined. PMID:26213785

  15. Design of an Inductive Power Transfer System with Flexible Coils for Body-worn Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clare, L. R.; Burrow, S. G.; Stark, B. H.; Grabham, N. J.; Beeby, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes an IPT (Inductive Power Transfer) system for body worn electronics, and investigates the challenges for an IPT system that arise specifically in this scenario. Principally, these are: highly variable coil coupling through time-varying miss-alignment and coil separation; a requirement that one or both of the coils must be wearable and thus flexible; and proximity to the human body introducing limits on the maximum EM field. The highly variable coupling results in a system that must operate effectively with a large range of received powers, whilst the constraints on the realisation of the coils typically reduce the Q-factor; the human exposure considerations limit both the maximum field strengths that the wearer of a receiver coil might experience, and also the field strengths that a 3rd party might be exposed to, for instance when approaching the transmit coil.

  16. Rail Brake System Using a Linear Induction Motor for Dynamic Braking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Minoru; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    One type of braking system for railway vehicles is the eddy current brake. Because this type of brake has the problem of rail heating, it has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of a linear induction motor (LIM) for dynamic braking in eddy current brake systems. The LIM reduces rail heating and uses an inverter for self excitation. In this paper, we estimated the performance of an LIM from experimental results of a fundamental test machine and confirmed that the LIM generates an approximately constant braking force under constant current excitation. At relatively low frequencies, this braking force remains unaffected by frequency changes. The reduction ratio of rail heating is also approximately proportional to the frequency. We also confirmed that dynamic braking resulting in no electrical output can be used for drive control of the LIM. These characteristics are convenient for the realization of the LIM rail brake system.

  17. Hybrid renewable energy system using doubly-fed induction generator and multilevel inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Eshita

    The proposed hybrid system generates AC power by combining solar and wind energy converted by a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The DFIG, driven by a wind turbine, needs rotor excitation so the stator can supply a load or the grid. In a variable-speed wind energy system, the stator voltage and its frequency vary with wind speed, and in order to keep them constant, variable-voltage and variable-frequency rotor excitation is to be provided. A power conversion unit supplies the rotor, drawing power either from AC mains or from a PV panel depending on their availability. It consists of a multilevel inverter which gives lower harmonic distortion in the stator voltage. Maximum power point tracking techniques have been implemented for both wind and solar power. The complete hybrid renewable energy system is implemented in a PSIM-Simulink interface and the wind energy conversion portion is realized in hardware using dSPACE controller board.

  18. Four Pulse Drive System for the Beam Induction Cells for DARHT Axis 2

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, J.; Carlson, R.; Melton, J.; Fockler, J.

    1999-06-28

    The proposed drive system allows for the generation of up to four (4) high-quality radiographic pulses along one line-of-sight, having arbitrary pulse spacing ({approximately}500 ns), using demonstrated technologies. This concept uses a four-pulse drive system to drive both a 16-MeV ensemble of 250-kV, 4-kA induction cells and a four-pulse, 4-MeV injector. The key to this approach lies in the method used to combine four pulses from different generators in a manner that does not compromise the voltage flatness requirement of {+-} 1%. The induction cells use core material for only a single pulse. A simple reverse bias circuit is used to reset the cores between pulses, and the insulator has been redesigned to withstand the reverse reset voltage. This approach can be installed in stages so that the facility can be used for dual axis radiography while implementing the multi-pulsing capability. A dual double-pulse format has been identified which provides a sequence of two pulses along one line-of-sight within a 2-{micro}sec window. The 2-{micro}sec windows can be separated by arbitrary time intervals of 2- to 10-{micro}sec.

  19. Inductive displacement sensors with a notch filter for an active magnetic bearing system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Seng-Chi; Le, Dinh-Kha; Nguyen, Van-Sum

    2014-01-01

    Active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems support rotating shafts without any physical contact, using electromagnetic forces. Each radial AMB uses two pairs of electromagnets at opposite sides of the rotor. This allows the rotor to float in the air gap, and the machine to operate without frictional losses. In active magnetic suspension, displacement sensors are necessary to detect the radial and axial movement of the suspended object. In a high-speed rotating machine equipped with an AMB, the rotor bending modes may be limited to the operating range. The natural frequencies of the rotor can cause instability. Thus, notch filters are a useful circuit for stabilizing the system. In addition, commercial displacement sensors are sometimes not suitable for AMB design, and cannot filter the noise caused by the natural frequencies of rotor. Hence, implementing displacement sensors based on the AMB structure is necessary to eliminate noises caused by natural frequency disturbances. The displacement sensor must be highly sensitive in the desired working range, and also exhibit a low interference noise, high stability, and low cost. In this study, we used the differential inductive sensor head and lock-in amplifier for synchronous demodulation. In addition, an active low-pass filter and a notch filter were used to eliminate disturbances, which caused by natural frequencies. As a consequence, the inductive displacement sensor achieved satisfactory linearity, high sensitivity, and disturbance elimination. This sensor can be easily produced for AMB applications. A prototype of these displacement sensors was built and tested. PMID:25029281

  20. Inductive Displacement Sensors with a Notch Filter for an Active Magnetic Bearing System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Seng-Chi; Le, Dinh-Kha; Nguyen, Van-Sum

    2014-01-01

    Active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems support rotating shafts without any physical contact, using electromagnetic forces. Each radial AMB uses two pairs of electromagnets at opposite sides of the rotor. This allows the rotor to float in the air gap, and the machine to operate without frictional losses. In active magnetic suspension, displacement sensors are necessary to detect the radial and axial movement of the suspended object. In a high-speed rotating machine equipped with an AMB, the rotor bending modes may be limited to the operating range. The natural frequencies of the rotor can cause instability. Thus, notch filters are a useful circuit for stabilizing the system. In addition, commercial displacement sensors are sometimes not suitable for AMB design, and cannot filter the noise caused by the natural frequencies of rotor. Hence, implementing displacement sensors based on the AMB structure is necessary to eliminate noises caused by natural frequency disturbances. The displacement sensor must be highly sensitive in the desired working range, and also exhibit a low interference noise, high stability, and low cost. In this study, we used the differential inductive sensor head and lock-in amplifier for synchronous demodulation. In addition, an active low-pass filter and a notch filter were used to eliminate disturbances, which caused by natural frequencies. As a consequence, the inductive displacement sensor achieved satisfactory linearity, high sensitivity, and disturbance elimination. This sensor can be easily produced for AMB applications. A prototype of these displacement sensors was built and tested. PMID:25029281

  1. Steroid biosynthesis in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehan; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Vihma, Veera

    2015-11-01

    Tissue-specific expression of steroidogenic enzymes allows the modulation of active steroid levels in a local manner. Thus, the measurement of local steroid concentrations, rather than the circulating levels, has been recognized as a more accurate indicator of the steroid action within a specific tissue. Adipose tissue, one of the largest endocrine tissues in the human body, has been established as an important site for steroid storage and metabolism. Locally produced steroids, through the enzymatic conversion from steroid precursors delivered to adipose tissue, have been proven to either functionally regulate adipose tissue metabolism, or quantitatively contribute to the whole body's steroid levels. Most recently, it has been suggested that adipose tissue may contain the steroidogenic machinery necessary for the initiation of steroid biosynthesis de novo from cholesterol. This review summarizes the evidence indicating the presence of the entire steroidogenic apparatus in adipose tissue and discusses the potential roles of local steroid products in modulating adipose tissue activity and other metabolic parameters. PMID:25846979

  2. Using a Computer Algebra System to Facilitate the Learning of Mathematical Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Alasdair

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical induction is one of the major proof techniques taught to mathematics students in the first years of their undergraduate degrees. In addition to its importance to mathematics, induction is also required for computer science and related disciplines. However, even if the concepts of a proof by induction are taught and understood, many…

  3. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems

    SciTech Connect

    Luong, E.

    1999-05-10

    This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 {+-} 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 {+-} 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 {+-} 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 {+-} 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and {beta}-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of {sup 13}C{sup +} with {sup 12}C{sup 1}H{sup +} comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or {beta}-cyclodextrin.

  4. Induction Motor Drive System Based on Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liying; Zhang, Yongli; Yao, Qingmei

    It is difficult to establish an exact mathematical model for the induction motor and the robustness is poor of the vector control system using PI regulator. This paper adopts the linear active disturbance rejection controller (LADRC) to control inductor motor. LADRC doesn't need the exact mathematical model of motor and it can not only estimate but also compensate the general disturbance that includes the coupling items in model of motor and parameters perturbations by linear extended state observer (LESO), so the rotor flux and torque fully decouple. As a result, the performance is improved. To prove the above control scheme, the proposed control system has been simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK, and the comparison was made with PID. Simulation results show that LADRC' has better performance and robustness than PID.

  5. Optical control, diagnostic and power supply system for a solid state induction modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Saethre, R.; Kirbie, H.; Hickman, B.; Lee, B.; Ollis, C.

    1997-06-01

    A new high speed optical control, diagnostic and power supply system has been developed for a solid state induction modulator. The modulator consists of a large array of field effect transistors (FETs) that switch a high-voltage pulse across a tape-wound magnetic core. The FETs within the modulator are mounted on numerous circuit boards that are stacked in series for high-voltage operation. The new optical system overcomes the issue of voltage isolation by supplying each circuit board with optically coupled control power and high bandwidth signal information. An optical fiber is used to transmit laser light to a custom photovoltaic cell that provides dc power to the on-board control circuits. Optical fiber technology is again used to convey a pulse that contains detailed analog features to the FET gate controls. Diagnostic data and status information are also obtained from each board by similar optical methods. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. A wearable respiration monitoring system based on digital respiratory inductive plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Huang, Bang-Yu; Wang, Bo; Lin, Shao-Jie; Xu, Xiao-Wen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a wearable device for continuous monitoring of respiration signal and the associated algorithm for signal evaluations. The device took advantages of a proven respiratory inductive plethysmograph (RIP) technology and a wireless body sensor networks (BSN) development platform. The textile RIP sensor was integrated into a suit that could be comfortably worn around thorax or abdomen for monitoring respiration during sleep. A smart signal processing algorithm was implemented for extracting the dynamic respiration rate. The results of in-situ experiments from ten healthy subjects suggested that our system worked as intended. Due to the high reliability and low cost of our system it is believed to meet the future demands on home-based monitoring and diagnosis of sleep disorder-related diseases. PMID:19963862

  7. Development of a dental implant mobility measurement system using an inductive sensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Seung; Lee, Woo-Jin; Choi, Soon-Chul; Lee, Sam-Sun; Heo, Min-Suk; Heo, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of dental implant stability is an important factor for diagnosis of implant treatment. In this study, we have developed a new system for measuring dental implant mobility. Movement of the implant was measured by an inductive sensor and an amplification adaptor was developed to multiply movement of the implant. Impulse response signal of the implant was acquired and power spectrum analysis was applied for the signal. Various implant-tissue interfacial conditions were simulated in an in vitro experiment and average peak frequency of the power spectrum was calculated for each condition. Artificial implantation model of acryl was fabricated and holes of different levels of depth and diameter were drilled. Two types of impression materials were used to fix the dental implant into the hole. The peak frequency showed linear relationship (P-value<0.01) with the depth and the diameter of the hole. Differentiability of the system was evaluated by ANOVA test. PMID:22254323

  8. Non-reproductive effects of sex steroids: their immunoregulatory role.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Cruz, Samira; Togno-Pierce, Cristian; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Sex hormones play an important role as modulators of the immune system. A growing body of evidence shows reciprocal relationship between sex steroids and the immune system. Since the innate immune response determines the type of adaptive immune response, hormonal effects on the innate immune response may affect subsequent adaptive immunity. The sex steroids estrogens, progesterone and testosterone regulate growth, differentiation, survival and function of many cell types involved in homeostasis and immunity. The presence of sex steroid receptors on immune cells indicates that sex steroids may exert their biological effects by binding to these receptors. Sex steroids and immunity are closely connected, and their mutual regulation is involved in the maintenance of immune balance. Understanding the mechanisms of action of sex steroids on immune cells is important for further progress in the development of novel therapies for chronic diseases associated to immune dysregulation. This review describes the effects of sex steroids on the different immune system cells, and the possible implications of these effects on the incidence of many diseases. PMID:21463251

  9. Electromechanical performance of induction motor/drive systems subjected to voltage sags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunaboylu, Serdar N.

    Induction Motors are workhorses for many industries. They are extensively utilized in industrial variable-frequency drive (VFD) or adjustable-speed drive (ASD) applications as well as constant speed applications. Recent advances in power electronics have made AC motor drives an economically viable solution for ASD applications traditionally dominated by dc motor drives. In this study, electromechanical performance variables of an Induction Motor (IM) have been studied during the balanced voltage sags. For this purpose a laboratory prototype of an industrial mixer has been designed. IM has been coupled to a speed reducer that is worm gear type with a ratio 10 to 1. Then the reducer is vertically coupled to a food process mixer within a metal canister. The mixer represents a high friction load with practically zero inertia. Voltage, current, speed, and power measurements have been collected and compared with the simulation results from Simnon. An open-loop control Volts per Hertz boost strategy has been used in order to compensate the speed loss during the three-phase balanced voltage sags. Both compensated and uncompensated cases have been run and compared with simulation results. Results are verified with a reasonably good agreement that the total system modeling is successful and boost compensation circuit is effective.

  10. Characterization of stratification for an opaque highly stable magnetorheological fluid using vertical axis inductance monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Lei; Choi, Young-Tai; Liao, Chang-Rong; Wereley, Norman M.

    2015-05-01

    A key requirement for the commercialization of various magnetorheological fluid (MRF)-based applications is sedimentation stability. In this study, a high viscosity linear polysiloxane (HVLP), which has been used for shock absorbers in heavy equipment, is proposed as a new carrier fluid in highly stable MRFs. The HVLP is known to be a thixotropic (i.e., shear thinning) fluid that shows very high viscosity at very low shear rate and low viscosity at higher shear rate. In this study, using the shear rheometer, the significant thixotropic behavior of the HVLP was experimentally confirmed. In addition, a HVLP carrier fluid-based MRF (HVLP MRF) with 26 vol. % was synthesized and its sedimentation characteristics were experimentally investigated. But, because of the opacity of the HVLP MRF, no mudline can be visually observed. Hence, a vertical axis inductance monitoring system (VAIMS) applied to a circular column of fluid was used to evaluate sedimentation behavior by correlating measured inductance with the volume fraction of dispersed particles (i.e., Fe). Using the VAIMS, Fe concentration (i.e., volume fraction) was monitored for 28 days with a measurement taken every four days, as well as one measurement after 96 days to characterize long-term sedimentation stability. Finally, the concentration of the HVLP MRF as a function of the depth in the column and time, as well as the concentration change versus the depth in the column, are presented and compared with those of a commercially available MRF (i.e., Lord MRF-126CD).

  11. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medications > Long-Term Control Medications > About Steroids About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids) What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’) ... considerations when your dosage changes? What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’)? Corticosteroids (steroids) are medicines that are used to ...

  12. Steroid Treatments Equally Effective Against Sudden Deafness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Matters June 6, 2011 Steroid Treatments Equally Effective Against Sudden Deafness Injecting steroids into the middle ear ... stories In this Edition Steroid Treatments Equally Effective Against Sudden Deafness Trial Restores Movement to Paralyzed Man’s ...

  13. The in vitro effects of new non-steroidal antiinflammatory compounds on antioxidant system of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Orhan, H; Doğruer, D S; Cakir, B; Sahin, G; Sahin, M F

    1999-07-01

    It has been reported by our group that some benzoxazolone and benzothiazolone derivatives showed significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity [DOGRUER et al. 1997]. It has been speculated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can act as the free radical scavengers and possess antioxidant activity. It is also well documented that oxidative stress can play an important role in the side effects of many xenobiotics including NSAIDs. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of six of the above mentioned benzoxazolone and benzothiazolone derivatives bearing 2-pyridylaminocarbonylmetyl moiety at the position 3 (I) on the antioxidant system-related parameters of human erythrocytes have been investigated. Diclofenac and nimesulid were also tested in the same systems as the control, because they are commonly used as NSAIDs. Our results showed that these compounds made significant changes in the antioxidant system of human erythrocyte. PMID:10445404

  14. Steroid estrogens, nonylphenol ethoxylate metabolites, and other wastewater contaminants in groundwater affected by a residential septic system on cape cod, MA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swartz, C.H.; Reddy, S.; Benotti, M.J.; Yin, H.; Barber, L.B.; Brownawell, Bruce J.; Rudel, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Septic systems serve approximately 25% of U.S. households and may be an important source of estrogenic and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWC) to groundwater. We monitored several estrogenic OWC, including nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol mono- and diethoxycarboxylates (NP1EC and NP2EC), the steroid hormones 17??-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and their glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, and other OWC such as methylene blue active substances (MBAS), caffeine and its degradation product paraxanthine, and two fluorescent whitening agents in a residential septic system and in downgradient groundwater. E1 and E2 were present predominantly as free estrogens in groundwater, and near-source groundwater concentrations of all OWC were highest in the suboxic to anoxic portion of the wastewater plume, where concentrations of most OWC were similar to those observed in the septic tank on the same day. NP and NP2EC were up to 6- to 30-fold higher, and caffeine and paraxanthine were each 60-fold lower than septic tank concentrations, suggesting net production and removal, respectively, of these constituents. At the most shallow, oxic depth, concentrations of all OWC except for NP2EC were substantially lower than in the tank and in deeper wells. Yet boron, specific conductance, and the sum of nitrate-and ammonia-nitrogen were highest at this shallow depth, suggesting preferential losses of OWC along the more oxic flow lines. As far as 6.0 m downgradient, concentrations of many OWC were within a factor of 2 of near-source concentrations. The results suggest that there is the potential for migration of these OWC, which are unregulated and not routinely monitored, in groundwater. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  15. Crystallization of steroids in gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkura, S. Narayana; Devanarayanan, S.

    1991-03-01

    The crystal growth and characterization of certain steriods, viz., cholesterol, cholesteryl acetate, β-sitosterol, progesterone and testosterone, in a silica gel medium is discussed. The present study shows that the single test tube diffusion method can be used to grow crystals of steroids in a silica gel medium by the reduction of steroid solubility.

  16. Roles of Steroids in Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inability of nematodes to biosynthesize steroids de novo and the resulting dependence of parasitic nematodes upon their hosts have enhanced the importance of elucidating the metabolism of sterols and the hormonal and other functions of steroids in nematodes. Biochemical research has revealed th...

  17. Inductively coupled plasma -- Atomic emission spectroscopy glove box assembly system at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Marlow, J.H.; McCarthy, K.M.; Tamul, N.R.

    1999-12-17

    The inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy [ICP/AES (ICP)] system for elemental analyses in support of vitrification processing was first installed in 1986. The initial instrument was a Jobin Yvon (JY) Model JY-70 ICP that consisted of sequential and simultaneous spectrometers for analysis of nonradioactive samples as radioactive surrogates. The JY-70 ICP continued supporting nonradioactive testing during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) using the full-scale melter with ``cold'' (nonradioactive) testing campaigns. As a result, the need for another system was identified to allow for the analysis of radioactive samples. The Mass Spec (Spectrometry) Lab was established for the installation of the modified ICP system for handling radioactive samples. The conceptual setup of another ICP was predicated on the use of a hood to allow ease of accessibility of the torch, nebulizer, and spray chamber, and the minimization of air flow paths. However, reconsideration of the radioactive sample dose rate and contamination levels led to the configuration of the glovebox system with a common transfer interface box for the ICP and the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) glovebox assemblies. As a result, a simultaneous Model JY-50P ICP with glovebox was installed in 1990 as a first generation ICP glovebox system. This was one of the first ICP glovebox assemblies connected with an ICP-MS glovebox system. Since the economics of processing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) required the availability of an instrument to operate 24 hours a day throughout the year without any downtime, a second generation ICP glovebox assembly was designed, manufactured, and installed in 1995 using a Model JY-46P ICP. These two ICP glovebox systems continue to support vitrification of the HLW into canisters for storage. The ICP systems have been instrumental in monitoring vitrification batch processing. To date, remote sample preparation and compositional analysis of key parameters, i.e., greater than 0.5% weight percent metal oxides, during batch processing (waste initials, glass formers, waste plus glass formers, and glass) has verified the composition to be within the acceptance criteria and generated the necessary data for the Waste Qualification Report.

  18. MR damper-based semiactive control system using electromagnetic induction device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hyung-Jo; Jang, Dong-Doo; Koo, Jeong-Hoi

    2009-03-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) damper-based semiactive control systems can be considered as one of the most advantageous control systems for natural hazard mitigation in the field of civil engineering because MR dampers have many good features such as small power requirement, reliability, and low price to manufacture. Those systems require feedback control and power supply parts to efficiently reduce the structural responses. The control system becomes complex when a lot of MR dampers are applied to large-scale civil structures, such as cable-stayed bridges and high-rise buildings, resulting in difficulties in its implementation and maintenance. To overcome the above difficulties, a new-class MR damper-based control system was recently proposed by replacing feedback control and power supply parts with an electromagnetic induction (EMI) part consisting of permanent magnets and a coil. According to the Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, an EMI part produces electrical energy (i.e., electromotive force or induced voltage) from mechanical energy (i.e., reciprocal motions of an MR damper), which is proportional to the rate of the change of the movement of a damper. From this characteristic of an EMI part, it might be used as a response sensing device as well as an alternative power supply. In addition, some control algorithms used in the MR damper-based semiactive control systems require the measurement information on the response related to the relative velocity of the damper. In this study, the sensing capability of an EMI part is preliminarily examined for an application to the MR damper-based semiactive control system. To this end, experimental tests are carried out using the real-scale stay cable employing an MR damper with an EMI part. It is demonstrated from the tests that an EMI part could exactly extract the dynamic characteristics of the stay cable so that it might be used as a sensing device for estimating the tension force of the stay cable. In addition, numerical simulations are performed to verify the control performance of the MR damper-based semiactive control system adopting an EMI part as a power supply as well as a velocity sensor and the maximum energy dissipation algorithm, which requires the information on the relative velocity, as a control algorithm. The numerical result validates that the proposed control system can reduce the vibration of the stay cable effectively.

  19. [Constitution of a Real-time Monitoring System of Cerebral Hemorrhage with Magnetic Induction].

    PubMed

    Peng, Bin; Tang, Qinghua; Sun, Jian; Qin, Mingxin; Pan, Wencai; Du, Zhenwei; Zhang, Zhao; Li, Shangbin

    2015-04-01

    The real-time monitoring of cerebral hemorrhage can reduce its disability and fatality rates greatly. On the basis of magnetic induction phase shift, we in this study used filter and amplifier hardware module, NI-PXI data-acquisition system and LabVIEW software to set up an experiment system. We used Band-pass sample method and correlation phase demodulation algorithm in the system. In order to test and evaluate the performance of the system, we carried out saline simulation experiments of brain hemorrhage. We also carried out rabbit cerebral hemorrhage experiments. The results of both saline simulation and animal experiments suggested that our monitoring system had a high phase detection precision, and it needed only about 0.030 4s to finish a single phase shift measurement, and the change of phase shift was directly proportional to the volume of saline or blood. The experimental results were consistent with theory. As a result, this system has the ability of real-time monitoring the progression of cerebral hemorrhage precisely, with many distinguished features, such as low cost, high phase detection precision, high sensitivity of response so that it has showed a good application prospect. PMID:26211268

  20. Computer expert system for spectral line simulation and selection in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pengyuan; Ying, Hai; Wang, Xiaoru; Huang, Benli

    1996-07-01

    This paper is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta, Part B (SAB). This hardcopy text, comprising the main body and an appendix, is accompanied by a disk with programs, data files and a brief manual. The main body discusses purpose, design principle and usage of the computer software for the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) expert system. The appendix provides a brief instruction on the manipulation of the demonstration program and relevant information on accessing the diskette. The computer software of the expert system has been developed in C++ language to simulate spectra and to select analytical lines in ICP-AES. This expert system is based on a comprehensive model of non-LTE ICP-AES, which includes expertise in plasma discharges, analyte ionization and excitation, and spectral-line shapes. The system also provides several databases in which essential elemental and spectral data are stored. A logic reasoning engine is utilized for selection of the best analytical line with a main criterion of minimizing the true detection limit. The system is user-friendly with pop-up menus, an editor for database operation, and a graphic interface for the display of simulated spectra. The system can simulate spectra and predict spectral interferences with good accuracy.

  1. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

  2. Numerical Study of a System of Long Josephson Junctions with Inductive and Capacitive Couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmonov, I. R.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Plecenik, A.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Bashashin, M. V.

    2016-02-01

    The phase dynamics of the stacked long Josephson junctions is investigated taking into account the inductive and capacitive couplings between junctions and the diffusion current. The simulation of the current-voltage characteristics is based on the numerical solution of a system of nonlinear partial differential equations by a fourth order Runge-Kutta method and finite-difference approximation. A parallel implementation is based on the MPI technique. The effectiveness of the MPI/C++ code is confirmed by calculations on the multi-processor cluster CICC (LIT JINR, Dubna). We demonstrate the appearance of the charge traveling wave (CTW) at the boundary of the zero field step. Based on this fact, we conclude that the CTW and the fluxons coexist.

  3. Multiphysics Modeling of an Annular Linear Induction Pump With Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbane, J.; Polzin, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    An annular linear induction pump (ALIP) that could be used for circulating liquid-metal coolant in a fission surface power reactor system is modeled in the present work using the computational COMSOL Multiphysics package. The pump is modeled using a two-dimensional, axisymmetric geometry and solved under conditions similar to those used during experimental pump testing. Real, nonlinear, temperature-dependent material properties can be incorporated into the model for both the electrically-conducting working fluid in the pump (NaK-78) and structural components of the pump. The intricate three-phase coil configuration of the pump is implemented in the model to produce an axially-traveling magnetic wave that is qualitatively similar to the measured magnetic wave. The model qualitatively captures the expected feature of a peak in efficiency as a function of flow rate.

  4. Measurement of the target current by inductive probe during laser interaction on terawatt laser system PALS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikhardt, J.; Krása, J.; De Marco, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Velyhan, A.; Krouský, E.; Cikhardtová, B.; Klír, D.; Řezáč, K.; Ullschmied, J.; Skála, J.; Kubeš, P.; Kravárik, J.

    2014-10-01

    Measurements of the return-current flowing through a solid target irradiated with the sub-nanosecond kJ-class Prague Asterix Laser System is reported. A new inductive target probe was developed which allows us measuring the target current derivative in a kA/ns range. The dependences of the target current on the laser pulse energy for cooper, graphite, and polyethylene targets are reported. The experiment shows that the target current is proportional to the deposited laser energy and is strongly affected by the shot-to-shot fluctuations. The corresponding maximum target charge exceeded a value of 10 μC. A return-current dependence of the electromagnetic pulse produced by the laser-target interaction is presented.

  5. Measurement of the target current by inductive probe during laser interaction on terawatt laser system PALS

    SciTech Connect

    Cikhardt, J.; Klír, D.; Řezáč, K.; Krása, J.; De Marco, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Velyhan, A.; Krouský, E.; Cikhardtová, B.; Kubeš, P.; Kravárik, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Skála, J.

    2014-10-15

    Measurements of the return-current flowing through a solid target irradiated with the sub-nanosecond kJ-class Prague Asterix Laser System is reported. A new inductive target probe was developed which allows us measuring the target current derivative in a kA/ns range. The dependences of the target current on the laser pulse energy for cooper, graphite, and polyethylene targets are reported. The experiment shows that the target current is proportional to the deposited laser energy and is strongly affected by the shot-to-shot fluctuations. The corresponding maximum target charge exceeded a value of 10 μC. A return-current dependence of the electromagnetic pulse produced by the laser-target interaction is presented.

  6. Electrical engineering and nontechnical design variables of multiple inductive loop systems for auditoriums.

    PubMed

    Alterovitz, Gil

    2004-01-01

    This research analyzed both engineering and nontechnical issues involved in the use of Induction Loop Amplification (ILA) devices in auditoriums or large gathering places for hard-of-hearing individuals. A variety of parameters need to be taken into account to determine an optimal shape/configuration for the ILA device. In many cases, an optimal configuration is different from those proposed for classroom use (Ross, 1969; Hodgson, 1986; Clevenger, 1992). Experimental results were obtained for a double-loop configuration in such a setting (a university gymnasium/auditorium in this case). The results demonstrate that a double-loop configuration is a viable possibility for auditorium use. Several variables using this configuration were examined, and experimentation was done. Various implications, including consequent nontechnical issues specific to this application, are discussed as well. Technical and nontechnical aspects of the ILA configuration need to be examined together when designing an optimal system. PMID:15304441

  7. CLIPPERS: chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids. Review of an increasingly recognized entity within the spectrum of inflammatory central nervous system disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dudesek, A; Rimmele, F; Tesar, S; Kolbaske, S; Rommer, P S; Benecke, R; Zettl, U K

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a recently defined inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) disorder, prominently involving the brainstem and in particular the pons. The condition features a combination of clinical symptoms essentially referable to brainstem pathology and a characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance with punctate and curvilinear gadolinium enhancement peppering the pons. The radiological distribution is focused in the pons and adjacent rhombencephalic structures such as the cerebellar peduncles, cerebellum, medulla and the midbrain. While the lesion burden with a perivascular pattern is typically most dense in these pontine and peripontine regions, enhancing lesions may additionally extend into the spinal cord and supratentorial structures such as the thalamus, basal ganglia, capsula interna, corpus callosum and the cerebral white matter. Another core feature is clinical and radiological responsiveness to glucocorticosteroid (GCS)-based immunosuppression. As withdrawal of GCS treatment results commonly in disease exacerbation, long-term immunosuppressive therapy appears to be mandatory for sustained improvement. Diagnosis of CLIPPERS is challenging, and requires careful exclusion of alternative diagnoses. A specific serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker for the disorder is currently not known. Pathogenesis of CLIPPERS remains poorly understood, and the nosological position of CLIPPERS has still to be established. Whether CLIPPERS represents an independent, actual new disorder or a syndrome that includes aetiologically heterogeneous diseases and/or their prestages remains a debated and not finally clarified issue. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of this condition and its differential diagnoses, given that CLIPPERS constitutes a treatable condition and that patients may benefit from an early introduction of GCS ensued by long-term immunosuppression. Based on previous reports in literature??currently encompassing more than 50 reported cases of CLIPPERS??this review addresses clinical features, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses and therapeutic management of this peculiar disorder. PMID:24028073

  8. Deficiency in steroid receptor coactivator 3 enhances cytokine production in IgE-stimulated mast cells and passive systemic anaphylaxis in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC-3) is a multifunctional protein that plays an important role in malignancy of several cancers and in regulation of bacterial LPS-induced inflammation. However, the involvement of SRC-3 in allergic response remains unclear. Herein we used passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA) and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) mouse models to assess the role of SRC-3 in allergic response. Results SRC-3-deficient mice exhibited more severe allergic response as demonstrated by a significant drop in body temperature and a delayed recovery period compared to wild-type mice in PSA mouse model, whereas no significant difference was observed between two kinds of mice in PCA mouse models. Mast cells play a pivotal role in IgE-mediated allergic response. Antigen-induced aggregation of IgE receptor (FcϵRI) on the surface of mast cell activates a cascade of signaling events leading to the degranulation and cytokine production in mast cells. SRC-3-deficient bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs) developed normally but secreted more proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 than wild-type cells after antigen stimulation, whereas there was no significant difference in degranulation between two kinds of mast cells. Further studies showed that SRC-3 inhibited the activation of nuclear factor NF-κB pathway and MAPKs including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 in antigen-stimulated mast cells. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that SRC-3 suppresses cytokine production in antigen-stimulated mast cells as well as PSA in mice at least in part through inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Therefore, SRC-3 plays a protective role in PSA and it may become a drug target for anaphylactic diseases. PMID:24834318

  9. Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Protein-Protein Interactions in the Cytochrome CYP11A1 (P450scc)-Containing Steroid Hydroxylase System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yd; Frantsuzov, Pa; Zöllner, A.; Medvedeva, Nv; Archakov, Ai; Reinle, W.; Bernhardt, R.

    2011-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) were used for monitoring of the procedure for cytochrome CYP11A1 monomerization in solution without phospholipids. It was shown that the incubation of 100 μM CYP11A1 with 12% Emulgen 913 in 50 mM KP, pH 7.4, for 10 min at T = 22°C leads to dissociation of hemoprotein aggregates to monomers with the monomerization degree of (82 ± 4)%. Following the monomerization procedure, CYP11A1 remained functionally active. AFM was employed to detect and visualize the isolated proteins as well as complexes formed between the components of the cytochrome CYP11A1-dependent steroid hydroxylase system. Both Ad and AdR were present in solution as monomers. The typical heights of the monomeric AdR, Ad and CYP11A1 images were measured by AFM and were found to correspond to the sizes 1.6 ± 0.2 nm, 1.0 ± 0.2 nm and 1.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively. The binary Ad/AdR and AdR/CYP11A1mon complexes with the heights 2.2 ± 0.2 nm and 2.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively, were registered by use of AFM. The Ad/CYP11A1mon complex formation reaction was kinetically characterized based on optical biosensor data. In addition, the ternary AdR/Ad/CYP11A1 complexes with a typical height of 4 ± 1 nm were AFM registered.

  10. Neuroactive steroids and peripheral myelin proteins.

    PubMed

    Magnaghi, V; Cavarretta, I; Galbiati, M; Martini, L; Melcangi, R C

    2001-11-01

    The present review summarizes observations obtained in our laboratories which underline the importance of neuroactive steroids (i.e., progesterone (PROG), dihydroprogesterone (5alpha-DH PROG), tetrahydroprogesterone (3alpha, 5alpha-TH PROG), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5alpha-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diol (3alpha-diol)) in the control of the gene expression of myelin proteins (i.e. glycoprotein Po (Po) and the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22)) in the peripheral nervous system. Utilizing different in vivo (aged and adult male rats) and in vitro (Schwann cell cultures) experimental models, we have observed that neuroactive steroids are able to stimulate the mRNA levels of Po and PMP22. The effects of these neuroactive steroids, which are able to interact with classical (progesterone receptor, PR, and androgen receptor, AR) and non-classical (GABA(A) receptor) steroid receptors is further supported by our demonstration in sciatic nerve and/or Schwann cells of the presence of these receptors. On the basis of the observations obtained in the Schwann cells cultures, we suggest that the stimulatory effect of neuroactive steroids on Po is acting through PR, while that on PMP22 needs the GABA(A) receptor. The present findings might be of importance for the utilization of specific receptor ligands as new therapeutical approaches for the rebuilding of the peripheral myelin, particularly in those situations in which the synthesis of Po and PMP22 is altered (i.e. demyelinating diseases like Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A and type 1B, hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and the Déjérine-Sottas syndrome, aging, and after peripheral injury). PMID:11744100

  11. Anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse and performance-enhancing drugs among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bahrke, M S; Yesalis, C E; Brower, K J

    1998-10-01

    Adolescents use a wide variety of drugs and supplements, including anabolic steroids, to improve their sports performance and physical appearance. Prevalence rates for steroid use generally range between 4% and 12% among male adolescents and between 0.5% and 2% for female adolescents. Although the short-term health effects of anabolic steroids such as effects on the liver, serum lipids, reproductive and cardiovascular systems, and moods and behavior have been increasingly studied, the long-term health effects are not well known. Steroid users are more likely to be boys, participate in strength-related sports, and use other illicit drugs. The effects of many other potential risk factors have not been fully elucidated, however. Assessment of anabolic steroid abuse includes physical and mental status and laboratory examinations. Steroid cessation, supportive therapy, and adjunctive pharmacotherapies are all employed in treating steroid abuse and dependence. PMID:9894044

  12. Vectorial Command of Induction Motor Pumping System Supplied by a Photovoltaic Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhlouf, Messaoud; Messai, Feyrouz; Benalla, Hocine

    2011-01-01

    With the continuous decrease of the cost of solar cells, there is an increasing interest and needs in photovoltaic (PV) system applications following standard of living improvements. Water pumping system powered by solar-cell generators are one of the most important applications. The fluctuation of solar energy on one hand, and the necessity to optimise available solar energy on the other, it is useful to develop new efficient and flexible modes to control motors that entrain the pump. A vectorial control of an asynchronous motor fed by a photovoltaic system is proposed. This paper investigates a photovoltaic-electro mechanic chain, composed of a PV generator, DC-AC converter, a vector controlled induction motor and centrifugal pump. The PV generator is forced to operate at its maximum power point by using an appropriate search algorithm integrated in the vector control. The optimization is realized without need to adding a DC-DC converter to the chain. The motor supply is also ensured in all insolation conditions. Simulation results show the effectiveness and feasibility of such an approach.

  13. Manchester code telemetry system for well logging using quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive resonance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Chen, Jianjun; Cao, Zhang; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance method is proposed to improve the recovery of MIL-STD-1553 Manchester code with several frequency components from attenuated, distorted, and drifted signal for data telemetry in well logging, and corresponding telemetry system is developed. Required resonant frequency and quality factor are derived, and the quasi-parallel LC resonant circuit is established at the receiving end of the logging cable to suppress the low-pass filtering effect caused by the distributed capacitance of the cable and provide balanced pass for all the three frequency components of the Manchester code. The performance of the method for various encoding frequencies and cable lengths at different bit energy to noise density ratios (Eb/No) have been evaluated in the simulation. A 5 km single-core cable used in on-site well logging and various encoding frequencies were employed to verify the proposed telemetry system in the experiment. Results obtained demonstrate that the telemetry system is feasible and effective to improve the code recovery in terms of anti-attenuation, anti-distortion, and anti-drift performances, decrease the bit error rate, and increase the reachable transmission rate and distance greatly. PMID:25085159

  14. Manchester code telemetry system for well logging using quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijun; Chen, Jianjun; Cao, Zhang; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance method is proposed to improve the recovery of MIL-STD-1553 Manchester code with several frequency components from attenuated, distorted, and drifted signal for data telemetry in well logging, and corresponding telemetry system is developed. Required resonant frequency and quality factor are derived, and the quasi-parallel LC resonant circuit is established at the receiving end of the logging cable to suppress the low-pass filtering effect caused by the distributed capacitance of the cable and provide balanced pass for all the three frequency components of the Manchester code. The performance of the method for various encoding frequencies and cable lengths at different bit energy to noise density ratios (Eb/No) have been evaluated in the simulation. A 5 km single-core cable used in on-site well logging and various encoding frequencies were employed to verify the proposed telemetry system in the experiment. Results obtained demonstrate that the telemetry system is feasible and effective to improve the code recovery in terms of anti-attenuation, anti-distortion, and anti-drift performances, decrease the bit error rate, and increase the reachable transmission rate and distance greatly.

  15. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    SciTech Connect

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca

    2014-11-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens/AR mediate sperm death which is a novel field of investigation in sperm biology.

  16. Whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates for in-duct and portable ventilation systems.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, David L; Myatt, Theodore A; Ludwig, Jerry F; Baker, Brian J; Suh, Helen H; Spengler, John D

    2008-11-01

    A novel method for determining whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates attributable to central and portable ventilation/air cleaning systems is described. The method is used to characterize total and air-cleaner-specific particle removal rates during operation of four in-duct air cleaners and two portable air-cleaning devices in a fully instrumented test home. Operation of in-duct and portable air cleaners typically increased particle removal rates over the baseline rates determined in the absence of operating a central fan or an indoor air cleaner. Removal rates of 0.3- to 0.5-microm particles ranged from 1.5 hr(-1) during operation of an in-duct, 5-in. pleated media filter to 7.2 hr(-1) for an in-duct electrostatic air cleaner in comparison to a baseline rate of 0 hr(-1) when the air handler was operating without a filter. Removal rates for total particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) mass concentrations were 0.5 hr(-1) under baseline conditions, 0.5 hr(-1) during operation of three portable ionic air cleaners, 1 hr(-1) for an in-duct 1-in. media filter, 2.4 hr(-1) for a single high-efficiency particle arrestance (HEPA) portable air cleaner, 4.6 hr(-1) for an in-duct 5-in. media filter, 4.7 hr(-1) during operation of five portable HEPA filters, 6.1 hr(-1) for a conventional in-duct electronic air cleaner, and 7.5 hr(-1) for a high efficiency in-duct electrostatic air cleaner. Corresponding whole house clean air delivery rates for PM2.5 attributable to the air cleaner independent of losses within the central ventilation system ranged from 2 m3/min for the conventional media filter to 32 m3/min for the high efficiency in-duct electrostatic device. Except for the portable ionic air cleaner, the devices considered here increased particle removal indoors over baseline deposition rates. PMID:19044163

  17. Steroids in Athletics: One University's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Mike

    1990-01-01

    Presents an account of one university's experience in conducting an investigation into possible steroid use by student athletes and the development of a program to deal with the problem. Discusses why athletes use steroids and how steroids are taken. Concludes it is likely many steroid-related deaths of athletes go undetected. (Author/ABL)

  18. Elucidation of regulatory elements that control damage induction and competence induction of the Bacillus subtilis SOS system.

    PubMed Central

    Cheo, D L; Bayles, K W; Yasbin, R E

    1993-01-01

    A novel consensus sequence (GAAC-N4-GTTC) has been identified within the promoter regions of DNA damage-inducible (din) genes from Bacillus subtilis. This sequence has been proposed to function as an operator site that is required for regulation of the SOS system of B. subtilis. To test this hypothesis, a deletion analysis of the dinA and recA promoter regions was utilized. A single consensus sequence is sufficient and necessary for damage-inducible regulation of the dinA and recA promoters. Deletion of the consensus sequences upstream of these promoters derepressed their expression under uninduced conditions. In addition, this deletion analysis has further defined sequences upstream of the recA promoter that are required for expression of the recA gene in cells that have differentiated to the state of natural competence. Northern (RNA) hybridization and S1 nuclease protection experiments have demonstrated that the damage-inducible and competence-inducible recA-specific transcripts initiate from a single promoter. Mutations within the comA, srfA, and degU loci each completely abolish the competence-inducible expression of the recA gene. Images PMID:7690748

  19. Effect of Age and Early Intervention with a Systemic Steroid, Intravenous Immunoglobulin or Amniotic Membrane Transplantation on the Ocular Outcomes of Patients with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyeong Hwan; Park, Sung Wook; Wee, Won Ryang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This retrospective observational case series of fifty-one consecutive patients referred to the eye clinic with acute-stage Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) from 1995 to 2011 examines the effect of early treatment with a systemic corticosteroid or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) on the ocular outcomes in patients with SJS or TEN. Methods All patients were classified by age (≤18 years vs. >18 years) and analyzed by treatment modality and early intervention with systemic corticosteroids (≤5 days), IVIG (≤6 days), or amniotic membrane graft transplantation (AMT) (≤15 days). The main outcomes were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) and ocular involvement scores (OIS, 0-12), which were calculated based on the presence of superficial punctate keratitis, epithelial defect, conjunctivalization, neovascularization, corneal opacity, keratinization, hyperemia, symblepharon, trichiasis, mucocutaneous junction involvement, meibomian gland involvement, and punctal damage. Results The mean logMAR and OIS scores at the initial visit were not significantly different in the pediatric group (logMAR = 0.44, OIS = 2.76, n = 17) or the adult group (logMAR = 0.60, OIS = 2.21, n = 34). At the final follow-up, the logMAR and OIS had improved significantly in the adult group (p = 0.0002, p = 0.023, respectively), but not in the pediatric group. Early intervention with IVIG or corticosteroids significantly improved the mean BCVA and OIS in the adult group (p = 0.043 and p = 0.024, respectively for IVIG; p = 0.002 and p = 0.034, respectively for corticosteroid). AMT was found to be associated with a significantly improved BCVA or OIS in the late treatment group or the group with a better initial OIS (p = 0.043 and p = 0.043, respectively for BCVA; p = 0.042 and p = 0.041, respectively for OIS). Conclusions Our findings suggest that patients with SJS or TEN who are aged 18 years or less have poorer ocular outcomes than older patients and that early treatment with steroid or immunoglobulin therapy improves ocular outcomes. PMID:24082770

  20. A Triple-Loop Inductive Power Transmission System for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byunghun; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-02-01

    A triple-loop wireless power transmission (WPT) system equipped with closed-loop global power control, adaptive transmitter (Tx) resonance compensation (TRC), and automatic receiver (Rx) resonance tuning (ART) is presented. This system not only opposes coupling and load variations but also compensates for changes in the environment surrounding the inductive link to enhance power transfer efficiency (PTE) in applications such as implantable medical devices (IMDs). The Tx was built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader, operating at 13.56 MHz. A local Tx loop finds the optimal capacitance in parallel with the Tx coil by adjusting a varactor. A global power control loop maintains the received power at a desired level in the presence of changes in coupling distance, coil misalignments, and loading. Moreover, a local Rx loop is implemented inside a power management integrated circuit (PMIC) to avoid PTE degradation due to the Rx coil surrounding environment and process variations. The PMIC was fabricated in a 0.35- μm 4M2P standard CMOS process with 2.54 mm(2) active area. Measurement results show that the proposed triple-loop system improves the overall PTE by up to 10.5% and 4.7% compared to a similar open- and single closed-loop system, respectively, at nominal coil distance of 2 cm. The added TRC and ART loops contribute 2.3% and 1.4% to the overall PTE of 13.5%, respectively. This is the first WPT system to include three loops to dynamically compensate for environment and circuit variations and improve the overall power efficiency all the way from the driver output in Tx to the load in Rx. PMID:25667358

  1. Are Steroids Worth the Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... body hair. Testosterone levels can also affect how aggressive a person is. Athletes sometimes take anabolic steroids ... balding or hair loss weight gain mood swings aggression problems sleeping high blood pressure greater chance of ...

  2. Anabolic steroids and Norwegian weightlifters.

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, S.

    1982-01-01

    The mean bodyweight, in kilograms, and mean weightlifting result, in points, for the ten best weightlifters at the annual Norwegian championships 1962-82 have been studied. During the 21 years, the mean bodyweight for these ten increased by 18 kg, probably due to the effect of androgens. The weightlifting results improved rapidly from 1968 onwards, probably reflecting an increasingly widespread use of anabolic steroids by Norwegian weightlifters. In 1977 doping tests were introduced, and from then on, rate of improvement has increased much more slowly. The annual sale of anabolic steroids 1963-81 and testosterone 1974-81, in Norway have been recorded. The sale of anabolic steroids increased irregularly until 1974-75, and has since shown a 42% decrease. The sale of testosterone 1974-81 showed a slight reduction, thus giving no support to the suggestion that doping tests for anabolic steroids would lead to a transfer to testosterone abuse. PMID:7139228

  3. Steroid Assays in Paediatric Endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Most steroid disorders of the adrenal cortex come to clinical attention in childhood and in order to investigate these problems, there are many challenges to the laboratory which need to be appreciated to a certain extent by clinicians. The analysis of sex steroids in biological fluids from neonates, over adrenarche and puberty present challenges of specificities and concentrations often in small sample sizes. Different reference ranges are also needed for interpretations. For around 40 years, quantitative assays for the steroids and their regulatory peptide hormones have been possible using immunoassay techniques. Problems are recognised and this review aims to summarise the benefits and failings of immunoassays and introduce where tandem mass spectrometry is anticipated to meet the clinical needs for steroid analysis in paediatric endocrine investigations. It is important to keep a dialogue between clinicians and the laboratory, especially when any laboratory result does not make sense in the clinical investigation. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274330

  4. Industrial and Compendial Steroid Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görög, Sándor

    The aim of this section is to give an overview of the requirements of steroid analysis in pharmaceutical industry and to cover the methodological aspects of these requirements with regard to quality control of bulk steroid drugs and drug formulations. Although this is an important area, the challenges here are not comparable with those in biological-clinical steroid analysis, which was the sole topic of the first edition of this book. This is reflected by the much smaller number of research publications dealing with this pharmaceutical area of steroid analyses. Only a few (more or less obsolete) books are available (Görög and Szász, 1978; Görög, 1983, 1989). The newer developments in this area are summarised in a comprehensive review (Görög, 2004), on which this chapter is based.

  5. A multi-channel magnetic induction tomography measurement system for human brain model imaging.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zheng; Luo, Haijun; He, Wei; He, Chuanhong; Song, Xiaodong; Zahng, Zhanglong

    2009-06-01

    This paper proposes a multi-channel magnetic induction tomography measurement system for biological conductivity imaging in a human brain model. A hemispherical glass bowl filled with a salt solution is used as the human brain model; meanwhile, agar blocks of different conductivity are placed in the solution to simulate the intracerebral hemorrhage. The excitation and detection coils are fixed co-axially, and the axial gradiometer is used as the detection coil in order to cancel the primary field. On the outer surface of the glass bowl, 15 sensor units are arrayed in two circles as measurement parts, and a single sensor unit for cancelling the phase drift is placed beside the glass bowl. The phase sensitivity of our system is 0.204 degrees /S m(-1) with the excitation frequency of 120 kHz and the phase noise is in the range of -0.03 degrees to +0.05 degrees . Only the coaxial detection coil is available for each excitation coil; therefore, 15 phase data are collected in each measurement turn. Finally, the two-dimensional images of conductivity distribution are obtained using an interpolation algorithm. The frequency-varying experiment indicates that the imaging quality becomes better as the excitation frequency is increased. PMID:19491435

  6. Investigation of Aerodynamic and Icing Characteristics of a Flush Alternate Inlet Induction System Air Scoop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James P.

    1953-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel to determine the aerodynamic and icing characteristics of a full-scale induction-system air-scoop assembly incorporating a flush alternate inlet. The flush inlet was located immediately downstream of the offset ram inlet and included a 180 deg reversal and a 90 deg elbow in the ducting between inlet and carburetor top deck. The model also had a preheat-air inlet. The investigation was made over a range of mass-air- flow ratios of 0 to 0.8, angles of attack of 0 and 4 deg airspeeds of 150 to 270 miles per hour, air temperatures of 0 and 25 F various liquid-water contents, and droplet sizes. The ram inlet gave good pressure recovery in both clear air and icing but rapid blockage of the top-deck screen occurred during icing. The flush alternate inlet had poor pressure recovery in both clear air and icing. The greatest decreases in the alternate-inlet pressure recovery were obtained at icing conditions of low air temperature and high liquid-water content. No serious screen icing was observed with the alternate inlet. Pressure and temperature distributions on the carburetor top deck were determined using the preheat-air supply with the preheat- and alternate-inlet doors in various positions. No screen icing occurred when the preheat-air system was operated in combination with alternate-inlet air flow.

  7. Induction machine Direct Torque Control system based on fuzzy adaptive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shi-ping; Yu, Yan; Jiao, Zhen-gang; Gu, Shu-sheng

    2009-07-01

    Direct Torque Control technology is a high-performance communication control method, it uses the space voltage vector method, and then to the inverter switch state control, to obtain high torque dynamic performance. But none of the switching states is able to generate the exact voltage vector to produce the desired changes in torque and flux in most of the switching instances. This causes a high ripple in torque. To solve this problem, a fuzzy implementation of Direct Torque Control of Induction machine is presented here. Error of stator flux, error of motor electromagnetic torque and position of angle of flux are taken as fuzzy variables. In order to further solve nonlinear problem of variation parameters in direct torque control system, the paper proposes a fuzzy parameter PID adaptive control method which is suitable for the direct torque control of an asynchronous motor. The generation of its fuzzy control is obtained by analyzing and optimizing PID control step response and combining expert's experience. For this reason, it carries out fuzzy work to PID regulator of motor speed to achieve to regulate PID parameters. Therefore the control system gets swifter response velocity, stronger robustness and higher precision of velocity control. The computer simulated results verify the validity of this novel method.

  8. Measurements of collisionless heating effects in the H-mode of an inductively coupled plasma system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaka-Ul-Islam, Mujahid; Graham, Bill; Gans, Timo; Niemi, Kari; O'Connell, Deborah

    2013-09-01

    Inductively coupled plasma systems (ICPs) for processing applications are often operated at low pressures, in the near-collisionless regime. In this regime, the electron mean free path is comparable or larger than the plasma dimensions. The electron dynamics in such ICPs has been investigated here, using phase and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy (PROES) and Langmuir probe measurements. The PROES measurements are also used to calculate the Fourier harmonics components of the 2D excitation (in the radial axial plane). The experimental system is a standard GEC cell with the axial gap of ~4 cm, powered by 13.56 MHz RF power supply. The gas pressure was varied between 0.5 - 2 Pa. The PROES measurements and Fourier harmonics components confirm many of the previous simulation results in comparable operational regimes. The results show that in the 2D (radial-axial) plane, the plasma power is deposited in a spatially non-uniform and non-linear manner, with axial layers of positive and negative power absorption. The contribution of these nonlinear effects decreases with an increase in the pressure, as observed in previous experimental and simulation results.

  9. A Digital Readout System For The CSO Microwave Kinetic Inductance Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max-Moerbeck, Walter; Mazin, B. A.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2007-12-01

    Submillimeter galaxies are important to the understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Determination of the spectral energy distribution in the millimeter and submillimeter regimes allows important and powerful diagnostics. Our group is developing a camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) using Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). MKIDs are superconducting devices whose impedance changes with the absorption of photons. The camera will have 600 spatial pixels and 4 bands at 750 μm, 850 μm, 1.1 mm and 1.3 mm. For each spatial pixel of the camera the radiation is coupled to the MKIDs using phased-array antennas. This signal is split into 4 different bands using filters and detected using the superconductor as part of a MKID's resonant circuit. The detection process consists of measurement of the changes in the transmission through the resonator when it is illuminated. By designing resonant circuits to have different resonant frequencies and high transmission out resonance, MKIDs can be frequency-domain multiplexed. This allows the simultaneous readout of many detectors through a single coaxial cable. The readout system makes use of microwave IQ modulation and is based on commercial electronics components operating at room temperature. The basic readout has been demonstrated on the CSO. We are working on the implementation of an improved design to be tested on a prototype system with 6x6 pixels and 4 colors next April on the CSO.

  10. Steroid metabolism with intestinal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Groh, H; Schade, K; Hörhold-Schubert, C

    1993-01-01

    As a result of the metabolic activities of numerous anaerobic microorganisms with sterols, bile acids and steroid hormones as substrates in connection with the enterohepatic circulation of these compounds, the intestine may be considered as an "endocrine" active site or organ. The review summarizes transformations of steroids by anaerobic intestinal bacteria, the physiological and supposed pathophysiological meaning thereof. The aim is to recommend further investigation in this field with respect to both the elucidation of the reactions and biological responses. PMID:8478793

  11. [Animal models for steroid-induced osteonecrosis].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takuaki; Miyanishi, Keita; Motomura, Goro; Nishida, Kenjiro; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Sueishi, Katsuo

    2007-06-01

    We describe that high-dose methylprednisolone (20 mg/kg) can induce multifocal osteonecrosis (ON) in conjunction with thrombocytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, and hyperlipemia. Detailed clinical and laboratory evaluations of coagulation system are recommended in those patients who develop manifestations of an abnormal lipid metabolism shortly after high-dose corticosteroid therapy. Moreover, we investigated the effects of the combination treatment with an anticoagulant (warfarin) plus a lipid-lowering agent (probucol) on prevention of steroid-induced osteonecrosis (ON) in this animal model. The incidence of ON in warfarin plus probucol (5%) was significantly lower than that observed in the control group (70%) (p <0.0001). Our results experimentally showed that the combined use of an anticoagulant and a lipid-lowering agent helps prevent steroid-induced ON in rabbits. PMID:17548927

  12. Non-steroidal drug-induced glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Razeghinejad, M R; Pro, M J; Katz, L J

    2011-08-01

    Numerous systemically used drugs are involved in drug-induced glaucoma. Most reported cases of non-steroidal drug-induced glaucoma are closed-angle glaucoma (CAG). Indeed, many routinely used drugs that have sympathomimetic or parasympatholytic properties can cause pupillary block CAG in individuals with narrow iridocorneal angle. The resulting acute glaucoma occurs much more commonly unilaterally and only rarely bilaterally. CAG secondary to sulfa drugs is a bilateral non-pupillary block type and is due to forward movement of iris-lens diaphragm, which occurs in individuals with narrow or open iridocorneal angle. A few agents, including antineoplastics, may induce open-angle glaucoma. In conclusion, the majority of cases with glaucoma secondary to non-steroidal medications are of the pupillary block closed-angle type and preventable if the at-risk patients are recognized and treated prophylactically. PMID:21637303

  13. Neuroactive steroids and peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Roglio, Ilaria; Giatti, Silvia; Pesaresi, Marzia; Bianchi, Roberto; Cavaletti, Guido; Lauria, Giuseppe; Garcia-Segura, Luis-Miguel; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2008-03-01

    Peripheral neuropathy, either inherited or acquired, represents a very common disorder for which effective clinical treatments are not available yet. Observations here summarized indicate that neuroactive steroids, such as progesterone, testosterone and their reduced metabolites, might represent a promising therapeutic option. Peripheral nerves are able to synthesize and metabolize neuroactive steroids and are a target for these molecules, since they express classical and non-classical steroid receptors. Neuroactive steroids modulate the expression of key transcription factors for Schwann cell function, regulate Schwann cell proliferation and promote the expression of myelin proteins involved in the maintenance of myelin multilamellar structure, such as myelin protein zero and peripheral myelin protein 22. These actions may result in the protection and regeneration of peripheral nerves affected by different forms of pathological alterations. Indeed, neuroactive steroids are able to counteract biochemical, morphological and functional alterations of peripheral nerves in different experimental models of neuropathy, including the alterations caused by aging, diabetic neuropathy and physical injury. Therefore, neuroactive steroids, pharmacological agents able to increase their local synthesis and synthetic ligands for their receptors have a promising potential for the treatment of different forms of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:17543391

  14. Steroid hormone influence on melanomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Mitkov, Mario; Joseph, Richard; Copland, John

    2015-12-01

    Disparities in the prognosis and incidence of melanoma between male and female patients have led clinicians to explore the influence of steroid hormones on the development and progression of this malignancy. A better understanding of the disparities of melanoma behavior between sexes and ages could lead to improved prevention and treatment options. There are multiple themes in the literature that unify the physiologic functions of estrogen and androgen receptors; herein we discuss and map their pathways. Overall, it is important to understand that the differences in melanoma behavior between the sexes are multifactorial and likely involve interactions between the immune system, endocrine system, and environment, namely UV-radiation. Melanoma deserves a spot among hormone-sensitive tumors, and if tamoxifen is re-introduced for future therapy, tissue ratios of estrogen receptors should be obtained beforehand to assess their therapeutic predictive value. Because androgens, estrogens, and their receptors are involved in signaling of commonly mutated melanoma pathways, potential synergistic properties of the recently developed molecular kinase inhibitors that target those pathways may exist. PMID:26415591

  15. Development of a Tunable Wide-Range Gene Induction System Useful for the Study of Streptococcal Toxin-Antitoxin Systems

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhoujie; Qi, Fengxia

    2013-01-01

    Despite the plethora of genetic tools that have been developed for use in Streptococcus mutans, the S. mutans genetic system still lacks an effective gene induction system exhibiting low basal expression and strong inducibility. Consequently, we created two hybrid gene induction cassettes referred to as Xyl-S1 and Xyl-S2. Both Xyl-S cassettes are xylose inducible and controlled by the Bacillus megaterium xylose repressor. The Xyl-S cassettes each demonstrated >600-fold-increased reporter activity in the presence of 1.2% (wt/vol) xylose. However, the Xyl-S1 cassette yielded a much higher maximum level of gene expression, whereas the Xyl-S2 cassette exhibited much lower uninduced basal expression. The cassettes also performed similarly in Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii, which suggests that they are likely to be useful in a variety of streptococci. We demonstrate how both Xyl-S cassettes are particularly useful for the study of toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules using both the previously characterized S. mutans mazEF TA module and a previously uncharacterized HicAB TA module in S. mutans. HicAB TA modules are widely distributed among bacteria and archaea, but little is known about their function. We show that HicA serves as the toxin component of the module, while HicB serves as the antitoxin. Our results suggest that, in contrast to that of typical TA modules, HicA toxicity in S. mutans is modest at best. The implications of these results for HicAB function are discussed. PMID:23934493

  16. Experimental Study on a Voltage Source Inverter-fed Induction Motor Traction System Connected to Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Takemasa; Kondo, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Takamitsu

    This paper describes the experimental results of a test to drive two induction motors through a VVVF inverter by 25kW class proton membrane type fuel cells (PEMFCs). The experiments are aimed at verifying the compatibility between the drive system for the railway vehicle traction and FCs. This paper describes test results of powering, powering-off procedure, and simulated slip-readhesion control test, respectively. Through the experiments, we obtained useful knowledge required in designing the fuel cell drive system.

  17. A comparative study of virtual hand prosthesis control using an inductive tongue control system.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Daniel; Sebelius, Fredrik; Jensen, Stig; Bentsen, Bo; Popović, Dejan B; Andreasen Struijk, Lotte N S

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the time required to activate a grasp or function of a hand prosthesis when using an electromyogram (EMG) based control scheme and when using a control scheme combining EMG and control signals from an inductive tongue control system (ITCS). Using a cross-over study design, 10 able-bodied subjects used a computer model of a hand and completed simulated grasping exercises. The time required to activate grasps was recorded and analyzed for both control schemes. End session mean activation times (ATs; seconds) for the EMG control scheme grasps 1 -5 were 0.80, 1.51, 1.95, 2.93, and 3.42; for the ITCS control scheme grasps 1 ‒5 they were 1.19, 1.89, 1.75, 2.26, and 1.80. Mean AT for grasps 1 and 2 was statistically significant in favor of the EMG control scheme (p = 0.030; p = 0.004). For grasp 3 no statistical significance occurred, and for grasps 4 and 5 there was a statistical significance in favour of the ITCS control scheme (p = 0.048; p = 0.004). Based on the amount of training and the achieved level of performance, it is concluded that the proposed ITCS control scheme can be used as a means of enhancing prosthesis control. PMID:26479838

  18. Steroids and genes related to steroid biosynthesis in the female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Thongbuakaew, Tipsuda; Siangcham, Tanapan; Suwansa-Ard, Saowaros; Elizur, Abigail; Cummins, Scott F; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prapee

    2016-03-01

    The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is important to many Asian countries due to its high economic value as an aquaculture product. With demand increasing, there is requirement for a better understanding of the biosynthetic components that regulate its growth and reproduction, including steroids, in order to help increase production. Vertebrate-type steroids and their receptors were identified in crustaceans and implicated in reproduction. In this study, we presented the sex steroids estradiol and progesterone by LC-MS/MS in female M. rosenbergii, and reveal steroidogenic-related genes by in silico analysis of de novo assembled transcriptomes. Comparative analysis with other species was performed to confirm their putative role, as well as tissue-specific and quantitative gene expression. We reveal 29 transcripts that encode for steroidogenic-related proteins, including steroidogenic enzymes, a nuclear steroid hormone receptors, and a steroidogenic factor. Moreover, we identified for the first time the presence of steroidogenic factor 1, StAR-related lipid transfer protein, estradiol receptor- and progesterone-like protein in M. rosenbergii. Those targeted for gene expression analysis (3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, estrogen sulfotransferase and progesterone receptor-like) showed widespread expression within many tissues, and at relatively high levels in the central nervous system (CNS) during ovarian maturation. In summary, we provide further evidence for the existence of steroidogenic pathways in crustaceans, which may be useful for advancing prawn aquaculture. PMID:26774430

  19. An Inductively Powered Scalable 32-Channel Wireless Neural Recording System-on-a-Chip for Neuroscience Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Bae; Lee, Hyung-Min; Kiani, Mehdi; Jow, Uei-Ming; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    We present an inductively powered 32-channel wireless integrated neural recording (WINeR) system-on-a-chip (SoC) to be ultimately used for one or more small freely behaving animals. The inductive powering is intended to relieve the animals from carrying bulky batteries used in other wireless systems, and enables long recording sessions. The WINeR system uses time-division multiplexing along with a novel power scheduling method that reduces the current in unused low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) to cut the total SoC power consumption. In addition, an on-chip high-efficiency active rectifier with optimized coils help improve the overall system power efficiency, which is controlled in a closed loop to supply stable power to the WINeR regardless of the coil displacements. The WINeR SoC has been implemented in a 0.5-µm standard complementary metal–oxide semiconductor process, measuring 4.9 × 3.3 mm2 and consuming 5.85 mW at ± 1.5 V when 12 out of 32 LNAs are active at any time by power scheduling. Measured input-referred noise for the entire system, including the receiver located at 1.2 m, is 4.95 µVrms in the 1 Hz~10 kHz range when the system is inductively powered with 7-cm separation between aligned coils. PMID:23850753

  20. Manipal Cervical Scoring System by Transvaginal Ultrasound in Predicting Successful Labour Induction

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Neha; Bhakta, Rajesh; Kumar, Pratap; Rai, Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Induction of labour (IOL) nowadays is a common procedure in obstetric practice. The success of IOL largely depends upon “favourability” or “readiness” cervix which is traditionally assessed by manual examination and Scored as Bishop Score. However, this method is limited by subjectivity and reproducibility and though done in all the patients prior to IOL, several studies have demonstrated poor correlation between Bishop Score and outcome of labour. Objective To evaluate the role of preinduction transvaginal ultrasonographic (TVS) cervical assessment in predicting labour outcome and to compare its performance against Bishop Score in patients undergoing induction of labour (IOL). Setting A tertiary medical college hospital in Southern India. Design Prospective observational and investigational study. Materials and Methods Transvaginal ultrasound was performed in 131 patients who underwent labour induction at term with intact membranes and live fetus. Bishop Score was assessed by pervaginal examination and was compared with preinduction TVS cervical Score (parameters being cervical length, funneling, position of cervix and distance of presenting part from external os). Labour was induced within one hour of cervical assessment. The labour induction was considered successful if patient could get into active labour i.e., onset of regular uterine contractions (at interval of 2-3 minutes) and cervical dilatation of 4 cm or greater within 24 hours of induction. Results Labour induction was successful in 86.9% of patients. At cut off Scores of ≥ 4, TVS cervical Score performed better than Bishop Score (Sensitivity 77% vs. 65%, Specificity 93% vs. 86%). ROC analysis indicated that Area Under Curve (AUC) was more for TVS Score (0.90, 95% CI 0.84 – 0.95), compared to Bishop Score. It was found that an increase in cervical length and distance from the os by 1 mm from their means were associated with an increase in odds for failure of induction and there by caesarean delivery by 6.5% and 11% respectively. Conclusion In women experiencing labour induction, transvaginal ultrasound score comprising of five different parameters indicated success of induction better than Bishop Score. Further, two of its components (longer cervical length and increased distance of presenting part from external os) demonstrated significant and independent prediction of the likelihood of failure of induction and risk of operative delivery. PMID:26155521

  1. Steroid effects on the gene expression of peripheral myelin proteins.

    PubMed

    Melcangi, R C; Magnaghi, V; Galbiati, M; Martini, L

    2001-09-01

    The present article summarizes recent observations obtained in our laboratory which clearly indicate that sex steroids exert relevant effects on the peripheral nervous system. In particular, the following important points have emerged: (1) Steroids exert stimulatory actions on the synthesis of the proteins proper of the peripheral myelin (e.g., glycoprotein Po and peripheral myelin protein 22) in vivo and on the Schwann cells in culture; (2) in many cases the actions of hormonal steroids are not due to their native molecular forms but rather to their metabolites (e.g., dihydroprogesterone and tetrahydroprogesterone in the case of progesterone; dihydrotestosterone and 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol in the case of testosterone); (3) the mechanism of action of the various steroidal molecules may involve both classical (progesterone and androgen receptors) and nonclassical steroid receptors (GABA(A) receptor); and finally, (4) the stimulatory action of steroid hormones on the proteins of the peripheral myelin might have clinical significance in cases in which the rebuilding of myelin is needed (e.g., aging, peripheral injury, demyelinating diseases, and diabetic neuropathy). PMID:11534984

  2. Low-dose steroid pretreatment ameliorates the transient impairment of liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Toshihito; Mizuguchi, Toru; Nakamura, Yukio; Kawamoto, Masaki; Meguro, Makoto; Ota, Shigenori; Hirata, Koichi; Ooe, Hidekazu; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine if liver regeneration (LR) could be disturbed following radiofrequency (RF) ablation and whether modification of LR by steroid administration occurs. METHODS: Sham operation, partial hepatectomy (PH), and partial hepatectomy with radiofrequency ablation (PHA) were performed on adult Fisher 344 rats. We investigated the recovery of liver volume, DNA synthetic activities, serum cytokine/chemokine levels and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 DNA-binding activities in the nucleus after the operations. Additionally, the effects of steroid (dexamethasone) pretreatment in the PH group (S-PH) and the PHA group (S-PHA) were compared. RESULTS: The LR after PHA was impaired, with high serum cytokine/chemokine induction compared to PH, although the ratio of the residual liver weight to body weight was not significantly different. Steroid pretreatment disturbed LR in the S-PH group. On the other hand, low-dose steroid pretreatment improved LR and suppressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α elevation in the S-PHA group, with recovery of STAT3 DNA-binding activity. On the other hand, low-dose steroid pretreatment improved LR and suppressed TNF-α elevation in the S-PHA group, with recovery of STAT3 DNA-binding activity. CONCLUSION: LR is disturbed after RF ablation, with high serum cytokine/chemokine induction. Low-dose steroid administration can improve LR after RF ablation with TNF-α suppression. PMID:22408349

  3. Effects of voltage unbalance and system harmonics on the performance of doubly fed induction wind generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Morgan Mozhgan

    Inherent difficulties in management of electric power in the presence of an increasing demand for more energy, non-conventional loads such as digital appliances, and non-sustainable imported fossil fuels has initiated a multi-folded effort by many countries to restructure the way electric energy is generated, dispatched, and consumed. Smart power grid is the manifestation of many technologies that would eventually transforms the existing power grid into a more flexible, fault resilient, and intelligent system. Integration of distributed renewable energy sources plays a central role in successful implementation of this transformation. Among the renewable options, wind energy harvesting offers superior engineering and economical incentives with minimal environmental impacts. Doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) have turned into a serious contender for wind energy generators due to their flexibility in control of active and reactive power with minimal silicon loss. Significant presence of voltage unbalance and system harmonics in finite inertia transmission lines can potentially undermine the reliability of these wind generators. The present dissertation has investigated the impacts of system unbalances and harmonics on the performance of the DFIG. Our investigation indicates that these effects can result in an undesirable undulation in the rotor shaft which can potentially invoke mechanical resonance, thereby causing catastrophic damages to the installations and the power grid. In order to remedy the above issue, a control solution for real time monitoring of the system unbalance and optimal excitation of the three phase rotor currents in a DFIG is offered. The optimal rotor currents will create appropriate components of the magneto-motive force in the airgap that will actively compensate the undesirable magnetic field originated by the stator windings. Due to the iterative nature of the optimization procedure, field reconstruction method has been incorporated. Field reconstruction method provides high precision results at a considerably faster pace as compared to finite element method. Our results indicate that by just-in-time detection of the system unbalance and employment of the optimal rotor currents damaging torque pulsation can be effectively eliminated. The side effects of the proposed method in changing the core, copper, and silicon losses are minor and well justified when reliability of the wind generation units are considered.

  4. [Mass spectrometry for steroid assays].

    PubMed

    Dufour-Rainfray, Diane; Moal, Valérie; Cloix, Lucie; Mathieu, Elisabeth; Gauchez, Anne-Sophie; Brossaud, Julie; Corcuff, Jean-Benoît; Fraissinet, François; Collet, Christine; Boux de Casson, Florence; Guilloteau, Denis; Emond, Patrick; Reynier, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormone measurement, first developed with radioimmunoassay, is now becoming easier with the use of automated platforms of immunoassay. However, some hormones remain uneasily detectable because of their low blood concentration, their structural homology or the presence of interferences. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can be considered as an alternative to immunoassays. This approach allows the simultaneous determination of several parameters thanks to its selectivity led by the detector mass spectrometer and the separate dimension of chromatography liquid. In addition, recourse to UHPLC (ultra high performance liquid chromatography) allows improving selectivity and sensitivity while limiting the samples volumes. The "ready-to-use" kits are now available and added to the "homemade" techniques developed by laboratories, thus giving opportunity for measurement of a wide steroid panel with only one sample. Finally, mass spectrometry methods, including a prior extraction step, allow the use of varied biological fluids (blood, urine, saliva…). Also, several clinical indications could gain from mass spectrometry, especially when hormone levels are low, when several steroids have to be identified, when the sample volume is low. However, this technology represents an important financial investment and in-depth staff training. In addition, some steroids are not easily quantifiable by mass spectrometry. It is likely by immunoassay and mass spectrometry, well-matched technologies, that we could answer the best to clinical questions about steroids. PMID:25582724

  5. Steroidal Saponins in Oat Bran.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junli; Wang, Pei; Wu, Wenbin; Zhao, Yantao; Idehen, Emmanuel; Sang, Shengmin

    2016-02-24

    Saponins are one type of widespread defense compound in the plant kingdom and have been exploited for the production of lead compounds with diverse pharmacological properties in drug discovery. Oats contain two unique steroidal saponins, avenacoside A, 1, and avenacoside B, 2. However, the chemical composition, the levels of these saponins in commercial oat products, and their health effects are still largely unknown. In this study, we directly purified 5 steroidal saponins (1-5) from a methanol extract of oat bran, characterized their structures by analyzing their MS and NMR spectra, and also tentatively identified 11 steroidal saponins (6-16) on the basis of their tandem mass spectra (MS(n), n = 2-3). Among the five purified saponins, 5 is a new compound and 4 is purified from oats for the first time. Using HPLC-MS techniques, a complete profile of oat steroidal saponins was determined, and the contents of the two primary steroidal saponins, 1 and 2, were quantitated in 15 different commercial oat products. The total levels of these two saponins vary from 49.6 to 443.0 mg/kg, and oat bran or oatmeal has higher levels of these two saponins than cold oat cereal. Furthermore, our results on the inhibitory effects of 1 and 2 against the growth of human colon cancer cells HCT-116 and HT-29 showed that both had weak activity, with 2 being more active than 1. PMID:26852819

  6. The Maltodextrin System of Escherichia coli: Glycogen-Derived Endogenous Induction and Osmoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Dippel, Renate; Bergmiller, Tobias; Bhm, Alex; Boos, Winfried

    2005-01-01

    Strains of Escherichia coli lacking MalQ (maltodextrin glucanotransferase or amylomaltase) are endogenously induced for the maltose regulon by maltotriose that is derived from the degradation of glycogen (glycogen-dependent endogenous induction). A high level of induction was dependent on the presence of MalP, maltodextrin phosphorylase, while expression was counteracted by MalZ, maltodextrin glucosidase. Glycogen-derived endogenous induction was sensitive to high osmolarity. This osmodependence was caused by MalZ. malZ, the gene encoding this enzyme, was found to be induced by high osmolarity even in the absence of MalT, the central regulator of all mal genes. The osmodependent expression of malZ was neither RpoS nor OmpR dependent. In contrast, the malPQ operon, whose expression was also increased at a high osmolarity, was partially dependent on RpoS. In the absence of glycogen, residual endogenous induction of the mal genes that is sensitive to increasing osmolarity can still be observed. This glycogen-independent endogenous induction is not understood, and it is not affected by altering the expression of MalP, MalQ, and MalZ. In particular, its independence from MalZ suggests that the responsible inducer is not maltotriose. PMID:16321937

  7. Circulating gonadotropins and ovarian adiponectin system are modulated by acupuncture independently of sex steroid or β-adrenergic action in a female hyperandrogenic rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Alvi, Asif; Johansson, Julia; Sun, Miao; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2015-09-01

    Acupuncture with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation, or electroacupuncture (EA), reduces endocrine and reproductive dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), likely by modulating sympathetic nerve activity or sex steroid synthesis. To test this hypothesis, we induced PCOS in rats by prepubertal implantation of continuous-release letrozole pellets (200 µg/day) or vehicle. Six weeks later, rats were treated for 5-6 weeks with low-frequency EA 5 days/week, subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (2.0 µg) every fourth day, or a β-adrenergic blocker (propranolol hydrochloride, 0.1 mg/kg) 5 days/week. Letrozole controls were handled without needle insertion or injected with sesame oil every fourth day. Estrous cyclicity, ovarian morphology, sex steroids, gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor I, bone mineral density, and gene and protein expression in ovarian tissue were measured. Low-frequency EA induced estrous-cycle changes, decreased high levels of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and the LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, decreased high ovarian gene expression of adiponectin receptor 2, and increased expression of adiponectin receptor 2 protein and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. EA also increased cortical bone mineral density. Propranolol decreased ovarian expression of Foxo3, Srd5a1, and Hif1a. Estradiol decreased circulating LH, induced estrous cycle changes, and decreased ovarian expression of Adipor1, Foxo3, and Pik3r1. Further, total bone mineral density was higher in the letrozole-estradiol group. Thus, EA modulates the circulating gonadotropin levels independently of sex steroids or β-adrenergic action and affects the expression of ovarian adiponectin system. PMID:25963796

  8. Mutual Inductance Problem for a System Consisting of a Current Sheet and a Thin Metal Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, J. P.; Wincheski, B.; Nath, S.; Namkung, M.

    1993-01-01

    Rapid inspection of aircraft structures for flaws is of vital importance to the commercial and defense aircraft industry. In particular, inspecting thin aluminum structures for flaws is the focus of a large scale R&D effort in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community. Traditional eddy current methods used today are effective, but require long inspection times. New electromagnetic techniques which monitor the normal component of the magnetic field above a sample due to a sheet of current as the excitation, seem to be promising. This paper is an attempt to understand and analyze the magnetic field distribution due to a current sheet above an aluminum test sample. A simple theoretical model, coupled with a two dimensional finite element model (FEM) and experimental data will be presented in the next few sections. A current sheet above a conducting sample generates eddy currents in the material, while a sensor above the current sheet or in between the two plates monitors the normal component of the magnetic field. A rivet or a surface flaw near a rivet in an aircraft aluminum skin will disturb the magnetic field, which is imaged by the sensor. Initial results showed a strong dependence of the flaw induced normal magnetic field strength on the thickness and conductivity of the current-sheet that could not be accounted for by skin depth attenuation alone. It was believed that the eddy current imaging method explained the dependence of the thickness and conductivity of the flaw induced normal magnetic field. Further investigation, suggested the complexity associated with the mutual inductance of the system needed to be studied. The next section gives an analytical model to better understand the phenomenon.

  9. Low-power low-voltage current readout circuit for inductively powered implant system.

    PubMed

    Haider, Mohammad R; Islam, Syed K; Mostafa, Salwa; Mo Zhang; Taeho Oh

    2010-08-01

    Low voltage and low power are two key requirements for on-chip realization of wireless power and data telemetry for applications in biomedical sensor instrumentation. Batteryless operation and wireless telemetry facilitate robust, reliable, and longer lifetime of the implant unit. As an ongoing research work, this paper demonstrates a low-power low-voltage sensor readout circuit which could be easily powered up with an inductive link. This paper presents two versions of readout circuits that have been designed and fabricated in bulk complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processes. Either version can detect a sensor current in the range of 0.2 μA to 2 μA and generate square-wave data signal whose frequency is proportional to the sensor current. The first version of the circuit is fabricated in a 0.35-μ m CMOS process and it can generate an amplitude-shift-keying (ASK) signal while consuming 400 μ W of power with a 1.5-V power supply. Measurement results indicate that the ASK chip generates 76 Hz to 500 Hz frequency of a square-wave data signal for the specified sensor current range. The second version of the readout circuit is fabricated in a 0.5-μ m CMOS process and produces a frequency-shift-keying (FSK) signal while consuming 1.675 mW of power with a 2.5-V power supply. The generated data frequency from the FSK chip is 1 kHz and 9 kHz for the lowest and the highest sensor currents, respectively. Measurement results confirm the functionalities of both prototype schemes. The prototype circuit has potential applications in the monitoring of blood glucose level, lactate in the bloodstream, and pH or oxygen in a physiological system/environment. PMID:23853366

  10. A multifrequency magnetic induction tomography system using planar gradiometers: data collection and calibration.

    PubMed

    Rosell-Ferrer, J; Merwa, R; Brunner, P; Scharfetter, H

    2006-05-01

    We developed a 14-channel multifrequency magnetic induction tomography system (MF-MIT) for biomedical applications. The excitation field is produced by a single coil and 14 planar gradiometers are used for signal detection. The object under measurement was rotated (16 steps per turn) to obtain a full data set for image reconstruction. We make measurements at frequencies from 50 kHz to 1 MHz using a single frequency excitation signal or a multifrequency signal containing several frequencies in this range. We used two acquisition boards giving a total of eight synchronous channels at a sample rate of 5 MS s(-1) per channel. The real and imaginary parts of DeltaB/B(0) were calculated using coherent demodulation at all injected frequencies. Calibration, averaging and drift cancellation techniques were used before image reconstruction. A plastic tank filled with saline (D = 19 cm) and with conductive and/or paramagnetic perturbations was measured for calibration and test purposes. We used a FEM model and an eddy current solver to evaluate the experimental results and to reconstruct the images. Measured equivalent input noise voltage for each channel was 2 nV Hz(-1/2). Using coherent demodulation, with an integration time of 20 ms, the measured STD for the magnitude was 7 nV(rms) (close to the theoretical value only taking into account the amplifier's thermal noise). For long acquisition times the drift in the signal produced a bigger effect than the input noise (typical STD was 10 nV with a maximum of 35 nV at one channel) but this effect was reduced using a drift cancellation technique based on averaging. We were able to image a 2 S m(-1) agar sphere (D = 4 cm) inside the tank filled with saline of 1 S m(-1). PMID:16636418

  11. The Spatial Effects of Antenna Configuration in a Large Area Inductively Coupled Plasma System for Flat Panel Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seon-Geun, Oh; Young-Jun, Lee; Jae-Hong, Jeon; Jong-Hyeon, Seo; Hee-Hwan, Choe

    2014-08-01

    Spatial distributions of plasma parameters such as electron density, electron temperature and electric potential were investigated using a commercial simulation software (COMSOLTM) to predict the effects of antenna configuration in a large area inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system for flat panel displays. Nine planar antenna sets were evenly placed above a ceramic window. While the electron density was influenced by both the input current and gas pressure, the electron temperature and electric potential were dominantly affected by the gas pressure.

  12. Steroid-free and steroid withdrawal protocols in heart transplantation: the review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Baraldo, Massimo; Gregoraci, Giorgia; Livi, Ugolino

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroids (CSs) are still the mainstay of induction, rescue, and maintenance in heart transplantation (HTx). However, their use is associated with significant and well-documented side effects usually related to the dose administered and the duration of therapy. Moreover, CSs interfere with the recipient's quality of life and with the active process of graft tolerance. Physicians have been exploring ways to avoid or reduce CSs in association with other immunosuppressive drugs, minimizing side effects and costs. The regimens are classifiedassteroid-freeorsteroid withdrawal protocols. The studies analyzed in this review come to similar conclusions as benefits and adverse consequences: steroid-freeprotocols should be advisable and mandatory in pediatric patients, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), presence of infection, familial metabolic disorders/obesity, severe osteoporosis, and in the elderly. On the other hand, steroid withdrawalcan be successfully achieved in 50–80%, with late better than early withdrawal, no increase in rejection-related mortality, no adverse impact on survival, and probably a better quality of live. Safety and efficacy can certainly be improved by an individualized approach to the transplant recipient. PMID:24617420

  13. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy: a computer controlled, scanning monochromator system for the rapid determination of the elements

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    A computer controlled, scanning monochromator system specifically designed for the rapid, sequential determination of the elements is described. The monochromator is combined with an inductively coupled plasma excitation source so that elements at major, minor, trace, and ultratrace levels may be determined, in sequence, without changing experimental parameters other than the spectral line observed. A number of distinctive features not found in previously described versions are incorporated into the system here described. Performance characteristics of the entire system and several analytical applications are discussed.

  14. An inside perspective on anabolic steroid abuse

    PubMed Central

    Schaive, Chad; Kohler, Tobias S.

    2016-01-01

    Steroid abuse is common across gyms across the world. This unique article features an inside perspective/opinion in a question and answer format from a former steroid user/high level body builder. PMID:27141450

  15. Hypochlorite Oxidation of Select Androgenic Steroids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroid hormones are vital for regulation of various biological functions including sexual development. Elevated concentrations of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids have been shown to adversely affect normal development in indigenous aqueous species. Androgens and their s...

  16. An inside perspective on anabolic steroid abuse.

    PubMed

    Schaive, Chad; Kohler, Tobias S

    2016-04-01

    Steroid abuse is common across gyms across the world. This unique article features an inside perspective/opinion in a question and answer format from a former steroid user/high level body builder. PMID:27141450

  17. Adverse Effects of Nonsystemic Steroids (Inhaled, Intranasal, and Cutaneous): a Review of the Literature and Suggested Monitoring Tool.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ratika; Fonacier, Luz S

    2016-06-01

    Inhaled, intranasal, and cutaneous steroids are prescribed by physicians for a plethora of disease processes including asthma and rhinitis. While the high efficacy of this class of medication is well known, the wide range of adverse effects, both local and systemic, is not well elucidated. It is imperative to monitor total steroid burden in its varied forms as well as tracking for possible side effects that may be caused by a high cumulative dose of steroids. This review article highlights the adverse effects of different steroid modalities as well as suggests a monitoring tool to determine steroid totality and side effects. PMID:27207481

  18. Adolescents and Steroids: A User Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids ("steroids") are synthetic derivatives of the natural male hormone testosterone. They were first used non-medically by elite athletes seeking to improve performance. More recently, however, steroid use has filtered down to high school and junior high school levels. The purpose of this study was to describe adolescent…

  19. Steroids for Treating Cancer (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Steroids for Treating Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Steroids for Treating Cancer Print A A A Text ... tratamiento del cáncer When you hear the word "steroid" you may immediately think of muscle-bound body ...

  20. Roles of sex and gonadal steroids in mammalian pheromonal communication.

    PubMed

    Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

    2013-10-01

    A brain circuit (the accessory olfactory system) that originates in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and includes the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) plus additional forebrain regions mediates many of the effects of pheromones, typically comprised of a variety of non-volatile and volatile compounds, on aspects of social behavior. A second, parallel circuit (the main olfactory system) that originates in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and includes the main olfactory bulb (MOB) has also been shown to detect volatile pheromones from conspecifics. Studies are reviewed that point to specific roles of several different steroids and their water-soluble metabolites as putative pheromones. Other studies are reviewed that establish an adult, 'activational' role of circulating sex hormones along with sex differences in the detection and/or processing of non-steroidal pheromones by these two olfactory circuits. Persisting questions about the role of sex steroids in pheromonal processing are posed for future investigation. PMID:23872334

  1. Side chain hydroxylation of C27-steroids and vitamin D3 by a cytochrome P-450 enzyme system isolated from human liver mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Oftebro, H.; Saarem, K.; Bjoerkhem, I.; Pedersen, J.I.

    1981-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to obtain information on the involvement of cytochrome P-450 in the 26-hydroxylation on bile acid intermediates and in the 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D3 in human liver mitochondria. Cytochrome P-450 was solubilized from human liver mitochondria and purified two times to a specific content of 0.125 nmol per mg protein. Furthermore, a ferredoxin was isolated from the mitochondria and partly purified. This iron-sulfur protein had properties similar to bovine adrenal ferredoxin. A mitochondrial NADPH-ferredoxin reductase was also isolated and purified to homogeneity. This enzyme was a flavoprotein with properties very similar to the bovine adrenal NADPH-ferredoxin reductase. The cytochrome P-450 preparation catalyzed 26-hydroxylation of C27-steroids and 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D3 when reconstructed with NADPH, the ferredoxin and the ferredoxin reductase. With different substrates the following turnover numbers (nmol product X nmol P-450(-1) X min-1) were found: cholesterol, 8; 5-cholestene-3 beta, 7 alpha-diol, 10; 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, 23; 7 alpha, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, 27; 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha-diol, 28; 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-triol, 41; and vitamin D3, 0.16. The hydroxylation reactions were inhibited by CO and metyrapone. The human liver mitochondrial ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase could be replaced by adrenal ferredoxin and adrenal ferredoxin reductase without reduction of activity, but they could not be replaced by microsomal NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase. It is concluded that human liver mitochondria contain cytochrome P-450 involved in the oxidation of the side chain of C27-steroids and vitamin D3.

  2. Identification of Plant Model of Linear Induction Motors for Traction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Yuichiro; Koseki, Takafumi

    A linear induction motor (LIM) is suitable for use in trains; the motor can be used in both wheel-suspended and contact-less types such as Linear Metro and HSST trains in Japan. The LIM has the end winding as well as asymmetrical winding. The end-effect is a major problem in the LIM, and it makes the analysis, design, and control of motors difficult. In this paper, the combination method of numerical analysis and equivalent circuit of the LIM is described in order to design a high-performance controller of the LIM includeing the end effect. A sample basic field-oriented control scheme that is based on the plant model is applied to the LIM in order to check the control performance; the theory of rotary induction motor is used for the verification.

  3. Generalized hidden-mapping ridge regression, knowledge-leveraged inductive transfer learning for neural networks, fuzzy systems and kernel methods.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhaohong; Choi, Kup-Sze; Jiang, Yizhang; Wang, Shitong

    2014-12-01

    Inductive transfer learning has attracted increasing attention for the training of effective model in the target domain by leveraging the information in the source domain. However, most transfer learning methods are developed for a specific model, such as the commonly used support vector machine, which makes the methods applicable only to the adopted models. In this regard, the generalized hidden-mapping ridge regression (GHRR) method is introduced in order to train various types of classical intelligence models, including neural networks, fuzzy logical systems and kernel methods. Furthermore, the knowledge-leverage based transfer learning mechanism is integrated with GHRR to realize the inductive transfer learning method called transfer GHRR (TGHRR). Since the information from the induced knowledge is much clearer and more concise than that from the data in the source domain, it is more convenient to control and balance the similarity and difference of data distributions between the source and target domains. The proposed GHRR and TGHRR algorithms have been evaluated experimentally by performing regression and classification on synthetic and real world datasets. The results demonstrate that the performance of TGHRR is competitive with or even superior to existing state-of-the-art inductive transfer learning algorithms. PMID:24710838

  4. Perioral dermatitis -- the role of nasal steroids.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Lígia; Morais, Paulo

    2012-06-01

    We present two patients with allergic rhinitis who developed perioral dermatitis (PD) after initiating intranasal steroid spray. Both patients had been previously misdiagnosed as having contact or seborrheic dermatitis, and therefore inappropriately and unsuccessfully treated with topical steroids. Physicians should be aware of this potential side effect of intranasal steroids to avoid incorrect therapeutic measures. In the setting of nasal steroids use, PD probably is an under-reported and commonly misdiagnosed condition that should be thought when a patient treated with nasal steroids present with small erythematous papules, papulovesicles, and papulopustules occurring against a background of redness, beginning in the nasolabial areas and spreading rapidly to the perioral zone. PMID:21995785

  5. Developmental reprogramming of reproductive and metabolic dysfunction in sheep: native steroids vs. environmental steroid receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, V; Sarma, H N; Savabieasfahani, M; Steckler, T L; Veiga-Lopez, A

    2010-04-01

    The inappropriate programming of developing organ systems by exposure to excess native or environmental steroids, particularly the contamination of our environment and our food sources with synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals that can interact with steroid receptors, is a major concern. Studies with native steroids have found that in utero exposure of sheep to excess testosterone, an oestrogen precursor, results in low birth weight offspring and leads to an array of adult reproductive/metabolic deficits manifested as cycle defects, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine/ovarian defects, insulin resistance and hypertension. Furthermore, the severity of reproductive dysfunction is amplified by excess postnatal weight gain. The constellation of adult reproductive and metabolic dysfunction in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep is similar to features seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Prenatal dihydrotestosterone treatment failed to result in similar phenotype suggesting that many effects of prenatal testosterone excess are likely facilitated via aromatization to oestradiol. Similarly, exposure to environmental steroid imposters such as bisphenol A (BPA) and methoxychlor (MXC) from days 30 to 90 of gestation had long-term but differential effects. Exposure of sheep to BPA, which resulted in maternal levels of 30-50 ng/mL BPA, culminated in low birth weight offspring. These female offspring were hypergonadotropic during early postnatal life and characterized by severely dampened preovulatory LH surges. Prenatal MXC-treated females had normal birth weight and manifested delayed but normal amplitude LH surges. Importantly, the effects of BPA were evident at levels, which approximated twice the highest levels found in human maternal circulation of industrialized nations. These findings provide evidence in support of developmental origin of adult reproductive and metabolic diseases and highlight the risk posed by exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals. PMID:20070410

  6. Minireview: Recent Advances in Extranuclear Steroid Receptor Actions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The participation of extranuclear steroid receptor signaling in organ physiology and the impact for pathobiology has increasingly been demonstrated. Important functions of membrane estrogen receptors in the cardiovascular system demonstrate new mechanisms of rapid steroid signaling to gene regulation, preventing cardiovascular disease and maintaining healthy arterial function. In cancer cells, kinase signaling initiated by extranuclear estrogen, progesterone, and androgen receptors modulates transcriptional events in the nucleus, which in turn regulate proliferation, migration, and invasion. Important mediators of cross talk between cytoplasmic and nuclear steroid receptor signaling are the proline-, glutamic acid-, and leucine-rich protein-1 and paxillin proteins, both of which modulate membrane and nuclear receptor pool signaling to promote a variety of cell biological functions. PMID:22028449

  7. The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), beyond xenobiotic metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Changcheng; Verma, Suman; Blumberg, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) (also known as pregnane X receptor or PXR) is a nuclear hormone receptor activated by a diverse array of endogenous hormones, dietary steroids, pharmaceutical agents, and xenobiotic compounds. SXR has an enlarged, flexible, hydrophobic ligand binding domain (LBD) which is remarkably divergent across mammalian species and SXR exhibits considerable differences in its pharmacology among mammals. The broad response profile of SXR has led to the development of "the steroid and xenobiotic sensor hypothesis". SXR has been established as a xenobiotic sensor that coordinately regulates xenobiotic clearance in the liver and intestine via induction of genes involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. In the past few years, research has revealed new and mostly unsuspected roles for SXR in modulating inflammation, bone homeostasis, vitamin D metabolism, lipid homeostasis, energy homeostasis and cancer. The identification of SXR as a xenobiotic sensor has provided an important tool for studying new mechanisms through which diet, chemical exposure, and environment ultimately impact health and disease. The discovery and pharmacological development of new PXR modulators might represent an interesting and innovative therapeutic approach to combat various diseases. PMID:19240808

  8. Steroidal glycosides from Reineckia carnea.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaomei; Zhang, Dongdong; He, Hao; Li, Yuze; Yang, Xinjie; Deng, Chong; Tang, Zhishu; Cui, Jiucheng; Yue, Zhenggang

    2015-09-01

    Three new steroidal glycosides (1-3) and a novel natural product 4 firstly obtained from a plant source, together with two known steroidal glycosides (5-6) have been isolated from the whole plant of Reineckia carnea. Their structures were determined by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic methods, and their cytotoxic activities against human 1299 tumor cells were evaluated by the MTT method. Compounds 4, 5 and 6 exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 50.3 μmol·L(-1), 67.2 μmol·L(-1) and 61.8 μmol·L(-1), while compounds 1, 2, and 3 showed no cytotoxicity with the cells. PMID:26186990

  9. Modular inductive power transmission system for high misalignment electric vehicle application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Chun; Chau, K. T.; Liu, Chunhua; Ching, Tze Wood; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    This paper gives a design method of power transmitter for electric vehicle wireless charging applications. Uniform magnetic field is targeted for better modular application and misalignment adaption. Rectangular coil and spiral windings are specially selected for evaluation. The compound winding is chosen for optimization. The magnetic flux density is studied by calculating the mutual inductance per area. By optimally choosing the turns and pitch distances of the spiral winding, a uniform magnetic field is achieved. Using finite element analysis, the performances of the transmitter are evaluated, including its tolerance to misalignment.

  10. Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, as well as pulmonary hypertension. Whether such differences are inherent and/or whether sex steroids play a role in modulating these differences is currently under investigation. The purpose of this review is to define sex differences in lung structure/function under normal and specific disease states, with exploration of whether and how sex hormone signaling mechanisms may explain these clinical observations. Focusing on adult age groups, the review addresses the following: 1) inherent sex differences in lung anatomy and physiology; 2) the importance of certain time points in life such as puberty, pregnancy, menopause, and aging; 3) expression and signaling of sex steroid receptors under normal vs. disease states; 4) potential interplay between different sex steroids; 5) the question of whether sex steroids are beneficial or detrimental to the lung; and 6) the potential use of sex steroid signaling as biomarkers and therapeutic avenues in lung diseases. The importance of focusing on sex differences and sex steroids in the lung lies in the increasing incidence of lung diseases in women and the need to address lung diseases across the life span. PMID:22240244

  11. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that...

  18. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  19. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  6. Evaluation of steroidomics by liquid chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry as a powerful analytical strategy for measuring human steroid perturbations.

    PubMed

    Jeanneret, Fabienne; Tonoli, David; Rossier, Michel F; Saugy, Martial; Boccard, Julien; Rudaz, Serge

    2016-01-22

    This review presents the evolution of steroid analytical techniques, including gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), immunoassay (IA) and targeted liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and it evaluates the potential of extended steroid profiles by a metabolomics-based approach, namely steroidomics. Steroids regulate essential biological functions including growth and reproduction, and perturbations of the steroid homeostasis can generate serious physiological issues; therefore, specific and sensitive methods have been developed to measure steroid concentrations. GC-MS measuring several steroids simultaneously was considered the first historical standard method for analysis. Steroids were then quantified by immunoassay, allowing a higher throughput; however, major drawbacks included the measurement of a single compound instead of a panel and cross-reactivity reactions. Targeted LC-MS methods with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) were then introduced for quantifying a small steroid subset without the problems of cross-reactivity. The next step was the integration of metabolomic approaches in the context of steroid analyses. As metabolomics tends to identify and quantify all the metabolites (i.e., the metabolome) in a specific system, appropriate strategies were proposed for discovering new biomarkers. Steroidomics, defined as the untargeted analysis of the steroid content in a sample, was implemented in several fields, including doping analysis, clinical studies, in vivo or in vitro toxicology assays, and more. This review discusses the current analytical methods for assessing steroid changes and compares them to steroidomics. Steroids, their pathways, their implications in diseases and the biological matrices in which they are analysed will first be described. Then, the different analytical strategies will be presented with a focus on their ability to obtain relevant information on the steroid pattern. The future technical requirements for improving steroid analysis will also be presented. PMID:26195035

  7. Effects of systemic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on nociception during tail ischaemia and on reperfusion hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Gelgor, L.; Butkow, N.; Mitchell, D.

    1992-01-01

    1. We have investigated the effects of five non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on nociception during ischaemia and on reperfusion hyperalgesia in rats. 2. We induced tail ischaemia in conscious rats by applying a tourniquet at the base of the tail until the rats exhibited co-ordinated escape behaviour when we released the tourniquet. 3. We assessed hyperalgesia by measuring the tail flick latency following tail immersion in water at 49 degrees C, before applying and immediately after releasing the tourniquet, and then at 30 min intervals for 2 h. 4. Intraperitoneal injection of NSAIDs prior to applying the tourniquet had no effect on the co-ordinated escape behaviour during ischaemia, nor on tail flick latency in the absence of prior ischaemia. However all the drugs attenuated reperfusion hyperalgesia in a log dose-dependent manner. Doses required to abolish hyperalgesia, were indomethacin 5 mg kg-1, diclofenac sodium 42 mg kg-1, ibuprofen 54 mg kg-1, dipyrone 168 mg kg-1 and paracetamol 170 mg kg-1. 5. We conclude that the mechanisms underlying nociception during ischaemia are not the same as those underlying reperfusion hyperalgesia. Moreover our procedure provides a rapid and more humane method for measuring the antinociceptive potency of NSAIDs. PMID:1559131

  8. Modulation of Xenobiotic Receptors by Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Monimoy; Robbins, Delira; Chen, Taosheng

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate the expression of their target genes. NRs play important roles in many human diseases, including metabolic diseases and cancer, and are therefore a key class of therapeutic targets. Steroids play important roles in regulating nuclear receptors; in addition to being ligands of steroid receptors, steroids (and their metabolites) also regulate other NRs, such as the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor (termed xenobiotic receptors), which participate in steroid metabolism. Xenobiotic receptors have promiscuous ligand-binding properties, and their structurally diverse ligands include steroids and their metabolites. Therefore, steroids, their metabolism and metabolites, xenobiotic receptors, steroid receptors, and the respective signaling pathways they regulate have functional interactions. This review discusses these functional interactions and their implications for activities mediated by steroid receptors and xenobiotic receptors, focusing on steroids that modulate pathways involving the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. The emphasis of the review is on structure-function studies of xenobiotic receptors bound to steroid ligands. PMID:23884115

  9. Steroids and endocrine disruptors--History, recent state of art and open questions.

    PubMed

    Hampl, Richard; Kubátová, Jana; Stárka, Luboslav

    2016-01-01

    This introductory chapter provides an overview of the levels and sites at which endocrine disruptors (EDs) affect steroid actions. In contrast to the special issue of Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology published three years ago and devoted to EDs as such, this paper focuses on steroids. We tried to point to more recent findings and opened questions. EDs interfere with steroid biosynthesis and metabolism either as inhibitors of relevant enzymes, or at the level of their expression. Particular attention was paid to enzymes metabolizing steroid hormones to biologically active products in target cells, such as aromatase, 5α-reductase and 3β-, 11β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. An important target for EDs is also steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR), responsible for steroid precursor trafficking to mitochondria. EDs influence receptor-mediated steroid actions at both genomic and non-genomic levels. The remarkable differences in response to various steroid-receptor ligands led to a more detailed investigation of events following steroid/disruptor binding to the receptors and to the mapping of the signaling cascades and nuclear factors involved. A virtual screening of a large array of EDs with steroid receptors, known as in silico methods (≡computer simulation), is another promising approach for studying quantitative structure activity relationships and docking. New data may be expected on the effect of EDs on steroid hormone binding to selective plasma transport proteins, namely transcortin and sex hormone-binding globulin. Little information is available so far on the effects of EDs on the major hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal axes, of which the kisspeptin/GPR54 system is of particular importance. Kisspeptins act as stimulators for hormone-induced gonadotropin secretion and their expression is regulated by sex steroids via a feed-back mechanism. Kisspeptin is now believed to be one of the key factors triggering puberty in mammals, and various EDs affect its expression and function. Finally, advances in analytics of EDs, especially those persisting in the environment, in various body fluids (plasma, urine, seminal fluid, and follicular fluid) are mentioned. Surprisingly, relatively scarce information is available on the simultaneous determination of EDs and steroids in the same biological material. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Endocrine disruptors & steroids'. PMID:24816231

  10. New approach to cystic fibrosis diagnosis by use of an improved sweat-induction/collection system and osmometry.

    PubMed

    Webster, H L; Barlow, W K

    1981-03-01

    A comprehensive equipment system is described that induces, collects, and analyzes sweat as a diagnostic procedure for cystic fibrosis. The safety and convenience of the iontophoretic induction phase have been improved by specially designed circuitry and electrodes. The problem of potentially serious error as a result of condensation within sweat-collection cups has been eliminated by use of a thermostatically controlled heated cup. The osmolality of the collected sweat is measured with a vapor-pressure osmometer. Data are presented to support the validity of osmolality as an alternative to electrolyte assay or electrical conductivity measurement and normal and abnormal ranges are provided. The complete system was tested in a pediatric hospital and data are presented to illustrate the relative advantages of the system with respect to safety, convenience, diagnostic reliability, and decreased potential for human error. PMID:7471385

  11. Simulation for Large-Area, Inductively-Coupled Plasma Systems Using an Ar/Cl2 Gas Mixture.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seon-Geun; Lee, Young-Jun; Jeon, Jae-Hong; Kim, Young-Jin; Seo, Jong-Hyun; Choe, Hee-Hwan

    2015-11-01

    As research and development of high-performance devices are becoming increasingly important in the flat panel display industry, new structures and processes are essential to improve the performance of the TFT backplane. Also, high-density plasma systems are needed for new device fabrications. Chlorine-based, inductively-coupled plasma systems are widely used for highly-selective, anisotropic etching of polysilicon layers. In this paper, a plasma simulation for a large-area ICP system (8th glass size and 9 planar antenna set) was conducted using Ar/Cl2 gas. Transport models and Maxwell Equations were applied to calculate the plasma parameters such as electron density, electron temperature and electric potential. In addition, the spatial distribution of ions such as Ar+, Cl2+, Cl-, Cl+ were investigated respectively. PMID:26726552

  12. Endogenous steroid profiling in the athlete biological passport.

    PubMed

    Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Saugy, Martial; Saudan, Christophe

    2010-03-01

    The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) is an individual electronic document that collects data regarding a specific athlete that is useful in differentiating between natural physiologic variations of selected biomarkers and deviations caused by artificial manipulations. A subsidiary of the endocrine module of the ABP, that which here is called Athlete Steroidal Passport (ASP), collects data on markers of an altered metabolism of endogenous steroidal hormones measured in urine samples. The ASP aims to identify not only doping with anabolic-androgenic steroids, but also most indirect steroid doping strategies such as doping with estrogen receptor antagonists and aromatase inhibitors. Development of specific markers of steroid doping, use of the athlete's previous measurements to define individual limits, with the athlete becoming his or her own reference, the inclusion of heterogeneous factors such as the UDPglucuronosyltransferase B17 genotype of the athlete, the knowledge of potentially confounding effects such as heavy alcohol consumption, the development of an external quality control system to control analytical uncertainty, and finally the use of Bayesian inferential methods to evaluate the value of indirect evidence have made the ASP a valuable alternative to deter steroid doping in elite sports. The ASP can be used to target athletes for gas chromatography/combustion/ isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) testing, to withdraw temporarily the athlete from competing when an abnormality has been detected, and ultimately to lead to an antidoping infraction if that abnormality cannot be explained by a medical condition. Although the ASP has been developed primarily to ensure fairness in elite sports, its application in endocrinology for clinical purposes is straightforward in an evidence-based medicine paradigm. PMID:20122450

  13. Neuroactive steroids: A therapeutic approach to maintain peripheral nerve integrity during neurodegenerative events.

    PubMed

    Leonelli, Emanuela; Ballabio, Marinella; Consoli, Antonio; Roglio, Ilaria; Magnaghi, Valerio; Melcangi, Roberto C

    2006-01-01

    It is now well known that peripheral nerves are a target for the action of neuroactive steroids. This review summarizes observations obtained so far, indicating that through the interaction with classical and nonclassical steroid receptors, neuroactive steroids (e.g., progesterone, testosterone and their derivatives, estrogens, etc.) are able to influence several parameters of the peripheral nervous system, particularly its glial compartment (i.e., Schwann cells). Interestingly, some of these neuroactive steroids might be considered as promising neuroprotective agents. They are able to counteract neurodegenerative events of rat peripheral nerves occurring after experimental physical trauma, during the aging process, or in hereditary demyelinating diseases. On this basis, the hypothesis that neuroactive steroids might represent a new therapeutic strategy for peripheral neuropathy is proposed. PMID:16632876

  14. Statin therapy decreases the risk of osteonecrosis in patients receiving steroids.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, J W

    2001-05-01

    Osteonecrosis is a devastating complication of systemic steroid use. Prolonged steroid use produces a hyperlipidemic state in most patients and puts them at risk for osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. The fat content within the femoral head increases, resulting in increased intracortical pressure that may lead to sinusoidal collapse and osteonecrosis. Statins are lipid-clearing agents that dramatically reduce lipid levels in blood and tissues. Statins are widely used to prevent cardiovascular disease and have been shown to reduce the adverse effects of steroids on lipid metabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of statin drugs affects later development of osteonecrosis in patients receiving steroids. The records of 284 patients who were taking statin drugs at the time they were started on high dose steroids were examined to determine whether osteonecrosis had developed. The patients remained on statin drugs during the entire time of steroid exposure. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were used to verify the osteonecrosis unless it was visible by radiograph. After an average of 7.5 years (minimum followup, 5 years), only three patients (1%) from the group had osteonecrosis develop. This 1% incidence is much less than the 3% to 20% incidence usually reported for patients receiving high-dose steroids. Statins may offer some protection against having osteonecrosis develop when steroid treatment is necessary. PMID:11347831

  15. A critical appraisal of the misoprostol removable, controlled-release vaginal delivery system of labor induction

    PubMed Central

    Patte, Charlotte; Deruelle, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Induction of labor is a major issue in pregnancy management. Finding strategies to increase rate and decrease time to vaginal delivery is an important goal, but maternal or neonatal safety must remain the primary objective. Misoprostol is a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin used off label to ripen the cervix and induce labor. The misoprostol vaginal insert (MVI) was designed to allow a controlled-release delivery of misoprostol (from 50 to 200 μg) with a removal tape. The objective of this review was to make a critical appraisal of this device referring to the literature. Methods A literature search was performed in the PubMed and Cochrane databases using the keywords “vaginal misoprostol insert”. Results Several studies compared different doses of MVI (50, 100, 150, and 200 μg) with the 10 mg dinoprostone insert. The 100 μg MVI compared with the dinoprostone vaginal insert (DVI) showed similar efficacy and no significant differences in cesarean delivery rate. MVI 200 μg compared with DVI showed a reduced time to vaginal delivery and oxytocin need but had an increased risk of uterine hyperstimulation. The rate of hyperstimulation syndrome was two to three times more frequent with the 200 μg MVI than the 100 μg. Conclusion Current data suggest that the 100 μg MVI would provide the best balance between efficacy and safety. Further studies should be performed to evaluate this dose, especially in high-risk situations needing induction of labor. PMID:26648758

  16. Induction voidmeter

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, T.T.; Roop, C.J.; Schmidt, K.J.; Brewer, J.

    1983-12-21

    An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; means for applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and means for detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

  17. Induction voidmeter

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas T.; Roop, Conard J.; Schmidt, Kenneth J.; Brewer, John

    1986-01-01

    An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge circuit, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

  18. A review of steroids from Sarcophyton species.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Muhammad Sulaiman; Al-Footy, Khalid O; Ayyad, Seif-Eldin N; Al-Lihaibi, Sultan S; Alarif, Walied M

    2016-04-01

    This review reports the structural diversity of steroids from Sarcophyton species based on literature from the beginning of marine steroid research until now. There are 65 compounds studied from eight species. Most of them are polyhydroxy-type steroids of C-27-C-31 carbon skeleton. Their biological activities are highly diverse ranging from cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic to antiosteoporosis properties. PMID:26299957

  19. The role of cytochrome P450(11 alpha) in detoxification of steroids in the filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans.

    PubMed

    Breskvar, K; Ferencak, Z; Hudnik-Plevnik, T

    1995-03-01

    The evidence was presented that steroid hydroxylating enzyme complex induced by substrate in the filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans (R. nigricans) alleviated toxic effect(s) of the steroid on fungal growth. The growth inhibition of fungal mycelium observed in steroid-containing culture(s) became much more obvious when fungal mycelia were grown in the simultaneous presence of inducing steroid and the P450(11 alpha) inhibitor metyrapone. On the other hand, in experiments where we followed the fate of radioactively labelled progesterone added to the mycelial suspension, we noticed that steroid, after being initially accumulated in the microorganism, was, after some time, released from it; the latter phenomenon was not observed if induction of 11 alpha-hydroxylase was prevented by cycloheximide. Results of experiments presented in this communication can be regarded as the first strong indication that the biological role of P450(11 alpha) induction in R. nigricans is in removal of steroids which are toxic for the mycelium. PMID:7696148

  20. Steroid metabolism by monkey and human spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalakshmi, M.; Sehgal, A.; Pruthi, J.S.; Anand-Kumar, T.C.

    1983-05-01

    Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from monkey and human were washed and incubated with tritium labelled androgens or estradiol to study the pattern of spermatozoa steroid metabolism. When equal concentrations of steroid substrates were used for incubation, monkey and human spermatozoa showed very similar pattern of steroid conversion. Spermatozoa from both species converted testosterone mainly to androstenedione, but reverse conversion of androstenedione to testosterone was negligible. Estradiol-17 beta was converted mainly to estrone. The close similarity between the spermatozoa of monkey and men in their steroid metabolic pattern indicates that the rhesus monkey could be an useful animal model to study the effect of drugs on the metabolic pattern of human spermatozoa.

  1. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  2. Linear induction accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

    1988-06-21

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  3. The mutual inductance calculation between circular and quadrilateral coils at arbitrary attitudes using a rotation matrix for airborne transient electromagnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yanju; Wang, Hongyuan; Lin, Jun; Guan, Shanshan; Feng, Xue; Li, Suyi

    2014-12-01

    Performance testing and calibration of airborne transient electromagnetic (ATEM) systems are conducted to obtain the electromagnetic response of ground loops. It is necessary to accurately calculate the mutual inductance between transmitting coils, receiving coils and ground loops to compute the electromagnetic responses. Therefore, based on Neumann's formula and the measured attitudes of the coils, this study deduces the formula for the mutual inductance calculation between circular and quadrilateral coils, circular and circular coils, and quadrilateral and quadrilateral coils using a rotation matrix, and then proposes a method to calculate the mutual inductance between two coils at arbitrary attitudes (roll, pitch, and yaw). Using coil attitude simulated data of an ATEM system, we calculate the mutual inductance of transmitting coils and ground loops at different attitudes, analyze the impact of coil attitudes on mutual inductance, and compare the computational accuracy and speed of the proposed method with those of other methods using the same data. The results show that the relative error of the calculation is smaller and that the speed-up is significant compared to other methods. Moreover, the proposed method is also applicable to the mutual inductance calculation of polygonal and circular coils at arbitrary attitudes and is highly expandable.

  4. Labor Induction

    MedlinePlus

    ... on labor? • When is amniotomy done? • What is oxytocin? • What are the risks associated with labor induction? • ... amniotic sac breaks (their “water breaks”). What is oxytocin? Oxytocin is a hormone that causes contractions of ...

  5. Sex steroid ablation: an immunoregenerative strategy for immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Velardi, E; Dudakov, J A; van den Brink, M R M

    2015-06-01

    Age-related decline in thymic function is a well-described process that results in reduced T-cell development and thymic output of new naïve T cells. Thymic involution leads to reduced response to vaccines and new pathogens in otherwise healthy individuals; however, reduced thymic function is particularly detrimental in clinical scenarios where the immune system is profoundly depleted such as after chemotherapy, radiotherapy, infection and shock. Poor thymic function and restoration of immune competence has been correlated with an increased risk of opportunistic infections, tumor relapse and autoimmunity. Apart from their primary role in sex dimorphism, sex steroid levels profoundly affect the immune system in general and, in fact, age-related thymic involution has been at least partially attributed to the increase in sex steroids at puberty. Subsequently it has been demonstrated that the removal of sex steroids, or sex steroid ablation (SSA), triggers physiologic changes that ultimately lead to thymic re-growth and improved T-cell reconstitution in settings of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Although the cellular and molecular process underlying these regenerative effects are still poorly understood, SSA clearly represents an attractive therapeutic approach to enhance thymic function and restore immune competence in immunodeficient individuals. PMID:26039214

  6. Classification of three steroids as schedule III anabolic steroids under the Controlled Substances Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2009-12-01

    With the issuance of this final rule, the Deputy Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) classifies the following three steroids as "anabolic steroids" under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA): Boldione, desoxymethyltestosterone, and 19-nor-4,9(10)-androstadienedione. These steroids and their salts, esters, and ethers are schedule III controlled substances subject to the regulatory control provisions of the CSA. PMID:20169675

  7. 76 FR 72355 - Classification of Two Steroids, Prostanozol and Methasterone, as Schedule III Anabolic Steroids...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... that this action is necessary to prevent the abuse and trafficking of ] these steroids. If the..., 1941). Thus, a steroid with testosterone-like activity will also prevent the atrophy of these three...-androgenic steroid abuse: A looming public health concern? Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 98: 1-12. Kicman,...

  8. Analysis and characterization of eight estradiol inducible genes and a strong promoter from the steroid degrading marine bacterial strain S19-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingdi; Xiong, Guangming; Maser, Edmund

    2013-02-25

    Buttiauxella strain S19-1 is a new marine bacterium, isolated from the Baltic Sea, which can degrade steroids. In this report, a meta-genomic approach was used to isolate estradiol inducible genes from S19-1. SalI-fragments from the chromosomal DNA of S19-1 were ligated into plasmid pKEGFP2 bearing an EGFP gene as the reporter system. All resulting plasmids harboring SalI-fragments were transformed into Escherichia coli HB101 to measure the relative fluorescent units (RFU). E. coli cells showing higher RFU after estradiol induction than those without estradiol induction, were selected and the respective plasmids were sequenced. Sequences of 8 positive plasmids were analyzed and aligned by BLAST. Among the predicted genes we found similarities to the major facilitator superfamily, glycerol dehydratase activator, formate acetyltransferase activating enzyme, histidinol-phosphate/aromatic aminotransferase, ABC-transporter, transcriptional regulator nadR, lipoate-protein ligase A, and alcohol phosphatidyl-transferase. Interestingly, one of the E. coli cell clones (containing plasmid p302) showed up in green color by normal light microscopy, which indicated that a strong promoter was present in this plasmid. Sequencing and deletion-mutagenesis revealed that the putative promoter comprises a 108 bp DNA fragment within p302, from which the putative -10 and -35 regions are TTTGAT and TTGGTT, respectively. The promoter might be used to construct S19-1 mutants in which steroid degradation occurs at high levels. PMID:23232150

  9. Steroidal esters from Ferula sinkiangensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangzhi; Li, Xiaojin; Cao, Li; Shen, Liangang; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Junchi; Zhang, Lijing; Si, Jianyong

    2014-09-01

    Two new steroidal esters with an unusual framework, Sinkiangenorin A and B, a new organic acid glycoside, Sinkiangenorin C, and four known lignin compounds were isolated from the seeds of Ferula sinkiangensis. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All of the isolated compounds were tested against Hela, K562 and AGS human cancer cell lines. Sinkiangenorin C showed cytotoxic activity against AGS cells with an IC50 of 36.9 μM. PMID:24979220

  10. Steroids as γ-secretase modulators

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Joo In; Ladd, Thomas B.; Kukar, Thomas; Price, Ashleigh R.; Moore, Brenda D.; Koo, Edward H.; Golde, Todd E.; Felsenstein, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation and accumulation of Aβ42 play an initiating role in Alzheimer's disease (AD); thus, selective lowering of Aβ42 by γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) remains a promising approach to AD therapy. Based on evidence suggesting that steroids may influence Aβ production, we screened 170 steroids at 10 μM for effects on Aβ42 secreted from human APP-overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary cells. Many acidic steroids lowered Aβ42, whereas many nonacidic steroids actually raised Aβ42. Studies on the more potent compounds showed that Aβ42-lowering steroids were bonafide GSMs and Aβ42-raising steroids were inverse GSMs. The most potent steroid GSM identified was 5β-cholanic acid (EC50=5.7 μM; its endogenous analog lithocholic acid was virtually equipotent), and the most potent inverse GSM identified was 4-androsten-3-one-17β-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (EC50=6.25 μM). In addition, we found that both estrogen and progesterone are weak inverse GSMs with further complex effects on APP processing. These data suggest that certain endogenous steroids may have the potential to act as GSMs and add to the evidence that cholesterol, cholesterol metabolites, and other steroids may play a role in modulating Aβ production and thus risk for AD. They also indicate that acidic steroids might serve as potential therapeutic leads for drug optimization/development.—Jung, J. I., Ladd, T. B., Kukar, T., Price, A. R., Moore, B. D., Koo, E. H., Golde, T. E., Felsenstein, K. M. Steroids as γ-secretase modulators. PMID:23716494

  11. Performance of an Annular Linear Induction Pump with Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Schoenfeld, Michael; Pearson, J. Boise; Webster, Kenneth; Godfroy, Thomas; Adkins, Harold E., Jr.; Werner, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Results of performance testing of an annular linear induction pump are presented. The pump electromagnetically pumps liquid metal through a circuit specially designed to allow for quantification of the performance. Testing was conducted over a range of conditions, including frequencies of 33, 36, 39, and 60 Hz, liquid metal temperatures from 125 to 525 C, and input voltages from 5 to 120 V. Pump performance spanned a range of flow rates from roughly 0.16 to 5.7 L/s (2.5 to 90 gpm), and pressure head less than 1 to 90 kPa (less than 0.145 to 13 psi). The maximum efficiency measured during testing was slightly greater than 6%. The efficiency was fairly insensitive to input frequency from 33 to 39 Hz, and was markedly lower at 60 Hz. In addition, the efficiency decreased as the NaK temperature was raised. The performance of the pump operating on a variable frequency drive providing 60 Hz power compared favorably with the same pump operating on 60 Hz power drawn directly from the electrical grid.

  12. Targeting the Androgen Receptor with Steroid Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a major therapeutic target in prostate cancer pharmacology. Progression of prostate cancer has been linked to elevated expression of AR in malignant tissue, suggesting that AR plays a central role in prostate cancer cell biology. Potent therapeutic agents can be precisely crafted to specifically target AR, potentially averting systemic toxicities associated with nonspecific chemotherapies. In this review, we describe various strategies to generate steroid conjugates that can selectively engage AR with high potency. Analogies to recent developments in nonsteroidal conjugates targeting AR are also evaluated. Particular focus is placed on potential applications in AR pharmacology. The review culminates with a description of future prospects for targeting AR. PMID:24936953

  13. Cardiotonic Steroids as Modulators of Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Orellana, Ana Maria; Kinoshita, Paula Fernanda; Leite, Jacqueline Alves; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko; Scavone, Cristoforo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiotonic steroids (CTS) are a class of specific ligands of the Na+, K+- ATPase (NKA). NKA is a P-type ATPase that is ubiquitously expressed and although well known to be responsible for the maintenance of the cell electrochemical gradient through active transport, NKA can also act as a signal transducer in the presence of CTS. Inflammation, in addition to importantly driving organism defense and survival mechanisms, can also modulate NKA activity and memory formation, as well as being relevant to many chronic illnesses, neurodegenerative diseases, and mood disorders. The aim of the current review is to highlight the recent advances as to the role of CTS and NKA in inflammatory process, with a particular focus in the central nervous system. PMID:26909067

  14. Cyanobacterial Bioamarkers: Triterpenoids plus Steroids?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.; Cullings, K. W.; Logan, G. A.

    2001-12-01

    Reconstructing the biomarker record of the early Earth requires us to make assumptions about the constancy and specificity of lipid biosynthetic pathways through geological time and rests upon our knowledge of the lipid composition of extant organisms.\\x90\\x90 For example, the three domains of extant life Eukarya, Archaea and Bacteria were present in Archean ecosystems if we are to believe the record of chemical fossils that have been found in rocks as old as 2700Ma.\\x90 However, the validity of the steroid signature as an indicator for Eukarya has questioned because of some reports of Ophytosterol, biosynthesis in cyanobacteria and we examined this issue in some new experiments with cyanobacteria grown in culture.\\x90 After initial cultures of Phormidium and Chlorogloeopsis proved to contain sterols, in addition to the expected complement of hopanoid and 2-methylhopanoid, we hypothesized that these might be the result of fungal contamination.\\x90 Subsequent cultures grown after repeated sub-culturing in the presence of cycloheximide proved to be devoid of sterol. Our results are therefore consistent with the notion that sterol biosynthesis is, with very few exceptions, a primary characteristic of Eukarya.\\x90 Consequently, the steroid hydrocarbons that are found in ancient sediments are most likely the remains of algae and other eukaryotes.\\x90

  15. CONTAMINANT INTERACTIONS WITH STEROID RECEPTORS: EVIDENCE FOR RECEPTOR BINDING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroid receptors are important determinants of endocrine disrupter consequences. As the most frequently proposed mechanism of endocrine-disrupting contaminant (EDC) action, steroid receptors are not only targets of natural steroids but are also commonly sites of nonsteroidal com...

  16. Hardware and software design for a National Instrument-based magnetic induction tomography system for prospective biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hsin-Yu; Soleimani, Manuchehr

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a new and emerging type of tomography technique that is able to map the passive electromagnetic properties (in particular conductivity) of an object. Excitation coils are used to induce eddy currents in the medium, and the magnetic field produced by the induced eddy current is then sensed by the receiver coils. Because of its non-invasive and contactless feature, it becomes an attractive technique for many applications (especially in biomedical area) compared to traditional contact electrode-based electrical impedance tomography. Due to the low contrast in conductivity between biological tissues, an accurate and stable hardware system is necessary. Most MIT systems in the literature employ external signal generators, power amplifiers and highly stable down-conversion electronics to obtain a satisfactory phase measurement. However, this would increase design complexity substantially. In this paper, a National Instrument-based MIT system is developed at the University of Bath, aiming for biomedical applications. The system utilizes National Instrument products to accomplish all signal driving, switching and data acquisition tasks, which ease the system design whilst providing satisfactory performance. This paper presents a full-scaled medical MIT system, from the sensor and system hardware design, eddy current model verification to the image reconstruction software: the performance of this MIT instrumentation system is characterized in detail, including the system accuracy and system stability. The methods of solving eddy current problem are presented. The reconstructed images of detecting the presence of saline solutions are also included in this paper, which show the capability of national instrument products to be developed into a full-scaled biomedical MIT system, by demonstrating the practical experimental results. PMID:22531316

  17. Role of Sex Steroid Hormones in Bacterial-Host Interactions

    PubMed Central

    García-Gómez, Elizabeth; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones play important physiological roles in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues, including immune cells. These hormones exert their functions by binding to either specific intracellular receptors that act as ligand-dependent transcription factors or membrane receptors that stimulate several signal transduction pathways. The elevated susceptibility of males to bacterial infections can be related to the usually lower immune responses presented in males as compared to females. This dimorphic sex difference is mainly due to the differential modulation of the immune system by sex steroid hormones through the control of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines expression, as well as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expression and antibody production. Besides, sex hormones can also affect the metabolism, growth, or virulence of pathogenic bacteria. In turn, pathogenic, microbiota, and environmental bacteria are able to metabolize and degrade steroid hormones and their related compounds. All these data suggest that sex steroid hormones play a key role in the modulation of bacterial-host interactions. PMID:23509808

  18. Development of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis after Anabolic Steroid Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Herlitz, Leal C.; Markowitz, Glen S.; Farris, Alton B.; Schwimmer, Joshua A.; Stokes, Michael B.; Kunis, Cheryl; Colvin, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse adversely affects the endocrine system, blood lipids, and the liver, but renal injury has not been described. We identified an association of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and proteinuria in a cohort of 10 bodybuilders (six white and four Hispanic; mean body mass index 34.7) after long-term abuse of anabolic steroids. The clinical presentation included proteinuria (mean 10.1 g/d; range 1.3 to 26.3 g/d) and renal insufficiency (mean serum creatinine 3.0 mg/dl; range 1.3 to 7.8 mg/dl); three (30%) patients presented with nephrotic syndrome. Renal biopsy revealed FSGS in nine patients, four of whom also had glomerulomegaly, and glomerulomegaly alone in one patient. Three biopsies revealed collapsing lesions of FSGS, four had perihilar lesions, and seven showed ≥40% tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Among eight patients with mean follow-up of 2.2 yr, one progressed to ESRD, the other seven received renin-angiotensin system blockade, and one also received corticosteroids. All seven patients discontinued anabolic steroids, leading to weight loss, stabilization or improvement in serum creatinine, and a reduction in proteinuria. One patient resumed anabolic steroid abuse and suffered relapse of proteinuria and renal insufficiency. We hypothesize that secondary FSGS results from a combination of postadaptive glomerular changes driven by increased lean body mass and potential direct nephrotoxic effects of anabolic steroids. Because of the expected rise in serum creatinine as a result of increased muscle mass in bodybuilders, this complication is likely underrecognized. PMID:19917783

  19. Robust Wind Turbine System Against Voltage Sag with Induction Generators Interfaced to the Grid by Power Electronic Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinas, Marta; Naess, Bjarne; Gullvik, William; Undeland, Tore

    An electrical system for wind turbines using cage induction generator with back to back converters for connection to the network is experimentally tested under short circuit conditions in a 55kW generator set-up. 50% voltage sag is realized in the laboratory set-up to investigate the performance of the power electronic converters control under the newly introduced grid codes. Standard vector control techniques are implemented with the aim to maintain balance between generated power and power supplied to the grid. The robustness of the power electronics converter is experimentally analyzed under the short circuit for different settings of the converter nominal current and the converters are found to be robust against voltage sags.

  20. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Green River Shale By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Using a Desolvating Nebulizer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, F.; Clarke, D.; Moody, S.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is applied to a geological sample for the determination of rare earth elements (REEs) using a specialized nebulizer system. The low flow desolvating nebulizer has been shown to decrease metal oxide formation which leads to a reduction in mass spectral interferences. Traditional nebulizers and spray chambers may be suitable for similar sample types, but reduction of water vapor loading to the plasma can improve REE detection limits for quadrupole-based ICP-MS. The Green River formation holds the largest oil shale deposits in the world and understanding the elemental composition of these samples is important in its study. A certified reference material, USGS Green River Shale (SGR-1), was microwave digested prior to analysis, and recoveries of REEs compared to historical values are discussed.

  1. Tests with a line-commutated converter as a variable inductive load on the Bonneville Power Administration transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Boenig, H.J.; Hauer, J.F.; Nielsen, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    A twelve-pulse, line-commutated converter, with a steady-state rating of 2.5 kV and 5.5 kA, formerly used for charging and discharging a superconducting magnet, was reconfigured as a static reactive power load. Tests staged at the Tacoma, WA, substation of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) revealed that the converter could be used as a variable inductive load, provided a stable current controller was installed. The unit was modulated as a variable VAR load following a sinusoidal VAR demand signal with an amplitude up to 14.8 MVAR. The total losses at maximum VAR output were 370 kW. This paper explains the necessary modifications of the converter to operate as a variable reactive load. Measured current waveshapes are analyzed. The effects of such a load on the BPA transmission system are presented.

  2. Steroids Update, Part 1 and Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Calvin; Duda, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Part 1 of this two-part article describes the views of a physician who believes that athletes who want to take steroids are best protected by receiving a prescription and monitoring. Part 2 discusses the more general view of physicians that steroids should not be prescribed but perhaps should be monitored. (MT)

  3. Steroids: To Test or to Educate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2006-01-01

    In February 2005, The Dallas Morning News published a multipart series on steroid use among high school students in Texas. The paper's four-month investigation was wide-ranging, but shined a particular spotlight upon alleged abuses in the 13,700-student Grapevine-Colleyville Independent School District, north of Dallas. Use of steroids and other…

  4. Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Steroid Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Kent F.; Kleiman, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    Used Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory and Profile of Mood States to assess psychological characteristics in 72 adolescent males: 24 adolescent athletes who reported steroid use, 24 athletes with no steroid use, and 24 nonathletes. Although some personality variables differentiated between athletes and nonathletes, no personality variables…

  5. Steroids: To Test or to Educate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2006-01-01

    In February 2005, The Dallas Morning News published a multipart series on steroid use among high school students in Texas. The paper's four-month investigation was wide-ranging, but shined a particular spotlight upon alleged abuses in the 13,700-student Grapevine-Colleyville Independent School District, north of Dallas. Use of steroids and other

  6. How to Stop Steroid Medicines Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... side effects include thin skin, a higher blood sugar level, dry mouth, irregular menstrual cycles, increased blood pressure and weakened bones. Because of these side effects, steroids are usually only used for a short time. Your body naturally makes steroids by itself. When your body ...

  7. Ovarian steroids, stem cells and uterine leiomyoma: therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Moravek, Molly B.; Yin, Ping; Ono, Masanori; Coon V, John S.; Dyson, Matthew T.; Navarro, Antonia; Marsh, Erica E.; Chakravarti, Debabrata; Kim, J. Julie; Wei, Jian-Jun; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor in women and is thought to arise from the clonal expansion of a single myometrial smooth muscle cell transformed by a cellular insult. Leiomyomas cause a variety of symptoms, including abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, bladder or bowel dysfunction, and recurrent pregnancy loss, and are the most common indication for hysterectomy in the USA. A slow rate of cell proliferation, combined with the production of copious amounts of extracellular matrix, accounts for tumor expansion. A common salient feature of leiomyomas is their responsiveness to steroid hormones, thus providing an opportunity for intervention. METHODS A comprehensive search of PUBMED was conducted to identify peer-reviewed literature published since 1980 pertinent to the roles of steroid hormones and somatic stem cells in leiomyoma, including literature on therapeutics that target steroid hormone action in leiomyoma. Reviewed articles were restricted to English language only. Studies in both animals and humans were reviewed for the manuscript. RESULTS Estrogen stimulates the growth of leiomyomas, which are exposed to this hormone not only through ovarian steroidogenesis, but also through local conversion of androgens by aromatase within the tumors themselves. The primary action of estrogen, together with its receptor estrogen receptor α (ERα), is likely mediated via induction of progesterone receptor (PR) expression, thereby allowing leiomyoma responsiveness to progesterone. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the growth of leiomyoma through a set of key genes that regulate both apoptosis and proliferation. Given these findings, aromatase inhibitors and antiprogestins have been developed for the treatment of leiomyoma, but neither treatment results in complete regression of leiomyoma, and tumors recur after treatment is stopped. Recently, distinct cell populations were discovered in leiomyomas; a small population showed stem-progenitor cell properties, and was found to be essential for ovarian steroid-dependent growth of leiomyomas. Interestingly, these stem-progenitor cells were deficient in ERα and PR and instead relied on the strikingly higher levels of these receptors in surrounding differentiated cells to mediate estrogen and progesterone action via paracrine signaling. CONCLUSIONS It has been well established that estrogen and progesterone are involved in the proliferation and maintenance of uterine leiomyoma, and the majority of medical treatments currently available for leiomyoma work by inhibiting steroid hormone production or action. A pitfall of these therapeutics is that they decrease leiomyoma size, but do not completely eradicate them, and tumors tend to regrow once treatment is stopped. The recent discovery of stem cells and their paracrine interactions with more differentiated cell populations within leiomyoma has the potential to provide the missing link between developing therapeutics that temper leiomyoma growth and those that eradicate them. PMID:25205766

  8. Facilitated Intranasal Induction of Mucosal and Systemic Immunity to Mutans Streptococcal Glucosyltransferase Peptide Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel J.; King, William F.; Barnes, Leigh A.; Trantolo, Debra; Wise, Donald L.; Taubman, Martin A.

    2001-01-01

    Synthetic peptide vaccines which are derived from functional domains of Streptococcus mutans glucosyltransferases (GTF) have been shown to induce protective immunity in Sprague-Dawley rats after subcutaneous injection in the salivary gland region. Since mucosal induction of salivary immunity would be preferable in humans, we explored methods to induce mucosal antibody in the rat to the GTF peptide vaccines HDS and HDS-GLU after intranasal administration. Several methods of facilitation of the immune response were studied: the incorporation of peptides in bioadhesive poly(d,l-lactide-coglycolide) (PLGA) microparticles, the use of monoepitopic (HDS) or diepitopic (HDS-GLU) peptide constructs, or the use of mucosal adjuvants. Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses were not detected after intranasal administration of diepitopic HDS-GLU peptide constructs in alum or after incorporation into PLGA microparticles. However, significant primary and secondary salivary IgA and serum IgG antibody responses to HDS were induced in all rats when cholera holotoxin (CT) or a detoxified mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (R192G LT) were intranasally administered with HDS peptide constructs in PLGA. Coadministration of LT with HDS resulted in predominantly IgG2a responses in the serum, while coadministration with CT resulted in significant IgG1 and IgG2a responses to HDS. Serum IgG antibody, which was induced to the HDS peptide construct by coadministration with these adjuvants, also bound intact mutans streptococcal GTF in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and inhibited its enzymatic activity. Thus, immune responses which are potentially protective for dental caries can be induced to peptide-based GTF vaccines after mucosal administration if combined with the CT or LT R192G mucosal adjuvant. PMID:11447149

  9. Anabolic steroid use in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Potteiger, J A; Stilger, V G

    1994-03-01

    Recent surveys indicate that the use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (anabolic steroids) is prevalent among adolescent athletes, particularly those in high school. The cost of clinical drug testing makes it impractical to use random testing to identify users of these ergogenic aids. The athletic trainer is often in a position to identify anabolic steroid users if he/she knows the clinical signs and symptoms. In this article, we briefly discuss the history of anabolic steroid use, how they work, their potentially dangerous side effects, evidence of increased use by adolescent athletes, and a list of clinical signs and symptoms. Finally, we suggest strategies that may help athletic trainers counsel athletes about anabolic steroid use. PMID:16558265

  10. Microbial steroid transformations: current state and prospects.

    PubMed

    Donova, Marina V; Egorova, Olga V

    2012-06-01

    Studies of steroid modifications catalyzed by microbial whole cells represent a well-established research area in white biotechnology. Still, advances over the last decade in genetic and metabolic engineering, whole-cell biocatalysis in non-conventional media, and process monitoring raised research in this field to a new level. This review summarizes the data on microbial steroid conversion obtained since 2003. The key reactions of structural steroid functionalization by microorganisms are highlighted including sterol side-chain degradation, hydroxylation at various positions of the steroid core, and redox reactions. We also describe methods for enhancement of bioprocess productivity, selectivity of target reactions, and application of microbial transformations for production of valuable pharmaceutical ingredients and precursors. Challenges and prospects of whole-cell biocatalysis applications in steroid industry are discussed. PMID:22562163

  11. Diverse biological responses to different cardiotonic steroids.

    PubMed

    Dvela, Moran; Rosen, Haim; Feldmann, Tomer; Nesher, Maoz; Lichtstein, David

    2007-12-01

    Cardiotonic steroids (CS) such as ouabain, digoxin and bufalin, are steroidal drugs prepared from the seeds and dried leaves of the genus Digitalis, and the skin and parotid gland of amphibians, are used as a cardiac stimulant. Steroids similar or identical to the cardiotonic steroids were identified in human tissues. The available literature unequivocally supports the notion that these endogenous CS function as hormones in mammals. Recent studies show that although similar in structure, the different CS exhibit diverse biological responses. This was shown at the molecular, cellular, tissue and whole animal levels. This review summarizes these diversities, raises a possible explanation for their presence and discusses their implication on the physiological role of the different steroids. PMID:17964766

  12. Space shuttle main engine anomaly data and inductive knowledge based systems: Automated corporate expertise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modesitt, Kenneth L.

    1987-01-01

    Progress is reported on the development of SCOTTY, an expert knowledge-based system to automate the analysis procedure following test firings of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The integration of a large-scale relational data base system, a computer graphics interface for experts and end-user engineers, potential extension of the system to flight engines, application of the system for training of newly-hired engineers, technology transfer to other engines, and the essential qualities of good software engineering practices for building expert knowledge-based systems are among the topics discussed.

  13. Steroid use in Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Karkhanis, Jamuna; Verna, Elizabeth C.; Chang, Matthew S.; Stravitz, R. Todd; Schilsky, Michael; Lee, William M; Brown, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Drug-induced and indeterminate Acute Liver Failure (ALF) might be due to an autoimmune-like hepatitis that is responsive to corticosteroid therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether corticosteroids improve survival in fulminant autoimmune hepatitis, drug-induced or indeterminate ALF, and whether this benefit varies according to the severity of illness. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of autoimmune, indeterminate and drug-induced ALF patients in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group from 1998-2007. The primary endpoints were overall and spontaneous survival (SS, survival without transplant). Results 361 ALF patients were studied, 66 with autoimmune (25 steroids, 41 no steroids), 164 with indeterminate (21 steroids, 143 no steroids), and 131 with drug-induced (16 steroids, 115 no steroids) ALF. Steroid use was not associated with improved overall survival (61% vs. 66%, p=0.41), nor with improved survival in any diagnosis category. Steroid use was associated with diminished survival in certain subgroups of patients, including those with the highest quartile of MELD (MELD > 40, survival 30% vs. 57%, p=0.03). In multivariable analysis controlling for steroid use and diagnosis, age (OR 1.37 per decade), coma grade (OR 2.02 grade 2, 2.65 grade 3, 5.29 grade 4), MELD (OR 1.07) and pH<7.4 (OR 3.09) were significantly associated with mortality. Though steroid use was associated with a marginal benefit in SS overall (35% v. 23%, p=0.047), this benefit did not persistent in multivariable analysis; mechanical ventilation (OR 0.24), MELD (OR 0.93), and ALT (1.02) were the only significant predictors of SS. Conclusions Corticosteroids did not improve overall survival or SS in drug-induced, indeterminate or autoimmune ALF and were associated with lower survival in patients with the highest MELD scores. PMID:23929808

  14. Steroid management in newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Mariel B; Panageas, Katherine S; Lassman, Andrew B; Deangelis, Lisa M

    2013-05-01

    Glucocorticoids ameliorate neurologic symptoms in patients with glioblastoma, but their adverse effects limit long-term use. This study sought to identify factors associated with steroid taper success or failure in the early stages of glioblastoma treatment. We retrospectively reviewed steroid prescribing practices from date of surgery until one month following radiotherapy (RT) completion among 85 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma who were treated on a prospective clinical trial with RT and temozolomide. Sufficient information on steroid dosing was available in 72 patients included in the final analysis. The mean age was 54 years, and 65 % were men. Thirty-nine percent had a gross-total resection. Fifteen patients (21 %) tolerated steroid taper without requiring dose increase during the study. Men and patients with Karnofsky performance scale 90-100 were more likely to have a successful steroid taper. The most common symptom of taper failure was headache, but the reason for steroid increase differed among the different time intervals examined: worsening neurologic deficit in the early post-operative period, headache and non-focal symptoms during RT, and headache and seizure post-RT. Of the 50 patients in whom steroid use during RT was known, 36 (72 %) underwent dose reduction and of those, 21 (58 %) required an increase. The successful early taper of steroids in glioblastoma was associated with male gender and better functional status. Steroids are often tapered during RT, but there is frequent taper failure with this approach. A prospective trial with standardized steroid dosing regimens would be needed to verify these findings. PMID:23462855

  15. Glutathione-dependent induction of local and systemic defense against oxidative stress by exogenous melatonin in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; He, Jie; Yang, Xiaozhen; Li, Xin; Luo, Dan; Wei, Chunhua; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xian

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is involved in defending against oxidative stress caused by various environmental stresses in plants. In this study, the roles of exogenous melatonin in regulating local and systemic defense against photooxidative stress in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and the involvement of redox signaling were examined. Foliar or rhizospheric treatment with melatonin enhanced tolerance to photooxidative stress in both melatonin-treated leaves and untreated systemic leaves. Increased melatonin levels are capable of increasing glutathione (reduced glutathione [GSH]) redox status. Application of H2 O2 and GSH also induced tolerance to photooxidative stress, while inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation and GSH synthesis compromised melatonin-induced local and systemic tolerance to photooxidative stress. H2 O2 treatment increased the GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, while inhibition of H2 O2 accumulation prevented a melatonin-induced increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio. Additionally, inhibition of GSH synthesis blocked H2 O2 -induced photooxidative stress tolerance, whereas scavenging or inhibition of H2 O2 production attenuated but did not abolish GSH-induced tolerance to photooxidative stress. These results strongly suggest that exogenous melatonin is capable of inducing both local and systemic defense against photooxidative stress and melatonin-enhanced GSH/GSSG ratio in a H2 O2 -dependent manner is critical in the induction of tolerance. PMID:26681257

  16. An Adaptive Supervisory Sliding Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller for Sensorless Vector-Controlled Induction Motor Drive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shun-Yuan; Tseng, Chwan-Lu; Lin, Shou-Chuang; Chiu, Chun-Jung; Chou, Jen-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller (FCMAC) in the speed sensorless vector control of an induction motor (IM) drive system. The proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC comprised a supervisory controller, integral sliding surface, and an adaptive FCMAC. The integral sliding surface was employed to eliminate steady-state errors and enhance the responsiveness of the system. The adaptive FCMAC incorporated an FCMAC with a compensating controller to perform a desired control action. The proposed controller was derived using the Lyapunov approach, which guarantees learning-error convergence. The implementation of three intelligent control schemes—the adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC, adaptive sliding FCMAC, and adaptive sliding CMAC—were experimentally investigated under various conditions in a realistic sensorless vector-controlled IM drive system. The root mean square error (RMSE) was used as a performance index to evaluate the experimental results of each control scheme. The analysis results indicated that the proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC substantially improved the system performance compared with the other control schemes. PMID:25815450

  17. An adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller for sensorless vector-controlled induction motor drive systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shun-Yuan; Tseng, Chwan-Lu; Lin, Shou-Chuang; Chiu, Chun-Jung; Chou, Jen-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller (FCMAC) in the speed sensorless vector control of an induction motor (IM) drive system. The proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC comprised a supervisory controller, integral sliding surface, and an adaptive FCMAC. The integral sliding surface was employed to eliminate steady-state errors and enhance the responsiveness of the system. The adaptive FCMAC incorporated an FCMAC with a compensating controller to perform a desired control action. The proposed controller was derived using the Lyapunov approach, which guarantees learning-error convergence. The implementation of three intelligent control schemes--the adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC, adaptive sliding FCMAC, and adaptive sliding CMAC--were experimentally investigated under various conditions in a realistic sensorless vector-controlled IM drive system. The root mean square error (RMSE) was used as a performance index to evaluate the experimental results of each control scheme. The analysis results indicated that the proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC substantially improved the system performance compared with the other control schemes. PMID:25815450

  18. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Suppression and Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome as a Complication of Epidural Steroid Injections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Epidural steroid injections are well accepted as a treatment for radicular back pain in appropriate candidates. While overall incidence of systemic side effects has not been well established, at least five biochemically proven cases of iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome have been reported as complications of epidural steroid treatment. We present an additional case of iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome and adrenal suppression in a middle-aged woman who received three epidural steroid injections over a four-month period. We review this case in the context of previous cases and discuss diagnostic and management issues. PMID:23991341

  19. Linear induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, R.J.

    1986-06-01

    The development of linear induction accelerators has been motivated by applications requiring high-pulsed currents of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capability of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high for rf accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multi-stage induction machine, but the 50-MeV, 10-kA Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL is the highest voltage machine in existence at this time. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high-repetition rates practical, and this capability for high-average power is very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines in the future. This paper surveys the US induction linac technology with primary emphasis on electron machines. A simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam is given, to illustrate many of the general issues that bound the design space of induction linacs.

  20. Experimental system, and its evaluation for the control of surgically inducted infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tevebaugh, M. D.; Nelson, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The effect is reported to design, fabricate, test and evaluate a prototype experimental system for the control of surgically induced infections. The purpose is to provide the cleanest possible environment within a hospital surgery room and eliminate contamination sources that could cause infections during surgery. The system design is described. The system provides for a portable laminar flow clean room, a full bubble helmet system with associated communications and ventilation subsystems for operating room personnel, and surgical gowns that minimize the migration of bacteria. The development test results consisting of portability, laminar flowrate, air flow pattern, electrostatic buildup, noise level, ventilation, human factors, electrical and material compatibility tests are summarized. The conclusions are that the experimental system is effective in reducing the airborne and wound contamination although the helmets and gowns may not be a significant part of this reduction. Definitive conclusions with regard to the infection rate cannot be made at this time.

  1. Fecal steroids and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Owen, R W; Dodo, M; Thompson, M H; Hill, M J

    1987-01-01

    The fecal steroid profiles of healthy subjects were compared with those of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The multicomponent profiles did not differ qualitatively in that CRC patients, like control subjects, had similar fecal steroids. The major bile acids detected in fecal extracts were lithocholic acid (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA). The major sterol of animal origin was cholesterol and its bacterial metabolite coprostanol, whereas the major plant sterols were beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, and their corresponding bacterial metabolites. CRC patients excreted higher amounts of total major bile acids (LCA and DCA) than did the control group, but this difference was not significant. However, the LCA-to-DCA ratio was much higher in the CRC group [(1.43, p less than 0.01) compared with the control group (0.72)]. The control group excreted significantly higher amounts of total neutral sterols (p less than 0.001), sterols of animal origin (p less than 0.001), and plant sterols (p less than 0.001) compared with the CRC group; the plant sterols represented a much lower proportion of excreted total neutral sterols in the CRC group (p greater than 0.001) compared with the control group. We propose the following hypotheses. The LCA-to-DCA ratio may be an important discriminant market for CRC susceptibility. The fecal LCA-to-DCA ratio may depend on the differential hepatic synthesis of their respective precursors chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and cholic acid. Hepatic synthesis of CDCA may be increased by more efficient conservation of dietary cholesterol because it has been shown that cholesterol of exogenous origin is the main precursor of this bile acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3562296

  2. Theoretical foundation for real-time prostate localization using an inductively coupled transmitter and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer system.

    PubMed

    McGary, John E

    2004-01-01

    Real-time, 3D localization of the prostate for intensity-modulated radiotherapy can be accomplished with passively charged radio frequency transmitters and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers. The overall system design consists of an external dipole antenna as a power source for charging a microchip implant transmitter and SQUID magnetometers for signal detection. An external dipole antenna charges an on-chip capacitor through inductive coupling in the near field region through a small implant inductor. The charge and discharge sequence between the external antenna and the implant circuit can be defined by half duplex, full duplex, or sequential operations. The resulting implant discharge current creates an alternating magnetic field through the inductor. The field is detected by the surrounding magnetometers, and the location of the implant transmitter can be calculated. Problems associated with this system design are interrelated with the signal strength at the detectors, detector sensitivity, and charge time of the implant capacitor. The physical parameters required for optimizing the system for real-time applications are the operating frequency, implant inductance and capacitance, the external dipole current and loop radius, the detector distance, and mutual inductance. Consequently, the sequential operating mode is the best choice for real-time localization for constraints requiring positioning within 1 s due to the mutual inductance and detector sensitivity. We present the theoretical foundation for designing a real-time, 3D prostate localization system including the associated physical parameters and demonstrate the feasibility and physical limitations for such a system. PMID:15738919

  3. Simulation of Trolleybus Traction Induction Drive With Supercapacitor Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazis, V.; Latkovskis, L.; Grigans, L.

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the possibilities of saving the regenerative braking energy in Škoda 24Tr type trolleybuses by installing the onboard supercapacitor energy storage system (ESS) and improving its performance with automated switching to the autonomous traction mode. Proposed is an ESS control system with constant DC bus voltage in the supercapacitor charging mode and supercapacitor current proportional to the AC drive current in the discharging mode. The authors investigate stability of the trolleybus ESS control system operating together with AC traction drive in various overhead voltage failure modes. The co-simulation of ESS operation was done by Matlab/Simulink AC drive and PSIM ESS continuous models.

  4. The sympathetic nervous system tonically inhibits peripheral interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 induction by central lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    De Luigi, A; Terreni, L; Sironi, M; De Simoni, M G

    1998-04-01

    To study the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the induction of inflammatory cytokines elicited by central lipopolysaccharide, sympathetic chemical denervation was performed by intraperitoneal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine. Rats received the neurotoxin according to the following schedule: 50 mg/kg on days 1 and 2, 100 mg/kg on days 3, 4 and 7. On day 8, lipopolysaccharide (2.5 microg/6 microl/rat) was injected intracerebroventricularly and rats were killed 2 h later. 6-Hydroxydopamine reduced noradrenaline and dopamine content in the spleen by 88.7% and 88.8% respectively, without affecting striatal contents indicating that the chemical sympathectomy had been effective and selective. In sympathectomized rats, lipopolysaccharide raised interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 serum levels more than in control rats given the vehicle. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels in sympathectomized rats were no different from those in vehicle-treated rats. Interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 messenger RNA expression, measured by northern blot analysis, was clearly detectable in adrenals and spleen of rats given lipopolysaccharide. Sympathectomy increased lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 messenger RNA in adrenals and spleen. Corticosterone basal levels were raised by central lipopolysaccharide and not further changed by sympathectomy. The present study shows that sympathetic nervous system denervation enhances the synthesis and production of peripheral interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 in rats given central lipopolysaccharide and suggests a tonic inhibitory control of the sympathetic nervous system on these inflammatory cytokines. PMID:9502262

  5. Non-contact multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy system for industrial-scale bio-impedance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Toole, M. D.; Marsh, L. A.; Davidson, J. L.; Tan, Y. M.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.

    2015-03-01

    Biological tissues have a complex impedance, or bio-impedance, profile which changes with respect to frequency. This is caused by dispersion mechanisms which govern how the electromagnetic field interacts with the tissue at the cellular and molecular level. Measuring the bio-impedance spectra of a biological sample can potentially provide insight into the sample’s properties and its cellular structure. This has obvious applications in the medical, pharmaceutical and food-based industrial domains. However, measuring the bio-impedance spectra non-destructively and in a way which is practical at an industrial scale presents substantial challenges. The low conductivity of the sample requires a highly sensitive instrument, while the demands of industrial-scale operation require a fast high-throughput sensor of rugged design. In this paper, we describe a multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy (MIS) system suitable for industrial-scale, non-contact, spectroscopic bio-impedance measurement over a bandwidth of 156 kHz-2.5 MHz. The system sensitivity and performance are investigated using calibration and known reference samples. It is shown to yield rapid and consistently sensitive results with good long-term stability. The system is then used to obtain conductivity spectra of a number of biological test samples, including yeast suspensions of varying concentration and a range of agricultural produce, such as apples, pears, nectarines, kiwis, potatoes, oranges and tomatoes.

  6. Effect of Iron Availability on Induction of Systemic Resistance to Fusarium Wilt of Chickpea by Pseudomonas spp.

    PubMed Central

    Saikia, Ratul; Srivastava, Alok K.; Singh, Kiran; Lee, Min-Woong

    2005-01-01

    Selected isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf4-92 and PfRsC5) and P. aeruginosa (PaRsG18 and PaRsG27) were examined for growth promotion and induced systemic resistance against Fusarium wilt of chickpea. Significant increase in plant height was observed in Pseudomonas treated plants. However, plant growth was inhibited when isolates of Pseudomonas were used in combination with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (FocRs1). It was also observed that the Pseudomonas spp. was colonized in root of chickpea and significantly suppressed the disease in greenhouse condition. Rock wool bioassay technique was used to study the effect of iron availability on the induction of systemic resistance to Fusarium wilt of chickpea mediated by the Pseudomonas spp. All the isolates of Pseudomonas spp. showed greater disease control in the induced systemic resistance (ISR) bioassay when iron availability in the nutrient solution was low. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that all the bacterial isolates produced more salicylic acid (SA) at low iron (10µM EDDHA) than high iron availability (10µFe3+ EDDHA). Except PaRsG27, all the three isolates produced more pseudobactin at low iron than high iron availability. PMID:24049472

  7. High Incidences of Invasive Fungal Infections in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Receiving Induction Chemotherapy without Systemic Antifungal Prophylaxis: A Prospective Observational Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Hsiang-Chi; Yao, Ming; Wu, Un-In; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Lin, Chien-Ting; Li, Chi-Cheng; Wu, Shang-Ju; Hou, Hsin-An; Chou, Wen-Chien; Huang, Shang-Yi; Tsay, Woei; Chen, Yao-Chang; Chen, Yee-Chun; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Tien, Hwei-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is an important complication for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients receiving induction chemotherapy. However, the epidemiological information is not clear in Southeastern Asia, an area of potential high incidences of IFIs. To clarify it, we enrolled 298 non-M3 adult AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy without systemic anti-fungal prophylaxis from Jan 2004 to Dec 2009, when we applied a prospective diagnostic and treatment algorithm for IFIs. Their demographic parameters, IFI characters, and treatment outcome were collected for analysis. The median age of these patients was 51 years. Standard induction chemotherapy was used for 246 (82.6%) patients, and 66.8% of patients achieved complete remission (CR) or partial remission. The incidence of all-category IFIs was 34.6% (5.7% proven IFIs, 5.0% probable IFIs and 23.8% possible IFIs). Candida tropicalis was the leading pathogen among yeast, and lower respiratory tract was the most common site for IFIs (75.4%, 80/106). Standard induction chemotherapy and failure to CR were identified as risk factors for IFIs. The presence of IFI in induction independently predicted worse survival (hazard ratio 1.536 (1.100–2.141), p value = 0.012). Even in those who survived from the initial IFI insults after 3 months, the presence of IFIs in induction still predicted a poor long-term survival. This study confirms high incidences of IFIs in Southeastern Asia, and illustrates potential risk factors; poor short-term and long-term outcomes are also demonstrated. This epidemiological information will provide useful perspectives for anti-fungal prophylaxis and treatment for AML patients during induction, so that best chances of cure and survival can be provided. PMID:26061179

  8. Induction of amino acid transport system A in rat hepatocytes is blocked by tunicamycin.

    PubMed

    Barber, E F; Handlogten, M E; Kilberg, M S

    1983-10-10

    Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes respond to hormones or amino acid deprivation by increasing System A-mediated neutral amino acid transport. Previous reports have shown this stimulation to be dependent on RNA and protein synthesis, whereas the present report describes the inhibition of System A by tunicamycin (TM), an inhibitor of asparagine-linked glycoprotein biosynthesis. The basal System A activity, as monitored by Na+-dependent 2-aminoisobutyric acid uptake, was decreased by TM when hepatocytes were cultured for 24 h in the presence of the antibiotic. System Gly activity was also sensitive to TM, whereas the activities of Systems L1, L2, and N were relatively resistant and that of System ASC was only moderately affected. The increase in System A-mediated uptake after incubation of hepatocytes in the absence of amino acids (i.e. adaptive control) was almost completely abolished by including TM. Likewise, stimulation of hepatic 2-aminoisobutyric acid transport by glucagon, dexamethasone, insulin, or vasopressin was also blocked by the inhibitor. When glucagon alone or glucagon plus dexamethasone was added, the inhibition by TM was transient such that the degree of inhibition decreased with incubation time after the initial 2 h. Addition of TM to cells which had been treated previously for 2 h to 4 h with glucagon and dexamethasone blocked any further increase in transport indicating that the glycoprotein component of System A must be continually synthesized to sustain the increase in activity. Treatment of hepatocytes with various lectins did not inhibit 2-aminoisobutyric acid transport. PMID:6352704

  9. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Marta C.; Jiménez, Pedro; Miranda-Brito, Carolina; Valdez, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include the penetration and permanence of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that only have one host, reciprocal, intricate interactions occur. Evidence indicates that steroid hormones have an influence on the development and course of parasitic infections. The host gender's susceptibility to infection, and the related differences in the immune response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well-known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In most, but not all parasitosis the host's hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course, and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activates immune responses that end up affecting the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones, such as ecdysteroids and sex steroids, and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid-like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium cysticerci and tapeworms, and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. In-depth knowledge of the parasite's endocrine properties will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and may also help designing tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations. PMID:26175665

  10. Sex steroid signaling: implications for lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Sathish, Venkatachalem; Martin, Yvette N; Prakash, Y S

    2015-06-01

    There is increasing recognition that sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone) have biological and pathophysiological actions in peripheral, non-reproductive organs, including the lung. Clinically, sex differences in the incidence, morbidity and mortality of lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer and pulmonary hypertension have been noted, although intrinsic sex differences vs. the roles of sex steroids are still not well-understood. Accordingly, it becomes important to ask the following questions: 1) Which sex steroids are involved? 2) How do they affect different components of the lung under normal circumstances? 3) How does sex steroid signaling change in or contribute to lung disease, and in this regard, are sex steroids detrimental or beneficial? As our understanding of sex steroid signaling in the lung improves, it is important to consider whether such information can be used to develop new therapeutic strategies to target lung diseases, perhaps in both sexes or in a sex-specific manner. In this review, we focus on the basics of sex steroid signaling, and the current state of knowledge regarding how they influence structure and function of specific lung components across the life span and in the context of some important lung diseases. We then summarize the potential for sex steroids as useful biomarkers and therapeutic targets in these lung diseases as a basis for future translational research in the area of gender and individualized medicine. PMID:25595323

  11. SJNNV down-regulates RGNNV replication in European sea bass by the induction of the type I interferon system.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Carlos; Garcia-Rosado, Esther; Borrego, Juan J; Alonso, M Carmen

    2016-01-01

    European sea bass is highly susceptible to the betanodavirus RGNNV genotype, although the SJNNV genotype has also been detected in this fish species. The coexistence of both genotypes may affect the replication of both viruses by viral interaction or by stimulation of the host antiviral defense system in which the IFN I system plays a key role. IFN I triggers the transcription of interferon-stimulated genes, including Mx genes, whose expression has been used as a reporter of IFN I activity. The present study evaluated the effect of a primary exposure to an SJNNV isolate on a subsequent RGNNV infection and analyzed the role of the IFN I system in controlling VNNV infections in sea bass using different in vivo approaches. VNNV infection and Mx transcription were comparatively evaluated after single infections, superinfection (SJ+RG) and co-infection (poly I:C+RG). The single RGNNV infection resulted in a 24% survival rate, whereas the previous SJNNV or poly I:C inoculation increased the survival rate up to 96 and 100%, respectively. RGNNV replication in superinfection was reduced compared with RGNNV replication after a single inoculation. Mx transcription analysis shows differential induction of the IFN I system by both isolates. SJNNV was a potent Mx inducer, whereas RGNNV induced lower Mx transcription and did not interfere with the IFN I system triggered by SJNNV or poly I:C. This study demonstrates that an antiviral state exists after SJNNV and poly I:C injection, suggesting that the IFN I system plays an important role against VNNV infections in sea bass. PMID:26743933

  12. Investigations and system design for simultaneous energy and data transmission through inductively coupled resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C.; Lloret Fuentes, E.; Buchholz, M.

    2015-11-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) with simultaneous data transmission through coupled magnetic resonators is investigated in this paper. The development of this system is dedicated to serve as a basis for applications in the field of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), for example tracking vital parameters remotely, charge and control sensors and so on. Due to these different scenarios we consider, it is important to have a system which is reliable under the circumstance of changing positioning of the receiving device. State of the art radio systems would be able to handle this. Nevertheless, energy harvesting from far field sources is not sufficient to power the devices additionally on mid-range distances. For this reason, coupled magnetic resonant circuits are proposed as a promising alternative, although suffering from more complex positioning dependency. Based on measurements on a simple prototype system, an equivalent circuit description is used to model the transmission system dependent on different transmission distances and impedance matching conditions. Additionally, the simulation model is used to extract system parameters such as coupling coefficients, coil resistance and self-capacitance, which cannot be calculated in a simple and reliable way. Furthermore, a mathematical channel model based on the schematic model has been built in MATLAB©. It is used to point out the problems occurring in a transmission system with variable transmission distance, especially the change of the passband's centre frequency and its bandwidth. Existing solutions dealing with this distance dependent behaviour, namely the change of the transmission frequency dependent on distance and the addition of losses to the resonators to increase the bandwidth, are considered as not inventive. First, changing the transmission frequency increases the complexity in the data transmission system and would use a disproportional total bandwidth compared to the actually available bandwidth. Additionally, adding losses causes a decrease in the energy transmission efficiency. Based on these facts, we consider a system that changes the channel itself by tuning the resonant coils in a way that the passband is always at a fixed frequency. This would overcome the previously described issues, and additionally could allow for the possibility to run several independent transmission systems in parallel without disturbing each other.

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF BINARY MASS SPECTRA OF TOXIC COMPOUNDS WITH AN INDUCTIVE EXPERT SYSTEM AND COMPARISON WITH SIMCA CLASS MODELING (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of an inexpensive, inductive rule-building expert system, 1ST CLASS, using the ID3 algorithm was compared to that of SIMCA class modeling in classifying the binary mass spectra of 78 toxic and related compounds. The compressed mass spectra consisted of 17 masses c...

  14. Characterization of a novel non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qun-Yi; Zhang, Meng; State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai ; Hallis, Tina M.; DeRosier, Therese A.; Yue, Jian-Min; Ye, Yang; Mais, Dale E.; MPI Research, Mattawan, MI ; Wang, Ming-Wei; State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai

    2010-01-15

    Selective antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are desirable for the treatment of hypercortisolemia associated with Cushing's syndrome, psychic depression, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and glaucoma. NC3327, a non-steroidal small molecule with potent binding affinity to GR (K{sub i} = 13.2 nM), was identified in a high-throughput screening effort. As a full GR antagonist, NC3327 greatly inhibits the dexamethasone (Dex) induction of marker genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, but has a minimal effect on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a GR responsive pro-inflammatory gene. Interestingly, the compound recruits neither coactivators nor corepressors to the GR complex but competes with glucocorticoids for the interaction between GR and a coactivator peptide. Moreover, NC3327 does not trigger GR nuclear translocation, but significantly blocks Dex-induced GR transportation to the nucleus, and thus appears to be a 'competitive' GR antagonist. Therefore, the non-steroidal compound, NC3327, may represent a new class of GR antagonists as potential therapeutics for a variety of cortisol-related endocrine disorders.

  15. Development of Volume-Reduction System for Ion Exchange Resin Using Inductively Coupled Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, Morio; Katagiri, Genichi

    The spent ion exchange resin generated as radioactive waste in water purifying system at nuclear power stations or related facilities of nuclear power has been stored in the site, and its volume has been increasing year by year. We had developed a full-scale system of IC plasma volume-reduction system for the spent resin, and have performed basic performance test using some samples imitating the spent resin. As the results, the imitation of the resin can be reduced in volume by more than 90% so that the processing performance in actual scale was proved to be effective. In addition, it was clarified that the residuum after volume-reduction process is easy to mix with cement, and solidity containing 30wt% residuum provides high strength of 68MPa. Therefore, we evaluate the application of this process to stabilization of the disposal to be very effective.

  16. Development of a Native Escherichia coli Induction System for Ionic Liquid Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Frederix, Marijke; Htter, Kimmo; Leu, Jessica; Batth, Tanveer S.; Turner, William J.; Regg, Thomas L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Adams, Paul D.; Keasling, Jay D.; Thelen, Michael P.; Dunlop, Mary J.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2014-01-01

    The ability to solubilize lignocellulose makes certain ionic liquids (ILs) very effective reagents for pretreating biomass prior to its saccharification for biofuel fermentation. However, residual IL in the aqueous sugar solution can inhibit the growth and function of biofuel-producing microorganisms. In E. coli this toxicity can be partially overcome by the heterologous expression of an IL efflux pump encoded by eilA from Enterobacter lignolyticus. In the present work, we used microarray analysis to identify native E. coli IL-inducible promoters and develop control systems for regulating eilA gene expression. Three candidate promoters, PmarR, PydfO, and PydfA, were selected and compared to the IPTG-inducible PlacUV5 system for controlling expression of eilA. The PydfA and PmarR based systems are as effective as PlacUV5 in their ability to rescue E. coli from typically toxic levels of IL, thereby eliminating the need to use an IPTG-based system for such tolerance engineering. We present a mechanistic model indicating that inducible control systems reduce target gene expression when IL levels are low. Selected-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry analysis revealed that at high IL concentrations EilA protein levels were significantly elevated under the control of PydfA and PmarR in comparison to the other promoters. Further, in a pooled culture competition designed to determine fitness, the strain containing pPmarR-eilA outcompeted strains with other promoter constructs, most significantly at IL concentrations above 150 mM. These results indicate that native promoters such as PmarR can provide effective systems for regulating the expression of heterologous genes in host engineering and simplify the development of industrially useful strains. PMID:24983352

  17. An Improved SF6 System for the FXR Induction Linac Blumlein Switches

    SciTech Connect

    DeHope, W; Kihara, R; Griffin, K L; Ong, M; Ross, T

    2007-06-16

    The now-mature FXR (Flash X-Ray) radiographic facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will be briefly described with emphasis on its pulsed power system. The heart of each accelerating cell's pulse forming Blumlein is it's sulfur hexafluoride-based triggered closing switch. FXR's recent upgrade to a recirculating SF{sub 6} gas reclamation system will be described and the resulting accelerator performance and reliability improvements documented. This was accompanied by a detailed switch breakdown study on FXR's Test Stand and the recent analysis of the resulting statistics will be shown.

  18. Insole with pressure control and tissue neoformation induction systems for diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    do Carmo Dos Reis, Maria; Soares, Fabiano A; da Rocha, Adson F; Carvalho, Joao L A; Rodrigues, Suélia S R

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the development of a prototype insole derived from natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis, equipped with pressure control and capable of neoformation of tissue for people who have diabetic foot. The active element of this insole is the electronic circuit that monitors the plantar pressure. In addition, on the present stage of the research, a signal irradiating cell is used based on the principle of tissue regeneration using laser. This project proposes a "smart" insole prototype with a pressure monitoring system and an electronic system for tissue regeneration, which will open a new approach in an attempt to solve the problem of diabetic foot. PMID:21097333

  19. Modulation of the avian immune system: suppression versus induction of immunity.

    PubMed

    Rautenschlein, S; Neumann, U

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of the potential, but also of the vulnerability of the avian immune system is not only of academic interest. The intact immune system, beginning in the embryo, is of central significance to safeguarding health and productivity in poultry flocks. Interactions between cellular and soluble constituents of the avian immune system on one hand, and the nature of immunosuppressants on the other, determine whether the avian immune system is able to cope with microbial and non-microbial challenges. Modulation of the immune response can be achieved in the classical way by specific vaccinations or possibly in the future by DNA vaccination. Cytokine inducing compounds may provide additional tools to enhance immune reactivity. The future will tell whether these approaches will be applicable in disease preventation or treatment in poultry medicine. In concert with these tools, however, strict hygiene measures from incubation until production, slaughter and processing are equally of vital significance as part of disease prevention strategies, ultimately leading to high quality food products originating from animal production. PMID:15061484

  20. A Comprehensive Induction System: A Key to the Retention of Highly Qualified Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gujarati, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that teacher quality is the single greatest factor affecting student achievement. However, it is not simply enough to recruit highly qualified candidates and place them into the schools where they are needed the most; the United States needs a system to support and retain these teachers. This essay posits that school districts…

  1. Smart pitch control strategy for wind generation system using doubly fed induction generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Syed Ahmed

    A smart pitch control strategy for a variable speed doubly fed wind generation system is presented in this thesis. A complete dynamic model of DFIG system is developed. The model consists of the generator, wind turbine, aerodynamic and the converter system. The strategy proposed includes the use of adaptive neural network to generate optimized controller gains for pitch control. This involves the generation of controller parameters of pitch controller making use of differential evolution intelligent technique. Training of the back propagation neural network has been carried out for the development of an adaptive neural network. This tunes the weights of the network according to the system states in a variable wind speed environment. Four cases have been taken to test the pitch controller which includes step and sinusoidal changes in wind speeds. The step change is composed of both step up and step down changes in wind speeds. The last case makes use of scaled wind data collected from the wind turbine installed at King Fahd University beach front. Simulation studies show that the differential evolution based adaptive neural network is capable of generating the appropriate control to deliver the maximum possible aerodynamic power available from wind to the generator in an efficient manner by minimizing the transients.

  2. Environmental Assessment for the proposed Induction Linac System Experiments in Building 51B at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), (DOE/EA-1087) evaluating the proposed action to modify existing Building 51B at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to install and conduct experiments on a new Induction Linear Accelerator System. LBNL is located in Berkeley, California and operated by the University of California (UC). The project consists of placing a pre-fabricated building inside Building 51B to house a new 10 MeV heavy ion linear accelerator. A control room and other support areas would be provided within and directly adjacent to Building 51B. The accelerator system would be used to conduct tests, at reduced scale and cost, many features of a heavy-ion accelerator driver for the Department of Energy`s inertial fusion energy program. Based upon information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  3. Improved direct torque control of an induction generator used in a wind conversion system connected to the grid.

    PubMed

    Abdelli, Radia; Rekioua, Djamila; Rekioua, Toufik; Tounzi, Abdelmounaïm

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a modulated hysteresis direct torque control (MHDTC) applied to an induction generator (IG) used in wind energy conversion systems (WECs) connected to the electrical grid through a back-to-back converter. The principle of this strategy consists in superposing to the torque reference a triangular signal, as in the PWM strategy, with the desired switching frequency. This new modulated reference is compared to the estimated torque by using a hysteresis controller as in the classical direct torque control (DTC). The aim of this new approach is to lead to a constant frequency and low THD in grid current with a unit power factor and a minimum voltage variation despite the wind variation. To highlight the effectiveness of the proposed method, a comparison was made with classical DTC and field oriented control method (FOC). The obtained simulation results, with a variable wind profile, show an adequate dynamic of the conversion system using the proposed method compared to the classical approaches. PMID:23615169

  4. Low temperature synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes in an inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition system.

    PubMed

    Weng, Cheng-Hui; Yang, Chao-Shun; Lin, Hsuan; Tsai, Chuen-Horng; Leou, Keh-Chyang

    2008-05-01

    In this work, we present a parametric study on the low temperature synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) CVD system using dry bi-layered catalytic thin-films (Fe/Al and Ni/Al, deposited by electron-beam evaporation method) as the catalysts. With a low substrate temperature of 550 degrees C and above, SWNTs were successfully synthesized on both catalysts, as revealed from the characteristic peaks of SWNTs in the micro-Raman spectra. By the reduction of plasma power and the shortening of the process times, the lowest synthesis temperature of SWNTs achieved in our system was approached to 500 degrees C on Ni/Al catalysts; on the other hands, the lowest temperature for Fe/Al catalysts was 550 degrees C. Our results suggest that as compared with Fe/Al, Ni/Al is more favorable for plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD) synthesis of SWNTs at low temperatures. This work can be used for further improvements and better understanding on the production processes of SWNTs by PECVD methods. PMID:18572678

  5. Sleep-active neuron specification and sleep induction require FLP-11 neuropeptides to systemically induce sleep.

    PubMed

    Turek, Michal; Besseling, Judith; Spies, Jan-Philipp; König, Sabine; Bringmann, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is an essential behavioral state. It is induced by conserved sleep-active neurons that express GABA. However, little is known about how sleep neuron function is determined and how sleep neurons change physiology and behavior systemically. Here, we investigated sleep in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is induced by the single sleep-active neuron RIS. We found that the transcription factor LIM-6, which specifies GABAergic function, in parallel determines sleep neuron function through the expression of APTF-1, which specifies the expression of FLP-11 neuropeptides. Surprisingly FLP-11, and not GABA, is the major component that determines the sleep-promoting function of RIS. FLP-11 is constantly expressed in RIS. At sleep onset RIS depolarizes and releases FLP-11 to induce a systemic sleep state. PMID:26949257

  6. Sleep-active neuron specification and sleep induction require FLP-11 neuropeptides to systemically induce sleep

    PubMed Central

    Turek, Michal; Besseling, Judith; Spies, Jan-Philipp; König, Sabine; Bringmann, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is an essential behavioral state. It is induced by conserved sleep-active neurons that express GABA. However, little is known about how sleep neuron function is determined and how sleep neurons change physiology and behavior systemically. Here, we investigated sleep in Caenorhabditis elegans, which is induced by the single sleep-active neuron RIS. We found that the transcription factor LIM-6, which specifies GABAergic function, in parallel determines sleep neuron function through the expression of APTF-1, which specifies the expression of FLP-11 neuropeptides. Surprisingly FLP-11, and not GABA, is the major component that determines the sleep-promoting function of RIS. FLP-11 is constantly expressed in RIS. At sleep onset RIS depolarizes and releases FLP-11 to induce a systemic sleep state. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12499.001 PMID:26949257

  7. Absorption of antigens after oral immunisation and the simultaneous induction of specific systemic tolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Swarbrick, E T; Stokes, C R; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Antigenic proteins may be absorbed intact. We report here results from in vivo experiments in mice showing that the prior feeding of protein antigen may reduce the subsequent absorption of that antigen without altering its elimination from the circulation. This may be a function of local immunity. We have also shown that the same feeding regime can paradoxically induce a state of systemic tolerance and suggest that the two phenomena contribute to the safe handling of these antigens. PMID:428823

  8. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  9. Characteristics of Steroid Users in an Adolescent School Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlaf, Edward M.; Smart, Reginald G.

    1992-01-01

    Examined rates of steroid use among Ontario adolescent students. Findings from 3,892 students revealed that 1.1 percent reported using steroids over past year. Steroid users were significantly more likely to use stimulants, caffeine, and relaxants than were nonsteroid users. Demographically, steroid users were significantly more likely to be male…

  10. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  11. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  12. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  13. Characteristics of Steroid Users in an Adolescent School Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlaf, Edward M.; Smart, Reginald G.

    1992-01-01

    Examined rates of steroid use among Ontario adolescent students. Findings from 3,892 students revealed that 1.1 percent reported using steroids over past year. Steroid users were significantly more likely to use stimulants, caffeine, and relaxants than were nonsteroid users. Demographically, steroid users were significantly more likely to be male

  14. Commensal microbiota stimulate systemic neutrophil migration through induction of serum amyloid A.

    PubMed

    Kanther, Michelle; Tomkovich, Sarah; Xiaolun, Sun; Grosser, Melinda R; Koo, Jaseol; Flynn, Edward J; Jobin, Christian; Rawls, John F

    2014-07-01

    Neutrophils serve critical roles in inflammatory responses to infection and injury, and mechanisms governing their activity represent attractive targets for controlling inflammation. The commensal microbiota is known to regulate the activity of neutrophils and other leucocytes in the intestine, but the systemic impact of the microbiota on neutrophils remains unknown. Here we utilized in vivo imaging in gnotobiotic zebrafish to reveal diverse effects of microbiota colonization on systemic neutrophil development and function. The presence of a microbiota resulted in increased neutrophil number and myeloperoxidase expression, and altered neutrophil localization and migratory behaviours. These effects of the microbiota on neutrophil homeostasis were accompanied by an increased recruitment of neutrophils to injury. Genetic analysis identified the microbiota-induced acute phase protein serum amyloid A (Saa) as a host factor mediating microbial stimulation of tissue-specific neutrophil migratory behaviours. In vitro studies revealed that zebrafish cells respond to Saa exposure by activating NF-κB, and that Saa-dependent neutrophil migration requires NF-κB-dependent gene expression. These results implicate the commensal microbiota as an important environmental factor regulating diverse aspects of systemic neutrophil development and function, and reveal a critical role for a Saa-NF-κB signalling axis in mediating neutrophil migratory responses. PMID:24373309

  15. Progress in crosswell induction imaging for EOR: field system design and field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkendall, B A; Lewis, J P; Hunter, S L; Harben, P E

    1999-03-04

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we are continuing our effort to develop improved crosswell low-frequency electromagnetic imaging techniques, which are used to map in situ steamflood and waterflood movement during enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. Toward this effort, we procured two new borehole-logging field vehicles, and developed and integrated new crosswell electromagnetic transmitter and receiver data acquisition and control systems into these vehicles. We tested this new acquisition system by conducting a suite of background measurements and repeatability experiments at the Richmond Field Station in Richmond, California. Repeatability of a given scan in which the receiver was fixed and the transmitter position was varied over 60 m in 0.2-m increments resulted in amplitude differences of less than 0.6% and phase differences of less than 0.54 deg. Forward modeling produced a resistivity map fully consistent with well log data from the Richmond Field Station. In addition, modeling results suggest (1) that residual high-conductivity saltwater, injected in 1993 and pumped out in 1995, is present at the site and (2) that it has diffused outward from the original target strata. To develop crosswell electromagnetic imaging into a viable commercial product, our future research must be a two-fold approach: (1) improved quantification of system noise through experiments such as ferromagnetic core characterization as a function of temperature, and (2) development of procedures and codes to account for steel-cased hole scenarios.

  16. Commensal microbiota stimulate systemic neutrophil migration through induction of Serum amyloid A

    PubMed Central

    Kanther, Michelle; Tomkovich, Sarah; Sun, Xiaolun; Grosser, Melinda R.; Koo, Jaseol; Flynn, Edward J.; Jobin, Christian; Rawls, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neutrophils serve critical roles in inflammatory responses to infection and injury, and mechanisms governing their activity represent attractive targets for controlling inflammation. The commensal microbiota is known to regulate the activity of neutrophils and other leucocytes in the intestine, but the systemic impact of the microbiota on neutrophils remains unknown. Here we utilized in vivo imaging in gnotobiotic zebrafish to reveal diverse effects of microbiota colonization on systemic neutrophil development and function. The presence of a microbiota resulted in increased neutrophil number and myeloperoxidase expression, and altered neutrophil localization and migratory behaviours. These effects of the microbiota on neutrophil homeostasis were accompanied by an increased recruitment of neutrophils to injury. Genetic analysis identified the microbiota-induced acute phase protein serum amyloid A (Saa) as a host factor mediating microbial stimulation of tissue-specific neutrophil migratory behaviours. In vitro studies revealed that zebrafish cells respond to Saa exposure by activating NF-κB, and that Saa-dependent neutrophil migration requires NF-κB-dependent gene expression. These results implicate the commensal microbiota as an important environmental factor regulating diverse aspects of systemic neutrophil development and function, and reveal a critical role for a Saa-NF-κB signalling axis in mediating neutrophil migratory responses. PMID:24373309

  17. Metabolic effects of contraceptive steroids.

    PubMed

    Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Nath, Anita

    2011-06-01

    Estrogen and progestins have been used by millions of women as effective combined contraceptives. The safety of hormonal contraceptives has been documented by years of follow-up and serious adverse events that may be related to their use are rare in the young population exposed to these agents. The balance between the benefits and the risks of contraceptive steroids is generally positive in particular when comparing to the risks of pregnancy and especially in women with risk factors. The metabolic changes induced by the synthetic steroids used in contraception, such as lipoprotein changes, insulin response to glucose, and coagulation factors have been considered as potential markers of cardiovascular and venous risk. Observations of these effects have led to modifications of the composition of hormonal contraceptive in order to minimize these changes and hence potentially decrease the risks. The synthetic estrogen Ethinyl-Estradiol (EE) exerts a stronger effect that natural estradiol (E2) on hepatic metabolism including estrogen-dependent markers such as liver proteins. This stronger hepatic impact of EE has been related to its 17α-ethinyl group which prevents the inactivation of the molecule and results in a more pronounced hepatic effect of EE as compared to estradiol. Due to its strong activity, administering EE via a non-oral route does not prevent its impact on liver proteins. In order to circumvent the metabolic changes induced by EE, newer products using more natural compounds such as estradiol (E2) and estradiol valerate (E2V) have been introduced. The synthetic progestins used for contraception are structurally related either to testosterone (T) (estranes and gonanes) or to progesterone (pregnanes and 19-norpregnanes). Several new progestins have been designed to bind more specifically to the progesterone receptor and to minimize side-effects related to androgenic, estrogenic or glucocorticoid receptor interactions. Dienogest (DNG), and drospirenone (DRSP) and the 19-norpregnanes including Nestorone® (NES), nomegestrol acetate (NOMAc) and trimegestone (TMG) have been combined with estrogen either EE or E2 or estradiol valerate (E2V). Risks and benefits of the newer progestins used in contraception depend upon the type of molecular structure, the type and dose of estrogen associated in a combination and the route of administration. The lower metabolic impact of estradiol-based combinations may result in an improved safety profile, but large surveillance studies are warranted to confirm this plausible hypothesis. So far, the contraindications and warnings for use of current COCs also apply to the estradiol-based COCs. PMID:21538049

  18. Estimation of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system by using joint inversion of multicoil electromagnetic induction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib; Moghadas, Davood; Jadoon, Aurangzeb; Missimer, Thomas M.; Al-Mashharawi, Samir K.; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2015-05-01

    Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) is becoming a useful tool for soil characterization due to its fast measurement capability and sensitivity to soil moisture and salinity. In this research, a new EMI system (the CMD mini-Explorer) is used for subsurface characterization of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system via a joint inversion approach of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. EMI measurements were conducted across a farm where Acacia trees are irrigated with brackish water. In situ measurements of vertical bulk electrical conductivity (σb) were recorded in different pits along one of the transects to calibrate the EMI measurements and to compare with the modeled electrical conductivity (σ) obtained by the joint inversion of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. Estimates of σ were then converted into the universal standard of soil salinity measurement (i.e., electrical conductivity of a saturated soil paste extract - ECe). Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) was repeatedly measured with the CMD mini-Explorer to investigate the temperature stability of the new system at a fixed location, where the ambient air temperature increased from 26°C to 46°C. Results indicate that the new EMI system is very stable in high temperature environments, especially above 40°C, where most other approaches give unstable measurements. In addition, the distribution pattern of soil salinity is well estimated quantitatively by the joint inversion of multicomponent EMI measurements. The approach of joint inversion of EMI measurements allows for the quantitative mapping of the soil salinity distribution pattern and can be utilized for the management of soil salinity.

  19. The Efficacy of Nasal Steroids in Treatment of Otitis Media with Effusion: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed; Nofal, Ahmad Abdel-Fattah; Khazbak, Alaa Omar; Sayed, Ahmad Ebrahim El; Hassan, Mohammad Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Otitis media with effusion (OME) continues to be an important pediatric clinical problem, and more studies are needed to decide the proper treatment for it. Objective To assess the efficacy of nasal steroids in the management of OME by comparing its results with that of oral steroid and that of nasal saline spray as placebo. Methods This study was carried on 60 patients with OME who were divided into three groups: in group 1, 20 patients received mometasone furoate spray, one puff in each nostril daily, for 3 months; in group 2, 20 patients received oral prednisolone, 5 mg three times per day for the first 3 weeks; in group 3, 20 patients received nasal saline spray, one puff in each nostril daily for 3 months. Results A highly significant difference between systemic or topical (nasal spray) steroid therapy and saline nasal spray was detected (p < 0.001), and the difference between systemic and topical steroid was nonsignificant (p > 0.05). Conclusion Nasal steroid spray can be used as an effective treatment for OME, giving a significant result similar to systemic steroid. Further studies are needed to investigate its use for longer duration and in recurrent cases. PMID:26491474

  20. Induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Whitney H.

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.