Sample records for steroid induction system

  1. Steroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Felix J.; Frey, Brigitte M.; Benet, Leslie Z.

    If a radioimmunoassay, a protein binding method, or a colorimetric assay for the assessment of a steroid level is replaced by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the cost for the determination of a steroid level increases at least initially because one must acquire the new HPLC equipment. Therefore, if an older method provides the same results as the new, "advanced" HPLC method, the only advantage resulting from the introduction of a high performance chromatographic assay is that gained by the manufacturer in terms of greater sales. Thus, justification for the assessment of steroids by HPLC is only obtained if the quality and/or quantity of information gained is significantly increased as compared to that provided by the conventional methods. But this evidential relation, that more and better information justifies a higher price in any case, is no longer true in health care, with the birth some years ago of the categoric imperative for the reduction of costs in the medical sector. That is, each new technology introduced for health maintenance should demonstrate at least a stabilizing impact on total medical expenditures. Therefore, after reviewing the presently available HPLC methods for the clinically important steroids, we will consider whether HPLC analyses for these steroids can be recommended without violating this vox populi.

  2. Steroids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (Drug Enforcement Administration; )

    2007-09-25

    There are many companies producing products that claim to give you the benefits and results of exercise without all the work. These products are hoaxes, or fakes. Steroid abuse can permanently and fatally damage your body and they should never be used unless prescribed by a doctor.

  3. Induction Heating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Induction heating technology, a magnetic non-deforming process, was developed by Langley researchers to join plastic and composite components in space. Under NASA license, Inductron Corporation uses the process to produce induction heating systems and equipment for numerous applications. The Torobonder, a portable system, comes with a number of interchangeable heads for aircraft repair. Other developments are the E Heating Head, the Toroid Joining Gun, and the Torobrazer. These products perform bonding applications more quickly, safely and efficiently than previous methods.

  4. Induction of rabbit lung CYP4A4 prostaglandin omega-hydroxylase by various steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    McCabe, T J; Roman, L J; Masters, B S

    2001-09-01

    Cytochrome P4504A4 (CYP4A4) is expressed at low basal levels in adult rabbit lungs, but is significantly induced during pregnancy by an unknown mechanism. As the gradual rise in CYP4A4 levels appears to coincide with the progressive increase in several steroid hormones throughout pregnancy, we examined the induction of CYP4A4 after treatment with various steroid hormones by monitoring both the CYP4A4 mRNA level and the CYP4A4-specific prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)) omega-hydroxylation reaction in rabbit lung microsomes. Treatment with progesterone and/or a synthetic glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) resulted in a significant increase in PGE(1) omega-hydroxylase activity, whereas estradiol, aldosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate did not. These studies indicated that dexamethasone was a more potent inducer of CYP4A4 than progesterone. Simultaneous injection of dexamethasone and glucocorticoid/progesterone antagonists (RU38486, RU40555, or RU43044) inhibited the increase in PGE(1) omega-hydroxylase activity as well as mRNA levels by approximately 50%. In addition, simultaneous treatment with both dexamethasone and progesterone did not result in an additive or synergistic effect on PGE(1) omega-hydroxylase activity. These data indicate that, while distinctive receptors for glucocorticoid and/or progesterone are involved, induction may also require common or interacting regulatory elements (yet to be determined) in the CYP4A4 gene. These findings implicate both of these steroid receptors (PR/GR) in the induction of CYP4A4 in rabbit lung. PMID:11516164

  5. Methotrexate for steroid-resistant systemic lupus erythematosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hashimoto; S. Nonaka; E. Furuta; T. Wada; Y. Suenaga; M. Yasuda; M. Shingu; M. Nobunaga

    1994-01-01

    We here report two patients with steroid-resistant systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who were successfully treated with methotrexate (MTX). In both cases, a steroid resistant high fever, associated with mild myositis and pancytopenia were the main common findings, and all these symptoms were alleviated within a few days either by 7.5 mg or 5 mg MTX per week. The number of

  6. Single Dose of Alemtuzumab Induction With Steroid-Free Maintenance Immunosuppression in Pancreas Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, Tadahiro; Ramprasad, Varun; Matsushima, Kazuhide; Shike, Hiroko; Valania, Tracy; Kwon, Osun; Ghahramani, Nasrollah; Shah, Riaz; Farooq, Umar; Khan, Akhtar; Kadry, Zakiyah

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of alemtuzumab (humanized anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody) has been primarily studied in renal transplantation, and the experience of alemtuzumab induction in pancreas transplantation is still limited. The objective of this study is to analyze the outcome of pancreas transplantation by using a single dose of 30 mg alemtuzumab induction with steroid-free maintenance immunosuppression. Methods We performed a total 28 pancreas transplants (17 simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation [SPK], 5 pancreas after kidney transplantation [PAK], and 6 pancreas transplant alone [PTA]) between November 2006 and April 2010. Median follow-up was 25 months (range, 8–49 months). Maintenance immunosuppression consists of tacrolimus and mycophenolate. We analyzed patient/graft survival, graft function, and complications. Results One-year actuarial patient/graft survival was 100%/100% in SPK, PAK, and PTA. Three-year actuarial patient/pancreas graft survival rates for SPK, PAK, and PTA were 100%/100%, 100%/100%, and 100%/83%, respectively. Excellent pancreas and kidney graft functions were observed. Acute cellular rejection occurred in 42% of patients. Most of the rejection episode occurred approximately 1 or 6 months after transplant. Absolute lymphocyte count remained below preoperative level for 1 year posttransplant and WBC counts were significantly lower for 3 years after transplant compared with pretransplant level. Cytomegalovirus infection and bacterial infection occurred in 28% and 36% of patients, respectively. Eleven percent of patients developed donor-specific antibodies and 7% of patients experienced antibody-mediated rejection. Conclusion A single dose of 30 mg alemtuzumab induction with steroid-free maintenance immunosuppression achieved excellent mid-term patient and graft survival for pancreas transplantation with acceptable complication rate. PMID:21841541

  7. Cyclosporine-A plus steroids versus steroids alone in the 12-month treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Dammacco; O. Della Casa Alberighi; G. Ferraccioli; V. Racanelli; L. Casatta; E. Bartoli

    2000-01-01

    The positive results obtained with cyclosporine-A both in an experimental model and in selected patients with advanced systemic\\u000a lupus erythematosus support the hypothesis that the drug could be used as a steroid sparer in the earliest stages of active\\u000a disease. To determine the 12-month clinical efficacy (disease control and steroid sparing), safety, and tolerability of low-dose\\u000a cyclosporine-A plus steroids versus

  8. Switch from systemic steroids to budesonide in steroid dependent patients with inactive Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Cortot, A; Colombel, J; Rutgeerts, P; Lauritsen, K; Malchow, H; Hamling, J; Winter, T; Van Gossum, A; Persson, T; Pettersson, E

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Steroid dependent patients with Crohn's disease are at high risk of developing glucocorticosteroid induced side effects.?AIMS—We evaluated the possibility of switching from systemic steroids to budesonide (Entocort) in prednisolone/prednisone dependent patients with inactive Crohn's disease affecting the ileum and/or ascending colon.?PATIENTS—Steroid dependent patients with a Crohn's disease activity index ?200 were included.?METHODS—In a double blind multicentre trial, 120 patients were randomly assigned to receive budesonide 6 mg once daily or placebo. Prednisolone was tapered to zero during the first 4-10 weeks and budesonide or placebo was given concomitantly and for a further 12 weeks. Relapse was defined as an index >200 and an increase of 60 points from baseline or withdrawal due to disease deterioration.?RESULTS—After one and 13 weeks without prednisolone, relapse rates were 17% and 32%, respectively, in the budesonide group, and 41% and 65% in the placebo group (95% confidence intervals for the difference in percentages ?41%, ?8% and ?51%, ?16%; p=0.004 and p<0.001, respectively). The number of glucocorticosteroid side effects was reduced by 50% by switching from prednisolone and was similar in the budesonide and placebo groups. Basal plasma cortisol increased in both groups.?CONCLUSIONS—The majority of patients with steroid dependent ileocaecal Crohn's disease may be switched to budesonide controlled ileal release capsules 6 mg without relapse, resulting in a sharp decrease in glucocorticosteroid side effects similar to placebo, and with an increase in plasma cortisol levels.???Keywords: budesonide; Crohn's disease; steroid dependent; prednisolone PMID:11156638

  9. Influence of Triazine Herbicide Exposure on Guppies (Poecilia sphenops) Aromatase Activities, Altered Sex Steroid Concentration and Vitellogenin Induction.

    PubMed

    Vasanth, S; Arul, G; Karthikeyeni, S; Kumar, T S V; Vignesh, V; Manimegalai, M; Bupesh, G; Thirumurugan, R; Subramanian, P

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine, a herbicide is one the most toxic and sustaining pollutants in aquatic environment. It is detectable in surface water and in underground sources of drinking water. Many studies indicate that atrazine might be a potent endocrine disrupting xenobiotic. There are limited studies have revealed that the effects of atrazine on sex steroids hormones, vitellogenin and induction of aromatase, gonadosomatic index and hepatosomatic index. In this study, juvenile Poecilia sphenops fish was exposed to three different (0.83, 1.25 and 2.5 ppm) concentration of atrazine for 100 d. Changes in plasma and gonadal content and concentrations of sex steroids and vitellogenin protein in poecilia sphenops under laboratory conditions were assessed. The low level of the atrazine show estrogenic effect in males, as determined by a shortage of testosterone induction. Present study suggests that low induction of plasma vitellogenin and aromatase in male fish become suitable biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic chemicals. PMID:26009647

  10. Inductive System Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.

    2004-01-01

    The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS uses nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. IMS is able to monitor the system by comparing real time operational data with these classes. We present a description of learning and monitoring method used by IMS and summarize some recent IMS results.

  11. Induction of maturation in Xenopus laevis oocytes by a steroid linked to a polymer

    PubMed Central

    Godeau, J. Francois; Schorderet-Slatkine, Sabine; Hubert, Patrick; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile

    1978-01-01

    A progesterone analog has been covalently linked via an amide bond to polyethylene oxide (molecular weight, 20,000). This macromolecular steroid molecule displays the biological activity of progesterone in inducing meiotic maturation when incubated with Xenopus laevis oocytes (stage VI) in vitro. Its efficiency (half-maximum effective concentration, 30 ?M) is approximately 10 times lower than that of its low molecular weight homolog (3 ?M). Control experiments with polyethylene oxide and an estradiol derivative (up to 1 mM) assessed the specificity of the progesterone macromolecular analog. Uptake experiments using radioactive derivatives revealed a small (if not negligible) intake of the macromolecular progesterone analog by the oocytes compared to that of free steroids, and no parallelism was found between radioactivity incorporation and effect. The possibility of cleavage of the macromolecular derivative during the incubation was ruled out. Furthermore, injection of the polymer-linked progesterone into the oocytes did not induce maturation. These observations suggest that the macromolecular progesterone analog itself is responsible for the biological effect and that the presence of this compound inside the cell is neither necessary nor sufficient for triggering reinitiation of meiosis. These conclusions are in agreement with the proposal that interaction with the plasma membrane of the oocyte is necessary for progesterone action in this particular system, in contrast to the case of somatic cells which have intracellular steroid receptors. Images PMID:276879

  12. The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Anthony H.; Marczylo, Timothy H.; Willets, Jonathon M.; Konje, Justin C.

    2013-01-01

    The “endocannabinoid system (ECS)” comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed. PMID:24369462

  13. Contraceptive Steroids, age, and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Plunkett, E R

    1982-03-15

    There is evidence that women who use oral contraceptives may be at slightly greater risk of cardiovascular complications as their age increased beyond 35 years. Popular opinion has held that these risks were largely estrogen-related. At the same time, however, postmenopausal women taking natural estrogen alone or in association with minimal amounts of progestogen have not exhibited these increased risk when compared with untreated control subjects. New clinical data indicate that there is a progestogen dose-related decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. There is also some evidence that relates progestogen dosage to morbidity rates from circulatory disease. Therefore the smallest dose of both estrogen and progestogen consistent with contraceptive efficacy and reasonable cycle control must be sought for all steroid combinations. This applies particularly to oral contraception for the woman beyond 35 years of age. PMID:7065055

  14. Induction loop detector systems crosstalk

    E-print Network

    Bhagat, Victor

    1994-01-01

    traffic control systems are necessary to obtain maximum possible efficiency from our freeway systems. A major component of freeway management systems is the induction loop detector. This research effort evaluated the methods by which crosstalk could...

  15. Inductive System Monitors Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software developed at Ames Research Center uses artificial intelligence and data mining techniques to build system-monitoring knowledge bases from archived or simulated sensor data. This information is then used to detect unusual or anomalous behavior that may indicate an impending system failure. Currently helping analyze data from systems that help fly and maintain the space shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS), the IMS has also been employed by data classes are then used to build a monitoring knowledge base. In real time, IMS performs monitoring functions: determining and displaying the degree of deviation from nominal performance. IMS trend analyses can detect conditions that may indicate a failure or required system maintenance. The development of IMS was motivated by the difficulty of producing detailed diagnostic models of some system components due to complexity or unavailability of design information. Successful applications have ranged from real-time monitoring of aircraft engine and control systems to anomaly detection in space shuttle and ISS data. IMS was used on shuttle missions STS-121, STS-115, and STS-116 to search the Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLEIDS) data for signs of possible damaging impacts during launch. It independently verified findings of the WLEIDS Mission Evaluation Room (MER) analysts and indicated additional points of interest that were subsequently investigated by the MER team. In support of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, IMS is being deployed as an anomaly detection tool on ISS mission control consoles in the Johnson Space Center Mission Operations Directorate. IMS has been trained to detect faults in the ISS Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) systems. In laboratory tests, it has already detected several minor anomalies in real-time CMG data. When tested on archived data, IMS was able to detect precursors of the CMG1 failure nearly 15 hours in advance of the actual failure event. In the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, IMS successfully performed real-time engine health analysis. IMS was able to detect simulated failures and actual engine anomalies in an F/A-18 aircraft during the course of 25 test flights. IMS is also being used in colla

  16. Modulation of steroid action in the central and peripheral nervous systems by nuclear receptor

    E-print Network

    Modulation of steroid action in the central and peripheral nervous systems by nuclear receptor. Introduction Steroid hormones act throughout the body, including the central and peripheral nervous systems and corepressors, are critical in modulating the transcriptional activity of these steroid receptors, as well

  17. Sex steroids and their actions on the birdsong system.

    PubMed

    Schlinger, B A

    1997-11-01

    It is probably not surprising to most of us that the endocrine system plays a significant role in controlling the singing behavior of birds. We are familiar with the song of birds as a conspicuous acoustic feature of our environment during the avian breeding season. We often witness song when it is produced by birds (males) that are aggressively establishing and defending territories and that are advertising to available females. Thus, it is easy to imagine that song is likely to be stimulated by gonadal hormones. However, the ways in which gonadal sex steroids influence the various parts of the brain at various stages of the bird's life to influence song are complex and far from being completely understood. In this review, I will highlight some of the significant discoveries that have contributed to our view that the songbird brain is a significant and dynamic target of sex steroids. I will also describe what we have learned about properties of the endocrine system and the brain and how they each contribute to making androgens or estrogens available to particular parts of the songbird brain. Finally, I will describe some new research directions that may help answer some unresolved issues about hormonal effects on the songbird brain. PMID:9369463

  18. Inhaled Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids What are some common inhaled steroids? How are ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...

  19. Analysis of Steroid Hormones in a Typical Dairy Waste Disposal System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental loading of steroid hormones contained in dairy wastes may cause a potential adversely affect on the aquatic species. This work was to investigate the profile of steroid hormones in a typical dairy waste operation system and assess the potential risk of hormone contaminations result...

  20. [A new steroid therapy for difficult asthmatics--an induction and maintenance, two-step therapy].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Y; Akiyama, K; Hayakawa, T; Hasegawa, M; Kaneko, F; Shida, T; Miyamoto, T

    1992-12-01

    Beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) administered by inhaler is a very useful drug for the treatment of bronchial asthma. In this therapy, it is very important to use steroids systematically to induce a complete remission of asthma attack (first step) and then begin to use BDP a dose of more than 800 micrograms to maintain remission (second step). We treated 27 difficult asthmatics with this therapy and found this new method very useful. The characteristics of asthmatics were as follows. 1) The age ranged from 37 to 82, and the mean age (+/- S.E.) was 58.9 (+/- 2.6) years old. 2) The onset age ranged from 27 to 74 with a mean age (+/- S.E.) of 46.9 (+/- 2.6) year old. 3) The number of non-atopy was 22 cases. 4) The follow-up duration ranged from 5 to 45 months with a mean (+/- S.E.) of 15 (+/- 2.0) months. The results were as follows. 1) The complete remission rate was 48%, partial remission 37% and unchanged 15%. 2) There was a significant increase only in %VC. 3) The peripheral eosinophil count was decreased significantly. 4) The log value of PC20 concentration by acetylcholine increased significantly by a factor of 2.94 to 3.28. 5) After this therapy, the mean serum cortisol level at 9:00 a.m. was 10.1 (+/- 3.8, S.E.) micrograms/ml. There were only 2 cases whose cortisol level were under the normal. 6) There were many oral side effects, namely stomatitis with 5 cases and hoarseness with 8. PMID:1290412

  1. Mobile inductively coupled plasma system

    DOEpatents

    D'Silva, Arthur P. (Ames, IA); Jaselskis, Edward J. (Ames, IA)

    1999-03-30

    A system for sampling and analyzing a material located at a hazardous site. A laser located remote from the hazardous site is connected to an optical fiber, which directs laser radiation proximate the material at the hazardous site. The laser radiation abates a sample of the material. An inductively coupled plasma is located remotely from the material. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated particles to a plasma, where they are dissociated, atomized and excited to provide characteristic optical reduction of the elemental constituents of the sample. An optical spectrometer is located remotely from the site. A second optical fiber is connected to the optical spectrometer at one end and the plasma source at the other end to carry the optical radiation from the plasma source to the spectrometer.

  2. Pulsatile ocular blood flow change after treatment with systemic steroid in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C-C Tsai; H-C Kau; H-H Tsai; S-C Kao; W-M Hsu

    2006-01-01

    PurposeOur previous study has demonstrated an impairment of pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) in patients with Graves'ophthalmopathy (GO). Here we further evaluate the haemodynamic change in GO patients after systemic steroid.MethodsIn a prospective, interventional, consecutive clinical case series, all patients with active and moderately severe GO who underwent systemic steroid treatment were evaluated. The change of POBF and the clinical

  3. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines...reciprocating engine air induction system must have means to prevent...with altitude engines using fuel metering device tending...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines...reciprocating engine air induction system must have means to prevent...with altitude engines using fuel metering device tending...

  5. Development of nervous systems: neuroembryology, induction, patterning

    E-print Network

    Alford, Simon

    Development of nervous systems: neuroembryology, induction, patterning (cell identity nervous system involves: Friday, November 5, 2010 #12;Origin of Nervous Systems · What are the essential the Origin of The Nervous System Greg Miller Science 3 July 2009: Vol. 325. no. 5936, pp. 24 - 26 Friday

  6. Response to pneumococcal vaccine in chronic obstructive lung disease—The effect of ongoing, systemic steroid treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnna Steentoft; Helle Bossen Konradsen; John Hilskov; Gunnar Gislason; Jens Rikardt Andersen

    2006-01-01

    Forty-nine patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) were block-randomized in four groups to investigate, if different degrees of steroid-load influenced the effect of pneumococcal-vaccination on antibody level and clinical variables during 6 months of follow-up. The groups included 13 patients without systemic steroids for the previous 3 months, all vaccinated at entrance in the study and treated with steroids

  7. Induction machine based flywheel energy storage system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IRFAN ALAN; THOMAS A. LIPO

    2003-01-01

    This study introduces a field oriented controlled (FOC) induction machine based flywheel energy storage (FES) system fed from a 20 kHz high frequency (HF) ac link and pulse density modulated (PDM) Converter. The feasibility of FES system is investigated both in software and hardware and is demonstrated successfully in both cases. The investigated system offers a good potential as a

  8. Corneal Bee Sting Controlled with Early Surgical Intervention and Systemic High-Dose Steroid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Moosang; Lee, Seung-Jun; Han, Sang Beom; Hyon, Joon Young

    2014-01-01

    A 34-year-old Asian woman presented with painful corneal bee sting. Examinations revealed severe corneal swelling with stinger stuck in deep stroma and endothelial cell loss. She was treated with early surgery including stinger removal and anterior chamber irrigation combined with systemic high-dose steroid therapy. Vision and corneal clarity was recovered in 5 days and no additional corneal endothelial damage was observed. This report suggests that early surgical intervention and high-dose steroid therapy appear to be a useful option in the treatment of corneal bee sting. PMID:25580326

  9. Combined Intratympanic and Systemic Steroid Therapy for Poor-Prognosis Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Arastou, Shima; Tajedini, Ardavan; Borghei, Pedram

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined intratympanic and systemic steroid therapy compared with systemic steroid therapy alone in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) patients with poor prognostic factors. Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) who had at least one poor prognostic factor (age greater than 40 years, hearing loss more than 70 db, or greater than a 2-week delay between the onset of hearing loss and initiation of therapy) were included in this study. Patients were randomized to the intervention group (combined intratympanic and systemic steroid therapy) or the control group (systemic steroid therapy alone). All patients received oral treatment with systemic prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day for 10 days), acyclovir (2 g/day for 10 days, divided into four doses), triamterene H (daily), and omeprazole (daily, during steroid treatment), and were advised to follow a low salt diet. The intervention group also received intratympanic dexamethasone injections (0.4 ml of 4 mg/ml dexamethasone) two times a week for two consecutive weeks (four injections in total). A significant hearing improvement was defined as at least a 15-db decrease in pure tone average (PTA). Results: Among all participants,44 patients(57.14%) showed significant improvement in hearing evaluation. More patients showed hearing improvement in the intervention group than in the control group (27 patients (75%) versus 17 patients (41.4%), respectively; P=0.001). Conclusion: The combination of intratympanic dexamethasone and systemic prednisolone is more effective than systemic prednisolone alone in the treatment of poor-prognosis SSNHL. PMID:24303415

  10. Compact inductive energy storage pulse power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, Senthil; Mitra, S.; Roy, Amitava; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2012-05-01

    An inductive energy storage pulse power system is being developed in BARC, India. Simple, compact, and robust opening switches, capable of generating hundreds of kV, are key elements in the development of inductive energy storage pulsed power sources. It employs an inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The energy stored in the capacitor bank is transferred to an air cored storage inductor in 5.5 ?s through wire fuses. By optimizing the exploding wire parameters, a compact, robust, high voltage pulse power system, capable of generating reproducibly 240 kV, is developed. This paper presents the full details of the system along with the experimental data.

  11. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of rifampicin-mediated Cyp3a11 induction in steroid and xenobiotic X receptor humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Raybon, Joseph J; Pray, Devin; Morgan, Daniel G; Zoeckler, Mary; Zheng, Ming; Sinz, Michael; Kim, Sean

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mechanistic pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model to describe the effects of rifampicin on hepatic Cyp3a11 RNA, enzymatic activity, and triazolam pharmacokinetics. Rifampicin was administered to steroid and xenobiotic X receptor (SXR) humanized mice at 10 mg/kg p.o. (every day for 3 days) followed by triazolam (4 mg/kg p.o.) 24 h after the last dose of rifampicin. Rifampicin and triazolam concentrations and Cyp3a11 RNA expression and activity in the liver were measured over the 4-day period. Elevations in Cyp3a11 RNA expression were observed 24 h after the first dose of rifampicin, reaching a maximum (?10 times baseline) after the third dose and were sustained until day 4 and began declining 48 h after the last rifampicin dose. Similar changes in enzymatic activity were also observed. The triazolam serum area under the curve (AUC) was 5-fold lower in mice pretreated with rifampicin, consistent with enzyme induction. The final PK-PD model incorporated rifampicin liver concentration as the driving force for the time-delayed Cyp3a11 induction governed by in vitro potency estimates, which in turn regulated the turnover of enzyme activity. The PK-PD model was able to recapitulate the delayed induction of Cyp3a11 mRNA and enzymatic activity by rifampicin. Furthermore, the model was able to accurately anticipate the reduction in the triazolam plasma AUC by integrating a ratio of the predicted induced enzyme activity and basal activity into the equations describing triazolam pharmacokinetics. In conjunction with the SXR humanized mouse model, this mathematical approach may serve as a tool for predicting clinically relevant drug-drug interactions via pregnane X receptor-mediated enzyme induction and possibly extended to other induction pathways (e.g., constitutive androstane receptor). PMID:21205914

  12. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121...Requirements § 121.283 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air...

  13. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181 Section 125...Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air...

  14. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121...Requirements § 121.283 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air...

  15. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121...Requirements § 121.283 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air...

  16. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121...Requirements § 121.283 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air...

  17. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181 Section 125...Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air...

  18. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181 Section 125...Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air...

  19. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181 Section 125...Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air...

  20. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181 Section 125...Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air...

  1. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121...Requirements § 121.283 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air...

  2. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture without predisposing systemic disease or steroid use: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hua-Ding; Cai, Dao-Zhang; Wang, Kun; Zeng, Chun

    2012-01-01

    There is a dearth of case reports describing simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon ruptures in the medical literature. These ruptures are often associated with systemic disorders such as lupus erythematosus or chronic steroid use. The author describes a case of a 24-year-old man who sustained traumatic bilateral patellar tendon ruptures without any history of systemic disease or steroidal medication. We repaired and reattached the ruptured tendons to the patella and augmented our procedure with allogeneic tendon followed by wire loop reinforcement. One year after operation, the patient regained a satisfactory range of motion of both knees with good quadriceps strength and no extensor lag. The recurrent microtrauma from a history of intense sports activity and a high body mass index may have played an important role in this trauma event. PMID:22300921

  3. Induction therapy with low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide, oral mizoribine, and steroids for severe lupus nephritis in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuichiro Fujinaga; Kazunari Kaneko; Yoshiyuki Ohtomo; Hitohiko Murakami; Masaru Takada; Shunji Akashi; Mayako Hira; Yuichiro Yamashiro

    2005-01-01

    Although immunosuppressive regimens of corticosteroids combined with high-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCY) have been reported to suppress the activity of lupus nephritis, there is controversy regarding its application for children and adolescents, because of its potential toxicity including gonadal dysfunction. On the basis of the recent finding that a low-dose IVCY regimen for induction therapy in adult lupus nephritis effectively achieves

  4. Increased steroid hormone secretion in mouse Leydig tumor cells after induction of cholesterol translocation by sphingomyelin degradation.

    PubMed

    Pörn, M I; Tenhunen, J; Slotte, J P

    1991-06-01

    The effects of sphingomyelin degradation on [3H]cholesterol transfer from the cell surface to mitochondria were examined in mouse Leydig tumor cells. These cells were used since they utilize cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis in the mitochondria, and also possess acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyl transferase (ACAT) activity in the endoplasmic reticulum. Exposure of glutaraldehyde-fixed mouse Leydig tumor cells to sphingomyelinase (50 mU/ml, 60 min) resulted in the degradation of about 50% of cell sphingomyelin, suggesting that only half of the sphingomyelin mass in these cells was located in the exoleaflet of the plasma membrane. The partial sphingomyelin degradation resulted in the translocation of cellular unesterified [3H]cholesterol from plasma membranes (cholesterol oxidase-susceptible) to intracellular compartments (oxidase-resistant). The fraction of [3H]cholesterol that was translocated, i.e., between 20 and 50%, varied with different [3H]cholesterol-labeling methods. Cholesterol translocation induced by sphingomyelin degradation subsequently led to the stimulation of ACAT activity, suggesting that a fraction of cell surface cholesterol was transported to the endoplasmic reticulum. The sphingomyelinase-induced [3H]cholesterol flow from the cell surface to the cell interior was also in part directed to the mitochondria, as evidenced by the increased secretion of [3H]steroid hormones. In addition, the cyclic AMP-induced activation of steroidogenesis was further enhanced by the sphingomyelinase-induced cholesterol translocation. Based on the current results, it seems evident that a significant portion of the translocated [3H]cholesterol made its way from plasma membranes into the mitochondria for steroidogenesis. PMID:2049410

  5. Induction of human macrophage vascular endothelial growth factor and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 by Ureaplasma urealyticum and downregulation by steroids.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Hua; Brauner, Annelie; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Tullus, Kjell

    2002-01-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) remains a major cause of morbidity for the prematurely born infant. The pathogenesis of CLD is complex and has not been defined entirely. Infection and lung inflammatory events have been thought to play a key role in the development of CLD. However, the contribution of Ureaplasma urealyticum to the development of CLD is debated and steroids produce some improvement in neonates with this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if U. urealyticum could stimulate macrophages to produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in vitro, which are potentially associated with both early and later pathological changes in the lung during the development of CLD. In addition, the impact of dexamethasone and budesonide on these processes was examined. We found that U. urealyticum antigen (>/=4 x 10(7) color-changing units/ml) stimulated human macrophages (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-differentiated THP-1 cell line) to produce VEGF and soluble ICAM-1 in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05) measured by ELISA. Likewise, cell surface ICAM-1 (CD54) measured by flow cytometry was increased after stimulation with U. urealyticum. This effect was attenuated by budesonide and dexamethasone (p < 0.05). The mRNA expressions of VEGF and ICAM-1 detected by a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were also induced in response to U. urealyticum and inhibited by the steroids (p < 0.05). The expression of ICAM-1 was reduced by 85.5% when the TNF-alpha production was neutralized with an anti-TNF-alpha antibody. Our findings imply that U. urealyticum might be involved in the development of CLD of prematurity. PMID:12119537

  6. Transport of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity across a swine lagoon/sprayfield system.

    PubMed

    Yost, Erin E; Meyer, Michael T; Dietze, Julie E; Williams, C Michael; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W

    2014-10-01

    The inflow, transformation, and attenuation of natural steroid hormones and phytoestrogens and estrogenic activity were assessed across the lagoon/sprayfield system of a prototypical commercial swine sow operation. Free and conjugated steroid hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progesterone) were detected in urine and feces of sows across reproductive stages, with progesterone being the most abundant steroid hormone. Excreta also contained phytoestrogens indicative of a soy-based diet, particularly, daidzein, genistein, and equol. During storage in barn pits and the anaerobic lagoon, conjugated hormones dissipated, and androgens and progesterone were attenuated. Estrone and equol persisted along the waste disposal route. Following application of lagoon slurry to agricultural soils, all analytes exhibited attenuation within 2 days. However, analytes including estrone, androstenedione, progesterone, and equol remained detectable in soil at 2 months postapplication. Estrogenic activity in the yeast estrogen screen and T47D-KBluc in vitro bioassays generally tracked well with analyte concentrations. Estrone was found to be the greatest contributor to estrogenic activity across all sample types. This investigation encompasses the most comprehensive suite of natural hormone and phytoestrogen analytes examined to date across a livestock lagoon/sprayfield and provides global insight into the fate of these analytes in this widely used waste management system. PMID:25148584

  7. Gonadal steroid induction of kisspeptin peptide expression in the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle during postnatal development in the male mouse.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, J; Shamas, S; Mallinson, S; Herbison, A E

    2012-06-01

    Kisspeptin and its G-protein coupled receptor Gpr54 are essential for the pubertal activation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones, with Gpr54 mutation or deletion resulting in failed puberty and infertility in humans and mice. The number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurones in the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V) increases during pubertal development in concert with the appearance of kisspeptin appositions with GnRH neurones in the mouse rostral preoptic area. We recently demonstrated that the pubertal increase in RP3V kisspeptin neuronal number in females is dependent upon circulating oestradiol levels. The present experiments investigated the potential role of gonadal steroids in the induction of kisspeptin expression in the RP3V during pubertal development in the male mouse. Using immunocytochemistry (ICC), we show that gonadectomy of male pups at postnatal day (P) 20 resulted in a 60-70% reduction in the number of kisspeptin immunoreactive (IR) neurones within the RP3V of P45 mice (P<0.05) compared to sham-treated littermates. We established a profile of circulating testosterone levels during postnatal development in male mice and found that circulating testosterone was low throughout early postnatal development and increased from P35-40 to reach adult levels. Treatment of P20-gonadectomised male mice with 17?-oestradiol or testosterone from P38-45 restored kisspeptin-IR neurone number in the RP3V to intact control levels (P>0.05). Using double-label ICC, we demonstrate that the majority of RP3V kisspeptin neurones express androgen receptors and oestrogen receptor ?, indicating that RP3V kisspeptin neurones in the male mouse are equipped to respond to both androgen and oestrogen signals. These results indicate that, as in females, gonadal steroids are essential for the increase in kisspeptin immunoreactive cell number that occurs in the RP3V during pubertal development in the male mouse. PMID:22340076

  8. Induction of Ovulation with Synthetic Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone in Women with Constant Anovulation Induced by Contraceptive Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Zanartu, Juan; Dabancens, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Bravo, Rogelio; Schally, Andrew V.

    1974-01-01

    The ovarian response to stimulation with follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (FSH/LH-RH) was studied in young, healthy, and fertile women with constant iatrogenic anovulation caused by depot medroxyprogesterone acetate or depot chlormadinone acetate injected for contraceptive purposes. Results were compared with those in unstimulated controls. The response was observed directly on the ovaries at laparotomy performed after treatment with FSH/LH-RH. A wedge biopsy provided ovarian tissue for histological and histochemical studies of steroid dehydrogenase activity. Treatment with FSH/LH-RH caused a trophic effect on the ovaries, with evidence of follicular development; ovulation occurred in two out of 16 treated women. Preovulatory mature follicles were found in three others. Clearly the FSH/LH-RH-induced release of FSH and LH caused follicular growth up to Graafian follicles, mature preovulatory follicles, and ovulation. Mitosis in granulosa and theca cells was also observed. A wide individual variation in gonadal response to hypothalamic FSH/LH-RH was evident, however. Nonetheless, our data support the possibility that treatment with FSH/LH-RH may prove valuable in patients with anovulatory sterility of hypothalamic origin. PMID:4132247

  9. BILATERAL PATELLAR TENDON RUPTURE AT DIFFERENT SITES WITHOUT PREDISPOSING SYSTEMIC DISEASE OR STEROID USE

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Benjamin C.; Tancev, Alex; Fowler, Ty

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon ruptures are extremely rare, and even more rare in patients without systemic disease. We describe bilateral simultaneous patellar tendon disruptions in the absence of systemic disease or steroid usage, with one tendon disruption at the inferior pole and the other an intrasubstance tear. The different locations of the ruptures are also exceedingly rare, as only two cases of non-identical ruptures have ever been reported. We also review all bilateral patellar tendon rupture case reports from English and German literature. PMID:19742095

  10. Steroidal Saponins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

    The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

  11. Sequent calculus proof systems for inductive definitions 

    E-print Network

    Brotherston, James

    Inductive definitions are the most natural means by which to represent many families of structures occurring in mathematics and computer science, and their corresponding induction / recursion principles provide the ...

  12. Epidural steroids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly A. Mulligan; John C. Rowlingson

    2001-01-01

    Although possessing a long history of use, the therapeutic use of epidural steroid injections still needs substantiation.\\u000a Refinements in our understanding of the pathophysiology of radicular pain and in the techniques used to deliver depo-steroids\\u000a to the target tissue will lead to improved clinical outcomes and fewer technique and drug-related side effects. Administration\\u000a of epidural steroids at lumbar spine sites

  13. Capacity performance of an inductively coupled near field communication system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Jing; Y. E. Wang

    2008-01-01

    The capacity performance of the inductively coupled near field communication system in free space is analyzed based on the equivalent circuit model of the system and the information theory. The analytical results provide good guidelines about the estimation of the capacity performance and the antenna design for an inductively coupled near field communication system.

  14. Bilateral patellar tendon rupture without predisposing systemic disease or steroid use: a case report and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Kellersmann; Thomas R. Blattert; Arnulf Weckbach

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral patella tendon ruptures are very rare injuries of the knee extensor complex often associated with systemic disorders such as lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis. We describe the case of a 34-year-old man without concomitant systemic disease or steroid use and provide the most comprehensive review of the German and English literature. Furthermore, we discuss the predisposing factors and

  15. Steroid degradation and two steroid-inducible enzymes in the marine bacterium H5.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yingying; Xiong, Guangming; Maser, Edmund

    2011-05-30

    Natural and synthetic steroid hormones excreted into the environment are potentially threatening the population dynamics of all kinds of animals and public health. We have previously isolated a steroid degrading bacterial strain (H5) from the Baltic Sea, at Kiel, Germany. 16S-rRNA analysis showed that bacterial strain H5 belongs to the genus Vibrio, family Vibrionaceae and class Gamma-Proteobacteria. Bacterial strain H5 can degrade steroids such as testosterone and estrogens, which was shown in this study by determining the (3)H labeled steroid retaining in the bacterial H5 culture medium at incubation times of 5 h and 20 h. Since 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase (3?-HSD/CR) is a key enzyme in adaptive steroid degradation in Comamonas testosteroni (C. testosteroni), in previous investigations, a meta-genomic system with the 3?-HSD/CR gene as a positive control was established. By this meta-genomic system, two estradiol inducible genes coding 3-ketosteroid-delta-1-dehydrogenase and carboxylesterase, respectively, which are involved in steroid degradation, were found in marine strain H5. In the present work, the 3-ketosteroid-delta-1-dehydrogenase and carboxylesterase genes were subcloned into plasmids pET38-12 and pET24-17, respectively. Overexpression in Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain BL21(DE3)pLysS cells resulted in corresponding proteins with an N-terminal His-tag sequence. After induction with isopropyl-?-D-thiogalactoside, 3-ketosteroid-delta-1-dehydrogenase and carboxylesterase were purified in one step using nickel-chelate chromatography. After protein determination, 3-ketosteroid-delta-1-dehydrogenase (0.48 mg/ml) and carboxylesterase (1.28 mg/ml) were used to prepare antibodies to determine steroid binding specificity in future research. In summary, we have shown that the marine strain H5 could metabolize steroids; have isolated two estradiol inducible genes from strain H5 chromosomal DNA, and purified the corresponding proteins for further research. The exact characterization and systematic classification of the marine steroid degrading bacterial strain H5 is envisaged. The strain might be used for the bioremediation of steroid contaminations in seawater. PMID:21281621

  16. From steroid receptors to cytokines: the thermodynamics of self-associating systems.

    PubMed

    Connaghan, Keith D; Moody, Amie D; Robblee, James P; Lambert, James R; Bain, David L

    2011-11-01

    Since 1987, the Gibbs Conference on Biothermodynamics has maintained a focus on understanding the quantitative aspects of gene regulatory systems. These studies coupled rigorous techniques with exact theory to dissect the linked reactions associated with bacterial and lower eukaryotic gene regulation. However, only in the last ten years has it become possible to apply this approach to clinically relevant, human gene regulatory systems. Here we summarize our work on the thermodynamics of human steroid receptors and their interactions with multi-site promoter sequences, highlighting results not available from more traditional biochemical and structural approaches. Noting that the Gibbs Conference has also served as a vehicle to promote the broader use of thermodynamics in understanding biology, we then discuss collaborative work on the hydrodynamics of a cytokine implicated in tumor suppression, prostate derived factor (PDF). PMID:21696881

  17. Induction motor drive system for low-power applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Jacobina; M. B. de Rossiter Correa; E. R. C. da Silva; A. M. N. Lima

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the utilization of three different configurations of induction motor drives to implement low-cost systems for low-power applications. The static power converter side is implemented by a single-phase rectifier cascaded with a four-switch inverter. Three different types of induction machines are supplied with the static power converter. In the first configuration, a standard three-phase induction machine is employed.

  18. Ovarian Steroid Regulation of the Midbrain CRF and UCN Systems in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Rachel L.; Reddy, Arubala P.; Bethea, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    A significant number of postmenopausal women report increased anxiety and vulnerablity to stress, which has been linked to decreased secretion of ovarian steroids. Communication between the serotonin system and the CRF system determines stress sensitivity or resilience. This study examines the effects of the ovarian steroids, estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) on the CRF system components that impact serotonin neurons in the midbrain of nonhuman primates. Ovariectomized rhesus macaques were treated with placebo, E alone for one month, or E supplemented with P for the last 2 weeks. Quantitative (q)RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry were employed. E±P treatment decreased CRF-R1 and increased CRF-R2 gene expression in hemi-midbrain blocks and in laser captured serotonin neurons. Also in hemi-midbrains, E treatment increased UCN1 and CRFBP gene expression, but supplemental P treatment reversed these effects. E±P suppressed the already very low UCN3 mRNA, but had no effect on UCN2 mRNA. E±P decreased CRF fiber density in the dorsal, interfascicular and median raphe nuclei and decreased CRF-R1 immunostaining in the dorsal raphe. E increased CRF-R2 immunostaining in the dorsal and median raphe. E±P increased UCN1 immunostaining in the cell bodies and increased UCN1 fiber density in the caudal linear nucleus. ER?, but not ER? was detected in the nucleus of UCN1-positive neurons. While the mechanism of ovarian hormone regulation of the midbrain CRF system requires further investigation, these studies clearly demonstrate another pathway by which ovarian hormones may have positive effects on anxiety and mood regulation. PMID:20833230

  19. Mycobacterium intracellulare infection of the shoulder and spine in a patient with steroid-treated systemic Lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Zvetina, J.R.; Rubinstein, H.; Demos, T.C.

    1982-05-01

    Atypical mycobacterial infections of bone are rare. A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus treated with steroids developed an M. intracellulare infection of the shoulder and spine. These infections are insidious and diagnosis is difficult. Marked involvement of one joint, large effusion, or aspirated small synovial fragments suggest an atypical tuberculous joint infection.

  20. Effect of catatoxic steroids upon lidocaine intoxication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Selye; Sandor Szabo

    1972-01-01

    Various steroids have been shown to influence the activity of psychotropic hormones and drugs. Among these, we distinguish\\u000a “syntoxic” steroids which act by inhibiting excessive reactions to various agents and “catatoxic” steroids which actually\\u000a destroy certain toxicants and hormones often through the induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes. Thus, the liver can play\\u000a a decisive role in psychosomatic interrelations by regulating

  1. Steroid-Free Induction and Preemptive Antiviral Therapy for Liver Transplant Recipients With Hepatitis C: A Preliminary Report from a Prospective Randomized Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kato; H. Yoshida; K. Sadfar; E. Martinez; S. Nishida; J. Moon; J. Madariaga; G. Selvaggi; D. Levi; P. Ruiz; E. Schiff; A. Tzakis

    2005-01-01

    Recurrence of hepatitis C (HepC) has been a most difficult dilemma in liver transplantation (OLT) because the effects of immunosuppression with steroid, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) calcineurin antagonists, and anti-interleukin-2 antibody as well as the role of preemptive antiviral therapy are uncertain. In this study, we randomized OLT recipients with HepC into two treatment arms: tacrolimus+daclizumab+MMF (study arm) versus tacrolimus+steroids+MMF (control

  2. Steroid signaling activation and intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiziana Giraldi; Pia Giovannelli; Marzia Di Donato; Gabriella Castoria; Antimo Migliaccio; Ferdinando Auricchio

    2010-01-01

    In addition to stimulating gene transcription, sex steroids trigger rapid, non-genomic responses in the extra-nuclear compartment\\u000a of target cells. These events take place within seconds or minutes after hormone administration and do not require transcriptional\\u000a activity of sex steroid receptors. Depending on cell systems, activation of extra-nuclear signaling pathways by sex steroids\\u000a fosters cell cycle progression, prevents apoptosis, leads to

  3. Triamcinolone acetonide 21-oic acid methyl ester: a potent local antiinflammatory steroid without detectable systemic effects.

    PubMed

    Gorsline, J; Bradlow, H L; Sherman, M R

    1985-01-01

    There have been many previous attempts to prepare glucocorticoid analogs that would have high antiinflammatory activity at the site of application but minimal systemic side effects. In principle, esters of cortoic acids could fulfill these criteria, if they had sufficient affinity for the glucocorticoid receptors but were rapidly hydrolyzed to the inactive acids in the circulation. With this rationale, we have synthesized esters of the 21-oic acid of triamcinolone acetonide (TA, 9 alpha-fluoro-11 beta, 16 alpha, 17 alpha, 21-tetrahydroxy-pregna-1, 4-diene-3,20-dione 16,17-acetonide), a potent synthetic glucocorticoid, in both tritiated and unlabeled forms. The synthesis involves 1) oxidation to the 21-dehydro compound with methanolic cupric acetate, 2) further oxidation to the acid with methylene blue in the presence of KCN at pH 6.5, 3) esterification with diazomethane in the presence of methanol or ethanol, to produce the methyl ester of TA (TAme) or ethyl ester, respectively, and 4) purification of the products by TLC and HPLC. The molecular weights and structures of the esters were established by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. The binding of [3H]TAme to steroid receptors or serum steroid-binding proteins and the in vitro hydrolysis of the ester were evaluated simultaneously, by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 columns in aqueous buffer. [3H]TAme is bound with high affinity by receptors from human leukemic cells and rat liver. The pattern of competition for this binding is characteristic of glucocorticoid receptors: TA approximately equal to TAme greater than R5020 (a synthetic progestin) approximately equal to aldosterone greater than 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone. [3H]TAme is not bound detectably by serum steroid-binding proteins and is rapidly hydrolyzed during incubation with serum at 37 C. The acidic product has a very low affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor. Complexes of [3H]TAme with human and rat receptors have sedimentation coefficients of 9-10S in hypotonic buffer containing 20 mM Na2MoO4 and approximately 4S in hypertonic, molybdate-free buffer. These values of s20,w are similar to those of the oligomeric and monomeric forms, respectively, of the same receptors labeled with [3H]TA, and of mammalian steroid receptors, in general. The antiinflammatory activity of TAme in rats is comparable to that of prednisolone, but the ester is devoid of the side effects associated with prednisolone treatment (suppression of thymic weight and of serum corticosterone concentration). These bioassay data and the high affinity of the ester for human glucocorticoid receptors suggest that TAme may eventually be useful clinically, as a loc PMID:3855256

  4. Steroid biotransformations in biphasic systems with Yarrowia lipolytica expressing human liver cytochrome P450 genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Yarrowia lipolytica efficiently metabolizes and assimilates hydrophobic compounds such as n-alkanes and fatty acids. Efficient substrate uptake is enabled by naturally secreted emulsifiers and a modified cell surface hydrophobicity and protrusions formed by this yeast. We were examining the potential of recombinant Y. lipolytica as a biocatalyst for the oxidation of hardly soluble hydrophobic steroids. Furthermore, two-liquid biphasic culture systems were evaluated to increase substrate availability. While cells, together with water soluble nutrients, are maintained in the aqueous phase, substrates and most of the products are contained in a second water-immiscible organic solvent phase. Results For the first time we have co-expressed the human cytochromes P450 2D6 and 3A4 genes in Y. lipolytica together with human cytochrome P450 reductase (hCPR) or Y. lipolytica cytochrome P450 reductase (YlCPR). These whole-cell biocatalysts were used for the conversion of poorly soluble steroids in biphasic systems. Employing a biphasic system with the organic solvent and Y. lipolytica carbon source ethyl oleate for the whole-cell bioconversion of progesterone, the initial specific hydroxylation rate in a 1.5?L stirred tank bioreactor was further increased 2-fold. Furthermore, the product formation was significantly prolonged as compared to the aqueous system. Co-expression of the human CPR gene led to a 4-10-fold higher specific activity, compared to the co-overexpression of the native Y. lipolytica CPR gene. Multicopy transformants showed a 50-70-fold increase of activity as compared to single copy strains. Conclusions Alkane-assimilating yeast Y. lipolytica, coupled with the described expression strategies, demonstrated its high potential for biotransformations of hydrophobic substrates in two-liquid biphasic systems. Especially organic solvents which can be efficiently taken up and/or metabolized by the cell might enable more efficient bioconversion as compared to aqueous systems and even enable simple, continuous or at least high yield long time processes. PMID:22876969

  5. Steroid-free induction and preemptive antiviral therapy for liver transplant recipients with hepatitis C: a preliminary report from a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Yoshida, H; Sadfar, K; Martinez, E; Nishida, S; Moon, J; Madariaga, J; Selvaggi, G; Levi, D; Ruiz, P; Schiff, E; Tzakis, A

    2005-03-01

    Recurrence of hepatitis C (HepC) has been a most difficult dilemma in liver transplantation (OLT) because the effects of immunosuppression with steroid, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) calcineurin antagonists, and anti-interleukin-2 antibody as well as the role of preemptive antiviral therapy are uncertain. In this study, we randomized OLT recipients with HepC into two treatment arms: tacrolimus+daclizumab+MMF (study arm) versus tacrolimus+steroids+MMF (control arm). The study arm only received steroids for the treatment of biopsy-proven rejection episodes. Both arms received preemptive anti-viral therapy with Pegasys and ribavirin. The 39 enrolled patients (among 50 to be enrolled) have median follow-up of 458 days with 23 patients (8 in study arm, 15 in control arm) having reached 1 year. The incidences of rejection episodes within 0 to 3 months, 3 to 6 months, and 6 to 12 months were (study vs control): 0% vs 28%; 0% vs 6%; and 13% vs 20%; respectively (P = NS). The 1-year protocol biopsies showed advanced fibrosis (stage 3 or greater) in 20% (3 of 15) of the control arm, but none (0 of 7) of the study arm (P = NS). We compared anticipated side effects of steroids in the first 3 months (study vs control): hypertension (36% vs 58%, P = NS), PTDM (7% vs 43%, P = .02), and wound infections (14% vs 37%, P = NS). In conclusion, liver transplant recipients with HepC tolerate a steroid-free protocol. There was a trend toward reduced steroid side effects and a lower incidence of advanced fibrosis in 1-year biopsy samples among patients receiving the steroid-free protocol. PMID:15848674

  6. EVALUATION OF AN INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA, MULTICHANNEL SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    An inductively coupled plasma, multielement atomic emission spectrometric analysis system has been evaluated with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency's need for a rapid method for determination of trace elemental concentrations in water. Data are presented on detection...

  7. 14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.35 Fuel and induction...a) The fuel system of the engine must be designed and constructed to supply an appropriate mixture of...complete operating range of the engine under all flight and...

  8. 14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.35 Fuel and induction...a) The fuel system of the engine must be designed and constructed to supply an appropriate mixture of...complete operating range of the engine under all flight and...

  9. 14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.35 Fuel and induction...a) The fuel system of the engine must be designed and constructed to supply an appropriate mixture of...complete operating range of the engine under all flight and...

  10. RESEARCH Open Access Irinotecan induces steroid and xenobiotic

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH Open Access Irinotecan induces steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) signaling of the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) in the induction of drug resistance. Indeed, this nuclear receptor by the steroid and xenobiotic receptor SXR, also known as the nuclear receptor PXR (pregnane X receptor) [6

  11. Steroid therapy in clinically stable but serologically active systemic lupus erythematosus prevents severe disease flares.

    PubMed

    Cardiel, Mario H; Almagro, Raúl Menor

    2007-05-01

    Evaluation of: Tseng CE, Buyon JP, Kim M et al. The effect of moderate-dose corticosteroids in preventing severe flares in patients with serologically active, but clinically stable, systemic lupus erythematosus: findings of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 54, 3623-3632 (2006). Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease of unknown origin. Flares and remissions are commonly seen in clinical settings. These clinical flares can have several degrees of severity, some of which require intensive immunosuppressive treatment and/or hospitalization. Clinicians treating these patients have looked at different strategies for prevention, early detection and prompt treatment of a lupus flare. Clinical information and laboratory findings have been proposed to reach these goals and preventive steroid adjustment has even been used in some cases without convincing results. This paper presents results from a controlled, multicenter, double-blind clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of short-term corticosteroid treatment for preventing severe flares in which elevations of C3a by 50% were accompanied by a 25% increase in the anti-double-stranded DNA titer in patients with inactive or stable/active systemic lupus erythematosus. Results suggest that this strategy can prevent severe lupus flares. PMID:20477670

  12. Annual sex steroid profiles and effects of gender and season on cytochrome P450 mRNA induction in Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.J.; Courtenay, S.C. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, New Brunswick (Canada); Wilson, C.E. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Ocean Sciences Center

    1998-08-01

    As a preliminary step in a 4-year biomonitoring program, sex steroid levels, gonad weights, and diameter of vitellogenic oocytes were measured in tomcod collected bimonthly from the Miramichi and Kouchibouguac rivers from September 1993 to September 1994. As well as the reproductive indices, hepatic levels of cytochrome P4501A mRNA (CYP1A mRNA) were also measured. The preparatory period for spawning began in September, with maximal steroid levels in November, and spawning took place from late December to January. The CYP1A mRNA levels in female tomcod appeared inversely related to plasma steroids, with the lowest amounts of CYP1A mRNA coinciding with maximal steroids. The CYP1A mRNA levels in male tomcod did not exhibit this relationship. River-river comparisons of female tomcod showed significantly smaller vitellogenic oocytes in the Miramichi, along with lower plasma testosterone, estradiol, and relative gonad weight. Miramichi CYP1A mRNA levels were higher than Kouchibouguac in the fall but lower in the spring sample. The CYP1A mRNA-sex steroid relationship observed in this study will facilitate meaningful interpretation of data collected during the full 4-year study.

  13. Inductive modelling in law: example based expert systems in administrative law

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jørgen Karpf

    1991-01-01

    The article describes inductive modelling in law, that is development of example based expert systems for (administrative) judgments. The central themes are feasibility of a judgment for inductive modelling, as well as legal assessment of inductive modelling in law. An attempt is made to place inductive modelling in law in a ftamework of inductive logic. Two important legal and technical

  14. The Connectionist Inductive Learning and Logic Programming System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Artur S. D'avila Garcez; Gerson Zaverucha

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the Connectionist Inductive Learning and Logic Programming System (C-IL2P). C-IL2P is a new massively parallel computational model based on a feedforward Artificial Neural Network that integrates inductive learning from examples and background knowledge, with deductive learning from Logic Pro- gramming. Starting with the background knowledge represented by a propositional logic program, a translation algorithm is applied generating

  15. XRF inductive bead fusion and PLC based control system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-hong Zhu; Ying-jie Wang; Hong-xin Shi; Qing-ling Chen; Yu-xi Chen

    2009-01-01

    In order to ensure high-quality X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) analysis, an inductive bead fusion machine was developed.\\u000a The prototype consists of super-audio IGBT induction heating power supply, rotation and swing mechanisms, and programmable\\u000a logic controller (PLC). The system can realize sequence control, mechanical movement control, output current and temperature\\u000a control. Experimental results show that the power supply can operate at

  16. A Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting with an Acute Abdomen: Successful Treatment with Steroid

    PubMed Central

    Fukatsu, Haruka; Sugiyama, Koichi; Kasahara, Akinori; Matsumura, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pain continues to pose diagnostic challenges for emergency clinicians. A 56-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital due to severe abdominal pain which presented as occasional epigastric pain five months before and intermittent abdominal pain. She had a past history of ileus twice, for both of which laparotomy was performed without an alimentary tract resection. The wall thickening with marked three-wall structure from terminal ileum to sigmoid colon was seen and bladder wall was irregularly thick and enhanced irregularly. Among the differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen, autoimmune diseases were suspected, especially lupus erythematosus and Henoch-Schönlein purpura. On the second day of admission, abdominal pain worsened. The results of examinations of antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA antibody, ANCA, and the complements were not obtained at that time; however, we started 1-g steroid pulse treatment for three days with success. With the results obtained later, the patient was given a diagnosis of probable systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The present case shows that SLE can present with acute abdomen and should be included in the wide range of the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. PMID:25580129

  17. Sniffing human sex-steroid derived compounds modulates mood, memory and autonomic nervous system function in specific behavioral contexts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Bensafi; W. M Brown; R Khan; B Levenson; N Sobel

    2004-01-01

    We asked whether the effects of exposure to two human sex-steroid derived compounds were context dependent. The effects of sniffing 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and 1,3,5(10),16-estratetraen-3-ol (EST) on mood, memory, and autonomic nervous system responses were explored in 72 participants. Subjects were tested with AND, EST, or a Control compound within four mood contexts: neutral, sexually aroused, sad and happy. These moods

  18. Performance improvement of wind turbine driven induction generator system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanungo Barada Mohanty

    2008-01-01

    A variable speed wind energy conversion system, with fuzzy control for efficiency optimization and performance enhancement, is discussed in this paper. A squirrel cage induction generator driven by a vertical axis wind turbine feeds the power to a utility grid through two double side pulse width modulated converter system. The generation control system uses three fuzzy controllers. The first fuzzy

  19. Systems engineering for large induction motor adjustable frequency drives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank A. DeWinter; L. M. Benke

    1991-01-01

    The application of large, medium-voltage induction motor adjustable frequency drives requires substantially more systems engineering than that of low-horsepower drives. The power supply, drive, motor, and driven equipment must be integrated as a system for a successful installation. Concerns over mechanical and electrical resonances, harmonics, drive cooling systems and other application problems are presented. The aim of this study is

  20. Debiasing Training Data for Inductive Expert System Construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay S. Mookerjee

    2001-01-01

    We study the presence of economic bias in the training data used to develop inductive expert systems. Such bias arises when an expert considers economic factors in decision making. We find that the presence of economic bias is particularly harmful when there is an economic misalignment between the expert and the user of the induced expert system. Such misalignment is

  1. Deltonin, a Steroidal Saponin, Inhibits Colon Cancer Cell Growth in Vitro and Tumor Growth in Vivo via Induction of Apoptosis and Antiangiogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing-Yi Tong; Yong Qing; Dan Shu; Yang He; Ying-Lan Zhao; Yi Li; Zhen-Ling Wang; Shi-Yuan Zhang; Zhi-hua Xing; Cheng Xu; Yu-Quan Wei; Wen Huang; Xiao-Hua Wu

    2011-01-01

    Deltonin, a steroidal saponin, isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis Wright (DZW), has shown high-cytotoxic activity in cancer cells. However, its mechanisms and in vivo anti-cancer effects remain unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the effects and explored the anti-tumor mechanisms of deltonin on a panel of colon cancer cell lines and in a mouse model of murine colon cancer C26.

  2. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:24685768

  3. Paracrine regulation of apoptosis by steroid hormones in the male and female reproductive system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Kurita; Y Z Wang; A A Donjacour; C Zhao; J P Lydon; B W O'Malley; J T Isaacs; R Dahiya; G R Cunha

    2001-01-01

    In males, androgens are essential in maintaining the integrity of the prostate. Androgen-ablation induces apoptosis of the prostatic epithelium. In females, ovariectomy induces apoptosis in uterine epithelium while progesterone inhibits this process. The objective of this study was to determine whether androgen and progesterone inhibit apoptosis, respectively, in mouse prostatic and uterine epithelia via steroid receptors in the epithelium or

  4. Induction Curing of Thiol-acrylate and Thiolene Composite Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Sheng; Cramer, Neil B.; Stevens, Blake E.; Sani, Robert L.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    Induction curing is demonstrated as a novel type of in situ radiation curing that maintains most of the advantages of photocuring while eliminating the restriction of light accessibility. Induction curing is utilized to polymerize opaque composites comprised of thiol-acrylate and thiol-ene resins, nanoscale magnetic particles, and carbon nanotubes. Nanoscale magnetic particles are dispersed in the resin and upon exposure to the magnetic field, these particles lead to induction heating that rapidly initiates the polymerization. Heat transfer profiles and reaction kinetics of the samples are modeled during the reactions with varying induction heater power, species concentration, species type and sample thickness, and the model is compared with the experimental results. Thiol-ene polymerizations achieved full conversion between 1.5 minutes and 1 hour, depending on the field intensity and the composition, with the maximum reaction temperature decreasing from 146 – 87 °C when the induction heater power was decreased from 8 – 3 kW. The polymerization reactions of the thiol-acrylate system were demonstrated to achieve full conversion between 0.6 and 30 minutes with maximum temperatures from 139 to 86 °C. The experimental behavior was characterized and the temperature profile modeled for the thiol-acrylate composite comprised of sub100nm nickel particles and induction heater power in the range of 32 to 20 kW. A 9°C average deviation was observed between the modeling and experimental results for the maximum temperature rise. The model also was utilized to predict reaction temperatures and kinetics for systems with varying thermal initiator concentration, initiator half-life, monomer molecular weight and temperature gradients in samples with varying thickness, thereby demonstrating that induction curing represents a designable and tunable polymerization method. Finally, induction curing was utilized to cure thiol-acrylate systems containing carbon nanotubes where 1 wt% carbon nanotubes resulted in systems where the storage modulus increased from 17.6 ± 0.2 to 21.6 ± 0.1 MPa and an electrical conductivity that increased from <10?7 to 0.33 ± 0.5 S/m. PMID:21765552

  5. Induction Linac Systems Experiments for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bangerter, R.O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Div.

    1994-06-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory propose to build at LBL the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step toward the eventual goal of a heavy ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Though much smaller than a driver, ILSE will be at full driver scale in several important parameters. Nearly all accelerator components and beam manipulations required for a driver will be tested. It is expected that ILSE will be built in stages as funds and technical progress allow. The first stage, called Elise will include all of the electrostatic quadrupole focused parts of ILSE.

  6. Systems modeling for heavy ion drivers - an induction linac example

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bangerter, R.O.; Faltens, A.

    1997-09-30

    A source-to-target model for a induction linac driver for heavy ion fusion has been developed and is described here. Design features for a reference case driver that meets the requirements of one current target design are given, and the systems analyses supporting the point design are discussed. Directions for future work are noted.

  7. Electromagnetic induction moisture measurement system acceptance test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, G.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this acceptance test plan (ATP) is to verify that the mechanical, electrical and software features of the ElectroMagnetic Induction (EMI) probe are operating as designed,and that the unit is ready for field service. The accepted EMI and Surface Moisture Measurement Systems (SMMS) will be used primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement of organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

  8. A System for Induction of Oblique Decision Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sreerama K. Murthy; Simon Kasif; Steven Salzberg

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a new system for induction of oblique decision trees. This system,OC1, combines deterministic hill-climbing with two forms of randomization to find a goodoblique split (in the form of a hyperplane) at each node of a decision tree. Oblique decisiontree methods are tuned especially for domains in which the attributes are numeric, althoughthey can be adapted to symbolic

  9. Real-Time System Verification by Kappa-Induction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Lee S.

    2005-01-01

    We report the first formal verification of a reintegration protocol for a safety-critical, fault-tolerant, real-time distributed embedded system. A reintegration protocol increases system survivability by allowing a node that has suffered a fault to regain state consistent with the operational nodes. The protocol is verified in the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL), where bounded model checking and decision procedures are used to verify infinite-state systems by k-induction. The protocol and its environment are modeled as synchronizing timeout automata. Because k-induction is exponential with respect to k, we optimize the formal model to reduce the size of k. Also, the reintegrator's event-triggered behavior is conservatively modeled as time-triggered behavior to further reduce the size of k and to make it invariant to the number of nodes modeled. A corollary is that a clique avoidance property is satisfied.

  10. Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

  11. Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

    1982-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

  12. Adolescent Steroid Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

  13. Doubly fed induction generator systems for wind turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Muller; M. Deicke; R. W. De Doncker

    2002-01-01

    This article shows that adjustable speed generators for wind turbines are necessary when output power becomes higher than 1 MW. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) system presented in this article offers many advantages to reduce cost and has the potential to be built economically at power levels above 1.5 MW, e.g., for off-shore applications. A dynamic model of the

  14. RULE REFINEMENT IN INDUCTIVE KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Arteimi

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents empirical methods for enhancing the accuracy of inductive learning systems. Itaddresses the problems of: learning propositional production rules in multi-class classification tasks innoisy domains, maintaining continuous learning when confronted with new situations after the learningphase is completed, and classifying an object when no rule is satisfied for it.It is shown that interleaving the learning and performance-evaluation processes,

  15. Differential induction of systemic resistance in Arabidopsis by biocontrol bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. M. van Wees; Corné M. J. Pieterse; Annemiek Trijssenaar; Femke Hartog; Leendert C. Van Loon

    1997-01-01

    Differential Induction of Systemic Resistance in Arabidopsis by Biocontrol Bacteria. Saskia C. M. Van Wees (1,2), Corné M. J. Pieterse (1,2), Annemiek Trijssenaar (1), Yvonne A. M. Van 't Westende (1), Femke Hartog (1), and Leendert C. Van Loon (1,2). (1) Department of Plant Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Section of Plant Pathology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 800.84, 3508 TB Utrecht,

  16. Transistorized PWM Inverter-Induction Motor Drive System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven C. Peak; Allan B. Plunkett

    1983-01-01

    The development of a transistorized pulsewidth modulated (PWM) inverter-induction motor traction drive system is described. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and

  17. Steroid content in endometrial tissue.

    PubMed

    Suri, N K

    1997-04-01

    In the human endometrium, the role of C19 steroids is at present unclear. Radioimmunoassays (RIA) were developed which had sufficient specificity and accuracy to measure testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydroxytestosterone (5 alpha-DHT), oestradiol, progesterone and androstenedione in endometrial samples. Amounts of androstenedione were greater (range 1.2-20.8 ng/mg tissue) than other steroids. Samples were obtained from patients presenting conditions such as subfertility, postmenopausal bleeding, dysfunctional uterine bleeding and abdominal pain. Patients used as normals were admitted for sterilisation. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.80) was found between the levels of testosterone and 5 alpha-reductase system. No relationship was observed in tissue steroid concentration and age of the patients. Steroid concentrations were found to be high in tissue obtained from patients with endometrial carcinomas whereas progesterone concentration being low in subfertiles. PMID:9299827

  18. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  19. Birdsong and the neural production of steroids

    PubMed Central

    Remage-Healey, Luke; London, Sarah E.; Schinger, Barney A.

    2009-01-01

    The forebrain circuits involved in singing and audition (the ‘song system’) in songbirds exhibit a remarkable capacity to synthesize and respond to steroid hormones. This review considers how local brain steroid production impacts the development, sexual differentiation, and activity of song system circuitry. The songbird forebrain contains all of the enzymes necessary for the de novo synthesis of steroids - including neuroestrogens - from cholesterol. Steroid production enzymes are found in neuronal cell bodies, but they are also expressed in pre-synaptic terminals in the song system, indicating a novel mode of brain steroid delivery to local circuits. The song system expresses nuclear hormone receptors, consistent with local action of brain-derived steroids. Local steroid production also occurs in brain regions that do not express nuclear hormone receptors, suggesting a non-classical mode-of-action. Recent evidence indicates that local steroid levels can change rapidly within the forebrain, in a manner similar to traditional neuromodulators. Lastly, we consider growing evidence for modulatory interactions between brain-derived steroids and neurotransmitter/neuropeptide networks within the song system. Songbirds have therefore emerged as a rich and powerful model system to explore the neural and neurochemical regulation of social behavior. PMID:19589382

  20. Control system for an induction motor with energy recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Nola, F.J.

    1983-11-22

    A control circuit for an induction motor powered system wherein a power factor controlled servo loop is used to control, via the phase angle of firing of a triac, the power input to the motor as a function of load placed on the motor by machinery of the powered system. Then, upon application of torque by this machinery to the motor, which tends to overspeed the motor, the firing angle of the triac is automatically set to a fixed, and relatively short, firing angle.

  1. Photoaffinity Labeling with a Neuroactive Steroid Analogue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramin Darbandi-Tonkabon; William R. Hastings; Chun-Min Zeng; Gustav Akk; Brad D. Manion; John R. Bracamontes; Joseph H. Steinbach; Steven J. Mennerick; Douglas F. Covey; Alex S. Evers

    Neuroactive steroids modulate the function of -ami- nobutyric acid, type A (GABAA) receptors in the central nervous system by an unknown mechanism. In this study we have used a novel neuroactive steroid ana- logue, 3,5-6-azi-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (6-AziP), as a photoaffinity labeling reagent to identify neuroactive steroid binding sites in rat brain. 6-AziP is an effective modulator of GABAA receptors as evidenced

  2. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 100 (2006) 317 Effects of acetylation, polymerase phosphorylation, and DNA

    E-print Network

    2006-01-01

    Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 100 (2006) 3­17 Effects of acetylation, Yunguang Suna, Carson Chowb, Yves G. Pommierc, S. Stoney Simons Jr.a, a Steroid Hormones Section, NIDDK 2006 Abstract Varying the concentration of selected factors alters the induction properties of steroid

  3. The Research and Development Platform for Wind Energy System Used Induction Motor Replacing Wind Turbine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Qiao; Fei Lin; Ruixiang Hao; Xiaojie You; Trillion Q Zheng

    2007-01-01

    A research platform for wind energy system is developed in this paper. An inverter fed induction motor drive the wind generator replacing a real wind turbine. The power-speed characteristics of a wind turbine are physically implemented by an induction motor drive. For a given wind turbine characteristics, the shaft torque of induction motor is calculated by the given wind speed

  4. Clinical Practice of Steroid Avoidance in Pediatric Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nehus, E; Liu, C; Hooper, D K; Macaluso, M; Kim, M-O

    2015-08-01

    Steroid-avoidance protocols have recently gained popularity in pediatric kidney transplantation. We investigated the clinical practice of steroid avoidance among 9494 kidney transplant recipients at 124 transplant centers between 2000 and 2012 in the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database. The practice of steroid avoidance increased during the study period and demonstrated significant variability among transplant centers. From 2008 to 2012, 39% of transplant centers used steroid avoidance in <10% of all discharged transplant recipients. Twenty-one percent of transplant centers practiced steroid avoidance in 10-40% of transplant recipients, and 40% of transplant centers used steroid avoidance in >40% of discharged patients. Children receiving steroid avoidance more frequently received induction with lymphocyte-depleting agents. Repeat kidney transplants were the least likely to receive steroid avoidance. Children who received a deceased donor kidney, underwent pretransplant dialysis, were highly sensitized, or had glomerular kidney disease or delayed graft function were also less likely to receive steroid avoidance. The variation in practice between centers remained highly significant (p?steroid avoidance among transplant centers remain unexplained and may reflect uncertainty about the safety and efficacy of steroid-avoidance protocols. PMID:25908489

  5. High-Current Pulsed Power Generator ASO-X Using Inductive Voltage Adder and Inductive Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Susumu; Teramoto, Yusuke; Lisitsyn, Igor V.; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori

    2000-05-01

    A novel pulsed power generator using inductive voltage adder technology has been put into operation in Kumamoto University. This machine, named “ASO-X”, is an inductive voltage adder-inductive energy storage pulsed power system. The maximum output voltage and current of ASO-X are 180 kV and 400 kA, respectively, into a short circuit load with a current quarter period of 1.3 ?s. In order to increase the voltage and power and to decrease the rise time of the load current, a plasma opening switch is used at the output of ASO-X@. Eight plasma guns serve as the plasma source for the opening switch in a circuit with a single triggered spark-gap switch. This system provides a very fast current rise rate (3.6× 1012 A/s) and over 1 ?s of conduction time of the plasma opening switch.

  6. Pesticide- and sex steroid analogue-induced endocrine disruption differentially targets hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal system during gametogenesis in teleosts - A review.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2015-08-01

    Pesticide-induced endocrine disruption often mimics sex steroidal action resulting in physiological functional disarray of hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) system at multiple levels. Among various group of pesticides, organochlorine and organophosphate family of pesticides are known to impart sex steroidal mimicking activity with slightly higher resemblance to estrogens when compared to androgenic action. This review will highlight the effects of organochlorine (for e.g. endosulfan) and organophosphate (for e.g. malathion) pesticides in comparison with sex-steroid analogue-induced changes on HHG axis during gametogenesis in few teleost fish models. Interestingly, the effects of these compounds have produced differential effects in juveniles and adults which also vary based on exposure dosage and duration. Further, the treatments had caused at times sexually dimorphic effects indicating that the action of these compounds bring out serious implications in sexual development. A comprehensive overview has been provided by considering all these aspects to recognize the adverse impacts of pesticide-induced endocrine disruption with special reference to endosulfan and malathion as those had been applied even today or used before for controlling agricultural pests in several Asian countries including India. This review also compares the effects of sex-steroid analogues where in sex reversal to reproductive dysfunction is evident, which may imply the extent of sexual plasticity in teleosts compared to other vertebrates. PMID:25637674

  7. Magnetic induction tomography. A measuring system for biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, H; Stewart, W R; Gough, W

    1999-04-20

    A single-channel magnetic induction system operating at 10 MHz has been constructed. The system consists of an excitation coil and a sensing coil, between which different objects can be scanned. The eddy currents induced in the object cause perturbations in the sensed magnetic field, which are measured with a phase-sensitive detector with backing off of the signal to improve sensitivity. Scans were obtained for saline solutions with conductivities ranging from 0.001 to 6 Sm-1, encompassing the range for biological tissues. The imaginary part of the perturbation in the sensed magnetic field was found to be proportional to saline conductivity, consistent with theoretical prediction, and had a constant of proportionality of -1.2% per Sm-1. A filtered back-projection algorithm was used to generate tomographic images from the scans. PMID:10372181

  8. Production of functional bacteriorhodopsin by an Escherichia coli cell-free protein synthesis system supplemented with steroid detergent and lipid

    PubMed Central

    Shimono, Kazumi; Goto, Mie; Kikukawa, Takashi; Miyauchi, Seiji; Shirouzu, Mikako; Kamo, Naoki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2009-01-01

    Cell-free expression has become a highly promising tool for the efficient production of membrane proteins. In this study, we used a dialysis-based Escherichia coli cell-free system for the production of a membrane protein actively integrated into liposomes. The membrane protein was the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin, consisting of seven transmembrane ?-helices. The cell-free expression system in the dialysis mode was supplemented with a combination of a detergent and a natural lipid, phosphatidylcholine from egg yolk, in only the reaction mixture. By examining a variety of detergents, we found that the combination of a steroid detergent (digitonin, cholate, or CHAPS) and egg phosphatidylcholine yielded a large amount (0.3–0.7 mg/mL reaction mixture) of the fully functional bacteriorhodopsin. We also analyzed the process of functional expression in our system. The synthesized polypeptide was well protected from aggregation by the detergent-lipid mixed micelles and/or lipid disks, and was integrated into liposomes upon detergent removal by dialysis. This approach might be useful for the high yield production of functional membrane proteins. PMID:19746358

  9. Cellular Inductive Powering System for Weakly-Linked Resonant Rodent Implants

    E-print Network

    Genov, Roman

    delivery system shown in Fig. 1 for neural interfaces implanted in laboratory rodents. The designCellular Inductive Powering System for Weakly-Linked Resonant Rodent Implants Nima Soltani, Miaad S-- This paper presents a cellular inductive powering system for neural interface devices to facilitate chronic

  10. Testing the effects of long-acting steroids in edema and ecchymosis after closed rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Santiago; Wuesthoff, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Steroids have proven to be of some benefit in rhinoplasty edema and ecchymosis when administered at a high and repeated dose. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of single-dose, long-acting intramuscular steroids on postoperative edema and ecchymosis after closed rhinoplasty with osteotomies compared with placebo. METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was performed. Fifty-four patients were randomly assigned to two groups: 28 received a single dose of long-acting dexamethasone (mean [± SD] dose 16±4 mg) immediately before anesthetic induction; the remaining 26 received an intramuscular injection of saline solution. The same surgeon performed all surgeries, with patients under general anesthesia. Acetaminophen was the only analgesic used to control postoperative pain. High-resolution digital photographs were taken on postoperative days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Scoring was performed separately for eyelid swelling and ecchymosis by an independent observer using a graded scale (0 to 5) for edema and a scoring system (0 to 13) for ecchymosis. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in terms of age, sex or amount of bleeding during surgery were found between the two groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in the decrease of both ecchymosis and edema between placebo and high-dose, long-acting dexamethasone. A statistically significant difference in operation time was found, favouring the steroid group. No severe complications were observed due to steroid use. DISCUSSION: Osteotomies are basically a form of (controlled) trauma, with considerable disruption of the abundant blood vessels in this facial region and, therefore, are associated with with undesirable effects. A recent meta-analysis failed to show benefits of the use of steroids after postoperative day 3. Only a trend toward reduction in edema and ecchymosis with the use of long-acting steroids compared with placebo was demonstrated in the present study. CONCLUSION: There was no benefit in administering single-dose, long-acting steroids in patients undergoing closed rhinoplasty with osteotomies. PMID:25114618

  11. Implantable flexible pressure measurement system based on inductive coupling.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cristina C; Sepúlveda, Alexandra T; Almeida, Nuno; Wardle, Brian L; da Silva, José Machado; Rocha, Luís A

    2015-02-01

    One of the currently available treatments for aortic aneurysms is endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). In spite of major advances in the operating techniques, complications still occur and lifelong surveillance is recommended. In order to reduce and even eliminate the commonly used surveillance imaging exams, as well as to reduce follow-up costs, new technological solutions are being pursued. In this paper, we describe the development, including design and performance characterization, of a flexible remote pressure measurement system based on inductive-coupling for post-EVAR monitoring purposes. The telemetry system architecture and operation are described and main performance characteristics discussed. The implantable sensor details are provided and its model is presented. Simulations with the reading circuit and the sensor's model were performed and compared with measurements carried out with air and a phantom as media, in order to characterize the telemetry system and validate the models. The transfer characteristic curve (pressure versus frequency) of the monitoring system was obtained with measurements performed with the sensor inside a controlled pressure vacuum chamber. Additional experimental results which proof the system functionality were obtained within a hydraulic test bench that emulates the aorta. Several innovative aspects, when compared to the state of the art, both in the sensor and in the telemetry system were achieved. PMID:25347867

  12. Toroid Joining Gun. [thermoplastic welding system using induction heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. D.; Fox, R. L.; Swaim, R J.

    1985-01-01

    The Toroid Joining Gun is a low cost, self-contained, portable low powered (100-400 watts) thermoplastic welding system developed at Langley Research Center for joining plastic and composite parts using an induction heating technique. The device developed for use in the fabrication of large space sructures (LSST Program) can be used in any atmosphere or in a vacuum. Components can be joined in situ, whether on earth or on a space platform. The expanded application of this welding gun is in the joining of thermoplastic composites, thermosetting composites, metals, and combinations of these materials. Its low-power requirements, light weight, rapid response, low cost, portability, and effective joining make it a candidate for solving many varied and unique bonding tasks.

  13. Forward and reverse control system for induction motors

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.T.

    1987-09-15

    A control system for controlling the direction of rotation of a rotor of an induction motor includes an array of five triacs with one of the triacs applying a current of fixed phase to the windings of the rotor and four of the triacs being switchable to apply either hot ac current or return ac current to the stator windings so as to reverse the phase of current in the stator relative to that of the rotor and thereby reverse the direction of rotation of the rotor. Switching current phase in the stator is accomplished by operating the gates of pairs of the triacs so as to connect either hot ac current or return ac current to the input winding of the stator. 1 fig.

  14. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... yearly. Inform him or her that you take steroid pills routinely. Skin Increase in body hair and acne A tendency to bruise easily Thinning of the skin and poor wound healing Skin Ask your healthcare provider about how acne ...

  15. Steroid hormones and BDNF.

    PubMed

    Pluchino, N; Russo, M; Santoro, A N; Litta, P; Cela, V; Genazzani, A R

    2013-06-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin abundantly expressed in several areas of the central nervous system (CNS) and is known to induce a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy, to enhance specific learning and memory processes. BDNF is one of the key molecules modulating brain plasticity and it affects cognitive deficit associated with aging and neurodegenerative disease. Several studies have shown an altered BDNF production and secretion in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases but also in mood disorders like depression, eating disorders and schizophrenia. Plasma BDNF is also a biomarker of impaired memory and general cognitive function in aging women. Gonadal steroids are involved in the regulation of several CNS processes, specifically mood, affective and cognitive functions during fertile life and reproductive aging. These observations lead many scientists to investigate a putative co-regulation between BDNF and gonadal and/or adrenal steroids and their relationship with gender difference in the incidence of mental diseases. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge on the correlation between BDNF expression/function and both gonadal (progesterone, estrogens, and testosterone) and adrenal hormones (mainly cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) with relevance in clinical application. PMID:23380505

  16. The layer theory approach applied to induction heating systems with rotational symmetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Bunni; K. Altaii

    2007-01-01

    A method is given for the analysis of a multilayer cylindrical induction heating system. The excitation is circumferential and can be three phase or single-phase. The iterative form of solution allows for linear and nonlinear charges. Accuracy of the method is verified with measurements of practical induction heating system together with comparison to numerical and analytical methods.

  17. Fuzzy inductive reasoning for variable selection analysis and modelling of biological systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Àngela Nebot; François E. Cellier; Raúl Carvajal; Francisco Mugica

    2009-01-01

    Fuzzy inductive reasoning (FIR) is a qualitative inductive modelling and simulation methodology for dealing with dynamical systems. It has proven to be a powerful tool for qualitative model identification and prediction of future behaviour of various kinds of dynamical systems, especially from the soft sciences, such as biology, biomedicine and ecology. This paper focuses on modelling aspects of the FIR

  18. Power smoothing in wind generation systems using a sensorless vector controlled induction Machine driving a flywheel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Cárdenas; Rubén Peña; Greg Asher; Jon Clare

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel control strategy for power smoothing in generation systems in which power flow variations can occur. These variations are the norm in wind energy generation. The system is based on a sensorless vector controlled induction machine driving a flywheel. The induction machine is controlled to operate in a wide speed range by using flux weakening above

  19. Effect of Pulse Width on Ozone Yield using Inductive Energy Storage System Pulsed Power Generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ippei Yagi; Seiji Mukaigawa; Koichi Takaki; Tamiya Fujiwara; Tomio Go

    2010-01-01

    Nanosecond pulse voltages of several pulse widths were applied to a cylindrical plasma reactor for ozone synthesis with high energy yield. Nanoseconds pulse voltages were produced by inductive energy storage system pulsed power generators using semiconductor opening switch (SOS) diodes. First recovery diodes were used as SOS diodes in the inductive energy storage system to produce short-pulsed high voltage with

  20. Towards a Formalised Teacher Induction System: The Macau Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vong, Sou-Kuan; Wong, Matilda

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of teacher induction not only for sustaining teacher retention and reducing attrition, but also for supporting beginning teachers, helping them develop professionally as they progress within the profession and enhancing effective teaching and learning. While acknowledging the importance of teacher induction

  1. Module Eight: Induction; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The module covers in greater depth electromagnetic induction, its effects, and how it is used to advantage in electrical circuits; and the physical components, called inductors, designed to take advantage of the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. This module is divided into four lessons: electromagnetism; inductors and flux density, inducing…

  2. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment. PMID:26125159

  3. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1385 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1385 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic...

  5. Anabolic Steroid Abuse

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Launched this month by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), this Website offers research about the abuse of anabolic steroids and provides support to educators and policymakers interested in educating the public, especially teenagers, about the problem. The site provides substantial medical information in layman's terms about the composition, use, and potentially harmful effects of steroids. The site also gives statistics from the Institute's Monitoring the Future Study that shows a "significant increase" in steroid use from 1998 to 1999 among middle school males. Links for further information and education strategies are also provided. The Website is part of NIDA's Education Initiative: Science, Steroids, and Youth.

  6. Treating Asthma with Inhaled Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have serious side effects.) Should I use inhaled steroids or a pill? Inhaled steroids act directly on ... or mold. Side effects and safety of inhaled steroids. • The most common side effects are mouth and ...

  7. Aggregation of induction machines for power system dynamic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Taleb, M.; Akbaba, M.; Abdullah, E.A. (Univ. of Bahrain, Isa Town (Bahrain). Electrical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-11-01

    This paper proposes a method for the aggregation of induction motor loads. Thevenin theorem along with some transient characteristics of induction machine are used in calculating the parameters of the equivalent machine. The dynamic response of the resultant machine differs from the sum of the dynamic responses of the individual machines. For a diversified group of induction machines, at least two separate aggregate machines are needed to represent the overall dynamic performance of the machines. To this end, a handy index for the classification (grouping) of machines is suggested. Comparison between the results obtained from the proposed method and corresponding ones obtained from some of the published methods is also presented.

  8. Iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism during topical steroid therapy: assessment of systemic effects by metabolic criteria.

    PubMed

    Cook, L J; Freinkel, R K; Zugerman, C; Levin, D L; Radtke, R

    1982-06-01

    Systemic absorption of topically applied glucocorticoids in quantities sufficient to replace endogenous production is not uncommon. However, iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome resulting from the use of topical corticosteroids is very rare. Thus the possibility that systemic absorption may cause hyperglucocorticism has been deemphasized and examined only sporadically. We have studied changes in carbohydrate metabolism induced by topical glucocorticoids in a psoriatic patient who had developed Cushing's syndrome from topical desoximetasone (Topicort). The results indicated that (1) fasting hyperglycemia and increased insulin-glucose ratios could be induced within 24 hours of administration of topical glucocorticoids, (2) insulin resistance accompanied abnormal carbohydrate tolerance, and (3) fluctuations in circulating leukocytes paralleled the changes in carbohydrate metabolism. The findings suggest that metabolic indexes of glucocorticoid action action may provide useful parameters for assessing systemic absorption of topical glucocorticoids. glucose relationship as one such index to assess the risk of treatment of extensive chronic skin disease with potent topical glucocorticoids. PMID:7047591

  9. Sex steroids: beyond conventional dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Lavranos, Giagkos; Angelopoulou, Roxani; Manolakou, Panagiota; Katsiki, Evangelia

    2013-09-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a characteristic of a large number of species, ranging from lower invertebrates to mammals and, last but not least, humans. Recognition of the various factors regulating sexual dimorphism initial establishment (i.e. sex determination and differentiation) and subsequent life-long adaptation to distinct functional and behavioural patterns has remained a hot topic for several decades. As our understanding of the various molecular pathways involved in this process increases, the significant role of sex steroids becomes more evident. At the same time, the recognition of new sites of steroid production (e.g. parts of the brain) and aromatization, as well as new target cells (owing to the proposed presence of additional receptors to those classically considered as primary steroid receptors) has lead to the need to revisit their spectrum of actions within a novel, multifactorial context. Thus, anthropology and medicine are presented with the challenge to unravel a major mystery, i.e. that of sexual orientation and differentiation and its potential contribution in human evolution and civilization development, taking advantage of the high-tech research tools provided by modern biotechnology. This short review summarizes the basic principles of sex determination and sex steroid function as they have been classically described in the literature and then proceeds to present examples of how modern research methods have started to offer a new insight on the more subtle details of this process, stressing that it is extending to virtually every single part and system of the body. PMID:24308255

  10. Systemic absorption of topical steroids. Metabolic effects as an index of mild hypercortisolism.

    PubMed

    Garden, J M; Freinkel, R K

    1986-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the commonly used treatment of psoriasis with potent topical glucocorticoids results in hypercortisolism and whether metabolic changes might provide a means for monitoring pharmacologic effects of excessive systemic absorption of glucocorticoids. Plasma cortisol, glucose, and insulin and circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes were assessed under controlled conditions in five otherwise healthy patients with psoriasis (40% to 85% involvement) treated with topical desoximetasone, without occlusion. In all patients, there were rapid and sustained suppression of endogenous cortisol production, twofold to threefold increases in fasting insulin levels indicating insulin resistance, and elevated levels of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Two patients also experienced reduced glucose tolerance. These findings suggest that application of potent corticosteroids to large areas of diseased skin results in sufficient systemic absorption to cause not only adrenal suppression but some degree of hypercortisolism with greater frequency and rapidity than has been suggested. Prospective monitoring of insulin-glucose relationships as a sensitive index of the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids may provide a means of assessing excess systemic absorption that is not predictable on the basis of adrenal suppression or circulating levels of the drug. Such prediction could have particular relevance in anticipating adverse clinical effects in the treatment of chronic skin disorders with potent topical glucocorticoids. PMID:3527074

  11. Steroids in neuroinfection.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Ronaldo

    2013-09-01

    The consequences of inflammatory response are primarily responsible for morbimortality in bacterial meningitis. Early use of steroids in these cases can reduce mortality and hearing loss and improve functional outcome without causing significant side effects. The formal recommendation towards pneumoccocal meningitis is being extended to other forms of Bacterial Meningitis. The same thought can be applied to tuberculous meningitis. In neurocysticercosis and neuroschistosomiasis steroids are more useful than parasiticides in most cases. Despite the evidence favoring the use of steroids in herpes simplex encephalitis, it is not sufficient to definitely support such indication. Among the opportunistic infections that affect AIDS patients, neurotoxoplasmosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopaty are those most often considered for the use of steroids; steroids are safe to use, but no definite benefit could be demonstrated in both conditions. PMID:24141512

  12. Patellar Tendon Rupture after Lateral Release without Predisposing Systemic Disease or Steroid Use

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgi, S.; Notarnicola, A.; Vicenti, G.; Moretti, B.

    2015-01-01

    Arthroscopic technique for lateral release is the most widely used procedure for the correction of recurrent dislocations of the patella. In the relevant literature, several complications of lateral release are described, but the spontaneous patellar tendon rupture has never been suggested as a possible complication of this surgical procedure. Patellar tendon rupture is a rather infrequent and often unilateral lesion. Nevertheless, in case of systemic diseases (LES, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic renal insufficiency) that can weaken collagen structures, bilateral patellar tendon ruptures are described. We report a case of a 24-year-old girl with spontaneous rupture of patellar tendon who, at the age of 16, underwent an arthroscopic lateral release for recurrent dislocation of the patella. This is the first case of described spontaneous patellar tendon rupture that occurred some years after an arthroscopic lateral release. PMID:25960904

  13. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases > Long-Term Control Medications > About Steroids About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids) What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’) ... considerations when your dosage changes? What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’)? Corticosteroids (steroids) are medicines that are used to ...

  14. Infliximab as long-term maintenance in steroid-resistant and recurrent sarcoidosis in a renal transplant with central nervous system involvement

    PubMed Central

    Rajakariar, Ravindra; Ashman, Neil; Raftery, Martin; Brown, Heather; Martin, Joanne E.

    2012-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic, granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology, which commonly involves the lungs, skin and the eyes. Renal sarcoidosis is rare. Recurrent renal sarcoidosis leading to transplant graft failure in adults has not been reported. We report a single case of steroid-resistant sarcoid with recurrence in a renal transplant and the central nervous system that was managed with infliximab. We describe successful resolution of granulomas in the transplant kidney and stabilization of renal function with catastrophic central nervous system recurrence upon withdrawal of infliximab.

  15. Switching from systemic steroids to ciclesonide restores the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis

    PubMed Central

    Ciebiada, Maciej; Górski, Pawe?

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Treatment of difficult asthma with oral corticosteroids (OCS) may suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Aim In this study we have checked if the substitution of OCS with very high doses of ciclesonide may restore the adrenal function without losing the control of the disease. Material and methods In 5 patients with difficult, uncontrolled asthma despite treatment with OCS, inhaled and systemic glucocorticosteroids were replaced with very high doses of ciclesonide (1600–2400 µg/day). The symptoms of asthma and the lung function were assessed at baseline and on the 28th, 56th and 70th day of treatment, whereas the levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the morning were measured at baseline and on the 28th and the 56th day of treatment. Results In all patients, the control of asthma symptoms, measured with Asthma Control Test questionnaire, improved from the mean score of 9.4 to 19.8 in 70 days. In 4 subjects force expiratory volume in 1 s improved gradually through the entire study reaching a mean improvement of 585 ml in 70 days. The ACTH levels were normalized in 3 patients after 28 days of observation and in all patients after 56 days. The cortisol level was normalized in 4 patients after 28 days and in another subject after 56 days of treatment with ciclesonide. Conclusions Switching from prednisone to very high doses of ciclesonide normalized the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis function and also improved the disease control and the lung function in these 5 patients with difficult asthma. PMID:25097469

  16. New steroid haptens for radioimmunoasiay: synthesis of steroids

    E-print Network

    Desai, Umesh R

    New steroid haptens for radioimmunoasiay: synthesis of steroids substituted with thioether or ester with antibodies directed uguinst Za-ulkyl bridged steroid huptens ure expected to be highly speci$c due to greater topogruphicul exposure und similurity in conf~wmution to the nutive steroid. The Za-ulkyl bridged huptens were

  17. Analysis of electromechanical interactions in a flywheel system with a doubly fed induction machine

    E-print Network

    Ran, Li

    This paper analyzes the electromechanical inter-action in a flywheel system with a doubly fed induction machine, used for wind farm power smoothing or grid frequency response control. The grid-connected electrical machine ...

  18. Influence of circuit parameter on ozone synthesis using inductive energy storage system pulsed power generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Takaki; Ippei Yagi; Tamiya Fujiwara; Tomio Go

    2011-01-01

    An inductive energy storage system pulsed power generator using semiconductor opening switch (SOS) diodes was employed to drive a co-axial cylinder plasma reactor for ozone synthesis with high yield. Fast recovery diodes were used as SOS diodes in the inductive energy storage system pulsed power generator to produce short-pulse high-voltage with high-repetition rate. The high-voltage pulse was applied to a

  19. Systemic signalling in photosynthetic induction of Rumex?K-1 (Rumex patientia?×?Rumex tianschaious) leaves.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fei; Jin, Li-Qiao; Zhang, Zi-Shan; Gao, Hui-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    The rapid induction of photosynthesis is critical for plants under light-fleck environment. Most previous studies about photosynthetic induction focused upon single leaf, but they did not consider the systemic integrity of plant. Here, we verified whether systemic signalling is involved in photosynthetic induction. Rumex?K-1 (Rumex patientia?×?Rumex tianschaious) plants were grown under light-fleck condition. After whole night dark adaptation, different numbers of leaves (system leaf or SL) were pre-illuminated with light, and then the photosynthetic induction of other leaves (target leaf or TL) was investigated. This study showed that the pre-illumination of SL promoted photosynthetic induction in TL. This promotion was independent of the number of SL, the light intensity on SL and the distance between SL and TL, indicating that this systemic signalling is non-dose-dependent. More interestingly, the photosynthetic induction was promoted by only the pre-illumination of morphological upper leaf rather than the pre-illumination of morphological lower leaf, indicating that the transfer of this signal is directional. The results showed that the transfer of this systemic signalling depends upon the phloem. This systemic signalling helps plants to use light energy more efficiently under light flecks. PMID:25124181

  20. Steroid dysregulation and stomatodynia (burning mouth syndrome).

    PubMed

    Woda, Alain; Dao, Thuan; Gremeau-Richard, Christelle

    2009-01-01

    Stomatodynia ( burning mouth syndrome) is characterized by a spontaneous, continuous burning pain felt in the oral mucosa typically of anxiodepressive menopausal women. Because there is no obvious organic cause, it is considered a nonspecific pain. This Focus Article proposes a hypothesis based on the following pathophysiological cascade: chronic anxiety or post traumatic stress leads to a dysregulation of the adrenal production of steroids. One consequence is a decreased or modified production of some major precursors for the neuroactive steroid synthesis occurring in the skin, mucosa, and nervous system. At menopause, the drastic fall of the other main precursor supply , the gonadal steroids, leads to a brisk alteration of the production of neuroactive steroids. This results in neurodegenerative alterations of small nerves fibers of the oral mucosa and /or some brain areas involved in oral somatic sensations. These neuropathic changes become irreversible and precipitate the burning pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia associated with stomatodynia, which all involve thin nerve fibers. PMID:19639097

  1. Reducing load effects in inductive links for implantable systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mondher Chaoui; Hamadi Ghariani; M. Lahiani; F. Sellami; R. Perdraiu; M. Ramdani

    2005-01-01

    Thispaperdeals withanoptimization methodof themutualinductance between twomagnetically coupled coils ofaninductive link, inorder toensureefficient energy anddatatransmission inimplantable electronic devices. Suchanapproach optimizes thevoltage gain andthepower yieldas a function of thelateral and longitudinal displacements between theexternal coil (transmitter) andthe implanted coil (receiver). Thegeometry ofthese coils hasto betheleast sensitive todisplacements andthemoststable withrespect tomutualinductance. Itwas created for inductive links withhighpowertransfer capability combined withhighoverall efficiency. Thevariations ofthereflected

  2. Inductive instability in electrodynamic systems with rapidly varying parameters

    E-print Network

    Elperin, Tov

    , effective damping resistance of the layered conductors may become negative, although ohmic resistance of its of the boundary, the negative damping resistance can occur when conductivities of the lay- ers decrease. If the rate of inductance decrease L is sufficiently high, the effective damping resistance of the conductor

  3. Theory of partial agonist activity of steroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Carson C.; Ong, Karen M.; Kagan, Benjamin; Simons, S. Stoney

    2015-01-01

    The different amounts of residual partial agonist activity (PAA) of antisteroids under assorted conditions have long been useful in clinical applications but remain largely unexplained. Not only does a given antagonist often afford unequal induction for multiple genes in the same cell but also the activity of the same antisteroid with the same gene changes with variations in concentration of numerous cofactors. Using glucocorticoid receptors as a model system, we have recently succeeded in constructing from first principles a theory that accurately describes how cofactors can modulate the ability of agonist steroids to regulate both gene induction and gene repression. We now extend this framework to the actions of antisteroids in gene induction. The theory shows why changes in PAA cannot be explained simply by differences in ligand affinity for receptor and requires action at a second step or site in the overall sequence of reactions. The theory also provides a method for locating the position of this second site, relative to a concentration limited step (CLS), which is a previously identified step in glucocorticoid-regulated transactivation that always occurs at the same position in the overall sequence of events of gene induction. Finally, the theory predicts that classes of antagonist ligands may be grouped on the basis of their maximal PAA with excess added cofactor and that the members of each class differ by how they act at the same step in the overall gene induction process. Thus, this theory now makes it possible to predict how different cofactors modulate antisteroid PAA, which should be invaluable in developing more selective antagonists. PMID:25984562

  4. JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 2, APRIL 2006 427 Magnetic Induction Micromachine--Part II

    E-print Network

    of a magnetic induction machine. The development of this machine is part of an ongoing project to create high are not shown. Induction machines are interesting candidates for power-MEMS electromechanical energy conversionJOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 2, APRIL 2006 427 Magnetic Induction

  5. Electromagnetic levitation forces and effective inductance in axially symmetric systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W E Smith

    1965-01-01

    An analysis is developed which expresses the average electromagnetic levitation force Fx on a spherical conductor in terms of the effective inductance L of the excitation coil. This force is given by Fx = ½ I02 (?L\\/?x) where I0 is the r.m.s. coil current and x is the separation of the coil and sphere.The result is interpreted by a circuit-theory

  6. A miniaturized inductively coupled plasma source for applications in microelectromechanical systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Yin; J. Hopwood

    1998-01-01

    Summary form only given. A miniaturized inductively coupled plasma (mICP) source has been fabricated to examine the feasibility of scaling ICPs to sizes comparable with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The mICP adds a new dimension to MEMS capabilities in the same way that large-scale plasmas enrich engineering, manufacturing, and diagnostic fields. Planar-coil inductively coupled plasmas are ideal for MEMS applications since

  7. Direct observation of induction period of MTO process with consecutive pulse reaction system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingxu Wei; Dazhi Zhang; Fuxiang Chang; Zhongmin Liu

    2007-01-01

    The initial transformation of methanol over HZSM-5 catalyst was investigated by a consecutive pulse reaction system. The reactant–catalyst contact time influenced the initial methanol transformation and the performances implied methanol reaction in induction period or under steady-state condition. The induction period, in which an organic-free HZSM-5 catalyst could be transferred to a working catalyst, were directly observed. The analysis result

  8. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E. (Georgetown Univ. School of Medicine, Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4{prime}-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit {sup 3}H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations.

  9. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids

    PubMed Central

    Kicman, A T

    2008-01-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic–androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided. PMID:18500378

  10. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Kicman, A T

    2008-06-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic-androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided. PMID:18500378

  11. Voltage control of emerging distribution systems with induction motor loads using robust LQG approach

    E-print Network

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    facilities. The integration of DG in these passive networks can affect the dynamic behavior of the systemVoltage control of emerging distribution systems with induction motor loads using robust LQG controller is designed to damp this voltage mode of the system. The controller is designed using the linear

  12. Çocukluk Ça?i Astiminda Steroid Tedavisinin Serum Oksidan-Antioksidan Sistem ve Sitokin Düzeylerine Etkisi (The Effect of Steroid Treatment on Serum Oxidant-Antioxidant System and Cytokine Levels in Childhood Asthma) Ara?tirma Makalesi (Research Article)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Görkem Mungan; Berrak Güven

    The aim of this study was to investigate the plasma levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-?, immunoglobulin E, eosinophil cationic protein, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and total antioxidant status which were suggested to have a significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma in children and to evaluate the effect of steroid on these parameters. 27 children, mean aged 8.9 years

  13. Steroid-resistant idiopathic childhood nephrosis: overdiagnosed and undertreated

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen H. H. Ehrich; Christoph Geerlings; Miroslav Zivicnjak; Doris Franke; Heinz Geerlings; Jutta Gellermann

    Background. The rate of complete remission after induction therapy for steroid-resistant nephrotic syn- drome (SRNS) due to either focal segmental glomerulo- sclerosis (FSGS) or minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) has been reported to be <50%. The present retrospective study investigated 86 children with SRNS due to FSGS and MCNS and found improved rates of complete remission in children with idiopathic

  14. Yolk Steroids Decline during Sexual Differentiation in the Alligator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Conley; P. Elf; C. J. Corbin; S. Dubowsky; A. Fivizzani; J. W. Lang

    1997-01-01

    The leading explanation of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) in reptiles postulates that (1) ovarian differentiation is directed by estrogen and that (2) estrogen is synthesized in the developing gonad following induction of aromatase expression. However, the source of steroid substrate for aromatization has not yet been identified. In addition, sex ratios vary as a function of clutch, but such biases

  15. Acceleration units for the Induction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE)

    SciTech Connect

    Faltens, A.; Brady, V.; Brodzik, D.; Hansen, L.; Laslett, L.J.; Mukherjee, S.; Bubp, D.; Ravenscroft, D.; Reginato, L.

    1989-03-01

    The design of a high current heavy ion induction linac driver for inertial confinement fusion is optimized by adjusting the acceleration units along the length of the accelerator to match the beam current, energy, and pulse duration at any location. At the low energy end of the machine the optimum is a large number of electrostatically focused parallel beamlets, whereas at higher energies the optimum is a smaller number of magnetically focused beams. ILSE parallels this strategy by using 16 electrostatically focused beamlets at the low end followed by 4 magnetically focused beams after beam combining. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Deposition Of Materials Using A Simple Planar Coil Radio Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasma System

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K. H.; Wong, C. S.; Yap, S. L. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Gan, S. N. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2009-07-07

    A planar coil RF inductively coupled plasma (PC-RFICP) systems is set up for the purpose of thin film deposition. The system is powered by a 13.56 MHz, 550 W, 50 OMEGA RF generator. The RF power is transferred to the plasma via a planar induction coil. The impedance matching unit consists of an air core step-down transformer and a tunable vacuum capacitor. This system is used for the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film on silicon substrate, and hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) film.

  17. Design and simulation of a photovoltaic induction motor coupled water pumping system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency is the sense of energy saving is a main issue in photovoltaic pumping. The objective of this work is to design and simulate an efficient battery less pumping system powered from photovoltaic panels, comprising a new push-pull converter with Induction Motor. In a photovoltaic pump-storage system, solar energy is stored, when sunlight is available as potential energy in water

  18. A high-performance cross-current type cycloconverter-fed induction motor drive system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIROMI HOSODA; SHINJI TATARA; RYOUICHI KUROSAWA; H. Hakata; K. Doi

    1988-01-01

    Making use of the latest techniques, the authors have successfully developed a cross-current-type cycloconverter-fed, squirrel-cage induction motor drive system, which far exceeds DC drive systems over a wide range from zero speed to high speed. It is best suited for tandem cold mill main and various other large-scale rolling mills

  19. Electrical Induction Heating of Heavy Oil Wells Using the Triflux System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Homer L. Spencer; Robert E. Isted

    1998-01-01

    Telsa Industries, in concert with Madis Engineering, has developed, tested, and commercialized a novel method of elec- trically heating oil wells called the Triflux System. The system utilized electrical induction principles to heat selected zones in oil wells to accomplish such tasks as: • Stimulation of heavy oil production through heating the near well-bore regions of productive reservoirs to reduce

  20. Reliability improvement and economic benefits of online monitoring systems for large induction machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. T. Siyambalapitiya; P. G. McLaren

    1990-01-01

    Microprocessor-based monitoring systems are being developed for the regular analysis of large induction machine variables and to predict possible fault conditions, so that preventive maintenance can be organized in a cost-effective manner. A method for the evaluation of the improvement of machine reliability made by such monitoring systems is presented. An economic and financial analysis to examine the viability of

  1. Application of adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system on the development of the observer for speed sensor less induction motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Era Purwanto; Syamsul Arifin; Bian-Sioe So

    2001-01-01

    Direct field-oriented induction motor drive system need rotor flux observer and rotor angular speed identifier. ANFIS (adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) used for identifying parameter dynamics and system variable estimation, linear or nonlinear. ANFIS with backpropagation learning algorithm has applied to estimate flux rotor and identify rotor angular speed of three-phase induction motor

  2. Method and graphs for the evaluation of air-induction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brajnikoff, George B

    1953-01-01

    Graphs have been developed for rapid evaluation of air-induction systems from considerations of their aerodynamic-performance parameters in combination with power-plant characteristics. The graphs cover the range of supersonic Mach numbers to 3.0. Examples are presented for an air-induction system and engine combination of two Mach numbers and two altitudes in order to illustrate the method and application of the graphs. The examples show that jet-engine characteristics impose restrictions on the use of fixed inlets if the maximum net thrusts are to be realized at all flight conditions. (author)

  3. Field oriented control of an induction machine in a high frequency link power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sul, Seung K.; Lipo, Thomas A.

    1988-01-01

    A field-oriented controlled induction machine drive operating with a high-frequency single-phase sinusoidal voltage link is presented. System performance is investigated by computer simulation and is verified by a test on a prototype system. A novel control loop to minimize the link voltage fluctuation is proposed. The capability of rapid demagnetization of the induction machine by current regulation is investigated. A current-modulation technique termed mode control is proposed, and its performance is compared with that of the conventional delta-modulation technique.

  4. Steroids. A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

    This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history…

  5. Nonprescription Steroids on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Christen L.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Patapis, Nicholas S.; Festinger, David S.; Forman, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular websites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March and June, 2006 revealed that approximately half of the websites advocated their “safe” use, and roughly one-third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The websites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the websites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment and policy are discussed. PMID:22080724

  6. Steroid and sterol 7-hydroxylation: ancient pathways.

    PubMed

    Lathe, Richard

    2002-11-01

    B-ring hydroxylation is a major metabolic pathway for cholesterols and some steroids. In liver, 7 alpha-hydroxylation of cholesterols, mediated by CYP7A and CYP39A1, is the rate-limiting step of bile acid synthesis and metabolic elimination. In brain and other tissues, both sterols and some steroids including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are prominently 7 alpha-hydroxylated by CYP7B. The function of extra-hepatic steroid and sterol 7-hydroxylation is unknown. Nevertheless, 7-oxygenated cholesterols are potent regulators of cell proliferation and apoptosis; 7-oxygenated derivatives of DHEA, pregnenolone, and androstenediol can have major effects in the brain and in the immune system. The receptor targets involved remain obscure. It is argued that B-ring modification predated steroid evolution: non-enzymatic oxidation of membrane sterols primarily results in 7-oxygenation. Such molecules may have provided early growth and stress signals; a relic may be found in hydroxylation at the symmetrical 11-position of glucocorticoids. Early receptor targets probably included intracellular sterol sites, some modern steroids may continue to act at these targets. 7-Hydroxylation of DHEA may reflect conservation of an early signaling pathway. PMID:12398993

  7. The cholinergic influence on the mesenteric ganglion affects the liberation of ovarian steroids and nitric oxide in oestrus day rats: characterization of an ex vivo system.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Adriana Vega; Sosa, Zulema; Fillipa, Verónica; Mohamed, Fabian; Rastrilla, Ana María

    2006-12-01

    The axons that constitute the ovarian nervous plexus originate mostly in the principal neurons of the superior mesenteric ganglion (SMG) that is part of the sympathetic ganglionic chain and exhibits cholinergic receptors. In order to observe the effect of acetylcholine, the main neurotransmitter in the ganglionic transmission, the purpose of the present work was: first, to standardize an integrated ex vivo superior mesenteric ganglion-ovarian nervous plexus-ovary (SMG-ONP-O) system in oestrus day rats; secondly, to determine if the ganglionic cholinergic stimulus modifies the release of nitric oxide and steroids in the ovary compartment in the absence of humoral factors; and thirdly, to investigate if there are differences in the responses between the left and right ovaries caused by the neural stimulus. The ex vivo experimental left and right systems were developed and standardized. The systems were incubated in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer in a Dubnoff metabolic shaker. The progesterone release was determined to standardize the incubation times, obtaining different responses between the left and right systems, which shows that both systems have their own autonomic tone. Non-specific stimulation with KCl in the ganglion compartment provoked different responses in terms of release of progesterone and oestradiol. Progesterone decreased in the left and right systems. However, oestradiol diminished at short times and increased at 60 and 120 min in the left ovary, whereas it increases at 30 and 60 min in the right ovary. These different responses show the sensitivity and viability of both systems. When acetylcholine was used in the ganglion compartment, the release of nitric oxide, progesterone, androstenedione and oestradiol was evaluated. The liberation of nitrite increased at 15, 30 and 60 min in the left system and decreased in the right system at 120 min. Progesterone showed a decrease in its release at 15, 30 and 120 min and androstenedione at 15 min in the left ovary compartment. In the right ovary, only progesterone decreased in relation to the control at 120 min while androstenedione did not show significant changes. Oestradiol showed an increase in the left ovary compartment at all the studied times, while in the right ovary it did not show any changes. These results indicate that the neural stimulus from the superior mesenteric ganglion through the ovarian nervous plexus is one of the factors modulating the secretory activity of the ovarian steroids and nitric oxide. The system is viable and also shows a different sensitivity of the left ovary in relation to the right one at least in this cycle stage, characterized by marked irrigation and profound structural changes in the ovary. PMID:17170216

  8. Androgen-activating enzymes in the central nervous systemProceedings of Xth International Congress on Hormonal Steroids, Quebec, Canada, 17–21 June 1998

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo Poletti; Luciano Martini

    1999-01-01

    In the rat brain, several steroids can be converted by specific enzymes to either more potent compounds or to derivatives showing new biological effects. One of the most studied enzyme is the 5?-reductase (5?-R), which acts on 3keto-?4 steroids. In males, testosterone is the main substrate and gives rise to the most potent natural androgen dihydrotestosterone. In females, progesterone is

  9. Induction of Fuzzy Classification Rules with an Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto T. Alves; Myriam R. Delgado; Heitor S. Lopes; Alex A. Freitas

    Fuzzy systems were designed to compute with uncertainties and linguistic information and allow us to develop mathematical tools for information processing. Artificial immune systems (AIS) consist of methods inspired by the biological immune system and designed for solving real-world problems. This work integrates these two kinds of systems, proposing a novel AIS for discovering fuzzy classification rules from data. The

  10. Rituximab for Remission Induction and Maintenance in Refractory Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Coronel Restrepo, Nicolás; Tobón, Gabriel J.; Echeverri, Andrés F.; Muñoz-Buitrón, Evelyn; Castro, Andres Mauricio; Bejarano, Mercedes Andrade; Cañas, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with high morbidity if untreated. Sometimes, despite aggressive treatments, the disease remains active with cumulative organic damage. We conducted a retrospective and descriptive observational study of patients with SLE refractory to conventional treatment who were treated with rituximab (RTX) as remission induction therapy and maintenance. There was a significant reduction in the conventional immunosuppressive drug dose and the number of relapses of disease. RTX appeared to be effective and safe for the induction and maintenance of remission in patient with SLE refractory to conventional treatment. PMID:24527208

  11. Non-conventional supplying system for induction traction motors from Diesel locomotives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Huzau; R. Both; E. H. Dulf; V. Tulbure

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the power electronic devices (with proper control strategies) enables the replacement of the DC traction motor with the more advantageous induction motor in railway application. The AC traction motors ask for expensive, intricate inverters with semiconductors working under high electric stress. For the Diesel-electric locomotives, the authors propose an original non-conventional supplying system for AC motor with

  12. Magnetic Field Generation in an Inductively Coupled Radio-Frequency Power Transmission System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen O'Brien; R. Teichmann; H. Gueldner

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses various methods for the generation of an omni-directional magnetic field suitable for use in an inductively coupled power transmission system. The field characteristics are evaluated with a focus on minimizing undesired shielding effects while remaining within the boundaries set by international standards for occupational exposure to magnetic fields. The dynamic requirements of load resonant converters that allow

  13. Inductive-Deductive Systems: A mathematical logic and statistical learning perspective

    E-print Network

    Inductive-Deductive Systems: A mathematical logic and statistical learning perspective Nicolas when the latter exists in the language are studied, by combining results from mathematical logic- tially undecidable theories could be considered instead of this. From a mathematical logic perspective

  14. Characterization of mucoadhesive microspheres for the induction of mucosal and systemic immune responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Kunisawa; Akiko Okudaira; Yasuo Tsutusmi; Ichiro Takahashi; Tsuyoshi Nakanishi; Hiroshi Kiyono; Tadanori Mayumi

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, mucoadhesive polymer-dispersed microspheres (MS) were examined as a potential mucosal vaccine carrier. A major focus of the study was aimed at directly assessing the influence of antigen release and persistence in the mouse small intestine for the induction of mucosal and systemic immune responses. BALB\\/c mice were immunized with various forms of MS containing chicken egg

  15. Prion induction involves an ancient system for the sequestration of aggregated proteins and heritable

    E-print Network

    Lindquist, Susan

    Prion induction involves an ancient system for the sequestration of aggregated proteins and heritable changes in prion fragmentation Jens Tyedmersa,b , Sebastian Treuscha,c , Jijun Donga , J. Michael (sent for review December 16, 2009) When the translation termination factor Sup35 adopts the prion state

  16. End effect on magnetic damping force of superconducting inductive magnetic levitation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshifumi Amemiya; Shigeru Ohkuma

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic damping force for the vertical motion of superconducting inductive levitation system is analyzed. The ground coil current induced by the vertical motion of vehicular coil generally takes a maximum value after the first vehicular coil has passed over the ground coil. At 500 km\\/h, for instance, this current takes the maximum value around when the second vehicular coil

  17. Analysis of Electromechanical Interactions in a Flywheel System With a Doubly Fed Induction Machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Ran; Dawei Xiang; James L. Kirtley

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the electromechanical interac- tion in a flywheel system with a doubly fed induction machine, used for wind farm power smoothing or grid frequency response control. The grid-connected electrical machine is subject to power control, and this can cause it to produce negative damping to the shaft torsional vibration. Resonance must be prevented, and this paper proposes a

  18. A matrix converter without reactive clamp elements for an induction motor drive system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axel Schuster

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the design of a microcomputer controlled matrix converter for an induction motor drive system. Special emphasis is given to the current commutation eliminating the need for any capacitor-based clamp circuit in the steady state operation and during the shutdown. Simulation results and experimental results are presented

  19. SISTEMA DE INSTRUMENTACION VIRTUAL PARA UN MOTOR DE INDUCCION (Virtual Instrumentation System for Induction Motor)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesus A. Calderon-Vielma; Jose G. Contreras; Pedro O. Mora; Adolfo J. Rodr

    The objective of the present work is to design and implement a virtual instrumentation system, using a personal computer, as a measurement tool that allows to carry the necessary measurements to obtain the induction motor operation characteristics such as: voltage, current, speed, power, power factor and torque. The variables of the motor are obtained by transducers (measure transformers and tacogenerators).

  20. A new concept of small-compressed air energy storage system integrated with induction generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varin Vongmanee; Veerapol Monyakul

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid technology for a renewable energy power generation, which is developed as a small-scale power plant. The proposed system is a new concept of small-compressed air energy storage (S-CAES) integrated with induction generator. The system consists of 3 main components: air compressor, energy storage system and power generation. The air compressor uses a general reciprocating engine

  1. The road less traveled: New views of steroid receptor action from the path of dose–response curves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Stoney Simons; Carson C. Chow

    Conventional studies of steroid hormone action proceed via quantitation of the maximal activity for gene induction at saturating concentrations of agonist steroid (i.e., Amax). Less frequently analyzed parameters of receptor-mediated gene expression are EC50 and PAA. The EC50 is the concentration of steroid required for half-maximal agonist activity and is readily determined from the dose–response curve. The PAA is the

  2. SOURCES, PRESENCE, ANALYSIS, AND FATE OF STEROID SEX HORMONES IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS - A REVIEW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Young; Thomas Borch

    2009-01-01

    Natural and synthetic steroid sex hormones, including those administered to humans and livestock as pharmaceuticals, constitute an important class of environmental endocrine disruptors. Steroid sex hormones generally have high biological activities at low concentrations, and in river systems steroid sex hormones have been linked to various adverse effects on fish, including altered sex ratios, intersex fish, and diminished reproduction. In

  3. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2?,3?,22?,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5?-furostan-3?,22?,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12?,22?,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5?-spirostan-3?,24?-diol-12-one-3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation. PMID:25172515

  4. Steroid-Associated Hip Joint Collapse in Bipedal Emus

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Li-Zhen; Liu, Zhong; Lei, Ming; Peng, Jiang; He, Yi-Xin; Xie, Xin-Hui; Man, Chi-Wai; Huang, Le; Wang, Xin-Luan; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Xiao, De-Ming; Wang, Da-Ping; Chen, Yang; Feng, Jian Q.; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Ge; Qin, Ling

    2013-01-01

    In this study we established a bipedal animal model of steroid-associated hip joint collapse in emus for testing potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of steroid-associated joint collapse in preclinical settings. Five adult male emus were treated with a steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) induction protocol using combination of pulsed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and methylprednisolone (MPS). Additional three emus were used as normal control. Post-induction, emu gait was observed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and blood was collected for routine examination, including testing blood coagulation and lipid metabolism. Emus were sacrificed at week 24 post-induction, bilateral femora were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. Asymmetric limping gait and abnormal MRI signals were found in steroid-treated emus. SAON was found in all emus with a joint collapse incidence of 70%. The percentage of neutrophils (Neut %) and parameters on lipid metabolism significantly increased after induction. Micro-CT revealed structure deterioration of subchondral trabecular bone. Histomorphometry showed larger fat cell fraction and size, thinning of subchondral plate and cartilage layer, smaller osteoblast perimeter percentage and less blood vessels distributed at collapsed region in SAON group as compared with the normal controls. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed poor mineral matrix and more osteo-lacunae outline in the collapsed region in SAON group. The combination of pulsed LPS and MPS developed in the current study was safe and effective to induce SAON and deterioration of subchondral bone in bipedal emus with subsequent femoral head collapse, a typical clinical feature observed in patients under pulsed steroid treatment. In conclusion, bipedal emus could be used as an effective preclinical experimental model to evaluate potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of ON-induced hip joint collapse in patients. PMID:24204675

  5. Formal Mathematical Systems including a Structural Induction Principle

    E-print Network

    Magdeburg, Universität

    mathematical logic. #15; The recursive systems are directely embedded into formal mathematical systems, i and Pudlak [15]. 1 #12; #15; The most common formal systems of mathematical logic are covered in mathematical logic and will enable us to generate in a simple and comfortable way many recursively enumerable

  6. The evolution of a linear induction motor people mover system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Watkins; M. Black

    1978-01-01

    In July 1975 the WEDway PeopleMover system was introduced in the Tomorrowland section of the Walt Disney World Theme Park culminating the development of a transportation concept which began with a system which was designed by Disney to transport guests thru the Ford pavilion at the 1964 New York World's Fair. A first generation WEDway PeopleMover system at Disneyland employed

  7. Steroids and the Management of Macular Edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shani Golan; Anat Loewenstein

    2010-01-01

    Macular edema (ME) is a condition which is usually secondary to an underlying disease process. It is most commonly seen following venous occlusive disease, diabetic retinopathy and posterior segment inflammatory disease. The treatment of ME varies, depending upon the underlying etiology, and has led to varying degrees of success. Traditionally, the main treatment options have included topical and systemic steroids,

  8. Role of microsomal steroid hydroxylases in ?7-steroid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Sushko, T A; Gilep, A A; Yantsevich, A V; Usanov, S A

    2013-03-01

    CYP17 (steroid 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase) is a key enzyme in steroid hormone biosynthesis. It catalyzes two independent reactions at the same active center and has a unique ability to differentiate ?(4)-steroids and ?(5)-steroids in the 17,20-lyase reaction. The present work presents a complex experimental analysis of the role of CYP17 in the metabolism of 7-dehydrosteroids. The data indicate the existence of a possible alternative pathway of steroid hormone biosynthesis using 7-dehydrosteroids. The major reaction products of CYP17 catalyzed hydroxylation of 7-dehydropregnenolone have been identified. Catalytic activity of CYP17 from different species with 7-dehydropregnenolone has been estimated. It is shown that CYP21 cannot use ?(5)-?(7) steroids as a substrate. PMID:23586722

  9. Evaluation of Matched Blumlein and Slow-Fast Blumlein Systems for Induction Accelerator Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nunnally, W C

    2002-05-06

    Two approaches for driving an induction acceleration using a number of stacked Blumlein lines are evaluated and compared. The matched or balanced Blumlein utilizes a single switch and two transmission line sections incorporating identical dielectric materials to drive a beam load. The matched Blumlein line system further requires ferro-magnetic isolation to prevent the accelerating electric field from appearing on the external structure of the system. The Slow-Fast Blumlein line power system utilizes two transmission line sections, with different dielectric materials and two switches, one on each line. The two dielectric materials result in different wave velocities in the respective transmission line sections, thus the slow and fast lines. The Slow-Fast Blumlein system does not require ferro-magnetic isolation since the closure of both switches trap the accelerating electric field within the accelerating structure. This paper discusses two arrangements of dielectrics and conductors to form the Blumlein transmission lines and evaluates and compares the energy density and accelerating performance of these two systems.

  10. Expression, induction and regulation of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system in the rat glioma C6 cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Geng

    1996-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system consists of NADPH- cytochrome P450 reductase (P450 reductase) and cytochromes P450, which can catalyze the oxidation of a wide variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including steroid hormones, fatty acids, drugs, and pollutants. The functions of this system are as diverse as the substrates. P450 reductase transfers reducing equivalents from NADPH to P450, which in

  11. Feasibility study of an MR damper-based smart passive control system employing an electromagnetic induction device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kang-Min; Jung, Hyung-Jo; Lee, Heon-Jae; Cho, Sang-Won

    2007-12-01

    The feasibility of a newly developed smart passive control system equipped electromagnetic induction device is experimentally investigated. An electromagnetic induction device consists of a permanent magnet and a solenoid, which produces electrical energy (i.e. induced current) according to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. The produced energy is applied to the magnetorheological (i.e. MR) damper to change the damping characteristics by itself without any controller or corresponding sensors for reducing structural responses. Recently, the smart passive control system was conceptually and numerically introduced without consideration of its practical applicability. This paper describes the design of an electromagnetic inductive device which is composed of a permanent magnet and a solenoid, and experiments with the MR damper-based smart passive control system on a shaking table which produces various sinusoidal and random excitations. The experimental results demonstrate that it is feasible to apply the smart passive control system equipped electromagnetic induction device for changing the damping characteristics of an MR damper.

  12. Gastrointestinal metabolism of contraceptive steroids.

    PubMed

    Back, D J; Madden, S; Orme, M L

    1990-12-01

    A number of oral contraceptive steroids undergo first-pass metabolism in the gastrointestinal mucosa. Ethinyl estradiol (mean systemic bioavailability 40% to 50%) is extensively metabolized, principally to a sulfate conjugate. In vivo studies that use portal vein catheterization and the administration of radiolabeled ethinyl estradiol have shown that the fraction of steroid metabolized in the gut wall is 0.44. In vitro studies with jejunal biopsy samples or larger pieces of jejunum or terminal ileum mounted in Ussing chambers have indicated that more than 30% of added ethinyl estradiol is sulfated. The progestogen desogestrel is a prodrug that is converted to the active metabolite 3-ketodesogestrel. Substantial first-pass metabolism of desogestrel occurs in the gut mucosa, with evidence from Ussing chamber studies for the formation of the active metabolite. Another progestogen, norgestimate, is also metabolized by the gut wall in vitro of which the principal metabolite is the deacetylated product, norgestrel oxime. It seems very likely that this will also occur in vivo. Drug interactions occurring in the gut wall have been reported with ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and paracetamol. PMID:2147818

  13. Steroid hormones as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Guillette, L.J. Jr.; Rooney, A.A.; Crain, D.A.; Orlando, E.F.

    1999-07-01

    Xenobiotic compounds introduced into the environment by human activity have been shown to adversely affect the endocrine system of wildlife. Various species exhibit abnormalities of (1) plasma sex steroid hormones, (2) altered steroid synthesis form the gonad in vitro and (3) altered steroidogenic enzyme function. These endpoints are sensitive and relatively easy to measure quantitatively with reliability and precision. These observations have led to the conclusion that sex steroid hormones could be markers of exposure to, and altered function from, endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs). However, there are serious limitations in the use of steroid hormones as generalized markers of EDC exposure. Steroid hormones exhibit seasonal, ontogenetic, gender and species-specific variation. Moreover, the regulation of sex steroid plasma concentrations is a relatively complex phenomenon capable of short-term (minutes-hours) alteration due to environmental inputs, such as acute stress--an activational response. Alterations in steroids synthesis and degradation also can be a response to altered embryonic development due to EDC exposure--an organizational response. If steroid hormones are to be used as biomarkers, then closely controlled, well designed sampling has to be performed. Additionally, an appreciation of the variation possible in endocrine responses among the species to be studied must be obtained.

  14. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    PubMed Central

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; McCauley, Lisa M. Beck; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the ease of quantification and experimental manipulation, the zebra finch song system has great potential for use in undergraduate labs. Unfortunately, the underlying costs prohibit use of this system in undergraduate labs. Further, the time required to perform a developmental study renders such undertakings unrealistic within a single academic term. We have overcome these barriers by creating digital tools, including an image library of song nuclei from zebra finch brains. Students using this library replicate and extend a published experiment examining the dose of estradiol required to masculinize the female zebra finch brain. We have used this library for several terms, and students not only obtain significant experimental results but also make gains in understanding content, experimental controls, and inferential statistics (analysis of variance and post hoc tests). We have provided free access to these digital tools at the following website: http://mdcune.psych.ucla.edu/modules/birdsong. PMID:21633071

  15. Fuzzy Rule Induction and Artificial Immune Systems in Female Breast Cancer Familiarity Profiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filippo Menolascina; Roberto Teixeira Alves; Stefania Tommasi; Patrizia Chiarappa; Myriam Regattieri Delgado; Vitoantonio Bevilacqua; Giuseppe Mastronardi; Alex Alves Freitas; Angelo Paradiso

    2007-01-01

    Genomic DNA copy number aberrations are frequent in solid tumours although their underlying causes of chromosomal instability\\u000a in tumours remain obscure. In this paper we show how Artificial Immune System (AIS) paradigm can be successfully employed\\u000a in the elucidation of biological dynamics of cancerous processes using a novel fuzzy rule induction system for data mining\\u000a (IFRAIS) [1] of aCGH data.

  16. A transient energy function for power systems including the induction motor model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Min; Lei Chen

    2007-01-01

    A construction method for power system transient energy function is studied in the paper, which is simple and universal, and\\u000a can unify the forms of some current energy functions. A transient energy function including the induction motor model is derived\\u000a using the method. The unintegrable term is dealt with to get an approximate energy function. Simulations in a 3-bus system

  17. Transient performance of parallel operated wind driven self excited induction generator system

    SciTech Connect

    Sakkoury, K.S. [Electronics Research Inst., Giza (Egypt)

    1995-12-31

    The transient performance of an isolated network containing a number of parallel connected SEIGs [Self Excited Induction Generators] is studied when loaded by a single motor. The control technique used to switch on or off any of the system machines is explained. For motor starting, two different techniques are studied employing starting capacitors or soft starting method. The system performance during and after the switching action takes place is investigated.

  18. A drive system with high-speed single-phase supplied three-phase induction motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Binkowski; M. Grad; M. Latka; W. Malska; D. Sobczynski

    2008-01-01

    Use of high-speed three-phase induction motors supplied through electronic power converters from single-phase network in electric drive systems used in household appliances and power tools is proposed. Such solution would result in reduction of motor weight and thus the mass of the whole drive system, possibility to regulate (set) the rotation rate within wide range, and, most importantly, increase of

  19. Inductive monitoring system constructed from nominal system data and its use in real-time system monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), its software implementations, hardware embodiments and applications. Training data is received, typically nominal system data acquired from sensors in normally operating systems or from detailed system simulations. The training data is formed into vectors that are used to generate a knowledge database having clusters of nominal operating regions therein. IMS monitors a system's performance or health by comparing cluster parameters in the knowledge database with incoming sensor data from a monitored-system formed into vectors. Nominal performance is concluded when a monitored-system vector is determined to lie within a nominal operating region cluster or lies sufficiently close to a such a cluster as determined by a threshold value and a distance metric. Some embodiments of IMS include cluster indexing and retrieval methods that increase the execution speed of IMS.

  20. A novel misoprostol delivery system for induction of labor: clinical utility and patient considerations

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Megan L; Wing, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    Induction of labor is one of the most commonly performed obstetric procedures and will likely become more common as the reproductive population in developed nations changes. As the proportion of women undergoing induction grows, there is a constant search for more efficacious ways to induce labor while maintaining fetal and maternal safety as well as patient satisfaction. With almost half of induced labors requiring cervical ripening, methods for achieving active labor and vaginal delivery are constantly being investigated. Prostaglandins have been shown to be effective induction agents, and specifically vaginal misoprostol, used off-label, have been widely utilized to initiate cervical ripening and active labor. The challenge is to administer this medication accurately while maintaining the ability to discontinue the medication when needed. The misoprostol vaginal insert initiates cervical ripening utilizing a delivery system that controls medication release and can be rapidly removed. This paper reviews the design, development, and clinical utility of the misoprostol vaginal insert for induction of labor as well as patient considerations related to the delivery system. PMID:25960635

  1. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...from normal backfire conditions; and (2) Fire resistant in any compartment for which a fire extinguishing system is required. (e...Fireproof within the auxiliary power unit compartment; (2) Fireproof for a sufficient...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...from normal backfire conditions; and (2) Fire resistant in any compartment for which a fire extinguishing system is required. (e...Fireproof within the auxiliary power unit compartment; (2) Fireproof for a sufficient...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...from normal backfire conditions; and (2) Fire resistant in any compartment for which a fire extinguishing system is required. (e...Fireproof within the auxiliary power unit compartment; (2) Fireproof for a sufficient...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...from normal backfire conditions; and (2) Fire resistant in any compartment for which a fire extinguishing system is required. (e...Fireproof within the auxiliary power unit compartment; (2) Fireproof for a sufficient...

  5. 14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...passages of the engine through which air or fuel in combination with air passes for combustion...prevention. (c) The type and degree of fuel filtering necessary for protection of the engine fuel system against foreign particles in the...

  6. 14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...passages of the engine through which air or fuel in combination with air passes for combustion...prevention. (c) The type and degree of fuel filtering necessary for protection of the engine fuel system against foreign particles in the...

  7. A Power-Efficient Wireless Capacitor Charging System Through an Inductive Link

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    A power-efficient wireless capacitor charging system for inductively powered applications has been presented. A bank of capacitors can be directly charged from an ac source by generating a current through a series charge injection capacitor and a capacitor charger circuit. The fixed charging current reduces energy loss in switches, while maximizing the charging efficiency. An adaptive capacitor tuner compensates for the resonant capacitance variations during charging to keep the amplitude of the ac input voltage at its peak. We have fabricated the capacitor charging system prototype in a 0.35-?m 4-metal 2-poly standard CMOS process in 2.1 mm2 of chip area. It can charge four pairs of capacitors sequentially. While receiving 2.7-V peak ac input through a 2-MHz inductive link, the capacitor charging system can charge each pair of 1 ?F capacitors up to ±2 V in 420 ?s, achieving a high measured charging efficiency of 82%. PMID:24678284

  8. A Power-Efficient Wireless Capacitor Charging System Through an Inductive Link.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-10-01

    A power-efficient wireless capacitor charging system for inductively powered applications has been presented. A bank of capacitors can be directly charged from an ac source by generating a current through a series charge injection capacitor and a capacitor charger circuit. The fixed charging current reduces energy loss in switches, while maximizing the charging efficiency. An adaptive capacitor tuner compensates for the resonant capacitance variations during charging to keep the amplitude of the ac input voltage at its peak. We have fabricated the capacitor charging system prototype in a 0.35-?m 4-metal 2-poly standard CMOS process in 2.1 mm(2) of chip area. It can charge four pairs of capacitors sequentially. While receiving 2.7-V peak ac input through a 2-MHz inductive link, the capacitor charging system can charge each pair of 1 ?F capacitors up to ±2 V in 420 ?s, achieving a high measured charging efficiency of 82%. PMID:24678284

  9. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

  18. Grammar Model and Grammar Induction in the System NL PAGE

    E-print Network

    Keselj, Vlado

    Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada vkeselj@uwaterloo.ca Abstract and more sophisticated Internet information retrieval. Achieving such sophistication implies consideration acting as clients are good candidates for portable and efficient multi­agent systems for Internet

  19. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...least 40 degrees F. (b) Turbine engine. (1) It must be shown that each turbine engine and its air inlet system...rotorcraft. (2) Each turbine engine must idle for 30 minutes...than 0.3 gram per cubic meter in the form of...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...maximum continuous power. (b) Turbine engines. (1) Each turbine engine and its air inlet system...such operation. (2) Each turbine engine must idle for 30 minutes...less than 0.3 grams per cubic meter in the form of drops...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...maximum continuous power. (b) Turbine engines. (1) Each turbine engine and its air inlet system...such operation. (2) Each turbine engine must idle for 30 minutes...less than 0.3 grams per cubic meter in the form of drops...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...least 40 degrees F. (b) Turbine engine. (1) It must be shown that each turbine engine and its air inlet system...rotorcraft. (2) Each turbine engine must idle for 30 minutes...than 0.3 gram per cubic meter in the form of...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...maximum continuous power. (b) Turbine engines. (1) Each turbine engine and its air inlet system...such operation. (2) Each turbine engine must idle for 30 minutes...less than 0.3 grams per cubic meter in the form of drops...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...least 40 degrees F. (b) Turbine engine. (1) It must be shown that each turbine engine and its air inlet system...rotorcraft. (2) Each turbine engine must idle for 30 minutes...than 0.3 gram per cubic meter in the form of...

  5. Development of a Respiratory Inductive Plethysmography Module Supporting Multiple Sensors for Wearable Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhengbo; Zheng, Jiewen; Wu, Hao; Wang, Weidong; Wang, Buqing; Liu, Hongyun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an RIP module with the features of supporting multiple inductive sensors, no variable frequency LC oscillator, low power consumption, and automatic gain adjustment for each channel. Based on the method of inductance measurement without using a variable frequency LC oscillator, we further integrate pulse amplitude modulation and time division multiplexing scheme into a module to support multiple RIP sensors. All inductive sensors are excited by a high-frequency electric current periodically and momentarily, and the inductance of each sensor is measured during the time when the electric current is fed to it. To improve the amplitude response of the RIP sensors, we optimize the sensing unit with a matching capacitor parallel with each RIP sensor forming a frequency selection filter. Performance tests on the linearity of the output with cross-sectional area and the accuracy of respiratory volume estimation demonstrate good linearity and accurate lung volume estimation. Power consumption of this new RIP module with two sensors is very low. The performance of respiration measurement during movement is also evaluated. This RIP module is especially desirable for wearable systems with multiple RIP sensors for long-term respiration monitoring. PMID:23201991

  6. Renal transplantation using belatacept without maintenance steroids or calcineurin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kirk, A D; Guasch, A; Xu, H; Cheeseman, J; Mead, S I; Ghali, A; Mehta, A K; Wu, D; Gebel, H; Bray, R; Horan, J; Kean, L S; Larsen, C P; Pearson, T C

    2014-05-01

    Kidney transplantation remains limited by toxicities of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and steroids. Belatacept is a less toxic CNI alternative, but existing regimens rely on steroids and have higher rejection rates. Experimentally, donor bone marrow and sirolimus promote belatacept's efficacy. To investigate a belatacept-based regimen without CNIs or steroids, we transplanted recipients of live donor kidneys using alemtuzumab induction, monthly belatacept and daily sirolimus. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive unfractionated donor bone marrow. After 1 year, patients were allowed to wean from sirolimus. Patients were followed clinically and with surveillance biopsies. Twenty patients were transplanted, all successfully. Mean creatinine (estimated GFR) was 1.10 ± 0.07 mg/dL (89 ± 3.56 mL/min) and 1.13 ± 0.07 mg/dL (and 88 ± 3.48 mL/min) at 12 and 36 months, respectively. Excellent results were achieved irrespective of bone marrow infusion. Ten patients elected oral immunosuppressant weaning, seven of whom were maintained rejection-free on monotherapy belatacept. Those failing to wean were successfully maintained on belatacept-based regimens supplemented by oral immunosuppression. Seven patients declined immunosuppressant weaning and three patients were denied weaning for associated medical conditions; all remained rejection-free. Belatacept and sirolimus effectively prevent kidney allograft rejection without CNIs or steroids when used following alemtuzumab induction. Selected, immunologically low-risk patients can be maintained solely on once monthly intravenous belatacept. PMID:24684552

  7. How to Stop Steroid Medicines Safely

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pills, sprays or creams, your body may stop making its own steroids. If you have been taking steroids for ... months. While your body is getting used to making its own steroids, you may feel dizzy, lightheaded, tired, have ...

  8. An Inductively Powered Scalable 32Channel Wireless Neural Recording System-on-a-Chip for Neuroscience Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung Bae Lee; Hyung-Min Lee; Mehdi Kiani; Uei-Ming Jow; Maysam Ghovanloo

    2010-01-01

    We present an inductively powered 32-channel wireless integrated neural recording (WINeR) system-on-a-chip (SoC) to be ultimately used for one or more small freely behaving animals. The inductive powering is intended to relieve the animals from carrying bulky batteries used in other wireless systems, and enables long recording sessions. The WINeR system uses time-division multiplexing along with a novel power scheduling

  9. Rotor fault detection system for inverter driven induction motor using currents signal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. H. Kim; M. H. Kim; H. A. Toliyat; S. H. Lee; C. H. Choi; W. S. Baik

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the induction motor rotor fault diagnosis system using current signals which are measured using axis-transformation method is presented. In inverter-fed motor drives unlike line-driven motor drives the stator currents are rich in harmonics and therefore fault diagnosis using stator current is not trivial. The current signals for rotor fault diagnosis need precise and high resolution information, which

  10. Fuzzy optimal control of doubly fed induction wind power generator systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Xue; Yufei Wang

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the chaos phenomenon of doubly fed induction generator(DFIG). The Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model of DFIG chaos system is built. Based on the fuzzy Lyapunov function approach, a robust optimal controller is designed in the form of linear matrix inequality (LMI). Thus the chaos of DFIG with parametric uncertainties is eliminated. The simulation result shows that the

  11. Systemic induction of monoterpene biosynthesis in Origanumxmajoricum by soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Banchio, Erika; Bogino, Pablo C; Santoro, Maricel; Torres, Lorena; Zygadlo, Julio; Giordano, Walter

    2010-01-13

    Italian oregano (Origanumxmajoricum) was subjected to root system inoculation with three species of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, Azospirillum brasilense), and essential oil (EO) content and plant growth were measured. Composition of monoterpenes, a major EO component, was analyzed qualitative and quantitatively by gas chromatography. Total EO yield for plants inoculated with P. fluorescens or A. brasilense was 3.57 and 3.41 microg/mg fresh weight, respectively, approximately 2.5-fold higher than controls, without change of quantitative oil composition. The major EO compounds, cis- and trans-sabinene hydrate, gamma-terpinene, carvacrol, and thymol, showed increased biosynthesis. Carvacrol was the only terpene showing significant increase of R% in plants inoculated with A. brasilense. Plant growth parameters (shoot and root fresh and dry weights, numbers of leaves and nodes) were evaluated. Shoot fresh weight was significantly increased by all three PGPR species, but only P. fluorescens and A. brasilense increased root dry weight. These two species have clear commercial potential for economic cultivation of O.xmajoricum. Knowledge of the factors affecting yield and accumulation of monoterpenes is essential for improving production of these economically important plant compounds. PMID:20000572

  12. The gated induction system of a systemic floral inhibitor, antiflorigen, determines obligate short-day flowering in chrysanthemums

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Yohei; Narumi, Takako; Oda, Atsushi; Nakano, Yoshihiro; Sumitomo, Katsuhiko; Fukai, Seiichi; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu

    2013-01-01

    Photoperiodic floral induction has had a significant impact on the agricultural and horticultural industries. Changes in day length are perceived in leaves, which synthesize systemic flowering inducers (florigens) and inhibitors (antiflorigens) that determine floral initiation at the shoot apex. Recently, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) was found to be a florigen; however, the identity of the corresponding antiflorigen remains to be elucidated. Here, we report the identification of an antiflorigen gene, Anti-florigenic FT/TFL1 family protein (AFT), from a wild chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum seticuspe) whose expression is mainly induced in leaves under noninductive conditions. Gain- and loss-of-function analyses demonstrated that CsAFT acts systemically to inhibit flowering and plays a predominant role in the obligate photoperiodic response. A transient gene expression assay indicated that CsAFT inhibits flowering by directly antagonizing the flower-inductive activity of CsFTL3, a C. seticuspe ortholog of FT, through interaction with CsFDL1, a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor FD homolog of Arabidopsis. Induction of CsAFT was triggered by the coincidence of phytochrome signals with the photosensitive phase set by the dusk signal; flowering occurred only when night length exceeded the photosensitive phase for CsAFT induction. Thus, the gated antiflorigen production system, a phytochrome-mediated response to light, determines obligate photoperiodic flowering response in chrysanthemums, which enables their year-round commercial production by artificial lighting. PMID:24082137

  13. Crystallization of steroids in gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkura, S. Narayana; Devanarayanan, S.

    1991-03-01

    The crystal growth and characterization of certain steriods, viz., cholesterol, cholesteryl acetate, ?-sitosterol, progesterone and testosterone, in a silica gel medium is discussed. The present study shows that the single test tube diffusion method can be used to grow crystals of steroids in a silica gel medium by the reduction of steroid solubility.

  14. Advances in microbial steroid biotransformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shashi B. Mahato; Subhadra Garai

    1997-01-01

    Microbial biotransformations of various steroids are reviewed. Developmental studies on hydroxylation, carboncarbon bond cleavage, enzymatic catalysis in nonaqueous solvents, use of cyclodextrin medium, cell immobilization, and new microbial reactions are highlighted. Various steroid substrates, their metabolites and the microorganisms used for the transformations are compiled covering the literature for the period 1992–1995.

  15. Roles of Steroids in Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inability of nematodes to biosynthesize steroids de novo and the resulting dependence of parasitic nematodes upon their hosts have enhanced the importance of elucidating the metabolism of sterols and the hormonal and other functions of steroids in nematodes. Biochemical research has revealed th...

  16. Strategies and a computer aided package for design and analysis of induction machines for inverter-driven variable speed systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Z.; Xu, L. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; El-Antably, A. [Delphi Power Propulsion Systems, Anderson, IN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Induction machines designed for inverter-driven variable speed systems is different from those powered directly from utility power lines. In this paper, the design strategies of inverter-driven induction machines are discussed. This is followed by a description of a computer aided design and analysis package specifically for this purpose. The program package permits integration design of machines with inverters, comprehensive performance analysis, and system optimization, resulting in 20--30% more power density for the induction machine than that designed for direct utility power supplies by convention method. Design and performance analysis results are presented to substantiate the conclusions.

  17. Study of Drive System for Linear Induction Motor Using Magnetic Energy Recovery Switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, Takanori; Takaku, Taku; Kitahara, Tadayuki; Sumitani, Hideo; Shimada, Ryuichi

    This paper proposes a suitable power supply for driving linear induction motors. The power supply consists of a voltage source inverter (VSI) and a magnetic energy recovery switch (MERS). Circuit configuration and operation principles of the power supply are described. Power factor correction by MERS can cause an increase of the output power. Technical advantages of using MERS compared with increasing voltage rating of VSI are discussed. Some experiments with a linear induction motor were conducted. The results confirms that MERS can reduce capacity of the VSI or increase output with the same VSI capacity. The number of devices and losses are evaluated on large scale drive system. A half-bridge type of MERS is proposed and discussed. The half-bridge MERS improves disadvantages of using MERS.

  18. The determination of sulfur-containing surfactants with a high pressure liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry system 

    E-print Network

    Hobill, Jonathan Edward

    1987-01-01

    THE DETERMINATION OF SULFUR-CONTAINING SURFACTANTS WITH A HIGH PRESSURE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA EMISSION SPECTROMETRY SYSTEM A Thesis by JONATHAN EDWARD HOBILL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University... The Determination of Sulfur-Containing Surfactants with a High Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry System. (August 1987) Jonathan Edward Hobill, B. S. , Bridgewater State College Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr...

  19. Control and performance of a doubly-fed induction machine intended for a flywheel energy storage system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirofumi Akagi; Hikaru Sato

    2002-01-01

    A large-capacity low-speed flywheel energy storage system based on a doubly-fed induction machine basically consists of a wound-rotor induction machine, and a cycloconverter or a voltage-source pulse width modulation (PWM) rectifier-inverter which is used as an AC exciter. Adjusting the rotor speed makes the machine either release the kinetic energy to the power system or absorb it from the utility

  20. Effective induction of protective systemic immunity with nasally-administered vaccines adjuvanted with IL-1

    PubMed Central

    Gwinn, William M.; Kirwan, Shaun M.; Wang, Sheena H.; Ashcraft, Kathleen A.; Sparks, Neil L.; Doil, Catherine R.; Tlusty, Tom G.; Casey, Leslie S.; Hollingshead, Susan K.; Briles, David E.; Dondero, Richard S.; Hickey, Anthony J.; Foster, W. Michael; Staats, Herman F.

    2010-01-01

    IL-1? and IL-1? were evaluated for their ability to provide adjuvant activity for the induction of serum antibody responses when nasally-administered with protein antigens in mice and rabbits. In mice, intranasal (i.n.) immunization with pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) or tetanus toxoid (TT) combined with IL-1? induced protective immunity that was equivalent to that induced by parenteral immunization. Nasal immunization of awake (i.e., not anesthetized) rabbits with IL-1-adjuvanted vaccines induced highly variable serum antibody responses and was not as effective as parenteral immunization for the induction of antigen-specific serum IgG. However, i.n. immunization of deeply anesthetized rabbits with rPA + IL-1? consistently induced rPA-specific serum IgG ELISA titers that were not significantly different than those induced by intramuscular (IM) immunization with rPA + alum although lethal toxin neutralizing titers induced by nasal immunization were lower than those induced by IM immunization. Gamma scintigraphy demonstrated that the enhanced immunogenicity of nasal immunization in anesthetized rabbits correlated with an increased nasal retention of i.n. delivered non-permeable radio-labeled colloidal particles. Our results demonstrate that, in mice, IL-1 is an effective adjuvant for nasally-administered vaccines for the induction of protective systemic immunity and that in non-rodent species, effective induction of systemic immunity with nasally-administered vaccines may require formulations that ensure adequate retention of the vaccine within the nasal cavity. PMID:20723629

  1. Steroid estrogens, nonylphenol ethoxylate metabolites, and other wastewater contaminants in groundwater affected by a residential septic system on cape cod, MA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swartz, C.H.; Reddy, S.; Benotti, M.J.; Yin, H.; Barber, L.B.; Brownawell, Bruce J.; Rudel, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Septic systems serve approximately 25% of U.S. households and may be an important source of estrogenic and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWC) to groundwater. We monitored several estrogenic OWC, including nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol mono- and diethoxycarboxylates (NP1EC and NP2EC), the steroid hormones 17??-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and their glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, and other OWC such as methylene blue active substances (MBAS), caffeine and its degradation product paraxanthine, and two fluorescent whitening agents in a residential septic system and in downgradient groundwater. E1 and E2 were present predominantly as free estrogens in groundwater, and near-source groundwater concentrations of all OWC were highest in the suboxic to anoxic portion of the wastewater plume, where concentrations of most OWC were similar to those observed in the septic tank on the same day. NP and NP2EC were up to 6- to 30-fold higher, and caffeine and paraxanthine were each 60-fold lower than septic tank concentrations, suggesting net production and removal, respectively, of these constituents. At the most shallow, oxic depth, concentrations of all OWC except for NP2EC were substantially lower than in the tank and in deeper wells. Yet boron, specific conductance, and the sum of nitrate-and ammonia-nitrogen were highest at this shallow depth, suggesting preferential losses of OWC along the more oxic flow lines. As far as 6.0 m downgradient, concentrations of many OWC were within a factor of 2 of near-source concentrations. The results suggest that there is the potential for migration of these OWC, which are unregulated and not routinely monitored, in groundwater. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  2. Development and drift-analysis of a modular electromagnetic induction system for shallow ground conductivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mester, A.; Zimmermann, E.; Van der Kruk, J.; Vereecken, H.; Van Waasen, S.

    2014-05-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) is used for fast near surface mapping of the electrical conductivity (EC) for a wide range of geophysical applications. Recently, enhanced methods were developed to measure depth-dependent EC by inverting quantitative multi-configuration EMI data, which increases the demand for a suitable multi-channel EMI measurement system. We have designed a novel EMI system that enables the use of modular transmitter/receiver (TX/RX) units, which are connected to a central measurement system and are optimized for flexible setups with coil separations of up to 1.0 m. Each TX/RX-unit contains a coil, which is specifically adjusted for transmitting or receiving magnetic fields. All units enable impedance measurements at the coils, which are used to simulate its electrical circuit and analyze temperature-induced drift effects. A laboratory drift analysis at 8 kHz showed that 88% of the drift in the measured data is due to the change in the electrical transmitter coil resistance. The remaining 12% is due to changes in the transmitter coil inductance and capacitance, the receiver impedance and drifts in the amplification circuit. A measurement under field conditions proved that the new EMI system is able to detect a water-filled swimming pool with 50 mS m-1, using a coil separation of 0.3 m. In addition, the system allows in-field ambient noise spectra measurements in order to select optimal low-noise measurement frequencies.

  3. Behaviour of a desolvation system based on microwave radiation heating for use in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Gras; Juan Mora; José L. Todolí; Vicente Hernandis; Antonio Canals

    1997-01-01

    The present paper describes the preliminary results obtained with a desolvation system for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry that incorporates a heating unit based on microwave (MW) radiation. This system has been called Microwave Desolvation System (MWDS). The results have proved that MW radiation can be considered as a good choice for aerosol heating in a sample introduction system.

  4. Steroids in Athletics: One University's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Mike

    1990-01-01

    Presents an account of one university's experience in conducting an investigation into possible steroid use by student athletes and the development of a program to deal with the problem. Discusses why athletes use steroids and how steroids are taken. Concludes it is likely many steroid-related deaths of athletes go undetected. (Author/ABL)

  5. Research Article Open Access Steroids & Hormonal Science

    E-print Network

    Kawato, Suguru

    Research Article Open Access Steroids & Hormonal Science Hojo et al., J Steroids Hormon Sci 2014, S4 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7536.S4-002 J Steroids Hormon Sci Neurosteroids ISSN:2157-7536 JSHS-estradiol (E2), progesterone (PROG) and estrone [1], which is similar to hippocampus-synthesized steroids

  6. Integration and control of an induction-coupled plasma system and facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.K.; Cunningham, J.W. [Sverdrup Technology Inst., Tullahoma, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Plasma systems have been used for a number of industrial and aerospace applications over the last 35 years. Recent efforts to remediate environmental problems are increasing the number of applications. A proprietary process known as Plasma Energy Recycle and Conversion (PERC{trademark}) is being developed by Plasma Technology, Inc. of Santa Fe, NM, to eliminate waste material cleanly and efficiently. This process uses a radio frequency (RF) induction-coupled plasma (ICP) system to heat a thermal reactor to high temperatures for this purpose. The principle components of this facility include the RF heater and a vacuum tube power supply, a modular thermal reactor, auxiliary support equipment such as vacuum, cooling water and gaseous supply systems, controls, instrumentation and data acquisition systems. This paper provides an overview of the Sverdrup-provided or modified facility design requirements and principle systems and components.

  7. Convergence of Multiple Mechanisms of Steroid Hormone Action

    PubMed Central

    Mani, S. K.; Mermelstein, P. G.; Tetel, M. J.; Anesetti, G.

    2013-01-01

    Steroid hormones modulate a wide array of physiological processes including development, metabolism, and reproduction in various species. It is generally believed that these biological effects are predominantly mediated by their binding to specific intracellular receptors resulting in conformational change, dimerization, and recruitment of coregulators for transcription-dependent genomic actions (classical mechanism). In addition, to their cognate ligands, intracellular steroid receptors can also be activated in a “ligand-independent” manner by other factors including neurotransmitters. Recent studies indicate that rapid, nonclassical steroid effects involve extranuclear steroid receptors located at the membrane, which interact with cytoplasmic kinase signaling molecules and G-proteins. The current review deals with various mechanisms that function together in an integrated manner to promote hormone-dependent actions on the central and sympathetic nervous systems. PMID:22454239

  8. Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Protein-Protein Interactions in the Cytochrome CYP11A1 (P450scc)-Containing Steroid Hydroxylase System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yd; Frantsuzov, Pa; Zöllner, A.; Medvedeva, Nv; Archakov, Ai; Reinle, W.; Bernhardt, R.

    2011-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) were used for monitoring of the procedure for cytochrome CYP11A1 monomerization in solution without phospholipids. It was shown that the incubation of 100 ?M CYP11A1 with 12% Emulgen 913 in 50 mM KP, pH 7.4, for 10 min at T = 22°C leads to dissociation of hemoprotein aggregates to monomers with the monomerization degree of (82 ± 4)%. Following the monomerization procedure, CYP11A1 remained functionally active. AFM was employed to detect and visualize the isolated proteins as well as complexes formed between the components of the cytochrome CYP11A1-dependent steroid hydroxylase system. Both Ad and AdR were present in solution as monomers. The typical heights of the monomeric AdR, Ad and CYP11A1 images were measured by AFM and were found to correspond to the sizes 1.6 ± 0.2 nm, 1.0 ± 0.2 nm and 1.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively. The binary Ad/AdR and AdR/CYP11A1mon complexes with the heights 2.2 ± 0.2 nm and 2.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively, were registered by use of AFM. The Ad/CYP11A1mon complex formation reaction was kinetically characterized based on optical biosensor data. In addition, the ternary AdR/Ad/CYP11A1 complexes with a typical height of 4 ± 1 nm were AFM registered.

  9. Are Steroids Worth the Risk?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body hair. Testosterone levels can also affect how aggressive a person is. Athletes sometimes take anabolic steroids ... balding or hair loss weight gain mood swings aggression problems sleeping high blood pressure greater chance of ...

  10. Steroid Assays in Paediatric Endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Most steroid disorders of the adrenal cortex come to clinical attention in childhood and in order to investigate these problems, there are many challenges to the laboratory which need to be appreciated to a certain extent by clinicians. The analysis of sex steroids in biological fluids from neonates, over adrenarche and puberty present challenges of specificities and concentrations often in small sample sizes. Different reference ranges are also needed for interpretations. For around 40 years, quantitative assays for the steroids and their regulatory peptide hormones have been possible using immunoassay techniques. Problems are recognised and this review aims to summarise the benefits and failings of immunoassays and introduce where tandem mass spectrometry is anticipated to meet the clinical needs for steroid analysis in paediatric endocrine investigations. It is important to keep a dialogue between clinicians and the laboratory, especially when any laboratory result does not make sense in the clinical investigation. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274330

  11. Non-steroidal drug-induced glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Razeghinejad, M R; Pro, M J; Katz, L J

    2011-01-01

    Numerous systemically used drugs are involved in drug-induced glaucoma. Most reported cases of non-steroidal drug-induced glaucoma are closed-angle glaucoma (CAG). Indeed, many routinely used drugs that have sympathomimetic or parasympatholytic properties can cause pupillary block CAG in individuals with narrow iridocorneal angle. The resulting acute glaucoma occurs much more commonly unilaterally and only rarely bilaterally. CAG secondary to sulfa drugs is a bilateral non-pupillary block type and is due to forward movement of iris–lens diaphragm, which occurs in individuals with narrow or open iridocorneal angle. A few agents, including antineoplastics, may induce open-angle glaucoma. In conclusion, the majority of cases with glaucoma secondary to non-steroidal medications are of the pupillary block closed-angle type and preventable if the at-risk patients are recognized and treated prophylactically. PMID:21637303

  12. The photovoltaic pumping system using a variable speed single phase induction motor drive controlled by field oriented principle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varin Vongmanee

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper presents the photovoltaic (PV) water pumping system with a maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The water pumping system uses a variable speed single phase induction motor (SPIM) driven by a centrifugal pump by a field oriented control (FOC) inverter. The system under study consists of two sections. First, the MPPT using a DC-DC converter controlled

  13. Dehydroepiandrosterone: a neuroactive steroid.

    PubMed

    Stárka, Luboslav; Dušková, Michaela; Hill, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate bound form (DHEAS) are important steroids of mainly adrenal origin. They are produced also in gonads and in the brain. Dehydroepiandrosterone easily crosses the brain-blood barrier and in part is also produced locally in the brain tissue. In the brain, DHEA exerts its effects after conversion to either testosterone and dihydrotestosterone or estradiol via androgen and estrogen receptors present in the most parts of the human brain, through mainly non-genomic mechanisms, or eventually indirectly via the effects of its metabolites formed locally in the brain. As a neuroactive hormone, DHEA in co-operation with other hormones and transmitters significantly affects some aspects of human mood, and modifies some features of human emotions and behavior. It has been reported that its administration can increase feelings of well-being and is useful in ameliorating atypical depressive disorders. It has neuroprotective and antiglucocorticoid activity and modifies immune reactions, and some authors have also reported its role in degenerative brain diseases. Here we present a short overview of the possible actions of dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate in the brain, calling attention to various mechanisms of their action as neurosteroids and to prospects for the knowledge of their role in brain disorders. PMID:24704258

  14. A Novel Method for Improving Overload Capability of Stand-alone Power System Based on a Flywheel Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Miao-Miao; Kato, Shuhei; Sumitani, Hideo; Shimada, Ryuichi

    Stand-alone power systems are widely used in islands and remote areas. With the rapid advances in the new energy technology, stand-alone power systems have got a rapid development. However, their overload capability is very poor. In this paper, a novel method to improve the overload performance of the stand-alone power system is proposed by using a flywheel induction motor. The flywheel induction motor is composed of a flywheel disk connected to a squirrel cage induction motor. It is controlled to supply the overload power of the stand-alone power supply by charging and discharging. The proposed system is characterized by the following three points: 1) Simple configuration; The flywheel induction motor is directly connected to the inverter-controlled load without any converters. 2) Simple frequency control; The expected active power flow is realized by a small change of the stand-alone power side inverter's output frequency. 3) Low cost system; A decreased power capacity demand for the stand-alone power supply is realized by adding a low cost flywheel induction motor. Experimental results are provided to verify the proposed system.

  15. Radio Frequency Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Inductor Configurations for Achieving Large Inductance Variations and High Q-factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuochi, Yutaka; Amakawa, Shuhei; Ishihara, Noboru; Masu, Kazuya

    2010-05-01

    To determine a micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) inductor configuration that gives large inductance variations and high Q-factors, air-suspended MEMS inductor configurations are studied: (a) an inductor with two angularly meandered lines, (b) a solenoid inductor with a pair of movable shields, (c) a planar spiral inductor with a patterned shield of different areas, and (d) a planar spiral inductor with a metallic frame of different sizes. The configuration of (a) is shown to give a large inductance variation of 115%. However, its Q-factor is only about 10, and difficulties in fabrication are also expected. The configuration of (b) could be a reasonable engineering solution. The inductance variation is 67%, and the maximum Q-factor is over 22. The solenoidal inductor configuration is thus considered suitable for realizing an RF MEMS variable inductor with large inductance variations and high Q-factors.

  16. Inductive displacement sensors with a notch filter for an active magnetic bearing system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Seng-Chi; Le, Dinh-Kha; Nguyen, Van-Sum

    2014-01-01

    Active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems support rotating shafts without any physical contact, using electromagnetic forces. Each radial AMB uses two pairs of electromagnets at opposite sides of the rotor. This allows the rotor to float in the air gap, and the machine to operate without frictional losses. In active magnetic suspension, displacement sensors are necessary to detect the radial and axial movement of the suspended object. In a high-speed rotating machine equipped with an AMB, the rotor bending modes may be limited to the operating range. The natural frequencies of the rotor can cause instability. Thus, notch filters are a useful circuit for stabilizing the system. In addition, commercial displacement sensors are sometimes not suitable for AMB design, and cannot filter the noise caused by the natural frequencies of rotor. Hence, implementing displacement sensors based on the AMB structure is necessary to eliminate noises caused by natural frequency disturbances. The displacement sensor must be highly sensitive in the desired working range, and also exhibit a low interference noise, high stability, and low cost. In this study, we used the differential inductive sensor head and lock-in amplifier for synchronous demodulation. In addition, an active low-pass filter and a notch filter were used to eliminate disturbances, which caused by natural frequencies. As a consequence, the inductive displacement sensor achieved satisfactory linearity, high sensitivity, and disturbance elimination. This sensor can be easily produced for AMB applications. A prototype of these displacement sensors was built and tested. PMID:25029281

  17. Four Pulse Drive System for the Beam Induction Cells for DARHT Axis 2

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, J.; Carlson, R.; Melton, J.; Fockler, J.

    1999-06-28

    The proposed drive system allows for the generation of up to four (4) high-quality radiographic pulses along one line-of-sight, having arbitrary pulse spacing ({approximately}500 ns), using demonstrated technologies. This concept uses a four-pulse drive system to drive both a 16-MeV ensemble of 250-kV, 4-kA induction cells and a four-pulse, 4-MeV injector. The key to this approach lies in the method used to combine four pulses from different generators in a manner that does not compromise the voltage flatness requirement of {+-} 1%. The induction cells use core material for only a single pulse. A simple reverse bias circuit is used to reset the cores between pulses, and the insulator has been redesigned to withstand the reverse reset voltage. This approach can be installed in stages so that the facility can be used for dual axis radiography while implementing the multi-pulsing capability. A dual double-pulse format has been identified which provides a sequence of two pulses along one line-of-sight within a 2-{micro}sec window. The 2-{micro}sec windows can be separated by arbitrary time intervals of 2- to 10-{micro}sec.

  18. Topical steroid abuse: its use as a depigmenting agent.

    PubMed

    Nnoruka, Edith; Okoye, Obiefuna

    2006-06-01

    This study was undertaken to document prevalence, motives and observed complications of steroid use as a depigmenting agent amongst African blacks in southeast Nigeria. This practice is very common in the African environment. Consecutive new patients attending the dermatology clinic of the University of Nigeria TeachingHospital, Enugu, from June to December 2004 were recruited. Active substances of products used were determined from packages, while unknown concoctions were analyzed. Chi-squared and Fischer tests were used for statistical analysis, with a significant threshold fixed at 5%. Females aged 18-69 years accounted for 75% (414) of patients. Main topical steroids used by both women and men were class-1 steroids, and these were often compounded with other bleaching products. Median duration of usage was 9 years +/- 1.3. Disorders observed included steroid-induced acne (45.3%), macular hyperpigmentation of face (37.2%), mycoses (40.4%), striae (28.3%), telangiectasis (21.3%), hypertrichosis (13.9%) and diabetes mellitus (2.1%). Duration of utilization of these topical steroids was significantly associated with severe local and systemic consequences, while withdrawal of the offending steroids usually resulted in severe withdrawal dermatitis that was unpleasant to patients. This may suggest that discontinuation is impossible. PMID:16775916

  19. Fluorescent cellular sensors of steroid receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Muddana, Smita S; Peterson, Blake R

    2003-09-01

    Steroid hormone receptors comprise a major class of therapeutic drug targets that control gene expression by binding steroid hormone ligands. These small molecule-protein interactions are typically characterized in living cells by quantification of ligand-mediated reporter gene expression. As an alternative, non-transcriptional approach, we constructed fluorescent cellular sensors by expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fused to the ligand binding domains (LBDs) of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta), androgen receptor (AR), and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). These proteins were tethered through a short two amino acid linker and expressed in S. cerevisiae yeast. Recombinant yeast treated with cognate steroid receptor ligands exhibited dose-dependent fluorescence enhancements that were correlated with known relative receptor binding affinity values. These effects generally paralleled ligand-mediated receptor dimerization quantified with analogous yeast two-hybrid transcriptional assays, suggesting that the majority of the observed fluorescence enhancements were conferred by conformational changes coupled with receptor dimerization, such as ligand-mediated stabilization of protein folding. Remarkably, certain interactions such as the binding of cortisol, progesterone, and dexamethasone to the GR were undetectable with yeast two-hybrid assays. However, these interactions were detected with the fluorescent cellular sensors, indicating the sensitivity of this system to subtle ligand-induced conformational effects. These sensors provide a novel, non-transcriptional, and high-throughput method to identify and analyze ligands of nuclear hormone receptors. PMID:12964159

  20. Experimental verification of sensing capability of an electromagnetic induction system for an MR fluid damper-based control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H. J.; Jang, D. D.; Cho, S. W.; Koo, J. H.

    2009-02-01

    This paper investigates the sensing capability of an Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) system that is incorporated in a vibration control system based on MR fluid dampers. The EMI system, consisting of permanent magnets and coils, converts reciprocal motions (kinetic energy) of MR damper into electrical energy (electromotive force or emf). According to the Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, the emf signal, produced from the EMI, is proportional to the velocity of the motion. Thus, the induced voltage (emf) signal is able to provide the necessary measurement information (i.e., relative velocity across the damper). In other words, the EMI can act as a sensor in the MR damper system. In order to evaluate the proposed concept of the EMI sensor, an EMI system was constructed and integrated into an MR damper system. The emf signal is experimentally compared with the velocity signal by conducting a series of shaking table tests. The results show that the induced emf voltage signal well agreed with the relative velocity.

  1. 406 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 2, APRIL 2006 Magnetic Induction Machines Integrated Into

    E-print Network

    , magnetic induction machines intended for high-speed, high-temperature, high-power-density, silicon the machine structures. The induction machines were characterized in motoring mode using tethered rotors, and exhibited a maximum measured torque of 2.5 N m. [1466] Index Terms--AC generators, induction machines

  2. Using a Computer Algebra System to Facilitate the Learning of Mathematical Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Alasdair

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical induction is one of the major proof techniques taught to mathematics students in the first years of their undergraduate degrees. In addition to its importance to mathematics, induction is also required for computer science and related disciplines. However, even if the concepts of a proof by induction are taught and understood, many…

  3. Induction and functional significance of the heme oxygenase system in pathological shear stress in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lu; Hillestad, Matthew L; Grande, Joseph P; Croatt, Anthony J; Barry, Michael A; Farrugia, Gianrico; Katusic, Zvonimir S; Nath, Karl A

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined the heme oxygenase (HO) system in an in vivo murine model of pathological shear stress induced by partial carotid artery ligation. In this model, along with upregulation of vasculopathic genes, HO-1 is induced in the endothelium and adventitia, whereas HO-2 is mainly upregulated in the endothelium. Within minutes of ligation, NF-?B, a transcription factor that upregulates vasculopathic genes and HO-1, is activated. Failure to express either HO-1 or HO-2 exaggerates the reduction in carotid blood flow and exacerbates vascular injury. After artery ligation, comparable induction of HO-2 occurred in HO-1(+/+) and HO-1(-/-) mice, whereas HO-1 induction was exaggerated in HO-2(-/-) mice compared with HO-2(+/+) mice. Upregulation of HO-1 by an adeno-associated viral vector increased vascular HO-1 expression and HO activity and augmented blood flow in both ligated and contralateral carotid arteries. Acute inhibition of HO activity decreased flow in the ligated carotid artery, whereas a product of HO, carbon monoxide (CO), delivered by CO-releasing molecule-3, increased carotid blood flow. In conclusion, in the partial carotid artery ligation model of pathological shear stress, this study provides the first demonstration of 1) upregulation and vasoprotective effects of HO-1 and HO-2 and the vasorelaxant effects of CO as well as 2) vascular upregulation of HO-1 in vivo by an adeno-associated viral vector that is attended by a salutary vascular response. Induction of HO-1 may reside in NF-?B activation, and, along with induced HO-2, such upregulation of HO-1 provides a countervailing vasoprotective response in pathological shear stress in vivo. PMID:25820397

  4. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems

    SciTech Connect

    Luong, E.

    1999-05-10

    This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 {+-} 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 {+-} 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 {+-} 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 {+-} 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and {beta}-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of {sup 13}C{sup +} with {sup 12}C{sup 1}H{sup +} comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or {beta}-cyclodextrin.

  5. Progesterone as a neurosteroid: synthesis and actions in rat glial cellsProceedings of Xth International Congress on Hormonal Steroids, Quebec, Canada, 17–21 June 1998

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Jung-Testas; A Do Thi; H Koenig; F Désarnaud; K Shazand; M Schumacher; E. E Baulieu

    1999-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are targets for steroid hormones where they regulate important neuronal functions. Some steroid hormones are synthesized within the nervous system, either de novo from cholesterol, or by the metabolism of precursors originating from the circulation, and they were termed `neurosteroids'. The sex steroid progesterone can also be considered as

  6. Optical control, diagnostic and power supply system for a solid state induction modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Saethre, R. [Bechtel Nevada Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Kirbie, H.; Hickman, B.; Lee, B.; Ollis, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A new high speed optical control, diagnostic and power supply system has been developed for a solid state induction modulator. The modulator consists of a large array of field effect transistors (FETs) that switch a high-voltage pulse across a tape-wound magnetic core. The FETs within the modulator are mounted on numerous circuit boards that are stacked in series for high-voltage operation. The new optical system overcomes the issue of voltage isolation by supplying each circuit board with optically coupled control power and high bandwidth signal information. An optical fiber is used to transmit laser light to a custom photovoltaic cell that provides dc power to the on-board control circuits. Optical fiber technology is again used to convey a pulse that contains detailed analog features to the FET gate controls. Diagnostic data and status information are also obtained from each board by similar optical methods. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Steroid Signaling System Responds Differently to Temperature and Hormone Manipulation in the Red-Eared Slider Turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), a Reptile with Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ramsey; D. Crews

    2007-01-01

    Many reptiles, including the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Temperature determines gonadal sex during the middle of embryogenesis, or the temperature-sensitive period (TSP), when gonadal sex is labile to both temperature and hormones – particularly estrogen. The biological actions of steroid hormones are mediated by their receptors as defined here as the classic transcriptional

  8. FPGA-BASED COMPUTATION OF THE INDUCTANCE OF COILS USED FOR THE MAGNETIC STIMULATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    stimulation of the human nervous system is now a common technique in modern medicine [1]. A difficultyFPGA-BASED COMPUTATION OF THE INDUCTANCE OF COILS USED FOR THE MAGNETIC STIMULATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Ionu Trestian, Octavian Cre, Laura Cre, Lucia Vcariu, Radu Tudoran Computer Science Department

  9. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

  10. Induction of systemic resistance by Pseudomonas fluorescens in radish cultivars differing in susceptibility to fusarium wilt, using a novel bioassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Leeman; J. A. van Pelt; F. M. den Ouden; M. Heinsbroek; P. A. H. M. Bakker; B. Schippers

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens-mediated induction of systemic resistance in radish against fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.raphani) was studied in a newly developed bioassay using a rockwool system. In this bioassay the pathogen and bacterium were confirmed to be confined to spatially separate locations on the plant root, throughout the experiment. Pathogen inoculum obtained by mixing peat with microconidia and subsequent incubation

  11. Full bridge phase-shifted soft switching high-frequency inverter with boost PFC function for induction heating system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuki Kawaguchi; Eiji Hiraki; Toshihiko Tanaka; Mutsuo Nakaoka

    2007-01-01

    This paper is mainly concerned with a high frequency soft-switching PWM inverter suitable for consumer induction heating system. Proposed system is composed of soft switching chopper based voltage boost PFC input stage and phase shifted PWM controlled full bridge ZCZVS high frequency inverter stage. Its fundamentals of operating performances are illustrated and evaluated on the experimental results. Its effectiveness is

  12. Development of new training algorithms for neuro-wavelet systems on the robust control of induction servo motor drive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong-Jong Wai

    2002-01-01

    A robust wavelet neural network control (RWNNC) system is proposed to control the rotor position of an induction servo motor drive in this paper. In the proposed RWNNC system, a wavelet neural network controller is the main tracking controller that is used to mimic a computed torque control law, and a robust controller is designed to recover the residual approximation

  13. The General Vector Addition System Reachability Problem by Presburger Inductive Invariants

    E-print Network

    Leroux, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    The reachability problem for Vector Addition Systems (VASs) is a central problem of net theory. The general problem is known to be decidable by algorithms exclusively based on the classical Kosaraju-Lambert-Mayr-Sacerdote-Tenney decomposition. This decomposition is used in this paper to prove that the Parikh images of languages recognized by VASs are semi-pseudo-linear; a class that extends the semi-linear sets, a.k.a. the sets definable in Presburger arithmetic. We provide an application of this result; we prove that a final configuration is not reachable from an initial one if and only if there exists a semi-linear inductive invariant that contains the initial configuration but not the final one. Since we can decide if a Presburger formula denotes an inductive invariant, we deduce that there exist checkable certificates of non-reachability. In particular, there exists a simple algorithm for deciding the general VAS reachability problem based on two semi-algorithms. A first one that tries to prove the reacha...

  14. Development of an inductively coupled plasma etching system for 230-mm reticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, David A.; Donohue, John

    1999-04-01

    The improved economics of larger chip/die sizes combined with the transition to 300 nm wafers will drive the photomask industry into the use of 230 mm reticles. This conversion is also anticipated to occur simultaneously with the introduction of automated mask handling and at the 0.15 micrometers to 0.13 micrometers technology generations requiring improved CD uniformities and smaller defect sizes. This paper will describe the development of a large area inductively coupled plasma source capable of processing 230 mm reticles. The use of Langmuir probe measurements performed on a fully adjustable prototype source with the intent to arrive at an optimum design for generation of a high density and uniform plasma will be discussed. An overview of an automated front end capable of handling both 6 inch and 230 mm reticles will be reviewed. The high plasma density along with independent ion energy control and low- pressure operation make inductively coupled plasma technology well suited to met the requirements of future wafer level generations. The use of a custom configurable cluster tool with an automated front end enables this system to adapt to the individual requirements of each photomask manufacturability facility.

  15. The microsomal mixed function oxidase system of amphibians and reptiles: components, activities and induction.

    PubMed

    Ertl, R P; Winston, G W

    1998-11-01

    This article reviews current research in amphibian and reptilian cytochromes P450, important to the overall understanding of xenobiotic metabolism in the ecosystem and the evolution of P450s. Amphibians and reptilians contain the normal mixed function oxidase system (MFO). In general the MFO content and activities are less than those found in mammals, but only a few of the known activities have been examined in these vertebrate classes. Research to date has focused on two families of cytochromes P450, CYP1 and 2. The isoforms examined catalyze the classic activities but there have been notable absences. The total number of isoforms present and the breadth of substrates metabolized are yet unknown. Induction by foreign compounds (xenobiotics) is lengthier and yields lower levels of induced activity than is typically found in mammals. When these animals are pretreated with 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) and beta-naphthaflavone (BNF), which are known to induce the same isoform in mammals, multiple isoforms are induced with different activities. Phenobarbital-pretreatment in turtles and alligators induces cytochromes P450 and suggestive data indicates induction in the lizard Agama lizard and the newt Pleurodeles waltl. In amphibians and reptiles a CYP2B protein does appear to be present along with constitutive activities associated with the 2 family of cytochromes P450. The markedly different response to classic inducers combined with lower or absent activities alters the view of how amphibians and reptilians respond to xenobiotic challenges. PMID:9972453

  16. Glaucoma induced by periorbital topical steroid use--a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Sahni, D; Darley, C R; Hawk, J L M

    2004-11-01

    Eye complications arising during systemic and ophthalmic steroid use are well known. In contrast, there is little highlighting the similar risks associated with topical steroid use around the eyelids. We now describe a 29-year-old lady who used topical steroids in prolonged fashion throughout most of her life for severe eczema, with the recent application of large quantities of potent steroid continuously for one month, including to the periorbital region. Soon after, she presented to her ophthalmologist with severe bilateral glaucoma and irreversible visual loss attributed to the steroid use. Here we emphasise the possible risks of periorbital topical steroid use, as well as the importance of patient education and ophthalmological follow-up. PMID:15550136

  17. Inductively coupled plasma -- Atomic emission spectroscopy glove box assembly system at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Marlow, J.H.; McCarthy, K.M.; Tamul, N.R.

    1999-12-17

    The inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy [ICP/AES (ICP)] system for elemental analyses in support of vitrification processing was first installed in 1986. The initial instrument was a Jobin Yvon (JY) Model JY-70 ICP that consisted of sequential and simultaneous spectrometers for analysis of nonradioactive samples as radioactive surrogates. The JY-70 ICP continued supporting nonradioactive testing during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) using the full-scale melter with ``cold'' (nonradioactive) testing campaigns. As a result, the need for another system was identified to allow for the analysis of radioactive samples. The Mass Spec (Spectrometry) Lab was established for the installation of the modified ICP system for handling radioactive samples. The conceptual setup of another ICP was predicated on the use of a hood to allow ease of accessibility of the torch, nebulizer, and spray chamber, and the minimization of air flow paths. However, reconsideration of the radioactive sample dose rate and contamination levels led to the configuration of the glovebox system with a common transfer interface box for the ICP and the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) glovebox assemblies. As a result, a simultaneous Model JY-50P ICP with glovebox was installed in 1990 as a first generation ICP glovebox system. This was one of the first ICP glovebox assemblies connected with an ICP-MS glovebox system. Since the economics of processing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) required the availability of an instrument to operate 24 hours a day throughout the year without any downtime, a second generation ICP glovebox assembly was designed, manufactured, and installed in 1995 using a Model JY-46P ICP. These two ICP glovebox systems continue to support vitrification of the HLW into canisters for storage. The ICP systems have been instrumental in monitoring vitrification batch processing. To date, remote sample preparation and compositional analysis of key parameters, i.e., greater than 0.5% weight percent metal oxides, during batch processing (waste initials, glass formers, waste plus glass formers, and glass) has verified the composition to be within the acceptance criteria and generated the necessary data for the Waste Qualification Report.

  18. Steroid-free and steroid withdrawal protocols in heart transplantation: the review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Baraldo, Massimo; Gregoraci, Giorgia; Livi, Ugolino

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroids (CSs) are still the mainstay of induction, rescue, and maintenance in heart transplantation (HTx). However, their use is associated with significant and well-documented side effects usually related to the dose administered and the duration of therapy. Moreover, CSs interfere with the recipient's quality of life and with the active process of graft tolerance. Physicians have been exploring ways to avoid or reduce CSs in association with other immunosuppressive drugs, minimizing side effects and costs. The regimens are classifiedassteroid-freeorsteroid withdrawal protocols. The studies analyzed in this review come to similar conclusions as benefits and adverse consequences: steroid-freeprotocols should be advisable and mandatory in pediatric patients, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), presence of infection, familial metabolic disorders/obesity, severe osteoporosis, and in the elderly. On the other hand, steroid withdrawalcan be successfully achieved in 50–80%, with late better than early withdrawal, no increase in rejection-related mortality, no adverse impact on survival, and probably a better quality of live. Safety and efficacy can certainly be improved by an individualized approach to the transplant recipient. PMID:24617420

  19. Influence of phomopsin and ivalin on steroid?hormone binding and growth of mcf?7 human breast cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Casper H. van Aswegen; Walter M. Lewko; James L. Wittliff

    1985-01-01

    Ivalin is a plant alkaloid that inhibits the induction of tumors in animals. Phomopsin is a mycotoxin known to be carcinogenic. To determine if these compounds influence endocrine responsiveness, their effect on steroid receptors was measured. Neither of these toxins had a direct effect on either the binding capacity or the rate of steroid association of [3H]estradiol?17ß, [3H]R5020, or [3H]dexamethasone

  20. Green Light for Steroid Hormones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David W. Russell (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; Department of Molecular Genetics)

    1996-04-19

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. In his Perspective, D. Russell describes two papers--one in this week's issue of Science (Li et al., p. 398) and one in the 19 April issue of Cell (M. Szekeres et al.)--which report on two enzymes that synthesize steroid hormones cloned from Arabidopsis. These enzymes, DET2 and CPD, are in the biosynthetic pathway for brassinolides, steroids that seem to participate in the regulation of gene expression by light.

  1. Spatial variation of plasma parameters and ion acceleration in an inductive plasma system

    SciTech Connect

    Volynets, V.N.; Park, Wontaek; Tolmachev, Yu.N.; Pashkovsky, V.G.; Yoo, Jinwoo [Mechatronics and Manufacturing Technology Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., 416 Maetan-3Dong, Suwon City, Kyunggi-do 443-742 (Korea, Republic of); Nano Fabrication Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), Kihung-Eup, Yongin City, Kyunggi-do 449-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Plasma parameters of inductively coupled plasma system with an annular plasma source have been studied experimentally. At low pressures (about 1 mTorr), electron temperature inside the plasma source is rather high (8-13 eV) and is much greater than in the diffusion (main) chamber (4-5 eV). The plasma potential inside the source is also much higher than in the main chamber. There is a rapid drop of the electron temperature and plasma potential at the boundary between the plasma source and the main chamber. The drop of the plasma potential at the boundary (about 20 V) means the existence of a strong axial electric field, which retards the electrons inside the plasma source and accelerates the ions from the source into the main chamber. Measurements of ion energy distributions in the main chamber volume reveal the existence of ions with kinetic energies about 15 eV.

  2. Measurement of the target current by inductive probe during laser interaction on terawatt laser system PALS

    SciTech Connect

    Cikhardt, J.; Klír, D.; ?ezá?, K. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, 166 27 Prague (Czech Republic); Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Krása, J.; De Marco, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Velyhan, A.; Krouský, E. [Institute of Physics AS CR, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Cikhardtová, B.; Kubeš, P.; Kravárik, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, 166 27 Prague (Czech Republic); Ullschmied, J.; Skála, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-10-15

    Measurements of the return-current flowing through a solid target irradiated with the sub-nanosecond kJ-class Prague Asterix Laser System is reported. A new inductive target probe was developed which allows us measuring the target current derivative in a kA/ns range. The dependences of the target current on the laser pulse energy for cooper, graphite, and polyethylene targets are reported. The experiment shows that the target current is proportional to the deposited laser energy and is strongly affected by the shot-to-shot fluctuations. The corresponding maximum target charge exceeded a value of 10 ?C. A return-current dependence of the electromagnetic pulse produced by the laser-target interaction is presented.

  3. STEROID RECEPTOR COACTIVATOR-2 EXPRESSION IN BRAIN AND PHYSICAL ASSOCIATIONS WITH STEROID RECEPTORS

    E-print Network

    STEROID RECEPTOR COACTIVATOR-2 EXPRESSION IN BRAIN AND PHYSICAL ASSOCIATIONS WITH STEROID RECEPTORS and cognition. Work from our lab and others has shown that the nuclear receptor coactivators, steroid receptor for coactiva- tors to function with steroid receptors, they must be ex- pressed in the same cells. Indeed, SRC

  4. The development of a model system to monitor induction of an enzyme in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 

    E-print Network

    Wilkerson, James Edward

    1979-01-01

    . Whole cells exhibited a ten-fold induction in strain X2180-18 and a six-fold induction in spheroplasts of o-131-20. Enzyme kinetics were determined with purified alkaline phospha- tase. When p-nitrophenyl phosphate was used as substrate, the Km... REVIEW. MATERIAL AND METHODS Organisms Growth of Cells Production of Spheroplasts. Induction of Enzyme Purification of Enzyme. Enzyme Assay. Enzyme Kinetics Electrophoresis Electron Microscopy Chemicals RESULTS. Production of Spheroplasts...

  5. Evaluation of a Closed Loop Inductive Power Transmission System on an Awake Behaving Animal Subject

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Mehdi; Kwon, Ki Yong; Zhang, Fei; Oweiss, Karim; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents in vivo experimental results for a closed loop wireless power transmission system to implantable devices on an awake behaving animal subject. In this system, wireless power transmission takes place across an inductive link, controlled by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. Induced voltage on the implantable secondary coil is rectified, digitized by a 10-bit analog to digital converter, and transmitted back to the primary via back telemetry. Transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) circuitry were mounted on the back of an adult rat with a nominal distance of ~7 mm between their coils. Our experiments showed that the closed loop system was able to maintain the Rx supply voltage at the designated 3.8 V despite changes in the coils’ relative distance and alignment due to animal movements. The Tx power consumption changed between 410 ~ 560 mW in order to deliver 27 mW to the receiver. The open loop system, on the other hand, showed undesired changes in the Rx supply voltage while the Tx power consumption was constant at 660 mW. PMID:22256112

  6. Steroid and sterol hormone action

    SciTech Connect

    Spelsberg, T.C.; Kumar, R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 21 selections. Some of the titles are: Estrogen control of vitellogenin gene transcription and mRNA stability; Inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor conversion to the DNA-binding state and inhibition of subunit dissociation; Steroid regulation of rRNA synthesis; Messenger RNA-S14 as a model of thyroid hormone action at the hepatocellular level; and The oxysterol receptor.

  7. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for bearing fault detection in induction motors using temperature, current, vibration data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malik S. Yilmaz; Emine Ayaz

    2009-01-01

    In this study the features for bearing fault diagnosis is investigated based on the analysis of temperature, vibration and current measurements of a 3 phase, 4 poles, 5 HP induction motors which are chemically, thermally and electrically aged by artificial aging methods. Then three adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems which takes the temperature, current and vibration measurements as inputs and the

  8. THE INDUCTION OF MENTAL STRUCTURES WHILE LEARNING TO USE SYMBOLIC SYSTEMS T. G. Bever and Ralph E. Hansen

    E-print Network

    Bever, Thomas G.

    THE INDUCTION OF MENTAL STRUCTURES WHILE LEARNING TO USE SYMBOLIC SYSTEMS T. G. Bever and Ralph E. * * * * * * * * Humans inevitably construct implicit mental representations to guide their concrete actions and percepts. The research in this paper investigates a theory of the conditions which elicit such formal mental structures

  9. The magnetic field, force and inductance of the system consisting of a thin ellipsoidal coil and a ferromagnetic ellipsoid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Purczynski; Pawel Rolicz; Ryszard Sikora

    1975-01-01

    The method of separation of variables has been applied to determine the magnetic field of the system consisting of a thin\\u000a ellipsoidal coil and a ferromagnetic ellipsoid of revolution. The inductance and the force acting between the coil and the\\u000a ellipsoid are also examined.

  10. Radio Frequency Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Inductor Configurations for Achieving Large Inductance Variations and High Q-factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutaka Mizuochi; Shuhei Amakawa; Noboru Ishihara; Kazuya Masu

    2010-01-01

    To determine a micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) inductor configuration that gives large inductance variations and high Q-factors, air-suspended MEMS inductor configurations are studied: (a) an inductor with two angularly meandered lines, (b) a solenoid inductor with a pair of movable shields, (c) a planar spiral inductor with a patterned shield of different areas, and (d) a planar spiral inductor

  11. A novel variable-speed wind energy system using induction generator and six-switch AC\\/AC converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Heydari; A. Yazdian Varjani; M. Mohamadian

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays using of the wind energy has a growing trend in the world due to their numerous advantages. The wind energy is free, inexhaustible and it produces no waste or greenhouse gases. Furthermore, it is a good method of supplying energy to remote areas. In this paper, a new variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) with a squirrel cage induction

  12. JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 497 Rapid Silicon-to-Steel Bonding by Induction

    E-print Network

    Lin, Liwei

    -to-Steel Bonding by Induction Heating for MEMS Strain Sensors Brian D. Sosnowchik, Robert G. Azevedo, Member, IEEE and manufacturable technique to bond sil- icon to steel for microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensor applications, with bonding oc- curring in 3­5 s. Heat generation is isolated to within several micrometers below the steel

  13. Performance Analysis of an Induction Machine-Based Flywheel Energy Storage System Associated to a Variable-Speed Wind Generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel CIMUCA; Mircea M. RADULESCU; Christophe SAUDEMONT; Benoît ROBYNS

    The flywheel energy storage systems (FESSs) are suitable for improving the quality of the electric power delivered by the wind generators and to help these generators to contribute to the ancillary services. This paper investigates the energetic performances of a low-speed FESS with a classical squirrel-cage Induction Machine (IM) in the aim of its association to a wind generator.

  14. Vectorial Command of Induction Motor Pumping System Supplied by a Photovoltaic Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhlouf, Messaoud; Messai, Feyrouz; Benalla, Hocine

    2011-01-01

    With the continuous decrease of the cost of solar cells, there is an increasing interest and needs in photovoltaic (PV) system applications following standard of living improvements. Water pumping system powered by solar-cell generators are one of the most important applications. The fluctuation of solar energy on one hand, and the necessity to optimise available solar energy on the other, it is useful to develop new efficient and flexible modes to control motors that entrain the pump. A vectorial control of an asynchronous motor fed by a photovoltaic system is proposed. This paper investigates a photovoltaic-electro mechanic chain, composed of a PV generator, DC-AC converter, a vector controlled induction motor and centrifugal pump. The PV generator is forced to operate at its maximum power point by using an appropriate search algorithm integrated in the vector control. The optimization is realized without need to adding a DC-DC converter to the chain. The motor supply is also ensured in all insolation conditions. Simulation results show the effectiveness and feasibility of such an approach.

  15. Perioral dermatitis -- the role of nasal steroids.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Lígia; Morais, Paulo

    2012-06-01

    We present two patients with allergic rhinitis who developed perioral dermatitis (PD) after initiating intranasal steroid spray. Both patients had been previously misdiagnosed as having contact or seborrheic dermatitis, and therefore inappropriately and unsuccessfully treated with topical steroids. Physicians should be aware of this potential side effect of intranasal steroids to avoid incorrect therapeutic measures. In the setting of nasal steroids use, PD probably is an under-reported and commonly misdiagnosed condition that should be thought when a patient treated with nasal steroids present with small erythematous papules, papulovesicles, and papulopustules occurring against a background of redness, beginning in the nasolabial areas and spreading rapidly to the perioral zone. PMID:21995785

  16. Five-phase induction motor drives with DSP-based control system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huangsheng Xu; Hamid A. Toliyat; Lynn J. Petersen

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces two kinds of control schemes: vector control and direct torque control (DTC). These control schemes can be extensively applied to the operation of a five-phase induction motor using a fully digital implementation. Vector control of the five-phase induction motor not only achieves high drive performance, but also generates the desired nearly rectangular current waveforms and flux profile

  17. Nonlinear IIR filter considering nonlinearity of self-inductance of loudspeaker systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Iwai; Y. Kajikawa

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel nonlinear IIR filter considering the effect of the self-inductance in loudspeaker units in order to compensate the nonlinear distortion. The nonlinear IIR filter proposed by Takemura, et al. includes the nonlinealities of the force factor and the stiffness of the suspension except the self-inductance of the voice coil in loudspeaker units. This means

  18. Investigation of Aerodynamic and Icing Characteristics of a Flush Alternate Inlet Induction System Air Scoop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James P.

    1953-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel to determine the aerodynamic and icing characteristics of a full-scale induction-system air-scoop assembly incorporating a flush alternate inlet. The flush inlet was located immediately downstream of the offset ram inlet and included a 180 deg reversal and a 90 deg elbow in the ducting between inlet and carburetor top deck. The model also had a preheat-air inlet. The investigation was made over a range of mass-air- flow ratios of 0 to 0.8, angles of attack of 0 and 4 deg airspeeds of 150 to 270 miles per hour, air temperatures of 0 and 25 F various liquid-water contents, and droplet sizes. The ram inlet gave good pressure recovery in both clear air and icing but rapid blockage of the top-deck screen occurred during icing. The flush alternate inlet had poor pressure recovery in both clear air and icing. The greatest decreases in the alternate-inlet pressure recovery were obtained at icing conditions of low air temperature and high liquid-water content. No serious screen icing was observed with the alternate inlet. Pressure and temperature distributions on the carburetor top deck were determined using the preheat-air supply with the preheat- and alternate-inlet doors in various positions. No screen icing occurred when the preheat-air system was operated in combination with alternate-inlet air flow.

  19. Experimental Study on a Voltage Source Inverter-fed Induction Motor Traction System Connected to Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Takemasa; Kondo, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Takamitsu

    This paper describes the experimental results of a test to drive two induction motors through a VVVF inverter by 25kW class proton membrane type fuel cells (PEMFCs). The experiments are aimed at verifying the compatibility between the drive system for the railway vehicle traction and FCs. This paper describes test results of powering, powering-off procedure, and simulated slip-readhesion control test, respectively. Through the experiments, we obtained useful knowledge required in designing the fuel cell drive system.

  20. A Comparison of Two Methods of Inductive Knowledge Acquisition for Medical Knowledge-Based Systems

    PubMed Central

    Spackman, Kent A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the use of inductive machine learning for knowledge acquisition, and compares two inductive learning programs, CRLS and C4, with respect to their classification accuracy and comprehensibility on the task of generating decision rules by induction from two medical databases. Each program shows the ability to outperform the other in classification accuracy, depending on the database and the nature of the data. Decision trees and criteria tables are compared and contrasted with respect to comprehensibility, and both are seen to have advantages and drawbacks.

  1. Metabolic effects of contraceptive steroids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regine Sitruk-Ware; Anita Nath

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen and progestins have been used by millions of women as effective combined contraceptives. The safety of hormonal contraceptives\\u000a has been documented by years of follow-up and serious adverse events that may be related to their use are rare in the young\\u000a population exposed to these agents. The balance between the benefits and the risks of contraceptive steroids is generally

  2. Anabolic steroids: a fatal attraction?

    PubMed

    Wood, Ruth I

    2006-03-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are widely abused, but the potential for dependence and addiction remains unclear. Recent studies from our laboratory have shown that male and female hamsters will voluntarily self-administer testosterone and other AAS. Furthermore, we have observed fatal androgen overdose during self-administration. This suggests that AAS are potentially addictive, independent of their effects on muscle mass or athletic performance. PMID:16454806

  3. Removal of Natural Steroid Hormones from Wastewater Using

    E-print Network

    Removal of Natural Steroid Hormones from Wastewater Using Membrane Contactor Processes J O S H U water resources and increased interest in wastewater reclamation for potable reuse. This interest has in the study of wastewater reuse in advanced life support systems (e.g., space missions) because

  4. Development of a Tunable Wide-Range Gene Induction System Useful for the Study of Streptococcal Toxin-Antitoxin Systems

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhoujie; Qi, Fengxia

    2013-01-01

    Despite the plethora of genetic tools that have been developed for use in Streptococcus mutans, the S. mutans genetic system still lacks an effective gene induction system exhibiting low basal expression and strong inducibility. Consequently, we created two hybrid gene induction cassettes referred to as Xyl-S1 and Xyl-S2. Both Xyl-S cassettes are xylose inducible and controlled by the Bacillus megaterium xylose repressor. The Xyl-S cassettes each demonstrated >600-fold-increased reporter activity in the presence of 1.2% (wt/vol) xylose. However, the Xyl-S1 cassette yielded a much higher maximum level of gene expression, whereas the Xyl-S2 cassette exhibited much lower uninduced basal expression. The cassettes also performed similarly in Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii, which suggests that they are likely to be useful in a variety of streptococci. We demonstrate how both Xyl-S cassettes are particularly useful for the study of toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules using both the previously characterized S. mutans mazEF TA module and a previously uncharacterized HicAB TA module in S. mutans. HicAB TA modules are widely distributed among bacteria and archaea, but little is known about their function. We show that HicA serves as the toxin component of the module, while HicB serves as the antitoxin. Our results suggest that, in contrast to that of typical TA modules, HicA toxicity in S. mutans is modest at best. The implications of these results for HicAB function are discussed. PMID:23934493

  5. Induction: Making the Leap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Lorraine M.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a critical examination of a variety of approaches to induction focusing especially upon Australia and other Pacific Rim countries. The question of the purposes induction serves for graduate teachers, experienced teachers and education systems is addressed in terms of whether it is a technical exercise which preserves the…

  6. Realization of an Inductance Scale Traceable to the Quantum Hall Effect Using an Automated Synchronous Sampling System

    E-print Network

    ~Overney, F

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the realization of an inductance scale from 1~$\\mu$H to 10~H for frequencies ranging between 50~Hz to 20~kHz is presented. The scale is realized directly from a series of resistance standards using a fully automated synchronous sampling system. A careful systematic characterization of the system shows that the lowest uncertainties, around 12~$\\mu$H/H, are obtained for inductances in the range from 10~mH to 100~mH at frequencies in the kHz range. This new measurement system which was successfully evaluated during an international comparison, provides a primary realization of the henry, directly traceable to the quantum Hall effect. An additional key feature of this system is its versatility. In addition to resistance-inductance (R-L) comparison, any kind of impedances can be compared: R-R, R-C, L-L or C-C, giving this sampling system a great potential of use in many laboratories around the world.

  7. Manipal Cervical Scoring System by Transvaginal Ultrasound in Predicting Successful Labour Induction

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Neha; Bhakta, Rajesh; Kumar, Pratap; Rai, Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Induction of labour (IOL) nowadays is a common procedure in obstetric practice. The success of IOL largely depends upon “favourability” or “readiness” cervix which is traditionally assessed by manual examination and Scored as Bishop Score. However, this method is limited by subjectivity and reproducibility and though done in all the patients prior to IOL, several studies have demonstrated poor correlation between Bishop Score and outcome of labour. Objective To evaluate the role of preinduction transvaginal ultrasonographic (TVS) cervical assessment in predicting labour outcome and to compare its performance against Bishop Score in patients undergoing induction of labour (IOL). Setting A tertiary medical college hospital in Southern India. Design Prospective observational and investigational study. Materials and Methods Transvaginal ultrasound was performed in 131 patients who underwent labour induction at term with intact membranes and live fetus. Bishop Score was assessed by pervaginal examination and was compared with preinduction TVS cervical Score (parameters being cervical length, funneling, position of cervix and distance of presenting part from external os). Labour was induced within one hour of cervical assessment. The labour induction was considered successful if patient could get into active labour i.e., onset of regular uterine contractions (at interval of 2-3 minutes) and cervical dilatation of 4 cm or greater within 24 hours of induction. Results Labour induction was successful in 86.9% of patients. At cut off Scores of ? 4, TVS cervical Score performed better than Bishop Score (Sensitivity 77% vs. 65%, Specificity 93% vs. 86%). ROC analysis indicated that Area Under Curve (AUC) was more for TVS Score (0.90, 95% CI 0.84 – 0.95), compared to Bishop Score. It was found that an increase in cervical length and distance from the os by 1 mm from their means were associated with an increase in odds for failure of induction and there by caesarean delivery by 6.5% and 11% respectively. Conclusion In women experiencing labour induction, transvaginal ultrasound score comprising of five different parameters indicated success of induction better than Bishop Score. Further, two of its components (longer cervical length and increased distance of presenting part from external os) demonstrated significant and independent prediction of the likelihood of failure of induction and risk of operative delivery.

  8. Cross-induction of systemic induced resistance between an insect and a fungal pathogen in Austrian pine over a fertility gradient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alieta Eyles; Rodrigo Chorbadjian; Chris Wallis; Robert Hansen; Don Cipollini; Dan Herms; Pierluigi Bonello

    2007-01-01

    Evidence for cross-induction of systemic resistance or susceptibility in plant–fungus–herbivore interactions is mostly derived\\u000a from herbaceous model systems and not perennial woody plants. Furthermore, the effects of environmental variables such as\\u000a soil fertility on these tripartite interactions are generally unknown. This study examined cross-induction of systemic resistance\\u000a in Pinus nigra (Austrian pine) to infection by Sphaeropsis sapinea (a fungal pathogen),

  9. Application of an inductive energy storage pulsed-power generation with POS for a laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamatani, Masaki; Ihara, Satoshi; Satoh, Saburoh; Yamabe, Chobei

    2000-04-01

    Generally, capacitive energy storage pulsed-power generators, for example a Blumlein generator, and magnetic compression and capacitive-transfer type of circuits, are used as a power supply of a pulse laser exited by discharge. Their operations are possible by using only a closing switch. Many practical and commercial switches have been already developed. An inductive energy storage pulsed-power generator with storage inductor and opening switch can probably realize a lightweight, compact and high-power laser system. But the technology for opening high current is now very difficult, so that the opening switch is being developed and there is a few applications using the generator. The purpose of our research is extension of the application field of this generator by the achievement of application for the laser system, which market is now growing rapidly. Plasma opening switch (POS) is chosen because it is reported that the highest current can flow through it in many switches and it is possible to open the circuit. Although, the theory of POS is not fully investigated and a number of theoretical reports were already published, there is still lack of information about practical applications of the generator with POS. At first, in the experiments, a suitable discharge load was made and the practicable supply voltage and the discharge condition were examined. As a result, when the charge voltage on the main capacitance was 15 kV, the maximum supply voltage was 26 kV and the load current was 8 kA. The discharge condition was transferred from diffuse glow discharge to arc discharge. One of the reasons of these phenomena was the narrow discharge cavity.

  10. Induction of the lung myofibroblast PDGF receptor system by urban ambient particles from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Bonner, J C; Rice, A B; Lindroos, P M; O'Brien, P O; Dreher, K L; Rosas, I; Alfaro-Moreno, E; Osornio-Vargas, A R

    1998-10-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptor system regulate mesenchymal cell proliferation. We recently reported that emission-source fly-ash particles and asbestos fibers induce the PDGF alpha-receptor through a macrophage-dependent pathway, and upregulation of this receptor greatly enhances the mitogenic response of lung myofibroblasts to PDGF (Lindroos and colleagues, Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 1997;16:283-292). In the present study we investigated the effect of particulate matter <= 10 micrometers in size (PM10) from the southern, central, and northern regions of Mexico City on PDGF receptor induction and compared these urban, ambient particles with Mt. St. Helen's volcanic ash particles as a negative control. All Mexico City PM10 samples, but not volcanic ash, stimulated rat alveolar macrophages to secrete a soluble, upregulatory factor(s) for the PDGF alpha-receptor on early passage rat lung myofibroblasts. The macrophage-derived upregulatory activity was blocked by the interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist. The ability of PM10 to stimulate IL-1beta release was blocked in part by a recombinant endotoxin neutralizing protein (rENP). Lipopolysaccharide/endotoxin (LPS) and vanadium, both constituents that were present within these PM10 samples, also stimulated macrophages to secrete factor(s) that upregulated PDGF-Ralpha on lung myofibroblasts. Direct exposure of myofibroblasts to PM10 also elicited upregulation of the PDGF alpha-receptor, and this effect was blocked by rENP and mimicked by LPS, but not vanadium. These findings suggest that PM10 particles induce expression of the PDGF receptor system through macrophage-dependent and -independent mechanisms involving endotoxin and metals. PMID:9761765

  11. PLANT SCIENCES: Plant Genes on Steroids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert Sablowski (John Innes Centre; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology)

    2005-03-11

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Plants, like animals, use steroid hormones to regulate their development. However, in plants, the steroid hormone is bound by a receptor at the cell surface instead of a nuclear receptor. In a Perspective, Sablowski and Harberd discuss studies published here (He et al.) and elsewhere that provide the missing link between binding of the steroid by its receptor and changes in the expression of target genes.

  12. Use of the p-Si--SiOâ system with surface inductive channels as a nuclear radiation detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. I. Barabash; A. P. Gorban; V. G. Litovchenko; P. G. Litovchenko; S. V. Chala

    1973-01-01

    The use of a dielectric -semiconductor structure, prepared on the base ; of high-ohm ceramic of the p-type, was proposed for the detection of nuclear ; radiation. p-Si with surface inductive channels developed on the basis of the p-; Si--SiOâ system was used in the detector. The study, made on the ²⁴²; Cm alpha source with energy of 5.8 MeV,

  13. State Space Formulation and Stability Analysis of a Doubly-fed Induction Machine with a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Li; Jing Zhang; Shijie Cheng; Jinyu Wen; Yuan Pan

    2006-01-01

    The multi-functional flexible power conditioner (FPC) is a novel FACTS device, which consists of a large-mass varying-speed energy storage flywheel and a double-fed induction machine (DFIM). The FPC can be used to compensate the dynamic unbalanced power of the power system following disturbances using the energy stored in the flywheel by controlling the rotor speed. With an appropriate control strategy,

  14. Stability Analysis of a Wind Energy Conversion System Based on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator Fed by a Matrix Converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Cardenas; RubÉn Pena; GermÁn Tobar; Jon Clare; Patrick Wheeler; Greg Asher

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of a grid-connected wind energy conversion system (WECS), based on a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) fed by a matrix converter (MC), is presented. The MC replaces the back-to-back converters conventionally used to control a DFIG. The MC is operated with close-to-unity power factor at the grid side. Stability issues related to the operation of

  15. Effects of voltage unbalance and system harmonics on the performance of doubly fed induction wind generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Morgan Mozhgan

    Inherent difficulties in management of electric power in the presence of an increasing demand for more energy, non-conventional loads such as digital appliances, and non-sustainable imported fossil fuels has initiated a multi-folded effort by many countries to restructure the way electric energy is generated, dispatched, and consumed. Smart power grid is the manifestation of many technologies that would eventually transforms the existing power grid into a more flexible, fault resilient, and intelligent system. Integration of distributed renewable energy sources plays a central role in successful implementation of this transformation. Among the renewable options, wind energy harvesting offers superior engineering and economical incentives with minimal environmental impacts. Doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) have turned into a serious contender for wind energy generators due to their flexibility in control of active and reactive power with minimal silicon loss. Significant presence of voltage unbalance and system harmonics in finite inertia transmission lines can potentially undermine the reliability of these wind generators. The present dissertation has investigated the impacts of system unbalances and harmonics on the performance of the DFIG. Our investigation indicates that these effects can result in an undesirable undulation in the rotor shaft which can potentially invoke mechanical resonance, thereby causing catastrophic damages to the installations and the power grid. In order to remedy the above issue, a control solution for real time monitoring of the system unbalance and optimal excitation of the three phase rotor currents in a DFIG is offered. The optimal rotor currents will create appropriate components of the magneto-motive force in the airgap that will actively compensate the undesirable magnetic field originated by the stator windings. Due to the iterative nature of the optimization procedure, field reconstruction method has been incorporated. Field reconstruction method provides high precision results at a considerably faster pace as compared to finite element method. Our results indicate that by just-in-time detection of the system unbalance and employment of the optimal rotor currents damaging torque pulsation can be effectively eliminated. The side effects of the proposed method in changing the core, copper, and silicon losses are minor and well justified when reliability of the wind generation units are considered.

  16. Extensive visual loss with topical facial steroids.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, R K; Potamitis, T; Chong, N H; Guarro, M; Shah, P; Kheterpal, S

    1993-01-01

    Steroid creams applied topically to the skin are routinely used in the treatment of many dermatoses. Their use on the face in severe atopic eczema is relatively common. We report a series of three patients who whilst using topical facial steroids developed advanced glaucoma. A further two cases of ocular hypertension secondary to topical facial steroids are also described. This is the first series of cases to be reported demonstrating the potentially blinding complications of topical facial steroids. Recommendations are made with regard to screening such patients for glaucoma. PMID:8287990

  17. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy: a computer controlled, scanning monochromator system for the rapid determination of the elements

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    A computer controlled, scanning monochromator system specifically designed for the rapid, sequential determination of the elements is described. The monochromator is combined with an inductively coupled plasma excitation source so that elements at major, minor, trace, and ultratrace levels may be determined, in sequence, without changing experimental parameters other than the spectral line observed. A number of distinctive features not found in previously described versions are incorporated into the system here described. Performance characteristics of the entire system and several analytical applications are discussed.

  18. Analysis of torques in large steam turbine driven induction generator shafts following disturbances on the system supply

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J.; Lee, S.K.; Low, K.Y. [Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The paper first summarizes advantages of steam turbine driven induction generators over conventional generators such as low cost, less maintenance, rugged and brushless rotors (squirrel cage type, no need for synchronization, etc.), together with problems concerning excitation (var compensation at loads etc.). A mathematical model of the induction generator simulated in direct-phase quantities where saturation of the magnetizing reactances is simulated and saturation of stator and rotor leakage reactances is ignored is developed and employed for detailed simulation of the machine. Discrete-mass models of the machine shaft where both steam and electrical viscous damping is simulated are employed in comparing transient shaft torsional response evaluated by time domain simulation and frequency domain analysis following incidence and clearance of severe system faults. The paper then investigates torsional response following incidence and clearance of severe supply system disturbances, when the rotor is stationary and when running at close to synchronous speed unexcited, and following malsynchronization when excited by a controlled var source, together with torsional response following bolted stator-terminal short-circuits at full-load and no-load following switching in of the induction generator onto the system supply. It examines precision of predicting torque in turbine-generator shafts by frequency domain analysis not analyzed for induction-generators in the literature heretofore following incidence and clearance of worst-case disturbances on the supply. Effect of steam and electrical damping on maximum shaft torques predicted by frequency domain analysis is also illustrated. The results illustrate there is no tendency for shaft torques to become more onerous as the fault clearing time is increased as is the case for shaft torques in large synchronous machines. Three large two-pole machines of rating of up to a few hundred MWs are analyzed.

  19. Steroids, triterpenoids and molecular oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Summons, Roger E; Bradley, Alexander S; Jahnke, Linda L; Waldbauer, Jacob R

    2006-01-01

    There is a close connection between modern-day biosynthesis of particular triterpenoid biomarkers and presence of molecular oxygen in the environment. Thus, the detection of steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons far back in Earth history has been used to infer the antiquity of oxygenic photosynthesis. This prompts the question: were these compounds produced similarly in the past? In this paper, we address this question with a review of the current state of knowledge surrounding the oxygen requirement for steroid biosynthesis and phylogenetic patterns in the distribution of steroid and triterpenoid biosynthetic pathways. The hopanoid and steroid biosynthetic pathways are very highly conserved within the bacterial and eukaryotic domains, respectively. Bacteriohopanepolyols are produced by a wide range of bacteria, and are methylated in significant abundance at the C2 position by oxygen-producing cyanobacteria. On the other hand, sterol biosynthesis is sparsely distributed in distantly related bacterial taxa and the pathways do not produce the wide range of products that characterize eukaryotes. In particular, evidence for sterol biosynthesis by cyanobacteria appears flawed. Our experiments show that cyanobacterial cultures are easily contaminated by sterol-producing rust fungi, which can be eliminated by treatment with cycloheximide affording sterol-free samples. Sterols are ubiquitous features of eukaryotic membranes, and it appears likely that the initial steps in sterol biosynthesis were present in their modern form in the last common ancestor of eukaryotes. Eleven molecules of O2 are required by four enzymes to produce one molecule of cholesterol. Thermodynamic arguments, optimization of function and parsimony all indicate that an ancestral anaerobic pathway is highly unlikely. The known geological record of molecular fossils, especially steranes and triterpanes, is notable for the limited number of structural motifs that have been observed. With a few exceptions, the carbon skeletons are the same as those found in the lipids of extant organisms and no demonstrably extinct structures have been reported. Furthermore, their patterns of occurrence over billion year time-scales correlate strongly with environments of deposition. Accordingly, biomarkers are excellent indicators of environmental conditions even though the taxonomic affinities of all biomarkers cannot be precisely specified. Biomarkers are ultimately tied to biochemicals with very specific functional properties, and interpretations of the biomarker record will benefit from increased understanding of the biological roles of geologically durable molecules. PMID:16754609

  20. CONTAMINANT INTERACTIONS WITH STEROID RECEPTORS: EVIDENCE FOR RECEPTOR BINDING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroid receptors are important determinants of endocrine disrupter consequences. As the most frequently proposed mechanism of endocrine-disrupting contaminant (EDC) action, steroid receptors are not only targets of natural steroids but are also commonly sites of nonsteroidal com...

  1. Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression

    E-print Network

    Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured

  2. Original article Steroid sulfatase activity in homogenates, microsomes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Steroid sulfatase activity in homogenates, microsomes and purified Leydig cells (received 12 December 1988, accepted 10 April 1989) Summary - Steroid sulfatase (STS) activity was studied. These data suggest that the steroid sulfatase expressed in total testicular microsomes (activity

  3. The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), beyond xenobiotic metabolism

    E-print Network

    Blumberg, Bruce

    The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), beyond xenobiotic metabolism Changcheng Zhou , Suman, Irvine, California, USA (BB) The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) (also known as pregnane X receptor steroids, pharmaceutical agents, and xenobiotic compounds. SXR has an enlarged, flexible, hydrophobic

  4. Control and performance of a flywheel energy storage system based on a doubly-fed induction generator-motor for power conditioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirofumi Akagi; H. Sato

    1999-01-01

    A flywheel energy storage system based on a doubly-fed induction generator-motor basically consists of a wound-rotor induction machine and a cycloconverter or a voltage-source PWM rectifier-inverter which is used as an AC exciter. Adjusting the rotor speed makes the generator-motor either release the kinetic energy to the power system or absorb it from the utility grid. Thus, the generator-motor has

  5. Targeting the Androgen Receptor with Steroid Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a major therapeutic target in prostate cancer pharmacology. Progression of prostate cancer has been linked to elevated expression of AR in malignant tissue, suggesting that AR plays a central role in prostate cancer cell biology. Potent therapeutic agents can be precisely crafted to specifically target AR, potentially averting systemic toxicities associated with nonspecific chemotherapies. In this review, we describe various strategies to generate steroid conjugates that can selectively engage AR with high potency. Analogies to recent developments in nonsteroidal conjugates targeting AR are also evaluated. Particular focus is placed on potential applications in AR pharmacology. The review culminates with a description of future prospects for targeting AR. PMID:24936953

  6. Unipolar Induction

    E-print Network

    Hraskó, P

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon of unipolar induction consists in generating electric field by uniformly rotating permanent magnets made of either conducting or dielectric substance. The origin of the field around conducting magnets is explained and calculated in Sect. 1. Dielectrics are considered in Sect. 2, where the role of the electric moment due to moving magnetic dipole moment is clarified. Sect. 3 is devoted to the description of the effect in the corotating frame of reference. In Sect. 4 the theory is applied to the Earth core and it is shown that the calculated electric field falls precisely into the range of the ambient electric field observed in the Tethered Satellite System mission of NASA. In the last paragraph I reflect on whether flyby anomaly might be attributed to an electric effect.

  7. Unipolar Induction

    E-print Network

    P. Hraskó

    2010-11-07

    The phenomenon of unipolar induction consists in generating electric field by uniformly rotating permanent magnets made of either conducting or dielectric substance. The origin of the field around conducting magnets is explained and calculated in Sect. 1. Dielectrics are considered in Sect. 2, where the role of the electric moment due to moving magnetic dipole moment is clarified. Sect. 3 is devoted to the description of the effect in the corotating frame of reference. In Sect. 4 the theory is applied to the Earth core and it is shown that the calculated electric field falls precisely into the range of the ambient electric field observed in the Tethered Satellite System mission of NASA. In the last paragraph I reflect on whether flyby anomaly might be attributed to an electric effect.

  8. Development of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis after Anabolic Steroid Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Herlitz, Leal C.; Markowitz, Glen S.; Farris, Alton B.; Schwimmer, Joshua A.; Stokes, Michael B.; Kunis, Cheryl; Colvin, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse adversely affects the endocrine system, blood lipids, and the liver, but renal injury has not been described. We identified an association of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and proteinuria in a cohort of 10 bodybuilders (six white and four Hispanic; mean body mass index 34.7) after long-term abuse of anabolic steroids. The clinical presentation included proteinuria (mean 10.1 g/d; range 1.3 to 26.3 g/d) and renal insufficiency (mean serum creatinine 3.0 mg/dl; range 1.3 to 7.8 mg/dl); three (30%) patients presented with nephrotic syndrome. Renal biopsy revealed FSGS in nine patients, four of whom also had glomerulomegaly, and glomerulomegaly alone in one patient. Three biopsies revealed collapsing lesions of FSGS, four had perihilar lesions, and seven showed ?40% tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Among eight patients with mean follow-up of 2.2 yr, one progressed to ESRD, the other seven received renin-angiotensin system blockade, and one also received corticosteroids. All seven patients discontinued anabolic steroids, leading to weight loss, stabilization or improvement in serum creatinine, and a reduction in proteinuria. One patient resumed anabolic steroid abuse and suffered relapse of proteinuria and renal insufficiency. We hypothesize that secondary FSGS results from a combination of postadaptive glomerular changes driven by increased lean body mass and potential direct nephrotoxic effects of anabolic steroids. Because of the expected rise in serum creatinine as a result of increased muscle mass in bodybuilders, this complication is likely underrecognized. PMID:19917783

  9. Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fiction What You Should Know About Marijuana Concentrates/ Honey Butane Oil Consequences How Drugs Alter Brain Development ... Articles What You Should Know About Marijuana Concentrates/ Honey Butane Oil A marijuana concentrate is a powerful ...

  10. Stress, Ethanol, and Neuroactive Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Biggio, Giovanni; Concas, Alessandra; Follesa, Paolo; Sanna, Enrico; Serra, Mariangela

    2010-01-01

    Neurosteroids play a crucial role in stress, alcohol dependence and withdrawal, and other physiological and pharmacological actions by potentiating or inhibiting neurotransmitter action. This review article focuses on data showing that the interaction among stress, ethanol, and neuroactive steroids may result in plastic molecular and functional changes of GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission. The molecular mechanisms by which stress-ethanol-neuroactive steroids interactions can produce plastic changes in GABAA receptors have been studied using different experimental models in vivo and in vitro in order to provide useful evidence and new insights into the mechanisms through which acute and chronic ethanol and stress exposure modulate the activity of GABAergic synapses. We show detailed data on a) the effect of acute and chronic stress on peripheral and brain neurosteroid levels and GABAA receptor gene expression and function; b) ethanol-stimulated brain steroidogenesis; c) plasticity of GABAA receptor after acute and chronic ethanol exposure. The implications of these new mechanistic insights to our understanding of the effects of ethanol during stress are also discussed. The understanding of these neurochemical and molecular mechanisms may shed new light on the physiopathology of diseases, such as anxiety, in which GABAergic transmission play a pivotal role. These data may also lead to the need for new anxiolytic, hypnotic and anticonvulsant selective drugs devoid of side effects. PMID:17555824

  11. Control system design and small signal analysis of APWM resonant inverter for induction heating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Helaimi; M. Bettayeb; M. Benghanem; B. Belmadani

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an asymmetrical pulse width modulation (APWM) with frequency tracking control of full bridge series resonant inverter for induction heating application. In this method, APWM is used as power regulation, and phased locked loop (PLL) is used to attain zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) over a wide load range. The complete closed loop control model is obtained using small signal analysis.

  12. Modeling of Wind Turbines Based on Doubly-Fed Induction Generators for Power System Stability Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Istvan Erlich; JÖrg Kretschmann; Jens Fortmann; Stephan Mueller-Engelhardt; Holger Wrede

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with modeling of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) and the corresponding converter for stability studies. To enable efficient computation, a reduced-order DFIG model is developed that restricts the calculation to the fundamental frequency component. However, the model enhancement introduced in this paper allows the consideration of the alternating components of the rotor current as well, which is

  13. Flux estimation of induction machines with the linear parameter-varying system identification method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juntao Pan; David Westwick; Ed Nowicki

    2004-01-01

    In indirect field orientation control (FOC) methods, the magnitude and direction of the rotor flux are estimated from measurements of stator voltages, stator currents and the angular velocity of the shaft using a parameter model of the induction machine. However the performance of indirect FOC methods is dependent on the accuracy of the machine model and is therefore sensitive to

  14. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on mouse mast cell induction by a splenic cell culture system.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Z Q; Asano, K; Yamazaki, T; Shimamura, T

    1994-01-01

    We have previously reported a method of mast cell induction by long-term culture of mouse spleen cells without using exogenous mast cell growth factor (Z.-Q. Hu, T. Yoshida, and T. Shimamura, J. Immunol. Methods 149:173, 1992). Supernatants recovered from the long-term cultures contain endogenous interleukin 3 and soluble stem cell factor. These were assessed by the capacity of the recovered supernatants to foster the growth of a mast cell growth factor-dependent cell line and by neutralizing antibodies. Besides the soluble factors, cell-to-cell contacts mediated by membrane stem cell factor on splenic stromal cells and c-Kit receptors on mast cells also affect mast cell induction. Different lots of fetal calf serum (FCS) were examined to determine a possible trigger for cytokine production. FCS can be divided into mast cell-inducible and noninducible sera by this process. However, not all FCS lots contain mast cell growth factor. The mast cell-inducible lots contain lipopolysaccharide (LPS) confirmed by a Limulus assay. Polymyxin B can neutralize the mast cell induction activity. Non-mast cell-inducible FCS can be converted to inducible FCS by adding exogenous LPS. The results indicate that LPS as a trigger of cytokine production is responsible for mast cell induction. Images PMID:7520422

  15. Steroids Update, Part 1 and Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Calvin; Duda, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Part 1 of this two-part article describes the views of a physician who believes that athletes who want to take steroids are best protected by receiving a prescription and monitoring. Part 2 discusses the more general view of physicians that steroids should not be prescribed but perhaps should be monitored. (MT)

  16. Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Steroid Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Kent F.; Kleiman, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    Used Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory and Profile of Mood States to assess psychological characteristics in 72 adolescent males: 24 adolescent athletes who reported steroid use, 24 athletes with no steroid use, and 24 nonathletes. Although some personality variables differentiated between athletes and nonathletes, no personality variables…

  17. Steroid Hormone Analysis by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Steven J.; Soldin, Offie P.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND New high-performance liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods are among the most successful approaches to improve specificity problems inherent in many immunoassays. CONTENT We emphasize problems with immunoassays for the measurement of steroids and review the emerging role of LC-MS/MS in the measurement of clinically relevant steroids. The latest generation of tandem mass spectrometers has superior limits of quantification, permitting omission of previously employed derivatization steps. The measurement of steroid profiles in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, adrenal insufficiency, chronic pelvic pain and prostatitis, oncology (breast cancer), and athletes has important new applications. CONCLUSIONS LC-MS/MS now affords the specificity, imprecision, and limits of quantification necessary for the reliable measurement of steroids in human fluids, enhancing diagnostic capabilities, particularly when steroid profiles are available. PMID:19325015

  18. Cross-induction of systemic induced resistance between an insect and a fungal pathogen in Austrian pine over a fertility gradient.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Alieta; Chorbadjian, Rodrigo; Wallis, Chris; Hansen, Robert; Cipollini, Don; Herms, Dan; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2007-08-01

    Evidence for cross-induction of systemic resistance or susceptibility in plant-fungus-herbivore interactions is mostly derived from herbaceous model systems and not perennial woody plants. Furthermore, the effects of environmental variables such as soil fertility on these tripartite interactions are generally unknown. This study examined cross-induction of systemic resistance in Pinus nigra (Austrian pine) to infection by Sphaeropsis sapinea (a fungal pathogen), or feeding by Neodiprion sertifer (European pine sawfly), by prior induction with either S. sapinea or N. sertifer, over a fertility gradient. In a replicated 3-year study, cross-induction of systemic induced resistance (SIR) was found to be both asymmetric within a single year and variable between years. Prior induction with insect defoliation induced SIR to subsequent fungal challenge in 2006 but not in 2005. In 2005, a fertility-independent negative systemic effect of the fungal infection on herbivore growth was detected while herbivore survival was affected by a significant interaction between induction treatment and fertility level in 2006. Prior infection by the fungus induced SIR against the same fungus in both years regardless of fertility levels. This is the first report of whole-plant SIR against a defoliating insect induced by a fungal pathogen and vice versa, under variable nutrient availability, in a conifer or any other tree. PMID:17453247

  19. PUBERTY IN BEEF HEIFERS. III. INDUCTION OF FERTILE ESTRUS 1 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Gonzalez-Padilla; R. Ruiz; D. LeFever; A. Denham; J. N. Wiltbank

    2010-01-01

    Summary By utilizing estrogen and progesterone, it appeared possible to mimic the changes occurring in blood hormone levels near puberty. This suggested the possibility of induction of puberty in beef heifers. Four trials were conducted to test this hypothesis and a fifth to explore the effect of treatment with steroids in induction of estrus in suckling anestrous cows. Tr\\/al 1.

  20. A taxonomy of inductive problems.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Charles; Jern, Alan

    2014-02-01

    Inductive inferences about objects, features, categories, and relations have been studied for many years, but there are few attempts to chart the range of inductive problems that humans are able to solve. We present a taxonomy of inductive problems that helps to clarify the relationships between familiar inductive problems such as generalization, categorization, and identification, and that introduces new inductive problems for psychological investigation. Our taxonomy is founded on the idea that semantic knowledge is organized into systems of objects, features, categories, and relations, and we attempt to characterize all of the inductive problems that can arise when these systems are partially observed. Recent studies have begun to address some of the new problems in our taxonomy, and future work should aim to develop unified theories of inductive reasoning that explain how people solve all of the problems in the taxonomy. PMID:23884687

  1. Measurement of Steroid Concentrations in Brain Tissue: Methodological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Taves, Matthew D.; Ma, Chunqi; Heimovics, Sarah A.; Saldanha, Colin J.; Soma, Kiran K.

    2011-01-01

    It is well recognized that steroids are synthesized de novo in the brain (neurosteroids). In addition, steroids circulating in the blood enter the brain. Steroids play numerous roles in the brain, such as influencing neural development, adult neuroplasticity, behavior, neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. In order to understand the regulation and functions of steroids in the brain, it is important to directly measure steroid concentrations in brain tissue. In this brief review, we discuss methods for the detection and quantification of steroids in the brain. We concisely present the major advantages and disadvantages of different technical approaches at various experimental stages: euthanasia, tissue collection, steroid extraction, steroid separation, and steroid measurement. We discuss, among other topics, the potential effects of anesthesia and saline perfusion prior to tissue collection; microdissection via Palkovits punch; solid phase extraction; chromatographic separation of steroids; and immunoassays and mass spectrometry for steroid quantification, particularly the use of mass spectrometry for “steroid profiling.” Finally, we discuss the interpretation of local steroid concentrations, such as comparing steroid levels in brain tissue with those in the circulation (plasma vs. whole blood samples; total vs. free steroid levels). We also present reference values for a variety of steroids in different brain regions of adult rats. This brief review highlights some of the major methodological considerations at multiple experimental stages and provides a broad framework for designing studies that examine local steroid levels in the brain as well as other steroidogenic tissues, such as thymus, breast, and prostate. PMID:22654806

  2. Identification of Plant Model of Linear Induction Motors for Traction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Yuichiro; Koseki, Takafumi

    A linear induction motor (LIM) is suitable for use in trains; the motor can be used in both wheel-suspended and contact-less types such as Linear Metro and HSST trains in Japan. The LIM has the end winding as well as asymmetrical winding. The end-effect is a major problem in the LIM, and it makes the analysis, design, and control of motors difficult. In this paper, the combination method of numerical analysis and equivalent circuit of the LIM is described in order to design a high-performance controller of the LIM includeing the end effect. A sample basic field-oriented control scheme that is based on the plant model is applied to the LIM in order to check the control performance; the theory of rotary induction motor is used for the verification.

  3. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Marta C.; Jiménez, Pedro; Miranda-Brito, Carolina; Valdez, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include the penetration and permanence of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that only have one host, reciprocal, intricate interactions occur. Evidence indicates that steroid hormones have an influence on the development and course of parasitic infections. The host gender's susceptibility to infection, and the related differences in the immune response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well-known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In most, but not all parasitosis the host's hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course, and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activates immune responses that end up affecting the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones, such as ecdysteroids and sex steroids, and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid-like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium cysticerci and tapeworms, and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. In-depth knowledge of the parasite's endocrine properties will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and may also help designing tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations. PMID:26175665

  4. Steroidal Sapogenins from Tacca leontopetaloides.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziz, A M; Brain, K R; Blunden, G; Crabb, T; Bashir, A K

    1990-04-01

    Diosgenin and its ring-F-hydroxylated derivatives isonarthogenin {spirost-5-ene-3,27-diol {3beta, 22 R, 25 S)} and isonuatigenin {spirost-5-ene-3,25-diol (3beta, 22 R, 25 S)}, together with the 22,25-epoxyfurost-5-ene isomer nuatigenin {furost-5-ene-3,26-diol-22,25-epoxy (3beta, 22 R, 25 S)}, were identified as the major steroidal sapogenins of the acid hydrolysate of an extract of leaves of TACCA LEONTOPETALOIDES by IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and mass spectroscopy. A diosgenin ester was isolated which apparently arose by ring closure of a glycosylated furostene during hydrolysis. PMID:17221399

  5. Steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gong Wu; Shanhao Jiang; Fuxiang Jiang; Dayuan Zhu; Houming Wu; Shaokai Jiang

    1996-01-01

    In addition to hecogenin 3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl(1 ? 4)-?-d-galactopyranoside, two new steroidal saponins were isolated from the aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris L. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence, especially 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques, the structures of the new saponins were established as 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-[{?-d-xylopyranosyl(1 ? 3)}{?-d-galactopyranosyl(1 ? 2)}-?-d-glucopyranosyl (1 ? 4)-?-d-glucopyranosyl]-5?-furost-20(22)-en-12-one-3?,26-diol and 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-[rm[{?-d-xylopyranosyl(1 ? 3){?-d-galactopyranosyl(1 ? 2)}-?-d-glucopyranosyl (1 ? 4)-?-d-glucopyranosyl]-5?-furostan-12-one-3?,22,26-triol.

  6. High-Frequency Modeling of the Long-Cable-Fed Induction Motor Drive System Using TLM Approach for Predicting Overvoltage Transients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liwei Wang; Carl Ngai-Man Ho; Francisco Canales; Juri Jatskevich

    2010-01-01

    Induction motor drive systems fed with cables are widely used in many industrial applications. Accurate prediction of motor terminal overvoltage, caused by impedance mismatch between the long cable and the motor, plays an important role for motor dielectric insulation and optimal design of dv\\/dt filters. In this paper, a novel modeling methodology for the investigation of long-cable-fed induction motor drive

  7. The CN2 Induction Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Clark; Tim Niblett

    1989-01-01

    Systems for inducing concept descriptions from examples are valuable tools for assisting in the task of knowledge acquisition for expert systems. This paper presents a description and empirical evaluation of a new induction system, CN2, designed for the efficient induction of simple, comprehensible production rules in domains where problems of poor description language and\\/or noise may be present. Implementations of

  8. Inductive Inference: Theory and Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Angluin; Carl H. Smith

    1983-01-01

    There has been a great deal of theoretical and experimental work in computer science on inductive inference systems, that is, systems that try to infer general rules from examples. However, a complete and applicable theory of such systems is still a distant goal. This survey highlights and explains the main ideas that have been developed in the study of inductive

  9. Identification of steroid hormone signaling pathway in insect cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Siaussat, D; Bozzolan, F; Porcheron, P; Debernard, S

    2007-02-01

    To dissect the steroid hormone signaling pathway involved in insect cell morphological differentiation, we extended the application of the double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (dsRNAi) method to the epidermal IAL-PID2 cell line from Plodia interpunctella Lepidoptera. We first demonstrated that dsRNA was capable of efficiently blocking the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) inducibility of proteins that belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily, including the ecdysone receptor (EcR), its partner Ultraspiracle (USP), the insect homolog of the vertebrate retinoid X receptor and the HR3 transcription factor. We then showed that inhibiting the 20E induction of EcR, USP or HR3 proteins prevented the increased synthesis of beta tubulin and consequently the morphological transformation of cells. Thanks to this functional approach, we have shown, for the first time, the participation of EcR, USP and HR3 in a 20E signaling pathway that directs morphological differentiation in insect cells by regulating beta tubulin expression. PMID:17256085

  10. Characterization of a novel non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qun-Yi; Zhang, Meng [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China) [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Hallis, Tina M.; DeRosier, Therese A. [Cell Systems Division, Invitrogen, Madison, WI (United States)] [Cell Systems Division, Invitrogen, Madison, WI (United States); Yue, Jian-Min; Ye, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Mais, Dale E. [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China) [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); MPI Research, Mattawan, MI (United States); Wang, Ming-Wei, E-mail: wangmw@mail.shcnc.ac.cn [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China) [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    2010-01-15

    Selective antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are desirable for the treatment of hypercortisolemia associated with Cushing's syndrome, psychic depression, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and glaucoma. NC3327, a non-steroidal small molecule with potent binding affinity to GR (K{sub i} = 13.2 nM), was identified in a high-throughput screening effort. As a full GR antagonist, NC3327 greatly inhibits the dexamethasone (Dex) induction of marker genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, but has a minimal effect on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a GR responsive pro-inflammatory gene. Interestingly, the compound recruits neither coactivators nor corepressors to the GR complex but competes with glucocorticoids for the interaction between GR and a coactivator peptide. Moreover, NC3327 does not trigger GR nuclear translocation, but significantly blocks Dex-induced GR transportation to the nucleus, and thus appears to be a 'competitive' GR antagonist. Therefore, the non-steroidal compound, NC3327, may represent a new class of GR antagonists as potential therapeutics for a variety of cortisol-related endocrine disorders.

  11. Linear induction accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

    1988-06-21

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  12. Salivary steroid assays for assessing variation in endocrine activity.

    PubMed

    Riad-Fahmy, D; Read, G F; Walker, R F

    1983-07-01

    Salivary sampling regimens are non-invasive, and therefore facilitate dynamic tests of hormone function and assessment of biological rhythms. Concentrations of neutral steroids in saliva are independent of flow rate and appear to reflect the non-protein-bound, 'free' fraction. Comparison of replicate determinations of quality control pools with determinations of samples collected at 2 min intervals allows the significance of short-term fluctuations in cortisol and testosterone secretory activity to be estimated. Samples collected at 15 min intervals provide a convenient way to estimate circadian rhythms, particularly in young children. Determination of salivary progesterone concentrations in samples collected by women daily, over extended periods of time, provides a valuable means of assessing ovarian function. Such assays may be used to monitor ovulation-induction therapy. PMID:6887863

  13. Successful treatment of collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with a combination of rituximab, steroids and ciclosporin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Kaito; Koichi Kamei; Eriko Kikuchi; Masao Ogura; Kentaro Matsuoka; Michio Nagata; Kazumoto Iijima; Shuichi Ito

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a 2-year-old boy with steroid- and ciclosporin (CsA)-resistant collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis\\u000a (FSGS) who went into complete remission with a combination of IV rituximab and methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPT) while\\u000a receiving oral CsA. He was initially treated with steroids including MPT, CsA, and plasmapheresis, but his massive proteinuria\\u000a and severe systemic edema persisted. We treated

  14. Steroid plant hormones: effects outside plant kingdom.

    PubMed

    Zhabinskii, Vladimir N; Khripach, Natalia B; Khripach, Vladimir A

    2015-05-01

    Brassinosteroids (BS) are the first group of steroid-hormonal compounds isolated from and acting in plants. Among numerous physiological effects of BS growth stimulation and adaptogenic activities are especially remarkable. In this review, we provide evidence that BS possess similar types of activity also beyond plant kingdom at concentrations comparable with those for plants. This finding allows looking at steroids from a new point of view: how common are the mechanisms of steroid bioregulation in different types of organisms from protozoa to higher animals. PMID:25217849

  15. Homologous Series of Liquid Crystalline Steroidal Lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Thiemann, T.; Vill, V. [Institut fuer Organische Chemie, Martin-Luther-King Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Steroids are an important source of chiral mesophases. The melting behavior and mesomorphic properties of homologous series of steroidal derivatives have been extracted from the literature, tabulated, and discussed. The tables provide the reader with an evaluated compilation of the type of mesophases found for the individual compounds, including their transition temperatures. Where the literature gives more than one set of data for a specific substance, one has been chosen as the main reference, but all alternatives are listed in the footnotes. The data can be used for statistical analysis to show the specific role of substructures within the steroidal framework. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital American Institute of Physics and American Chemical Society}

  16. Multicenter randomized prospective trial of steroid withdrawal in renal transplant recipients receiving basiliximab, cyclosporine microemulsion and mycophenolate mofetil.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, Flavio; Monaco, Anthony; Grinyo, Joseph; Kinkhabwala, Milan; Roza, Allan

    2003-03-01

    Corticosteroids withdrawal from immunosuppressive regimens has thus far been associated with increased risk of acute rejection episodes. In this study, basiliximab, a chimeric monoclonal interleukin-2 receptor antagonist, added to a maintenance regimen consisting of cyclosporine microemulsion and mycophenolate mofetil was studied for its effectiveness in allowing early corticosteroid withdrawal in de novo renal allograft recipients. Primary renal transplant recipients receiving basiliximab, cyclosporine-microemulsion, and mycophenolate mofetil, were randomized to either corticosteroid withdrawal at day four post-transplantation (n = 40) or standard steroid therapy (n = 43). The primary endpoint was the incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes. Randomized subjects who underwent transplantation and received at least one dose of basiliximab were analyzed in an intent-to-treat fashion. The incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection at 12 months was not significantly different between the steroid withdrawal group (20%) and the standard treatment group (16%). Patient and graft survival was 100% in the steroid withdrawal group while one death in a patient with a functioning graft occurred in the standard steroid group. Seventy-two percent of the steroid withdrawal group remained off steroids at 6 months post-transplant. Allograft function and incidence of adverse events and infections were similar between the two groups. Rapid and early corticosteroid withdrawal among renal transplant recipients receiving basiliximab induction and daily therapy with cyclosporine-microemulsion and mycophenolate mofetil was not associated with an increased risk of acute rejection. PMID:12614286

  17. The road less traveled: new views of steroid receptor action from the path of dose-response curves.

    PubMed

    Simons, S Stoney; Chow, Carson C

    2012-01-30

    Conventional studies of steroid hormone action proceed via quantitation of the maximal activity for gene induction at saturating concentrations of agonist steroid (i.e., A(max)). Less frequently analyzed parameters of receptor-mediated gene expression are EC(50) and PAA. The EC(50) is the concentration of steroid required for half-maximal agonist activity and is readily determined from the dose-response curve. The PAA is the partial agonist activity of an antagonist steroid, expressed as percent of A(max) under the same conditions. Recent results demonstrate that new and otherwise inaccessible mechanistic information is obtained when the EC(50) and/or PAA are examined in addition to the A(max). Specifically, A(max), EC(50), and PAA can be independently regulated, which suggests that novel pathways and factors may preferentially modify the EC(50) and/or PAA with little effect on A(max). Other approaches indicate that the activity of receptor-bound factors can be altered without changing the binding of factors to receptor. Finally, a new theoretical model of steroid hormone action not only permits a mechanistically based definition of factor activity but also allows the positioning of when a factor acts, as opposed to binds, relative to a kinetically defined step. These advances illustrate some of the benefits of expanding the mechanistic studies of steroid hormone action to routinely include EC(50) and PAA. PMID:21664235

  18. Characteristics of Steroid Users in an Adolescent School Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlaf, Edward M.; Smart, Reginald G.

    1992-01-01

    Examined rates of steroid use among Ontario adolescent students. Findings from 3,892 students revealed that 1.1 percent reported using steroids over past year. Steroid users were significantly more likely to use stimulants, caffeine, and relaxants than were nonsteroid users. Demographically, steroid users were significantly more likely to be male…

  19. Induction of decision trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ross Quinlan

    1986-01-01

    The technology for building knowledge-based systems by inductive inference from examples has been demonstrated successfully in several practical applications. This paper summarizes an approach to synthesizing decision trees that has been used in a variety of systems, and it describes one such system, ID3, in detail. Results from recent studies show ways in which the methodology can be modified to

  20. Induction voidmeter

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas T. (Downers Grove, IL); Roop, Conard J. (Lockport, IL); Schmidt, Kenneth J. (Midlothian, IL); Brewer, John (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1986-01-01

    An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge circuit, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

  1. Induction voidmeter

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, T.T.; Roop, C.J.; Schmidt, K.J.; Brewer, J.

    1983-12-21

    An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; means for applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and means for detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

  2. Symptomatic Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis After a Single Local Epidural Steroid Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Tok, Chung Hong, E-mail: rogertok@gmail.com; Kaur, Shaleen [University of Malaya, Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine (Malaysia); Gangi, Afshin [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Radiology B (France)

    2011-02-15

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder that can manifest with progressive neurological deficits. It is characterized by abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated epidural fat commonly associated with the administration of exogenous steroids associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies, and Cushing syndrome (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). Occasionally, spinal epidural lipomatosis may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or in patients with endocrinopathies, primarily in obese individuals (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). However, spinal lumbar epidural lipomatosis resulting from local steroid injection has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 45-year-old diabetic man with claudication that was probably due to symptomatic lumbar spinal lipomatosis resulting from a single local epidural steroid injection.

  3. Quantitative determination of 26 steroids in eggs from various species using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mi, Xiaoxia; Li, Sicong; Li, Yanhua; Wang, Kaiqiang; Zhu, Dan; Chen, Gang

    2014-08-22

    A method for analyzing 26 types of steroids in egg matrix was developed. The method used liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in electrospray ionization mode (ESI). The procedure involved extraction with acetonitrile and removal of phospholipids by zinc chloride (ZnCl?) followed by SPE cleanup with a Plexa cartridge. The effect of ZnCl? on phospholipid removal was directly observed using the post column infusion procedure. The SPE washing and elution conditions were optimized using a shallow gradient procedure. The free and conjugated steroids forms were determined using enzyme hydrolysis. The developed method resulted in satisfactory precision (RSD?15%), and the limits of quantification were between 0.05 and 25 ng/g depending on the steroid types. The recoveries ranged from 63.2% to 121.5%. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to compare the steroids in eggs from different species (i.e., hen, duck, quail and pigeon eggs) or different raising system (i.e., normal vs. organic eggs). The steroids can be clearly clustered according to species and raising system. The hierarchical clustering analysis indicated similarity of the steroids among the species. The developed method is sensitive and useful for detection and quantification of steroids in eggs and can be used for residue control programs. In addition, the observed steroid content will provide a fundamental reference for food risk assessment analysis. PMID:25017396

  4. Steroids: Pharmacology, Complications, and Practice Delivery Issues

    PubMed Central

    Ericson-Neilsen, William; Kaye, Alan David

    2014-01-01

    Background Since their identification nearly 80 years ago, steroids have played a prominent role in the treatment of many disease states. Many of the clinical roles of steroids are related to their potent antiinflammatory and immune-modulating properties. Methods This review summarizes the basic pharmacology, complications, and practice delivery issues regarding steroids. Results Clinically relevant side effects of steroids are common and problematic. Side effects can occur at a wide range of doses and vary depending on the route of administration. The full spectrum of side effects can be present even in patients taking low doses. Conclusions Practitioners must be aware that these drugs might exacerbate a preexisting condition or present a new medical condition. Knowledge of the clinical implications of prescribing these agents is critical. PMID:24940130

  5. Topical steroid addiction in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Fukaya, Mototsugu; Sato, Kenji; Sato, Mitsuko; Kimata, Hajime; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Dozono, Haruhiko; Yoshizawa, Jun; Minaguchi, Satoko

    2014-01-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology published a new guideline regarding topical therapy in atopic dermatitis in May 2014. Although topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome had been mentioned as possible side effects of topical steroids in a 2006 review article in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, no statement was made regarding this illness in the new guidelines. This suggests that there are still controversies regarding this illness. Here, we describe the clinical features of topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome, based on the treatment of many cases of the illness. Because there have been few articles in the medical literature regarding this illness, the description in this article will be of some benefit to better understand the illness and to spur discussion regarding topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome. PMID:25378953

  6. Sorption of steroidal hormones by electrodialysis membranes 

    E-print Network

    Banasiak, Laura Joan; Schäfer, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms of sorption of four steroidal hormones – estradiol, estrone, progesterone and testosterone – to electrodialysis (ED) membranes were investigated as a function of solution pH and presence of humic acid (HA). Hormone-membrane partition...

  7. Physiological concentrations of anabolic steroids in human hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Shen; Ping Xiang; Baohua Shen; Jun Bu; Mengye Wang

    2009-01-01

    Doping with endogenous anabolic steroids is one of the most serious issues in sports today. The measurement of anabolic steroid levels in human hair is necessary in order to distinguish between pharmaceutical steroids and natural steroids. This is the first investigation into the physiological concentrations of anabolic steroids in human hair in Chinese subjects. A gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS\\/MS)

  8. The secret of truffles: A steroidal pheromone?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Claus; H. O. Hoppen; H. Karg

    1981-01-01

    Summary The steroid 5?-androst-16-en-3?-ol has a pronounced musk-like scent. It is a major constituent of the pheromone of the boar. It occurs also in axillary sweat of men but is devoid of androgenic activity. The presence of this steroid has been demonstrated in truffles (Tuber melanosporum) both by radioimmunoassay and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in quantities of 40–60 ng\\/g fresh

  9. Mitochondrial Benzodiazepine Receptors Regulate Steroid Biosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexey G. Mukhin; Vassilios Papadopoulos; Erminio Costa; Karl E. Krueger

    1989-01-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for

  10. Anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, J H; Sandler, B A

    1998-12-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse is a significant public health problem. There is evidence from both case reports and empirical studies that abuse of these drugs causes significant psychiatric and medical effects. There appears to be a relationship between increased dosages and severity of psychiatric symptomatology. Research is needed on the role of pathologic personality traits in the initiation and maintenance of anabolic steroid abuse. PMID:9890124

  11. Avoiding steroids in solid organ transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan P. Lerut

    2003-01-01

    The excellent results obtained today in solid-organ transplantation allow the envisaging of an improvement in long-term quality of life with a functioning graft. One way for this to be achieved is by the reduction, or even better, the avoidance, of steroid-based immunosuppression. Avoidance of steroids is indeed known to enhance the physical and psychological well being of the allograft recipient.

  12. Steroidal saponins from Dioscorea preussii.

    PubMed

    Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Tanaka, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2014-09-01

    Three new steroidal saponins, named diospreussinosides A-C (1-3), along with two known ones (4, 5) were isolated from rhizomes of Dioscorea preussii. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry as (25S)-17?,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), (25S)-17?,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), and (24S,25R)-17?,24,25-trihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (3). The spirostane-type skeleton of compound 3 possessing an unusual dihydroxylation pattern on the F-ring is reported for the first time. Cytotoxicity of compounds 2-5 was evaluated against two human colon carcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and HCT 116). PMID:24928475

  13. Simultaneous operation of a polychromator and monochromator on a single-source inductively coupled plasma emission system

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J M; Heine, D R; Rogers, C W

    1982-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) is a popular analytical technique for routine multielement analysis. An argon plasma, which is sustained by a radio-frequency field, serves as the atomization excitation source for emission spectroscopy. With commercial instrumentation the atomic emission is monitored with either a direct reader (polychromator) or a scanning monochromator. The topic of this paper is the development of software for simultaneous operation of both the polychromator and the monochromator with a single plasma source. The hardware for this system includes an LSI-11/23 as the main computer with satellite FALCON SBC-11/21 single-board computers for hardware control and data acquisition. TSX-Plus, a multi-user operating system, is being employed for software development on the LSI-11/23.

  14. Changes in the concentrations of four maternal steroids during embryonic development in the threespined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Paitz, Ryan Thomas; Mommer, Brett Christian; Suhr, Elissa; Bell, Alison Marie

    2015-08-01

    Embryonic exposure to steroids often leads to long-term phenotypic effects. It has been hypothesized that mothers may be able to create a steroid environment that adjusts the phenotypes of offspring to current environmental conditions. Complicating this hypothesis is the potential for developing embryos to modulate their early endocrine environment. This study utilized the threespined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to characterize the early endocrine environment within eggs by measuring four steroids (progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol) of maternal origin. We then examined how the concentrations of these four steroids changed over the first 12 days post fertilization (dpf). Progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol of maternal origin could be detected within unfertilized eggs and levels of all four steroids declined in the first 3 days following fertilization. While levels of progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol remained low after the initial decline, levels of cortisol rose again by 8?dpf. These results demonstrate that G. aculeatus embryos begin development in the presence of a number of maternal steroids but levels begin to change quickly following fertilization. This suggests that embryonic processes change the early endocrine environment and hence influence the ability of maternal steroids to affect development. With these findings, G. aculeatus becomes an intriguing system in which to study how selection may act on both maternal and embryonic processes to shape the evolutionary consequence of steroid-mediated maternal effects. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 422-429, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26036752

  15. Effects of centrifugation on gonadal and adrenocortical steroids in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakihana, R.; Butte, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Many endocrine systems are sensitive to external changes in the environment. Both the pituitary adrenal and pituitary gonadal systems are affected by stress including centrifugation stress. The effect of centrifugation on the pituitary gonadal and pituitary adrenocortical systems was examined by measuring the gonadal and adrenal steroids in the plasma and brain following different duration and intensity of centrifugation stress in rats. Two studies were completed and the results are presented. The second study was carried out to describe the developmental changes of brain, plasma and testicular testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in Sprague Dawley rats so that the effect of centrifugation stress on the pituitary gonadal syatem could be better evaluated in future studies.

  16. 21 CFR 1308.33 - Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application. 1308.33...CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.33 Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application....

  17. 21 CFR 1308.33 - Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application. 1308.33...CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.33 Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application....

  18. 21 CFR 1308.33 - Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application. 1308.33...CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.33 Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application....

  19. 21 CFR 1308.33 - Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application. 1308.33...CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.33 Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application....

  20. 21 CFR 1308.33 - Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application. 1308.33...CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.33 Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application....

  1. 32 CFR 1624.9 - Induction into the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Induction into the Armed Forces. 1624.9 Section 1624...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.9 Induction into the Armed Forces. Registrants in...

  2. 32 CFR 1624.8 - Transfer for induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfer for induction. 1624.8 Section 1624.8 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.8 Transfer for induction. The Director of Selective Service...

  3. 32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Random selection procedures for induction. 1624.1 Section 1624.1 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction. (a) The Director of...

  4. 32 CFR 1624.5 - Order to report for induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Order to report for induction. 1624.5 Section 1624.5 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.5 Order to report for induction. (a) Immediately upon determining...

  5. 32 CFR 1624.2 - Issuance of induction orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of induction orders. 1624.2 Section 1624.2 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.2 Issuance of induction orders. The Director of Selective...

  6. 32 CFR 1624.8 - Transfer for induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transfer for induction. 1624.8 Section 1624.8 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.8 Transfer for induction. The Director of Selective Service...

  7. 32 CFR 1624.9 - Induction into the Armed Forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Induction into the Armed Forces. 1624.9 Section 1624...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.9 Induction into the Armed Forces. Registrants in...

  8. 32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Random selection procedures for induction. 1624.1 Section 1624.1 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction. (a) The Director of...

  9. 32 CFR 1624.2 - Issuance of induction orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Issuance of induction orders. 1624.2 Section 1624.2 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.2 Issuance of induction orders. The Director of Selective...

  10. 32 CFR 1624.5 - Order to report for induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Order to report for induction. 1624.5 Section 1624.5 National...National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.5 Order to report for induction. (a) Immediately upon determining...

  11. Regulation of brain microglia by female gonadal steroids.

    PubMed

    Habib, Pardes; Beyer, Cordian

    2015-02-01

    Microglial cells are the primary mediators of the CNS immune defense system and crucial for shaping inflammatory responses. They represent a highly dynamic cell population which is constantly moving and surveying their environment. Acute brain damage causes a local attraction and activation of this immune cell type which involves neuron-to-glia and glia-to-glia interactions. The prevailing view attributes microglia a "negative" role such as defense and debris elimination. More topical studies also suggest a protective and "positive" regulatory function. Estrogens and progestins exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in the CNS in acute and chronic brain diseases. Recent work revealed that microglial cells express subsets of classical and non-classical estrogen and progesterone receptors in a highly dynamic way. In this review article, we would like to stress the importance of microglia for the spreading of neural damage during hypoxia, their susceptibility to functional modulation by sex steroids, the potency of sex hormones to switch microglia from a pro-inflammatory M1 to neuroprotective M2 phenotype, and the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory properties including the inflammasome. We will further discuss the possibility that the neuroprotective action of sex steroids in the brain involves an early and direct modulation of local microglia cell function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Sex steroids and brain disorders'. PMID:24607811

  12. Power system stability enhancement by a double-fed induction machine with a flywheel energy storage system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Li; Shijie Cheng; Jinyu Wen; Yuan Pan; Jia Ma

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposed a new idea of using a large-mass varying-speed flywheel as an energy storage element to form a novel FACTS device called multi-functional flexible power conditioner (FPC). The novel device consists of a double-fed induction machine (DFIM) and a voltage-source pulse width modulation (PWM) rectifier-inverter used as an AC exciter. By changing the speed of the rotating machine,

  13. Ovarian steroids in endometrial angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Perrot-Applanat, M; Ancelin, M; Buteau-Lozano, H; Meduri, G; Bausero, P

    2000-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is fundamental for human endometrial development and differentiation, which are necessary for implantation. This vascular process is supposed to be mainly mediated by the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), also named vascular permeability factor (VPF). We report here the expression and modulation of VEGF and its receptors, Flk-1/KDR and Flt-1, in the functionalis throughout the menstrual cycle. Using immunocytochemistry, VEGF is localized in glandular epithelial cells and in the surrounding stroma, as well as in capillaries and spiral arterioles. The localization of VEGF on the endothelium correlates with the presence of Flt-1 and Flk-1/KDR receptors on vascular structures, including capillary strands that have not yet formed a lumen and that have been previously described in tumors as angiogenic capillaries. The strongest immunoreactivity for both VEGF and Flk-1/KDR receptor on endothelial cells is detected in the proliferative and midsecretory phases. Enhanced expression of VEGF and its Flk-1 receptors on narrow capillary strands during the proliferative phase may account for the rapid capillary growth associated with endometrial regeneration from the residual basal layer following menstrual shedding of the functionalis. The vascular expression of Flt-1 is more important in the secretory than in the proliferative phase, associated with a high microvascular density and an increase in vascular permeability in the implantation period. Consistently with these in vivo observations, the treatment of isolated endometrial stromal cells with estradiol (E(2)), or E(2) + progesterone, significantly increased VEGF mRNA over the control value in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that the expression of VEGF and its receptors is cyclically modulated by ovarian steroids, and that this endothelial growth factor acts on the endothelium in a paracrine fashion to control endometrial angiogenesis and permeability. PMID:11108865

  14. Steroids in a typical swine farm and their release into the environment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhou, Li-Jun; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Lai, Hua-Jie

    2012-08-01

    The occurrence and fate of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) in a typical swine farm with lagoon waste disposal systems, in south China. Nineteen, 22 and 8 of 28 steroids were detected at concentrations ranging from 2.2 ± 0.1 ng/g (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) to 14,400 ± 394 ng/g (progesterone) in the feces samples, from 6.1 ± 2.3 ng/L (17?-boldenone) to 10,800 ± 3190 ng/L (norgestrel) in the flush water samples, and from 5.0 ± 0.2 ng/g (progesterone) to 225 ± 79.4 ng/g (5?-dihydrotestosterone) in the suspended particles, respectively. By comparing the types and concentrations of steroids in different treatment stages of the lagoon systems, it demonstrated that the lagoon systems used in the farm were not effective method to reduce various steroids in wastewater. Among the thirteen synthetic steroids detected in the swine feces and flush water, only seven (methyl testosterone, 17?-trenbolone, 17?-trenbolone, 17?-ethynyl estradiol, dexamethasone, medroxyprogesterone, and norgestrel) were regarded as the parent/metabolite compounds of animal exogenous usage. According to the estimated masses of steroids from feces and flush water, the excretion of steroids for sows were mainly from feces, but for piglets or barrows, most excreted steroids were through flush water rather than feces. The total daily excreted masses of androgens, estrogens, glucocortcoids and progestagens in the sow feces were in the range of 90.7-6310 ?g/d, which were up to a thousand fold of those in the feces of other growth stages indicating that the proportion of sow number in the swine farm directly influenced the total excretion mass of steroids. In addition, two natural steroids 4-androstene-3,17-dione and progesterone were worth notice due to their relatively high concentrations per sow excretion, 277 ?g/d and 6380 ?g/d, respectively, which are approximately equivalent to the daily excretion of 100 persons. Some steroids were also detected in the well water, vegetable field and receiving stream, and may pose potential high risks to some sensitive organisms in the receiving environment. PMID:22591816

  15. Induction and Co-induction in Sequent Calculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alwen Tiu; Alberto Momigliano

    2008-01-01

    Proof search has been used to specify a wide range of computation systems. In order to build a framework for reasoning about such specifications, we make use of a sequ ent calculus involving induction and co-induction. These proof principles are based on a proof theoretic (rather than set-theoretic) notion of definition (13, 20, 25, 51). Definitions are akin to (stratified)

  16. Initial Steroid Sensitivity in Children with Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome Predicts Post-Transplant Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wen Y.; Koziell, Ania; McCarthy, Hugh J.; Bierzynska, Agnieszka; Bhagavatula, Murali K.; Dudley, Jan A.; Inward, Carol D.; Coward, Richard J.; Tizard, Jane; Reid, Christopher; Antignac, Corinne; Boyer, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Of children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, 10%–20% fail to respond to steroids or develop secondary steroid resistance (termed initial steroid sensitivity) and the majority progress to transplantation. Although 30%–50% of these patients suffer disease recurrence after transplantation, with poor long-term outcome, no reliable indicator of recurrence has yet been identified. Notably, the incidence of recurrence after transplantation appears reduced in patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) due to monogenic disorders. We reviewed 150 transplanted patients with SRNS to identify biomarkers that consistently predict outcome of SRNS after transplantation. In all, 25 children had genetic or familial SRNS and did not experience post-transplant recurrence. We reviewed phenotypic factors, including initial steroid sensitivity, donor type, age, ethnicity, time to ESRD, and time on dialysis, in the remaining 125 children. Of these patients, 57 (45.6%) developed post-transplant recurrence; 26 of 28 (92.9%) patients with initial steroid sensitivity recurred after transplantation, whereas only 26 of 86 (30.2%) patients resistant from the outset recurred (odds ratio, 30; 95% confidence interval, 6.62 to 135.86; P<0.001). We were unable to determine recurrence in two patients (one with initial steroid sensitivity), and nine patients did not receive initial steroids. Our data show that initial steroid sensitivity is highly predictive of post-transplant disease recurrence in this pediatric patient population. Because a pathogenic circulating permeability factor in nephrotic syndrome remains to be confirmed, we propose initial steroid sensitivity as a surrogate marker for post-transplant recurrence. PMID:24511128

  17. Parallel algorithms for inductance extraction

    E-print Network

    Mahawar, Hemant

    2007-09-17

    of the iterative method becomes a challenging task. This work presents a class of parallel algorithms for fast and accurate inductance extraction of VLSI circuits. We use the solenoidal basis approach that converts the linear system into a reduced system...

  18. Steroid regulation of menstrual bleeding and endometrial repair.

    PubMed

    Maybin, Jacqueline A; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2012-12-01

    The ovarian steroid hormones progesterone and estradiol are well established regulators of human endometrial function. However, more recent evidence suggests that androgens and locally generated steroids, such as the glucocorticoids, also have a significant impact on endometrial breakdown and repair. The temporal and spatial pattern of steroid receptor presence in endometrial cells has a significant impact on the endometrial response to steroids. Furthermore, regulation of steroid receptor function by modulatory proteins further refines local responses. This review focuses on steroid regulation of endometrial function during the luteo-follicular transition with a focus on menstruation and endometrial repair. PMID:23224720

  19. Behaviour of a desolvation system based on microwave radiation heating for use in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gras, Luis; Mora, Juan; Todolí, JoséL.; Hernandis, Vicente; Canals, Antonio

    1997-07-01

    The present paper describes the preliminary results obtained with a desolvation system for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry that incorporates a heating unit based on microwave (MW) radiation. This system has been called Microwave Desolvation System (MWDS). The results have proved that MW radiation can be considered as a good choice for aerosol heating in a sample introduction system. MW radiation seems to be a more uniform way of aerosol desolvation than conductive/convective heating (i.e. lower radial temperature gradients), the degree of vaporization of the droplets is less dependent on the liquid flow rate ( Ql), and also the background noise associated with the vaporization of droplets is reduced. As regards the results obtained with MWDS, in comparison with a conventional desolvation system (CDS), they are very dependent on Ql. When heating is applied, the amount of analyte that leaves the heating step increases by 30-60% with the MWDS, irrespective of Ql, whereas for the CDS this increase is very high (up to 300%) at low Ql values (0.4 ml min -1), but almost negligible at high Ql values (2.4 ml min -1). In agreement with this, the analytical figures of merit are favourable to the CDS at low flow rates, and to the MWDS at high liquid flows. Under all the conditions studied, the amount of solvent that leaves the condensation unit are lower for MWDS than for CDS.

  20. Mechanism of antiprogestational action of synthetic steroids.

    PubMed

    Tamaya, T; Furuta, N; Motoyama, T; Biku, S; Ohono, Y; Okada, H

    1978-05-01

    The mechanism of antiprogestational effect of the synthetic steroid was studied in relation to the progesterone (P) receptor in the rabbit uterus. Estrogen primed uteri were used for the study. The sucrose gradient analysis in the supernatant of 248000 X gm (maximum) of the uterine homogenate showed that P 8S binding was inhibited by each of the synthetic steroid (danazol and R2323), and the kinetic study revealed that each steroid was a competitve inhibitor, where the dissociation constant (Kd) of P-protein binding was 8.1 X 10 -10M, and the ionization constant (Ki) of danazol-protein binding was 2.7 X 10-8M, and Ki of R2323-protein binding was 6.6 X 10-9M. These data suggest that such a synthetic steroid binds to a P receptor, and the steroid-receptor complex enters into the nucleus but does not activate the chromatin template, thus resulting in the antiprogestational effect. PMID:580535

  1. Wait!!! No Steroids for this Asthma….

    PubMed

    Alsharif, Abdelhamid; Sodhi, Amik; Murillo, Luis C; Headley, Arthur S; Kadaria, Dipen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Strongyloides stercoralis (SS) is a parasite seen in certain parts of the USA and in people from other endemic areas. In these patients steroids might precipitate or exacerbate asthma. Apart from worsening of asthma, serious complications like hyperinfection syndrome and even death can occur in these patients if treated with steroids. Treatment is either ivermectin or albendazole based on severity of the disease. Clinicians have to be very careful when prescribing steroids in patients presenting with an exacerbation of asthma from areas endemic for Strongyloides stercoralis. CASE REPORT A young woman with history of asthma presented with complaints of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, wheezing, and dry cough. Physical examination revealed diffuse expiratory wheezing and mild diffuse abdominal pain without rebound or guarding. Laboratory results showed leukocytosis with eosinophilia. Stool studies showed Strongyloides stercoralis. Imaging revealed ground-glass opacities in the right upper and lower lobe along with an infiltrate in the lingular lobe on the left side. Bronchoscopy showed Strongyloides stercoralis. The patient was diagnosed with hyperinfection syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis most probably exacerbated by prednisone given for her asthma. Steroids were then discontinued and the patient was started on ivermectin. The patient improved with treatment. Repeat stool examination was negative for Strongyloides stercoralis. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians have to be very careful when prescribing steroids in patients presenting with an exacerbation of asthma who are from areas endemic for Strongyloides stercoralis and should test for it (preferably with serology test) before starting treatment. PMID:26114594

  2. Gene regulation by steroid hormones III

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, A.K.; Clark, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    In this book, the authors discuss the latest advances in molecular endocrinology: - steroid receptor binding to DNA sequences of hormonally controlled genes, - structure of genes controlled by steroid hormones, - heterogeneity of steroid receptors, - immunochemical approaches to receptor studies, and - the most recent approaches to steroid hormone action and biological response. The Contents discussed are: Biochemical Evidence for the Exclusive Nuclear Localization of the Estrogen Receptor. - Structure, Dynamics, and Cloning of the Estrogen Receptor. - Structure, Dynamics, and Cloning of the Estrogen Receptor - Physical and Functional Parameters of Isolated Estrogen Receptor - Type II Binding Sites: Cellular Origin and an Endogeneous Ligand. - The Two Phosphorylation Reactions of the Progesterone Receptor. - Receptor Mediated Action of the Vitamin D Hormone. - Characterization of the Nuclear Binding Sites (Acceptor Sites) for a Steroid Receptor. Antibodies in Estrogen, Progesterone, Glucocorticoid, Vitamin D Receptors and Autoantibodies to Antrogene Receptor. - Isolation and Characterization of cDNA probes for Human CBG and Rat ABP. Ornithine Decarboxy lase mRNAs in Murine Kidney: Structure and Regulation by Androgens - Glucocorticoid Receptors and the Control of Gene Expression. - Activation and Regulation of the Vitellogenin Gene Family. - Intra- and Intercellular Aspects of the Hormonal Regulation of the ..cap alpha..2..mu.. Globulin Gene Expression. - Hormonal Regulation of Sexually Differentiated Isozymes of Cytochrome P-450 in Rat Liver. - Interaction of Thyroid Hormone and Carbohydrates on Hepatic Gene Expression.

  3. High Incidences of Invasive Fungal Infections in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Receiving Induction Chemotherapy without Systemic Antifungal Prophylaxis: A Prospective Observational Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Hsiang-Chi; Yao, Ming; Wu, Un-In; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Lin, Chien-Ting; Li, Chi-Cheng; Wu, Shang-Ju; Hou, Hsin-An; Chou, Wen-Chien; Huang, Shang-Yi; Tsay, Woei; Chen, Yao-Chang; Chen, Yee-Chun; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Tien, Hwei-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is an important complication for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients receiving induction chemotherapy. However, the epidemiological information is not clear in Southeastern Asia, an area of potential high incidences of IFIs. To clarify it, we enrolled 298 non-M3 adult AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy without systemic anti-fungal prophylaxis from Jan 2004 to Dec 2009, when we applied a prospective diagnostic and treatment algorithm for IFIs. Their demographic parameters, IFI characters, and treatment outcome were collected for analysis. The median age of these patients was 51 years. Standard induction chemotherapy was used for 246 (82.6%) patients, and 66.8% of patients achieved complete remission (CR) or partial remission. The incidence of all-category IFIs was 34.6% (5.7% proven IFIs, 5.0% probable IFIs and 23.8% possible IFIs). Candida tropicalis was the leading pathogen among yeast, and lower respiratory tract was the most common site for IFIs (75.4%, 80/106). Standard induction chemotherapy and failure to CR were identified as risk factors for IFIs. The presence of IFI in induction independently predicted worse survival (hazard ratio 1.536 (1.100–2.141), p value = 0.012). Even in those who survived from the initial IFI insults after 3 months, the presence of IFIs in induction still predicted a poor long-term survival. This study confirms high incidences of IFIs in Southeastern Asia, and illustrates potential risk factors; poor short-term and long-term outcomes are also demonstrated. This epidemiological information will provide useful perspectives for anti-fungal prophylaxis and treatment for AML patients during induction, so that best chances of cure and survival can be provided. PMID:26061179

  4. Unipolar Induction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hraskó

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon of unipolar induction consists in generating electric field by uniformly rotating permanent magnets made of either conducting or dielectric substance. The origin of the field around conducting magnets is explained and calculated in Sect. 1. Dielectrics are considered in Sect. 2, where the role of the electric moment due to moving magnetic dipole moment is clarified. Sect. 3

  5. Estimation of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system by using joint inversion of multicoil electromagnetic induction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib; Moghadas, Davood; Jadoon, Aurangzeb; Missimer, Thomas M.; Al-Mashharawi, Samir K.; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2015-05-01

    Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) is becoming a useful tool for soil characterization due to its fast measurement capability and sensitivity to soil moisture and salinity. In this research, a new EMI system (the CMD mini-Explorer) is used for subsurface characterization of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system via a joint inversion approach of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. EMI measurements were conducted across a farm where Acacia trees are irrigated with brackish water. In situ measurements of vertical bulk electrical conductivity (?b) were recorded in different pits along one of the transects to calibrate the EMI measurements and to compare with the modeled electrical conductivity (?) obtained by the joint inversion of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. Estimates of ? were then converted into the universal standard of soil salinity measurement (i.e., electrical conductivity of a saturated soil paste extract - ECe). Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) was repeatedly measured with the CMD mini-Explorer to investigate the temperature stability of the new system at a fixed location, where the ambient air temperature increased from 26°C to 46°C. Results indicate that the new EMI system is very stable in high temperature environments, especially above 40°C, where most other approaches give unstable measurements. In addition, the distribution pattern of soil salinity is well estimated quantitatively by the joint inversion of multicomponent EMI measurements. The approach of joint inversion of EMI measurements allows for the quantitative mapping of the soil salinity distribution pattern and can be utilized for the management of soil salinity.

  6. An Adaptive Supervisory Sliding Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller for Sensorless Vector-Controlled Induction Motor Drive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shun-Yuan; Tseng, Chwan-Lu; Lin, Shou-Chuang; Chiu, Chun-Jung; Chou, Jen-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller (FCMAC) in the speed sensorless vector control of an induction motor (IM) drive system. The proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC comprised a supervisory controller, integral sliding surface, and an adaptive FCMAC. The integral sliding surface was employed to eliminate steady-state errors and enhance the responsiveness of the system. The adaptive FCMAC incorporated an FCMAC with a compensating controller to perform a desired control action. The proposed controller was derived using the Lyapunov approach, which guarantees learning-error convergence. The implementation of three intelligent control schemes—the adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC, adaptive sliding FCMAC, and adaptive sliding CMAC—were experimentally investigated under various conditions in a realistic sensorless vector-controlled IM drive system. The root mean square error (RMSE) was used as a performance index to evaluate the experimental results of each control scheme. The analysis results indicated that the proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC substantially improved the system performance compared with the other control schemes. PMID:25815450

  7. Photoaffinity labelling of steroid-hormone-binding glutathione S-transferases with [3H]methyltrienolone. Inhibition of steroid-binding activity by the anticarcinogen indole-3-carbinol.

    PubMed Central

    Danger, D P; Baldwin, W S; LeBlanc, G A

    1992-01-01

    The identification and characterization of steroid-hormone-binding glutathione S-transferases (GST) were undertaken using photoaffinity-labelling techniques. Irradiation of mouse liver cytosol, in the presence of 50 nM-[3H]methyltrienolone, resulted in the specific affinity labelling of five proteins. One of these proteins, designated MBP27, had an approximate molecular mass of 27 kDa under denaturing conditions and was induced by treatment of mice with either 2(3)-t-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA) or phenobarbital (PB). An additional affinity-labelled protein, MBP25, which was not detected in untreated mouse cytosol, was induced in the liver cytosols from BHA- and PB-treated mice. The molecular masses of these proteins and their induction by BHA and PB suggested that they may be steroid-hormone-binding GST subunits. Irradiation of mouse liver cytosol in the presence of [3H]methyltrienolone, followed by immunoprecipitation using GST-specific antibodies established that both GST mu and GST alpha bind [3H]methyltrienolone and both contribute to the affinity-labelled protein designated MBP27. GST Ya1 Ya1, an alpha class GST that is not expressed in untreated mouse liver but is induced by BHA and PB, was also found to bind [3H]methyltrienolone and is identical with the affinity-labelled protein designated MBP25. Experiments were undertaken next to assess the effects of the anticarcinogenic plant compound indole-3-carbinol (I3C) on GST-mediated steroid hormone-binding using the photoaffinity labelling techniques. Treatment of mice with I3C resulted in the induction of immunoreactive GST mu and GST Ya1 Ya1. However, the steroid-binding activity of these proteins in vitro was severely inhibited by the acid-condensation products of I3C that are generated in the stomach after ingestion. These results suggest that I3C may inhibit GST-mediated steroid-binding activity which could contribute to the anticarcinogenic activity of this compound. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1463441

  8. Pathological changes in anabolic androgenic steroid users.

    PubMed

    Lusetti, Monia; Licata, Manuela; Silingardi, Enrico; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Palmiere, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Several classes of recreational and prescription drugs have additional effects on the heart and vasculature, which may significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in chronic users. The study presented herein focuses on pathological changes involving the heart possibly due to anabolic androgenic steroid use. The role these hormones may play in their occurrence of sudden cardiac death is also investigated. 98 medico-legal cases including 6 anabolic androgenic steroid users were retrospectively reviewed. Autopsies, histology, immunohistochemistry, biochemistry and toxicology were performed in all cases. Pathological changes consisted of various degrees of interstitial and perivascular fibrosis as well as fibroadipous metaplasia and perineural fibrosis within the myocardium of the left ventricle. Within the limits of the small number of investigated cases, our results appear to confirm former observations on this topic and suggest anabolic androgenic steroid's potential causative role in the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac deaths in chronic users. PMID:26048507

  9. Quantitative systemic and local evaluation of the antiviral effect of ganciclovir and foscarnet induction treatment on human cytomegalovirus gastrointestinal disease of patients with AIDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Gerna; Antonella Sarasini; Fausto Baldanti; Elena Percivalle; Davide Zella; Maria Grazia Revello

    1997-01-01

    In a group of 29 AIDS patients with biopsy-proven human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gastrointestinal disease (GID), HCMV GID was shown to correlate mostly with systemic HCMV infection. The antiviral induction treatment (IT) with either ganciclovir (GCV) or foscarnet (PFA) caused a significant reduction in the level of HCMV antigenemia, viremia and leukoDNAemia, and a complete virus clearance or a sharp drop

  10. In 14th IEEE Symposium on Computer Based Medical Systems (CBMS'2001), 26-27 July, Bethesda A Case for Supplementing Evidence Base Medicine with Inductive

    E-print Network

    Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    in making decisions about the care of individuals patients. The practice of evidence based medicine means). A Case for Supplementing Evidence Base Medicine with Inductive Clinical Knowledge: Towards a Technology Technology-- within traditional Evidence Based Medicine systems to derive all-encompassing clinical evidence

  11. Desolvation of acid solutions in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry by infrared radiation. Comparison with a system based on microwave radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Gras; Juan Mora; José L. Todol??; Antonio Canals; Vicente Hernandis

    1999-01-01

    The behaviour of an infrared desolvation system with acid solutions in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) is evaluated, and the influence of the liquid uptake rate and of the nature and concentration of the acid on the solvent and analyte transport rates and on the analytical figures of merit is studied. The results are compared with those obtained

  12. Optimal Energy Saving Control of Induction Motors Fed by Variable-Voltage and Variable-Frequency Source for Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juh-Shinun Lin

    It is well known that the axial power of an air conditioning system is proportional to the cubic power of the motor speed. This paper is concerned with the determination and experiment of the input voltage and frequency for the optimal efficiency operation of induction motors which drive the air handing unit blower, the cooling tower fan and the chiller

  13. Facilitated intranasal induction of mucosal and systemic immunity to mutans streptococcal glucosyltransferase peptide vaccines.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; King, W F; Barnes, L A; Trantolo, D; Wise, D L; Taubman, M A

    2001-08-01

    Synthetic peptide vaccines which are derived from functional domains of Streptococcus mutans glucosyltransferases (GTF) have been shown to induce protective immunity in Sprague-Dawley rats after subcutaneous injection in the salivary gland region. Since mucosal induction of salivary immunity would be preferable in humans, we explored methods to induce mucosal antibody in the rat to the GTF peptide vaccines HDS and HDS-GLU after intranasal administration. Several methods of facilitation of the immune response were studied: the incorporation of peptides in bioadhesive poly(D,L-lactide-coglycolide) (PLGA) microparticles, the use of monoepitopic (HDS) or diepitopic (HDS-GLU) peptide constructs, or the use of mucosal adjuvants. Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses were not detected after intranasal administration of diepitopic HDS-GLU peptide constructs in alum or after incorporation into PLGA microparticles. However, significant primary and secondary salivary IgA and serum IgG antibody responses to HDS were induced in all rats when cholera holotoxin (CT) or a detoxified mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (R192G LT) were intranasally administered with HDS peptide constructs in PLGA. Coadministration of LT with HDS resulted in predominantly IgG2a responses in the serum, while coadministration with CT resulted in significant IgG1 and IgG2a responses to HDS. Serum IgG antibody, which was induced to the HDS peptide construct by coadministration with these adjuvants, also bound intact mutans streptococcal GTF in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and inhibited its enzymatic activity. Thus, immune responses which are potentially protective for dental caries can be induced to peptide-based GTF vaccines after mucosal administration if combined with the CT or LT R192G mucosal adjuvant. PMID:11447149

  14. 3-Dimensional Modeling of Capacitively and Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauf, Shahid

    2008-10-01

    Low temperature plasmas are widely used for thin film etching during micro and nano-electronic device fabrication. Fluid and hybrid plasma models were developed 15-20 years ago to understand the fundamentals of these plasmas and plasma etching. These models have significantly evolved since then, and are now a major tool used for new plasma hardware design and problem resolution. Plasma etching is a complex physical phenomenon, where inter-coupled plasma, electromagnetic, fluid dynamics, and thermal effects all have a major influence. The next frontier in the evolution of fluid-based plasma models is where these models are able to self-consistently treat the inter-coupling of plasma physics with fluid dynamics, electromagnetics, heat transfer and magnetostatics. We describe one such model in this paper and illustrate its use in solving engineering problems of interest for next generation plasma etcher design. Our 3-dimensional plasma model includes the full set of Maxwell equations, transport equations for all charged and neutral species in the plasma, the Navier-Stokes equation for fluid flow, and Kirchhoff's equations for the lumped external circuit. This model also includes Monte Carlo based kinetic models for secondary electrons and stochastic heating, and can take account of plasma chemistry. This modeling formalism allows us to self-consistently treat the dynamics in commercial inductively and capacitively coupled plasma etching reactors with realistic plasma chemistries, magnetic fields, and reactor geometries. We are also able to investigate the influence of the distributed electromagnetic circuit at very high frequencies (VHF) on the plasma dynamics. The model is used to assess the impact of azimuthal asymmetries in plasma reactor design (e.g., off-center pump, 3D magnetic field, slit valve, flow restrictor) on plasma characteristics at frequencies from 2 -- 180 MHz. With Jason Kenney, Ankur Agarwal, Ajit Balakrishna, Kallol Bera, and Ken Collins.

  15. Steroid promiscuity: Diversity of enzyme action.

    PubMed

    Lathe, Richard; Kotelevtsev, Yuri; Mason, J Ian

    2015-07-01

    This Special Issue on the topic of Steroid and Sterol Signaling: Promiscuity and Diversity, dwells on the growing realization that the 'one ligand, one binding site' and 'one enzyme, one reaction' concepts are out of date. Focusing on cytochromes P450 (CYP), hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs), and related enzymes, the Special Issue highlights that a single enzyme can bind to diverse substrates, and in different conformations, and can catalyze multiple different conversions (and in different directions), thereby, generating an unexpectedly wide spectrum of ligands that can have subtly different biological actions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Steroid/Sterol Signaling' . PMID:25596328

  16. Speed control systems for three phase induction motor using fixed pattern PWM wave

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mohammadi

    1993-01-01

    A fixed pulse width modulation (PWM) pattern and a PWM wave analyzed by computer are discussed. To produce this kind of controller, the basis of the control system is approximated. A parallel proportional, integral, differential (PID) error amplifier is used in this system to optimize and minimize the response time. In designing this system, the availability and cost of technology

  17. Torsional Vibration Effects on Induction Machine Current and Torque Signatures in Gearbox-Based Electromechanical System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahin Hedayati Kia; Humberto Henao; GÉrard-AndrÉ Capolino

    2009-01-01

    The monitoring of heavy-duty electromechanical systems is crucial for their preventive maintenance planning. In these systems, the mechanical anomalies such as load troubles, great torque dynamic variations, and torsional oscillations lead to shaft fatigue and aging of other mechanical parts such as bearings and gearboxes. In this paper, a gearbox-based electromechanical system is investigated. Initially, a simple gearbox dynamic model

  18. A survey of testing and monitoring methods for stator insulation systems in induction machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Grubic; J. M. Aller; B. Lu; T. G. Habetler

    2008-01-01

    A breakdown of the electrical insulation system causes catastrophic failure of the electrical machine and brings large process downtime losses. To determine the conditions of the stator insulation system of motor drive systems, various testing and monitoring methods have been developed. This paper presents an in-depth literature review of more than 20 existing methods, including the most common methods to

  19. Steroids No Better for Sciatica Pain Than Placebo

    MedlinePLUS

    Steroids No Better for Sciatica Pain Than Placebo, Study Finds But taking prednisone was tied to small ... May 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors often prescribe steroid pills to ease the discomfort of sciatica -- back ...

  20. Space shuttle main engine anomaly data and inductive knowledge based systems: Automated corporate expertise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Modesitt, Kenneth L.

    1987-01-01

    Progress is reported on the development of SCOTTY, an expert knowledge-based system to automate the analysis procedure following test firings of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The integration of a large-scale relational data base system, a computer graphics interface for experts and end-user engineers, potential extension of the system to flight engines, application of the system for training of newly-hired engineers, technology transfer to other engines, and the essential qualities of good software engineering practices for building expert knowledge-based systems are among the topics discussed.

  1. Non-contact multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy system for industrial-scale bio-impedance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Toole, M. D.; Marsh, L. A.; Davidson, J. L.; Tan, Y. M.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.

    2015-03-01

    Biological tissues have a complex impedance, or bio-impedance, profile which changes with respect to frequency. This is caused by dispersion mechanisms which govern how the electromagnetic field interacts with the tissue at the cellular and molecular level. Measuring the bio-impedance spectra of a biological sample can potentially provide insight into the sample’s properties and its cellular structure. This has obvious applications in the medical, pharmaceutical and food-based industrial domains. However, measuring the bio-impedance spectra non-destructively and in a way which is practical at an industrial scale presents substantial challenges. The low conductivity of the sample requires a highly sensitive instrument, while the demands of industrial-scale operation require a fast high-throughput sensor of rugged design. In this paper, we describe a multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy (MIS) system suitable for industrial-scale, non-contact, spectroscopic bio-impedance measurement over a bandwidth of 156 kHz–2.5 MHz. The system sensitivity and performance are investigated using calibration and known reference samples. It is shown to yield rapid and consistently sensitive results with good long-term stability. The system is then used to obtain conductivity spectra of a number of biological test samples, including yeast suspensions of varying concentration and a range of agricultural produce, such as apples, pears, nectarines, kiwis, potatoes, oranges and tomatoes.

  2. Investigation on high inductive helical supported magnetically insulated transmission line on a 10-stage linear transformer driver system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Wenkang; Chen, Lin; Liu, Dagang; Zhang, Le; Liu, Laqun; Zhou, Liangji; Wang, Meng; Wei, Bing; Guo, Fan; Wang, Xueqiong; Dai, Yingmin; Xie, Weiping; Deng, Jianjun

    2012-11-01

    Magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs), which could transfer power density up to TW/cm2, are one of the most important technologies in pulsed power. In pulsed power systems for the Z-pinch fusion or radiography, a long MITL acts as a transmission line as well as a spatial isolation between load and driver. The length of MITLs in such systems will be up to a few, even tens of meters. However, the anode and cathode (A-K) gap is only a few centimeters to make the centering of the MITL’s electrodes be one of the most challenging issues. Cathodes of long coaxial MITLs, such as that of Hermes-III and RITS, are fixed at the low voltage end while keeping the other end free of support. However, such a method will be very difficult for longer MITLs due to gravity and engineering reasons. An interesting question for such MITL design is to find a way to position the electrodes to the ideal position while hardly damaging the power flow. It is also a very practical concern in the construction of large pulsed-power facilities. In this paper, a high inductive helical supported MITL in a 10-stage linear transformer driver system is investigated. Both experiments and particle-in-cell simulations show that magnetic insulation is well established and power flow could be transmitted to load efficiently.

  3. Influence of System Integration and Packaging on Its Inductive Power Link for an Integrated Wireless Neural Interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reid R. Harrison; Florian Solzbacher

    2009-01-01

    In an integrated wireless neural interface based on the Utah electrode array, the implanted electronics are supplied with power through inductive coupling between two coils. This inductive link is affected by conductive and dielectric materials and media surrounding the implant coil. In this study, the influences of the integration of an implant coil on a silicon-based IC and electrode array,

  4. Sex Steroid Effects at Target Tissues: Mechanisms of Action

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Margaret E. Wierman (University of Colorado Veterans Affairs Medical Center)

    2007-03-01

    This review outlines new advances in our understanding of the spectrum of steroid hormone ligands, newly recognized target tissues, structure-function relationships of steroid receptors, and, finally, their genomic and nongenomic actions. Sex-based specific effects are often related to the different steroid hormone mileu in men compared with women. Understanding the mechanisms of sex steroid action gives insight into the differences in normal physiology and disease states.

  5. Reptilian sex steroid receptors: Amplification, sequence and expression analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry J. Young; John Godwin; Mike Grammer; Manfred Gahr; David Crews

    1995-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones secreted by the gonads play a central role in the reproduction of all vertebrates. In addition to direct effects on gametogenesis, sex steroid hormones are important in sexual development, brain organization, and sexual behavior. The actions of sex steroid hormones are mediated primarily by ligand-dependent transcription factors, or receptors which bind to specific sequences of the DNA

  6. Annual Cycles of Steroid Hormone Production, Gonad Development, and Reproductive

    E-print Network

    Tricas, Timothy C.

    Annual Cycles of Steroid Hormone Production, Gonad Development, and Reproductive Behavior and ultimate function of this extended preovulatory mating are un- known. Annual cycles of the gonadal steroids their choice of mates. This estuary sample population shows higher ab- solute steroid levels and distinct

  7. Original article Effect of the increase of steroid binding plasma

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Effect of the increase of steroid binding plasma levels after passive immunization to increase sex steroid bin- ding levels in plasma and thus to overcome the negative feedback of oestradiol-17 testosterone increased sex steroid binding levels in plas- ma of underfed heifers and reduced the amount of E2

  8. ACCELERATED COMMUNICATION Enantiomers of Neuroactive Steroids Support a

    E-print Network

    Steinbach, Joe Henry

    ACCELERATED COMMUNICATION Enantiomers of Neuroactive Steroids Support a Specific Interaction with the GABA-C Receptor as the Mechanism of Steroid Action Wenjun Li, Douglas F. Covey, Juha-Matti Alakoskela steroids can either potentiate or inhibit a variety of membrane channels. Most studies have suggested

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Familial steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome

    E-print Network

    Friedman, Nir

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Familial steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome in Southern Israel: clinical January 2007 # IPNA 2007 Abstract Reports on genetically informative steroid-re- sponsive (sensitive with a high rate of consanguinity. The clinical presentation and steroid response of its 11 affected

  10. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN OVARIAN STEROIDS OR PROGESTAGENS AND LH RELEASE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    INTERACTIONS BETWEEN OVARIAN STEROIDS OR PROGESTAGENS AND LH RELEASE J. PELLETIER J. THIMONIER). Little is known about the effect of steroids at the hypothalamic level, although it is thought steroids and hypothalamo-pituitary activity is the variation of pituitary responsiveness to LRF during

  11. COMMUNICATION The Discovery of Steroids and Other Novel FKBP

    E-print Network

    Sanner, Michel

    COMMUNICATION The Discovery of Steroids and Other Novel FKBP Inhibitors Using a Molecular Docking with dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. The discovery that FK506 binding protein is a steroid the steroid binding mode and con®rmed the interactions predicted by the docking program. # 1999 Academic Press

  12. Relative Potencies and Combination Effects of Steroidal Estrogens in

    E-print Network

    Tyler, Charles

    Relative Potencies and Combination Effects of Steroidal Estrogens in Fish K A R E N L . T H O R P E of Biological Sciences, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH, UK The natural steroids estradiol-17 (E2) and estrone (E1) and the synthetic steroid ethynylestradiol-17R (EE2) have frequently been

  13. Three-phase power supplying system for induction motor of the diesel-electric locomotive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Huzau; Eva-Henrietta Dulf; V. Tulbure; C. Festila

    2008-01-01

    In the railway traction systems, an important role play diesel-electric locomotive. The AC traction motor proves its advantages compared to the DC older motor, but the supply (the power inverter) is more sophisticated and expensive and, in many cases, not too safe. The authors propose for diesel-electric locomotive a different version of supplying system, based on amplitude modulation and cheap

  14. Requirement of Salicylic Acid for the Induction of Systemic Acquired Resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Gaffney; Leslie Friedrich; Bernard Vernooij; David Negrotto; Gordon Nye; Scott Uknes; Eric Ward; Helmut Kessmann; John Ryals

    1993-01-01

    It has been proposed that salicylic acid acts as an endogenous signal responsible for inducing systemic acquired resistance in plants. The contribution of salicylic acid to systemic acquired resistance was investigated in transgenic tobacco plants harboring a bacterial gene encoding salicylate hydroxylase, which converts salicylic acid to catechol. Transgenic plants that express salicylate hydroxylase accumulated little or no salicylic acid

  15. Low-cost inverter based detection of rotor faults in induction machines for quality management systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Wolbank; J. L. Machl; R. Woehrnschimmel; R. Schneiderbauer

    2004-01-01

    Most fault detection systems for rotor bar defects require specific load conditions or at least sufficient moments of inertia to establish a minimum load by repetitive acceleration or deceleration. The application of a method able to detect a rotor defect at no load condition is thus advantageous especially for quality management systems in the manufacturing process where a high number

  16. 76 FR 72355 - Classification of Two Steroids, Prostanozol and Methasterone, as Schedule III Anabolic Steroids...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...A.T. (2008). Pharmacology of anabolic steroids. British Journal of Pharmacology, 154: 502-521...supplements. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology...supplement. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology...Agents: Chemistry and Pharmacology. New York:...

  17. Biocatalyst mediated production of 6?,11?-dihydroxy derivatives of 4-ene-3-one steroids.

    PubMed

    Kolet, Swati P; Niloferjahan, Siddiqui; Haldar, Saikat; Gonnade, Rajesh; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V

    2013-11-01

    Biotransformation of steroids with 4-ene-3-one functionality such as progesterone (I), testosterone (II), 17?-methyltestosterone (III), 4-androstene-3,17-dione (IV) and 19-nortestosterone (V) were studied by using a fungal system belonging to the genera of Mucor (M881). The fungal system efficiently and quantitatively converted these steroids in regio- and stereo-selective manner into corresponding 6?,11?-dihydroxy compounds. Time course experiments suggested that the transformation was initiated by hydroxylation at 6?- or 11?-(10?-hydroxy in case of V) to form monohydroxy derivatives which upon prolonged incubation were converted into corresponding 6?,11?-dihydroxy derivatives. The fermentation studies carried out using 5L table-top fermentor with substrates (I and II) clearly indicates that 6?,11?-dihydroxy derivatives of steroids with 4-ene-3-one functionality can be produced in large scale by using M881. PMID:23985409

  18. Anabolic androgenic steroid-induced Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Placci, Angelo; Sella, Gianluigi; Bellanti, Giancarlo; Margheri, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse, aimed at increasing muscle mass, has been growing in recent years. We describe a case of a 25-year-old bodybuilder who, after taking nandrolone and stanozolol, presented with Takotsubo syndrome. The angiography showed a normal coronary anatomy with the absence of stenosis. The left ventricular function was completely normalised after 1 week. PMID:25804946

  19. Histologic chorioamnionitis, antenatal steroids, and perinatal outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Elimian; Uma Verma; Debra Beneck; Rebecca Cipriano; Paul Visintainer; Nergesh Tejani

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine the perinatal effects of histologic chorioamnionitis on preterm neonates and the effectiveness of antenatal steroids in the presence of histologic chorioamnionitis.Methods: We studied neonates at our institution who weighed 1750 g or less at birth from January 1990 through December 1997. The population was stratified primarily by presence of histologic chorioamnionitis and secondarily by exposure to antenatal

  20. Antifungal steroid glycoside from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Shimada, S

    1969-03-28

    An antifungal steroid glycoside, holotoxin, has been isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus (Selenka). In vitro, it exhibits high activity against various fungi, including vegetable pathogens, but has scarcely any activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and mycobacteria in vitro. PMID:5812983

  1. Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Cardario, Barbara; McKinnon, Allan A.

    1991-01-01

    Gastrointestinal, renal, hepatic, and hematological adverse effects are all associated with the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Some patients are particularly at risk for such problems. Preventive measures and recommendations for managing and monitoring high-risk patients are presented. Patients receiving long-term NSAID therapy should be carefully monitored. PMID:21234090

  2. Two steroidal alkaloids from veratrum viride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalid A. El Sayed; James D. McChesney; Ahmed F. Halim; Ahmed M. Zaghloul; Markus Voehler

    1995-01-01

    A phytochemical study of the roots and rhizomes of Veratrum viride led to the isolation of the two new steroidal alkaloids, rubivirine, identified as 12?-hydroxyisorubijervine, and veramivirine, identified as 12?-hydroxyveramiline. Structural elucidation of the two compounds was aided by 2D-NMR spectral analyses.

  3. Steroid saponins II. Glycosides of Tribulus terrestris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Kintya; É. D. Perepelitsa; V. Ya. Chirva; L. G. Kretsu

    1972-01-01

    Summary  1. It has been established that the epigeal part ofTribulus terrestris L. contains five steroid saponins. Diosgenin was identified as the aglycone of all these compounds.\\u000a \\u000a 2. The carbohydrate compositions of the saponins have been determined.

  4. Steroids for intubated croup masking airway haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Kiff, K M; Mok, Q; Dunne, J; Tasker, R C

    1996-01-01

    Recently, the beneficial role of steroids for acute laryngotracheobronchitis has been more clearly defined for both intubated and unintubated patients. However, corticosteroids also improve the clinical signs of airway haemangiomata. Two patients are described who illustrate how this can be a source of diagnostic confusion. PMID:8660054

  5. Steroids for intubated croup masking airway haemangioma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K M Kiff; Q Mok; J Dunne; R C Tasker

    1996-01-01

    Recently, the beneficial role of steroids for acute laryngotracheobronchitis has been more clearly defined for both intubated and unintubated patients. However, corticosteroids also improve the clinical signs of airway haemangiomata. Two patients are described who illustrate how this can be a source of diagnostic confusion.

  6. Working Distance Comparison of Inductive and Electromagnetic Couplings for Wireless and Passive Underwater Monitoring System of Rinsing Process in Semiconductor Facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Zhang; Junseok Chae

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a side-by-side comparison of two wireless and passive sensing systems: inductive and electromag- netic (EM) couplings for an application of in-situ and real-time monitoring of wafer cleanliness in the rinsing process at semicon- ductor\\/microelectromechanical system (MEMS) manufacturing facilities. A MEMS sensor is designed to measure the resistivity of water, corresponding to the ionic concentration, to evaluate the

  7. Control strategies for enhanced power smoothing in wind energy systems using a flywheel driven by a vector-controlled induction machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Cárdenas; Rubén Peña; Greg Asher; Jon Clare

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a novel control strategy for power smoothing in wind energy applications, especially those feeding a stand-alone load. The system is based on a vector-controlled induction machine driving a flywheel and addresses the problem of regulating the DC-link system voltage against both input power surges\\/sags from a wind turbine or sudden changes in load demand. The control is

  8. A Scroll Compressor With a High-Performance Sensorless Induction Motor Drive for the Air Management of a PEMFC System for Automotive Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Blunier; Marcello Pucci; Giansalvo Cirrincione; Maurizio Cirrincione; Abdellatif Miraoui

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop experimental rig for testing a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) driving an electrical vehicle. The PEMFC includes an air-management system with a scroll compressor driven by a high-performance sensorless induction motor drive. The sensorless technique is based on a neural-network-based speed observer, i.e., the total least-squares EXIN full-order observer. The whole system is driven

  9. Effect of intravenous immunoglobulin on steroid consumption in patients with severe asthma: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis M. Salmun; Isil Barlan; Hermann M. Wolf; Martha Eibl; Frank J. Twarog; Raif S. Geha; Lynda C. Schneider

    1999-01-01

    Background: There is a significant group of patients with severe asthma who require chronic use of systemic steroids for control of their disease. These patients are at risk for severe side effects from oral steroids. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has immunomodulatory properties, and a few open-label trials have suggested its possible benefit in individuals with severe asthma. Objective: This study was

  10. Rapid Detection of Selected Steroid Hormones from Sewage Effluents using an ELISA in the Kuils River Water Catchment Area, South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelius Swart; Edmund Pool

    2007-01-01

    Steroid hormones are naturally synthesized by both humans and animals and are released into the environment. Significant levels of steroid hormones have been detected in sewage effluent around the world. The potential problem is that these hormones may interfere with the normal function of the endocrine systems, thus affecting reproduction and development in wildlife. Due to the major shortage of

  11. Simulation of Trolleybus Traction Induction Drive With Supercapacitor Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazis, V.; Latkovskis, L.; Grigans, L.

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the possibilities of saving the regenerative braking energy in Škoda 24Tr type trolleybuses by installing the onboard supercapacitor energy storage system (ESS) and improving its performance with automated switching to the autonomous traction mode. Proposed is an ESS control system with constant DC bus voltage in the supercapacitor charging mode and supercapacitor current proportional to the AC drive current in the discharging mode. The authors investigate stability of the trolleybus ESS control system operating together with AC traction drive in various overhead voltage failure modes. The co-simulation of ESS operation was done by Matlab/Simulink AC drive and PSIM ESS continuous models.

  12. Steroid hormone modulation of RET through two estrogen responsive enhancers in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stine, Zachary E.; McGaughey, David M.; Bessling, Seneca L.; Li, Shengchao; McCallion, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    RET, a gene causatively mutated in Hirschsprung disease and cancer, has recently been implicated in breast cancer estrogen (E2) independence and tamoxifen resistance. RET displays both E2 and retinoic acid (RA)-dependent transcriptional modulation in E2-responsive breast cancers. However, the regulatory elements through which the steroid hormone transcriptional regulation of RET is mediated are poorly defined. Recent genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation-based studies have identified 10 putative E2 receptor-alpha (ESR1) and RA receptor alpha-binding sites at the RET locus, of which we demonstrate only two (RET ?49.8 and RET +32.8) display significant E2 regulatory response when assayed independently in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that endogenous RET expression and RET ?49.8 regulatory activity are cooperatively regulated by E2 and RA in breast cancer cells. We identify key sequences that are required for RET ?49.8 and RET +32.8 E2 responsiveness, including motifs known to be bound by ESR1, FOXA1 and TFAP2C. We also report that both RET ?49.8 regulatory activity and endogenous RET expression are completely dependent on ESR1 for their (E2)-induction and that ESR1 is sufficient to mediate the E2-induced enhancer activity of RET ?49.8 and RET +32.8. Finally, using zebrafish transgenesis, we also demonstrate that RET ?49.8 directs reporter expression in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system consistent with the endogenous ret expression. Taken collectively, these data suggest that RET transcription in breast cancer cells is modulated by E2 via ESR1 acting on multiple elements collectively. PMID:21737465

  13. Puberty, steroids and GABAA receptor plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sheryl S.; Aoki, Chiye; Shen, Hui

    2009-01-01

    Summary GABAA receptors (GABAR) mediate most inhibition in the CNS and are also a target for neuroactive steroids such as 3?,5[?]?-THP (3?OH-5[?]?-OH-pregnan-20-one or [allo]pregnanolone). Although these steroids robustly enhance current gated by ?1?2? GABAR, we have shown that 3?,5[?]?-THP effects at recombinant ?4?2? GABAR depend on the direction of Cl- flux, where the steroid increases outward flux, but decreases inward flux through the receptor. This polarity-dependent inhibition of ?4?2? GABAR resulted from an increase in the rate and extent of rapid desensitization of the receptor, recorded from recombinant receptors expressed in HEK-293 cells with whole cell voltage clamp techniques. This inhibitory effect of 3?,5[?]?-THP was not observed at other receptor subtypes, suggesting it was selective for ?4?2? GABAR. Furthermore, it was prevented by a selective mutation of basic residue arginine 353 in the intracellular loop of the receptor, suggesting that this might be a putative chloride modulatory site. Expression of ?4?? GABAR increases markedly at extrasynaptic sites at the onset of puberty in female mice. At this time, 3?,5[?]?–THP decreased the inhibitory tonic current, recorded with perforated patch techniques to maintain the physiological Cl- gradient. By decreasing this shunting inhibition, 3?,5[?]?–THP increased the excitability of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells at puberty: These effects of the steroid were opposite to those observed before puberty when 3?,5[?]?–THP reduced neuronal excitability as a pre-synaptic effect. Behaviorally, the excitatory effect of 3?,5[?]?–THP was reflected as an increase in anxiety at the onset of puberty in female mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that the emergence of ?4?2? GABAR at the onset of puberty reverses the effect of a stress steroid. These findings may be relevant for the mood swings and increased response to stressful events reported in adolescence. PMID:19523771

  14. Wait!!! No Steroids for this Asthma…

    PubMed Central

    Alsharif, Abdelhamid; Sodhi, Amik; Murillo, Luis C.; Headley, Arthur S.; Kadaria, Dipen

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 31 Final Diagnosis: Hyperinfection syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • shortness of breath Medication: Prednisone Clinical Procedure: Bronchoscopy with BAL Specialty: Pulmonology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Strongyloides stercoralis (SS) is a parasite seen in certain parts of the USA and in people from other endemic areas. In these patients steroids might precipitate or exacerbate asthma. Apart from worsening of asthma, serious complications like hyperinfection syndrome and even death can occur in these patients if treated with steroids. Treatment is either ivermectin or albendazole based on severity of the disease. Clinicians have to be very careful when prescribing steroids in patients presenting with an exacerbation of asthma from areas endemic for Strongyloides stercoralis. Case Report: A young woman with history of asthma presented with complaints of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, wheezing, and dry cough. Physical examination revealed diffuse expiratory wheezing and mild diffuse abdominal pain without rebound or guarding. Laboratory results showed leukocytosis with eosinophilia. Stool studies showed Strongyloides stercoralis. Imaging revealed ground-glass opacities in the right upper and lower lobe along with an infiltrate in the lingular lobe on the left side. Bronchoscopy showed Strongyloides stercoralis. The patient was diagnosed with hyperinfection syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis most probably exacerbated by prednisone given for her asthma. Steroids were then discontinued and the patient was started on ivermectin. The patient improved with treatment. Repeat stool examination was negative for Strongyloides stercoralis. Conclusions: Clinicians have to be very careful when prescribing steroids in patients presenting with an exacerbation of asthma who are from areas endemic for Strongyloides stercoralis and should test for it (preferably with serology test) before starting treatment. PMID:26114594

  15. The role of sex steroids on cellular events involved in vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Cutini, P H; Campelo, A E; Agriello, E; Sandoval, M J; Rauschemberger, M B; Massheimer, V L

    2012-11-01

    In this work we checked the hypothesis whether estrone, progesterone, and testosterone are able to modulate the interactions between platelets, monocytes, and endothelial cells either under basal or inflammatory conditions. Using adhesion assays we demonstrated that pretreatment of endothelial cells with estrone, progesterone, or testosterone prevented monocytes and platelets adhesion induced by the proinflammatory agent bacterial lipopolysaccharide. The hormones reduced the expression of mRNA of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and P-selectin, endothelial surface proteins that mediate monocytes and platelets adhesion respectively. Integrins are the main leukocyte proteins that allow firm adhesion. Using flow cytometry we showed that estrone treatment of monocytes reduced CD11b and CD11c expression, either under basal or injury (lipopolysaccharide) conditions. The three steroids inhibited platelet aggregation in a nitric oxide dependent manner. Platelet function was not affected by the steroid treatment. The molecular mechanisms of action exerted by the steroids included the participation of the intracellular signaling pathways PKC, MAPK, and PI3K, which selectively and differentially mediate the stimulation of nitric oxide release. We evidence that estrone, progesterone, and testosterone modulate monocyte and platelet adhesion to endothelial cells, events that play a major role in the initiation and progression of vascular lesions. The steroid action was evidenced under basal or inflammatory conditions. The mechanisms of action exerted by the steroids included stimulation of nitric oxide production and the participation of PKC, MAPK, and PI3K systems. PMID:22903158

  16. Induction of medical expert system rules based on rough sets and resampling methods.

    PubMed Central

    Tsumoto, S.; Tanaka, H.

    1994-01-01

    Automated knowledge acquisition is an important research issue in improving the efficiency of medical expert systems. Rules for medical expert systems consists of two parts: one is a proposition part, which represent a if-then rule, and the other is probabilistic measures, which represents reliability of that rule. Therefore, acquisition of both knowledge is very important for application of machine learning methods to medical domains. Extending concepts of rough set theory to probabilistic domain, we introduce a new approach to knowledge acquisition, which induces probabilistic rules based on rough set theory (PRIMEROSE) and develop a program that extracts rules for an expert system from clinical database, using this method. The results show that the derived rules almost correspond to those of medical experts. PMID:7949901

  17. a Peptide CO Solvent in a Chirality Induction Model System: Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy of the 2,2,2-TRIFLUOROETHANOL- - Ene Oxide Adduct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Javix; Xu, Yunjie

    2014-06-01

    Chirality induction in a model system, i.e. the 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE)- -propylene oxide (PO) adduct, was investigated in detail using chirped pulse and cavity based Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy, complemented with high level ab initio calculations. Hydrogen-bonding interaction of TFE with the permanently chiral PO molecule results in eight binary TFE- -PO diastereomers. Rotational spectra of four of them were observed experimentally and unambiguously assigned and identified. Unlike the TFE dimer where an extreme case of chirality synchronization was previously reported, diastereomers due to both the g+ and g- forms of TFE were observed, indicating that the tunneling between the two isoenergetic gauche forms of TFE was quenched. Comparison to the previous studies reveals that perfluorination increases the hydrogen-bonding energy by about 70% over its ethanol counterpart. TFE- -PO serves as a prototype system for chirality induction which leads to chirality amplification rather than a system with chirality synchronization.

  18. The Induction Motor as a Mechanical Fault Sensor in Elevator Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Q. Flores?; A. J. M. Cardoso; J. B. Carvalho

    An efficient maintenance carried out on a building elevator system can contribute to guarantee a safer people transportation. An elevator failure must be avoided as much as possible, as it may have negative consequences on d ifferent levels, as fear, trust lack, people's elevator phobia or ev en people's life. This paper presents a method that uses the inductio n

  19. Induction of Dendritic Cell Differentiation by IFN-alpha in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Blanco; A. Karolina Palucka; Michelle Gill; Virginia Pascual; Jacques Banchereau

    2001-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are important in regulating both immunity and tolerance. Hence, we hypothesized that systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease characterized by autoreactive B and T cells, may be caused by alterations in the functions of DCs. Consistent with this, monocytes from SLE patients' blood were found to function as antigen-presenting cells, in vitro. Furthermore, serum from SLE

  20. Dynamic Mechanism of Photochemical Induction of Turing Superlattices in the Chlorine Dioxide-Iodine-Malonic Acid Reaction-Diffusion System

    E-print Network

    Yang, Lingfa

    Dynamic Mechanism of Photochemical Induction of Turing Superlattices in the Chlorine Dioxide-Iodine".17,18 Recently, we discovered Turing superlattice structures that develop in the chlorine dioxide-iodine

  1. Inductively Coupled Plasma and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Etching of InGaAlP Compound Semiconductor System

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, C.R.; Hobson, W.S.; Hong, J.; Lambers, E.S.; Pearton, S.J.; Shul, R.J.

    1998-11-04

    Current and future generations of sophisticated compound semiconductor devices require the ability for submicron scale patterning. The situation is being complicated since some of the new devices are based on a wider diversity of materials to be etched. Conventional IUE (Reactive Ion Etching) has been prevalent across the industry so far, but has limitations for materials with high bond strengths or multiple elements. IrI this paper, we suggest high density plasmas such as ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) and ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma), for the etching of ternary compound semiconductors (InGaP, AIInP, AlGaP) which are employed for electronic devices like heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) or high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), and photonic devices such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers. High density plasma sources, opeiating at lower pressure, are expected to meet target goals determined in terms of etch rate, surface morphology, surface stoichiometry, selectivity, etc. The etching mechanisms, which are described in this paper, can also be applied to other III-V (GaAs-based, InP-based) as well as III-Nitride since the InGaAIP system shares many of the same properties.

  2. Influence of the sample introduction system on acid effects in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carré, M.; Lebas, K.; Marichy, M.; Mermet, M.; Poussel, E.; Mermet, J. M.

    1995-06-01

    Influence of the aerosol formation and transport on acid effects has been studied in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in order to elucidate the decrease in the analyte intensity. To separate the role of the ionization and excitation conditions from that of the sample introduction, operating conditions have been set-up to obtain a constant ratio of the ionic line to atomic line intensity of magnesium. A 27 MHz crystal-controlled generator and a 40 MHz tuned-line generator were used to verify the possible influence of the generator type. Once the ionization and excitation conditions were kept constant, the influence of the sample introduction system could be assessed by using the Mg I 285 nm line. Perchloric acid up to a concentration of 50% (v/v) has been used as the test acid. The CII 725.662 nm line was also used to assess the amount of chlorine reaching the plasma. Several pneumatic nebulizers were used: Meinhard concentric nebulizers, a Perkin Elmer cross-flow nebulizer, and a Perkin Elmer cone-spray nebulizer. Depressive effects resulting from the perchloric acid depended on the nebulizer type, the carrier gas flow rate and the spray chamber design. Droplet size of the primary and tertiary aerosol were measured. At perchloric acid concentrations higher than 1% (v/v), results suggested that the depressive effect on the Mg line intensity cannot only be explained by a change in the aerosol density but also by a variation in the analyte concentration in the fraction of aerosol that reached the plasma. A careful selection of the sample introduction system components and parameters could minimize the acid effects. Results were compared with those obtained with an ultrasonic nebulizer associated with a desolvation system. Acid effects were more important for the ultrasonic nebulizer than for the pneumatic nebulizers and were explained by a reduction in the production of aerosol.

  3. An electromagnetic-thermal coupling example solved on a high frequency inductive system with the Matlab finite elements solver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Ernst; Philippe Grosse; Laurent Philippe

    1999-01-01

    The simple SiC crystals inductive elaboration process is useful for specifc devices working in electronic and optoelectronic areas. The SiC powder material is placed at the bottom of a graphite crucible and is inductively heated for out-gassing at about 1 600 °C in a controlled atmosphere. The SiC vapour is then transported to a condensation area on the top of

  4. An electromagnetic-thermal coupling example solved on a high frequency inductive system with the Matlab finite elements solver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Ernst; Philippe Grosse; Laurent Philippe

    1999-01-01

    The simple SiC crystals inductive elaboration process is useful for specific devices working in electronic and optoelectronic areas. The SiC powder material is placed at the bottom of a graphite crucible and is inductively heated for out-gassing at about 1 600 °C in a controlled atmosphere. The SiC vapour is then transported to a condensation area on the top of

  5. New conceptual electromagnetic induction fluid heating system using resonant PWM inverter with auto-tuning PID controller

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Guo; D. C. Lin; Y. L. Feng; K. G. D. Laknath; M. Syedulhaq; M. Nakaoka

    1996-01-01

    A new concept of a novel prototype electromagnetic induction fluid heating appliance using series capacitor-compensated load resonant high-frequency inverter with a phase-shifted PWM and power factor correction schemes. Its operating characteristics in steady-state are illustrated and evaluated using the computer simulation and experimental results. From a practical point of view, a promising cost effective application of this electromagnetic induction fluid

  6. G-protein-coupled receptor controls steroid hormone signaling in cell membrane

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Di; Zhao, Wen-Li; Cai, Mei-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in animal steroid hormone signaling, but their mechanism is unclear. In this research, we report that a GPCR called ErGPCR-2 controls steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling in the cell membrane of the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. ErGPCR-2 was highly expressed during molting and metamorphosis. 20E, via ErGPCR-2, regulated rapid intracellular calcium increase, protein phosphorylation, gene transcription, and insect metamorphosis. ErGPCR-2 was located in the cell surface and was internalized by 20E induction. GPCR kinase 2 participated in 20E-induced ErGPCR-2 phosphorylation and internalization. The internalized ErGPCR-2 was degraded by proteases to desensitize 20E signaling. ErGPCR-2 knockdown suppressed the entrance of 20E analog [3H] ponasterone A ([3H]Pon A) into the cells. ErGPCR-2 overexpression or blocking of ErGPCR-2 internalization increased the entrance of [3H]Pon A into the cells. However, ErGPCR-2 did not bind to [3H]Pon A. Results suggest that ErGPCR-2 transmits steroid hormone 20E signaling and controls 20E entrance into cells in the cell membrane. PMID:25728569

  7. Steroids induce acetylcholine receptors on cultured human muscle: Implications for myasthenia gravis

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I.; Blakely, B.T.; Pavlath, G.K.; Travis, M.; Blau, H.M. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), which are diagnostic of the human autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis, block AChR function and increase the rate of AChR degradation leading to impaired neuromuscular transmission. Steroids are frequently used to alleviate symptoms of muscle fatigue and weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis because of their well-documented immunosuppressive effects. The authors show here that the steroid dexamethasone significantly increases total surface AChRs on cultured human muscle exposed to myasthenia gravis sera. The results suggest that the clinical improvement observed in myasthenic patients treated with steroids is due not only to an effect on the immune system but also a direct effect on muscle. They propose that the identification and development of pharmacologic agents that augment receptors and other proteins that are reduced by human genetic or autoimmune disease will have broad therapeutic applications.

  8. The Sturm und Drang of anabolic steroid use: angst, anxiety, and aggression

    PubMed Central

    Oberlander, Joseph G.; Henderson, Leslie P.

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are illicitly administered to enhance athletic performance and body image. Although conferring positive actions on performance, steroid abuse is associated with changes in anxiety and aggression. AAS users are often keenly invested in understanding the biological actions of these drugs. Thus, mechanistic information on AAS actions is important not only for the biomedical community, but also for steroid users. Here we review findings from animal studies on the impact of AAS exposure on neural systems that are crucial for the production of anxiety and aggression, and compare the effects of the different classes of AAS and their potential signaling mechanisms, as well as context-, age- and sex-dependent aspects of their actions. PMID:22516619

  9. The Brain of Teleost Fish, a Source, and a Target of Sexual Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Diotel, Nicolas; Do Rego, Jean-Luc; Anglade, Isabelle; Vaillant, Colette; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Vaudry, Hubert; Kah, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Neurosteroids are defined as steroids de novo synthesized in the central nervous system. While the production of neurosteroids is well documented in mammals and amphibians, there is less information about teleosts, the largest group of fish. Teleosts have long been known for their high brain aromatase and 5?-reductase activities, but recent data now document the capacity of the fish brain to produce a large variety of sex steroids. This article aims at reviewing the available information regarding expression and/or activity of the main steroidogenic enzymes in the brain of fish. In addition, the distribution of estrogen, androgen, and progesterone nuclear receptors is documented in relation with the potential sites of production of neurosteroids. Interestingly, radial glial cells acting as neuronal progenitors, appear to be a potential source of neurosteroids, but also a target for centrally and/or peripherally produced steroids. PMID:22194715

  10. Building intelligent alarm systems by combining mathematical models and inductive machine learning techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bert Müller; A. Hasman; J. A. Blom

    1996-01-01

    In this article a technique is described to develop knowledge-based alarm systems for ventilator therapy, using mathematical modeling and machine learning. With a mathematical model airway pressure, expiratory gas flow and CO2 concentration at the endotracheal tube are simulated for patients, undergoing volume-controlled ventilation with constant ventilator settings, during normal functioning of the breathing circuit and during breathing circuit mishaps

  11. Numerical prediction of fluid motion in the induction system and the cylinder in reciprocating engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-dimensional computer program for simulating fluid dynamics in reciprocating internal combustion engines. The numerical procedure uses a time-dependent implicit finite-difference approach in a general curvilinear coordinate system on a grid which may expand and contract with the motion of the intake valve and piston. In this program, special attention has been paid to take into account

  12. ALA and ALA hexyl ester induction of porphyrins after their systemic administration to tumour bearing mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Perotti; A Casas; H Fukuda; P Sacca; A Batlle

    2002-01-01

    The use of synthetic lipophilic molecules derived from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is currently under investigation to enhance cellular ALA penetration. In this work we studied the effect of systemic administration to mice of the hexyl ester of ALA (He-ALA) on porphyrin tissue synthesis as compared to ALA. In most normal tissues as well as in tumour, He-ALA induced less porphyrin

  13. Commensal microbiota stimulate systemic neutrophil migration through induction of Serum amyloid A

    PubMed Central

    Kanther, Michelle; Tomkovich, Sarah; Sun, Xiaolun; Grosser, Melinda R.; Koo, Jaseol; Flynn, Edward J.; Jobin, Christian; Rawls, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neutrophils serve critical roles in inflammatory responses to infection and injury, and mechanisms governing their activity represent attractive targets for controlling inflammation. The commensal microbiota is known to regulate the activity of neutrophils and other leucocytes in the intestine, but the systemic impact of the microbiota on neutrophils remains unknown. Here we utilized in vivo imaging in gnotobiotic zebrafish to reveal diverse effects of microbiota colonization on systemic neutrophil development and function. The presence of a microbiota resulted in increased neutrophil number and myeloperoxidase expression, and altered neutrophil localization and migratory behaviours. These effects of the microbiota on neutrophil homeostasis were accompanied by an increased recruitment of neutrophils to injury. Genetic analysis identified the microbiota-induced acute phase protein serum amyloid A (Saa) as a host factor mediating microbial stimulation of tissue-specific neutrophil migratory behaviours. In vitro studies revealed that zebrafish cells respond to Saa exposure by activating NF-?B, and that Saa-dependent neutrophil migration requires NF-?B-dependent gene expression. These results implicate the commensal microbiota as an important environmental factor regulating diverse aspects of systemic neutrophil development and function, and reveal a critical role for a Saa-NF-?B signalling axis in mediating neutrophil migratory responses. PMID:24373309

  14. Synaptocrine Signaling: Steroid Synthesis and Action at the Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Colin J.; Remage-Healey, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Sex steroids have long been recognized for their dramatic impact on brain and behavior, including rapid modulation of membrane excitability. It is a widely held perception that these molecules are largely derived from peripheral sources and lack the spatial and temporal specificity ascribed to classical neuromodulatory systems. Neuromodulatory systems, in contrast, are defined by their regulated neuronal presynaptic secretion and by their functional modulation of perisynaptic events. Here we provide evidence for regulated presynaptic estrogen synthesis and functional postsynaptic actions. These results meet all the criteria for a neuromodulatory system and shift our perception of estrogens from that of peripheral signals exclusively to include that of a signaling system intrinsic to the brain itself. We apply the term synaptocrine to describe this form of neuromodulation. PMID:21622487

  15. Flywheel Size Design Considerations and Experimental Verification Using a 50-kW System for Voltage Sag Compensator with Flywheel Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shuhei; Cheng, Miao-Miao; Sumitani, Hideo; Shimada, Ryuichi

    Flywheel energy storage systems can be used as uninterrupted power supply system because they are environmentally friendly and have high durability. The use of a simple voltage sag compensator with a low-speed heavy flywheel and a low-cost squirrel-cage induction motor/generator is proposed. First, the ability of the proposed system to maintain the load voltage at 100% when the grid is under voltage sag is experimentally-validated. Next, design guides of the flywheel stored energy are discussed. Experimental verification of a 50-kW class system are carried out, and the results show good agreement with the developed design guides.

  16. On-line implementation of a fault diagnosis system for three-phase induction motors

    E-print Network

    Alladi, Vijaya Mallikarjun

    2002-01-01

    current predictions and measurements. Prediction refers to estima- tion of future outputs based on the information available at the present tirrrc. There are two types of predictions; single-step-ahead prcdiction (SSP) and multi-step-ahead prediction... (MSP). In SSP, thc predictions for the output of the system at time t+1 are obi. ained using all i. he measured inputs and measurecl outputs available upto time t. In MSP predictions of the output at time i+1 is obtained using the measured...

  17. Validation of a paleo river system derived by ground based electromagnetic induction measurements with satellite based RapidEye images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Sebastian; von Hebel, Christian; Ali, Mohammed; Stadler, Anja; Herbst, Michael; Montzka, Carsten; Pätzold, Stefan; Weihermüller, Lutz; van der Kruk, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    Morphological remnants of an inactive river system that has been filled by younger sediments can provide datable proxies about past climatic conditions. However, sediment composition of their infillings is a challenge for agriculture, in particular for precision agriculture. Differential crop development and yield reduction are often a consequence of lateral and vertical textural inhomogeneities. Several studies have shown that buried river systems can be traced by the use of remote sensing. However, the appearance of crop marks strongly depends on environmental conditions, and therefore, the reliance of remotely acquired data can become time and cost expensive. Soil physical properties which are related to textural differences can be mapped fast and cost-effective by the use of near surface geophysics. Especially electromagnetic induction (EMI), which measures soil apparent conductivity (ECa), has become a tool of choice to characterize large areas in high resolution. The introduction of multiple coil EMI systems as well as the quantification of respective measurements enables a reliable multilayer inversion. The aim of this study was to map a postglacial river system on agricultural fields and to mark out buried remains such as trenches and bomb craters of World War II. In summer 2012 ten fields (17 ha) were mapped with the CMD MiniExplorer, a multiple coil EMI system especially appropriate for near surface applications, after the harvest of winter wheat and sugar beet. At elevated sandy sites meander like patterns with higher conductivity were mapped. ECa measurements were verified by textural data taken from directed soil samples and vertical ECa logs. Sediment thickness was evaluated on soil cores and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) transects. Furthermore, ERT quantified ECa measurements were correlated with satellite as well as destructive derived leaf area index (LAI) measurements. In 3 of 71 LAI maps derived by multispectral RapidEye imagery crop marks were clearly visible following a dry season in spring 2011. These patterns are in coincidence with higher conductivity patterns caused by a higher amount of silt and clay. Good correlations were found for LAI measurements taken during a growing season with underlying sediments especially in the early stages of plant development. Finally, ECa measurements of two heterogeneous fields were used for a 3D layer inversion which will be further implemented into landscape models. This study shows that multiple EMI measurements can be successfully used to recover buried river systems, highlight possible sample locations and support farmers to manage their fields more precisely.

  18. A steroidogenic pathway for sulfonated steroids: the metabolism of pregnenolone sulfate.

    PubMed

    Neunzig, J; Sánchez-Guijo, A; Mosa, A; Hartmann, M F; Geyer, J; Wudy, S A; Bernhardt, R

    2014-10-01

    In many tissues sulfonated steroids exceed the concentration of free steroids and recently they were also shown to fulfill important physiological functions. While it was previously demonstrated that cholesterol sulfate (CS) is converted by CYP11A1 to pregnenolone sulfate (PregS), further conversion of PregS has not been studied in detail. To investigate whether a steroidogenic pathway for sulfonated steroids exists similar to the one described for free steroids, we examined the interaction of PregS with CYP17A1 in a reconstituted in-vitro system. Difference spectroscopy revealed a Kd-value of 74.8±4.2?M for the CYP17A1-PregS complex, which is 2.5-fold higher compared to the CYP17A1-pregnenolone (Preg) complex. Mass spectrometry experiments proved for the first time that PregS is hydroxylated by CYP17A1 at position C17, identically to pregnenolone. A higher Km- and a lower kcat-value for CYP17A1 using PregS compared with Preg were observed, indicating a 40% reduced catalytic efficiency when using the sulfonated steroid. Furthermore, we analyzed whether the presence of cytochrome b5 (b5) has an influence on the CYP17A1 dependent conversion of PregS, as was demonstrated for Preg. Interestingly, with 17OH-PregS no scission of the 17,20-carbon-carbon bond occurs, when b5 is added to the reconstituted in-vitro system, while b5 promotes the formation of DHEA from 17OH-Preg. When using human SOAT-HEK293 cells expressing CYP17A1 and CPR, we could confirm that PregS is metabolized to 17OH-PregS, strengthening the potential physiological meaning of a pathway for sulfonated steroids. PMID:25038322

  19. Induction of systemic resistance in plants by biochar, a soil-applied carbon sequestering agent.

    PubMed

    Elad, Yigal; David, Dalia Rav; Harel, Yael Meller; Borenshtein, Menahem; Kalifa, Hananel Ben; Silber, Avner; Graber, Ellen R

    2010-09-01

    Biochar is the solid coproduct of biomass pyrolysis, a technique used for carbon-negative production of second-generation biofuels. The biochar can be applied as a soil amendment, where it permanently sequesters carbon from the atmosphere as well as improves soil tilth, nutrient retention, and crop productivity. In addition to its other benefits in soil, we found that soil-applied biochar induces systemic resistance to the foliar fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) and Leveillula taurica (powdery mildew) on pepper and tomato and to the broad mite pest (Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks) on pepper. Levels of 1 to 5% biochar in a soil and a coconut fiber-tuff potting medium were found to be significantly effective at suppressing both diseases in leaves of different ages. In long-term tests (105 days), pepper powdery mildew was significantly less severe in the biochar-treated plants than in the plants from the unamended controls although, during the final 25 days, the rate of disease development in the treatments and controls was similar. Possible biochar-related elicitors of systemic induced resistance are discussed. PMID:20701489

  20. Action of steroids on LH-RH provoked gonadotropin release.

    PubMed

    Spona, J

    1976-06-01

    The action of mesterolone (1 alpha-methyl-17-beta-hydroxy-5 alpha-androsten-3-one) mesterolone cipionate, testosterone, 17 alpha-methyl-testosterone, 17 beta-hydroxy-5 alpha-androstane-3-one, cyproterone actetate and D-norgestrel on basal and LH-RH stimulated, gonadotropin release was studied in vitro. Hemi-gland preparation of the anterior pituitary were incubated in the presence or absence of steroids and/or LH-RH. Steroid hormones were added at a concentration of 25, 5 and 1 mug per ml medium. Basal levels of LH and FSH discharge were not influenced by mesterolone, whereas inhibition of LH-RH stimulated gonadotropin release was noted at 25 mug mesterolone/ml medium. The addition of mesterolone cipionate to the incubation medium did not significantly change basal FSH levels, whereas an inhibition of LH-RH provoked FSH discharge was noted. Basal LH release was stimulated by the presence of 1 mug mesterolone cipionate per 1 ml medium. LH-RH stimulated LH release in the presence of 25, 5 and 1 mug mesterolone cipionate per 1 ml medium was indistinguishable from control levels. Basal levels of LH and FSH were not affected by testosterone, whereas an impaired gonadotropin response to LH-RH was observed in the presence of testosterone. At 1 mug testosterone per 1 ml medium only LH response to LH-RH was found. Basal gonadotropin levels in the presence of 17 alpha-methyl-testosterone were indistinguishable from control values. The only inhibition of LH-RH action was found for stimulation of LH release at 25 mug 17 alpha-methyl-testosterone/ml medium. On the other hand, 17 beta-hydroxy-5 alpha-androstane-3-one stimulated basal LH and FSH discharge, and LH-RH actions were not impaired. Results of our studies with cyproterone acetate indicate that this steroid stimulates basal pituitary gonadotropin discharge at high concentration, without blunting responses to LH-RH. No action of D-norgestrel on basal and LH-RH stimulated gonadotropin release was observed. These experiments add further evidence that steroids modulate LH-RH actions at the pituitary level. It is concluded that the fine control of gonadotropin release resides at the adenohypophysis whereas the coarse control of LH and FSH discharge is at the hypothalamus and/or other centers of the central nervous system. PMID:776594

  1. Numerical prediction of fluid motion in the induction system and the cylinder in reciprocating engines

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-dimensional computer program for simulating fluid dynamics in reciprocating internal combustion engines. The numerical procedure uses a time-dependent implicit finite-difference approach in a general curvilinear coordinate system on a grid which may expand and contract with the motion of the intake valve and piston. In this program, special attention has been paid to take into account complex geometries: the computational domain includes the intake port and the cylinder, the motion and closure of the valve are described, the piston may contain a bowl. The intake process followed by compression in two- and three-dimensional direct injection four stroke diesel engine configurations are simulated. The results show that the program is applicable to characterize flow structure simultaneously in the intake port and the cylinder.

  2. Hurgadacin: a new steroid from Sinularia polydactyla.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Mohamed; Shaaban, Khaled A; Ghani, Mohamed A

    2013-09-01

    Hurgadacin (1), a 24,25-bishomo-26-methylenecholesterol was isolated from the soft coral Sinularia polydactyla, collected from the Red Sea, near Hurghada at the Egyptian coast. The new steroid 1 was isolated together with the closely related polyhydroxy steroids 24-methylenecholestane-3?,5?,6?-triol (2) and 24-methylenecholestane-1?,3?,5?,6?,11?-pentol (3), in addition to the sesquiterpene lactiflorenol (4) and the trinorcarotenolide acetate peridinin (5), The structures of the isolated compounds were confirmed by intensive studies of their 1D and 2D NMR spectra and mass data. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the soft coral extract and the corresponding constituents were evaluated against diverse pathogenic microorganisms and brine shrimps, respectively. PMID:23685088

  3. Spinal subdural abscess following epidural steroid injection.

    PubMed

    Kraeutler, Matthew J; Bozzay, Joseph D; Walker, Matthew P; John, Kuruvilla

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 58-year-old man who presented with a cervicothoracolumbosacral spinal subdural abscess about a month after receiving an epidural steroid injection for management of low-back pain due to L5-S1 disc herniation. Although he presented with symptoms concerning for a spinal etiology, the subdural empyema was not evident on the initial MRI study and was observed on imaging 5 days later. This patient was successfully managed with surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment, and he is doing well more than 21 months after the operation. It is possible that a prior history of disc herniation or other spinal abnormality may increase a patient's risk of developing spinal subdural empyema. This case illustrates the risk of infection following spinal epidural steroid injections and the importance of early recognition and intervention to successfully treat an extensive subdural abscess. PMID:25343407

  4. Cytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave sisalana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pi-Yu; Chen, Chin-Hui; Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lee, Ching-Kuo

    2011-06-01

    Two new steroidal saponins, 8 and 10, along with 7 known steroidal sapogenins and saponins (1-7) and a furostanol saponin (9) were isolated from Agave sisalana Perrine ex Engelm. The structures of these two new compounds were identified and characterized by 1D and 2D?NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In addition, acid hydrolysis and GC-FID were used to confirm the sugar moieties of 8 and 10. The cytotoxic effects of 1-10 on MCF-7, NCI-H460, and SF-268 cancer cells were evaluated, and among them, compound 10 proved to be the most cytotoxic with IC?? values of 1.2, 3.8, and 1.5 µM, respectively. PMID:21243587

  5. Design and Control Strategies of an Induction-Machine-Based Flywheel Energy Storage System Associated to a Variable-Speed Wind Generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Cimuca; Stefan Breban; Mircea M. Radulescu; Christophe Saudemont; Benoit Robyns

    2010-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage systems (FESSs) improve the quality of the electric power delivered by wind generators, and help these generators contributing to the ancillary services. Presently, FESSs containing a flux-oriented controlled induction machine (IM) are mainly considered for this kind of application. The paper proposes the direct torque control (DTC) for an IM-based FESS associated to a variable-speed wind generator,

  6. Induction of Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 by a DNA Vaccine Formulated with QS-21 Saponin Adjuvant via Intramuscular and Intranasal Routes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHIN SASAKI; KAHARU SUMINO; KENJI HAMAJIMA; JUN FUKUSHIMA; NORIHISA ISHII; SUSUMU KAWAMOTO; HIROSHI MOHRI; CHARLOTTE READ KENSIL; KENJI OKUDA

    1998-01-01

    Induction of mucosal and cell-mediated immunity is critical for development of an effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We compared intramuscular and intranasal immunizations with a DNA vaccine encoding env of HIV-1 and evaluated the QS-21 saponin adjuvant for augmentation of the systemic and mucosal immune responses to HIV-1 in a murine model. Vaccination via the two routes elicited

  7. Factorial design for multivariate optimization of an on-line preconcentration system for platinum determination by ultrasonic nebulization coupled to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Cerutti; J. A Salonia; S. L. C Ferreira; R. A Olsina; L. D Martinez

    2004-01-01

    A system for on-line preconcentration and determination of platinum by ultrasonic nebulization (USN) coupled to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was studied. It is based on the chemical sorption of platinum on a column packed with polyurethane foam loaded with thiocyanate reagent. The optimization step was carried out using two level full factorial design. Three variables (pH, loading

  8. Limonoid and Steroidal Saponin from Azadirachta indica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Zhao, Yun-Li; Cheng, Gui-Guang; Chen, Ying-Ying; Qin, Xu-Jie; Song, Chang-Wei; Yang, Xing-Wei; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2014-11-01

    A new limonoid, 17-(5-methoxy-2-oxofuran-3-yl)-28-deoxonimbolide (1), and a new C21 steroidal saponin, 2?,4?-dihydroxy-pregn-5-en-16-one-3?-O-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with 11 known compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica. The structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis and putative biosynthetic origins. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against six bacterial strains. PMID:25381190

  9. Steroidal saponins from Hemerocallis fulva var. kwanso.

    PubMed

    Konishi, T; Fujiwara, Y; Konoshima, T; Kiyosawa, S; Nishi, M; Miyahara, K

    2001-03-01

    Two steroidal saponins, hemeroside A and B, were isolated from the aerial part of Hemerocallis fulva var. kwanso for the first time. The structures of these compounds were established as 24S-hydroxy-neotokorogenin 1-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl 24-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and isorhodeasapogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2) through NMR experiments. PMID:11253923

  10. Treatment of glomerulonephritis: Will we ever have options other than steroids and cytotoxics?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BASIT JAVAID; Richard J. Quigg

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of glomerulonephritis: Will we ever have options other than steroids and cytotoxics? Glomerulonephritis refers to a collection of primary renal disorders and those secondary to a systemic disease, all characterized by inflammation within the glomerulus. Given the underlying immunologic nature of these disorders, they are routinely treated with corticosteriods and various cytotoxic agents. Although in many instances such therapies

  11. Induction of the Plasminogen Activator System by Mechanical Stimulation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Eric K.; Cheng, Jason; Foley, John S.; Mecham, Brigham H.; Owen, Caroline A.; Haley, Kathleen J.; Mariani, Thomas J.; Kohane, Isaac S.; Tschumperlin, Daniel J.; Drazen, Jeffrey M.

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation of the airway epithelium, as would occur during bronchoconstriction, is a potent stimulus and can activate profibrotic pathways. We used DNA microarray technology to examine gene expression in compressed normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE). Compressive stress applied continuously over an 8-h period to NHBE cells led to the upregulation of several families of genes, including a family of plasminogen-related genes that were previously not known to be regulated in this system. Real-time PCR demonstrated a peak increase in gene expression of 8.0-fold for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), 16.2-fold for urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), 4.2-fold for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and 3.9-fold for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Compressive stress also increased uPA protein levels in the cell lysates (112.0 versus 82.0 ng/ml, P = 0.0004), and increased uPA (4.7 versus 3.3 ng/ml, P = 0.02), uPAR (1.3 versus 0.86 ng/ml, P = 0.007), and PAI-1 (50 versus 36 ng/ml, P = 0.006) protein levels in cell culture media. Functional studies demonstrated increased urokinase-dependent plasmin generation in compression-stimulated cells (0.0090 versus 0.0033 OD/min, P = 0.03). In addition, compression led to increased activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 in a urokinase-dependent manner. In postmortem human lung tissue, we observed an increase in epithelial uPA and uPAR immunostaining in the airways of two patients who died in status asthmaticus compared with minimal immunoreactivity noted in airways from seven lung donors without asthma. Together these observations suggest an integrated response of airway epithelial cells to mechanical stimulation, acting through the plasminogen-activating system to modify the airway microenvironment. PMID:16794260

  12. Bayesian inductive logic programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Muggleton

    1994-01-01

    Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) involves the construction of first-order definite clause theories from examples and background knowledge. Unlike both traditional Machine Learning and Computational Learning Theory, ILP is based on lock-step development of Theory, Implementations and Applications. ILP systems have successful applications in the learning of structure-activity rules for drug design, semantic grammars rules, finite element mesh design rules and

  13. Laccase induction in fungi and laccase/N-OH mediator systems applied in paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Minussi, Rosana C; Pastore, Gláucia M; Durán, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in extracellular enzymes from white rot fungi, such as lignin and manganese peroxidases, and laccases, due to their potential to degrade both highly toxic phenolic compounds and lignin. The optimum cultivation conditions for laccase production in semi-solid and liquid medium by Trametes versicolor, Trametes villosa, Lentinula edodes and Botrytis cinerea and the effects of laccase mediator system in E1 effluent were studied. The higher laccase activity (12756 U) was obtained in a liquid culture of T. versicolor in the presence of 1 mM of 2,5-xylidine and 0.4 mM copper salt as inducers. The effluent biotreatments were not efficient in decolorization with any fungal laccases studied. Maximum phenol reduction was approximately 23% in the absence of mediators from T. versicolor. The presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole did not increase phenol reduction. However, acetohydroxamic acid, which was not degraded by laccase, acted very efficiently on E1 effluent, reducing 70% and 73% of the total phenol and total organic carbon, respectively. Therefore, acetohydroxamic acid could be applied as a mediator for laccase bioremediation in E1 effluent. PMID:16376074

  14. Systemic and local induction of an Arabidopsis thionin gene by wounding and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Vignutelli, A; Wasternack, C; Apel, K; Bohlmann, H

    1998-05-01

    The Arabidopsis Thi2.1 thionin gene was cloned and sequenced. The promoter was fused to the uidA gene and stably transformed into Arabidopsis to study its regulation. GUS expression levels correlated with the steady-state levels of Thi2.1 mRNA, thus demonstrating that the promoter is sufficient for the regulation of the Thi2.1 gene. The sensitivity of the Thi2.1 gene to methyl jasmonate was found to be developmentally determined. Systemic and local expression could be induced by wounding and inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f sp. matthiolae. A deletion analysis of the promoter identified a fragment of 325 bp upstream of the start codon, which appears to contain all the elements necessary for the regulation of the Thi2.1 gene. These results support the view that thionins are defence proteins, and indicate the possibility that resistance of Arabidopsis plants to necrotrophic fungal pathogens is mediated through the octadecanoid pathway. PMID:9628023

  15. Induction of Systemic Resistance of Benzothiadiazole and Humic Acid in Soybean Plants Against Fusarium Wilt Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Mamdoh Ewis; Morsy, Kadry Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The ability of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and/or humic acid (HA) used as seed soaking to induce systemic resistance against a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was examined in four soybean cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Alone and in combination the inducers were able to protect soybean plants against damping-off and wilt diseases compared with check treatment. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations (Minia and New Valley governorates). The tested treatments significantly reduced damping-off and wilt diseases and increased growth parameters, except the number of branches per plant and also increased seed yield. Application of BTH (0.25 g/L) + HA (4 g/L) was the most potent in this respect. Soybean seed soaking in BTH + HA produced the highest activities of the testes of oxidative enzymes followed by BTH in the four soybean cultivars. HA treatment resulted in the lowest increases of these oxidative enzymes. Similar results were obtained with total phenol but HA increased total phenol more than did BTH in all tested cultivars. PMID:22783118

  16. Effect of oxidizing adulterants on human urinary steroid profiles.

    PubMed

    Kuzhiumparambil, Unnikrishnan; Fu, Shanlin

    2013-02-01

    Steroid profiling is the most versatile and informative technique adapted by doping control laboratories for detection of steroid abuse. The absolute concentrations and ratios of endogenous steroids including testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol and 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol constitute the significant characteristics of a steroid profile. In the present study we report the influence of various oxidizing adulterants on the steroid profile of human urine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was carried out to develop the steroid profile of human male and female urine. Oxidants potassium nitrite, sodium hypochlorite, potassium permanganate, cerium ammonium nitrate, sodium metaperiodate, pyridinium chlorochromate, potassium dichromate and potassium perchlorate were reacted with urine at various concentrations and conditions and the effect of these oxidants on the steroid profile were analyzed. Most of the oxidizing chemicals led to significant changes in endogenous steroid profile parameters which were considered stable under normal conditions. These oxidizing chemicals can cause serious problems regarding the interpretation of steroid profiles and have the potential to act as masking agents that can complicate or prevent the detection of the steroid abuse. PMID:23238517

  17. Cyclosporine in steroid refractory acute severe colitis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N Suraj; Khosla, Rajiv; Makharia, Govind K

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 15-20% patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) suffer from a severe flare during their lifetime which required hospitalization. Intravenous corticosteroids are the first line of therapy for acute severe UC. While almost 70-80% of patients respond to corticosteroids 20% do not. Although colectomy for UC is curative, it has its problems such as increased frequency of stool and pouchitis, which led to search for colon rescue therapy. Cyclosporine and anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNF á) have emerged as effective colon rescue therapy. While the short-term efficacy of cyclosporine in preventing colectomy is 64-86%, the long-term efficacy is not as good and almost 70% eventually require colectomy over 1-7 years. The efficacy of cyclosporine is equivalent both at a high and low doses and cyclosporine is now used most often as a low dose regime in patients with steroid refractory acute severe UC. Furthermore, recent data suggest that the both cyclosporine and infliximab are equally effective in steroid refractory acute severe UC. Monitoring patients for adverse events and serum cyclosporine levels is mandatory. The response to both cyclosporine and infliximab is rapid and usually occurs within 4-5 days. Despite mounting evidence of its efficacy, cyclosporine remains largely underused because it requires intense monitoring for toxicity especially at higher dosage. Gastroenterologists need to be more familiar with cyclosporine for the management of steroid refractory acute severe UC. PMID:25735123

  18. Steroid Analysis in Saliva: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, John G

    2006-01-01

    The first report of steroid analysis in saliva was more than thirty years ago. Since that time its popularity has increased due to the attractiveness of non-invasive, repeated and simple stress-free sampling. It has proved a popular sampling fluid for psychobiology, sports medicine, pharmacology and paediatric studies as well as in the area of complementary medicine. In the diagnostic laboratory, salivary progesterone and oestradiol have been used for assessing ovarian function and 17?-OH progesterone for the diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Salivary cortisol is used for investigating adrenal function and recently there has been considerable interest in the use of bedtime salivary cortisol levels as a screening test for Cushing’s disease. However, there are several caveats on the use of saliva including collection techniques, the variable matrix of saliva, sensitivity, steroid stability, the presence of binding proteins and reference range anomalies. This brief review will attempt to address these issues and provide a balanced approach to steroid analysis in saliva. PMID:17268582

  19. REVIEW OF INDUCTION LINACS

    E-print Network

    Faltens, A.

    2010-01-01

    accel­ erated with induction machines and steady pro­ gressof induction linacs, with several new machines becomingmachines have increased the opera­ tional experience level from the lkA level of the first generation of induction

  20. Lactogenic hormonal induction of long distance interactions between beta-casein gene regulatory elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactogenic hormone regulation of beta-casein gene expression in mammary epithelial cells provides, an excellent model in which to study the mechanisms by which steroid and peptide hormone signaling control gene expression. Prolactin- and glucocorticoid-mediated induction of beta-casein gene express...