Science.gov

Sample records for steroid induction system

  1. Neuroactive steroids and central nervous system disorders.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Bäckström, T; Sundström, I; Wahlström, G; Olsson, T; Zhu, D; Johansson, I M; Björn, I; Bixo, M

    2001-01-01

    Steroid hormones are vital for the cell life and affect a number of neuroendocrine and behavioral functions. In contrast to their endocrine actions, certain steroids have been shown to rapidly alter brain excitability and to produce behavioral effects within seconds to minutes. In this article we direct attention to this issue of neuroactive steroids by outlining several aspects of current interest in the field of steroid research. Recent advances in the neurobiology of neuroactive are described along with the impact of advances on drug design for central nervous system (CNS) disorders provoked by neuroactive steriods. The theme was selected in association with the clinical aspects and therapeutical potentials of the neuroactive steroids in CNS disorders. A wide range of topics relating to the neuroactive steroids are outlined, including steroid concentrations in the brain, premenstrual syndrome, estrogen and Alzheimer's disease, side effects of oral contraceptives, mental disorder in menopause, hormone replacement therapy, Catamenial epilepsy, and neuractive steroids in epilepsy treatment. PMID:11599309

  2. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Steroid Hormones Act Transsynaptically within the

    E-print Network

    Hopkins, William A.

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Steroid Hormones Act Transsynaptically within the Forebrain, Washington 98195, and 5Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 Steroid investigated how photoperiod and steroid hormones induce these changes in morphology, electrophysiology

  3. Inductive System Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.

    2004-01-01

    The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS uses nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. IMS is able to monitor the system by comparing real time operational data with these classes. We present a description of learning and monitoring method used by IMS and summarize some recent IMS results.

  4. Influence of Triazine Herbicide Exposure on Guppies (Poecilia sphenops) Aromatase Activities, Altered Sex Steroid Concentration and Vitellogenin Induction

    PubMed Central

    Vasanth, S.; Arul, G.; Karthikeyeni, S.; Kumar, T. S. V.; Vignesh, V.; Manimegalai, M.; Bupesh, G.; Thirumurugan, R.; Subramanian, P.

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine, a herbicide is one the most toxic and sustaining pollutants in aquatic environment. It is detectable in surface water and in underground sources of drinking water. Many studies indicate that atrazine might be a potent endocrine disrupting xenobiotic. There are limited studies have revealed that the effects of atrazine on sex steroids hormones, vitellogenin and induction of aromatase, gonadosomatic index and hepatosomatic index. In this study, juvenile Poecilia sphenops fish was exposed to three different (0.83, 1.25 and 2.5 ppm) concentration of atrazine for 100 d. Changes in plasma and gonadal content and concentrations of sex steroids and vitellogenin protein in poecilia sphenops under laboratory conditions were assessed. The low level of the atrazine show estrogenic effect in males, as determined by a shortage of testosterone induction. Present study suggests that low induction of plasma vitellogenin and aromatase in male fish become suitable biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic chemicals. PMID:26009647

  5. Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hormones that your adrenal glands make to fight stress associated with illnesses and injuries. They reduce inflammation and affect the immune system. You may need to take corticosteroids to treat ...

  6. Multipurpose Vacuum Induction Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, M.; Kulkarni, Deepak; Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-11-01

    Multipurpose vacuum processing systems are cost effective; occupy less space, multiple functional under one roof and user friendly. A multipurpose vacuum induction system was designed, fabricated and installed in a record time of 6 months time at NFTDC Hyderabad. It was designed to function as a) vacuum induction melting/refining of oxygen free electronic copper/pure metals, b) vacuum induction melting furnace for ferrous materials c) vacuum induction melting for non ferrous materials d) large vacuum heat treatment chamber by resistance heating (by detachable coil and hot zone) e) bottom discharge vacuum induction melting system for non ferrous materials f) Induction heat treatment system and g) directional solidification /investment casting. It contains provision for future capacity addition. The attachments require to manufacture multiple shaped castings and continuous rod casting can be added whenever need arises. Present capacity is decided on the requirement for 10years of development path; presently it has 1.2 ton liquid copper handling capacity. It is equipped with provision for capacity addition up to 2 ton liquid copper handling capacity in future. Provision is made to carry out the capacity addition in easy steps quickly. For easy operational maintenance and troubleshooting, design was made in easily detachable sections. High vacuum system is also is detachable, independent and easily movable which is first of its kind in the country. Detailed design parameters, advantages and development history are presented in this paper.

  7. Effects of sex steroid hormones on the neuroendocrine system.

    PubMed

    Genazzani, A R; Lucchesi, A; Stomati, M; Catarsi, S; Genazzani, A D; Criscuolo, M; Petraglia, F

    1997-03-01

    Estrogen and progesterone are the most important ovarian steroid hormones regulating female fertility. They have a profound effect on the central nervous system. Target functions of sex steroids in the brain are: pituitary and hypothalamic hormone release, thermoregulatory and cardiocirculatory activities and behavior and mood changes. Furthermore, several studies have shown a correlation between brain neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and sex steroid hormones: they influence synthesis and release of norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, gonadotropin releasing hormone, beta-endorphin, corticotropin releasing factor and prolactin. Thus, oral hormone contraceptives inhibit the ovulatory process by blocking the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. This inhibitory effect seems to be due to the action of both estrogens and progestins. PMID:9678110

  8. Sex Steroid-Dependent Modulation of Acoustic Communication Systems

    E-print Network

    Sisneros, Joseph A.

    and estrogens are well-known modulators of vocal motor behaviors used during social and reproductiveChapter 7 Sex Steroid-Dependent Modulation of Acoustic Communication Systems in Fishes Karen P extant group of vertebrates, and in many vocal teleost species it is essential for their reproductive

  9. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1385 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system. (a) Identification. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system is a...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1385 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system. (a) Identification. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system is a...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1385 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1385 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1385 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test...

  14. Comparison of simultaneous systemic steroid and hyperbaric oxygen treatment versus only steroid in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy Callioglu, Elif; Tuzuner, Arzu; Demirci, Sule; Cengiz, Ceyhun; Caylan, Refik

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective chart review to assess the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen treatment in sudden sensorineural hearing loss. 44 patients aged between 17-67 years diagnosed with idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss less than 30 days were admitted to our clinic Patients were treated with systemic steroid alone or systemic steroid plus hyperbaric oxygen therapy. In the comparison of two groups, there was no statistically significant difference of audiometric evaluation (P>0.0028) found in hearing improvement for each frequency on 5th day of the treatment and post treatment. Age (?45 and >45) and initial hearing level (?60 dB. And >60 dB.) does not seem to be an influential factor according to the results of the study (P>0.0007). The present study did not show more superior healing effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy added to systemic steroid therapy than steroid infusion alone. The results are consistent with those of some papers. However there are also conflicting data that support significant effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Routine administration of this therapy seems to be unnecessary in view of these results. PMID:26309671

  15. Steroid receptor induction of gene transcription: A two-step?model

    PubMed Central

    Jenster, Guido; Spencer, Thomas E.; Burcin, Mark M.; Tsai, Sophia Y.; Tsai, Ming-Jer; O’Malley, Bert W.

    1997-01-01

    Coactivators, such as steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1A) and CREB (cAMP response element binding protein)-binding protein (CBP), are required for efficient steroid receptor transactivation. Using an in vitro transcription assay, we found that progesterone receptor (PR)-driven transcription is inhibited by a dominant negative PR ligand-binding domain-interacting region of SRC-1A, indicating that SRC-1A is required for actual transcriptional processes. In addition, these coactivators also possess intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity and bind to each other and another HAT, p300/CBP-associated factor. Here we show that the human PR also interacts with p300/CBP-associated factor in vitro. Recruitment of multiple HATs to target promoters suggests an important role for chromatin remodeling in transcriptional activation of genes by steroid receptors. In transient transfection assays, we found that addition of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A, strongly potentiated PR-driven transcription. In contrast, directing histone deacetylase-1 (HD1) to a promoter using the GAL4 DNA binding domain inhibited transcription. Furthermore, PR transactivation was repressed by recruiting HD1 into the PR-DNA complex by fusing HD1 to a PR ligand-binding domain-interacting portion of SRC-1. Collectively, these results suggest that targeted histone acetylation by recruited HAT cofactors and histone deacetylation are important factors affecting PR transactivation. Recruitment of coactivators and HATs by the liganded PR in vivo may result in (i) remodeling of transcriptionally repressed chromatin to facilitate assembly and (ii) enhanced stabilization of the preinitiation complex by the activation functions of coactivators and the liganded PR itself. PMID:9223281

  16. Mobile inductively coupled plasma system

    DOEpatents

    D`Silva, A.P.; Jaselskis, E.J.

    1999-03-30

    A system is described for sampling and analyzing a material located at a hazardous site. A laser located remotely from the hazardous site is connected to an optical fiber, which directs laser radiation proximate the material at the hazardous site. The laser radiation abates a sample of the material. An inductively coupled plasma is located remotely from the material. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated particles to a plasma, where they are dissociated, atomized and excited to provide characteristic optical reduction of the elemental constituents of the sample. An optical spectrometer is located remotely from the site. A second optical fiber is connected to the optical spectrometer at one end and the plasma source at the other end to carry the optical radiation from the plasma source to the spectrometer. 10 figs.

  17. Mobile inductively coupled plasma system

    DOEpatents

    D'Silva, Arthur P. (Ames, IA); Jaselskis, Edward J. (Ames, IA)

    1999-03-30

    A system for sampling and analyzing a material located at a hazardous site. A laser located remote from the hazardous site is connected to an optical fiber, which directs laser radiation proximate the material at the hazardous site. The laser radiation abates a sample of the material. An inductively coupled plasma is located remotely from the material. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated particles to a plasma, where they are dissociated, atomized and excited to provide characteristic optical reduction of the elemental constituents of the sample. An optical spectrometer is located remotely from the site. A second optical fiber is connected to the optical spectrometer at one end and the plasma source at the other end to carry the optical radiation from the plasma source to the spectrometer.

  18. Modulation of steroid action in the central and peripheral nervous systems by nuclear receptor

    E-print Network

    Modulation of steroid action in the central and peripheral nervous systems by nuclear receptor. Introduction Steroid hormones act throughout the body, including the central and peripheral nervous systems tissues by binding to their respective receptors, which are members of the nuclear receptor super- family

  19. Dual processing of sulfated steroids in the olfactory system of an anuran amphibian

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Alfredo; Hassenklöver, Thomas; Offner, Thomas; Fu, Xiaoyan; Holy, Timothy E.; Manzini, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Chemical communication is widespread in amphibians, but if compared to later diverging tetrapods the available functional data is limited. The existing information on the vomeronasal system of anurans is particularly sparse. Amphibians represent a transitional stage in the evolution of the olfactory system. Most species have anatomically separated main and vomeronasal systems, but recent studies have shown that in anurans their molecular separation is still underway. Sulfated steroids function as migratory pheromones in lamprey and have recently been identified as natural vomeronasal stimuli in rodents. Here we identified sulfated steroids as the first known class of vomeronasal stimuli in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. We show that sulfated steroids are detected and concurrently processed by the two distinct olfactory subsystems of larval Xenopus laevis, the main olfactory system and the vomeronasal system. Our data revealed a similar but partially different processing of steroid-induced responses in the two systems. Differences of detection thresholds suggest that the two information channels are not just redundant, but rather signal different information. Furthermore, we found that larval and adult animals excrete multiple sulfated compounds with physical properties consistent with sulfated steroids. Breeding tadpole and frog water including these compounds activated a large subset of sensory neurons that also responded to synthetic steroids, showing that sulfated steroids are likely to convey intraspecific information. Our findings indicate that sulfated steroids are conserved vomeronasal stimuli functioning in phylogenetically distant classes of tetrapods living in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. PMID:26441543

  20. Inhaled Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids What are some common inhaled steroids? How are ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...

  1. Inferring internal structures of solar system bodies from electromagnetic induction

    E-print Network

    Strangeway, Robert J.

    Inferring internal structures of solar system bodies from electromagnetic induction Krishan Hood et al. 1999 #12;The principle behind electromagnetic induction B (t) Eddy currents BInducedCalculated from 3 D MHD simulations · Electromagnetic induction from a subsurface conductorconductor. ­ Obtained

  2. Analytical challenges for measuring steroid responses to stress, neurodegeneration and injury in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Michael; Guennoun, Rachida; Mattern, Claudia; Oudinet, Jean-Paul; Labombarda, Florencia; De Nicola, Alejandro F; Liere, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Levels of steroids in the adult central nervous system (CNS) show marked changes in response to stress, degenerative disorders and injury. However, their analysis in complex matrices such as fatty brain and spinal cord tissues, and even in plasma, requires accurate and precise analytical methods. Radioimmunoassays (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, even with prepurification steps, do not provide sufficient specificity, and they are at the origin of many inconsistent results in the literature. The analysis of steroids by mass spectrometric methods has become the gold standard for accurate and sensitive steroid analysis. However, these technologies involve multiple purification steps prone to errors, and they only provide accurate reference values when combined with careful sample workup. In addition, the interpretation of changes in CNS steroid levels is not an easy task because of their multiple sources: the endocrine glands and the local synthesis by neural cells. In the CNS, decreased steroid levels may reflect alterations of their biosynthesis, as observed in the case of chronic stress, post-traumatic stress disorders or depressive episodes. In such cases, return to normalization by administering exogenous hormones or by stimulating their endogenous production may have beneficial effects. On the other hand, increases in CNS steroids in response to acute stress, degenerative processes or injury may be part of endogenous protective or rescue programs, contributing to the resistance of neural cells to stress and insults. The aim of this review is to encourage a more critical reading of the literature reporting steroid measures, and to draw attention to the absolute need for well-validated methods. We discuss reported findings concerning changing steroid levels in the nervous system by insisting on methodological issues. An important message is that even recent mass spectrometric methods have their limits, and they only become reliable tools if combined with careful sample preparation. PMID:26301525

  3. Quantitative structure-activity relationships in a series of endogenous and synthetic steroids exhibiting induction of CYP3A activity and hepatomegaly associated with increased DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D F; Ioannides, C; Parke, D V; Schulte-Hermann, R

    2000-11-15

    The results of a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study on a total of 14 steroids exhibiting induction of a CYP3A-associated activity and increase in liver weight/DNA synthesis is reported. It is found that different, but related, structural descriptors correlate with increase in ethylmorphine N-demethylase activity (r=0.92) and with the increase in liver weight (r=0.78) and DNA synthesis (r=0.78). Although there is a strong correlation between increase in liver weight and DNA content (r=0.999), neither of these correlated with ethylmorphine N-demethylase activity. These findings are discussed in the light of CYP3A induction, substrate specificity and inhibition; a proposed model of human CYP3A4 based on sequence homology with CYP102, a bacterial P450 of known crystal structure, demonstrates the possible mode of interaction between substrates and inhibitors within the putative active site. PMID:11162923

  4. Steroid receptor expression in the developing copulatory system of the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis)

    E-print Network

    Wade, Juli

    -alpha Reproductive system Sexual differentiation a b s t r a c t In adulthood, the copulatory system in male greenSteroid receptor expression in the developing copulatory system of the green anole lizard (Anolis 2008 Available online 30 March 2008 Keywords: Lizard Androgen receptor Estrogen receptor

  5. NADP Regulates the Yeast GAL Induction System

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar,P.; Yao, Y.; Sternglanz, R.; Johnston, S.; Joshua-Tor, L.

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of the galactose-metabolizing genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on three core proteins: Gal4p, the transcriptional activator that binds to upstream activating DNA sequences (UASGAL); Gal80p, a repressor that binds to the carboxyl terminus of Gal4p and inhibits transcription; and Gal3p, a cytoplasmic transducer that, upon binding galactose and adenosine 5'-triphosphate, relieves Gal80p repression. The current model of induction relies on Gal3p sequestering Gal80p in the cytoplasm. However, the rapid induction of this system implies that there is a missing factor. Our structure of Gal80p in complex with a peptide from the carboxyl-terminal activation domain of Gal4p reveals the existence of a dinucleotide that mediates the interaction between the two. Biochemical and in vivo experiments suggests that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) plays a key role in the initial induction event.

  6. ROLE OF STEROID HORMONES AND DECIDUAL INDUCTION IN THE REGULATION OF ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHORIBOSYL TRANSFERASE ACTIVITY IN RAT ENDOMETRIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the effect of ovarian steroid hormones on enzyme activity, adenosine diphosphoribosyl transferase (ADPRT) was measured in endometrial nuclei isolated on estrus and on d 4 from rats ovariectomized on estrus (d 0) and treated d 0-3 with (a) vehicle, (b) 1 ug estrone/d (E)...

  7. Induction loop detector systems crosstalk 

    E-print Network

    Bhagat, Victor

    1994-01-01

    Reducing congestion on U.S. urban roadways has become a top priority of state departments of transportation nationwide. The development and construction of freeway management systems have recently begun to help reduce ...

  8. Magnetic induction systems to harvest energy from mechanical vibrations

    E-print Network

    Jonnalagadda, Aparna S

    2007-01-01

    This thesis documents the design process for magnetic induction systems to harvest energy from mechanical vibrations. Two styles of magnetic induction systems - magnet-through-coil and magnet-across-coils - were analyzed. ...

  9. Cybernetic systems based on inductive logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Robert L.

    2001-05-01

    Recent work in the area of inductive logic suggests that cybernetics might be quantified and reduced to engineering practice. If so, then there are considerable implications for engineering, science, and other fields. This paper attempts to capture the essential ideas of cybernetics cast in the light of inductive logic. The described inductive logic extends conventional logic by adding a conjugate logical domain of questions to the logical domain of assertions intrinsic to Boolean Algebra with which most are familiar. This was first posited and developed by Richard Cox. Interestingly enough, these two logical domains, one of questions and the other of assertions, only exist relative to one another with each possessing natural measures of entropy and probability, respectively. Examples are given that highlight the utility of cybernetic approaches to neuroscience, algorithm design, system engineering, and the design and understanding of defensive and offensive systems. For example, the application of cybernetic approaches to defense systems suggests that these systems possess a wavefunction which like quantum mechanics, collapses when we ``look'' through the eyes of the system sensors such as radars and optical sensors. .

  10. Induction and inhibition of in vitro oocyte maturation and production of steroids in fish follicles by forskolin.

    PubMed

    Iwamatsu, T; Takahashi, S Y; Sakai, N; Nagahama, Y; Onitake, K

    1987-01-01

    The effects of forskolin (FK) on in vitro oocyte maturation and production of steroids were examined in Oryzias latipes. When oocytes within preovulatory follicles were preincubated in the presence of FK for 2-10 hr, they matured normally after additional incubation for 10-20 hr in plain culture medium. Naked (follicle cell-free) oocytes did not mature under these conditions. FK stimulated dose-dependent production of steroids (estradiol-17 beta, E2, and 17 alpha,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 17 alpha,20 beta-diOHprog) and cAMP in follicle (granulosa) cells. On the other hand, exposure to FK within 2 hr after 17 alpha,20 beta-diOH prog stimulation caused reversible inhibition of gonadotropin (PMS)- or 17 alpha,20 beta-diOH prog-induced maturation of the intrafollicular oocytes in vitro. FK also significantly inhibited the 17 alpha,20 beta-diOHprog-induced maturation of naked oocytes, suggesting the existence of adenylate cyclase in fish oocytes. These data indicate that in Oryzias latipes, FK induces oocyte maturation by stimulating follicular production of maturation-inducing steroid (MIS), probably 17 alpha,20 beta-diOH prog, via an increase in cAMP, and that it may inhibit oocyte maturation by increasing ooplasmic cAMP and some inhibitory interaction between the granulosa cells and the oocyte through intercellular communication. PMID:3031196

  11. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system filters. 23.1107 Section 23.1107 Aeronautics and...Induction System § 23.1107 Induction system filters. If an air filter is used to protect the engine against foreign...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit and their accessories must supply the air required by that engine and auxiliary power unit and...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system filters. 23.1107 Section... § 23.1107 Induction system filters. If an air filter is used to protect the engine against foreign material particles in the induction air supply— (a) Each air filter must be capable of withstanding...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system filters. 23.1107 Section... § 23.1107 Induction system filters. If an air filter is used to protect the engine against foreign material particles in the induction air supply— (a) Each air filter must be capable of withstanding...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system filters. 23.1107 Section... § 23.1107 Induction system filters. If an air filter is used to protect the engine against foreign material particles in the induction air supply— (a) Each air filter must be capable of withstanding...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system filters. 23.1107 Section... § 23.1107 Induction system filters. If an air filter is used to protect the engine against foreign material particles in the induction air supply— (a) Each air filter must be capable of withstanding...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system filters. 23.1107 Section... § 23.1107 Induction system filters. If an air filter is used to protect the engine against foreign material particles in the induction air supply— (a) Each air filter must be capable of withstanding...

  19. Increased steroid hormone secretion in mouse Leydig tumor cells after induction of cholesterol translocation by sphingomyelin degradation.

    PubMed

    Pörn, M I; Tenhunen, J; Slotte, J P

    1991-06-01

    The effects of sphingomyelin degradation on [3H]cholesterol transfer from the cell surface to mitochondria were examined in mouse Leydig tumor cells. These cells were used since they utilize cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis in the mitochondria, and also possess acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyl transferase (ACAT) activity in the endoplasmic reticulum. Exposure of glutaraldehyde-fixed mouse Leydig tumor cells to sphingomyelinase (50 mU/ml, 60 min) resulted in the degradation of about 50% of cell sphingomyelin, suggesting that only half of the sphingomyelin mass in these cells was located in the exoleaflet of the plasma membrane. The partial sphingomyelin degradation resulted in the translocation of cellular unesterified [3H]cholesterol from plasma membranes (cholesterol oxidase-susceptible) to intracellular compartments (oxidase-resistant). The fraction of [3H]cholesterol that was translocated, i.e., between 20 and 50%, varied with different [3H]cholesterol-labeling methods. Cholesterol translocation induced by sphingomyelin degradation subsequently led to the stimulation of ACAT activity, suggesting that a fraction of cell surface cholesterol was transported to the endoplasmic reticulum. The sphingomyelinase-induced [3H]cholesterol flow from the cell surface to the cell interior was also in part directed to the mitochondria, as evidenced by the increased secretion of [3H]steroid hormones. In addition, the cyclic AMP-induced activation of steroidogenesis was further enhanced by the sphingomyelinase-induced cholesterol translocation. Based on the current results, it seems evident that a significant portion of the translocated [3H]cholesterol made its way from plasma membranes into the mitochondria for steroidogenesis. PMID:2049410

  20. Sequent calculus proof systems for inductive definitions 

    E-print Network

    Brotherston, James

    Inductive definitions are the most natural means by which to represent many families of structures occurring in mathematics and computer science, and their corresponding induction / recursion principles provide the ...

  1. A portable magnetic induction measurement system (PIMS).

    PubMed

    Cordes, Axel; Foussier, Jérôme; Pollig, Daniel; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2012-04-01

    For contactless monitoring of ventilation and heart activity, magnetic induction measurements are applicable. As the technique is harmless for the human body, it is well suited for long-term monitoring solutions, e.g., bedside monitoring, monitoring of home care patients, and the monitoring of persons in critical occupations. For such settings, a two-channel portable magnetic induction system has been developed, which is small and light enough to be fitted in a chair or bed. Because demodulation, control, and filtering are implemented on a front-end digital signal processor, a PC is not required (except for visualization/data storage during research and development). The system can be connected to a local area network (LAN) or wireless network (WiFi), allowing to connect several devices to a large monitoring system, e.g., for a residential home for the elderly or a hospital with low-risk patients not requiring standard ECG monitoring. To visualize data streams, a Qt-based (Qt-framework by Nokia, Espoo, Finland) monitoring application has been developed, which runs on Netbook computers, laptops, or standard PCs. To induce and measure the magnetic fields, external coils and amplifiers are required. This article describes the system and presents results for monitoring respiration and heart activity in a (divan) bed and for respiration monitoring in a chair. Planar configurations and orthogonal coil setups were examined during the measurement procedures. The measurement data were streamed over a LAN to a monitoring PC running Matlab (The MathWorks Inc, Natick, MA, USA). PMID:22505496

  2. 14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.35 Fuel and induction system. (a) The fuel...

  3. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system icing. Each engine, with all...

  4. 14 CFR 33.35 - Fuel and induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.35 Fuel and induction system. (a) The fuel...

  5. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system icing. Each engine, with all...

  6. INDUCTIVE SYSTEM HEALTH MONITORING WITH STATISTICAL METRICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Model-based reasoning is a powerful method for performing system monitoring and diagnosis. Building models for model-based reasoning is often a difficult and time consuming process. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS processes nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. In particular, a clustering algorithm forms groups of nominal values for sets of related parameters. This establishes constraints on those parameter values that should hold during nominal operation. During monitoring, IMS provides a statistically weighted measure of the deviation of current system behavior from the established normal baseline. If the deviation increases beyond the expected level, an anomaly is suspected, prompting further investigation by an operator or automated system. IMS has shown potential to be an effective, low cost technique to produce system monitoring capability for a variety of applications. We describe the training and system health monitoring techniques of IMS. We also present the application of IMS to a data set from the Space Shuttle Columbia STS-107 flight. IMS was able to detect an anomaly in the launch telemetry shortly after a foam impact damaged Columbia's thermal protection system.

  7. Two-dimensional Inductive Position Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional inductive position sensing system uses four drive inductors arranged at the vertices of a parallelogram and a sensing inductor positioned within the parallelogram. The sensing inductor is movable within the parallelogram and relative to the drive inductors. A first oscillating current at a first frequency is supplied to a first pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a first diagonal of the parallelogram. A second oscillating current at a second frequency is supplied to a second pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a second diagonal of the parallelogram. As a result, the sensing inductor generates a first output voltage at the first frequency and a second output voltage at the second frequency. A processor determines a position of the sensing inductor relative to the drive inductors using the first output voltage and the second output voltage.

  8. Steroid receptor coactivators as therapeutic targets in the female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Szwarc, Maria M; Lydon, John P; O'Malley, Bert W

    2015-11-01

    The steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs/p160/NCOA) are a family of three transcriptional coregulators initially discovered to transactivate the transcriptional potency of steroid hormone receptors. Even though SRCs were also found to modulate the activity of multiple other transcription factors, their function is still strongly associated with regulation of steroid hormone action and many studies have found that they are critical for the regulation of reproductive biology. In the case of the female reproductive tract, SRCs have been found to play crucial roles in its physiology, ranging from ovulation, implantation, to parturition. Not surprisingly, SRCs' action has been linked to numerous abnormalities and debilitating disorders of female reproductive tissues, including infertility, cancer, and endometriosis. Many of these pathologies are still in critical need of therapeutic intervention and "proof-of-principle" studies have found that SRCs are excellent targets in pathological states. Therefore, small molecule modulators of SRCs' activity could be applied in the future in the treatment of many diseases of the female reproductive system. PMID:26151740

  9. Induction accelerators for the phase rotator system

    SciTech Connect

    Reginato, Lou; Yu, Simon; Vanecek, Dave

    2001-07-30

    The principle of magnetic induction has been applied to the acceleration of high current beams in betatrons and a variety of induction accelerators. The linear induction accelerator (LIA) consists of a simple nonresonant structure where the drive voltage is applied to an axially symmetric gap that encloses a toroidal ferromagnetic material. The change in flux in the magnetic core induces an axial electric field that provides particle acceleration. This simple nonresonant (low Q) structure acts as a single turn transformer that can accelerate from hundreds of amperes to tens of kiloamperes, basically only limited by the drive impedance. The LIA is typically a low gradient structure that can provide acceleration fields of varying shapes and time durations from tens of nanoseconds to several microseconds. The efficiency of the LIA depends on the beam current and can exceed 50% if the beam current exceeds the magnetization current required by the ferromagnetic material. The acceleration voltage available is simply given by the expression V=A dB/dt. Hence, for a given cross section of material, the beam pulse duration influences the energy gain. Furthermore, a premium is put on minimizing the diameter, which impacts the total weight or cost of the magnetic material. The diameter doubly impacts the cost of the LIA since the power (cost) to drive the cores is proportional to the volume as well. The waveform requirements during the beam pulse makes it necessary to make provisions in the pulsing system to maintain the desired dB/dt during the useful part of the acceleration cycle. This is typically done two ways, by using the final stage of the pulse forming network (PFN) and by the pulse compensation network usually in close proximity of the acceleration cell. The choice of magnetic materials will be made by testing various materials both ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic. These materials will include the nickel-iron, silicon steel amorphous and various types of ferrites not only to determine the properties that are essential in this application but the energy losses in the magnetization process which directly impact the cost.

  10. Anabolic Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... from some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

  11. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  12. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  13. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  14. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  15. 14 CFR 33.68 - Induction system icing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Induction system icing. 33.68 Section 33.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.68 Induction system...

  16. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283 Section 121.283 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to...

  17. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181 Section 125.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of...

  18. Steroidal Saponins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

    The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

  19. Availability of Preoperative Systemic Steroids on Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seok Jin; Lee, Jong Kyu; Lee, Hyun Sub; Lee, Jung Yup; Pyo, Jung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the outcome of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) after preoperative systemic steroid (PSS) treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyposis (NP) and to investigate and compare clinicopathological factors associated with the outcome. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of 468 patients with CRS with NP who underwent primary ESS between January 2005 and October 2011. 124 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included. Beginning from 2008, our clinic administered steroid preoperatively in patients of CRS with NP, thus there were 84 patients with preoperative systemic steroid (PSS group) and another 40 patients without such regimen (no PSS group). To evaluate the outcome after ESS, poor outcome and complication were analyzed according to the following parameters: age, sex, follow-up duration, eosinophilic infiltration, atopy, asthma, Lund-Mackay score, and polyp grade. Results There was no significant difference in poor outcome rates between the PSS and no PSS group (35.0% vs. 47.6%, p=0.185). There was no significant difference in complication rates between the PSS and no PSS group (10% vs. 6%, p=0.468). As with the multivariate analysis of the clincopathological factors to the poor outcome rate, presence of asthma and eosinophilic infiltration were significantly related (odds ratio as 6.555 and 4.505, respectively), whereas PSS was confirmed as less likely related (odds ratio 0.611). Conclusion Low dose PSS administration does not seem to have an effect on the outcome after ESS in patients who have CRS with NP. Eosinophilic infiltration and presence of asthma are important predictors of surgical outcome. PMID:25323909

  20. Association of various dimensions of hot flashes with systemic levels of gonadal steroids.

    PubMed

    Ratka, Anna; Miller, Vanessa; Brown, Kimberly; Jenschke, Monica; Simpkins, James

    2009-04-01

    Hot flashes, the cardinal sign of menopausal vasomotor symptoms, are experienced by millions of women. The experience of hot flashes is characterized by significant inter- and intra-individual variability among women. The goals of this study were to compare concentrations of gonadal hormones between menopausal women with hot flashes (HF) and those with no HF, and to characterize the association between steroid levels and multiple dimensions of hot flashes. Menopausal women, with HF and with no HF, participated in four study sessions, one every 2 months. The Menopausal Vasomotor Symptom (MVS) survey was used to collect subjective data on various dimensions of hot flashes. Concentrations of gonadal hormones were measure at each bi-monthly session. Steroid levels were correlated to duration, frequency, length of each episode, timing, intensity, and bothersomeness of hot flashes. Data from twenty (n = 20) women with HF and fifteen (n = 15) with no HF with similar demographic profiles were analyzed. The results from the present study showed that systemic levels of estrone and progesterone were significantly lower in women experiencing HF than in asymptomatic women. There was a significant association between levels of estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and androstenedione, but not testosterone, with duration, frequency, timing, intensity, and bothersomeness of HF. The findings from this preliminary study suggest that management of symptoms associated with vasomotor HF should be individualized and guided by two factors: (i) thorough assessment of subjectively reported multiple dimensions of hot flashes, and (ii) levels of circulating gonadal steroids representing an average from 2-4 measures. This approach may lead to more targeted, effective, and safe management of vasomotor symptoms in the rapidly growing population of menopausal women. PMID:19176867

  1. EVALUATION OF AN INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA, MULTICHANNEL SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    An inductively coupled plasma, multielement atomic emission spectrometric analysis system has been evaluated with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency's need for a rapid method for determination of trace elemental concentrations in water. Data are presented on detection...

  2. Steroid receptor expression in the developing copulatory system of the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis).

    PubMed

    Beck, Laurel A; Wade, Juli

    2008-05-15

    In adulthood, the copulatory system in male green anole lizards is characterized by the presence of two hemipenes, each controlled by ipsilateral muscles. These structures are present in both sexes early in development, but prior to hatching regress completely in females. Embryonic treatment with steroid hormones alters the morphology of the copulatory system, suggesting active roles for both androgens and estrogens in sexual differentiation. To elucidate the timing and sites of steroid hormone action in the embryonic copulatory system, the distributions of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor-alpha (ER alpha) mRNA expression were examined. In situ hybridization was conducted on the rostral tail of anoles at three stages spanning differentiation of the copulatory structures: embryonic days (E) 13, 18, and 24 (hatching occurs at approximately E34). At E13, males expressed significantly higher levels of AR mRNA in both hemipenes and muscles than did females, while females at the same age tended to express higher levels of ER alpha mRNA in these structures. By E18, hemipenes and copulatory muscles were regressed in most females, and were not present in any females at E24. In males, no effect of age was detected on the expression of either AR or ER alpha. These data suggest that peripheral copulatory structures in the embryonic anole are direct targets for the actions of both androgens and estrogens in sexual differentiation, consistent with the idea that estradiol facilitates regression in females and androgen promotes survival in males. However, the issue of whether or not a critical period exists remains open. PMID:18448105

  3. Mycobacterium intracellulare infection of the shoulder and spine in a patient with steroid-treated systemic Lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Zvetina, J.R.; Rubinstein, H.; Demos, T.C.

    1982-05-01

    Atypical mycobacterial infections of bone are rare. A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus treated with steroids developed an M. intracellulare infection of the shoulder and spine. These infections are insidious and diagnosis is difficult. Marked involvement of one joint, large effusion, or aspirated small synovial fragments suggest an atypical tuberculous joint infection.

  4. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fire extinguishing system is required. (e) Each inlet system duct for an auxiliary power unit must be... upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from burning through the... surge or reverse-flow condition. (f) Induction system ducts that supply air to a cabin...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fire extinguishing system is required. (e) Each inlet system duct for an auxiliary power unit must be... upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from burning through the... surge or reverse-flow condition. (f) Induction system ducts that supply air to a cabin...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fire extinguishing system is required. (e) Each inlet system duct for an auxiliary power unit must be... upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from burning through the... surge or reverse-flow condition. (f) Induction system ducts that supply air to a cabin...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fire extinguishing system is required. (e) Each inlet system duct for an auxiliary power unit must be... upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from burning through the... surge or reverse-flow condition. (f) Induction system ducts that supply air to a cabin...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fire extinguishing system is required. (e) Each inlet system duct for an auxiliary power unit must be... upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from burning through the... surge or reverse-flow condition. (f) Induction system ducts that supply air to a cabin...

  9. Annual sex steroid profiles and effects of gender and season on cytochrome P450 mRNA induction in Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.J.; Courtenay, S.C.; Wilson, C.E.

    1998-08-01

    As a preliminary step in a 4-year biomonitoring program, sex steroid levels, gonad weights, and diameter of vitellogenic oocytes were measured in tomcod collected bimonthly from the Miramichi and Kouchibouguac rivers from September 1993 to September 1994. As well as the reproductive indices, hepatic levels of cytochrome P4501A mRNA (CYP1A mRNA) were also measured. The preparatory period for spawning began in September, with maximal steroid levels in November, and spawning took place from late December to January. The CYP1A mRNA levels in female tomcod appeared inversely related to plasma steroids, with the lowest amounts of CYP1A mRNA coinciding with maximal steroids. The CYP1A mRNA levels in male tomcod did not exhibit this relationship. River-river comparisons of female tomcod showed significantly smaller vitellogenic oocytes in the Miramichi, along with lower plasma testosterone, estradiol, and relative gonad weight. Miramichi CYP1A mRNA levels were higher than Kouchibouguac in the fall but lower in the spring sample. The CYP1A mRNA-sex steroid relationship observed in this study will facilitate meaningful interpretation of data collected during the full 4-year study.

  10. Psoriatic Erythroderma and Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis Suppression Due to Misuse of Systemic Steroid: Two Challenging Cases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gautam K; Chatterjee, Manas

    2015-01-01

    Adding corticosteroid in homeopathic pills, self medication of steroid in the backdrop permanent cure in cases of psoriasis is not very uncommon in clinical practice in Indian subcontinent. First case a 52 year man, a known case of psoriasis vulgaris with psoriatic arthropathy of 15 years duration received multiple modalities of therapies without any satisfactory response. He was on self medication of tab prednisolone 10 mg daily with Cushingoid features. Second case a 22 year old boy, a known case of psoriasis from last 06 years was on Homeopathic treatment with Cushinoid features. Tapering of systemic steroid in first case and discontinuation of homeopathic drug in second case resulted in erythroderma and features of adrenal insufficiiency. Investigation revealed low morning cortisol and low cortisol following ACTH stimulation suggestive of HPA axis suppression. Planned withdrawal of steroid under the cover of short acting systemic steroid for short duration along with combination of immunosuppressants and supportive care gave an excellent result in both the cases. PMID:25814713

  11. Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

    2012-10-23

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

  12. Inductive coupling system for endovascular aneurysm repair monitoring.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cristina; Almeida, Nuno; Machado da Silva, José

    2012-01-01

    Endoleaks are one of the major concerns in the long-term follow-up of endovascular aneurysm repair treatment (EVAR). Therefore, periodic monitoring is required to detect eventual damages in an implanted stent-graft. A monitoring system for post EVAR procedure based on inductive-coupling which avoids the need to resorting to more complex biomedical imaging systems is presented here. Endoleaks are detected with capacitive pressure sensors placed in the stent-graft and monitored externally after the measure of the oscillation frequency provided by the LC circuit created by sensors and inductive coupling. PMID:22942038

  13. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...configuration include cortisol, cortisone 11-desoxycortisol, desoxycorticosterone, and their tetrahydroderivatives. This group of hormones is synthesized by the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...configuration include cortisol, cortisone 11-desoxycortisol, desoxycorticosterone, and their tetrahydroderivatives. This group of hormones is synthesized by the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...configuration include cortisol, cortisone 11-desoxycortisol, desoxycorticosterone, and their tetrahydroderivatives. This group of hormones is synthesized by the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...configuration include cortisol, cortisone 11-desoxycortisol, desoxycorticosterone, and their tetrahydroderivatives. This group of hormones is synthesized by the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...configuration include cortisol, cortisone 11-desoxycortisol, desoxycorticosterone, and their tetrahydroderivatives. This group of hormones is synthesized by the adrenal gland. Measurements of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) are used...

  18. Icing-Protection Requirements for Reciprocating-Engine Induction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, Willard D; Rollin, Vern G; Mulholland, Donald R

    1950-01-01

    Despite the development of relatively ice-free fuel-metering systems, the widespread use of alternate and heated-air intakes, and the use of alcohol for emergency de-icing, icing of aircraft-engine induction systems is a serious problem. Investigations have been made to study and to combat all phases of this icing problem. From these investigations, criterions for safe operation and for design of new induction systems have been established. The results were obtained from laboratory investigations of carburetor-supercharger combinations, wind-tunnel investigations of air scoops, multicylinder-engine studies, and flight investigations. Characteristics of three forms of ice, impact, throttling, and fuel evaporation were studied. The effects of several factors on the icing characteristics were also studied and included: (1) atmospheric conditions, (2) engine and air-scoop configurations, including light-airplane system, (3) type fuel used, and (4) operating variables, such as power condition, use of a manifold pressure regulator, mixture setting, carburetor heat, and water-alcohol injection. In addition, ice-detection methods were investigated and methods of preventing and removing induction-system ice were studied. Recommendations are given for design and operation with regard to induction-system design.

  19. Induction Linac Systems Experiments for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1994-06-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory propose to build at LBL the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step toward the eventual goal of a heavy ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Though much smaller than a driver, ILSE will be at full driver scale in several important parameters. Nearly all accelerator components and beam manipulations required for a driver will be tested. It is expected that ILSE will be built in stages as funds and technical progress allow. The first stage, called Elise will include all of the electrostatic quadrupole focused parts of ILSE.

  20. Induction Curing of Thiol-acrylate and Thiolene Composite Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Sheng; Cramer, Neil B.; Stevens, Blake E.; Sani, Robert L.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    Induction curing is demonstrated as a novel type of in situ radiation curing that maintains most of the advantages of photocuring while eliminating the restriction of light accessibility. Induction curing is utilized to polymerize opaque composites comprised of thiol-acrylate and thiol-ene resins, nanoscale magnetic particles, and carbon nanotubes. Nanoscale magnetic particles are dispersed in the resin and upon exposure to the magnetic field, these particles lead to induction heating that rapidly initiates the polymerization. Heat transfer profiles and reaction kinetics of the samples are modeled during the reactions with varying induction heater power, species concentration, species type and sample thickness, and the model is compared with the experimental results. Thiol-ene polymerizations achieved full conversion between 1.5 minutes and 1 hour, depending on the field intensity and the composition, with the maximum reaction temperature decreasing from 146 – 87 °C when the induction heater power was decreased from 8 – 3 kW. The polymerization reactions of the thiol-acrylate system were demonstrated to achieve full conversion between 0.6 and 30 minutes with maximum temperatures from 139 to 86 °C. The experimental behavior was characterized and the temperature profile modeled for the thiol-acrylate composite comprised of sub100nm nickel particles and induction heater power in the range of 32 to 20 kW. A 9°C average deviation was observed between the modeling and experimental results for the maximum temperature rise. The model also was utilized to predict reaction temperatures and kinetics for systems with varying thermal initiator concentration, initiator half-life, monomer molecular weight and temperature gradients in samples with varying thickness, thereby demonstrating that induction curing represents a designable and tunable polymerization method. Finally, induction curing was utilized to cure thiol-acrylate systems containing carbon nanotubes where 1 wt% carbon nanotubes resulted in systems where the storage modulus increased from 17.6 ± 0.2 to 21.6 ± 0.1 MPa and an electrical conductivity that increased from <10?7 to 0.33 ± 0.5 S/m. PMID:21765552

  1. Use of systemic steroid after successful macular surgery in eyes with epiretinal membrane: a randomized, controlled clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, M; Sacu, S; Matt, G; Dunavölgyi, R; Bühl, W; Prünte, C; Schmidt-Erfurth, U

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the functional and morphological outcomes of postoperative systemic steroid therapy after successful macular surgery in eyes with macular edema due to idiopathic macular epiretinal membranes (ERMs). Design Prospective, randomized, investigator-masked, controlled clinical study. Methods Twenty-eight patients scheduled for 23-gauge vitrectomy combined with ERM and inner limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for macular edema due to ERM were included in this single center trial. Patients were randomized to receive oral steroid therapy (Prednisolone, 100?mg per day for 5 days) or no oral steroid (control group) after surgery. Main outcome measures included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA; Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study), central retinal thickness (CRT), retinal volume (RV), and macular morphology as determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, Cirrus). Examinations were carried out preoperatively and at week 1, at months 1 and 3, postoperatively. Results At month 3, mean BCVA improved to a eight-letter gain in each study group (P<0.01 compared with baseline for both groups), showing no statistically significant difference between both the groups (P=0.19). Morphologically, retinal surface folds resolved within 1 month after surgery in both treatment groups, followed by a progressive recovery of retinal layer integrity and a statistical significant (P<0.01) decrease in CRT and RV without significant differences between both groups (P=0.62, P=0.13, respectively, ANOVA between the groups). Conclusion The early postoperative use of systemic steroid treatment after successful vitrectomy combined with ERM and ILM peeling does not seem to improve significantly the anatomic and functional outcomes in eyes with ERM. PMID:21886189

  2. Steroid hormones, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems during rescue of the corpus luteum in pigs.

    PubMed

    Przygrodzka, E; Kaczmarek, M M; Kaczynski, P; Ziecik, A J

    2016-02-01

    In order to characterize the transition of the corpora lutea (CL) from acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity to rescue of luteal function: i) the expression of 38 factors associated with steroids, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems and ii) concentrations of the main hormones responsible for maintenance of CL function in cyclic and pregnant pigs were examined. Additionally, the effect of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2 ? on luteal function during the estrous cycle and pregnancy was evaluated in vitro. Significantly up-regulated gene expression was revealed in CL collected on day 14 of the estrous cycle (CYP19A1, ESR2, PTGS2, HIF1A, and EDN1) and on days 12-14 of pregnancy (SCARB1, PGRMC1, STAR, HSD3B1, NR5A1, PTGFR, PTGER4, and VEGFA). Elevated concentrations of estradiol-17? and PGE2 occurred in CL on days 12 and 14 of pregnancy respectively, while an increased intraluteal PGF2 ? content was noted on day 14 of the estrous cycle. Both PGs increased the synthesis of progesterone by cultured luteal slices obtained on day 14 of pregnancy, in contrast to the action of PGF2 ? on the corresponding day of the estrous cycle. PGE2 stimulated cAMP production via PTGER2 and PTGER4, while PGF2 ? elevated the content of CREB in cultured luteal slices from CL of pregnant pigs. In silico analysis showed that infiltration of lymphocytes and apoptosis of microvascular endothelium were activated in CL on day 12 of the estrous cycle vs pregnancy. Summarizing, an abundance of E2 and PGE2 during pregnancy regulates specific pathways responsible for steroidogenesis, the prostanoid signaling system and angiogenesis during rescue from luteolysis in porcine CL. PMID:26577025

  3. Real-Time System Verification by Kappa-Induction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Lee S.

    2005-01-01

    We report the first formal verification of a reintegration protocol for a safety-critical, fault-tolerant, real-time distributed embedded system. A reintegration protocol increases system survivability by allowing a node that has suffered a fault to regain state consistent with the operational nodes. The protocol is verified in the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL), where bounded model checking and decision procedures are used to verify infinite-state systems by k-induction. The protocol and its environment are modeled as synchronizing timeout automata. Because k-induction is exponential with respect to k, we optimize the formal model to reduce the size of k. Also, the reintegrator's event-triggered behavior is conservatively modeled as time-triggered behavior to further reduce the size of k and to make it invariant to the number of nodes modeled. A corollary is that a clique avoidance property is satisfied.

  4. Pulse Detonation Engine Air Induction System Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, R. J.; Hunter, L. G.; Couch, B. D.

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary mixed-compression inlet design concept for potential pulse-detonation engine (PDE) powered supersonic aircraft was defined and analyzed. The objectives of this research were to conceptually design and integrate an inlet/PDE propulsion system into a supersonic aircraft, perform time-dependent CFD analysis of the inlet flowfield, and to estimate the installed PDE cycle performance. The study was baselined to a NASA Mach 5 Waverider study vehicle in which the baseline over/under turboramjet engines were replaced with a single flowpath PDE propulsion system. As much commonality as possible was maintained with the baseline configuration, including the engine location and forebody lines. Modifications were made to the inlet system's external ramp angles and a rotating cowl lip was incorporated to improve off-design inlet operability and performance. Engines were sized to match the baseline vehicle study's ascent trajectory thrust requirement at Mach 1.2. The majority of this study was focused on a flight Mach number of 3.0. The time-dependent Navier Stokes CFD analyses of a two-dimensional approximation of the inlet was conducted for the Mach 3.0 condition. The Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems-developed FALCON CFD code with a two equation 'k-1' turbulence model was used. The downstream PDE was simulated by an array of four sonic nozzles in which the flow areas were rapidly varied in various opening/closing combinations. Results of the CFD study indicated that the inlet design concept operated successfully at the Mach 3.0 condition, satisfying mass capture, total pressure recovery, and operability requirements. Time-dependent analysis indicated that pressure and expansion waves from the simulated valve perturbations did not effect the inlet's operability or performance.

  5. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... auxiliary power unit fire zone. (e) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be fireproof for a sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from... remainder of the induction system duct and plenum chamber of the auxiliary power unit must be capable...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... auxiliary power unit fire zone. (e) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be fireproof for a sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from... remainder of the induction system duct and plenum chamber of the auxiliary power unit must be capable...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... auxiliary power unit fire zone. (e) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be fireproof for a sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from... remainder of the induction system duct and plenum chamber of the auxiliary power unit must be capable...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... auxiliary power unit fire zone. (e) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be fireproof for a sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from... remainder of the induction system duct and plenum chamber of the auxiliary power unit must be capable...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... auxiliary power unit fire zone. (e) Each auxiliary power unit induction system duct must be fireproof for a sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to prevent hot gas reverse flow from... remainder of the induction system duct and plenum chamber of the auxiliary power unit must be capable...

  10. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:24685768

  11. Effects of a Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System on the Expression of Steroid Receptor Coregulators in Adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Jeon, Young Eun; Seo, Seok Kyo; Park, Joo Hyun; Yoon, Sun Och; Cho, SiHyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok

    2015-12-01

    Although the pathophysiology of adenomyosis has not been clarified, it is thought to be related to ectopic endometrium, which depends on hormonal regulation. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is effective for the medical treatment of adenomyosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which LNG-IUS ameliorates adenomyosis pathology remain unclear. This study was designed to compare the expression levels of steroid receptor coregulators in human endometrium of control and participants with adenomyosis and to determine whether LNG-IUS modulated their expression. Immunohistochemistry with H-scores was performed. Steroid receptor coactivators were shown to have significantly decreased expressions at the secretory phase in the LNG-IUS group when compared to the other groups. Expression of transcriptional intermediary factor 2 was lower in the LNG-IUS group than in both the control group (P = .015) and the untreated adenomyosis group (P = .019) during the secretory phase. Amplified in breast cancer 1 expression was higher in the stromal cells of the untreated adenomyosis group than in those of the controls (P = .017) during the secretory phase; however, levels were lower in the LNG-IUS group (P = .005). Nuclear receptor corepressor expression increased during the proliferative phase and decreased during the secretory phase in untreated adenomyosis; this pattern was reversed in the control and LNG-IUS groups. Thus, an altered expression of steroid receptor coregulators may play a role in adenomyosis development and treatment. PMID:26040939

  12. Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

    1982-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

  13. Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

  14. Control system for an induction motor with energy recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A control circuit for an induction motor powered system is disclosed in which a power factor controlled servo loop is used to control, via the phase angle of firing of a triac, the power input to the motor, as a function of load placed on the motor by machinery of the powered system. Then, upon application of torque by this machinery to the motor, which tends to overspeed the motor, the firing angle of the triac is automatically set to a fixed, and relatively short, firing angle.

  15. Steroids (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the issue, making sure your child understands the health risks, the possibility of legal trouble, and the concept that using steroids is ... Training and Your Child Compulsive Exercise Steroids Steroids and ...

  16. Topical Steroid-Damaged Skin

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anil; Roga, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder. PMID:25284849

  17. Sex steroid-independent effects of photostimulation on the song-control system of white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis).

    PubMed

    Robertson, Brian D; Hasstedt, Michael R; Vandermeer, Caitlin L; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2014-08-01

    Brain nuclei within the song-control system of songbirds are seasonally plastic during adulthood. These nuclei are larger in birds exposed to long, spring-like days than short, winter-like days. There is overwhelming evidence that this effect is mediated by testosterone (T). However, castration studies have also demonstrated that photostimulation has gonad-independent effects on song-control system plasticity, but these studies rarely control for extra-gonadal sources of T. In this study, we used anti-androgen and anti-estrogen treatments in combination with castration to determine the sex steroid-independent effects of photostimulation on HVC size and doublecortin immunoreactivity in white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis). Birds were kept on short days or photostimulated for 1 month. Photostimulated birds were intact, castrated and treated with anti-androgens and anti-estrogens, or castrated and treated with T. HVC volumes of photostimulated birds were significantly larger than short-day birds. HVC volume of castrated birds given anti-androgens/-estrogens was significantly larger than short-day birds, indicating a sex steroid-independent effect of photostimulation. Similar results were observed for RA. The number of migrating neurons (immunoreactive for doublecortin) in HVC did not differ between treatment groups. Our data support the view that photostimulation alone can drive song-control system nuclei growth, and that concurrent exposure to T potentiates this growth. Moreover, these effects do not appear dependent on modulation of neuron migration. PMID:24818971

  18. ISCASA System for Chinese Word Sense Induction Based on K-means Algorithm

    E-print Network

    - Chinese word sense induction. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presentsISCASA System for Chinese Word Sense Induction Based on K-means Algorithm Zhenzhong Zhang* Le Sun an unsupervised method for automatic Chinese word sense induction. The algorithm is based on clustering

  19. The Detector System for the Stratospheric Kinetic Inductance Polarimeter ( Skip)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Araujo, D.; Bradford, K. J.; Chapman, D.; Day, P. K.; Didier, J.; Doyle, S.; Eriksen, H. K.; Flanigan, D.; Groppi, C.; Hillbrand, S.; Jones, G.; Limon, M.; Mauskopf, P.; McCarrick, H.; Miller, A.; Mroczkowski, T.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, B.; Smiley, B.; Sobrin, J.; Wehus, I. K.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2014-09-01

    The stratospheric kinetic inductance polarimeter is a proposed balloon-borne experiment designed to study the cosmic microwave background, the cosmic infrared background and Galactic dust emission by observing 1,133 deg of sky in the Northern Hemisphere with launches from Kiruna, Sweden. The instrument contains 2,317 single-polarization, horn-coupled, aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors ( Lekids). The Lekids will be maintained at 100 mK with an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The polarimeter operates in two configurations, one sensitive to a spectral band centered on 150 GHz and the other sensitive to 260 and 350 GHz bands. The detector readout system is based on the ROACH-1 board, and the detectors will be biased below 300 MHz. The detector array is fed by an F/2.4 crossed-Dragone telescope with a 500 mm aperture yielding a 15 arcmin FWHM beam at 150 GHz. To minimize detector loading and maximize sensitivity, the entire optical system will be cooled to 1 K. Linearly polarized sky signals will be modulated with a metal-mesh half-wave plate that is mounted at the telescope aperture and rotated by a superconducting magnetic bearing. The observation program consists of at least two, 5-day flights beginning with the 150 GHz observations.

  20. Adolescent Steroid Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

  1. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

    2011-01-01

    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  2. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fire zone for which a fire-extinguishing system is required, except that ducts for auxiliary power... auxiliary power unit bleed air duct systems, no hazard may result if a duct failure occurs at any point... induction system duct must be fireproof for a sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fire zone for which a fire-extinguishing system is required, except that ducts for auxiliary power... auxiliary power unit bleed air duct systems, no hazard may result if a duct failure occurs at any point... induction system duct must be fireproof for a sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fire zone for which a fire-extinguishing system is required, except that ducts for auxiliary power... auxiliary power unit bleed air duct systems, no hazard may result if a duct failure occurs at any point... induction system duct must be fireproof for a sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fire zone for which a fire-extinguishing system is required, except that ducts for auxiliary power... auxiliary power unit bleed air duct systems, no hazard may result if a duct failure occurs at any point... induction system duct must be fireproof for a sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fire zone for which a fire-extinguishing system is required, except that ducts for auxiliary power... auxiliary power unit bleed air duct systems, no hazard may result if a duct failure occurs at any point... induction system duct must be fireproof for a sufficient distance upstream of the auxiliary power...

  7. Localization and regulation of reproductive steroid receptors in the raphe serotonin system of male macaques.

    PubMed

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Phu, Kenny; Belikova, Yelena; Bethea, Sarah C

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) and serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) mRNAs are increased by the androgens, testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in serotonin neurons of male macaques. In addition, we observed that serotonin in axons of a terminal region were markedly decreased by aromatase inhibition and lack of estradiol (E) from metabolism of T. These observations implicated androgen receptors (AR) and estrogen receptors (ER) in the transduction of steroid hormone actions in serotonin neurons. Due to the longer treatment period employed, the expression of the cognate nuclear receptors was sought. We used single and double immunohistochemistry to quantitate and phenotypically localize AR, ER? and ER? in the dorsal raphe of male macaques. Male Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) were castrated for 5-7 months and then treated for 3 months with [1] placebo, [2] T, [3] DHT (non-aromatizable androgen) plus ATD (steroidal aromatase inhibitor), or [4] Flutamide (FLUT; androgen antagonist) plus ATD (n = 5/group). After single labeling of each receptor, quantitative image analysis was applied and receptor positive neurons were counted. Double-label of raphe neurons for each receptor plus TPH2 determined whether the receptors were localized in serotonin neurons. There were significantly more AR-positive neurons in T- and DHT+ATD-treated groups (p = 0.0014) compared to placebo or FLUT+ATD-treated groups. There was no difference in the number of positive-neurons stained for ER? or ER?? Double-immunohistochemistry revealed that serotonin neurons did not contain AR. Rather, AR-positive nuclei were found in neighboring cells that are likely neurons. However, approximately 40% of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons contained ER? or ER?? In conclusion, the stimulatory effect of androgens on TPH2 and SERT mRNA expression is mediated indirectly by neighboring neurons contain AR. The stimulatory effect of E, derived from T metabolism, on serotonin transport is partially mediated directly via nuclear ERs. PMID:25908331

  8. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 100 (2006) 317 Effects of acetylation, polymerase phosphorylation, and DNA

    E-print Network

    2006-01-01

    Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 100 (2006) 3­17 Effects of acetylation, Yunguang Suna, Carson Chowb, Yves G. Pommierc, S. Stoney Simons Jr.a, a Steroid Hormones Section, NIDDK 2006 Abstract Varying the concentration of selected factors alters the induction properties of steroid

  9. Forward and reverse control system for induction motors

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.T.

    1987-09-15

    A control system for controlling the direction of rotation of a rotor of an induction motor includes an array of five triacs with one of the triacs applying a current of fixed phase to the windings of the rotor and four of the triacs being switchable to apply either hot ac current or return ac current to the stator windings so as to reverse the phase of current in the stator relative to that of the rotor and thereby reverse the direction of rotation of the rotor. Switching current phase in the stator is accomplished by operating the gates of pairs of the triacs so as to connect either hot ac current or return ac current to the input winding of the stator. 1 fig.

  10. Toroid Joining Gun. [thermoplastic welding system using induction heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. D.; Fox, R. L.; Swaim, R J.

    1985-01-01

    The Toroid Joining Gun is a low cost, self-contained, portable low powered (100-400 watts) thermoplastic welding system developed at Langley Research Center for joining plastic and composite parts using an induction heating technique. The device developed for use in the fabrication of large space sructures (LSST Program) can be used in any atmosphere or in a vacuum. Components can be joined in situ, whether on earth or on a space platform. The expanded application of this welding gun is in the joining of thermoplastic composites, thermosetting composites, metals, and combinations of these materials. Its low-power requirements, light weight, rapid response, low cost, portability, and effective joining make it a candidate for solving many varied and unique bonding tasks.

  11. Steroid mediated lysis of lymphoblasts requires the DNA binding region of the steroid hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Harbour, D V; Chambon, P; Thompson, E B

    1990-01-01

    Glucocorticoids kill certain types of lymphoblasts, but the mechanisms are unknown. It is clear that sufficient numbers of functional glucocorticoid receptors are required to mediate lysis, but whether they do so through the classical model of steroid hormone activation and modulation of gene expression has not been established. In this report we have asked which region(s) of the steroid receptor are important for mediating lysis in leukemic T lymphoblasts. CEM-ICR 27 leukemic lymphoblasts, a clone of CEM cells which lack functional glucocorticoid receptors and therefore are neither lysed by dexamethasone nor capable of showing glutamine synthetase induction, were provided with steroid receptors by DNA transfections of various receptor gene constructs. We measured steroid mediated lysis, receptor number and induction of glutamine synthetase in the transfected cells. Our results provide evidence that the lysis mechanism in the ICR27 lymphoblasts is restored when functional receptor number is restored. The DNA binding region specifying high affinity for GRE sites is required. Lysis is mediated by any steroid that allows for activation of the receptor containing such a region. Our data support the view that steroid-mediated cell death occurs by a process requiring direct interaction of steroid-receptor complexes with the genome. PMID:1968525

  12. Clinical Practice of Steroid Avoidance in Pediatric Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nehus, E; Liu, C; Hooper, D K; Macaluso, M; Kim, M-O

    2015-08-01

    Steroid-avoidance protocols have recently gained popularity in pediatric kidney transplantation. We investigated the clinical practice of steroid avoidance among 9494 kidney transplant recipients at 124 transplant centers between 2000 and 2012 in the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database. The practice of steroid avoidance increased during the study period and demonstrated significant variability among transplant centers. From 2008 to 2012, 39% of transplant centers used steroid avoidance in <10% of all discharged transplant recipients. Twenty-one percent of transplant centers practiced steroid avoidance in 10-40% of transplant recipients, and 40% of transplant centers used steroid avoidance in >40% of discharged patients. Children receiving steroid avoidance more frequently received induction with lymphocyte-depleting agents. Repeat kidney transplants were the least likely to receive steroid avoidance. Children who received a deceased donor kidney, underwent pretransplant dialysis, were highly sensitized, or had glomerular kidney disease or delayed graft function were also less likely to receive steroid avoidance. The variation in practice between centers remained highly significant (p?steroid avoidance among transplant centers remain unexplained and may reflect uncertainty about the safety and efficacy of steroid-avoidance protocols. PMID:25908489

  13. Dendritic growth gated by a steroid hormone receptor underlies increases in activity in the developing Drosophila locomotor system

    PubMed Central

    Zwart, Maarten F.; Randlett, Owen; Evers, Jan Felix; Landgraf, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    As animals grow, their nervous systems also increase in size. How growth in the central nervous system is regulated and its functional consequences are incompletely understood. We explored these questions, using the larval Drosophila locomotor system as a model. In the periphery, at neuromuscular junctions, motoneurons are known to enlarge their presynaptic axon terminals in size and strength, thereby compensating for reductions in muscle excitability that are associated with increases in muscle size. Here, we studied how motoneurons change in the central nervous system during periods of animal growth. We find that within the central nervous system motoneurons also enlarge their postsynaptic dendritic arbors, by the net addition of branches, and that these scale with overall animal size. This dendritic growth is gated on a cell-by-cell basis by a specific isoform of the steroid hormone receptor ecdysone receptor-B2, for which functions have thus far remained elusive. The dendritic growth is accompanied by synaptic strengthening and results in increased neuronal activity. Electrical properties of these neurons, however, are independent of ecdysone receptor-B2 regulation. We propose that these structural dendritic changes in the central nervous system, which regulate neuronal activity, constitute an additional part of the adaptive response of the locomotor system to increases in body and muscle size as the animal grows. PMID:24043825

  14. Module Eight: Induction; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The module covers in greater depth electromagnetic induction, its effects, and how it is used to advantage in electrical circuits; and the physical components, called inductors, designed to take advantage of the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. This module is divided into four lessons: electromagnetism; inductors and flux density, inducing…

  15. Low Inductance pulser system drives a fast magnet at DARHT.

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, E. A.; Bartsch, R. R.; Custer, D. M.; Ekdahl, C. A.; Montoya, R. R.; Smith, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    The DARHT facility [Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test] uses bremsstrahlung radiation from focused electron beams to produce radiographs. To produce a smaller spot size and, thus, a higher quality radiograph, one must be able to control the emittance of the electron beam. To that end, it is necessary to measure emittance. Emittance is measured by focusing the electron beam to a small size, such that the size is dominated by the emittance, as opposed to the space charge. Our electron beam, at 2 kA, 18 MV and 2 ps, would destroy any imaging target, were the full beam to be focused to minimal spot size for the full beam duration. The solution is to focus the beam for a short duration, a few tens of nanoseconds, using a fast solenoid magnet. This paper reports details of the pulsed power system used to drive the segmented magnet. The system consists of twenty pulsers, driving 60 cables to feed two headers on the magnet. The magnet itself consists of 12 individual loops, each segmented in three parts, for inductance reduction. The system is designed to produce one kilogauss over a 15-cm diameter and 60-cm length. The pulsers incorporate spark gaps that produce the main pulse with a half sine period of 125 ns and also clip the tail of the pulse to prevent refocusing of the beam. A five-to-one ratio between the first and second current peaks has been demonstrated [same polarity peaks].

  16. Anabolic Steroids (For Teens)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search Home + Drug Facts Anabolic Steroids Bath Salts Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) ... Map Home Drug Facts Anabolic Steroids Bath Salts Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) ...

  17. Pesticide- and sex steroid analogue-induced endocrine disruption differentially targets hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal system during gametogenesis in teleosts - A review.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2015-08-01

    Pesticide-induced endocrine disruption often mimics sex steroidal action resulting in physiological functional disarray of hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) system at multiple levels. Among various group of pesticides, organochlorine and organophosphate family of pesticides are known to impart sex steroidal mimicking activity with slightly higher resemblance to estrogens when compared to androgenic action. This review will highlight the effects of organochlorine (for e.g. endosulfan) and organophosphate (for e.g. malathion) pesticides in comparison with sex-steroid analogue-induced changes on HHG axis during gametogenesis in few teleost fish models. Interestingly, the effects of these compounds have produced differential effects in juveniles and adults which also vary based on exposure dosage and duration. Further, the treatments had caused at times sexually dimorphic effects indicating that the action of these compounds bring out serious implications in sexual development. A comprehensive overview has been provided by considering all these aspects to recognize the adverse impacts of pesticide-induced endocrine disruption with special reference to endosulfan and malathion as those had been applied even today or used before for controlling agricultural pests in several Asian countries including India. This review also compares the effects of sex-steroid analogues where in sex reversal to reproductive dysfunction is evident, which may imply the extent of sexual plasticity in teleosts compared to other vertebrates. PMID:25637674

  18. Testing the effects of long-acting steroids in edema and ecchymosis after closed rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Santiago; Wuesthoff, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Steroids have proven to be of some benefit in rhinoplasty edema and ecchymosis when administered at a high and repeated dose. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of single-dose, long-acting intramuscular steroids on postoperative edema and ecchymosis after closed rhinoplasty with osteotomies compared with placebo. METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was performed. Fifty-four patients were randomly assigned to two groups: 28 received a single dose of long-acting dexamethasone (mean [± SD] dose 16±4 mg) immediately before anesthetic induction; the remaining 26 received an intramuscular injection of saline solution. The same surgeon performed all surgeries, with patients under general anesthesia. Acetaminophen was the only analgesic used to control postoperative pain. High-resolution digital photographs were taken on postoperative days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Scoring was performed separately for eyelid swelling and ecchymosis by an independent observer using a graded scale (0 to 5) for edema and a scoring system (0 to 13) for ecchymosis. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in terms of age, sex or amount of bleeding during surgery were found between the two groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in the decrease of both ecchymosis and edema between placebo and high-dose, long-acting dexamethasone. A statistically significant difference in operation time was found, favouring the steroid group. No severe complications were observed due to steroid use. DISCUSSION: Osteotomies are basically a form of (controlled) trauma, with considerable disruption of the abundant blood vessels in this facial region and, therefore, are associated with with undesirable effects. A recent meta-analysis failed to show benefits of the use of steroids after postoperative day 3. Only a trend toward reduction in edema and ecchymosis with the use of long-acting steroids compared with placebo was demonstrated in the present study. CONCLUSION: There was no benefit in administering single-dose, long-acting steroids in patients undergoing closed rhinoplasty with osteotomies. PMID:25114618

  19. Steroids as ?-secretase modulators

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Joo In; Ladd, Thomas B.; Kukar, Thomas; Price, Ashleigh R.; Moore, Brenda D.; Koo, Edward H.; Golde, Todd E.; Felsenstein, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation and accumulation of A?42 play an initiating role in Alzheimer's disease (AD); thus, selective lowering of A?42 by ?-secretase modulators (GSMs) remains a promising approach to AD therapy. Based on evidence suggesting that steroids may influence A? production, we screened 170 steroids at 10 ?M for effects on A?42 secreted from human APP-overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary cells. Many acidic steroids lowered A?42, whereas many nonacidic steroids actually raised A?42. Studies on the more potent compounds showed that A?42-lowering steroids were bonafide GSMs and A?42-raising steroids were inverse GSMs. The most potent steroid GSM identified was 5?-cholanic acid (EC50=5.7 ?M; its endogenous analog lithocholic acid was virtually equipotent), and the most potent inverse GSM identified was 4-androsten-3-one-17?-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (EC50=6.25 ?M). In addition, we found that both estrogen and progesterone are weak inverse GSMs with further complex effects on APP processing. These data suggest that certain endogenous steroids may have the potential to act as GSMs and add to the evidence that cholesterol, cholesterol metabolites, and other steroids may play a role in modulating A? production and thus risk for AD. They also indicate that acidic steroids might serve as potential therapeutic leads for drug optimization/development.—Jung, J. I., Ladd, T. B., Kukar, T., Price, A. R., Moore, B. D., Koo, E. H., Golde, T. E., Felsenstein, K. M. Steroids as ?-secretase modulators. PMID:23716494

  20. NDCX-II PULSED POWER SYSTEM AND INDUCTION CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, W.L.; Reginato, L.L.; Leitner, M.

    2009-06-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is currently finalizing the design of NDCX-II, the second phase of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, which will use an ion beam to explore Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target hydrodynamics. The ion induction accelerator will include induction cells and Blumleins from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A test stand has been built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test refurbished ATA induction cells and pulsed power hardware for voltage holding and ability to produce various compression and acceleration waveforms. The performance requirements, design modifications, and test results will be presented.

  1. Analysis of electromechanical interactions in a flywheel system with a doubly fed induction machine

    E-print Network

    Ran, Li

    This paper analyzes the electromechanical inter-action in a flywheel system with a doubly fed induction machine, used for wind farm power smoothing or grid frequency response control. The grid-connected electrical machine ...

  2. Systemic signalling in photosynthetic induction of Rumex?K-1 (Rumex patientia?×?Rumex tianschaious) leaves.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fei; Jin, Li-Qiao; Zhang, Zi-Shan; Gao, Hui-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    The rapid induction of photosynthesis is critical for plants under light-fleck environment. Most previous studies about photosynthetic induction focused upon single leaf, but they did not consider the systemic integrity of plant. Here, we verified whether systemic signalling is involved in photosynthetic induction. Rumex?K-1 (Rumex patientia?×?Rumex tianschaious) plants were grown under light-fleck condition. After whole night dark adaptation, different numbers of leaves (system leaf or SL) were pre-illuminated with light, and then the photosynthetic induction of other leaves (target leaf or TL) was investigated. This study showed that the pre-illumination of SL promoted photosynthetic induction in TL. This promotion was independent of the number of SL, the light intensity on SL and the distance between SL and TL, indicating that this systemic signalling is non-dose-dependent. More interestingly, the photosynthetic induction was promoted by only the pre-illumination of morphological upper leaf rather than the pre-illumination of morphological lower leaf, indicating that the transfer of this signal is directional. The results showed that the transfer of this systemic signalling depends upon the phloem. This systemic signalling helps plants to use light energy more efficiently under light flecks. PMID:25124181

  3. Thermodynamic induction effects exhibited in nonequilibrium systems with variable kinetic coefficients.

    PubMed

    Patitsas, S N

    2014-01-01

    A nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory demonstrating an induction effect of a statistical nature is presented. We have shown that this thermodynamic induction can arise in a class of systems that have variable kinetic coefficients (VKC). In particular if a kinetic coefficient associated with a given thermodynamic variable depends on another thermodynamic variable then we have derived an expression that can predict the extent of the induction. The amount of induction is shown to be proportional to the square of the driving force. The nature of the intervariable coupling for the induction effect has similarities with the Onsager symmetry relations, though there is an important sign difference as well as the magnitudes not being equal. Thermodynamic induction adds nonlinear terms that improve the stability of stationary states, at least within the VKC class of systems. Induction also produces a term in the expression for the rate of entropy production that could be interpreted as self-organization. Many of these results are also obtained using a variational approach, based on maximizing entropy production, in a certain sense. Nonequilibrium quantities analogous to the free energies of equilibrium thermodynamics are introduced. PMID:24580173

  4. Treating Asthma with Inhaled Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have serious side effects.) Should I use inhaled steroids or a pill? Inhaled steroids act directly on ... or mold. Side effects and safety of inhaled steroids. • The most common side effects are mouth and ...

  5. ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY AND STEROID HORMONES IN SWINE WASTEWATER PROCESSED THROUGH A LAGOON CONSTRUCTED-WETLAND SYSTEM.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons and treatment wetlands are used world-wide to treat wastewater from dense livestock production facilities. However, there is very limited data on the hormonal activity of the wastewater effluent produced by these treatment systems. The objectives of this experiment were to measur...

  6. Neurotransmitter, opiodergic system, steroid-hormone interaction and involvement in the replacement therapy of sexual disorders.

    PubMed

    Frajese, G; Lazzari, R; Magnani, A; Moretti, C; Sforza, V; Nerozzi, D

    1990-11-20

    Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) are the neurotransmitters most directly involved in sexual activity. DA plays a stimulatory role while 5-HT has an inhibitory effect. The two monoaminergic systems modulate the secretion of many hormones (GnRH, LH, testosterone, prolactin and endorphins) involved in sexual functional capacity. Furthermore, hormones influence synthesis and storage of brain neurotransmitters. Impotence can often be associated to clinical depression and altered neurotransmitter function. Moreover, stress represents an unbalance between various neurotransmitter systems and can induce impotence especially when disorders of the endorphinic system are present. Replacement therapy is based upon the understanding of these basic concepts. Impotence due to an underlying depressive illness must be treated with dopaminergic antidepressant drugs; while in stressful conditions a good response to the naloxone test is the preliminary criterion to subsequent naltrexone treatment. When a hormonal deficiency has been proved, the hormone replacement therapy is of course highly effective (gonadotropins in hypogonadotropic syndromes, testosterone in aging, etc.). Finally, idiopathic impotence could be treated by DA agonist and/or 5-HT antagonist drugs either alone or better yet in association with psychotherapy. PMID:1979499

  7. A study of carburetor/induction system icing in general aviation accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obermayer, R. W.; Roe, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    An assessment of the frequency and severity of carburetor/induction icing in general-aviation accidents was performed. The available literature and accident data from the National Transportation Safety Board were collected. A computer analysis of the accident data was performed. Between 65 and 90 accidents each year involve carburetor/induction system icing as a probable cause/factor. Under conditions conducive to carburetor/induction icing, between 50 and 70 percent of engine malfunction/failure accidents (exclusive of those due to fuel exhaustion) are due to carburetor/induction system icing. Since the evidence of such icing may not remain long after an accident, it is probable that the frequency of occurrence of such accidents is underestimated; therefore, some extrapolation of the data was conducted. The problem of carburetor/induction system icing is particularly acute for pilots with less than 1000 hours of total flying time. The severity of such accidents is about the same as any accident resulting from a forced landing or precautionary landing. About 144 persons, on the average, are exposed to death and injury each year in accidents involving carburetor/induction icing as a probable cause/factor.

  8. Patellar Tendon Rupture after Lateral Release without Predisposing Systemic Disease or Steroid Use

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgi, S.; Notarnicola, A.; Vicenti, G.; Moretti, B.

    2015-01-01

    Arthroscopic technique for lateral release is the most widely used procedure for the correction of recurrent dislocations of the patella. In the relevant literature, several complications of lateral release are described, but the spontaneous patellar tendon rupture has never been suggested as a possible complication of this surgical procedure. Patellar tendon rupture is a rather infrequent and often unilateral lesion. Nevertheless, in case of systemic diseases (LES, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic renal insufficiency) that can weaken collagen structures, bilateral patellar tendon ruptures are described. We report a case of a 24-year-old girl with spontaneous rupture of patellar tendon who, at the age of 16, underwent an arthroscopic lateral release for recurrent dislocation of the patella. This is the first case of described spontaneous patellar tendon rupture that occurred some years after an arthroscopic lateral release. PMID:25960904

  9. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases > Long-Term Control Medications > About Steroids About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids) What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’) ... considerations when your dosage changes? What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’)? Corticosteroids (steroids) are medicines that are used to ...

  10. [Research on integrated application of tumor magnetic induction hyperthermia treatment planning system and modern medical information systems].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Zihan; Zhai, Weiming; Cai, Dongyang; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tang, Jintian

    2014-02-01

    Magnetic induction hyperthermia becomes a very important tumor treatment method at present. In order to ensure a successful operation, doctors should make hyperthermia treatment planning before surgery. Based on Integration Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) framework and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medcine (DICOM) standard, we proposed and carried out a network workflow integrated with modern medical information systems for the dissemination of information in magnetic induction hyperthermia like accurate accessing patient information and radiology image data, storing processed images, sharing and verifying hyperthermia reports. The results proved that our system could not only improve the efficiency of magnetic induction hyperthermia treatment planning, but also save medical resources and reduce labor costs. PMID:24804509

  11. Switching from systemic steroids to ciclesonide restores the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis

    PubMed Central

    Ciebiada, Maciej; Górski, Pawe?

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Treatment of difficult asthma with oral corticosteroids (OCS) may suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Aim In this study we have checked if the substitution of OCS with very high doses of ciclesonide may restore the adrenal function without losing the control of the disease. Material and methods In 5 patients with difficult, uncontrolled asthma despite treatment with OCS, inhaled and systemic glucocorticosteroids were replaced with very high doses of ciclesonide (1600–2400 µg/day). The symptoms of asthma and the lung function were assessed at baseline and on the 28th, 56th and 70th day of treatment, whereas the levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the morning were measured at baseline and on the 28th and the 56th day of treatment. Results In all patients, the control of asthma symptoms, measured with Asthma Control Test questionnaire, improved from the mean score of 9.4 to 19.8 in 70 days. In 4 subjects force expiratory volume in 1 s improved gradually through the entire study reaching a mean improvement of 585 ml in 70 days. The ACTH levels were normalized in 3 patients after 28 days of observation and in all patients after 56 days. The cortisol level was normalized in 4 patients after 28 days and in another subject after 56 days of treatment with ciclesonide. Conclusions Switching from prednisone to very high doses of ciclesonide normalized the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis function and also improved the disease control and the lung function in these 5 patients with difficult asthma. PMID:25097469

  12. New steroid haptens for radioimmunoasiay: synthesis of steroids

    E-print Network

    Desai, Umesh R

    New steroid haptens for radioimmunoasiay: synthesis of steroids substituted with thioether or ester with antibodies directed uguinst Za-ulkyl bridged steroid huptens ure expected to be highly speci$c due to greater topogruphicul exposure und similurity in conf~wmution to the nutive steroid. The Za-ulkyl bridged huptens were

  13. Deposition Of Materials Using A Simple Planar Coil Radio Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasma System

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K. H.; Wong, C. S.; Yap, S. L.; Gan, S. N.

    2009-07-07

    A planar coil RF inductively coupled plasma (PC-RFICP) systems is set up for the purpose of thin film deposition. The system is powered by a 13.56 MHz, 550 W, 50 OMEGA RF generator. The RF power is transferred to the plasma via a planar induction coil. The impedance matching unit consists of an air core step-down transformer and a tunable vacuum capacitor. This system is used for the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film on silicon substrate, and hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) film.

  14. Method and system for determining induction motor speed

    DOEpatents

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Bharadwaj, Raj M.

    2004-03-30

    A non-linear, semi-parametric neural network-based adaptive filter is utilized to determine the dynamic speed of a rotating rotor within an induction motor, without the explicit use of a speed sensor, such as a tachometer, is disclosed. The neural network-based filter is developed using actual motor current measurements, voltage measurements, and nameplate information. The neural network-based adaptive filter is trained using an estimated speed calculator derived from the actual current and voltage measurements. The neural network-based adaptive filter uses voltage and current measurements to determine the instantaneous speed of a rotating rotor. The neural network-based adaptive filter also includes an on-line adaptation scheme that permits the filter to be readily adapted for new operating conditions during operations.

  15. Effects of adrenocortical steroids on long-term potentiation in the limbic system: basic mechanisms and behavioral consequences.

    PubMed

    Dubrovsky, B; Gijsbers, K; Filipini, D; Birmingham, M K

    1993-08-01

    Hippocampal structures are a major target for adrenal steroid hormones, and hence these neural regions are some of the most likely mediators of the effects of adrenocortical steroids on behavior. Memory disturbance, in particular biasing toward negative contents, are part of the symptomatology presented by depressive patients. In turn, a sizeable subset of depression also presents with hypercortisolemia. Adrenocortical hormones are also known to affect memory processes. Hippocampal formation is essential for declarative memory. We thought it appropriate then to study the effects of adrenal steroids on long-term potentiation, a putative memory mechanism in the hippocampus. Two clearly distinguished components of the evoked response to perforant path stimulation can be studied in the hippocampus: the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) which denotes the graded depolarization of the somatodendritic region of the neuron and the population spike (PS), a manifestation of the all-or-none-discharge of the cell action potential. Corticosterone had a significant depressant effect on the EPSP component of the evoked response immediately and 15 min after injection. Thereafter EPSP amplitudes were within normal values. Corticosterone significantly decreased the PS immediately after the train, the component remaining low 30 min after the train. 5 alpha-Dihydrocorticosterone (a ring A-reduced metabolite of corticosterone) significantly reduced the PS component of the response at all times after injection. 18-Hydroxydeoxycorticosterone and deoxycorticosterone significantly decreased both EPSP and PS components of the evoked response from the time of infusion. Contrary to expectation, tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone was ineffective in decreasing and if anything, enhanced the development of long-term potentiation. 18-Hydroxydeoxycorticosterone 21-acetate behaved like vehicle, except for the first 30 min after injection when the EPSP was decreased. Allotetrahydroprogesterone decreased all EPSP's values and had no effect in the PS development in comparison with vehicle. The suggestion is made that the study of steroidal effects on hippocampal LTP can serve as a preclinical model of some aspects of depression in a specific subset of the disease. PMID:8252610

  16. Heat-killed yeast protects diabetic ketoacidotic-steroid treated mice from pulmonary mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guanpingsheng; Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Clemons, Karl V; Stevens, David A; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2014-06-17

    Previous studies have shown that vaccination with heat-killed yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (HKY), protects mice against systemic candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis or coccidioidomycosis. Here we sought to define the potential use of HKY as a vaccine to protect mice from mucormycosis. Mice were vaccinated with different regimens of HKY prior to induction of diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidotic (DKA) mice were then treated with steroids prior to intratracheal challenge with Rhizopus oryzae. All regimens of HKY vaccine improved survival of DKA mice and reduced fungal burden in the primary target organ, lungs, as determined by qPCR. Furthermore, compared to mice vaccinated with diluent, vaccination with HKY substantially increased the mouse immune response as determined by detection of increased anti-Rhizopus antibody titers. Our results show that HKY protects steroid-treated DKA mice from pulmonary R. oryzae infection. Considering its demonstrated efficacy against other fungal infections, HKY is a promising candidate for development as a panfungal vaccine. PMID:24814556

  17. Magnetic induction system for two-stage gun projectile velocity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, R L; Konrad, C H

    1984-05-01

    A magnetic induction technique for measuring projectile velocities has been implemented on Sandia's two-stage light gas gun. The system has been designed to allow for projectile velocity measurements to an accuracy of approx. 0.2 percent. The velocity system has been successfully tested in a velocity range of 3.5 km/s to 6.5 km/s.

  18. Numerical analysis of superscatterer applied in inductive coupling system to equivalently expand and move coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingyi; Luo, Xudong; Yao, Chen; Li, Yuncheng; Tang, Houjun

    2015-10-01

    Superscatterer is typically made of complementary media for expanding the scope of scattering. The fact that superscatterer can make object appear bigger than its geometric size provides the possibility of equivalently enlarging and moving coils in inductive coupling system. In this paper, we demonstrate that the superscatterer without perfect electrical conductor can also expand the distribution of magnetic field with a source inside. Based on transformation optics, a spherical superscatterer is designed and simulated especially in near field. A model of two-coil inductive coupling system is numerically analyzed to prove the enhancement on mutual coupling by superscatterer. Finally, we also discuss the simplification of such superscatterer for fabrication concerns.

  19. Epidural Steroid Injections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... slipped vertebrae’, also known as spondylolisthesis). The epidural space is a fat filled ‘sleeve’ that surrounds the ... spinal cord. Steroids (‘cortisone’) placed into the epidural space have a very potent anti-inflammatory action that ...

  20. Mutual inductance Mutual induction

    E-print Network

    Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

    Mutual inductance Mutual induction ­ current in one coil induces emf in other coil Distinguish from = #12;Mutual inductance Rearrange equation Vary i1 with time Faraday's law Induced emf in coil 2 due = dt d N 21 2 -=2 dt di M 1 21-=2 #12;Mutual inductance Reverse roles of coils What is induced emf

  1. Circulating gonadotropins and ovarian adiponectin system are modulated by acupuncture independently of sex steroid or ?-adrenergic action in a female hyperandrogenic rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Alvi, Asif; Johansson, Julia; Sun, Miao; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2015-09-01

    Acupuncture with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation, or electroacupuncture (EA), reduces endocrine and reproductive dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), likely by modulating sympathetic nerve activity or sex steroid synthesis. To test this hypothesis, we induced PCOS in rats by prepubertal implantation of continuous-release letrozole pellets (200?µg/day) or vehicle. Six weeks later, rats were treated for 5-6 weeks with low-frequency EA 5 days/week, subcutaneous injection of 17?-estradiol (2.0?µg) every fourth day, or a ?-adrenergic blocker (propranolol hydrochloride, 0.1?mg/kg) 5 days/week. Letrozole controls were handled without needle insertion or injected with sesame oil every fourth day. Estrous cyclicity, ovarian morphology, sex steroids, gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor I, bone mineral density, and gene and protein expression in ovarian tissue were measured. Low-frequency EA induced estrous-cycle changes, decreased high levels of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and the LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, decreased high ovarian gene expression of adiponectin receptor 2, and increased expression of adiponectin receptor 2 protein and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. EA also increased cortical bone mineral density. Propranolol decreased ovarian expression of Foxo3, Srd5a1, and Hif1a. Estradiol decreased circulating LH, induced estrous cycle changes, and decreased ovarian expression of Adipor1, Foxo3, and Pik3r1. Further, total bone mineral density was higher in the letrozole-estradiol group. Thus, EA modulates the circulating gonadotropin levels independently of sex steroids or ?-adrenergic action and affects the expression of ovarian adiponectin system. PMID:25963796

  2. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E. )

    1989-12-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4{prime}-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit {sup 3}H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations.

  3. Cellular Inductive Powering System for Weakly-Linked Resonant Rodent Implants

    E-print Network

    Genov, Roman

    Cellular Inductive Powering System for Weakly-Linked Resonant Rodent Implants Nima Soltani, Miaad S interfaces (NIs) on awake behaving rodents have become a common technique. In recent years, research efforts on laboratory rodents are often conducted with a cable carrying power to the NI device. Cables have the typical

  4. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids

    PubMed Central

    Kicman, A T

    2008-01-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic–androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided. PMID:18500378

  5. A combined lift and propulsion system of a steel plate by transverse flux linear induction motors

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashiya, H.; Ohsaki, H.; Masada, E.

    1999-09-01

    To realize a non-contacting conveyance of a steel plate, a combined lift and propulsion system of a steel plate by transverse flux linear induction motors (LIMs) is proposed. By introducing the DC biased AC feeding to the LIM< a steel plate is supported stably and efficiently. In this paper, after showing the advantages of the system, the magnetic levitation experiments are carried out to investigate the feasibility of the system.

  6. SALT segmented primary mirror: commissioning capacitive edge sensing system and performance comparison with inductive sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buous, Sebastien; Menzies, John; Gajjar, Hitesh

    2008-07-01

    The SAMS (Segment Alignment Measurement System) is a capacitance-based edge sensing solution for the active alignment of the 10m SALT segmented primary mirror. Commissioning and calibrating the system has been an ongoing task in an attempt to counteract the unfavourable response of the sensors to high humidity conditions and high dust levels. Several solutions were implemented and tested including real-time feedback systems and the application of corrective functions. In parallel with the continuing efforts to improve the performance of the capacitive sensors, we have also been testing a prototype inductive sensor developed by Fogale Nanotech that is of a very similar flexible plate construction. In this paper we present the results obtained and performance gains achieved thus far with the capacitive edge-sensing system as well as a performance comparison of the Fogale inductive sensor to the capacitive edge sensor.

  7. A novel misoprostol delivery system for induction of labor: clinical utility and patient considerations

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Megan L; Wing, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    Induction of labor is one of the most commonly performed obstetric procedures and will likely become more common as the reproductive population in developed nations changes. As the proportion of women undergoing induction grows, there is a constant search for more efficacious ways to induce labor while maintaining fetal and maternal safety as well as patient satisfaction. With almost half of induced labors requiring cervical ripening, methods for achieving active labor and vaginal delivery are constantly being investigated. Prostaglandins have been shown to be effective induction agents, and specifically vaginal misoprostol, used off-label, have been widely utilized to initiate cervical ripening and active labor. The challenge is to administer this medication accurately while maintaining the ability to discontinue the medication when needed. The misoprostol vaginal insert initiates cervical ripening utilizing a delivery system that controls medication release and can be rapidly removed. This paper reviews the design, development, and clinical utility of the misoprostol vaginal insert for induction of labor as well as patient considerations related to the delivery system. PMID:25960635

  8. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search Home + Drug Facts Anabolic Steroids Bath Salts Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) ... Map Home Drug Facts Anabolic Steroids Bath Salts Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) ...

  9. Investigation of Icing Characteristics of Typical Light Airplane Engine Induction Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, W. D.

    1949-01-01

    The icing characteristics of two typical light-airplane engine induction systems were investigated using the carburetors and manifolds of engines in the horsepower ranges from 65 to 85 and 165 to 185. The smaller system consisted of a float-type carburetor with an unheated manifold and the larger system consisted of a single-barrel pressure-type carburetor with an oil-jacketed manifold. Carburetor-air temperature and humidity limits of visible and serious Icing were determined for various engine power conditions. Several.methods of achieving ice-free induction systems are discussed along with estimates of surface heating requirements of the various induct ion-system components. A study was also made of the icing characteristics of a typical light-airplane air scoop with an exposed filter and a modified system that provided a normal ram inlet with the filter located in a position to Induce inertia separation of the free water from the charge air. The principle of operation of float-type carburetors is proved to make them inherently more susceptible to icing at the throttle plate than pressure-type carburetors.. The results indicated that proper jacketing and heating of all parts exposed to the fuel spray can satisfactorily reduce or eliminate icing in the float-type carburetor and the manifold. Pressure-type carburetors can be protected from serious Icing by proper location of the fuel-discharge nozzle combined with suitable application of heat to critical parts.

  10. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airplane with sea level engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a... sea level engine(s) using fuel metering device tending to prevent icing has a sheltered alternate... power; (5) Each airplane with sea level or altitude engine(s) using fuel injection systems...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... airplane with sea level engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a... sea level engine(s) using fuel metering device tending to prevent icing has a sheltered alternate... power; (5) Each airplane with sea level or altitude engine(s) using fuel injection systems...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... airplane with sea level engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a... sea level engine(s) using fuel metering device tending to prevent icing has a sheltered alternate... power; (5) Each airplane with sea level or altitude engine(s) using fuel injection systems...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airplane with sea level engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a... sea level engine(s) using fuel metering device tending to prevent icing has a sheltered alternate... power; (5) Each airplane with sea level or altitude engine(s) using fuel injection systems...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... airplane with sea level engines using conventional venturi carburetors has a preheater that can provide a... sea level engine(s) using fuel metering device tending to prevent icing has a sheltered alternate... power; (5) Each airplane with sea level or altitude engine(s) using fuel injection systems...

  15. Inductive monitoring system constructed from nominal system data and its use in real-time system monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), its software implementations, hardware embodiments and applications. Training data is received, typically nominal system data acquired from sensors in normally operating systems or from detailed system simulations. The training data is formed into vectors that are used to generate a knowledge database having clusters of nominal operating regions therein. IMS monitors a system's performance or health by comparing cluster parameters in the knowledge database with incoming sensor data from a monitored-system formed into vectors. Nominal performance is concluded when a monitored-system vector is determined to lie within a nominal operating region cluster or lies sufficiently close to a such a cluster as determined by a threshold value and a distance metric. Some embodiments of IMS include cluster indexing and retrieval methods that increase the execution speed of IMS.

  16. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

  17. Steroids. A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

    This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history…

  18. C20 steroids

    PubMed Central

    Schulster, D.; Kellie, A. E.

    1967-01-01

    1. The metabolism of 3-hydroxy-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10)-trien-20-one, a possible product of the aromatization of progesterone or pregnenolone, has been studied. 2. After oral administration of this C20 steroid as the 21-14C-labelled compound to two groups of rabbits, the excretion pattern of metabolites in the urine was examined. 3. At 14 days after administration, 3·3–6·5% of the radioactivity had appeared in the urine, 71–79% in the faeces and approx. 10% remained in the gut. 4. A metabolite, isolated from urine mainly as the unconjugated steroid, was identified as 19-norpregna-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,20?-diol and constituted 18·5–22% of the total urinary radioactivity. 5. A minor component of the urinary unconjugated steroids was identified as 19-norpregna-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17?,20?-triol. 6. A further 2–7·5% of the total urinary radioactivity, isolated only from the urinary sulphate fraction, was tentatively identified as an 18-oxygenated derivative of the administered steroid. PMID:6049395

  19. Complexity Characterization in a Probabilistic Approach to Dynamical Systems Through Information Geometry and Inductive Inference

    E-print Network

    Ali, S A; Giffin, A; Kim, D -H

    2012-01-01

    Information geometric techniques and inductive inference methods hold great promise for solving computational problems of interest in classical and quantum physics, especially with regard to complexity characterization of dynamical systems in terms of their probabilistic description on curved statistical manifolds. In this article, we investigate the possibility of describing the macroscopic behavior of complex systems in terms of the underlying statistical structure of their microscopic degrees of freedom by use of statistical inductive inference and information geometry. We review the Maximum Relative Entropy (MrE) formalism and the theoretical structure of the information geometrodynamical approach to chaos (IGAC) on statistical manifolds. Special focus is devoted to the description of the roles played by the sectional curvature, the Jacobi field intensity and the information geometrodynamical entropy (IGE). These quantities serve as powerful information geometric complexity measures of information-constra...

  20. Marketing Intelligent Systems for consumer behaviour modelling by a descriptive induction approach based on Genetic Fuzzy Systems

    E-print Network

    Casillas Barranquero, Jorge

    Marketing Intelligent Systems for consumer behaviour modelling by a descriptive induction approach of Marketing, Business Faculty, University of Granada, Granada, E-18071, Spain b Department of Computer Science this paper discusses why marketing professionals do not make satisfactory use of the marketing models posed

  1. Nonprescription Steroids on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Christen L.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Patapis, Nicholas S.; Festinger, David S.; Forman, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular websites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March and June, 2006 revealed that approximately half of the websites advocated their “safe” use, and roughly one-third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The websites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the websites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment and policy are discussed. PMID:22080724

  2. Liquid-metal MHD energy conversion system incorporating an inductive accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, G.A.; Breev, V.V.; Dmitriev, K.I.; Karasev, B.G.; Lavrent'ev, I.V.

    1982-04-01

    In the present work we perform optimization calculations for a liquid-metal MHD energy conversion system which includes an inductive accumulator and which has, on the one hand, a powerful electric power of up to 1 GJ and, on the other hand, a capability for obtaining the necessary power output by means of a rapid transfer to the load of the stored energy in the accumulator.

  3. Steroid-Associated Hip Joint Collapse in Bipedal Emus

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Li-Zhen; Liu, Zhong; Lei, Ming; Peng, Jiang; He, Yi-Xin; Xie, Xin-Hui; Man, Chi-Wai; Huang, Le; Wang, Xin-Luan; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Xiao, De-Ming; Wang, Da-Ping; Chen, Yang; Feng, Jian Q.; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Ge; Qin, Ling

    2013-01-01

    In this study we established a bipedal animal model of steroid-associated hip joint collapse in emus for testing potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of steroid-associated joint collapse in preclinical settings. Five adult male emus were treated with a steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) induction protocol using combination of pulsed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and methylprednisolone (MPS). Additional three emus were used as normal control. Post-induction, emu gait was observed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and blood was collected for routine examination, including testing blood coagulation and lipid metabolism. Emus were sacrificed at week 24 post-induction, bilateral femora were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. Asymmetric limping gait and abnormal MRI signals were found in steroid-treated emus. SAON was found in all emus with a joint collapse incidence of 70%. The percentage of neutrophils (Neut %) and parameters on lipid metabolism significantly increased after induction. Micro-CT revealed structure deterioration of subchondral trabecular bone. Histomorphometry showed larger fat cell fraction and size, thinning of subchondral plate and cartilage layer, smaller osteoblast perimeter percentage and less blood vessels distributed at collapsed region in SAON group as compared with the normal controls. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed poor mineral matrix and more osteo-lacunae outline in the collapsed region in SAON group. The combination of pulsed LPS and MPS developed in the current study was safe and effective to induce SAON and deterioration of subchondral bone in bipedal emus with subsequent femoral head collapse, a typical clinical feature observed in patients under pulsed steroid treatment. In conclusion, bipedal emus could be used as an effective preclinical experimental model to evaluate potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of ON-induced hip joint collapse in patients. PMID:24204675

  4. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2?,3?,22?,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5?-furostan-3?,22?,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12?,22?,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22?,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5?-spirostan-3?,24?-diol-12-one-3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation. PMID:25172515

  5. Profiles of sex steroids, fecundity and spawning of a migratory characiform fish from the Paraguay-Paraná basin: a comparative study in a three-river system.

    PubMed

    Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Paschoalini, Alessandro Loureiro; Cruz, Cláudia Kelly Fernandes da; Rocha, Rita de Cássia Gimenes Alcântara de; Senhorini, José Augusto; Ribeiro, Dirceu Marzulo; Formagio, Paulo Sérgio; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated for the first time the reproductive biology of Prochilodus lineatus in a system of rivers in southeastern Brasil, relating it to the role of tributary rivers in the reproductive success of this important commercial fish in the Upper Paraná River basin, where a cascade of hydroelectric dams were deployed. Specimens were caught bimonthly in three river sites: (S1) Grande River, downstream from the Porto Colômbia dam; (S2) Pardo River; and (S3) Mogi Guaçu River. Sex steroid plasma levels, fecundity, follicular atresia, oocyte diameter and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were compared among sites. In S1, fish exhibited changes in the reproductive parameters: lower GSI, oocyte diameter and fecundity and higher follicular atresia index, when compared to S2 and S3. Frequency of maturing fish was higher in S3 and spawning was only registered in S3. In sites S2 and S3, plasma concentrations of testosterone and 17?-estradiol in females and testosterone in males showed wide variations following gonadal maturation. Fish from S1 showed few significant variations in sex steroid concentrations throughout the gonadal cycle. These results indicate that P. lineatus does not reproduce in Grande River (S1), but probably uses the Pardo River (S2) as a migratory route towards the Mogi Guaçu River (S3) where they complete gonadal maturation and spawning. Our findings contribute for understanding the reproductive biology of P. lineatus and to highlight the importance of tributaries in impounded rivers as a favourable environment for migration and spawning of fish. PMID:23616136

  6. Steroids in teleost fishes: A functional point of view.

    PubMed

    Tokarz, Janina; Möller, Gabriele; Hrab? de Angelis, Martin; Adamski, Jerzy

    2015-11-01

    Steroid hormones are involved in the regulation of a variety of processes like embryonic development, sex differentiation, metabolism, immune responses, circadian rhythms, stress response, and reproduction in vertebrates. Teleost fishes and humans show a remarkable conservation in many developmental and physiological aspects, including the endocrine system in general and the steroid hormone related processes in particular. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about steroid hormone biosynthesis and the steroid hormone receptors in teleost fishes and compares the findings to the human system. The impact of the duplicated genome in teleost fishes on steroid hormone biosynthesis and perception is addressed. Additionally, important processes in fish physiology regulated by steroid hormones, which are most dissimilar to humans, are described. We also give a short overview on the influence of anthropogenic endocrine disrupting compounds on steroid hormone signaling and the resulting adverse physiological effects for teleost fishes. By this approach, we show that the steroidogenesis, hormone receptors, and function of the steroid hormones are reasonably well understood when summarizing the available data of all teleost species analyzed to date. However, on the level of a single species or a certain fish-specific aspect of physiology, further research is needed. PMID:26102270

  7. Initial measurements on a prototype inductive adder for the CLIC kicker systems

    E-print Network

    Holma, Janne

    2013-01-01

    The CLIC study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC pre-damping rings and damping rings will produce, through synchrotron radiation, ultra-low emittance beam with high bunch charge. To avoid beam emittance increase, the damping ring kicker systems must provide extremely flat, high-voltage, pulses. The specifications for the extraction kickers of the DRs are particularly demanding: the flattops of the pulses must be ±12.5 kV with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 % (±2.5 V). An inductive adder is a very promising approach to meeting the specifications. To achieve ultra-flat pulses with a fast rise time the output impedance of the inductive adder needs to be well matched to the system impedance. The parasitic circuit elements of the inductive adder have a significant effect upon the output impedance and these values are very difficult to calculate accurately analytically. To predict these paramet...

  8. Cationic influenza virosomes as an adjuvanted delivery system for CTL induction by DNA vaccination.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Abbas; Holtrop, Marijke; de Haan, Aalzen; Hashemi, Hamidreza; Shenagari, Mohammad; Memarnejadian, Arash; Roohvand, Farzin; Sabahi, Farzaneh; Kheiri, Masumeh Tavassoti; Huckriede, Anke

    2012-01-01

    DNA vaccines have emerged as an attractive approach to induce CTL responses against cancer and infectious agents in recent years. Although CTL induction by DNA vaccination would be a valuable strategy for controlling viral infections, increasing the potency of DNA vaccines is mandatory before DNA vaccines can make it to the clinic. In this study, we developed and characterized a new and safe adjuvanted delivery system for DNA vaccination using cationic influenza virosomes (CIV). CIV were produced by reconstitution of detergent-solubilized influenza virus membranes in the presence of cationic lipids. Plasmid DNA (pDNA) mixed with these virosomes was efficiently transfected into cells of a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW-Blue cells). Moreover, the cells were effectively activated as demonstrated by production of an NF?B/AP-1-inducible reporter enzyme. Following three intradermal immunizations, CIV-delivered epitope-encoding pDNA induced equal numbers of IFN?- and granzyme B-producing T cells than a 10-fold higher dose of naked pDNA. Virosomes without cationic lipids also improved induction of cellular immunity by pDNA but to a significantly lower extent than CIV. These findings suggest that pDNA-CIV complexes could be an efficacious delivery system suitable for CTL induction by DNA vaccination. PMID:22981929

  9. Laser sampling system for an inductively-coupled atomic emission spectrometer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-15

    A laser sampling system was attached to a Perkin Elmer Optima 3000 inductively-coupled plasma, atomic emission spectrometer that was already installed and operating in the Chemistry and Geochemistry Department at the Colorado School of Mines. The use of the spectrometer has been highly successful. Graduate students and faculty from at least four different departments across the CSM campus have used the instrument. The final report to NSF is appended to this final report. Appendices are included which summarize several projects utilizing this instrument: acquisition of an inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer for the geochemistry program; hydrogen damage susceptibility assessment for high strength steel weldments through advanced hydrogen content analysis, 1996 and 1997 annual reports; and methods for determination of hydrogen distribution in high strength steel welds.

  10. A heat-inducible CRE/LOXP gene induction system in medaka.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kayo; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Kinoshita, Masato; Czerny, Thomas; Tanaka, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    We established three lines of transgenic medaka, a heat-shock element (HSE) monitor line (hse-GFP line), heat-inducible driver lines (hse-cre lines), and effector lines (gapdh-loxP[DsRed]-GFP lines). We employed these to comprehensively analyze gene induction at different time points in various tissues. These analyses demonstrate a good response of synthetic HSEs by heat treatment during embryogenesis and the mosaic gene induction by cre/loxP-mediated recombination, thus providing practical information regarding the feasibility of a heat-inducible cre/loxP-mediated system in medaka. We also activated recombination by local heat-treatment using a metal probe and an infrared laser. Our results collectively indicate that these lines allow us to perform lineage tracing and mosaic analysis and provide the platform to investigate gene functions at later developmental stage and adult. PMID:23019184

  11. Steroid Receptor-Associated Immunophilins: A Gateway to Steroid Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak, Thomas; Cluning, Carmel; Ward, Bryan K

    2015-01-01

    The steroid receptor-associated immunophilins FKBP51, FKBP52, CyP40 and PP5 have specific roles in steroid receptor function that impact steroid hormone-binding affinity, nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and transcriptional activation of target genes in a tissue-specific manner. Aberrant expression of these functionally unique immunophilins has the potential to cause steroid-based diseases, including breast and prostate cancer, diabetes and related metabolic disorders, male and female infertility and major depressive disorders. This review addresses the function of these proteins as co-chaperones in steroid receptor-Hsp90 complexes and extensively covers current knowledge of the link between the steroid receptor-associated immunophilins and human disease. An improved understanding of their mechanisms of action has revealed opportunities for molecular therapies to enhance or inhibit cellular processes under immunophilin control that contribute both to human health and disease. PMID:26224894

  12. Steroid hormones as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Guillette, L.J. Jr.; Rooney, A.A.; Crain, D.A.; Orlando, E.F.

    1999-07-01

    Xenobiotic compounds introduced into the environment by human activity have been shown to adversely affect the endocrine system of wildlife. Various species exhibit abnormalities of (1) plasma sex steroid hormones, (2) altered steroid synthesis form the gonad in vitro and (3) altered steroidogenic enzyme function. These endpoints are sensitive and relatively easy to measure quantitatively with reliability and precision. These observations have led to the conclusion that sex steroid hormones could be markers of exposure to, and altered function from, endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs). However, there are serious limitations in the use of steroid hormones as generalized markers of EDC exposure. Steroid hormones exhibit seasonal, ontogenetic, gender and species-specific variation. Moreover, the regulation of sex steroid plasma concentrations is a relatively complex phenomenon capable of short-term (minutes-hours) alteration due to environmental inputs, such as acute stress--an activational response. Alterations in steroids synthesis and degradation also can be a response to altered embryonic development due to EDC exposure--an organizational response. If steroid hormones are to be used as biomarkers, then closely controlled, well designed sampling has to be performed. Additionally, an appreciation of the variation possible in endocrine responses among the species to be studied must be obtained.

  13. The Regulation of Steroid Action by Sulfation and Desulfation

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Jonathan W.; Gilligan, Lorna C.; Idkowiak, Jan; Arlt, Wiebke

    2015-01-01

    Steroid sulfation and desulfation are fundamental pathways vital for a functional vertebrate endocrine system. After biosynthesis, hydrophobic steroids are sulfated to expedite circulatory transit. Target cells express transmembrane organic anion-transporting polypeptides that facilitate cellular uptake of sulfated steroids. Once intracellular, sulfatases hydrolyze these steroid sulfate esters to their unconjugated, and usually active, forms. Because most steroids can be sulfated, including cholesterol, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and estrone, understanding the function, tissue distribution, and regulation of sulfation and desulfation processes provides significant insights into normal endocrine function. Not surprisingly, dysregulation of these pathways is associated with numerous pathologies, including steroid-dependent cancers, polycystic ovary syndrome, and X-linked ichthyosis. Here we provide a comprehensive examination of our current knowledge of endocrine-related sulfation and desulfation pathways. We describe the interplay between sulfatases and sulfotransferases, showing how their expression and regulation influences steroid action. Furthermore, we address the role that organic anion-transporting polypeptides play in regulating intracellular steroid concentrations and how their expression patterns influence many pathologies, especially cancer. Finally, the recent advances in pharmacologically targeting steroidogenic pathways will be examined. PMID:26213785

  14. Development and drift-analysis of a modular electromagnetic induction system for shallow ground conductivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mester, A.; Zimmermann, E.; Van der Kruk, J.; Vereecken, H.; Van Waasen, S.

    2014-05-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) is used for fast near surface mapping of the electrical conductivity (EC) for a wide range of geophysical applications. Recently, enhanced methods were developed to measure depth-dependent EC by inverting quantitative multi-configuration EMI data, which increases the demand for a suitable multi-channel EMI measurement system. We have designed a novel EMI system that enables the use of modular transmitter/receiver (TX/RX) units, which are connected to a central measurement system and are optimized for flexible setups with coil separations of up to 1.0 m. Each TX/RX-unit contains a coil, which is specifically adjusted for transmitting or receiving magnetic fields. All units enable impedance measurements at the coils, which are used to simulate its electrical circuit and analyze temperature-induced drift effects. A laboratory drift analysis at 8 kHz showed that 88% of the drift in the measured data is due to the change in the electrical transmitter coil resistance. The remaining 12% is due to changes in the transmitter coil inductance and capacitance, the receiver impedance and drifts in the amplification circuit. A measurement under field conditions proved that the new EMI system is able to detect a water-filled swimming pool with 50 mS m-1, using a coil separation of 0.3 m. In addition, the system allows in-field ambient noise spectra measurements in order to select optimal low-noise measurement frequencies.

  15. Computational models of an inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anele, A. O.; Hamam, Y.; Chassagne, L.; Linares, J.; Alayli, Y.; Djouani, K.

    2015-09-01

    One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that the models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV.

  16. Development of ferrite core applicator system for deep-induction hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Kotsuka, Youji; Shigematsu, Yasushi; Hankui, Eiji

    1996-10-01

    To achieve deep-induction hyperthermia, a ferrite core applicator system has been developed. The clinical goal is to produce a temperature rise of 7.5 C at 10 cm tissue depth. Deep heating becomes possible by introducing an auxiliary electrode to control an eddy current. The auxiliary electrode has been designed to optimize the eddy current with respect to the magnetic flux density. The optimization was performed by solving the fundamental equation using the finite-element method (FEM). A flexible auxiliary electrode, which can be used for clinical treatments, has been manufactured. Heating tests have been conducted with the new applicator system, which operates at 4.0 MHz. The experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of producing a temperature rise of 7.5 C at 10 cm depth, without heating an overlaying fat layer.

  17. Roles of Steroids in Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inability of nematodes to biosynthesize steroids de novo and the resulting dependence of parasitic nematodes upon their hosts have enhanced the importance of elucidating the metabolism of sterols and the hormonal and other functions of steroids in nematodes. Biochemical research has revealed th...

  18. Crystallization of steroids in gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkura, S. Narayana; Devanarayanan, S.

    1991-03-01

    The crystal growth and characterization of certain steriods, viz., cholesterol, cholesteryl acetate, ?-sitosterol, progesterone and testosterone, in a silica gel medium is discussed. The present study shows that the single test tube diffusion method can be used to grow crystals of steroids in a silica gel medium by the reduction of steroid solubility.

  19. Four Pulse Drive System for the Beam Induction Cells for DARHT Axis 2

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, J.; Carlson, R.; Melton, J.; Fockler, J.

    1999-06-28

    The proposed drive system allows for the generation of up to four (4) high-quality radiographic pulses along one line-of-sight, having arbitrary pulse spacing ({approximately}500 ns), using demonstrated technologies. This concept uses a four-pulse drive system to drive both a 16-MeV ensemble of 250-kV, 4-kA induction cells and a four-pulse, 4-MeV injector. The key to this approach lies in the method used to combine four pulses from different generators in a manner that does not compromise the voltage flatness requirement of {+-} 1%. The induction cells use core material for only a single pulse. A simple reverse bias circuit is used to reset the cores between pulses, and the insulator has been redesigned to withstand the reverse reset voltage. This approach can be installed in stages so that the facility can be used for dual axis radiography while implementing the multi-pulsing capability. A dual double-pulse format has been identified which provides a sequence of two pulses along one line-of-sight within a 2-{micro}sec window. The 2-{micro}sec windows can be separated by arbitrary time intervals of 2- to 10-{micro}sec.

  20. Inductive displacement sensors with a notch filter for an active magnetic bearing system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Seng-Chi; Le, Dinh-Kha; Nguyen, Van-Sum

    2014-01-01

    Active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems support rotating shafts without any physical contact, using electromagnetic forces. Each radial AMB uses two pairs of electromagnets at opposite sides of the rotor. This allows the rotor to float in the air gap, and the machine to operate without frictional losses. In active magnetic suspension, displacement sensors are necessary to detect the radial and axial movement of the suspended object. In a high-speed rotating machine equipped with an AMB, the rotor bending modes may be limited to the operating range. The natural frequencies of the rotor can cause instability. Thus, notch filters are a useful circuit for stabilizing the system. In addition, commercial displacement sensors are sometimes not suitable for AMB design, and cannot filter the noise caused by the natural frequencies of rotor. Hence, implementing displacement sensors based on the AMB structure is necessary to eliminate noises caused by natural frequency disturbances. The displacement sensor must be highly sensitive in the desired working range, and also exhibit a low interference noise, high stability, and low cost. In this study, we used the differential inductive sensor head and lock-in amplifier for synchronous demodulation. In addition, an active low-pass filter and a notch filter were used to eliminate disturbances, which caused by natural frequencies. As a consequence, the inductive displacement sensor achieved satisfactory linearity, high sensitivity, and disturbance elimination. This sensor can be easily produced for AMB applications. A prototype of these displacement sensors was built and tested. PMID:25029281

  1. Inductive Displacement Sensors with a Notch Filter for an Active Magnetic Bearing System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Seng-Chi; Le, Dinh-Kha; Nguyen, Van-Sum

    2014-01-01

    Active magnetic bearing (AMB) systems support rotating shafts without any physical contact, using electromagnetic forces. Each radial AMB uses two pairs of electromagnets at opposite sides of the rotor. This allows the rotor to float in the air gap, and the machine to operate without frictional losses. In active magnetic suspension, displacement sensors are necessary to detect the radial and axial movement of the suspended object. In a high-speed rotating machine equipped with an AMB, the rotor bending modes may be limited to the operating range. The natural frequencies of the rotor can cause instability. Thus, notch filters are a useful circuit for stabilizing the system. In addition, commercial displacement sensors are sometimes not suitable for AMB design, and cannot filter the noise caused by the natural frequencies of rotor. Hence, implementing displacement sensors based on the AMB structure is necessary to eliminate noises caused by natural frequency disturbances. The displacement sensor must be highly sensitive in the desired working range, and also exhibit a low interference noise, high stability, and low cost. In this study, we used the differential inductive sensor head and lock-in amplifier for synchronous demodulation. In addition, an active low-pass filter and a notch filter were used to eliminate disturbances, which caused by natural frequencies. As a consequence, the inductive displacement sensor achieved satisfactory linearity, high sensitivity, and disturbance elimination. This sensor can be easily produced for AMB applications. A prototype of these displacement sensors was built and tested. PMID:25029281

  2. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems

    SciTech Connect

    Luong, E.

    1999-05-10

    This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 {+-} 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 {+-} 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 {+-} 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 {+-} 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and {beta}-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of {sup 13}C{sup +} with {sup 12}C{sup 1}H{sup +} comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or {beta}-cyclodextrin.

  3. Motivations for Anabolic Steroid use Among Bodybuilders.

    PubMed

    Wright, S; Grogan, S; Hunter, G

    2000-07-01

    Steroid use is increasing, in parallel with rising concerns about body image. This study aimed to uncover bodybuilders' motivations for using steroids using 135 questionnaires completed by readers of two bodybuilding magazines. The analyses reveal a polarization of beliefs about steroids between users and non-users. Steroid users were less likely to be concerned about the physical side effects, and many believed that steroids are not harmful in moderation, and that only 'ignorant people' criticize steroid use. Their main motivations for using steroids were: wanting to excel at competitive bodybuilding; wanting to be more muscular; and feelings of enhanced confidence. The fact that steroid users in the sample were 'stacking' dangerously high levels of steroids (up to 15 steroids at a time) reveals the need for a detailed understanding of the motivations for steroid use in order to inform the development of effective harm minimization messages. PMID:22049197

  4. A Testbed of Magnetic Induction-based Communication System for Underground Applications

    E-print Network

    Tan, Xin; Akyildiz, Ian F

    2015-01-01

    Wireless underground sensor networks (WUSNs) can enable many important applications such as intelligent agriculture, pipeline fault diagnosis, mine disaster rescue, concealed border patrol, crude oil exploration, among others. The key challenge to realize WUSNs is the wireless communication in underground environments. Most existing wireless communication systems utilize the dipole antenna to transmit and receive propagating electromagnetic (EM) waves, which do not work well in underground environments due to the very high material absorption loss. The Magnetic Induction (MI) technique provides a promising alternative solution that could address the current problem in underground. Although the MI-based underground communication has been intensively investigated theoretically, to date, seldom effort has been made in developing a testbed for the MI-based underground communication that can validate the theoretical results. In this paper, a testbed of MI-based communication system is designed and implemented in a...

  5. Optical control, diagnostic and power supply system for a solid state induction modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Saethre, R.; Kirbie, H.; Hickman, B.; Lee, B.; Ollis, C.

    1997-06-01

    A new high speed optical control, diagnostic and power supply system has been developed for a solid state induction modulator. The modulator consists of a large array of field effect transistors (FETs) that switch a high-voltage pulse across a tape-wound magnetic core. The FETs within the modulator are mounted on numerous circuit boards that are stacked in series for high-voltage operation. The new optical system overcomes the issue of voltage isolation by supplying each circuit board with optically coupled control power and high bandwidth signal information. An optical fiber is used to transmit laser light to a custom photovoltaic cell that provides dc power to the on-board control circuits. Optical fiber technology is again used to convey a pulse that contains detailed analog features to the FET gate controls. Diagnostic data and status information are also obtained from each board by similar optical methods. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Electromechanical performance of induction motor/drive systems subjected to voltage sags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunaboylu, Serdar N.

    Induction Motors are workhorses for many industries. They are extensively utilized in industrial variable-frequency drive (VFD) or adjustable-speed drive (ASD) applications as well as constant speed applications. Recent advances in power electronics have made AC motor drives an economically viable solution for ASD applications traditionally dominated by dc motor drives. In this study, electromechanical performance variables of an Induction Motor (IM) have been studied during the balanced voltage sags. For this purpose a laboratory prototype of an industrial mixer has been designed. IM has been coupled to a speed reducer that is worm gear type with a ratio 10 to 1. Then the reducer is vertically coupled to a food process mixer within a metal canister. The mixer represents a high friction load with practically zero inertia. Voltage, current, speed, and power measurements have been collected and compared with the simulation results from Simnon. An open-loop control Volts per Hertz boost strategy has been used in order to compensate the speed loss during the three-phase balanced voltage sags. Both compensated and uncompensated cases have been run and compared with simulation results. Results are verified with a reasonably good agreement that the total system modeling is successful and boost compensation circuit is effective.

  7. Characterization of stratification for an opaque highly stable magnetorheological fluid using vertical axis inductance monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Lei; Choi, Young-Tai; Liao, Chang-Rong; Wereley, Norman M.

    2015-05-01

    A key requirement for the commercialization of various magnetorheological fluid (MRF)-based applications is sedimentation stability. In this study, a high viscosity linear polysiloxane (HVLP), which has been used for shock absorbers in heavy equipment, is proposed as a new carrier fluid in highly stable MRFs. The HVLP is known to be a thixotropic (i.e., shear thinning) fluid that shows very high viscosity at very low shear rate and low viscosity at higher shear rate. In this study, using the shear rheometer, the significant thixotropic behavior of the HVLP was experimentally confirmed. In addition, a HVLP carrier fluid-based MRF (HVLP MRF) with 26 vol. % was synthesized and its sedimentation characteristics were experimentally investigated. But, because of the opacity of the HVLP MRF, no mudline can be visually observed. Hence, a vertical axis inductance monitoring system (VAIMS) applied to a circular column of fluid was used to evaluate sedimentation behavior by correlating measured inductance with the volume fraction of dispersed particles (i.e., Fe). Using the VAIMS, Fe concentration (i.e., volume fraction) was monitored for 28 days with a measurement taken every four days, as well as one measurement after 96 days to characterize long-term sedimentation stability. Finally, the concentration of the HVLP MRF as a function of the depth in the column and time, as well as the concentration change versus the depth in the column, are presented and compared with those of a commercially available MRF (i.e., Lord MRF-126CD).

  8. The General Vector Addition System Reachability Problem by Presburger Inductive Invariants

    E-print Network

    Leroux, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    The reachability problem for Vector Addition Systems (VASs) is a central problem of net theory. The general problem is known to be decidable by algorithms exclusively based on the classical Kosaraju-Lambert-Mayr-Sacerdote-Tenney decomposition. This decomposition is used in this paper to prove that the Parikh images of languages recognized by VASs are semi-pseudo-linear; a class that extends the semi-linear sets, a.k.a. the sets definable in Presburger arithmetic. We provide an application of this result; we prove that a final configuration is not reachable from an initial one if and only if there exists a semi-linear inductive invariant that contains the initial configuration but not the final one. Since we can decide if a Presburger formula denotes an inductive invariant, we deduce that there exist checkable certificates of non-reachability. In particular, there exists a simple algorithm for deciding the general VAS reachability problem based on two semi-algorithms. A first one that tries to prove the reacha...

  9. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

  10. Steroid estrogens, nonylphenol ethoxylate metabolites, and other wastewater contaminants in groundwater affected by a residential septic system on cape cod, MA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swartz, C.H.; Reddy, S.; Benotti, M.J.; Yin, H.; Barber, L.B.; Brownawell, Bruce J.; Rudel, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Septic systems serve approximately 25% of U.S. households and may be an important source of estrogenic and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWC) to groundwater. We monitored several estrogenic OWC, including nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol mono- and diethoxycarboxylates (NP1EC and NP2EC), the steroid hormones 17??-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and their glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, and other OWC such as methylene blue active substances (MBAS), caffeine and its degradation product paraxanthine, and two fluorescent whitening agents in a residential septic system and in downgradient groundwater. E1 and E2 were present predominantly as free estrogens in groundwater, and near-source groundwater concentrations of all OWC were highest in the suboxic to anoxic portion of the wastewater plume, where concentrations of most OWC were similar to those observed in the septic tank on the same day. NP and NP2EC were up to 6- to 30-fold higher, and caffeine and paraxanthine were each 60-fold lower than septic tank concentrations, suggesting net production and removal, respectively, of these constituents. At the most shallow, oxic depth, concentrations of all OWC except for NP2EC were substantially lower than in the tank and in deeper wells. Yet boron, specific conductance, and the sum of nitrate-and ammonia-nitrogen were highest at this shallow depth, suggesting preferential losses of OWC along the more oxic flow lines. As far as 6.0 m downgradient, concentrations of many OWC were within a factor of 2 of near-source concentrations. The results suggest that there is the potential for migration of these OWC, which are unregulated and not routinely monitored, in groundwater. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  11. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Care Team Forms & Medical Records Travel, Locations & Logistics About Your Visit Prepare for Your Test Insurance & ... Medication may be prescribed to improve osteoporosis. Immune System General suppression of the immune system causes an ...

  12. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    SciTech Connect

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca

    2014-11-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens/AR mediate sperm death which is a novel field of investigation in sperm biology.

  13. MR damper-based semiactive control system using electromagnetic induction device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hyung-Jo; Jang, Dong-Doo; Koo, Jeong-Hoi

    2009-03-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) damper-based semiactive control systems can be considered as one of the most advantageous control systems for natural hazard mitigation in the field of civil engineering because MR dampers have many good features such as small power requirement, reliability, and low price to manufacture. Those systems require feedback control and power supply parts to efficiently reduce the structural responses. The control system becomes complex when a lot of MR dampers are applied to large-scale civil structures, such as cable-stayed bridges and high-rise buildings, resulting in difficulties in its implementation and maintenance. To overcome the above difficulties, a new-class MR damper-based control system was recently proposed by replacing feedback control and power supply parts with an electromagnetic induction (EMI) part consisting of permanent magnets and a coil. According to the Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, an EMI part produces electrical energy (i.e., electromotive force or induced voltage) from mechanical energy (i.e., reciprocal motions of an MR damper), which is proportional to the rate of the change of the movement of a damper. From this characteristic of an EMI part, it might be used as a response sensing device as well as an alternative power supply. In addition, some control algorithms used in the MR damper-based semiactive control systems require the measurement information on the response related to the relative velocity of the damper. In this study, the sensing capability of an EMI part is preliminarily examined for an application to the MR damper-based semiactive control system. To this end, experimental tests are carried out using the real-scale stay cable employing an MR damper with an EMI part. It is demonstrated from the tests that an EMI part could exactly extract the dynamic characteristics of the stay cable so that it might be used as a sensing device for estimating the tension force of the stay cable. In addition, numerical simulations are performed to verify the control performance of the MR damper-based semiactive control system adopting an EMI part as a power supply as well as a velocity sensor and the maximum energy dissipation algorithm, which requires the information on the relative velocity, as a control algorithm. The numerical result validates that the proposed control system can reduce the vibration of the stay cable effectively.

  14. [Constitution of a Real-time Monitoring System of Cerebral Hemorrhage with Magnetic Induction].

    PubMed

    Peng, Bin; Tang, Qinghua; Sun, Jian; Qin, Mingxin; Pan, Wencai; Du, Zhenwei; Zhang, Zhao; Li, Shangbin

    2015-04-01

    The real-time monitoring of cerebral hemorrhage can reduce its disability and fatality rates greatly. On the basis of magnetic induction phase shift, we in this study used filter and amplifier hardware module, NI-PXI data-acquisition system and LabVIEW software to set up an experiment system. We used Band-pass sample method and correlation phase demodulation algorithm in the system. In order to test and evaluate the performance of the system, we carried out saline simulation experiments of brain hemorrhage. We also carried out rabbit cerebral hemorrhage experiments. The results of both saline simulation and animal experiments suggested that our monitoring system had a high phase detection precision, and it needed only about 0.030 4s to finish a single phase shift measurement, and the change of phase shift was directly proportional to the volume of saline or blood. The experimental results were consistent with theory. As a result, this system has the ability of real-time monitoring the progression of cerebral hemorrhage precisely, with many distinguished features, such as low cost, high phase detection precision, high sensitivity of response so that it has showed a good application prospect. PMID:26211268

  15. Steroids in Athletics: One University's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Mike

    1990-01-01

    Presents an account of one university's experience in conducting an investigation into possible steroid use by student athletes and the development of a program to deal with the problem. Discusses why athletes use steroids and how steroids are taken. Concludes it is likely many steroid-related deaths of athletes go undetected. (Author/ABL)

  16. Measurement of the target current by inductive probe during laser interaction on terawatt laser system PALS

    SciTech Connect

    Cikhardt, J.; Klír, D.; ?ezá?, K.; Krása, J.; De Marco, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Velyhan, A.; Krouský, E.; Cikhardtová, B.; Kubeš, P.; Kravárik, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Skála, J.

    2014-10-15

    Measurements of the return-current flowing through a solid target irradiated with the sub-nanosecond kJ-class Prague Asterix Laser System is reported. A new inductive target probe was developed which allows us measuring the target current derivative in a kA/ns range. The dependences of the target current on the laser pulse energy for cooper, graphite, and polyethylene targets are reported. The experiment shows that the target current is proportional to the deposited laser energy and is strongly affected by the shot-to-shot fluctuations. The corresponding maximum target charge exceeded a value of 10 ?C. A return-current dependence of the electromagnetic pulse produced by the laser-target interaction is presented.

  17. Multiphysics Modeling of an Annular Linear Induction Pump With Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbane, J.; Polzin, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    An annular linear induction pump (ALIP) that could be used for circulating liquid-metal coolant in a fission surface power reactor system is modeled in the present work using the computational COMSOL Multiphysics package. The pump is modeled using a two-dimensional, axisymmetric geometry and solved under conditions similar to those used during experimental pump testing. Real, nonlinear, temperature-dependent material properties can be incorporated into the model for both the electrically-conducting working fluid in the pump (NaK-78) and structural components of the pump. The intricate three-phase coil configuration of the pump is implemented in the model to produce an axially-traveling magnetic wave that is qualitatively similar to the measured magnetic wave. The model qualitatively captures the expected feature of a peak in efficiency as a function of flow rate.

  18. Systemic Induction of the Small Antibacterial Compound in the Leaf Exudate During Benzothiadiazole-elicited Systemic Acquired Resistance in Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Boyoung; Park, Yong-Soon; Yi, Hwe-Su; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-01-01

    Plants protect themselves from diverse potential pathogens by induction of the immune systems such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Most bacterial plant pathogens thrive in the intercellular space (apoplast) of plant tissues and cause symptoms. The apoplastic leaf exudate (LE) is believed to contain nutrients to provide food resource for phytopathogenic bacteria to survive and to bring harmful phytocompounds to protect plants against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we employed the pepper-Xanthomonas axonopodis system to assess whether apoplastic fluid from LE in pepper affects the fitness of X. axonopodis during the induction of SAR. The LE was extracted from pepper leaves 7 days after soil drench-application of a chemical trigger, benzothiadiazole (BTH). Elicitation of plant immunity was confirmed by significant up-regulation of four genes, CaPR1, CaPR4, CaPR9, and CaCHI2, by BTH treatment. Bacterial fitness was evaluated by measuring growth rate during cultivation with LE from BTH- or water-treated leaves. LE from BTH-treatment significantly inhibited bacterial growth when compared to that from the water-treated control. The antibacterial activity of LE from BTH-treated samples was not affected by heating at 100°C for 30 min. Although the antibacterial molecules were not precisely identified, the data suggest that small (less than 5 kDa), heat-stable compound(s) that are present in BTH-induced LE directly attenuate bacterial growth during the elicitation of plant immunity. PMID:25288963

  19. Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Protein-Protein Interactions in the Cytochrome CYP11A1 (P450scc)-Containing Steroid Hydroxylase System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yd; Frantsuzov, Pa; Zöllner, A.; Medvedeva, Nv; Archakov, Ai; Reinle, W.; Bernhardt, R.

    2011-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) were used for monitoring of the procedure for cytochrome CYP11A1 monomerization in solution without phospholipids. It was shown that the incubation of 100 ?M CYP11A1 with 12% Emulgen 913 in 50 mM KP, pH 7.4, for 10 min at T = 22°C leads to dissociation of hemoprotein aggregates to monomers with the monomerization degree of (82 ± 4)%. Following the monomerization procedure, CYP11A1 remained functionally active. AFM was employed to detect and visualize the isolated proteins as well as complexes formed between the components of the cytochrome CYP11A1-dependent steroid hydroxylase system. Both Ad and AdR were present in solution as monomers. The typical heights of the monomeric AdR, Ad and CYP11A1 images were measured by AFM and were found to correspond to the sizes 1.6 ± 0.2 nm, 1.0 ± 0.2 nm and 1.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively. The binary Ad/AdR and AdR/CYP11A1mon complexes with the heights 2.2 ± 0.2 nm and 2.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively, were registered by use of AFM. The Ad/CYP11A1mon complex formation reaction was kinetically characterized based on optical biosensor data. In addition, the ternary AdR/Ad/CYP11A1 complexes with a typical height of 4 ± 1 nm were AFM registered.

  20. CLIPPERS: chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids. Review of an increasingly recognized entity within the spectrum of inflammatory central nervous system disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dudesek, A; Rimmele, F; Tesar, S; Kolbaske, S; Rommer, P S; Benecke, R; Zettl, U K

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a recently defined inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) disorder, prominently involving the brainstem and in particular the pons. The condition features a combination of clinical symptoms essentially referable to brainstem pathology and a characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance with punctate and curvilinear gadolinium enhancement ‘peppering’ the pons. The radiological distribution is focused in the pons and adjacent rhombencephalic structures such as the cerebellar peduncles, cerebellum, medulla and the midbrain. While the lesion burden with a perivascular pattern is typically most dense in these pontine and peripontine regions, enhancing lesions may additionally extend into the spinal cord and supratentorial structures such as the thalamus, basal ganglia, capsula interna, corpus callosum and the cerebral white matter. Another core feature is clinical and radiological responsiveness to glucocorticosteroid (GCS)-based immunosuppression. As withdrawal of GCS treatment results commonly in disease exacerbation, long-term immunosuppressive therapy appears to be mandatory for sustained improvement. Diagnosis of CLIPPERS is challenging, and requires careful exclusion of alternative diagnoses. A specific serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker for the disorder is currently not known. Pathogenesis of CLIPPERS remains poorly understood, and the nosological position of CLIPPERS has still to be established. Whether CLIPPERS represents an independent, actual new disorder or a syndrome that includes aetiologically heterogeneous diseases and/or their prestages remains a debated and not finally clarified issue. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of this condition and its differential diagnoses, given that CLIPPERS constitutes a treatable condition and that patients may benefit from an early introduction of GCS ensued by long-term immunosuppression. Based on previous reports in literature?–?currently encompassing more than 50 reported cases of CLIPPERS?–?this review addresses clinical features, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses and therapeutic management of this peculiar disorder. PMID:24028073

  1. Anabolic steroids and Norwegian weightlifters.

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, S.

    1982-01-01

    The mean bodyweight, in kilograms, and mean weightlifting result, in points, for the ten best weightlifters at the annual Norwegian championships 1962-82 have been studied. During the 21 years, the mean bodyweight for these ten increased by 18 kg, probably due to the effect of androgens. The weightlifting results improved rapidly from 1968 onwards, probably reflecting an increasingly widespread use of anabolic steroids by Norwegian weightlifters. In 1977 doping tests were introduced, and from then on, rate of improvement has increased much more slowly. The annual sale of anabolic steroids 1963-81 and testosterone 1974-81, in Norway have been recorded. The sale of anabolic steroids increased irregularly until 1974-75, and has since shown a 42% decrease. The sale of testosterone 1974-81 showed a slight reduction, thus giving no support to the suggestion that doping tests for anabolic steroids would lead to a transfer to testosterone abuse. PMID:7139228

  2. Industrial and Compendial Steroid Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görög, Sándor

    The aim of this section is to give an overview of the requirements of steroid analysis in pharmaceutical industry and to cover the methodological aspects of these requirements with regard to quality control of bulk steroid drugs and drug formulations. Although this is an important area, the challenges here are not comparable with those in biological-clinical steroid analysis, which was the sole topic of the first edition of this book. This is reflected by the much smaller number of research publications dealing with this pharmaceutical area of steroid analyses. Only a few (more or less obsolete) books are available (Görög and Szász, 1978; Görög, 1983, 1989). The newer developments in this area are summarised in a comprehensive review (Görög, 2004), on which this chapter is based.

  3. Are Steroids Worth the Risk?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body hair. Testosterone levels can also affect how aggressive a person is. Athletes sometimes take anabolic steroids ... balding or hair loss weight gain mood swings aggression problems sleeping high blood pressure greater chance of ...

  4. Steroid estrogens in ocean sediments 

    E-print Network

    Braga, O.; Smythe, G.A.; Schäfer, Andrea; Feitz, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper gives results from a study measuring the abundance of steroid hormones in ocean sediments in the proximity of a deep ocean sewage outfall. The outfall is discharge point for an enhanced primary sewage treatment plant and sediment samples...

  5. Steroid Assays in Paediatric Endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Most steroid disorders of the adrenal cortex come to clinical attention in childhood and in order to investigate these problems, there are many challenges to the laboratory which need to be appreciated to a certain extent by clinicians. The analysis of sex steroids in biological fluids from neonates, over adrenarche and puberty present challenges of specificities and concentrations often in small sample sizes. Different reference ranges are also needed for interpretations. For around 40 years, quantitative assays for the steroids and their regulatory peptide hormones have been possible using immunoassay techniques. Problems are recognised and this review aims to summarise the benefits and failings of immunoassays and introduce where tandem mass spectrometry is anticipated to meet the clinical needs for steroid analysis in paediatric endocrine investigations. It is important to keep a dialogue between clinicians and the laboratory, especially when any laboratory result does not make sense in the clinical investigation. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274330

  6. Non-steroidal drug-induced glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Razeghinejad, M R; Pro, M J; Katz, L J

    2011-08-01

    Numerous systemically used drugs are involved in drug-induced glaucoma. Most reported cases of non-steroidal drug-induced glaucoma are closed-angle glaucoma (CAG). Indeed, many routinely used drugs that have sympathomimetic or parasympatholytic properties can cause pupillary block CAG in individuals with narrow iridocorneal angle. The resulting acute glaucoma occurs much more commonly unilaterally and only rarely bilaterally. CAG secondary to sulfa drugs is a bilateral non-pupillary block type and is due to forward movement of iris-lens diaphragm, which occurs in individuals with narrow or open iridocorneal angle. A few agents, including antineoplastics, may induce open-angle glaucoma. In conclusion, the majority of cases with glaucoma secondary to non-steroidal medications are of the pupillary block closed-angle type and preventable if the at-risk patients are recognized and treated prophylactically. PMID:21637303

  7. Evaluation of a closed loop inductive power transmission system on an awake behaving animal subject.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Kwon, Ki Yong; Zhang, Fei; Oweiss, Karim; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents in vivo experimental results for a closed loop wireless power transmission system to implantable devices on an awake behaving animal subject. In this system, wireless power transmission takes place across an inductive link, controlled by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. Induced voltage on the implantable secondary coil is rectified, digitized by a 10-bit analog to digital converter, and transmitted back to the primary via back telemetry. Transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) circuitry were mounted on the back of an adult rat with a nominal distance of ~7 mm between their coils. Our experiments showed that the closed loop system was able to maintain the Rx supply voltage at the designated 3.8 V despite changes in the coils' relative distance and alignment due to animal movements. The Tx power consumption changed between 410 ~ 560 mW in order to deliver 27 mW to the receiver. The open loop system, on the other hand, showed undesired changes in the Rx supply voltage while the Tx power consumption was constant at 660 mW. PMID:22256112

  8. Whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates for in-duct and portable ventilation systems.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, David L; Myatt, Theodore A; Ludwig, Jerry F; Baker, Brian J; Suh, Helen H; Spengler, John D

    2008-11-01

    A novel method for determining whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates attributable to central and portable ventilation/air cleaning systems is described. The method is used to characterize total and air-cleaner-specific particle removal rates during operation of four in-duct air cleaners and two portable air-cleaning devices in a fully instrumented test home. Operation of in-duct and portable air cleaners typically increased particle removal rates over the baseline rates determined in the absence of operating a central fan or an indoor air cleaner. Removal rates of 0.3- to 0.5-microm particles ranged from 1.5 hr(-1) during operation of an in-duct, 5-in. pleated media filter to 7.2 hr(-1) for an in-duct electrostatic air cleaner in comparison to a baseline rate of 0 hr(-1) when the air handler was operating without a filter. Removal rates for total particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) mass concentrations were 0.5 hr(-1) under baseline conditions, 0.5 hr(-1) during operation of three portable ionic air cleaners, 1 hr(-1) for an in-duct 1-in. media filter, 2.4 hr(-1) for a single high-efficiency particle arrestance (HEPA) portable air cleaner, 4.6 hr(-1) for an in-duct 5-in. media filter, 4.7 hr(-1) during operation of five portable HEPA filters, 6.1 hr(-1) for a conventional in-duct electronic air cleaner, and 7.5 hr(-1) for a high efficiency in-duct electrostatic air cleaner. Corresponding whole house clean air delivery rates for PM2.5 attributable to the air cleaner independent of losses within the central ventilation system ranged from 2 m3/min for the conventional media filter to 32 m3/min for the high efficiency in-duct electrostatic device. Except for the portable ionic air cleaner, the devices considered here increased particle removal indoors over baseline deposition rates. PMID:19044163

  9. Steroid hormone influence on melanomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Mitkov, Mario; Joseph, Richard; Copland, John

    2015-12-01

    Disparities in the prognosis and incidence of melanoma between male and female patients have led clinicians to explore the influence of steroid hormones on the development and progression of this malignancy. A better understanding of the disparities of melanoma behavior between sexes and ages could lead to improved prevention and treatment options. There are multiple themes in the literature that unify the physiologic functions of estrogen and androgen receptors; herein we discuss and map their pathways. Overall, it is important to understand that the differences in melanoma behavior between the sexes are multifactorial and likely involve interactions between the immune system, endocrine system, and environment, namely UV-radiation. Melanoma deserves a spot among hormone-sensitive tumors, and if tamoxifen is re-introduced for future therapy, tissue ratios of estrogen receptors should be obtained beforehand to assess their therapeutic predictive value. Because androgens, estrogens, and their receptors are involved in signaling of commonly mutated melanoma pathways, potential synergistic properties of the recently developed molecular kinase inhibitors that target those pathways may exist. PMID:26415591

  10. Cylindrical Conduction Mode Basis Functions for Modeling of Inductive Couplings in System-in-Package (SiP)

    E-print Network

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    Cylindrical Conduction Mode Basis Functions for Modeling of Inductive Couplings in System with global basis functions on the cylindrical coordinates is presented for efficient modeling of bond wires, this paper proposes to combine the PEEC method with CMBF's that are constructed on the cylindrical

  11. Manchester code telemetry system for well logging using quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive resonance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Chen, Jianjun; Cao, Zhang; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance method is proposed to improve the recovery of MIL-STD-1553 Manchester code with several frequency components from attenuated, distorted, and drifted signal for data telemetry in well logging, and corresponding telemetry system is developed. Required resonant frequency and quality factor are derived, and the quasi-parallel LC resonant circuit is established at the receiving end of the logging cable to suppress the low-pass filtering effect caused by the distributed capacitance of the cable and provide balanced pass for all the three frequency components of the Manchester code. The performance of the method for various encoding frequencies and cable lengths at different bit energy to noise density ratios (Eb/No) have been evaluated in the simulation. A 5 km single-core cable used in on-site well logging and various encoding frequencies were employed to verify the proposed telemetry system in the experiment. Results obtained demonstrate that the telemetry system is feasible and effective to improve the code recovery in terms of anti-attenuation, anti-distortion, and anti-drift performances, decrease the bit error rate, and increase the reachable transmission rate and distance greatly. PMID:25085159

  12. Induction machine Direct Torque Control system based on fuzzy adaptive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shi-ping; Yu, Yan; Jiao, Zhen-gang; Gu, Shu-sheng

    2009-07-01

    Direct Torque Control technology is a high-performance communication control method, it uses the space voltage vector method, and then to the inverter switch state control, to obtain high torque dynamic performance. But none of the switching states is able to generate the exact voltage vector to produce the desired changes in torque and flux in most of the switching instances. This causes a high ripple in torque. To solve this problem, a fuzzy implementation of Direct Torque Control of Induction machine is presented here. Error of stator flux, error of motor electromagnetic torque and position of angle of flux are taken as fuzzy variables. In order to further solve nonlinear problem of variation parameters in direct torque control system, the paper proposes a fuzzy parameter PID adaptive control method which is suitable for the direct torque control of an asynchronous motor. The generation of its fuzzy control is obtained by analyzing and optimizing PID control step response and combining expert's experience. For this reason, it carries out fuzzy work to PID regulator of motor speed to achieve to regulate PID parameters. Therefore the control system gets swifter response velocity, stronger robustness and higher precision of velocity control. The computer simulated results verify the validity of this novel method.

  13. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 77 (2001) 229238 Common phytochemicals are ecdysteroid agonists and antagonists

    E-print Network

    McLachlan, John

    2001-01-01

    with the estrogen system. First, they are able to modulate estrogen action by interfering with steroid hormone; accepted 27 February 2001 Abstract Many plant compounds are able to modulate growth and reproduction of herbivores by directly interacting with steroid hormone systems. In insects, several classes

  14. An Inductively Powered Scalable 32-Channel Wireless Neural Recording System-on-a-Chip for Neuroscience Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Bae; Lee, Hyung-Min; Kiani, Mehdi; Jow, Uei-Ming; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    We present an inductively powered 32-channel wireless integrated neural recording (WINeR) system-on-a-chip (SoC) to be ultimately used for one or more small freely behaving animals. The inductive powering is intended to relieve the animals from carrying bulky batteries used in other wireless systems, and enables long recording sessions. The WINeR system uses time-division multiplexing along with a novel power scheduling method that reduces the current in unused low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) to cut the total SoC power consumption. In addition, an on-chip high-efficiency active rectifier with optimized coils help improve the overall system power efficiency, which is controlled in a closed loop to supply stable power to the WINeR regardless of the coil displacements. The WINeR SoC has been implemented in a 0.5-µm standard complementary metal–oxide semiconductor process, measuring 4.9 × 3.3 mm2 and consuming 5.85 mW at ± 1.5 V when 12 out of 32 LNAs are active at any time by power scheduling. Measured input-referred noise for the entire system, including the receiver located at 1.2 m, is 4.95 µVrms in the 1 Hz~10 kHz range when the system is inductively powered with 7-cm separation between aligned coils. PMID:23850753

  15. 32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Random selection procedures for induction...SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction...Service shall from time to time establish a random selection sequence for induction...

  16. 32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Random selection procedures for induction...SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction...Service shall from time to time establish a random selection sequence for induction...

  17. 32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Random selection procedures for induction...SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction...Service shall from time to time establish a random selection sequence for induction...

  18. 32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Random selection procedures for induction...SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction...Service shall from time to time establish a random selection sequence for induction...

  19. 32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Random selection procedures for induction...SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction...Service shall from time to time establish a random selection sequence for induction...

  20. Hypochlorite Oxidation of Select Androgenic Steroids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroid hormones are vital for regulation of various biological functions including sexual development. Elevated concentrations of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids have been shown to adversely affect normal development in indigenous aqueous species. Androgens and their s...

  1. Steroids for Treating Cancer (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pregnant? What to Expect Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Steroids for Treating Cancer KidsHealth > Parents > Cancer Center > Treatment & Prevention > Steroids for Treating Cancer Print A A A ...

  2. STEROID RECEPTOR COACTIVATOR-2 EXPRESSION IN BRAIN AND PHYSICAL ASSOCIATIONS WITH STEROID RECEPTORS

    E-print Network

    STEROID RECEPTOR COACTIVATOR-2 EXPRESSION IN BRAIN AND PHYSICAL ASSOCIATIONS WITH STEROID RECEPTORS and cognition. Work from our lab and others has shown that the nuclear receptor coactivators, steroid receptor for coactiva- tors to function with steroid receptors, they must be ex- pressed in the same cells. Indeed, SRC

  3. Application of an inductive energy storage pulsed-power generation with POS for a laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamatani, Masaki; Ihara, Satoshi; Satoh, Saburoh; Yamabe, Chobei

    2000-04-01

    Generally, capacitive energy storage pulsed-power generators, for example a Blumlein generator, and magnetic compression and capacitive-transfer type of circuits, are used as a power supply of a pulse laser exited by discharge. Their operations are possible by using only a closing switch. Many practical and commercial switches have been already developed. An inductive energy storage pulsed-power generator with storage inductor and opening switch can probably realize a lightweight, compact and high-power laser system. But the technology for opening high current is now very difficult, so that the opening switch is being developed and there is a few applications using the generator. The purpose of our research is extension of the application field of this generator by the achievement of application for the laser system, which market is now growing rapidly. Plasma opening switch (POS) is chosen because it is reported that the highest current can flow through it in many switches and it is possible to open the circuit. Although, the theory of POS is not fully investigated and a number of theoretical reports were already published, there is still lack of information about practical applications of the generator with POS. At first, in the experiments, a suitable discharge load was made and the practicable supply voltage and the discharge condition were examined. As a result, when the charge voltage on the main capacitance was 15 kV, the maximum supply voltage was 26 kV and the load current was 8 kA. The discharge condition was transferred from diffuse glow discharge to arc discharge. One of the reasons of these phenomena was the narrow discharge cavity.

  4. Induction and suppression of allergic diarrhea and systemic anaphylaxis in a mouse model of food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kucuk, Zeynep Yesim; Strait, Richard; Khodoun, Marat V.; Mahler, Ashley; Hogan, Simon; Finkelman, Fred D.

    2012-01-01

    Background The clinical manifestations of food allergy include diarrhea and systemic anaphylaxis (shock), which can occur together or by themselves in different individuals. Although ingested food antigens need to be absorbed to induce shock, it is not known whether they need to be absorbed to induce diarrhea. Objective Identify mechanisms that determine whether food allergy induces diarrhea versus shock and determine whether diarrhea requires absorption of ingested antigens. Methods: These issues were studied in mice in active, passive and hybrid immunization models. The active model was used to determine the allergic diarrhea susceptibility of J chain- and pIgR-deficient mice, which are unable to secrete IgA. The hybrid model was used to determine whether intravenously administered antigen-specific IgG antibody, which is not secreted into the gut, can protect against allergic diarrhea as well as shock. Results Shock, but not diarrhea was induced in naïve mice by intravenous IgE anti-TNP antibody, followed by oral TNP-bovine serum albumin, whereas both were induced in mice presensitized with intraperitoneal ovalbumin/alum plus oral ovalbumin. More TNP-bovine serum albumin was required to induce shock than diarrhea in presensitized mice and intravenous IgG anti-TNP antibody, which is not secreted into the gut, protected these mice against both diarrhea and shock. Consistent with this, OVA-immunized J chain- and pIgR-deficient mice, which have high serum IgA but little intestinal IgA, resisted diarrhea induction. Conclusion Intestinal immunity and oral Ag dose determine whether diarrhea and/or systemic anaphylaxis are induced and ingested Ag must be absorbed to induce either response. PMID:22465213

  5. The benefits of steroids versus steroids plus antivirals for treatment of Bell’s palsy: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether steroids plus antivirals provide a better degree of facial muscle recovery in patients with Bell’s palsy than steroids alone. Design Meta-analysis. Data sources PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies published in all languages from 1984 to January 2009. Additional studies were identified from cited references. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared steroids with the combination of steroids and antivirals for the treatment of Bell’s palsy were included in this study. At least one month of follow-up and a primary end point of at least partial facial muscle recovery, as defined by a House-Brackmann grade of at least 2 (complete palsy is designated a grade of 6) or an equivalent score on an alternative recognised scoring system, were required. Review methods Two authors independently reviewed studies for methodological quality, treatment regimens, duration of symptoms before treatment, length of follow-up, and outcomes. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated and pooled using a random effects model. Results Six trials were included, a total of 1145 patients; 574 patients received steroids alone and 571 patients received steroids and antivirals. The pooled odds ratio for facial muscle recovery showed no benefit of steroids plus antivirals compared with steroids alone (odds ratio 1.50, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 2.69; P=0.18). A one study removed analysis showed that the highest quality studies had the greatest effect on the lack of difference between study arms shown by the odds ratio. Subgroup analyses assessing causes of heterogeneity defined a priori (time from symptom onset to treatment, length of follow-up, and type of antiviral studied) showed no benefit of antivirals in addition to that provided by steroids. Conclusions Antivirals did not provide an added benefit in achieving at least partial facial muscle recovery compared with steroids alone in patients with Bell’s palsy. This study does not, therefore, support the routine use of antivirals in Bell’s palsy. Future studies should use improved herpes virus diagnostics and newer antivirals to assess whether combination therapy benefits patients with more severe facial paralysis at study entry. PMID:19736282

  6. Adolescents and Steroids: A User Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids ("steroids") are synthetic derivatives of the natural male hormone testosterone. They were first used non-medically by elite athletes seeking to improve performance. More recently, however, steroid use has filtered down to high school and junior high school levels. The purpose of this study was to describe adolescent…

  7. Sex Differences and Steroid Hormone Receptors

    E-print Network

    Alford, Simon

    Sex Differences and Steroid Hormone Receptors NEUS 501 October 24, 2014 #12;Sexual Differentiation of the Brain · Genetic sex determination · Steroid hormones · Sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior · Steroid hormone receptors and behavior · New genetic approaches to studying sexual differentiation

  8. Mutual Inductance Problem for a System Consisting of a Current Sheet and a Thin Metal Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, J. P.; Wincheski, B.; Nath, S.; Namkung, M.

    1993-01-01

    Rapid inspection of aircraft structures for flaws is of vital importance to the commercial and defense aircraft industry. In particular, inspecting thin aluminum structures for flaws is the focus of a large scale R&D effort in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community. Traditional eddy current methods used today are effective, but require long inspection times. New electromagnetic techniques which monitor the normal component of the magnetic field above a sample due to a sheet of current as the excitation, seem to be promising. This paper is an attempt to understand and analyze the magnetic field distribution due to a current sheet above an aluminum test sample. A simple theoretical model, coupled with a two dimensional finite element model (FEM) and experimental data will be presented in the next few sections. A current sheet above a conducting sample generates eddy currents in the material, while a sensor above the current sheet or in between the two plates monitors the normal component of the magnetic field. A rivet or a surface flaw near a rivet in an aircraft aluminum skin will disturb the magnetic field, which is imaged by the sensor. Initial results showed a strong dependence of the flaw induced normal magnetic field strength on the thickness and conductivity of the current-sheet that could not be accounted for by skin depth attenuation alone. It was believed that the eddy current imaging method explained the dependence of the thickness and conductivity of the flaw induced normal magnetic field. Further investigation, suggested the complexity associated with the mutual inductance of the system needed to be studied. The next section gives an analytical model to better understand the phenomenon.

  9. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy: a computer controlled, scanning monochromator system for the rapid determination of the elements

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    A computer controlled, scanning monochromator system specifically designed for the rapid, sequential determination of the elements is described. The monochromator is combined with an inductively coupled plasma excitation source so that elements at major, minor, trace, and ultratrace levels may be determined, in sequence, without changing experimental parameters other than the spectral line observed. A number of distinctive features not found in previously described versions are incorporated into the system here described. Performance characteristics of the entire system and several analytical applications are discussed.

  10. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that...

  11. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that...

  19. The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), beyond xenobiotic metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Changcheng; Verma, Suman; Blumberg, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) (also known as pregnane X receptor or PXR) is a nuclear hormone receptor activated by a diverse array of endogenous hormones, dietary steroids, pharmaceutical agents, and xenobiotic compounds. SXR has an enlarged, flexible, hydrophobic ligand binding domain (LBD) which is remarkably divergent across mammalian species and SXR exhibits considerable differences in its pharmacology among mammals. The broad response profile of SXR has led to the development of "the steroid and xenobiotic sensor hypothesis". SXR has been established as a xenobiotic sensor that coordinately regulates xenobiotic clearance in the liver and intestine via induction of genes involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. In the past few years, research has revealed new and mostly unsuspected roles for SXR in modulating inflammation, bone homeostasis, vitamin D metabolism, lipid homeostasis, energy homeostasis and cancer. The identification of SXR as a xenobiotic sensor has provided an important tool for studying new mechanisms through which diet, chemical exposure, and environment ultimately impact health and disease. The discovery and pharmacological development of new PXR modulators might represent an interesting and innovative therapeutic approach to combat various diseases. PMID:19240808

  20. Regulation of hypoxia-induced inflammatory responses and M1-M2 phenotype switch of primary rat microglia by sex steroids.

    PubMed

    Habib, Pardes; Slowik, Alexander; Zendedel, Adib; Johann, Sonja; Dang, Jon; Beyer, Cordian

    2014-02-01

    Microglia cells are the primary mediators of the CNS immune defense system and crucial for the outcome of shaping inflammatory responses. They are highly dynamic, moving constantly, and become activated by neuronal signaling under pathological conditions. They fulfill a dual role by not only regulating local neuroinflammation but also conferring neuronal protection. Gonadal steroids are known to exert anti-inflammatory effects in the CNS. Recently, we have shown that the microglial-like cell line BV-2 is hypoxia-sensitive and regulated by gonadal steroids. The present study used primary rat cerebral cortex-derived microglia to analyze whether this cell type directly perceive and respond to acute hypoxia. Second, we investigated whether 17?-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) interfere with hypoxia-induced changes. Short-term hypoxia increased the expression of a subset of pro-inflammatory (TNFa, IL1b) and oxidative stress-related (Hif1a) genes. The induction of TNFa and IL1b was counteracted by P. Hypoxia shifted the primary microglia to the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype. The administration of E2 and P favored the neuroprotective M2 phenotype. Our findings extend previous data obtained with BV-2 cells and show that the primary microglia directly perceive hypoxia which increase their inflammatory activity. Both steroid hormones directly and indirectly interact with the microglia cells by reducing the inflammatory scenario and stimulating neuroprotection. PMID:24163150

  1. Electrical Engineering and Nontechnical Design Variables of Multiple Inductive Loop Systems for Auditoriums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alterovitz, Gil

    2004-01-01

    This research analyzed both engineering and nontechnical issues involved in the use of Induction Loop Amplification (ILA) devices in auditoriums or large gathering places for hard-of-hearing individuals. A variety of parameters need to be taken into account to determine an optimal shape/configuration for the ILA device. In many cases, an optimal…

  2. Improving the Performance of a Rule Induction System Using Genetic Algorithms

    E-print Network

    George Mason University

    techniques on a difficult class of image processing problems, namely, the use of rule induction methodologies of image processing problems, namely, to infer descriptions of textures from noisy examples In recent years there has been a significant increase in research on automatic image recognition

  3. Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, as well as pulmonary hypertension. Whether such differences are inherent and/or whether sex steroids play a role in modulating these differences is currently under investigation. The purpose of this review is to define sex differences in lung structure/function under normal and specific disease states, with exploration of whether and how sex hormone signaling mechanisms may explain these clinical observations. Focusing on adult age groups, the review addresses the following: 1) inherent sex differences in lung anatomy and physiology; 2) the importance of certain time points in life such as puberty, pregnancy, menopause, and aging; 3) expression and signaling of sex steroid receptors under normal vs. disease states; 4) potential interplay between different sex steroids; 5) the question of whether sex steroids are beneficial or detrimental to the lung; and 6) the potential use of sex steroid signaling as biomarkers and therapeutic avenues in lung diseases. The importance of focusing on sex differences and sex steroids in the lung lies in the increasing incidence of lung diseases in women and the need to address lung diseases across the life span. PMID:22240244

  4. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...auxiliary power unit intake system; and (2) The airplane...e) If the engine induction system contains parts or components...tests or, if appropriate, by analysis that the induction system design can withstand the foreign...

  5. Generalized hidden-mapping ridge regression, knowledge-leveraged inductive transfer learning for neural networks, fuzzy systems and kernel methods.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhaohong; Choi, Kup-Sze; Jiang, Yizhang; Wang, Shitong

    2014-12-01

    Inductive transfer learning has attracted increasing attention for the training of effective model in the target domain by leveraging the information in the source domain. However, most transfer learning methods are developed for a specific model, such as the commonly used support vector machine, which makes the methods applicable only to the adopted models. In this regard, the generalized hidden-mapping ridge regression (GHRR) method is introduced in order to train various types of classical intelligence models, including neural networks, fuzzy logical systems and kernel methods. Furthermore, the knowledge-leverage based transfer learning mechanism is integrated with GHRR to realize the inductive transfer learning method called transfer GHRR (TGHRR). Since the information from the induced knowledge is much clearer and more concise than that from the data in the source domain, it is more convenient to control and balance the similarity and difference of data distributions between the source and target domains. The proposed GHRR and TGHRR algorithms have been evaluated experimentally by performing regression and classification on synthetic and real world datasets. The results demonstrate that the performance of TGHRR is competitive with or even superior to existing state-of-the-art inductive transfer learning algorithms. PMID:24710838

  6. Steroids and endocrine disruptors-History, recent state of art and open questions.

    PubMed

    Hampl, Richard; Kubátová, Jana; Stárka, Luboslav

    2016-01-01

    This introductory chapter provides an overview of the levels and sites at which endocrine disruptors (EDs) affect steroid actions. In contrast to the special issue of Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology published three years ago and devoted to EDs as such, this paper focuses on steroids. We tried to point to more recent findings and opened questions. EDs interfere with steroid biosynthesis and metabolism either as inhibitors of relevant enzymes, or at the level of their expression. Particular attention was paid to enzymes metabolizing steroid hormones to biologically active products in target cells, such as aromatase, 5?-reductase and 3?-, 11?- and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. An important target for EDs is also steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR), responsible for steroid precursor trafficking to mitochondria. EDs influence receptor-mediated steroid actions at both genomic and non-genomic levels. The remarkable differences in response to various steroid-receptor ligands led to a more detailed investigation of events following steroid/disruptor binding to the receptors and to the mapping of the signaling cascades and nuclear factors involved. A virtual screening of a large array of EDs with steroid receptors, known as in silico methods (computer simulation), is another promising approach for studying quantitative structure activity relationships and docking. New data may be expected on the effect of EDs on steroid hormone binding to selective plasma transport proteins, namely transcortin and sex hormone-binding globulin. Little information is available so far on the effects of EDs on the major hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal axes, of which the kisspeptin/GPR54 system is of particular importance. Kisspeptins act as stimulators for hormone-induced gonadotropin secretion and their expression is regulated by sex steroids via a feed-back mechanism. Kisspeptin is now believed to be one of the key factors triggering puberty in mammals, and various EDs affect its expression and function. Finally, advances in analytics of EDs, especially those persisting in the environment, in various body fluids (plasma, urine, seminal fluid, and follicular fluid) are mentioned. Surprisingly, relatively scarce information is available on the simultaneous determination of EDs and steroids in the same biological material. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Endocrine disruptors & steroids'. PMID:24816231

  7. Alcoholic Hepatitis: Steroids vs. Pentoxifylline

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Laura; Gobejishvili, Leila; Crittenden, Neil; Barve, Shirish; McClain, Craig J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) remains a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality in the United States and is actually increasing in certain areas of Europe. Thus, there is a pressing need for new therapies/approaches. Major barriers for reducing morbidity, mortality, and costs of care include: lack of translational animal and human studies of new therapies for AH; limited trials of combination therapies in AH targeted at specific disease mechanisms (e.g., gut permeability, cytokines, oxidative stress); limited studies on non-invasive, non-mortality end points; few studies on mechanisms of steroid non-responsiveness; and inadequate prognostic indicators, to name only a few. In spite of these gaps, we have made major advances in understanding mechanisms for AH and appropriate therapies for AH. This article reviews mechanisms and rationale for use of steroids and pentoxifylline in AH and future directions in therapy. PMID:23750115

  8. Removal of Natural Steroid Hormones from Wastewater Using

    E-print Network

    Removal of Natural Steroid Hormones from Wastewater Using Membrane Contactor Processes J O S H U water resources and increased interest in wastewater reclamation for potable reuse. This interest has in the study of wastewater reuse in advanced life support systems (e.g., space missions) because

  9. Effect of antenna capacitance on the plasma characteristics of an internal linear inductively coupled plasma system

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Jong Hyeuk; Kim, Kyong Nam; Park, Jung Kyun; Yeom, Geun Young

    2008-08-15

    This study examined the effect of the antenna capacitance of an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source, which was varied using an internal linear antenna, on the electrical and plasma characteristics of the ICP source. The inductive coupling at a given rf current increased with decreasing antenna capacitance. This was caused by a decrease in the inner copper diameter of the antenna made from coaxial copper/quartz tubing, which resulted in a higher plasma density and lower plasma potential. By decreasing the diameter of the copper tube from 25 to 10 mm, the plasma density of a plasma source size of 2750x2350 mm{sup 2} was increased from approximately 8x10{sup 10}/cm{sup 3} to 1.5x10{sup 11}/cm{sup 3} at 15 mTorr Ar and 9 kW of rf power.

  10. Inhalational Steroids and Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    A V, Raveendran

    2014-01-01

    Bronchial asthma (BA) and Allergic rhinitis (AR) are common clinical problems encountered in day to day practice, where inhalational corticosteroids (ICS) or intranasal steroids (INS) are the mainstay of treatment. Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome (CS) is a well known complication of systemic steroid administration. ICS /INS were earlier thought to be safe, but now more and more number of case reports of Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome have been reported, especially in those who are taking cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) inhibitors. Comparing to the classical clinical features of spontaneous Cushing syndrome, iatrogenic Cushing syndrome is more commonly associated with osteoporosis, increase in intra-ocular pressure, benign intracranial hypertension, aseptic necrosis of femoral head and pancreatitis, where as hypertension, hirsuitisum and menstrual irregularities are less common. Endocrine work up shows low serum cortisol level with evidence of HPA (hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal) axis suppression. In all patients with features of Cushing syndrome with evidence of adrenal suppression always suspect iatrogenic CS. Since concomitant administration of cytochrome P450 inhibitors in patients on ICS/INS can precipitate iatrogenic CS, avoidance of CYP450 inhibitors, its dose reduction or substitution of ICS are the available options. Along with those, measures to prevent the precipitation of adrenal crisis has to be taken. An update on ICS-/INS- associated iatrogenic CS and its management is presented here. PMID:25674177

  11. Developing steroidal aromatase inhibitors-an effective armament to win the battle against breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mange Ram; Barmade, Mahesh A; Tamboli, Riyaj S; Murumkar, Prashant R

    2015-11-13

    Breast cancer, an emerging disease among the women population, occurs due to overexpression of estrogens. The enzyme aromatase plays a key rate limiting role in the biosynthesis of estrogens. Certain clinical advantages of the use of exemestane, a steroidal aromatase inhibitor over non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors have drawn the attention of researchers for the development of novel steroidal aromatase inhibitors.The current review is a humble attempt to compile the reports by various researchers till date on the synthesis of steroidal aromatase inhibitors. It has been tried to encompass the structural modifications carried out by various researchers in the steroid ring system by taking up the functional group modifications on rings A, B, ring A/B junction, ring-D, ring modifications, bridged derivatives and heterocyclic ring-fused derivatives in a systematic way. PMID:26469743

  12. Linear induction accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

    1988-06-21

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  13. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  14. Induction voidmeter

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, T.T.; Roop, C.J.; Schmidt, K.J.; Brewer, J.

    1983-12-21

    An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; means for applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and means for detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

  15. Induction voidmeter

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas T. (Downers Grove, IL); Roop, Conard J. (Lockport, IL); Schmidt, Kenneth J. (Midlothian, IL); Brewer, John (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1986-01-01

    An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge circuit, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

  16. Steroid metabolism by monkey and human spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalakshmi, M.; Sehgal, A.; Pruthi, J.S.; Anand-Kumar, T.C.

    1983-05-01

    Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from monkey and human were washed and incubated with tritium labelled androgens or estradiol to study the pattern of spermatozoa steroid metabolism. When equal concentrations of steroid substrates were used for incubation, monkey and human spermatozoa showed very similar pattern of steroid conversion. Spermatozoa from both species converted testosterone mainly to androstenedione, but reverse conversion of androstenedione to testosterone was negligible. Estradiol-17 beta was converted mainly to estrone. The close similarity between the spermatozoa of monkey and men in their steroid metabolic pattern indicates that the rhesus monkey could be an useful animal model to study the effect of drugs on the metabolic pattern of human spermatozoa.

  17. Modular inductive power transmission system for high misalignment electric vehicle application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Chun; Chau, K. T.; Liu, Chunhua; Ching, Tze Wood; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    This paper gives a design method of power transmitter for electric vehicle wireless charging applications. Uniform magnetic field is targeted for better modular application and misalignment adaption. Rectangular coil and spiral windings are specially selected for evaluation. The compound winding is chosen for optimization. The magnetic flux density is studied by calculating the mutual inductance per area. By optimally choosing the turns and pitch distances of the spiral winding, a uniform magnetic field is achieved. Using finite element analysis, the performances of the transmitter are evaluated, including its tolerance to misalignment.

  18. Steroids, triterpenoids and molecular oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Summons, Roger E; Bradley, Alexander S; Jahnke, Linda L; Waldbauer, Jacob R

    2006-01-01

    There is a close connection between modern-day biosynthesis of particular triterpenoid biomarkers and presence of molecular oxygen in the environment. Thus, the detection of steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons far back in Earth history has been used to infer the antiquity of oxygenic photosynthesis. This prompts the question: were these compounds produced similarly in the past? In this paper, we address this question with a review of the current state of knowledge surrounding the oxygen requirement for steroid biosynthesis and phylogenetic patterns in the distribution of steroid and triterpenoid biosynthetic pathways. The hopanoid and steroid biosynthetic pathways are very highly conserved within the bacterial and eukaryotic domains, respectively. Bacteriohopanepolyols are produced by a wide range of bacteria, and are methylated in significant abundance at the C2 position by oxygen-producing cyanobacteria. On the other hand, sterol biosynthesis is sparsely distributed in distantly related bacterial taxa and the pathways do not produce the wide range of products that characterize eukaryotes. In particular, evidence for sterol biosynthesis by cyanobacteria appears flawed. Our experiments show that cyanobacterial cultures are easily contaminated by sterol-producing rust fungi, which can be eliminated by treatment with cycloheximide affording sterol-free samples. Sterols are ubiquitous features of eukaryotic membranes, and it appears likely that the initial steps in sterol biosynthesis were present in their modern form in the last common ancestor of eukaryotes. Eleven molecules of O2 are required by four enzymes to produce one molecule of cholesterol. Thermodynamic arguments, optimization of function and parsimony all indicate that an ancestral anaerobic pathway is highly unlikely. The known geological record of molecular fossils, especially steranes and triterpanes, is notable for the limited number of structural motifs that have been observed. With a few exceptions, the carbon skeletons are the same as those found in the lipids of extant organisms and no demonstrably extinct structures have been reported. Furthermore, their patterns of occurrence over billion year time-scales correlate strongly with environments of deposition. Accordingly, biomarkers are excellent indicators of environmental conditions even though the taxonomic affinities of all biomarkers cannot be precisely specified. Biomarkers are ultimately tied to biochemicals with very specific functional properties, and interpretations of the biomarker record will benefit from increased understanding of the biological roles of geologically durable molecules. PMID:16754609

  19. A critical appraisal of the misoprostol removable, controlled-release vaginal delivery system of labor induction

    PubMed Central

    Patte, Charlotte; Deruelle, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Induction of labor is a major issue in pregnancy management. Finding strategies to increase rate and decrease time to vaginal delivery is an important goal, but maternal or neonatal safety must remain the primary objective. Misoprostol is a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin used off label to ripen the cervix and induce labor. The misoprostol vaginal insert (MVI) was designed to allow a controlled-release delivery of misoprostol (from 50 to 200 ?g) with a removal tape. The objective of this review was to make a critical appraisal of this device referring to the literature. Methods A literature search was performed in the PubMed and Cochrane databases using the keywords “vaginal misoprostol insert”. Results Several studies compared different doses of MVI (50, 100, 150, and 200 ?g) with the 10 mg dinoprostone insert. The 100 ?g MVI compared with the dinoprostone vaginal insert (DVI) showed similar efficacy and no significant differences in cesarean delivery rate. MVI 200 ?g compared with DVI showed a reduced time to vaginal delivery and oxytocin need but had an increased risk of uterine hyperstimulation. The rate of hyperstimulation syndrome was two to three times more frequent with the 200 ?g MVI than the 100 ?g. Conclusion Current data suggest that the 100 ?g MVI would provide the best balance between efficacy and safety. Further studies should be performed to evaluate this dose, especially in high-risk situations needing induction of labor. PMID:26648758

  20. 77 FR 44456 - Classification of Two Steroids, Prostanozol

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ...steroids with estrogenic actions. In both men and women, anabolic steroid abuse can damage the liver and may result in high cholesterol levels, which may increase the risk of strokes and cardiovascular heart attacks. Furthermore, anabolic steroid abuse...

  1. Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression

    E-print Network

    Ketterson, Ellen D.

    Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured

  2. CONTAMINANT INTERACTIONS WITH STEROID RECEPTORS: EVIDENCE FOR RECEPTOR BINDING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroid receptors are important determinants of endocrine disrupter consequences. As the most frequently proposed mechanism of endocrine-disrupting contaminant (EDC) action, steroid receptors are not only targets of natural steroids but are also commonly sites of nonsteroidal com...

  3. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of...

  4. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of...

  5. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of...

  6. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of...

  7. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of...

  8. Ovarian steroids, stem cells and uterine leiomyoma: therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Moravek, Molly B.; Yin, Ping; Ono, Masanori; Coon V, John S.; Dyson, Matthew T.; Navarro, Antonia; Marsh, Erica E.; Chakravarti, Debabrata; Kim, J. Julie; Wei, Jian-Jun; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor in women and is thought to arise from the clonal expansion of a single myometrial smooth muscle cell transformed by a cellular insult. Leiomyomas cause a variety of symptoms, including abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, bladder or bowel dysfunction, and recurrent pregnancy loss, and are the most common indication for hysterectomy in the USA. A slow rate of cell proliferation, combined with the production of copious amounts of extracellular matrix, accounts for tumor expansion. A common salient feature of leiomyomas is their responsiveness to steroid hormones, thus providing an opportunity for intervention. METHODS A comprehensive search of PUBMED was conducted to identify peer-reviewed literature published since 1980 pertinent to the roles of steroid hormones and somatic stem cells in leiomyoma, including literature on therapeutics that target steroid hormone action in leiomyoma. Reviewed articles were restricted to English language only. Studies in both animals and humans were reviewed for the manuscript. RESULTS Estrogen stimulates the growth of leiomyomas, which are exposed to this hormone not only through ovarian steroidogenesis, but also through local conversion of androgens by aromatase within the tumors themselves. The primary action of estrogen, together with its receptor estrogen receptor ? (ER?), is likely mediated via induction of progesterone receptor (PR) expression, thereby allowing leiomyoma responsiveness to progesterone. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the growth of leiomyoma through a set of key genes that regulate both apoptosis and proliferation. Given these findings, aromatase inhibitors and antiprogestins have been developed for the treatment of leiomyoma, but neither treatment results in complete regression of leiomyoma, and tumors recur after treatment is stopped. Recently, distinct cell populations were discovered in leiomyomas; a small population showed stem-progenitor cell properties, and was found to be essential for ovarian steroid-dependent growth of leiomyomas. Interestingly, these stem-progenitor cells were deficient in ER? and PR and instead relied on the strikingly higher levels of these receptors in surrounding differentiated cells to mediate estrogen and progesterone action via paracrine signaling. CONCLUSIONS It has been well established that estrogen and progesterone are involved in the proliferation and maintenance of uterine leiomyoma, and the majority of medical treatments currently available for leiomyoma work by inhibiting steroid hormone production or action. A pitfall of these therapeutics is that they decrease leiomyoma size, but do not completely eradicate them, and tumors tend to regrow once treatment is stopped. The recent discovery of stem cells and their paracrine interactions with more differentiated cell populations within leiomyoma has the potential to provide the missing link between developing therapeutics that temper leiomyoma growth and those that eradicate them. PMID:25205766

  9. CONSENSUS TREATMENT PLANS FOR INDUCTION THERAPY OF NEWLY-DIAGNOSED PROLIFERATIVE LUPUS NEPHRITIS IN JUVENILE SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    PubMed Central

    Mina, Rina; von Scheven, Emily; Ardoin, Stacy P.; Eberhard, B. Anne; Punaro, Marilynn; Ilowite, Norman; Hsu, Joyce; Klein-Gitelman, Marisa; Moorthy, L. Nandini; Muscal, Eyal; Radhakrishna, Suhas M.; Wagner-Weiner, Linda; Adams, Matthew; Blier, Peter; Buckley, Lenore; Chalom, Elizabeth; Chédeville, Gaëlle; Eichenfield, Andrew; Fish, Natalya; Henrickson, Michael; Hersh, Aimee O.; Hollister, Roger; Jones, Olcay; Jung, Lawrence; Levy, Deborah; Lopez-Benitez, Jorge; McCurdy, Deborah; Miettunen, Paivi M.; Quintero-Del Rio, Ana I.; Rothman, Deborah; Rullo, Ornella; Ruth, Natasha; Schanberg, Laura E.; Silverman, Earl; Singer, Nora G.; Soep, Jennifer; MBBS, Reema Syed; Vogler, Larry B.; Yalcindag, Ali; Yildirim-Toruner, Cagri; Wallace, Carol A.; Brunner, Hermine I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To formulate consensus treatment plans (CTPs) for induction therapy of newly-diagnosed proliferative lupus nephritis (LN) in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (jSLE). Methods A structured consensus formation process was employed by the members of the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) after considering the existing medical evidence and current treatment approaches. Results After an initial Delphi survey (response rate 70%), a 2-day consensus conference, and two follow-up Delphi surveys (response rates 63–79%), consensus was achieved for a limited set of CTPs addressing the induction therapy of proliferative LN. These CTPs were developed for prototypic patients defined by eligibility characteristics, and included immunosuppressive therapy with either mycophenolic acid orally twice per day, or intravenous cyclophosphamide once per month at standardized doses for six months. Additionally, the CTPs describe three options for standardized use of glucocorticoids; including a primarily oral, a mixed oral/intravenous, and a primarily intravenous regimen. There was consensus on measures of effectiveness and safety of the CTPs. The CTPs were well accepted by the pediatric rheumatology providers treating children with LN, and up to 300 children per year in North America are expected to be candidates for the treatment with the CTPs. Conclusion CTPs for induction therapy of proliferative LN in jSLE based on the available scientific evidence and pediatric rheumatology group experience have been developed. Consistent use of the CTPs may improve the prognosis of proliferative LN, and support the conduct of comparative effectiveness studies aimed at optimizing therapeutic strategies for proliferative LN in jSLE. PMID:22162255

  10. Targeting the Androgen Receptor with Steroid Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a major therapeutic target in prostate cancer pharmacology. Progression of prostate cancer has been linked to elevated expression of AR in malignant tissue, suggesting that AR plays a central role in prostate cancer cell biology. Potent therapeutic agents can be precisely crafted to specifically target AR, potentially averting systemic toxicities associated with nonspecific chemotherapies. In this review, we describe various strategies to generate steroid conjugates that can selectively engage AR with high potency. Analogies to recent developments in nonsteroidal conjugates targeting AR are also evaluated. Particular focus is placed on potential applications in AR pharmacology. The review culminates with a description of future prospects for targeting AR. PMID:24936953

  11. Anabolic androgenic steroids abuse and liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Neri, M; Bello, S; Bonsignore, A; Cantatore, S; Riezzo, I; Turillazzi, E; Fineschi, V

    2011-05-01

    In the athletes the wide use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) cause series damage in various organs, in particular, analyzing the liver, elevation on the levels of liver enzymes, cholestatic jaundice, liver tumors, both benign and malignant, and peliosis hepatis are described. A prolonged AAS administration provokes an increase in the activities of liver lysosomal hydrolases and a decrease in some components of the microsomal drug-metabolizing system and in the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes without modifying classical serum indicators of hepatic function. Liver is a key organ actively involved in numerous metabolic and detoxifying functions. As a consequence, it is continuously exposed to high levels of endogenous and exogenous oxidants that are by-products of many biochemical pathways and, in fact, it has been demonstrated that intracellular oxidant production is more active in liver than in tissues, like the increase of inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis and the inhibitors of apoptosis NF- ?B and Heat Shock Proteins. PMID:21443508

  12. Development of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis after Anabolic Steroid Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Herlitz, Leal C.; Markowitz, Glen S.; Farris, Alton B.; Schwimmer, Joshua A.; Stokes, Michael B.; Kunis, Cheryl; Colvin, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse adversely affects the endocrine system, blood lipids, and the liver, but renal injury has not been described. We identified an association of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and proteinuria in a cohort of 10 bodybuilders (six white and four Hispanic; mean body mass index 34.7) after long-term abuse of anabolic steroids. The clinical presentation included proteinuria (mean 10.1 g/d; range 1.3 to 26.3 g/d) and renal insufficiency (mean serum creatinine 3.0 mg/dl; range 1.3 to 7.8 mg/dl); three (30%) patients presented with nephrotic syndrome. Renal biopsy revealed FSGS in nine patients, four of whom also had glomerulomegaly, and glomerulomegaly alone in one patient. Three biopsies revealed collapsing lesions of FSGS, four had perihilar lesions, and seven showed ?40% tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Among eight patients with mean follow-up of 2.2 yr, one progressed to ESRD, the other seven received renin-angiotensin system blockade, and one also received corticosteroids. All seven patients discontinued anabolic steroids, leading to weight loss, stabilization or improvement in serum creatinine, and a reduction in proteinuria. One patient resumed anabolic steroid abuse and suffered relapse of proteinuria and renal insufficiency. We hypothesize that secondary FSGS results from a combination of postadaptive glomerular changes driven by increased lean body mass and potential direct nephrotoxic effects of anabolic steroids. Because of the expected rise in serum creatinine as a result of increased muscle mass in bodybuilders, this complication is likely underrecognized. PMID:19917783

  13. Linear induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, R.J.

    1986-06-01

    The development of linear induction accelerators has been motivated by applications requiring high-pulsed currents of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capability of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high for rf accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multi-stage induction machine, but the 50-MeV, 10-kA Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL is the highest voltage machine in existence at this time. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high-repetition rates practical, and this capability for high-average power is very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines in the future. This paper surveys the US induction linac technology with primary emphasis on electron machines. A simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam is given, to illustrate many of the general issues that bound the design space of induction linacs.

  14. Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t Playing Fair Kids dream of being professional athletes, and why not? It's fun to think about being the very best in your favorite sport, not to mention earning a big salary. But in recent years, people have been looking ...

  15. Steroids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Facts and Fiction What You Should Know About Marijuana Concentrates/ Honey Butane Oil Consequences How Drugs Alter Brain Development and Affect ... Marijuana Featured Articles What You Should Know About Marijuana Concentrates/ Honey Butane Oil A marijuana concentrate is a powerful substance that ...

  16. Stress, Ethanol, and Neuroactive Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Biggio, Giovanni; Concas, Alessandra; Follesa, Paolo; Sanna, Enrico; Serra, Mariangela

    2010-01-01

    Neurosteroids play a crucial role in stress, alcohol dependence and withdrawal, and other physiological and pharmacological actions by potentiating or inhibiting neurotransmitter action. This review article focuses on data showing that the interaction among stress, ethanol, and neuroactive steroids may result in plastic molecular and functional changes of GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission. The molecular mechanisms by which stress-ethanol-neuroactive steroids interactions can produce plastic changes in GABAA receptors have been studied using different experimental models in vivo and in vitro in order to provide useful evidence and new insights into the mechanisms through which acute and chronic ethanol and stress exposure modulate the activity of GABAergic synapses. We show detailed data on a) the effect of acute and chronic stress on peripheral and brain neurosteroid levels and GABAA receptor gene expression and function; b) ethanol-stimulated brain steroidogenesis; c) plasticity of GABAA receptor after acute and chronic ethanol exposure. The implications of these new mechanistic insights to our understanding of the effects of ethanol during stress are also discussed. The understanding of these neurochemical and molecular mechanisms may shed new light on the physiopathology of diseases, such as anxiety, in which GABAergic transmission play a pivotal role. These data may also lead to the need for new anxiolytic, hypnotic and anticonvulsant selective drugs devoid of side effects. PMID:17555824

  17. Steroids: To Test or to Educate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2006-01-01

    In February 2005, The Dallas Morning News published a multipart series on steroid use among high school students in Texas. The paper's four-month investigation was wide-ranging, but shined a particular spotlight upon alleged abuses in the 13,700-student Grapevine-Colleyville Independent School District, north of Dallas. Use of steroids and other…

  18. Steroids Update, Part 1 and Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Calvin; Duda, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Part 1 of this two-part article describes the views of a physician who believes that athletes who want to take steroids are best protected by receiving a prescription and monitoring. Part 2 discusses the more general view of physicians that steroids should not be prescribed but perhaps should be monitored. (MT)

  19. Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Steroid Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Kent F.; Kleiman, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    Used Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory and Profile of Mood States to assess psychological characteristics in 72 adolescent males: 24 adolescent athletes who reported steroid use, 24 athletes with no steroid use, and 24 nonathletes. Although some personality variables differentiated between athletes and nonathletes, no personality variables…

  20. Induction of some defense-related genes and oxidative burst is required for the establishment of systemic acquired resistance in Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Chul; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2005-08-01

    The inoculation of primary pepper leaves with an avirulent strain of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in the non-inoculated, secondary leaves. This SAR response was accompanied by the systemic expression of the defense-related genes, a systemic microoxidative burst generating H2O2, and the systemic induction of both ion-leakage and callose deposition in the non-inoculated, secondary leaves. Some defense-related genes including those encoding PR-1, chitinase, osmotin, peroxidase, PR10, thionin, and SAR8.2 were markedly induced in the systemic leaves. The conspicuous systemic accumulation of H2O2 and the strong increase in peroxidase activity in the pepper leaves was suggested to play a role in the cell death process in the systemic micro-hypersensitive responses (HR), leading to the induction of the SAR. Treatment of the primary leaves with diphenylene iodinium (DPI), an inhibitor of oxidative burst, substantially reduced the induction of some of the defense-related genes, and lowered the activation of the oxidative bursts in the systemic leaves distant from the site of the avirulent pathogen inoculation and subsequently SAR. Overall, these results suggest that the induction of some defense-related genes as well as a rapid increase in oxidative burst is essential for establishing SAR in pepper plants. PMID:15729568

  1. 14 CFR 23.1101 - Induction air preheater design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Induction air preheater design. 23.1101... Induction System § 23.1101 Induction air preheater design. Each exhaust-heated, induction air preheater must be designed and constructed to— (a) Ensure ventilation of the preheater when the induction...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1101 - Induction air preheater design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction air preheater design. 23.1101... Induction System § 23.1101 Induction air preheater design. Each exhaust-heated, induction air preheater must be designed and constructed to— (a) Ensure ventilation of the preheater when the induction...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1101 - Induction air preheater design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction air preheater design. 23.1101... Induction System § 23.1101 Induction air preheater design. Each exhaust-heated, induction air preheater must be designed and constructed to— (a) Ensure ventilation of the preheater when the induction...

  4. Sensorless performance evaluation of induction motors 

    E-print Network

    Ahmed, Shehab

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis, various aspects of induction motor performance are discussed. The importance of the speed-torque curve for an induction motor system and its various applications are emphasized. Difficulties in the presently ...

  5. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Marta C.; Jiménez, Pedro; Miranda-Brito, Carolina; Valdez, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include the penetration and permanence of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that only have one host, reciprocal, intricate interactions occur. Evidence indicates that steroid hormones have an influence on the development and course of parasitic infections. The host gender's susceptibility to infection, and the related differences in the immune response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well-known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In most, but not all parasitosis the host's hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course, and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activates immune responses that end up affecting the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones, such as ecdysteroids and sex steroids, and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid-like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium cysticerci and tapeworms, and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. In-depth knowledge of the parasite's endocrine properties will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and may also help designing tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations. PMID:26175665

  6. Hardware and software design for a National Instrument-based magnetic induction tomography system for prospective biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hsin-Yu; Soleimani, Manuchehr

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a new and emerging type of tomography technique that is able to map the passive electromagnetic properties (in particular conductivity) of an object. Excitation coils are used to induce eddy currents in the medium, and the magnetic field produced by the induced eddy current is then sensed by the receiver coils. Because of its non-invasive and contactless feature, it becomes an attractive technique for many applications (especially in biomedical area) compared to traditional contact electrode-based electrical impedance tomography. Due to the low contrast in conductivity between biological tissues, an accurate and stable hardware system is necessary. Most MIT systems in the literature employ external signal generators, power amplifiers and highly stable down-conversion electronics to obtain a satisfactory phase measurement. However, this would increase design complexity substantially. In this paper, a National Instrument-based MIT system is developed at the University of Bath, aiming for biomedical applications. The system utilizes National Instrument products to accomplish all signal driving, switching and data acquisition tasks, which ease the system design whilst providing satisfactory performance. This paper presents a full-scaled medical MIT system, from the sensor and system hardware design, eddy current model verification to the image reconstruction software: the performance of this MIT instrumentation system is characterized in detail, including the system accuracy and system stability. The methods of solving eddy current problem are presented. The reconstructed images of detecting the presence of saline solutions are also included in this paper, which show the capability of national instrument products to be developed into a full-scaled biomedical MIT system, by demonstrating the practical experimental results. PMID:22531316

  7. Characterization of a novel non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qun-Yi; Zhang, Meng; State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai ; Hallis, Tina M.; DeRosier, Therese A.; Yue, Jian-Min; Ye, Yang; Mais, Dale E.; MPI Research, Mattawan, MI ; Wang, Ming-Wei; State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai

    2010-01-15

    Selective antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are desirable for the treatment of hypercortisolemia associated with Cushing's syndrome, psychic depression, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and glaucoma. NC3327, a non-steroidal small molecule with potent binding affinity to GR (K{sub i} = 13.2 nM), was identified in a high-throughput screening effort. As a full GR antagonist, NC3327 greatly inhibits the dexamethasone (Dex) induction of marker genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, but has a minimal effect on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a GR responsive pro-inflammatory gene. Interestingly, the compound recruits neither coactivators nor corepressors to the GR complex but competes with glucocorticoids for the interaction between GR and a coactivator peptide. Moreover, NC3327 does not trigger GR nuclear translocation, but significantly blocks Dex-induced GR transportation to the nucleus, and thus appears to be a 'competitive' GR antagonist. Therefore, the non-steroidal compound, NC3327, may represent a new class of GR antagonists as potential therapeutics for a variety of cortisol-related endocrine disorders.

  8. Tests with a line-commutated converter as a variable inductive load on the Bonneville Power Administration transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Boenig, H.J.; Hauer, J.F.; Nielsen, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    A twelve-pulse, line-commutated converter, with a steady-state rating of 2.5 kV and 5.5 kA, formerly used for charging and discharging a superconducting magnet, was reconfigured as a static reactive power load. Tests staged at the Tacoma, WA, substation of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) revealed that the converter could be used as a variable inductive load, provided a stable current controller was installed. The unit was modulated as a variable VAR load following a sinusoidal VAR demand signal with an amplitude up to 14.8 MVAR. The total losses at maximum VAR output were 370 kW. This paper explains the necessary modifications of the converter to operate as a variable reactive load. Measured current waveshapes are analyzed. The effects of such a load on the BPA transmission system are presented.

  9. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Green River Shale By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Using a Desolvating Nebulizer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, F.; Clarke, D.; Moody, S.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is applied to a geological sample for the determination of rare earth elements (REEs) using a specialized nebulizer system. The low flow desolvating nebulizer has been shown to decrease metal oxide formation which leads to a reduction in mass spectral interferences. Traditional nebulizers and spray chambers may be suitable for similar sample types, but reduction of water vapor loading to the plasma can improve REE detection limits for quadrupole-based ICP-MS. The Green River formation holds the largest oil shale deposits in the world and understanding the elemental composition of these samples is important in its study. A certified reference material, USGS Green River Shale (SGR-1), was microwave digested prior to analysis, and recoveries of REEs compared to historical values are discussed.

  10. Brainstem system of hippocampal theta induction: The role of the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Orze?-Gryglewska, Jolanta; Matulewicz, Pawe?; Jurkowlaniec, Edyta

    2015-11-01

    This article summarizes the results of studies concerning the influence of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on the hippocampal theta rhythm. Temporary VTA inactivation resulted in transient loss of the hippocampal theta. Permanent destruction of the VTA caused a long-lasting depression of the power of the theta and it also had some influence on the frequency of the rhythm. Activation of glutamate (GLU) receptors or decrease of GABAergic tonus in the VTA led to enhancement of dopamine release and increased hippocampal theta power. High time and frequency cross-correlation was detected for the theta band between the VTA and hippocampus during paradoxical sleep and active waking. Thus, the VTA may belong to the broad network involved in theta rhythm regulation. This article also presents a model of brainstem-VTA-hippocampal interactions in the induction of the hippocampal theta rhythm. The projections from the VTA which enhance theta rhythm are incorporated into the main theta generation pathway, in which the septum acts as the central node. The neuronal activity that may be responsible for the ability of the VTA to regulate theta probably derives from the structures associated with rapid eye movement (sleep) (REM) sleep or with sensorimotor activity (i.e., mainly from the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei and also from the raphe). Synapse 69:553-575, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26234671

  11. Performance of an Annular Linear Induction Pump with Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Schoenfeld, Michael; Pearson, J. Boise; Webster, Kenneth; Godfroy, Thomas; Adkins, Harold E., Jr.; Werner, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Results of performance testing of an annular linear induction pump are presented. The pump electromagnetically pumps liquid metal through a circuit specially designed to allow for quantification of the performance. Testing was conducted over a range of conditions, including frequencies of 33, 36, 39, and 60 Hz, liquid metal temperatures from 125 to 525 C, and input voltages from 5 to 120 V. Pump performance spanned a range of flow rates from roughly 0.16 to 5.7 L/s (2.5 to 90 gpm), and pressure head less than 1 to 90 kPa (less than 0.145 to 13 psi). The maximum efficiency measured during testing was slightly greater than 6%. The efficiency was fairly insensitive to input frequency from 33 to 39 Hz, and was markedly lower at 60 Hz. In addition, the efficiency decreased as the NaK temperature was raised. The performance of the pump operating on a variable frequency drive providing 60 Hz power compared favorably with the same pump operating on 60 Hz power drawn directly from the electrical grid.

  12. Effects of sex steroids on ethanol pharmacokinetics and autonomic reactivity.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, A R; Kegg, P S

    1981-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that female sex steroids, especially estrogen, interact with ethanol pharmacokinetics. Both animal and human studies are consistent in indicating that voluntary intake of alcohol decreases with increasing estrogen concentrations. Such effects are equivocal with progesterone and nonexistent with testosterone. There is some suggestion that estrogen modulates monoamine oxidase activity and via that mechanism alters sympathetic nervous system tone. Alterations in sympathetic nervous system tone, in turn, can alter gastric motility and absorption of alcohol from stomach and intestines. Several types of studies, both animal and human, indicate that high estrogen concentrations also impair ethanol metabolism. At present the exact mechanism of action for this effect is not known. Future studies investigating this aspect are indicated. At present the effect of sex steroids on performance and its interaction with alcohol do not show a clear relationship. There are contrary pieces of information both for and against the view that menstrual cycle, performance and alcohol interact. PMID:7031678

  13. HEALTH AND SAFETY INDUCTION Introduction

    E-print Network

    Mucina, Ladislav

    HEALTH AND SAFETY INDUCTION Introduction Welcome to Curtin's online health and safety induction University is committed to providing and maintaining high standards of health and safety so we can prevent with staff, and by continually improving our health and safety management system. This course is designed

  14. Theoretical foundation for real-time prostate localization using an inductively coupled transmitter and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer system.

    PubMed

    McGary, John E

    2004-01-01

    Real-time, 3D localization of the prostate for intensity-modulated radiotherapy can be accomplished with passively charged radio frequency transmitters and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers. The overall system design consists of an external dipole antenna as a power source for charging a microchip implant transmitter and SQUID magnetometers for signal detection. An external dipole antenna charges an on-chip capacitor through inductive coupling in the near field region through a small implant inductor. The charge and discharge sequence between the external antenna and the implant circuit can be defined by half duplex, full duplex, or sequential operations. The resulting implant discharge current creates an alternating magnetic field through the inductor. The field is detected by the surrounding magnetometers, and the location of the implant transmitter can be calculated. Problems associated with this system design are interrelated with the signal strength at the detectors, detector sensitivity, and charge time of the implant capacitor. The physical parameters required for optimizing the system for real-time applications are the operating frequency, implant inductance and capacitance, the external dipole current and loop radius, the detector distance, and mutual inductance. Consequently, the sequential operating mode is the best choice for real-time localization for constraints requiring positioning within 1 s due to the mutual inductance and detector sensitivity. We present the theoretical foundation for designing a real-time, 3D prostate localization system including the associated physical parameters and demonstrate the feasibility and physical limitations for such a system. PMID:15738919

  15. High Incidences of Invasive Fungal Infections in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Receiving Induction Chemotherapy without Systemic Antifungal Prophylaxis: A Prospective Observational Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Hsiang-Chi; Yao, Ming; Wu, Un-In; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Lin, Chien-Ting; Li, Chi-Cheng; Wu, Shang-Ju; Hou, Hsin-An; Chou, Wen-Chien; Huang, Shang-Yi; Tsay, Woei; Chen, Yao-Chang; Chen, Yee-Chun; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Tien, Hwei-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is an important complication for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients receiving induction chemotherapy. However, the epidemiological information is not clear in Southeastern Asia, an area of potential high incidences of IFIs. To clarify it, we enrolled 298 non-M3 adult AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy without systemic anti-fungal prophylaxis from Jan 2004 to Dec 2009, when we applied a prospective diagnostic and treatment algorithm for IFIs. Their demographic parameters, IFI characters, and treatment outcome were collected for analysis. The median age of these patients was 51 years. Standard induction chemotherapy was used for 246 (82.6%) patients, and 66.8% of patients achieved complete remission (CR) or partial remission. The incidence of all-category IFIs was 34.6% (5.7% proven IFIs, 5.0% probable IFIs and 23.8% possible IFIs). Candida tropicalis was the leading pathogen among yeast, and lower respiratory tract was the most common site for IFIs (75.4%, 80/106). Standard induction chemotherapy and failure to CR were identified as risk factors for IFIs. The presence of IFI in induction independently predicted worse survival (hazard ratio 1.536 (1.100–2.141), p value = 0.012). Even in those who survived from the initial IFI insults after 3 months, the presence of IFIs in induction still predicted a poor long-term survival. This study confirms high incidences of IFIs in Southeastern Asia, and illustrates potential risk factors; poor short-term and long-term outcomes are also demonstrated. This epidemiological information will provide useful perspectives for anti-fungal prophylaxis and treatment for AML patients during induction, so that best chances of cure and survival can be provided. PMID:26061179

  16. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  17. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the...

  18. Characteristics of Steroid Users in an Adolescent School Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlaf, Edward M.; Smart, Reginald G.

    1992-01-01

    Examined rates of steroid use among Ontario adolescent students. Findings from 3,892 students revealed that 1.1 percent reported using steroids over past year. Steroid users were significantly more likely to use stimulants, caffeine, and relaxants than were nonsteroid users. Demographically, steroid users were significantly more likely to be male…

  19. The Efficacy of Nasal Steroids in Treatment of Otitis Media with Effusion: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed; Nofal, Ahmad Abdel-Fattah; Khazbak, Alaa Omar; Sayed, Ahmad Ebrahim El; Hassan, Mohammad Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction?Otitis media with effusion (OME) continues to be an important pediatric clinical problem, and more studies are needed to decide the proper treatment for it. Objective?To assess the efficacy of nasal steroids in the management of OME by comparing its results with that of oral steroid and that of nasal saline spray as placebo. Methods?This study was carried on 60 patients with OME who were divided into three groups: in group 1, 20 patients received mometasone furoate spray, one puff in each nostril daily, for 3 months; in group 2, 20 patients received oral prednisolone, 5?mg three times per day for the first 3 weeks; in group 3, 20 patients received nasal saline spray, one puff in each nostril daily for 3 months. Results?A highly significant difference between systemic or topical (nasal spray) steroid therapy and saline nasal spray was detected (p?systemic and topical steroid was nonsignificant (p?>?0.05). Conclusion?Nasal steroid spray can be used as an effective treatment for OME, giving a significant result similar to systemic steroid. Further studies are needed to investigate its use for longer duration and in recurrent cases. PMID:26491474

  20. The Efficacy of Nasal Steroids in Treatment of Otitis Media with Effusion: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed; Nofal, Ahmad Abdel-Fattah; Khazbak, Alaa Omar; Sayed, Ahmad Ebrahim El; Hassan, Mohammad Ramadan

    2015-10-01

    Introduction?Otitis media with effusion (OME) continues to be an important pediatric clinical problem, and more studies are needed to decide the proper treatment for it. Objective?To assess the efficacy of nasal steroids in the management of OME by comparing its results with that of oral steroid and that of nasal saline spray as placebo. Methods?This study was carried on 60 patients with OME who were divided into three groups: in group 1, 20 patients received mometasone furoate spray, one puff in each nostril daily, for 3 months; in group 2, 20 patients received oral prednisolone, 5?mg three times per day for the first 3 weeks; in group 3, 20 patients received nasal saline spray, one puff in each nostril daily for 3 months. Results?A highly significant difference between systemic or topical (nasal spray) steroid therapy and saline nasal spray was detected (p?systemic and topical steroid was nonsignificant (p?>?0.05). Conclusion?Nasal steroid spray can be used as an effective treatment for OME, giving a significant result similar to systemic steroid. Further studies are needed to investigate its use for longer duration and in recurrent cases. PMID:26491474

  1. [Infliximab in moderate to severe steroid-dependent or steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Mocciaro, Filippo; Orlando, Ambrogio; Scimeca, Daniela; Cottone, Mario

    2007-11-01

    Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha plays a main role in ulcerative colitis. Thirteen male and 8 female affected by moderate to severe steroid-dependent or refractory-severe ulcerative colitis were treated with 5 mg/kg of infliximab (Remicade). At 12 week efficacy, steroid-sparing, colectomy and side effects were evaluated. In steroid-dependent group (13 patients): 8 patients had a clinical benefit (7 obtained a clinical remission, 54%), 8 (61.5%) discontinued steroids, 1 patient underwent surgery. In steroid-severe refractory group (8 patients): 3 patients (37.5%) had a clinical remission, 2 (25%) had a clinical response and 3 (37.5%) underwent colectomy. One mild infusion reaction and one adverse event (itch) were observed. Infliximab is an effective and safe therapy in patients with moderate to severe steroid dependent and refractory ulcerative colitis. PMID:18044405

  2. An Adaptive Supervisory Sliding Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller for Sensorless Vector-Controlled Induction Motor Drive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shun-Yuan; Tseng, Chwan-Lu; Lin, Shou-Chuang; Chiu, Chun-Jung; Chou, Jen-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller (FCMAC) in the speed sensorless vector control of an induction motor (IM) drive system. The proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC comprised a supervisory controller, integral sliding surface, and an adaptive FCMAC. The integral sliding surface was employed to eliminate steady-state errors and enhance the responsiveness of the system. The adaptive FCMAC incorporated an FCMAC with a compensating controller to perform a desired control action. The proposed controller was derived using the Lyapunov approach, which guarantees learning-error convergence. The implementation of three intelligent control schemes—the adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC, adaptive sliding FCMAC, and adaptive sliding CMAC—were experimentally investigated under various conditions in a realistic sensorless vector-controlled IM drive system. The root mean square error (RMSE) was used as a performance index to evaluate the experimental results of each control scheme. The analysis results indicated that the proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC substantially improved the system performance compared with the other control schemes. PMID:25815450

  3. Estimation of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system by using joint inversion of multicoil electromagnetic induction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib; Moghadas, Davood; Jadoon, Aurangzeb; Missimer, Thomas M.; Al-Mashharawi, Samir K.; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2015-05-01

    Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) is becoming a useful tool for soil characterization due to its fast measurement capability and sensitivity to soil moisture and salinity. In this research, a new EMI system (the CMD mini-Explorer) is used for subsurface characterization of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system via a joint inversion approach of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. EMI measurements were conducted across a farm where Acacia trees are irrigated with brackish water. In situ measurements of vertical bulk electrical conductivity (?b) were recorded in different pits along one of the transects to calibrate the EMI measurements and to compare with the modeled electrical conductivity (?) obtained by the joint inversion of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. Estimates of ? were then converted into the universal standard of soil salinity measurement (i.e., electrical conductivity of a saturated soil paste extract - ECe). Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) was repeatedly measured with the CMD mini-Explorer to investigate the temperature stability of the new system at a fixed location, where the ambient air temperature increased from 26°C to 46°C. Results indicate that the new EMI system is very stable in high temperature environments, especially above 40°C, where most other approaches give unstable measurements. In addition, the distribution pattern of soil salinity is well estimated quantitatively by the joint inversion of multicomponent EMI measurements. The approach of joint inversion of EMI measurements allows for the quantitative mapping of the soil salinity distribution pattern and can be utilized for the management of soil salinity.

  4. Symptomatic Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis After a Single Local Epidural Steroid Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Tok, Chung Hong Kaur, Shaleen; Gangi, Afshin

    2011-02-15

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder that can manifest with progressive neurological deficits. It is characterized by abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated epidural fat commonly associated with the administration of exogenous steroids associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies, and Cushing syndrome (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). Occasionally, spinal epidural lipomatosis may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or in patients with endocrinopathies, primarily in obese individuals (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). However, spinal lumbar epidural lipomatosis resulting from local steroid injection has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 45-year-old diabetic man with claudication that was probably due to symptomatic lumbar spinal lipomatosis resulting from a single local epidural steroid injection.

  5. From molecule to market: steroid hormones and financial risk-taking

    PubMed Central

    Coates, John M.; Gurnell, Mark; Sarnyai, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the role of the endocrine system in financial decision-making. Here, we survey research on steroid hormones and their cognitive effects, and examine potential links to trader performance in the financial markets. Preliminary findings suggest that cortisol codes for risk and testosterone for reward. A key finding of this endocrine research is the different cognitive effects of acute versus chronic exposure to hormones: acutely elevated steroids may optimize performance on a range of tasks; but chronically elevated steroids may promote irrational risk-reward choices. We present a hypothesis suggesting that the irrational exuberance and pessimism observed during market bubbles and crashes may be mediated by steroid hormones. If hormones can exaggerate market moves, then perhaps the age and sex composition among traders and asset managers may affect the level of instability witnessed in the financial markets. PMID:20026470

  6. Partial characterization of a biologically active steroid glycoside isolated from the starfish Marthasterias glacialis

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, A. M.; Turner, A. B.

    1970-01-01

    1. A steroid glycoside (M2), which induces avoidance and other reactions in the mollusc Buccinum undatum, has been isolated from extracts of the starfish Marthasterias glacialis by ion-exchange chromatography. 2. The steroid glycoside was homogeneous by t.l.c. and contained glucose, quinovose, fucose and sulphate in the molar proportions 1:2:1:1, in addition to a water-insoluble aglycone. 3. The aglycone was identified as a cholestane derivative containing an unusual ?24-23-ketone system, two secondary hydroxyl groups and an olefinic double bond, and had the molecular formula C27H42O3. 4. The rates of release of sugars and sulphate suggested that fucose was at the non-reducing end of the oligosaccharide, with glucose glycosidically linked to the steroid. The sulphate group appeared to be linked to the other hydroxyl group of the steroid. PMID:5419749

  7. Development of a Native Escherichia coli Induction System for Ionic Liquid Tolerance

    E-print Network

    Dunlop, Mary

    control systems for regulating eilA gene expression. Three candidate promoters, PmarR', PydfO', and Pydf such as PmarR' can provide effective systems for regulating the expression of heterologous genes in hostA', were selected and compared to the IPTG-inducible PlacUV5 system for controlling expression of eil

  8. In 14th IEEE Symposium on Computer Based Medical Systems (CBMS'2001), 26-27 July, Bethesda A Case for Supplementing Evidence Base Medicine with Inductive

    E-print Network

    Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    In 14th IEEE Symposium on Computer Based Medical Systems (CBMS'2001), 26-27 July, Bethesda (USA). A Case for Supplementing Evidence Base Medicine with Inductive Clinical Knowledge: Towards a Technology Group, School of Computer Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia sraza

  9. Induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Whitney H. (Ogden, UT)

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  10. Phenobarbitone interaction with oral contraceptive steroids in the rabbit and rat.

    PubMed Central

    Back, D. J.; Breckenridge, A. M.; Crawford, F. E.; Orme, M. L.; Rowe, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    1 The effect of phenobarbitone on the single dose pharmacokinetics of the synthetic steroids, ethinyloestradiol (EE2) and norethisterone, has been studied in the rabbit and rat. 2 EE2 is subject to an extensive first pass effect (96%). The plasma clearance of EE2 approaches total hepatic blood flow. It is suggested that a secondary peak in EE2 plasma concentration time curves at 5 h is due to enterohepatic recycling. Phenobarbitone had no effect on plasma EE2 concentrations following intravenous administration and produced a variable decrease after oral administration. 3 In phenobarbitone-treated rabbits, following intravenous administration of norethisterone there was no significant change in the area under the curve (AUC) compared to controls. In contrast, following oral administration of norethisterone to treated rabbits, the AUC was 20% and the peak plasma concentration 17% of that in controls. 4 The data in rabbits are consistent with drugs which are highly extracted by the liver. 5 In rats, phenobarbitone had no effect on plasma norethisterone concentrations following intravenous or hepatic portal (bolus) administration, but caused a decrease in systemic availability after both infusion into the portal vein (over a period of 5 min) and oral administration. 6 It is concluded that the rate of delivery of norethisterone to the liver is important in determining whether or not enzyme induction will cause an increased first pass effect. 7 Phenobarbitone caused an increase in conjugation of norethisterone in the gastrointestinal tract of rats. PMID:7397454

  11. Topical steroid addiction in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Fukaya, Mototsugu; Sato, Kenji; Sato, Mitsuko; Kimata, Hajime; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Dozono, Haruhiko; Yoshizawa, Jun; Minaguchi, Satoko

    2014-01-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology published a new guideline regarding topical therapy in atopic dermatitis in May 2014. Although topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome had been mentioned as possible side effects of topical steroids in a 2006 review article in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, no statement was made regarding this illness in the new guidelines. This suggests that there are still controversies regarding this illness. Here, we describe the clinical features of topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome, based on the treatment of many cases of the illness. Because there have been few articles in the medical literature regarding this illness, the description in this article will be of some benefit to better understand the illness and to spur discussion regarding topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome. PMID:25378953

  12. Conjugation of steroids with PAMAM nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chanphai, P; Bekale, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2015-12-01

    We studied the binding process between polyamidoamine PAMAN-G4 dendrimer and testosterone and its aliphatic (alip) and aromatic (arom) dimers in aqueous solution at pH 7.4. Multiple spectroscopic methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and molecular modeling were used to characterize the steroid binding process to PAMAM-G4 nanoparticles. Thermodynamic parameters ?S, ?H and ?G showed steroid-PAMAM bindings occur via hydrophobic, H-bonding and van der Waals contacts. The binding affinity is testosterone>testosterone-aromatic dimer>testosterone-aliphatic dimer. Transmission electron microscopy showed significant changes in carrier morphology with major changes in the diameter of the polymer aggregate as steroid encapsulation occurred. Modeling also showed that testosterone is located in the interior cavity of PAMAM with the free binding energy of -9.36kcal/mol, indicating of spontaneous steroid-polymer interaction at room temperature. PMID:26590896

  13. Induction of systemic protection against rust infection in broad bean by saccharin: effects on plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Celia; Walters, Dale

    2005-08-01

    Here, we examine the effect of saccharin on the induction of systemic resistance in broad bean (Vicia faba) to the rust fungus Uromyces viciae-fabae. Saccharin was applied to beans at the three-leaf stage, either as a soil drench or by painting the solution on to first leaves. Plants were then challenge inoculated with the rust 1, 6, 10 and 14 d following saccharin treatment, after which they were harvested, assessed for the intensity of rust infection and plant growth measurements conducted. Foliar application of saccharin did not induce systemic protection to rust infection until 14 d after application and was less effective than saccharin applied as a soil drench. When saccharin was applied as a drench, systemic protection was not observed until 6 d after application, but was still apparent in plants 14 d after application of the drench. Irrespective of the method of application, saccharin had no significant effect on fresh and dry weights or leaf area of the plants. Saccharin applied as a drench did, however, reduce the number of leaflets produced. PMID:15998410

  14. Non-contact multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy system for industrial-scale bio-impedance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Toole, M. D.; Marsh, L. A.; Davidson, J. L.; Tan, Y. M.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.

    2015-03-01

    Biological tissues have a complex impedance, or bio-impedance, profile which changes with respect to frequency. This is caused by dispersion mechanisms which govern how the electromagnetic field interacts with the tissue at the cellular and molecular level. Measuring the bio-impedance spectra of a biological sample can potentially provide insight into the sample’s properties and its cellular structure. This has obvious applications in the medical, pharmaceutical and food-based industrial domains. However, measuring the bio-impedance spectra non-destructively and in a way which is practical at an industrial scale presents substantial challenges. The low conductivity of the sample requires a highly sensitive instrument, while the demands of industrial-scale operation require a fast high-throughput sensor of rugged design. In this paper, we describe a multi-frequency magnetic induction spectroscopy (MIS) system suitable for industrial-scale, non-contact, spectroscopic bio-impedance measurement over a bandwidth of 156 kHz-2.5 MHz. The system sensitivity and performance are investigated using calibration and known reference samples. It is shown to yield rapid and consistently sensitive results with good long-term stability. The system is then used to obtain conductivity spectra of a number of biological test samples, including yeast suspensions of varying concentration and a range of agricultural produce, such as apples, pears, nectarines, kiwis, potatoes, oranges and tomatoes.

  15. Paradoxical cyclosporine A requirements in pediatric renal transplants receiving high-dose steroids.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Karolyn W; Crocker, John F S; McLellan, Heather; Goralski, Kerry B; Renton, Ken W; Acott, Philip D

    2005-02-01

    The potent immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CyA) is a mainstay of treatment in the renal transplant population. During episodes of acute allograft rejection, therapy also includes the pulse administration of high-dose steroids such as prednisone or methylprednisolone. Both steroids and CyA are metabolized by the CYP3A4 isoenzyme of the cytochrome P450 catalytic system. On a theoretical basis, high steroid concentrations during a rejection episode could competitively inhibit CyA metabolism, increasing its systemic concentration and decreasing its dose requirements. A database was compiled consisting of pediatric patients who had undergone an acute renal rejection event during the years 1993 to 2003. The severity of rejection events, as well as the CyA and prednisone dosing regimens used during rejection, were assessed using a comprehensive chart analysis. The presence or absence of additional medications that could potentially interact with CyA was also examined. Although some patients responded in the predicted manner, the authors also found that a subgroup of pediatric patients placed on highdose pulse steroid therapy for acute graft rejection required increased amounts of CyA to maintain therapeutic concentrations. The authors recommend monitoring of patients on high-dose steroids for paradoxical CyA requirements intermittently during high-dose steroid treatment to individualize CyA therapy appropriately during renal allograft rejection and thereby maximize efficacy while minimizing potential toxic side effects of CyA such as under-immunosuppression and organ rejection. PMID:15647408

  16. Steroids in the assessment of prenatal development.

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, G.; Kitchin, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for identifying the fetus at risk and monitoring fetal well-being as pregnancy progresses are now an established part of prenatal care in the Western World. In this short review the use of steroids in the assessment of prenatal development is discussed. The metabolism of oestrogens, progestogens, corticosteroids and androgens during pregnancy is outlined and the relative merits, in terms of usefulness and practicability, of urinary and plasma steroid assays are discussed. PMID:792854

  17. Microbiological hydroxylation of 5?-H-steroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turuta, Alevtina M.; Voishvillo, Natalia E.; Kamernitskii, Alexey V.

    1992-10-01

    The literature data on the use of microorganisms for the hydroxylation of 5?-H-steroids of the 5?-H-androstane and 5?-H-pregnane series and also 5?-H-sapogenins are surveyed. A systematic description of the influence of substitution in the steroid molecule on the specificity of the hydroxylation and the activity of the microbial enzymes is given within the framework of the enzyme-substrate interaction model. The bibliography includes 124 references.

  18. Bone densitometry: patients receiving prolonged steroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Erlichman, M; Holohan, T V

    1996-09-01

    Bone mass loss and osteoporosis are associated with various conditions, such as asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism, and treatments, such as prolonged steroid therapy. Bone densitometry is used to measure bone mass density to determine the degree of osteoporosis and to estimate fracture risk. Bone densitometers measure the radiation absorption by the skeleton to determine bone mass of the peripheral, axial, and total skeleton. Common techniques include single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the forearm and heel, dual-photon (DPA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the spine and hip, quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the spine or forearm, and radiographic absorptiometry (RA) of the hand. Part I of this report addresses important technical considerations of bone densitometers, including radiation dose, site selection, and accuracy and precision, as well as cost and charges. Part II evaluates the clinical utility of bone densitometry in the management of patients receiving prolonged steroid therapy. Steroids have broad effects on both immune and inflammatory processes and have been used to treat a wide variety of immunologically mediated diseases. Osteoporosis and vertebral compression fractures have been considered major complications of prolonged steroid therapy. Bone loss is also a direct result of many of the diseases treated with steroids. Issues addressed are the type and extent of bone loss associated with steroid therapy, risk for fracture, whether steroid dose reduction or alternative therapy is an option, and whether osteoporosis associated with prolonged steroid use can be prevented or treated. The other assessments in this series address the clinical utility of bone densitometry for patients with: asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism, end-stage renal disease, vertebral abnormalities, and estrogen-deficient women. PMID:9059877

  19. Mitochondrial fusion is essential for steroid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Alejandra; Poderoso, Cecilia; Cooke, Mariana; Soria, Gastón; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Gottifredi, Vanesa; Podestá, Ernesto J

    2012-01-01

    Although the contribution of mitochondrial dynamics (a balance in fusion/fission events and changes in mitochondria subcellular distribution) to key biological process has been reported, the contribution of changes in mitochondrial fusion to achieve efficient steroid production has never been explored. The mitochondria are central during steroid synthesis and different enzymes are localized between the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum to produce the final steroid hormone, thus suggesting that mitochondrial fusion might be relevant for this process. In the present study, we showed that the hormonal stimulation triggers mitochondrial fusion into tubular-shaped structures and we demonstrated that mitochondrial fusion does not only correlate-with but also is an essential step of steroid production, being both events depend on PKA activity. We also demonstrated that the hormone-stimulated relocalization of ERK1/2 in the mitochondrion, a critical step during steroidogenesis, depends on mitochondrial fusion. Additionally, we showed that the SHP2 phosphatase, which is required for full steroidogenesis, simultaneously modulates mitochondrial fusion and ERK1/2 localization in the mitochondrion. Strikingly, we found that mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) expression, a central protein for mitochondrial fusion, is upregulated immediately after hormone stimulation. Moreover, Mfn2 knockdown is sufficient to impair steroid biosynthesis. Together, our findings unveil an essential role for mitochondrial fusion during steroidogenesis. These discoveries highlight the importance of organelles' reorganization in specialized cells, prompting the exploration of the impact that organelle dynamics has on biological processes that include, but are not limited to, steroid synthesis. PMID:23029265

  20. Evaluation of Chronic Physical and Psychological Stress Induction on Cardiac Ischemia / Reperfusion Injuries in Isolated Male Rat Heart: The Role of Sympathetic Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Rakhshan, Kamran; Imani, Alireza; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Nabavizadeh, Fatemeh; Golnazari, Masoumeh; Karimian, SeyedMorteza

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to stress leads to physiological changes called "stress response" which are the result of the changes in the adrenomedullary hormone system, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. In the present study, the effects of chronic physical and psychological stress and also the role of sympathetic system effects in stress on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries have been studied in isolated rat heart. Rat heart was isolated and subjected to 30 min regional ischemia and 120 min reperfusion. The daily stress was induced for one week prior to I/R induction. Sympathectomy was done chemically by injection of hydroxyl-dopamine prior to stress induction. There were no significant changes in heart rate and Coronary Flow between groups. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and rate product pressure (RPP) in both physical and psychological stress groups decreased significantly compared to those in control group (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between physical and psychological stress groups. Infarct size significantly increased in both physical and psychological stress groups and control group(P<0.05. Sympathectomy before induction of stress led to the elimination of the deleterious effects of stress as compared with stress groups (P<0.05). These results show that induction of chronic physical and psychological stress prior to ischemia/reperfusion causes enhancement of myocardial injuries and it seems that increased sympathetic activity in response to stress is responsible for these adverse effects of stress onischemic/reperfused heart. PMID:26545993

  1. Experimental system, and its evaluation for the control of surgically inducted infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tevebaugh, M. D.; Nelson, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The effect is reported to design, fabricate, test and evaluate a prototype experimental system for the control of surgically induced infections. The purpose is to provide the cleanest possible environment within a hospital surgery room and eliminate contamination sources that could cause infections during surgery. The system design is described. The system provides for a portable laminar flow clean room, a full bubble helmet system with associated communications and ventilation subsystems for operating room personnel, and surgical gowns that minimize the migration of bacteria. The development test results consisting of portability, laminar flowrate, air flow pattern, electrostatic buildup, noise level, ventilation, human factors, electrical and material compatibility tests are summarized. The conclusions are that the experimental system is effective in reducing the airborne and wound contamination although the helmets and gowns may not be a significant part of this reduction. Definitive conclusions with regard to the infection rate cannot be made at this time.

  2. Changes in the concentrations of four maternal steroids during embryonic development in the threespined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Paitz, Ryan Thomas; Mommer, Brett Christian; Suhr, Elissa; Bell, Alison Marie

    2015-08-01

    Embryonic exposure to steroids often leads to long-term phenotypic effects. It has been hypothesized that mothers may be able to create a steroid environment that adjusts the phenotypes of offspring to current environmental conditions. Complicating this hypothesis is the potential for developing embryos to modulate their early endocrine environment. This study utilized the threespined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to characterize the early endocrine environment within eggs by measuring four steroids (progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol) of maternal origin. We then examined how the concentrations of these four steroids changed over the first 12 days post fertilization (dpf). Progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol of maternal origin could be detected within unfertilized eggs and levels of all four steroids declined in the first 3 days following fertilization. While levels of progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol remained low after the initial decline, levels of cortisol rose again by 8?dpf. These results demonstrate that G. aculeatus embryos begin development in the presence of a number of maternal steroids but levels begin to change quickly following fertilization. This suggests that embryonic processes change the early endocrine environment and hence influence the ability of maternal steroids to affect development. With these findings, G. aculeatus becomes an intriguing system in which to study how selection may act on both maternal and embryonic processes to shape the evolutionary consequence of steroid-mediated maternal effects. PMID:26036752

  3. Simulation of Trolleybus Traction Induction Drive With Supercapacitor Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazis, V.; Latkovskis, L.; Grigans, L.

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the possibilities of saving the regenerative braking energy in Škoda 24Tr type trolleybuses by installing the onboard supercapacitor energy storage system (ESS) and improving its performance with automated switching to the autonomous traction mode. Proposed is an ESS control system with constant DC bus voltage in the supercapacitor charging mode and supercapacitor current proportional to the AC drive current in the discharging mode. The authors investigate stability of the trolleybus ESS control system operating together with AC traction drive in various overhead voltage failure modes. The co-simulation of ESS operation was done by Matlab/Simulink AC drive and PSIM ESS continuous models.

  4. Environmental Assessment for the proposed Induction Linac System Experiments in Building 51B at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), (DOE/EA-1087) evaluating the proposed action to modify existing Building 51B at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to install and conduct experiments on a new Induction Linear Accelerator System. LBNL is located in Berkeley, California and operated by the University of California (UC). The project consists of placing a pre-fabricated building inside Building 51B to house a new 10 MeV heavy ion linear accelerator. A control room and other support areas would be provided within and directly adjacent to Building 51B. The accelerator system would be used to conduct tests, at reduced scale and cost, many features of a heavy-ion accelerator driver for the Department of Energy`s inertial fusion energy program. Based upon information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  5. Comparison of laser ablation and dried solution aerosol as sampling systems in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Coedo, A G; Padilla, I; Dorado, M T

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes a study designed to determine the possibility of using a dried aerosol solution for calibration in laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The relative sensitivities of tested materials mobilized by laser ablation and by aqueous nebulization were established, and the experimentally determined relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) were used in conjunction with aqueous calibration for the analysis of solid steel samples. To such a purpose a set of CRM carbon steel samples (SS-451/1 to SS-460/1) were sampled into an ICP-MS instrument by solution nebulization using a microconcentric nebulizer with membrane desolvating (D-MCN) and by laser ablation (LA). Both systems were applied with the same ICP-MS operating parameters and the analyte signals were compared. The RSF (desolvated aerosol response/ablated solid response) values were close to 1 for the analytes Cr, Ni, Co, V, and W, about 1.3 for Mo, and 1.7 for As, P, and Mn. Complementary tests were carried out using CRM SS-455/1 as a solid standard for one-point calibration, applying LAMTRACE software for data reduction and quantification. The analytical results are in good agreement with the certified values in all cases, showing that the applicability of dried aerosol solutions is a good alternative calibration system for laser ablation sampling. PMID:15606963

  6. The avian embryo: a powerfil model system for studying neural induction

    E-print Network

    Stern, Claudio

    , second nervous system when trans- planted to a different region of a host embryo. Only a few years later, could also be made to generate a second nervous sys- tem by transplanting the tip of the primitive

  7. On-line implementation of a fault diagnosis system for three-phase induction motors 

    E-print Network

    Alladi, Vijaya Mallikarjun

    2002-01-01

    provide advanced warnings regarding the health of machinery. The implementation of an efficient fault detection system into a form that allows for continuous on-line condition monitoring in industry could reduce the uncertainties related to machinery...

  8. Induction of mucosal tolerance in SLE: A sniff or a sip away from ameliorating lupus?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Henry Yim

    2009-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by aberrant immune responses against intracellularly derived self antigens. Treatment for SLE relies on the use of aggressive immunosuppressants and steroids that are nonspecific and can cause serious adverse effects. The observation that a systemic immune tolerance to self antigens or generation of regulatory T cells may follow mucosal (nasal or oral) exposure to self proteins or monoclonal antibody against CD3 respectively suggests that induction of mucosal tolerance offers the basis of a side effect free therapy that could re-establish the ability to distinguish self from non-self and restore peripheral tolerance in individuals susceptible to developing autoimmune diseases. Here I review studies on mucosal tolerance in autoimmune diseases and discuss the therapeutic potential of inducing tolerance for the treatment of SLE. PMID:18938110

  9. Investigations and system design for simultaneous energy and data transmission through inductively coupled resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C.; Lloret Fuentes, E.; Buchholz, M.

    2015-11-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) with simultaneous data transmission through coupled magnetic resonators is investigated in this paper. The development of this system is dedicated to serve as a basis for applications in the field of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), for example tracking vital parameters remotely, charge and control sensors and so on. Due to these different scenarios we consider, it is important to have a system which is reliable under the circumstance of changing positioning of the receiving device. State of the art radio systems would be able to handle this. Nevertheless, energy harvesting from far field sources is not sufficient to power the devices additionally on mid-range distances. For this reason, coupled magnetic resonant circuits are proposed as a promising alternative, although suffering from more complex positioning dependency. Based on measurements on a simple prototype system, an equivalent circuit description is used to model the transmission system dependent on different transmission distances and impedance matching conditions. Additionally, the simulation model is used to extract system parameters such as coupling coefficients, coil resistance and self-capacitance, which cannot be calculated in a simple and reliable way. Furthermore, a mathematical channel model based on the schematic model has been built in MATLAB©. It is used to point out the problems occurring in a transmission system with variable transmission distance, especially the change of the passband's centre frequency and its bandwidth. Existing solutions dealing with this distance dependent behaviour, namely the change of the transmission frequency dependent on distance and the addition of losses to the resonators to increase the bandwidth, are considered as not inventive. First, changing the transmission frequency increases the complexity in the data transmission system and would use a disproportional total bandwidth compared to the actually available bandwidth. Additionally, adding losses causes a decrease in the energy transmission efficiency. Based on these facts, we consider a system that changes the channel itself by tuning the resonant coils in a way that the passband is always at a fixed frequency. This would overcome the previously described issues, and additionally could allow for the possibility to run several independent transmission systems in parallel without disturbing each other.

  10. Laboratory Investigation of Ice Formation and Elimination in the Induction System of a Large Twin-engine Cargo Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colis, William D

    1947-01-01

    The icing characteristics, the de-icing rate with hot air, and the effect of impact ice on fuel metering and mixture distribution have been determined in a laboratory investigation of that part of the engine induction system consisting of a three-barrel injection-type carburetor and a supercharger housing with spinner-type fuel injection from an 18-cylinder radial engine used on a large twin-engine cargo airplane. The induction system remained ice-free at carburetor-air temperatures above 36 F regardless of the moisture content of the air. Between carburetor-air temperatures of 32 F and 36 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious throttling ice formed in the carburetor because of expansion cooling of the air; at carburetor-air temperatures below 32 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious impact-ice formations occurred, Spinner-type fuel injection at the entrance to the supercharger and heating of the supercharger-inlet elbow and the guide vanes by the warn oil in the rear engine housing are design features that proved effective in eliminating fuel-evaporation icing and minimized the formation of throttling ice below the carburetor. Air-flow recovery time with fixed throttle was rapidly reduced as the inlet -air wet -bulb temperature was increased to 55 F; further temperature increase produced negligible improvement in recovery time. Larger ice formations and lower icing temperatures increased the time required to restore proper air flow at a given wet-bulb temperature. Impact-ice formations on the entrance screen and the top of the carburetor reduced the over-all fuel-air ratio and increased the spread between the over-all ratio and the fuel-air ratio of the individual cylinders. The normal spread of fuel-air ratio was increased from 0.020 to 0.028 when the left quarter of the entrance screen was blocked in a manner simulating the blocking resulting from ice formations released from upstream duct walls during hot-air de-icing.

  11. ON INDUCTIVE LOGIC RUDOLF CARNAP

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    , etc.) and an infinite language system Le;',). LrfJ refers to an infinite universe of individuals of inductive logic to be outlined applies to an infinite sequence of finite language systen1s L N (N == 1, 2, 3

  12. In Vivo Regulation of Steroid Hormones by the Chst10 Sulfotransferase in Mouse*

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki-Anekoji, Misa; Suzuki, Atsushi; Wu, Sz-Wei; Angata, Kiyohiko; Murai, Keith K.; Sugihara, Kazuhiro; Akama, Tomoya O.; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Nakayama, Jun; Fukuda, Michiko N.; Fukuda, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Chst10 adds sulfate to glucuronic acid to form a carbohydrate antigen, HNK-1, in glycoproteins and glycolipids. To determine the role of Chst10 in vivo, we generated systemic Chst10-deficient mutant mice. Although Chst10?/? mice were born and grew to adulthood with no gross defects, they were subfertile. Uteri from Chst10?/? females at the pro-estrus stage were larger than those from wild-type females and exhibited a thick uterine endometrium. Serum estrogen levels in Chst10?/? females were higher than those from wild-type females, suggesting impaired down-regulation of estrogen. Because steroid hormones are often conjugated to glucuronic acid, we hypothesized that Chst10 sulfates glucuronidated steroid hormone to regulate steroid hormone in vivo. Enzymatic activity assays and structural analysis of Chst10 products by HPLC and mass spectrometry revealed that Chst10 indeed sulfates glucuronidated estrogen, testosterone, and other steroid hormones. We also identified an HPLC peak corresponding to sulfated and glucuronidated estradiol in serum from wild-type but not from Chst10 null female mice. Estrogen-response element reporter assays revealed that Chst10-modified estrogen likely did not bind to its receptor. These results suggest that subfertility exhibited by female mice following Chst10 loss results from dysregulation of estrogen. Given that Chst10 transfers sulfates to several steroid hormones, Chst10 likely functions in widespread regulation of steroid hormones in vivo. PMID:23269668

  13. Effects of centrifugation on gonadal and adrenocortical steroids in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakihana, R.; Butte, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Many endocrine systems are sensitive to external changes in the environment. Both the pituitary adrenal and pituitary gonadal systems are affected by stress including centrifugation stress. The effect of centrifugation on the pituitary gonadal and pituitary adrenocortical systems was examined by measuring the gonadal and adrenal steroids in the plasma and brain following different duration and intensity of centrifugation stress in rats. Two studies were completed and the results are presented. The second study was carried out to describe the developmental changes of brain, plasma and testicular testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in Sprague Dawley rats so that the effect of centrifugation stress on the pituitary gonadal syatem could be better evaluated in future studies.

  14. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. 1308.26 Section 1308... Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products...

  15. 21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application...SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product;...

  16. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. 1308...SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application...SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product;...

  18. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. 1308...SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a)...

  19. Development of vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for wide measurement range of number density using a dual-tube inductively coupled plasma light source.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Akira; Matsui, Makoto; Yamagiwa, Yoshiki

    2012-12-01

    A vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for a wide measurement range of atomic number densities is developed. Dual-tube inductively coupled plasma was used as a light source. The probe beam profile was optimized for the target number density range by changing the mass flow rate of the inner and outer tubes. This system was verified using cold xenon gas. As a result, the measurement number density range was extended from the conventional two orders to five orders of magnitude. PMID:23277970

  20. Development of vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for wide measurement range of number density using a dual-tube inductively coupled plasma light source

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwahara, Akira; Matsui, Makoto; Yamagiwa, Yoshiki

    2012-12-15

    A vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for a wide measurement range of atomic number densities is developed. Dual-tube inductively coupled plasma was used as a light source. The probe beam profile was optimized for the target number density range by changing the mass flow rate of the inner and outer tubes. This system was verified using cold xenon gas. As a result, the measurement number density range was extended from the conventional two orders to five orders of magnitude.

  1. A methodology for two-dimensional finite element analysis of electromagnetically driven flow in induction stirring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natarajan, T.T. ); El-Kaddah, N. )

    1999-05-01

    Induction technologies are extensively used for stirring of molten metal by means of electromagnetic forces generated from the interaction between induced currents in the melt and the associated magnetic field. The range of applications extends from scrap melting in induction furnaces to melt stirring in continuous casting. This paper describes an integral closure approach for 2-D analysis of electromagnetically driven flow in inductively coupled molten metal using the finite-element method. This methodology, which restricts the solution domain to the conduction region(s), was demonstrated for flows generated by complex electromagnetic fields, and computed results were found to be in good agreement with measurements.

  2. Molecular chaperones function as steroid receptor nuclear mobility factors

    PubMed Central

    Elbi, Cem; Walker, Dawn A.; Romero, Guillermo; Sullivan, William P.; Toft, David O.; Hager, Gordon L.; DeFranco, Donald B.

    2004-01-01

    Live cell imaging has revealed the rapid mobility of steroid hormone receptors within nuclei and their dynamic exchange at transcriptionally active target sites. Although a number of other proteins have been shown to be highly mobile within nuclei, the identity of soluble factors responsible for orchestrating nuclear trafficking remains unknown. We have developed a previously undescribed in situ subnuclear trafficking assay that generates transcriptionally active nuclei, which are depleted of soluble factors required for the nuclear mobility of glucocorticoid (GR) and progesterone receptors (PR). Using this system and a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique, we demonstrate that nuclear mobility of GR recovered on incubation with reticulocyte lysate was inhibited by geldanamycin, a drug that blocks the chaperone activity of heat-shock protein 90. Direct proof of molecular chaperone involvement in steroid receptor subnuclear trafficking was provided by the ATP-dependent recovery of nuclear mobility of GR and PR on incubation with various combinations of purified chaperone and/or cochaperone proteins. Additionally, for both receptors, the inclusion of hormone during the recovery period leads to a retardation of nuclear mobility. Thus, our results provide a description of soluble nuclear mobility factors and furthermore demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for molecular chaperones in the regulation of steroid receptor function within the nucleus. PMID:14978266

  3. Dynamic Mechanism of Photochemical Induction of Turing Superlattices in the Chlorine Dioxide-Iodine-Malonic Acid Reaction-Diffusion System

    E-print Network

    Epstein, Irving R.

    Dynamic Mechanism of Photochemical Induction of Turing Superlattices in the Chlorine Dioxide-Iodine".17,18 Recently, we discovered Turing superlattice structures that develop in the chlorine dioxide-iodine

  4. Systems analysis of lactose metabolism in Trichoderma reesei identifies a lactose permease that is essential for cellulase induction.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Christa; Bååth, Jenny A; Seiboth, Bernhard; Kubicek, Christian P

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei colonizes predecayed wood in nature and metabolizes cellulose and hemicellulose from the plant biomass. The respective enzymes are industrially produced for application in the biofuel and biorefinery industry. However, these enzymes are also induced in the presence of lactose (1,4-0-ß-d-galactopyranosyl-d-glucose), a waste product from cheese manufacture or whey processing industries. In fact, lactose is the only soluble carbon source that induces these enzymes in T. reesei on an industrial level but the reason for this unique phenomenon is not understood. To answer this question, we used systems analysis of the T. reesei transcriptome during utilization of lactose. We found that the respective CAZome encoded all glycosyl hydrolases necessary for cellulose degradation and particularly for the attack of monocotyledon xyloglucan, from which ß-galactosides could be released that may act as the inducers of T. reesei's cellulases and hemicellulases. In addition, lactose also induces a high number of putative transporters of the major facilitator superfamily. Deletion of fourteen of them identified one gene that is essential for lactose utilization and lactose uptake, and for cellulase induction by lactose (but not sophorose) in pregrown mycelia of T. reesei. These data shed new light on the mechanism by which T. reesei metabolizes lactose and offers strategies for its improvement. They also illuminate the key role of ß-D-galactosides in habitat specificity of this fungus. PMID:23690947

  5. Inductively Coupled Plasma and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Etching of InGaAlP Compound Semiconductor System

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, C.R.; Hobson, W.S.; Hong, J.; Lambers, E.S.; Pearton, S.J.; Shul, R.J.

    1998-11-04

    Current and future generations of sophisticated compound semiconductor devices require the ability for submicron scale patterning. The situation is being complicated since some of the new devices are based on a wider diversity of materials to be etched. Conventional IUE (Reactive Ion Etching) has been prevalent across the industry so far, but has limitations for materials with high bond strengths or multiple elements. IrI this paper, we suggest high density plasmas such as ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) and ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma), for the etching of ternary compound semiconductors (InGaP, AIInP, AlGaP) which are employed for electronic devices like heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) or high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), and photonic devices such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers. High density plasma sources, opeiating at lower pressure, are expected to meet target goals determined in terms of etch rate, surface morphology, surface stoichiometry, selectivity, etc. The etching mechanisms, which are described in this paper, can also be applied to other III-V (GaAs-based, InP-based) as well as III-Nitride since the InGaAIP system shares many of the same properties.

  6. Apparatus and method for reducing inductive coupling between levitation and drive coils within a magnetic propulsion system

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for reducing inductive coupling between levitation and drive coils within a magnetic levitation system. A pole array has a magnetic field. A levitation coil is positioned so that in response to motion of the magnetic field of the pole array a current is induced in the levitation coil. A first drive coil having a magnetic field coupled to drive the pole array also has a magnetic flux which induces a parasitic current in the levitation coil. A second drive coil having a magnetic field is positioned to attenuate the parasitic current in the levitation coil by canceling the magnetic flux of the first drive coil which induces the parasitic current. Steps in the method include generating a magnetic field with a pole array for levitating an object; inducing current in a levitation coil in response to motion of the magnetic field of the pole array; generating a magnetic field with a first drive coil for propelling the object; and generating a magnetic field with a second drive coil for attenuating effects of the magnetic field of the first drive coil on the current in the levitation coil.

  7. Candida albicans keratitis modified by steroid application.

    PubMed

    Araki-Sasaki, Kaoru; Sonoyama, Hiroko; Kawasaki, Tsutomu; Kazama, Nariyasu; Ideta, Hidenao; Inoue, Yoshitsugu

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports on Candida albicans ocular infection modified by steroid eye drops. A 74-year-old male complained of conjunctival injection and pain in his right eye three months after pterygium and cataract surgery. After treatment with antibiotics and steroid eye drops for three days, he was referred to our hospital. Clear localized corneal endothelial plaque with injection of ciliary body was observed. No erosion of the corneal epithelium, or infiltration of stromal edema was observed, suggesting that the pathological organism derived from the intracameral region. Because ocular infection was suspected, steroid eye drops were stopped, which led immediately to typical infectious keratitis in the pathological region, with epithelial erosion, fluffy abscess, stromal infiltration, and edema. For diagnostic purposes, the plaque was surgically removed with forceps and the anterior chamber was irrigated with antibiotics. The smear and culture examination from the plaque revealed C. albicans surrounded by neutrophils. However, aqueous fluid and fibrous tissue after gonio procedure contained no mycotic organisms. Topical fluconazole, micafungin, and pimaricin with oral itraconazole (150 mg/day) were effective. Special attention is needed when prescribing steroid eye drops to treat corneal disease especially postoperatively. Diagnosing infectious keratitis is sometimes difficult because of modification by some factors, such as postoperative conditions, scarring, and drug-induced masking. Here, we report on mycotic keratitis modified by postoperative steroid administration. PMID:19668571

  8. Review of Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Use

    SciTech Connect

    T. Borges; G. Eisele; C. Byrd

    2001-07-31

    An area that has been overlooked within personnel security evaluations is employee use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Current drug testing within the federal government does not include testing for anabolic steroids, and the difficulties to implement such testing protocols-not to mention the cost involved-make AAS testing highly improbable. The basis of this report is to bring to the forefront the damage that anabolic steroids can cause from both a physical and a psychological standpoint. Most individuals who use AASs do so to increase their muscle mass because they wish to gain some type of competitive edge during athletic competition or they wish to enhance their physical features for self-satisfaction and self-esteem (i.e., body building). Security officers are one group of men who often take high doses of anabolic steroids, according to the Second Report of the Senate Standing Committee (1990). The negative psychological characteristics for AAS use is extensive and includes prominent hostility, aggressiveness, irritability, euphoria, grandiose beliefs, hyperactivity, reckless behavior, increased sexual appetite, unpredictability, poor impulse control, mood fluctuations, and insomnia. The drug may invoke a sense of power and invincibility (Leckman and Scahill, 1990). Depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, fatigue, impaired concentration, decreased libido, and even suicidality (Pope and Katz, 1992) have been noted with steroid withdrawal. It appears that long-term users of AAS experience similar characteristics as other substance abusers (i.e., craving, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms).

  9. Quality assurance: The 10-Group Classification System (Robson classification), induction of labor, and cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Robson, Michael; Murphy, Martina; Byrne, Fionnuala

    2015-10-01

    Quality assurance in labor and delivery is needed. The method must be simple and consistent, and be of universal value. It needs to be clinically relevant, robust, and prospective, and must incorporate epidemiological variables. The 10-Group Classification System (TGCS) is a simple method providing a common starting point for further detailed analysis within which all perinatal events and outcomes can be measured and compared. The system is demonstrated in the present paper using data for 2013 from the National Maternity Hospital in Dublin, Ireland. Interpretation of the classification can be easily taught. The standard table can provide much insight into the philosophy of care in the population of women studied and also provide information on data quality. With standardization of audit of events and outcomes, any differences in either sizes of groups, events or outcomes can be explained only by poor data collection, significant epidemiological variables, or differences in practice. In April 2015, WHO proposed that the TGCS (also known as the Robson classification) is used as a global standard for assessing, monitoring, and comparing cesarean delivery rates within and between healthcare facilities. PMID:26433499

  10. Environmental impacts on the gonadotropic system in female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during vitellogenesis: Photothermal effects on pituitary gonadotropins, ovarian gonadotropin receptor expression, plasma sex steroids and oocyte growth.

    PubMed

    Taranger, Geir Lasse; Muncaster, Simon; Norberg, Birgitta; Thorsen, Anders; Andersson, Eva

    2015-09-15

    The gonadotropic system and ovarian growth and development were studied during vitellogenesis in female Atlantic salmon subjected to either simulated natural photoperiod and ambient water temperature (NL-amb), or an accelerating photoperiod (short day of LD8:16 from May 10) combined with either warmed (ca 2°C above ambient; 8L-warm) or cooled water (ca 2°C below ambient; 8L-cold) from May to September. Monthly samples were collected from 10 females/group for determination of transcript levels of pituitary gonadotropin subunits (fshb and lhb) and ovarian gonadotropin receptors (fshr and lhr), plasma sex steroids (testosterone: T and estradiol-17?: E2), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and oocyte size. Short day in combination with either warmed or cooled water induced an earlier increase in pituitary fshb and lhb levels compared with NL-amb controls, and advanced ovarian growth and the seasonal profiles of T, E2. By contrast only minor effects were seen of the photothermal treatments on ovarian fshr and lhr. The 8L-cold had earlier increase in fshb, lhb and E2, but similar oocyte and gonadal growth as 8L-warm, suggesting that the 8L-cold group tried to compensate for the lower water temperature during the period of rapid gonadal growth by increasing fshb and E2 production. Both the 8L-warm and 8L-cold groups showed incomplete ovulation in a proportion of the females, possibly due to the photoperiod advancement resulting in earlier readiness of spawning occurring at a higher ambient temperature, or due to some reproductive dysfunction caused by photothermal interference with normal neuroendocrine regulation of oocyte development and maturation. PMID:25712829

  11. Photoaffinity labelling of steroid-hormone-binding glutathione S-transferases with [3H]methyltrienolone. Inhibition of steroid-binding activity by the anticarcinogen indole-3-carbinol.

    PubMed Central

    Danger, D P; Baldwin, W S; LeBlanc, G A

    1992-01-01

    The identification and characterization of steroid-hormone-binding glutathione S-transferases (GST) were undertaken using photoaffinity-labelling techniques. Irradiation of mouse liver cytosol, in the presence of 50 nM-[3H]methyltrienolone, resulted in the specific affinity labelling of five proteins. One of these proteins, designated MBP27, had an approximate molecular mass of 27 kDa under denaturing conditions and was induced by treatment of mice with either 2(3)-t-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA) or phenobarbital (PB). An additional affinity-labelled protein, MBP25, which was not detected in untreated mouse cytosol, was induced in the liver cytosols from BHA- and PB-treated mice. The molecular masses of these proteins and their induction by BHA and PB suggested that they may be steroid-hormone-binding GST subunits. Irradiation of mouse liver cytosol in the presence of [3H]methyltrienolone, followed by immunoprecipitation using GST-specific antibodies established that both GST mu and GST alpha bind [3H]methyltrienolone and both contribute to the affinity-labelled protein designated MBP27. GST Ya1 Ya1, an alpha class GST that is not expressed in untreated mouse liver but is induced by BHA and PB, was also found to bind [3H]methyltrienolone and is identical with the affinity-labelled protein designated MBP25. Experiments were undertaken next to assess the effects of the anticarcinogenic plant compound indole-3-carbinol (I3C) on GST-mediated steroid hormone-binding using the photoaffinity labelling techniques. Treatment of mice with I3C resulted in the induction of immunoreactive GST mu and GST Ya1 Ya1. However, the steroid-binding activity of these proteins in vitro was severely inhibited by the acid-condensation products of I3C that are generated in the stomach after ingestion. These results suggest that I3C may inhibit GST-mediated steroid-binding activity which could contribute to the anticarcinogenic activity of this compound. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1463441

  12. Induction plasma tube

    DOEpatents

    Hull, D.E.

    1982-07-02

    An induction plasma tube having a segmented, fluid-cooled internal radiation shield is disclosed. The individual segments are thick in cross-section such that the shield occupies a substantial fraction of the internal volume of the plasma enclosure, resulting in improved performance and higher sustainable plasma temperatures. The individual segments of the shield are preferably cooled by means of a counterflow fluid cooling system wherein each segment includes a central bore and a fluid supply tube extending into the bore. The counterflow cooling system results in improved cooling of the individual segments and also permits use of relatively larger shield segments which permit improved electromagnetic coupling between the induction coil and a plasma located inside the shield. Four embodiments of the invention, each having particular advantages, are disclosed.

  13. Induction plasma tube

    DOEpatents

    Hull, Donald E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    An induction plasma tube having a segmented, fluid-cooled internal radiation shield is disclosed. The individual segments are thick in cross-section such that the shield occupies a substantial fraction of the internal volume of the plasma enclosure, resulting in improved performance and higher sustainable plasma temperatures. The individual segments of the shield are preferably cooled by means of a counterflow fluid cooling system wherein each segment includes a central bore and a fluid supply tube extending into the bore. The counterflow cooling system results in improved cooling of the individual segments and also permits use of relatively larger shield segments which permit improved electromagnetic coupling between the induction coil and a plasma located inside the shield. Four embodiments of the invention, each having particular advantages, are disclosed.

  14. Validation of a paleo river system derived by ground based electromagnetic induction measurements with satellite based RapidEye images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Sebastian; von Hebel, Christian; Ali, Mohammed; Stadler, Anja; Herbst, Michael; Montzka, Carsten; Pätzold, Stefan; Weihermüller, Lutz; van der Kruk, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    Morphological remnants of an inactive river system that has been filled by younger sediments can provide datable proxies about past climatic conditions. However, sediment composition of their infillings is a challenge for agriculture, in particular for precision agriculture. Differential crop development and yield reduction are often a consequence of lateral and vertical textural inhomogeneities. Several studies have shown that buried river systems can be traced by the use of remote sensing. However, the appearance of crop marks strongly depends on environmental conditions, and therefore, the reliance of remotely acquired data can become time and cost expensive. Soil physical properties which are related to textural differences can be mapped fast and cost-effective by the use of near surface geophysics. Especially electromagnetic induction (EMI), which measures soil apparent conductivity (ECa), has become a tool of choice to characterize large areas in high resolution. The introduction of multiple coil EMI systems as well as the quantification of respective measurements enables a reliable multilayer inversion. The aim of this study was to map a postglacial river system on agricultural fields and to mark out buried remains such as trenches and bomb craters of World War II. In summer 2012 ten fields (17 ha) were mapped with the CMD MiniExplorer, a multiple coil EMI system especially appropriate for near surface applications, after the harvest of winter wheat and sugar beet. At elevated sandy sites meander like patterns with higher conductivity were mapped. ECa measurements were verified by textural data taken from directed soil samples and vertical ECa logs. Sediment thickness was evaluated on soil cores and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) transects. Furthermore, ERT quantified ECa measurements were correlated with satellite as well as destructive derived leaf area index (LAI) measurements. In 3 of 71 LAI maps derived by multispectral RapidEye imagery crop marks were clearly visible following a dry season in spring 2011. These patterns are in coincidence with higher conductivity patterns caused by a higher amount of silt and clay. Good correlations were found for LAI measurements taken during a growing season with underlying sediments especially in the early stages of plant development. Finally, ECa measurements of two heterogeneous fields were used for a 3D layer inversion which will be further implemented into landscape models. This study shows that multiple EMI measurements can be successfully used to recover buried river systems, highlight possible sample locations and support farmers to manage their fields more precisely.

  15. Planar induction of anteroposterior pattern in the developing central nervous system of Xenopus laevis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doniach, T.; Phillips, C. R.; Gerhart, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    It has long been thought that anteroposterior (A-P) pattern in the vertebrate central nervous system is induced in the embryo's dorsal ectoderm exclusively by signals passing vertically from underlying, patterned dorsal mesoderm. Explants from early gastrulae of the frog Xenopus laevis were prepared in which vertical contact between dorsal ectoderm and mesoderm was prevented but planar contact was maintained. In these, four position-specific neural markers (engrailed-2, Krox-20, XlHbox 1, and XlHbox 6) were expressed in the ectoderm in the same A-P order as in the embryo. Thus, planar signals alone, following a path available in the normal embryo, can induce A-P neural pattern.

  16. The Tissue Fibrinolytic System Contributes to the Induction of Macrophage Function and CCL3 during Bone Repair in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kawao, Naoyuki; Tamura, Yukinori; Horiuchi, Yoshitaka; Okumoto, Katsumi; Yano, Masato; Okada, Kiyotaka; Matsuo, Osamu; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play crucial roles in repair process of various tissues. However, the details in the role of macrophages during bone repair still remains unknown. Herein, we examined the contribution of the tissue fibrinolytic system to the macrophage functions in bone repair after femoral bone defect by using male mice deficient in plasminogen (Plg–/–), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA–/–) or tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA–/–) genes and their wild-type littermates. Bone repair of the femur was delayed in uPA–/– mice until day 6, compared with wild-type (uPA+/+) mice. Number of Osterix-positive cells and vessel formation were decreased in uPA–/– mice at the bone injury site on day 4, compared with those in uPA+/+ mice. Number of macrophages and their phagocytosis at the bone injury site were reduced in uPA–/– and Plg–/–, but not in tPA–/– mice on day 4. Although uPA or plasminogen deficiency did not affect the levels of cytokines, including TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-4 and IFN-? mRNA in the damaged femur, the elevation in CCL3 mRNA levels was suppressed in uPA–/– and Plg–/–, but not in tPA–/– mice. Neutralization of CCL3 antagonized macrophage recruitment to the site of bone injury and delayed bone repair in uPA+/+, but not in uPA–/– mice. Our results provide novel evidence that the tissue fibrinolytic system contributes to the induction of macrophage recruitment and CCL3 at the bone injury site, thereby, leading to the enhancement of the repair process. PMID:25893677

  17. Exposure assessment by physiologic sampling pump--prediction of minute ventilation using a portable respiratory inductive plethysmograph system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-I; Groves, William A; Freivalds, Andris; Lee, Eun Gyung; Harper, Martin; Slaven, James E; Lee, Larry

    2008-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate a portable respiratory inductive plethysmograph (RIP) as a means to estimate minute ventilation (V(E)) for use in controlling the flow rate of a physiologic sampling pump (PSP). Specific aims were to: (1) evaluate the ability of the portable RIP system to measure V(E) using a direct (individual) fixed-volume calibration method (Direct RIP model), (2) develop and evaluate the performance of indirect (group) regression models for V(E) prediction using output data from the portable RIP and subject demographic characteristics (Indirect RIP model), and (3) compare V(E) estimates from indirect and direct portable RIP calibration with indirect estimation models published previously. Nine subjects (19-44 years) were divided into calibration (n = 6) and test (n = 3) datasets and performed step-tests on three different days while wearing the portable RIP and breathing through a pneumotachometer (reference). Minute ventilation and portable RIP output including heart rate, breathing rate, and a motion index were recorded simultaneously during the 80 minute sessions. Calibration data were used to develop a regression model for V(E) prediction that was subsequently applied to the test dataset. Direct calibration of the portable RIP system produced highly variable estimates of V(E) (R2 = 0.62, average % error = 15 +/- 50) while Indirect RIP model results were highly correlated with the reference (R2 = 0.80-0.88) and estimates of total volume were within 10% of reference values on average. Although developed from a limited dataset, the Indirect RIP model provided an alternative approach to estimation of V(E) and total volume with accuracy comparable to previously published models. PMID:19244641

  18. Pathological changes in anabolic androgenic steroid users.

    PubMed

    Lusetti, Monia; Licata, Manuela; Silingardi, Enrico; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Palmiere, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Several classes of recreational and prescription drugs have additional effects on the heart and vasculature, which may significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in chronic users. The study presented herein focuses on pathological changes involving the heart possibly due to anabolic androgenic steroid use. The role these hormones may play in their occurrence of sudden cardiac death is also investigated. 98 medico-legal cases including 6 anabolic androgenic steroid users were retrospectively reviewed. Autopsies, histology, immunohistochemistry, biochemistry and toxicology were performed in all cases. Pathological changes consisted of various degrees of interstitial and perivascular fibrosis as well as fibroadipous metaplasia and perineural fibrosis within the myocardium of the left ventricle. Within the limits of the small number of investigated cases, our results appear to confirm former observations on this topic and suggest anabolic androgenic steroid's potential causative role in the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac deaths in chronic users. PMID:26048507

  19. Induction of Systemic Resistance of Benzothiadiazole and Humic Acid in Soybean Plants Against Fusarium Wilt Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Mamdoh Ewis; Morsy, Kadry Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The ability of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and/or humic acid (HA) used as seed soaking to induce systemic resistance against a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was examined in four soybean cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Alone and in combination the inducers were able to protect soybean plants against damping-off and wilt diseases compared with check treatment. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations (Minia and New Valley governorates). The tested treatments significantly reduced damping-off and wilt diseases and increased growth parameters, except the number of branches per plant and also increased seed yield. Application of BTH (0.25 g/L) + HA (4 g/L) was the most potent in this respect. Soybean seed soaking in BTH + HA produced the highest activities of the testes of oxidative enzymes followed by BTH in the four soybean cultivars. HA treatment resulted in the lowest increases of these oxidative enzymes. Similar results were obtained with total phenol but HA increased total phenol more than did BTH in all tested cultivars. PMID:22783118

  20. Induction of systemic resistance in Panax ginseng against Phytophthora cactorum by native Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HK34

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Dae; Dutta, Swarnalee; Ryu, Hojin; Yoo, Sung-Je; Suh, Dong-Sang; Park, Kyungseok

    2014-01-01

    Background Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a perennial herb prone to various root diseases, with Phytophthora cactorum being considered one of the most dreaded pathogens. P. cactorum causes foliar blight and root rot. Although chemical pesticides are available for disease control, attention has been shifted to viable, eco-friendly, and cost-effective biological means such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for control of diseases. Methods Native Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain HK34 was isolated from wild ginseng and assessed as a biological control agent for ginseng. Leaves from plants treated with HK34 were analyzed for induced systemic resistance (ISR) against P. cactorum in square plate assay. Treated plants were verified for differential expression of defense-related marker genes using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results A total of 78 native rhizosphere bacilli from wild P. ginseng were isolated. One of the root-associated bacteria identified as B. amyloliquefaciens strain HK34 effectively induced resistance against P. cactorum when applied as soil drench once (99.1% disease control) and as a priming treatment two times in the early stages (83.9% disease control). A similar result was observed in the leaf samples of plants under field conditions, where the percentage of disease control was 85.6%. Significant upregulation of the genes PgPR10, PgPR5, and PgCAT in the leaves of plants treated with HK34 was observed against P. cactorum compared with untreated controls and only pathogen-treated plants. Conclusion The results of this study indicate HK34 as a potential biocontrol agent eliciting ISR in ginseng against P. cactorum. PMID:26199552

  1. Biocontrol activity and induction of systemic resistance in pepper by compost water extracts against Phytophthora capsici.

    PubMed

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Ki Deok

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the effects of water extracts of composts (CWE) from commercial compost facilities for controlling root and foliar infection of pepper plants by Phytophthora capsici. Among 47 CWE tested, CWE from composts Iljuk-3, Iljuk-7, Shinong-8, and Shinong-9 significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited zoospore germination, germ tube elongation, mycelial growth, and population of P. capsici. All selected CWE significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the disease incidence and severity in the seedling and plant assays compared with the controls. However, there were no significant differences in zoospore germination, disease incidence, and disease severity between treatments of untreated, autoclaved, and filtered CWE. In addition, CWE significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed leaf infection of P. capsici through induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants root-drenched with CWE. The tested CWE enhanced the expression of the pathogenesis-related genes, CABPR1, CABGLU, CAChi2, CaPR-4, CAPO1, or CaPR-10 as well as beta-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and peroxidase activities, which resulted in enhanced plant defense against P. capsici in pepper plants. Moreover, the CWE enhanced the chemical and structural defenses of the plants, including H(2)O(2) generation in the leaves and lignin accumulation in the stems. The CWE could also suppress other fungal pathogens (Colletotrichum coccodes in pepper leaves and C. orbiculare in cucumber leaves) through ISR; however, it failed to inhibit other bacterial pathogens (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in pepper leaves and Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans in cucumber leaves). These results suggest that a heat-stable chemical(s) in the CWE can suppress root and foliar infection by P. capsici in pepper plants. In addition, these suppressions might result from direct inhibition of development and population of P. capsici for root infection, as well as indirect inhibition of foliar infection through ISR with broad-spectrum protection. PMID:20626281

  2. A Mutual Inductance Approach for Optimization of Wireless Energy Transmission

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    A Mutual Inductance Approach for Optimization of Wireless Energy Transmission Minh Quoc Nguyen of optimizing the efficiency of a wireless power transmission system in terms of mutual inductance. A circuit model was developed in PSpice to simulate the effect of mutual inductance by inductive coupling on power

  3. Bell's Palsy: Treatment with Steroids and Antiviral Drugs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PATIENTS and their FAMILIES BELL’S PALSY: TREATMENT WITH STEROIDS AND ANTIVIRAL DRUGS This information sheet is provided to help you understand the role of steroids and antiviral drugs for treating Bell’s palsy. Neurologists ...

  4. REVIEW ARTICLE Nuclear Receptor Coactivators: Essential Players for Steroid Hormone

    E-print Network

    REVIEW ARTICLE Nuclear Receptor Coactivators: Essential Players for Steroid Hormone Action hormones have profound effects on homeostasis, develop- ment, reproduction and behaviour. Many of the biological effects of steroid hormones are mediated through their respective receptors, which are members

  5. Zoster sine herpete with thoracic motor paralysis temporally associated with thoracic epidural steroid injection.

    PubMed

    Schuchmann, John A; McAllister, Russell K; Armstrong, Christopher S; Puana, Rudolph

    2008-10-01

    Reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus can occur when the immune system is weakened leading to the typical presentation seen with herpes zoster or shingles. In a small percentage of these patients, motor paralysis can be seen in the affected myotomal distribution. Zoster sine herpete, or shingles without the typical vesicular rash, is an uncommon variant of zoster. Systemic steroids are known to weaken the immune response. Two previous case reports have implicated epidural steroid injections as a precipitating cause of zoster. We present a case of serologically verified zoster sine herpete producing an abdominal wall bulge, which occurred 1 wk after thoracic epidural steroid injection. Electromyography documented the presence of abdominal wall denervation. Given the low incidence of serologically proven zoster sine herpete--especially with thoracic motor paralysis--and the equally rarely documented incidence of zoster related to epidural steroids, we present what we believe to be the first reported case of zoster sine herpete with a neuropathic abdominal wall bulge occurring in close temporal association to receiving epidural steroids. PMID:18806512

  6. Intracrine sex steroid synthesis and signaling in human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Pomari, Elena; Dalla Valle, Luisa; Pertile, Paolo; Colombo, Lorenzo; Thornton, M Julie

    2015-02-01

    Peripheral intracrine sex steroid synthesis from adrenal precursors dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate has evolved in humans. We sought to establish if there are differences in intracrine, paracrine, and endocrine regulation of sex steroids by primary cultures of human skin epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Microarray analysis identified multifunctional genes modulated by steroids, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) mRNA expression, enzymatic assay aromatase activity, scratch assay cell migration, immunocytochemistry ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and collagen gel fibroblast contraction. All steroidogenic components were present, although only keratinocytes expressed the organic anion organic anion transporter protein (OATP) 2B1 transporter. Both expressed the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER1). Steroids modulated multifunctional genes, up-regulating genes important in repair and aging [angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), lamin B1 (LMNB1), and thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP)]. DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), DHEA, and 17?-estradiol stimulated keratinocyte and fibroblast migration at early (4 h) and late (24-48 h) time points, suggesting involvement of genomic and nongenomic signaling. Migration was blocked by aromatase and steroid sulfatase (STS) inhibitors confirming intracrine synthesis to estrogen. Testosterone had little effect, implying it is not an intermediate. Steroids stimulated fibroblast contraction but not ?-SMA expression. Mechanical wounding reduced fibroblast aromatase activity but increased keratinocyte activity, amplifying the bioavailability of intracellular estrogen. Cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes provide a biologically relevant model system to investigate the complex pathways of sex steroid intracrinology in human skin. PMID:25392269

  7. Role of steroid maintenance in sensitized kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Sureshkumar, Kalathil K; Marcus, Richard J; Chopra, Bhavna

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether there is a threshold sensitization level beyond which benefits of chronic steroid maintenance (CSM) emerge. METHODS: Using Organ Procurement and Transplant Network/United Network of Organ Sharing database, we compared the adjusted graft and patient survivals for CSM vs early steroid withdrawal (ESW) among patients who underwent deceased-donor kidney (DDK) transplantation from 2000 to 2008 who were stratified by peak-panel reactive antibody (peak-PRA) titers (0%-30%, 31%-60% and > 60%). All patients received perioperative induction therapy and maintenance immunosuppression based on calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). RESULTS: The study included 42851 patients. In the 0%-30% peak-PRA class, adjusted over-all graft-failure (HR 1.11, 95%CI: 1.03-1.20, P = 0.009) and patient-death (HR 1.29, 95%CI: 1.16-1.43, P < 0.001) risks were higher and death-censored graft-failure risk (HR 1.06, 95%CI: 0.98-1.14, P = 0.16) similar for CSM (n = 25218) vs ESW (n = 7399). Over-all (HR 1.04, 95%CI: 0.85-1.28, P = 0.70) and death-censored (HR 0.97, 95%CI: 0.78-1.21, P = 0.81) graft-failure risks were similar and patient-death risk (HR 1.39, 95%CI: 1.03-1.87, P = 0.03) higher for CSM (n = 3495) vs ESW (n = 850) groups for 31%-60% peak-PRA class. In the > 60% peak-PRA class, adjusted overall graft-failure (HR 0.90, 95%CI: 0.76-1.08, P = 0.25) and patient-death (HR 0.92, 95%CI: 0.71-1.17, P = 0.47) risks were similar and death-censored graft-failure risk lower (HR 0.84, 95%CI: 0.71-0.99, P = 0.04) for CSM (n = 4966) vs ESW (n = 923). CONCLUSION: In DDK transplant recipients who underwent perioperative induction and CNI/MMF maintenance, CSM appears to be associated with increased risk for death with functioning graft in minimally-sensitized patients and improved death-censored graft survival in highly-sensitized patients. PMID:26421263

  8. RESEARCH ARTICLE Coming of Age: Steroid Hormones of Wild Immature

    E-print Network

    Alberts, Susan C

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Coming of Age: Steroid Hormones of Wild Immature Baboons (Papio cynocephalus populations. In the present study we present steroid profiles for a wild population of baboons (Papio was character- ized by high and declining levels of fGC and fT, whereas steroid concentrations were low during

  9. Annual Cycles of Steroid Hormone Production, Gonad Development, and Reproductive

    E-print Network

    Tricas, Timothy C.

    Annual Cycles of Steroid Hormone Production, Gonad Development, and Reproductive Behavior and ultimate function of this extended preovulatory mating are un- known. Annual cycles of the gonadal steroids their choice of mates. This estuary sample population shows higher ab- solute steroid levels and distinct

  10. A New First Step in Activation of Steroid Receptors

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    A New First Step in Activation of Steroid Receptors HORMONE-INDUCED SWITCHING OF FKBP51 AND FKBP52 known event in steroid receptor signaling and provide the first evi- dence of differential roles for FKBP51 and FKBP52 im- munophilins in the control of steroid receptor subcellu- lar localization

  11. Relative Potencies and Combination Effects of Steroidal Estrogens in

    E-print Network

    Tyler, Charles

    Relative Potencies and Combination Effects of Steroidal Estrogens in Fish K A R E N L . T H O R P E of Biological Sciences, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH, UK The natural steroids estradiol-17 (E2) and estrone (E1) and the synthetic steroid ethynylestradiol-17R (EE2) have frequently been

  12. SXR, a novel steroid and xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor

    E-print Network

    Blumberg, Bruce

    SXR, a novel steroid and xenobiotic- sensing nuclear receptor Bruce Blumberg,1,4,5 Walid Sabbagh broad substrate specificity and are inducible by hundreds of different compounds, including steroids. The ingestion of dietary steroids and lipids induces the same enzymes; therefore, they would appear

  13. The Incidence of Anabolic Steroid Use among Competitive Bodybuilders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tricker, Ray; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated incidence of anabolic steroid use among 380 competitive male and female bodybuilders in Kansas and Missouri. Results indicated more than half (54 percent) of the male bodybuilders were using steroids on a regular basis compared to 10 percent of the female competitors. Found main reason for use of steroids was desire to win. (Author/TE)

  14. Hypercholesterolemia in Male Power Lifters Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of serum cholesterol concentrations in male power lifters who used anabolic-androgenic steroids for eight weeks, three years, or eight years indicated that mean serum cholesterol levels increased with drug use, but decreased promptly to near pre-steroid levels after steroid use ended. (Author/CB)

  15. Steroids and Other Ergogenic Aids: A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    Steroids have become one of society's "short cuts" to athletic prowess and success. This guide includes information and teaching materials for educators and others who work with youth on how to teach that steroids are drugs, that drugs can harm and kill, and that a "no-use" policy applies to steroids as well as to alcohol and other drugs. It is…

  16. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308.34 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations...

  17. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308.34 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations...

  18. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308.34 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations...

  19. Dynamic feedback circuits function as a switch for shaping a maturation-inducing steroid pulse in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Morten E; Danielsen, E Thomas; Herder, Rachel; O'Connor, Michael B; Rewitz, Kim F

    2013-12-01

    Steroid hormones trigger the onset of sexual maturation in animals by initiating genetic response programs that are determined by steroid pulse frequency, amplitude and duration. Although steroid pulses coordinate growth and timing of maturation during development, the mechanisms generating these pulses are not known. Here we show that the ecdysone steroid pulse that drives the juvenile-adult transition in Drosophila is determined by feedback circuits in the prothoracic gland (PG), the major steroid-producing tissue of insect larvae. These circuits coordinate the activation and repression of hormone synthesis, the two key parameters determining pulse shape (amplitude and duration). We show that ecdysone has a positive-feedback effect on the PG, rapidly amplifying its own synthesis to trigger pupariation as the onset of maturation. During the prepupal stage, a negative-feedback signal ensures the decline in ecdysone levels required to produce a temporal steroid pulse that drives developmental progression to adulthood. The feedback circuits rely on a developmental switch in the expression of Broad isoforms that transcriptionally activate or silence components in the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway. Remarkably, our study shows that the same well-defined genetic program that stimulates a systemic downstream response to ecdysone is also utilized upstream to set the duration and amplitude of the ecdysone pulse. Activation of this switch-like mechanism ensures a rapid, self-limiting PG response that functions in producing steroid oscillations that can guide the decision to terminate growth and promote maturation. PMID:24173800

  20. Side-effects of topical steroids: A long overdue revisit

    PubMed Central

    Coondoo, Arijit; Phiske, Meghana; Verma, Shyam; Lahiri, Koushik

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of topical steroids (TS) of varying potency have rendered the therapy of inflammatory cutaneous disorders more effective and less time-consuming. However the usefulness of these has become a double edged sword with constantly rising instances of abuse and misuse leading to serious local, systemic and psychological side effects. These side effects occur more with TS of higher potency and on particular areas of the body like face and genitalia. The article reviews the side effects of TS with special mention about peadiatric age group, also includes the measures for preventing the side effects. PMID:25396122

  1. Serotonergic neurons respond to nutrients and regulate the timing of steroid hormone biosynthesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Shimada-Niwa, Yuko; Niwa, Ryusuke

    2014-01-01

    The temporal transition of development is flexibly coordinated in the context of the nutrient environment, and this coordination is essential for organisms to increase their survival fitness and reproductive success. Steroid hormone, a key player of the juvenile-to-adult transition, is biosynthesized in a nutrient-dependent manner; however, the underlying genetic mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that the biosynthesis of insect steroid hormone, ecdysteroid, is regulated by a subset of serotonergic neurons in Drosophila melanogaster. These neurons directly innervate the prothoracic gland (PG), an ecdysteroid-producing organ and share tracts with the stomatogastric nervous system. Interestingly, the projecting neurites morphologically respond to nutrient conditions. Moreover, reduced activity of the PG-innervating neurons or of serotonin signalling in the PG strongly correlates with a delayed developmental transition. Our results suggest that serotonergic neurons form a link between the external environment and the internal endocrine system by adaptively tuning the timing of steroid hormone biosynthesis. PMID:25502946

  2. Further studies on the influence of steroids on viral infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Giron, D J; Allen, P T; Pindak, F F; Schmidt, J P

    1973-08-01

    Certain steroids have been reported to enhance experimental viral infections, whereas others have little or no effect. Interference with the interferon system has been suggested as a possible mechanism for the viral infection-enhancing (VIE) activity of hormones. In the present study, steroids (prednisolone, progesterone, testosterone) which had no effect on MM virus infection demonstrated VIE activity against Mayaro virus infection. It is suggested that the VIE activity of a hormone may be dependent on the viral agent used for challenge. Data are also presented which suggest that, in addition to interference with the interferon system, the VIE activity of steroid hormones may be the result of at least two other actions: (i) alteration of cell membranes; (ii) stimulation of initial viral replication. PMID:4353541

  3. 76 FR 72355 - Classification of Two Steroids, Prostanozol and Methasterone, as Schedule III Anabolic Steroids...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...aware of any legitimate medical use or New Drug Applications (NDA) for the two substances...with anabolic steroid abuse, where ancillary drugs, including recreational and prescription drugs, are abused in response to unwanted side...

  4. 76 FR 72355 - Classification of Two Steroids, Prostanozol and Methasterone, as Schedule III Anabolic Steroids...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... steroids include treatment of androgen deficiency in hypogonadal males, adjunctive therapy to offset protein catabolism associated with prolonged administration of corticosteroids, treatment of delayed puberty in boys, treatment of metastatic breast cancer in women, and treatment of anemia associated...

  5. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 115 (2009) 9197 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    2009-01-01

    and cardiovascular system [3]. The bioactive metabolite of vitamin D, 1 ,25(OH)2D3 (calcitriol), is a steroid hormone that also plays an important role in the nervous system [3­5]. The effects of calcitriol are medi- ated­12]. Collectively, this implies a possible role of calcitriol and VDR in the regulation of behaviour [13

  6. Sample Preparation Problem Solving for Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry with Liquid Introduction Systems I. Solubility, Chelation, and Memory Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, R. Steven

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial was adapted from the first half of a course presented at the 7th International Conference on Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry in 2008 and the 2012 Winter Conference on Plasma Spectrochemistry on sample preparation for liquid introduction systems. Liquid introduction in general and flow injection specifically are the most widely used sample introduction methods for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Nevertheless, problems persist in determination of analytes that are commonly investigated, as well as in specialty applications for those seldom considered by most analysts. Understanding the chemistry that is common to different groups of analytes permits the development of successful approaches to rinse-out and elimination of memory effects. This understanding also equips the analyst for development of successful elemental analytical approaches in the face of a broad spectrum of matrices and other analytical challenges, whether the sample is solid or liquid. PMID:26321788

  7. Testosterone Induction of Male-Typical Sexual Behavior Is Associated with Increased Preoptic

    E-print Network

    Crews, David

    Testosterone Induction of Male-Typical Sexual Behavior Is Associated with Increased Preoptic NADPH dependent on gonadal sex steroids such as testosterone, and it is thought that the mecha- nism by which, testosterone induces an up-regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the preoptic area, increas- ing nitric

  8. Sox and Drugs: Baseball, Steroids and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Roger

    2008-03-01

    The sports world is in an uproar over performance-enhancing drugs. In the United States steroids in baseball have received the most attention, in part because the purported effects are much more dramatic than in any other sport. From 1995-2003 a few players hit home runs at rates 20-50% higher than the best sluggers of the preceding century. Could steroids really increase home-run performance that much? I will describe a model that combines estimates of the physiological effects of steroids, known baseball physics, and reasonable models of batting effectiveness for highly skilled hitters. A 10% increase in muscle mass, which can reasonably be expected from steroid use, increases the speed of a batted ball by 3%. Because home runs are relatively rare events on the tail of a batter's range distribution, even this modest change in ball speed can increase the proportion of batted balls that result in home runs by 30 -- 70%, enough to account for the record-shattering performances of the recent past. I will also describe some of the attention -- both welcome and not -- that comes to the unsuspecting physicist who wades into such emotionally troubled waters.

  9. Steroid Hormone Measurement in Epidemiological Studies

    Cancer.gov

    July 17, 2014 10:30 AM - 11:30 AM Shady Grove, Room TE406 + Add to Outlook Calendar Speaker: Neal E. Craft, Ph.D. President Craft Technologies, Inc. Print This Page Steroid Hormone Measurement in Epidemiological Studies DCEG Seminar News & Events

  10. Preventing Anabolic Steroid Use: Guidelines and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June; Rauhe, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Information about anabolic steroids should be included in the school health curriculum as early as possible. The paper presents suggestions for planning education programs and offers a variety of activities and strategies appropriate for many age groups, including case studies, story completion, posters, demonstrations, projects, creative writing,…

  11. Sex Steroid Actions in Male Bone

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Michaël R.; Claessens, Frank; Gielen, Evelien; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Börjesson, Anna E.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroids are chief regulators of gender differences in the skeleton, and male gender is one of the strongest protective factors against osteoporotic fractures. This advantage in bone strength relies mainly on greater cortical bone expansion during pubertal peak bone mass acquisition and superior skeletal maintenance during aging. During both these phases, estrogens acting via estrogen receptor-? in osteoblast lineage cells are crucial for male cortical and trabecular bone, as evident from conditional genetic mouse models, epidemiological studies, rare genetic conditions, genome-wide meta-analyses, and recent interventional trials. Genetic mouse models have also demonstrated a direct role for androgens independent of aromatization on trabecular bone via the androgen receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes, although the target cell for their key effects on periosteal bone formation remains elusive. Low serum estradiol predicts incident fractures, but the highest risk occurs in men with additionally low T and high SHBG. Still, the possible clinical utility of serum sex steroids for fracture prediction is unknown. It is likely that sex steroid actions on male bone metabolism rely also on extraskeletal mechanisms and cross talk with other signaling pathways. We propose that estrogens influence fracture risk in aging men via direct effects on bone, whereas androgens exert an additional antifracture effect mainly via extraskeletal parameters such as muscle mass and propensity to fall. Given the demographic trends of increased longevity and consequent rise of osteoporosis, an increased understanding of how sex steroids influence male bone health remains a high research priority. PMID:25202834

  12. Anabolic androgenic steroid-induced Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Placci, Angelo; Sella, Gianluigi; Bellanti, Giancarlo; Margheri, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse, aimed at increasing muscle mass, has been growing in recent years. We describe a case of a 25-year-old bodybuilder who, after taking nandrolone and stanozolol, presented with Takotsubo syndrome. The angiography showed a normal coronary anatomy with the absence of stenosis. The left ventricular function was completely normalised after 1 week. PMID:25804946

  13. New therapies in steroid-sensitive and steroid-resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Husen, Michael; Kemper, Markus J

    2011-06-01

    Although many children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) respond initially to steroid therapy, repeated courses for patients with relapses often cause significant steroid toxicity. Patients with frequent relapses who develop steroid dependency thus require alternative treatment. The first such options have been considered to be cyclophosphamide or levamisole, although the latter is no longer available in many countries. There is also an increasing body of data indicating that mycophenolic acid (MPA) may be an alternative for these patients. Calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine A or tacrolimus) are usually effective and often used after cytotoxic treatment, but long-term treatment with these agents is necessary, raising concerns of a possible accumulation of side effects. Some patients show a tendency to relapse even on such maintenance regimens, and some even have a refractory course that creates a medical dilemma. For this situation, recent data indicate that monoclonal antibodies directed to B-cells (e.g. rituximab) may have some effect and that such drugs may also prove to be a therapeutic option in less complicated cases. Patients that do not respond to steroid treatment need genetic testing and a renal biopsy since focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) may be present. Treatment options include pulse methylprednisolone, often in addition to calcineurin inhibitors, mainly in the form of cyclosporine, but tacrolimus has also come into recent favor. Some studies have found cytotoxic treatment, especially intravenous cyclophosphamide, to be effective in steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome, but it seems to be inferior to calcineurin inhibitors. MPA and rituximab have also been used in children with primary FSGS, but the response seems to be inferior to that in patients with steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome. Taken together, INS in both steroid-sensitive and steroid-resistant patients is a potentially complicated disorder, and despite a wide arsenal of immunological interventions, some patients have a treatment refractory course. Prospective studies or at least standardized treatment for complicated cases is urgently needed. PMID:21229269

  14. The immunological consequences of feeding cholera toxin. I. Feeding cholera toxin suppresses the induction of systemic delayed-type hypersensitivity but not humoral immunity.

    PubMed Central

    Kay, R A; Ferguson, A

    1989-01-01

    Immunization of adult BALB/c mice with 1 microgram cholera toxin (CT) in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced both humoral (IgG and IgA) and cell-mediated (DTH) immunity. Although an immunopurified, formalinized, cholera toxoid (TD) in CFA was inferior to the native holotoxin at inducing antitoxin antibodies, both cholera-derived antigens were equally immunogenic for specific DTH. When mice were fed either 1 microgram CT or 5 microgram TD 1 week before immunization, the induction of DTH was inhibited but the development of specific antibody was the same as in sham-fed controls. A feed of 10 micrograms CT not only suppressed the induction of DTH but also enhanced the IgG antitoxin responses measured 1 week after immunization. A dose of TD (50 micrograms), with a similar cholera toxin B subunit content, also induced oral tolerance for DTH but had no effect on the subsequent development of humoral immunity. The smallest doses of CT or TD fed (0.1 microgram and 0.5 microgram, respectively) failed to affect the development of either limb of the systemic immune response. These results suggest that oral tolerance for DTH is not consequent upon the metabolic actions of CT but that stimulation of systemic antibodies after enteric administration may be. Pretreating mice with cyclophosphamide (Cy) (100 mg/kg) before feeding CT abrogated the induction of oral tolerance for DTH but had no effect on humoral immunity, suggesting that suppressor T cells may be responsible for the induction of oral tolerance in these animals. PMID:2703255

  15. Self-actuated nuclear reactor shutdown system using induction pump to facilitate sensing of core coolant temperature

    DOEpatents

    Sievers, Robert K. (N. Huntingdon, PA); Cooper, Martin H. (Churchill, PA); Tupper, Robert B. (Greensburg, PA)

    1987-01-01

    A self-actuated shutdown system incorporated into a reactivity control assembly in a nuclear reactor includes pumping means for creating an auxiliary downward flow of a portion of the heated coolant exiting from the fuel assemblies disposed adjacent to the control assembly. The shutdown system includes a hollow tubular member which extends through the outlet of the control assembly top nozzle so as to define an outer annular flow channel through the top nozzle outlet separate from an inner flow channel for primary coolant flow through the control assembly. Also, a latching mechanism is disposed in an inner duct of the control assembly and is operable for holding absorber bundles in a raised position in the control assembly and for releasing them to drop them into the core of the reactor for shutdown purposes. The latching mechanism has an inner flow passage extending between and in flow communication with the absorber bundles and the inner flow channel of the top nozzle for accommodating primary coolant flow upwardly through the control assembly. Also, an outer flow passage separate from the inner flow passage extends through the latching mechanism between and in flow communication with the inner duct and the outer flow channel of the top nozzle for accommodating inflow of a portion of the heated coolant from the adjacent fuel assemblies. The latching mechanism contains a magnetic material sensitive to temperature and operable to cause mating or latching together of the components of the latching mechanism when the temperature sensed is below a known temperature and unmating or unlatching thereof when the temperature sensed is above a given temperature. The temperature sensitive magnetic material is positioned in communication with the heated coolant flow through the outer flow passage for directly sensing the temperature thereof. Finally, the pumping means includes a jet induction pump nozzle and diffuser disposed adjacent the bottom nozzle of the control assembly and in flow communication with the inlet thereof. The pump nozzle is operable to create an upward driving flow of primary coolant through the pump diffuser and then to the absorber bundles. The upward driving flow of primary coolant, in turn, creates a suction head within the outer flow channel of the top nozzle and thereby an auxiliary downward flow of the heated coolant portion exiting from the upper end of the adjacent fuel assemblies through the outer flow channel to the pump nozzle via the outer flow passage of the latching mechanism and an annular space between the outer and inner spaced ducts of the control assembly housing. The temperature of the heated coolant exiting from the adjacent fuel assemblies can thereby be sensed directly by the temperature sensitive magnetic material in the latching mechanism.

  16. Hidden Danger of Irrational Abusing Illegal Androgenic-anabolic Steroids in Recreational Athletes Age Under 35 in Bosnia & Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Solakovic, Sid; Totic, Dragan; Vukas, Haris; Djedovic, Muhamed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Androgenic-anabolic steroids are rarely used by sportsmen who want to improve physical performance in competition sport. Despite that they are well aware of the side effects of anabolic steroids, many young athletes in Bosnia and Herzegovina without competition motivation come in temptation, trying to achieve better muscle proportion and physical performance unknowing consequence of side effects and what is hiding behind. Risk factors such as increasing of lipid levels and arterial hypertension are major factors which have important role in the Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and are responsible for occurrence of cardiovascular disease even causing a sudden death in young athletes. Objective: The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of misusing of androgenic anabolic steroid drugs in young recreational sportsmen without competition motivation. This study will try to estimate vascular and lipid status, analyzing the side effects of steroids in young recreational athletes under the age of 35, in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: The study included 70 individuals in period of 2010 till 2015 on recreational exercising program; 35 individuals misusing androgenic anabolic steroids during the period of 5 years were compared with 35 individuals which do not use androgenic anabolic steroids. Non-invasive methods were used in all individual (clinical examination and vascular ultrasound examination of vein system). The routine of training units in both groups was approximately two hours 4-6 times per week. Results: Final analysis has reveal that in androgenic anabolic steroids group in 18 individuals or 55.7% arterial hypertension with hyperlipidemia was more represented, compared with the group without using anabolic steroids, represented by 2 individuals or 5.7% and it was statistically considered significant by using p value less than 0.05. (p<0.05). Statistically dominant population using anabolic steroids drugs are males (100%) or 35 individuals; we did not find females using anabolic steroids and that is why our research was limited to male population. Conclusion: Recreational male sportsmen are dominant androgenic anabolic steroids misusers, trying to achieve better muscle proportion and physical performance, they neglect the anabolic steroids side effects which have devastating consequence on vascular system. Benefits of misusing drugs in recreational exercising program in young sportsmen are mostly connected with development of arterial hypertension and hyperlipidemia and the variety of serious health disorders, progressing the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26261392

  17. Wait!!! No Steroids for this Asthma…

    PubMed Central

    Alsharif, Abdelhamid; Sodhi, Amik; Murillo, Luis C.; Headley, Arthur S.; Kadaria, Dipen

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 31 Final Diagnosis: Hyperinfection syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • shortness of breath Medication: Prednisone Clinical Procedure: Bronchoscopy with BAL Specialty: Pulmonology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Strongyloides stercoralis (SS) is a parasite seen in certain parts of the USA and in people from other endemic areas. In these patients steroids might precipitate or exacerbate asthma. Apart from worsening of asthma, serious complications like hyperinfection syndrome and even death can occur in these patients if treated with steroids. Treatment is either ivermectin or albendazole based on severity of the disease. Clinicians have to be very careful when prescribing steroids in patients presenting with an exacerbation of asthma from areas endemic for Strongyloides stercoralis. Case Report: A young woman with history of asthma presented with complaints of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, wheezing, and dry cough. Physical examination revealed diffuse expiratory wheezing and mild diffuse abdominal pain without rebound or guarding. Laboratory results showed leukocytosis with eosinophilia. Stool studies showed Strongyloides stercoralis. Imaging revealed ground-glass opacities in the right upper and lower lobe along with an infiltrate in the lingular lobe on the left side. Bronchoscopy showed Strongyloides stercoralis. The patient was diagnosed with hyperinfection syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis most probably exacerbated by prednisone given for her asthma. Steroids were then discontinued and the patient was started on ivermectin. The patient improved with treatment. Repeat stool examination was negative for Strongyloides stercoralis. Conclusions: Clinicians have to be very careful when prescribing steroids in patients presenting with an exacerbation of asthma who are from areas endemic for Strongyloides stercoralis and should test for it (preferably with serology test) before starting treatment. PMID:26114594

  18. Puberty, steroids and GABAA receptor plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sheryl S.; Aoki, Chiye; Shen, Hui

    2009-01-01

    Summary GABAA receptors (GABAR) mediate most inhibition in the CNS and are also a target for neuroactive steroids such as 3?,5[?]?-THP (3?OH-5[?]?-OH-pregnan-20-one or [allo]pregnanolone). Although these steroids robustly enhance current gated by ?1?2? GABAR, we have shown that 3?,5[?]?-THP effects at recombinant ?4?2? GABAR depend on the direction of Cl- flux, where the steroid increases outward flux, but decreases inward flux through the receptor. This polarity-dependent inhibition of ?4?2? GABAR resulted from an increase in the rate and extent of rapid desensitization of the receptor, recorded from recombinant receptors expressed in HEK-293 cells with whole cell voltage clamp techniques. This inhibitory effect of 3?,5[?]?-THP was not observed at other receptor subtypes, suggesting it was selective for ?4?2? GABAR. Furthermore, it was prevented by a selective mutation of basic residue arginine 353 in the intracellular loop of the receptor, suggesting that this might be a putative chloride modulatory site. Expression of ?4?? GABAR increases markedly at extrasynaptic sites at the onset of puberty in female mice. At this time, 3?,5[?]?–THP decreased the inhibitory tonic current, recorded with perforated patch techniques to maintain the physiological Cl- gradient. By decreasing this shunting inhibition, 3?,5[?]?–THP increased the excitability of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells at puberty: These effects of the steroid were opposite to those observed before puberty when 3?,5[?]?–THP reduced neuronal excitability as a pre-synaptic effect. Behaviorally, the excitatory effect of 3?,5[?]?–THP was reflected as an increase in anxiety at the onset of puberty in female mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that the emergence of ?4?2? GABAR at the onset of puberty reverses the effect of a stress steroid. These findings may be relevant for the mood swings and increased response to stressful events reported in adolescence. PMID:19523771

  19. Collision-induced dissociation pathways of anabolic steroids by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guan, Fuyu; Soma, Lawrence R; Luo, Yi; Uboh, Cornelius E; Peterman, Scott

    2006-04-01

    Anabolic steroids are structurally similar compounds, and their product-ion spectra obtained by tandem mass spectrometry under electrospray ionization conditions are quite difficult to interpret because of poly-ring structures and lack of a charge-retaining center in their chemical structures. In the present study, the fragmentation of nine anabolic steroids of interest to the racing industry was investigated by using triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer, and a linear ion trap instrument. With the aid of an expert system software (Mass Frontier version 3.0), accurate mass measurements, and multiple stage tandem mass spectrometric (MS(n)) experiments, fragmentation pathways were elucidated for boldenone, methandrostenolone, tetrahydrogestrinone (THG), trenbolone, normethandrolone and mibolerone. Small differences in the chemical structures of the steroids, such as an additional double-bond or a methyl group, result in significantly different fragmentation pathways. The fragmentation pathways proposed in this paper allow interpretation of major product ions of other anabolic steroids reported by other researchers in a recent publication. The proposed fragmentation pathways are helpful for characterization of new steroids. The approach used in this study for elucidation of the fragmentation pathways is helpful in interpretation of complicated product-ion spectra of other compounds, drugs and their metabolites. PMID:16488153

  20. Mycophenolate mofetil as a treatment of steroid dependent Cogan's syndrome in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hautefort, Charlotte; Loundon, Natalie; Montchilova, Marta; Marlin, Sandrine; Garabedian, Erea Noel; Ulinski, Tim

    2009-10-01

    Cogan's syndrome is a rare chronic inflammatory disorder which typically associates an ophthalmological and vestibulocochlear involvement, with a risk of systemic symptoms in 50-70% of cases. Autoimmune origin has been consolidated by the recent discoveries of Lunardi as a result of the dysregulation of the response of B and T lymphocytes. We report here a pediatric case of Cogan's syndrome, with long term follow-up and complete vestibulocochlear and ophthalmologic examination. During the acute phase, early steroids treatment (prednisone 1mg/kg per day) was effective on ocular lesions and hearing loss. The patient required high steroid doses to maintain remission, suggesting the necessity for steroid sparing immunosuppressive agents. We introduced mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), an immunosuppressive agent mainly used in solid organ transplantation. After steroid withdrawal the patient remained in complete remission on MMF. This is the first report of MMF treatment in Cogan's syndrome. MMF produces a targeted inhibition of the proliferation of B and T lymphocytes, particularly interesting in Cogan's syndrome. Low long term toxicity and overall good tolerance make MMF a new treatment option in steroid dependent Cogan's syndrome. PMID:19656580

  1. G-protein-coupled receptor controls steroid hormone signaling in cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Zhao, Wen-Li; Cai, Mei-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in animal steroid hormone signaling, but their mechanism is unclear. In this research, we report that a GPCR called ErGPCR-2 controls steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling in the cell membrane of the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. ErGPCR-2 was highly expressed during molting and metamorphosis. 20E, via ErGPCR-2, regulated rapid intracellular calcium increase, protein phosphorylation, gene transcription, and insect metamorphosis. ErGPCR-2 was located in the cell surface and was internalized by 20E induction. GPCR kinase 2 participated in 20E-induced ErGPCR-2 phosphorylation and internalization. The internalized ErGPCR-2 was degraded by proteases to desensitize 20E signaling. ErGPCR-2 knockdown suppressed the entrance of 20E analog [(3)H] ponasterone A ([(3)H]Pon A) into the cells. ErGPCR-2 overexpression or blocking of ErGPCR-2 internalization increased the entrance of [(3)H]Pon A into the cells. However, ErGPCR-2 did not bind to [(3)H]Pon A. Results suggest that ErGPCR-2 transmits steroid hormone 20E signaling and controls 20E entrance into cells in the cell membrane. PMID:25728569

  2. G-protein-coupled receptor controls steroid hormone signaling in cell membrane

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Di; Zhao, Wen-Li; Cai, Mei-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in animal steroid hormone signaling, but their mechanism is unclear. In this research, we report that a GPCR called ErGPCR-2 controls steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling in the cell membrane of the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. ErGPCR-2 was highly expressed during molting and metamorphosis. 20E, via ErGPCR-2, regulated rapid intracellular calcium increase, protein phosphorylation, gene transcription, and insect metamorphosis. ErGPCR-2 was located in the cell surface and was internalized by 20E induction. GPCR kinase 2 participated in 20E-induced ErGPCR-2 phosphorylation and internalization. The internalized ErGPCR-2 was degraded by proteases to desensitize 20E signaling. ErGPCR-2 knockdown suppressed the entrance of 20E analog [3H] ponasterone A ([3H]Pon A) into the cells. ErGPCR-2 overexpression or blocking of ErGPCR-2 internalization increased the entrance of [3H]Pon A into the cells. However, ErGPCR-2 did not bind to [3H]Pon A. Results suggest that ErGPCR-2 transmits steroid hormone 20E signaling and controls 20E entrance into cells in the cell membrane. PMID:25728569

  3. Therapeutic Potential of Steroidal Alkaloids in Cancer and Other Diseases.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi-Wei; Chen, Mei-Wan; Cheng, Ke-Jun; Yu, Pei-Zhong; Wei, Xing; Shi, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Steroidal alkaloids are a class of secondary metabolites isolated from plants, amphibians, and marine invertebrates. Evidence accumulated in the recent two decades demonstrates that steroidal alkaloids have a wide range of bioactivities including anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, etc., suggesting their great potential for application. It is therefore necessary to comprehensively summarize the bioactivities, especially anticancer activities and mechanisms of steroidal alkaloids. Here we systematically highlight the anticancer profiles both in vitro and in vivo of steroidal alkaloids such as dendrogenin, solanidine, solasodine, tomatidine, cyclopamine, and their derivatives. Furthermore, other bioactivities of steroidal alkaloids are also discussed. The integrated molecular mechanisms in this review can increase our understanding on the utilization of steroidal alkaloids and contribute to the development of new drug candidates. Although the therapeutic potentials of steroidal alkaloids look promising in the preclinical and clinical studies, further pharmacokinetic and clinical studies are mandated to define their efficacy and safety in cancer and other diseases. PMID:25820039

  4. Modulation of corneal wound healing after excimer laser keratomileusis using topical mitomycin C and steroids

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, J.H.; Gollamudi, S.; Green, W.R.; De La Cruz, Z.; Filatov, V.; Stark, W.J. )

    1991-08-01

    A 193-nm excimer laser system was used to create deep stromal ablations in seven New Zealand white rabbits and shallow ablations in three. Eyes were randomized for treatment with topical mitomycin C, steroids, and erythromycin; topical steroids and erythromycin; or topical erythromycin only. All treatment regimens were instituted twice daily for 14 days. All eyes reepithelialized normally within 3 to 5 days. During 10 weeks of follow-up, all eyes developed moderate reticular subepithelial haze without significant differences among treatment groups. Results of light, fluorescence, and electron microscopic examination showed anterior stromal scarring and markedly reduced new subepithelial collagen formation in the group treated with mitomycin C, corticosteroids, and erythromycin. Focal abnormalities of Descemet's membrane and endothelial abnormalities were present in all treatment groups. Combination therapy with topical steroids, mitomycin C, and erythromycin to control the corneal wound healing response after refractive laser surgery appears promising and warrants further study.

  5. Steroids induce acetylcholine receptors on cultured human muscle: Implications for myasthenia gravis

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I.; Blakely, B.T.; Pavlath, G.K.; Travis, M.; Blau, H.M. )

    1990-10-01

    Antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), which are diagnostic of the human autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis, block AChR function and increase the rate of AChR degradation leading to impaired neuromuscular transmission. Steroids are frequently used to alleviate symptoms of muscle fatigue and weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis because of their well-documented immunosuppressive effects. The authors show here that the steroid dexamethasone significantly increases total surface AChRs on cultured human muscle exposed to myasthenia gravis sera. The results suggest that the clinical improvement observed in myasthenic patients treated with steroids is due not only to an effect on the immune system but also a direct effect on muscle. They propose that the identification and development of pharmacologic agents that augment receptors and other proteins that are reduced by human genetic or autoimmune disease will have broad therapeutic applications.

  6. The Brain of Teleost Fish, a Source, and a Target of Sexual Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Diotel, Nicolas; Do Rego, Jean-Luc; Anglade, Isabelle; Vaillant, Colette; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Vaudry, Hubert; Kah, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Neurosteroids are defined as steroids de novo synthesized in the central nervous system. While the production of neurosteroids is well documented in mammals and amphibians, there is less information about teleosts, the largest group of fish. Teleosts have long been known for their high brain aromatase and 5?-reductase activities, but recent data now document the capacity of the fish brain to produce a large variety of sex steroids. This article aims at reviewing the available information regarding expression and/or activity of the main steroidogenic enzymes in the brain of fish. In addition, the distribution of estrogen, androgen, and progesterone nuclear receptors is documented in relation with the potential sites of production of neurosteroids. Interestingly, radial glial cells acting as neuronal progenitors, appear to be a potential source of neurosteroids, but also a target for centrally and/or peripherally produced steroids. PMID:22194715

  7. High-Throughput Functional Screening of Steroid Substrates with Wild-Type and Chimeric P450 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Truan, Gilles; Pompon, Denis

    2014-01-01

    The promiscuity of a collection of enzymes consisting of 31 wild-type and synthetic variants of CYP1A enzymes was evaluated using a series of 14 steroids and 2 steroid-like chemicals, namely, nootkatone, a terpenoid, and mifepristone, a drug. For each enzyme-substrate couple, the initial steady-state velocity of metabolite formation was determined at a substrate saturating concentration. For that, a high-throughput approach was designed involving automatized incubations in 96-well microplate with sixteen 6-point kinetics per microplate and data acquisition using LC/MS system accepting 96-well microplate for injections. The resulting dataset was used for multivariate statistics aimed at sorting out the correlations existing between tested enzyme variants and ability to metabolize steroid substrates. Functional classifications of both CYP1A enzyme variants and steroid substrate structures were obtained allowing the delineation of global structural features for both substrate recognition and regioselectivity of oxidation. PMID:25243177

  8. Induction of cystine transport via system x-c and maintenance of intracellular glutathione levels in pancreatic acinar and islet cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Kuriyama-Matsumura, K; Siow, R C; Ishii, T; Bannai, S; Mann, G E

    1998-11-11

    The relationship between l-cystine transport and intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels was investigated in cultured pancreatic AR42J acinar and betaTC3 islet cells exposed to diethylmaleate, an electrophilic agent known to activate cellular antioxidant responses. Cystine transport was mediated predominantly by the Na+-independent anionic amino acid transport system x-c, with influx inhibited potently by glutamate and homocysteate but unaffected by cationic or neutral amino acids. Saturable cystine transport was 10-fold higher in AR42J (531 pmol (mg protein)-1 min-1) than in betaTC3 (49 pmol (mg protein)-1 min-1) cells, and GSH levels were higher in AR42J cells. Treatment with 2-mercaptoethanol increased GSH levels in betaTC3 cells from 7.5 to 36 nmol (mg protein)-1, whilst the GSH content in AR42J cells (64 nmol (mg protein)-1) was not altered significantly. Incubation of AR42J or betaTC3 cells with homocysteate (2.5 mM, 0-48 h), a competitive inhibitor of cystine transport via system x-c, reduced intracellular GSH levels and resulted in a time-dependent (6-24 h) induction of system x-c transport activity. Treatment of AR42J cells with diethylmaleate (100 microM, 0-48 h) resulted in a time- (5-10 h) and protein synthesis-dependent induction of cystine transport, with intracellular GSH levels initially decreasing and then increasing 2-fold above control levels after 24 h. Diethylmaleate also depressed GSH levels in betaTC3 cells, but cystine transport was not elevated significantly. In both AR42J and betaTC3 cells, inhibition of gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase by buthionine sulphoximine (100 microM, 24 h) reduced GSH levels but had no effect on cystine transport. The present findings establish that induction of system x-c leads to changes in GSH levels in pancreatic AR42J acinar and betaTC3 islet cells, with changes in the intracellular redox state stimulating transporter expression. Induction of activity of system x-c, together with adaptive increases in GSH synthesis in response to oxidative stress, may contribute to cellular antioxidant defences in pancreatic disease. PMID:9804903

  9. Steroid withdrawal in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation: a 7-year report.

    PubMed

    Malheiro, J; Martins, L; Fonseca, I; Gomes, A M; Santos, J; Dias, L; Dores, J; Oliveira, F; Seca, R; Almeida, R; Henriques, A; Cabrita, A; Teixeira, M

    2009-04-01

    Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK) is the treatment of choice for selected diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease. Maintenance steroid therapy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality among SPK transplant recipients. Steroid withdrawal regimens are becoming more common, albeit with reservations regarding its safety and efficacy. We performed a retrospective review of 77 SPK transplant recipients from May 2000 to December 2007. The subjects received induction therapy with thymoglobulin followed by maintenance immunosuppression with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. A late steroid withdrawal protocol was adopted. The rates of acute rejection, graft and patient survival, and side effects were analyzed. One-year patient, kidney, and pancreas survivals were 93%, 91%, and 86%, respectively. Eleven patients experienced acute rejection. Mean follow-up time was 1155.5 +/- 776.1 days. Prednisolone withdrawal was carried out between 6 and 12 months posttransplantation in 42 patients (77.8%) with at least 1 year follow-up; no case of acute rejection occurred. At present, 72 patients have a functioning kidney graft, and 65 patients also have a functioning pancreas graft. The mean serum creatinine is 1.12 +/- 0.49 mg/dL and the mean HbA1c concentration is 4.5% +/- 0.4%. The patients have a low prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. Steroid withdrawal was successful and safe in the majority of in-study patients and safe without an increase of immune events. Our patient and graft outcomes are within other international SPK transplant units standards. PMID:19376386

  10. Estetrol: a unique steroid in human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Holinka, Christian F; Diczfalusy, Egon; Coelingh Bennink, Herjan J T

    2008-05-01

    Estetrol (E(4)) is an estrogenic steroid molecule synthesized exclusively by the fetal liver during human pregnancy and reaching the maternal circulation through the placenta. Its function is presently unknown. After its discovery in the mid-1960s, E(4) research revealed rather unique properties of this steroid and spawned a large body of state-of-the art publications. Nevertheless, 20 years later experimental work was virtually abandoned. In recent years based on new data, E(4) has experienced a vita nova, a revival of preclinical and clinical research activities with the goal to elucidate its physiological function and explore its potential for therapeutic use in humans. This review is intended to offer an historical account of the discovery of E(4) and the preclinical studies conducted during the heyday of E(4) research that ended in the mid-1980s. PMID:18462934

  11. Effect of oxidizing adulterants on human urinary steroid profiles.

    PubMed

    Kuzhiumparambil, Unnikrishnan; Fu, Shanlin

    2013-02-01

    Steroid profiling is the most versatile and informative technique adapted by doping control laboratories for detection of steroid abuse. The absolute concentrations and ratios of endogenous steroids including testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol and 5?-androstane-3?,17?-diol constitute the significant characteristics of a steroid profile. In the present study we report the influence of various oxidizing adulterants on the steroid profile of human urine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was carried out to develop the steroid profile of human male and female urine. Oxidants potassium nitrite, sodium hypochlorite, potassium permanganate, cerium ammonium nitrate, sodium metaperiodate, pyridinium chlorochromate, potassium dichromate and potassium perchlorate were reacted with urine at various concentrations and conditions and the effect of these oxidants on the steroid profile were analyzed. Most of the oxidizing chemicals led to significant changes in endogenous steroid profile parameters which were considered stable under normal conditions. These oxidizing chemicals can cause serious problems regarding the interpretation of steroid profiles and have the potential to act as masking agents that can complicate or prevent the detection of the steroid abuse. PMID:23238517

  12. LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    LOCKREM LL; OWENS JW; SEIDEL CM

    2009-03-26

    This report describes the installation, testing and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste samples in a hot cell environment. The 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method.

  13. LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    SEIDEL CM; JAIN J; OWENS JW

    2009-02-23

    This report describes the installation, testing, and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste (HLW) samples in a hot cell environment. The work was completed by the Analytical Process Development (APD) group in accordance with Task Order 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S Laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method.

  14. Cyclosporine in steroid refractory acute severe colitis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N Suraj; Khosla, Rajiv; Makharia, Govind K

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 15-20% patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) suffer from a severe flare during their lifetime which required hospitalization. Intravenous corticosteroids are the first line of therapy for acute severe UC. While almost 70-80% of patients respond to corticosteroids 20% do not. Although colectomy for UC is curative, it has its problems such as increased frequency of stool and pouchitis, which led to search for colon rescue therapy. Cyclosporine and anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNF á) have emerged as effective colon rescue therapy. While the short-term efficacy of cyclosporine in preventing colectomy is 64-86%, the long-term efficacy is not as good and almost 70% eventually require colectomy over 1-7 years. The efficacy of cyclosporine is equivalent both at a high and low doses and cyclosporine is now used most often as a low dose regime in patients with steroid refractory acute severe UC. Furthermore, recent data suggest that the both cyclosporine and infliximab are equally effective in steroid refractory acute severe UC. Monitoring patients for adverse events and serum cyclosporine levels is mandatory. The response to both cyclosporine and infliximab is rapid and usually occurs within 4-5 days. Despite mounting evidence of its efficacy, cyclosporine remains largely underused because it requires intense monitoring for toxicity especially at higher dosage. Gastroenterologists need to be more familiar with cyclosporine for the management of steroid refractory acute severe UC. PMID:25735123

  15. ANABOLIC-ANDROGENIC STEROID DEPENDENCE? INSIGHTS FROM ANIMALS AND HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Ruth I.

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. They are taken in large quantities by athletes and others to increase performance, with negative health consequences. As a result, in 1991 testosterone and related AAS were declared controlled substances. However, the relative abuse and dependence liability of AAS have not been fully characterized. In humans, it is difficult to separate the direct psychoactive effects of AAS from reinforcement due to their systemic anabolic effects. However, using conditioned place preference and self-administration, studies in animals have demonstrated that AAS are reinforcing in a context where athletic performance is irrelevant. Furthermore, AAS share brain sites of action and neurotransmitter systems in common with other drugs of abuse. In particular, recent evidence links AAS with opioids. In humans, AAS abuse is associated with prescription opioid use. In animals, AAS overdose produces symptoms resembling opioid overdose, and AAS modify the activity of the endogenous opioid system. PMID:18275992

  16. Low inductance gas switching.

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.

    2007-10-01

    The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and electrode diameter were conducted.

  17. Steroid conversion with CYP106A2 – production of pharmaceutically interesting DHEA metabolites

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Steroids are lipophilic compounds with a gonane skeleton and play an important role in higher organisms. Due to different functionalizations - mainly hydroxylations - at the steroid molecule, they vary highly in their mode of action. The pharmaceutical industry is, therefore, interested in hydroxysteroids as therapeutic agents. The insertion of hydroxyl groups into a steroid core, however, is hardly accomplishable by classical chemical means; that is because microbial steroid hydroxylations are investigated and applied since decades. CYP106A2 is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 13368, which was first described in the late 1970s and which is capable to hydroxylate a variety of 3-oxo-delta4 steroids at position 15beta. CYP106A2 is a soluble protein, easy to express and to purify in high amounts, which makes this enzyme an interesting target for biotechnological purposes. Results In this work a focused steroid library was screened in vitro for new CYP106A2 substrates using a reconstituted enzyme assay. Five new substrates were identified, including dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone. NMR-spectroscopy revealed that both steroids are mainly hydroxylated at position 7beta. In order to establish a biotechnological system for the preparative scale production of 7beta-hydroxylated dehydroepiandrosterone, whole-cell conversions with growing and resting cells of B. megaterium ATCC1336 the native host of CYP1062 and also with resting cells of a recombinant B. megaterium MS941 strain overexpressing CYP106A2 have been conducted and conversion rates of 400 muM/h (115 mg/l/h) were obtained. Using the B. megaterium MS941 overexpression strain, the selectivity of the reaction was improved from 0.7 to 0.9 for 7beta-OH-DHEA. Conclusions In this work we describe CYP106A2 for the first time as a regio-selective hydroxylase for 3-hydroxy-delta5 steroids. DHEA was shown to be converted to 7beta-OH-DHEA which is a highly interesting human metabolite, supposed to act as neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory agent. Optimization of the whole-cell system using different B. megaterium strains lead to a conversion of DHEA with B. megaterium showing high selectivity and conversion rates and displaying a volumetric yield of 103 mg/l/h 7beta-OH-DHEA. PMID:24903845

  18. Closely Related Antibody Receptors Exploit Fundamentally Different Strategies for Steroid Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Verdino, P.; Aldag, C.; Hilvert, D.; Wilson, I.A.

    2009-05-26

    Molecular recognition by the adaptive immune system relies on specific high-affinity antibody receptors that are generated from a restricted set of starting sequences through homologous recombination and somatic mutation. The steroid binding antibody DB3 and the catalytic Diels-Alderase antibody 1E9 derive from the same germ line sequences but exhibit very distinct specificities and functions. However, mutation of only two of the 36 sequence differences in the variable domains, Leu{sup H47}Trp and Arg{sup H100}Trp, converts 1E9 into a high-affinity steroid receptor with a ligand recognition profile similar to DB3. To understand how these changes switch binding specificity and function, we determined the crystal structures of the 1E9 Leu{sup H47}Trp/Arg{sup H100}Trp double mutant (1E9dm) as an unliganded Fab at 2.05 {angstrom} resolution and in complex with two configurationally distinct steroids at 2.40 and 2.85 {angstrom}. Surprisingly, despite the functional mimicry of DB3, 1E9dm employs a distinct steroid binding mechanism. Extensive structural rearrangements occur in the combining site, where residue H47 acts as a specificity switch and H100 adapts to different ligands. Unlike DB3, 1E9dm does not use alternative binding pockets or different sets of hydrogen-bonding interactions to bind configurationally distinct steroids. Rather, the different steroids are inserted more deeply into the 1E9dm combining site, creating more hydrophobic contacts that energetically compensate for the lack of hydrogen bonds. These findings demonstrate how subtle mutations within an existing molecular scaffold can dramatically modulate the function of immune receptors by inducing unanticipated, but compensating, mechanisms of ligand interaction.

  19. Fsh controls gene expression in fish both independently of and through steroid mediation.

    PubMed

    Sambroni, Elisabeth; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Le Gac, Florence

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms and the mediators relaying Fsh action on testicular functions are poorly understood. Unlike in mammals, in fish both gonadotropins (Fsh and Lh) are able to efficiently stimulate steroidogenesis, likely through a direct interaction with their cognate receptors present on the Leydig cells. In this context, it is crucial to understand if Fsh effects are mediated through the production of steroids. To address this issue we performed transcriptome studies after in vitro incubations of rainbow trout testis explants in the presence of Fsh alone or in combination with trilostane, an inhibitor of ?4- steroidogenesis. Trilostane significantly reduced or suppressed the response of many genes to Fsh (like wisp1, testis gapdhs, cldn11, inha, vt1 or dmrt1) showing that, in fish, important aspects of Fsh action follow indirect pathways and require the production of ?4-steroids. What is more, most of the genes regulated by Fsh through steroid mediation were similarly regulated by Lh (and/or androgens). In contrast, the response to Fsh of other genes was not suppressed in the presence of trilostane. These latter included genes encoding for anti-mullerian hormone, midkine a (pleiotrophin related), angiopoietine-related protein, cyclins E1 and G1, hepatocyte growth factor activator, insulin-like growth factor 1b/3. A majority of those genes were preferentially regulated by Fsh, when compared to Lh, suggesting that specific regulatory effects of Fsh did not depend on steroid production. Finally, antagonistic effects between Fsh and steroids were found, in particular for genes encoding key factors of steroidogenesis (star, hsd3b1, cyp11b2-2) or for genes of the Igf system (igf1b/3). Our study provides the first clear evidence that, in fish, Fsh exerts ?4-steroid-independent regulatory functions on many genes which are highly relevant for the onset of spermatogenesis. PMID:24194844

  20. Cellular cholesterol delivery, intracellular processing and utilization for biosynthesis of steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Zhang, Zhonghua; Shen, Wen-Jun; Azhar, Salman

    2010-01-01

    Steroid hormones regulate diverse physiological functions such as reproduction, blood salt balance, maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, response to stress, neuronal function and various metabolic processes. They are synthesized from cholesterol mainly in the adrenal gland and gonads in response to tissue-specific tropic hormones. These steroidogenic tissues are unique in that they require cholesterol not only for membrane biogenesis, maintenance of membrane fluidity and cell signaling, but also as the starting material for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones. It is not surprising, then, that cells of steroidogenic tissues have evolved with multiple pathways to assure the constant supply of cholesterol needed to maintain optimum steroid synthesis. The cholesterol utilized for steroidogenesis is derived from a combination of sources: 1) de novo synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); 2) the mobilization of cholesteryl esters (CEs) stored in lipid droplets through cholesteryl ester hydrolase; 3) plasma lipoprotein-derived CEs obtained by either LDL receptor-mediated endocytic and/or SR-BI-mediated selective uptake; and 4) in some cultured cell systems from plasma membrane-associated free cholesterol. Here, we focus on recent insights into the molecules and cellular processes that mediate the uptake of plasma lipoprotein-derived cholesterol, events connected with the intracellular cholesterol processing and the role of crucial proteins that mediate cholesterol transport to mitochondria for its utilization for steroid hormone production. In particular, we discuss the structure and function of SR-BI, the importance of the selective cholesterol transport pathway in providing cholesterol substrate for steroid biosynthesis and the role of two key proteins, StAR and PBR/TSO in facilitating cholesterol delivery to inner mitochondrial membrane sites, where P450scc (CYP11A) is localized and where the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone (the common steroid precursor) takes place. PMID:20515451

  1. Intravitreal Steroids for the Treatment of Retinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Veritti, Daniele; Boscia, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME), pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (CME), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinal vascular occlusion (RVO), and uveitis are ocular conditions related to severe visual impairment worldwide. Corticosteroids have been widely used in the treatment of these retinal diseases, due to their well-known antiangiogenic, antiedematous, and anti-inflammatory properties. Intravitreal steroids have emerged as novel and essential tools in the ophthalmologist's armamentarium, allowing for maximization of drug efficacy and limited risk of systemic side effects. Recent advances in ocular drug delivery methods led to the development of intraocular implants, which help to provide prolonged treatment with controlled drug release. Moreover, they may add some potential advantages over traditional intraocular injections by delivering certain rates of drug directly to the site of action, amplifying the drug's half-life, contributing in the minimization of peak plasma levels of the drug, and avoiding the side effects associated with repeated intravitreal injections. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the use of intravitreal steroids as a treatment option for a variety of retinal diseases and to review the current literature considering their properties, safety, and adverse events. PMID:24526927

  2. Inhalational Steroids and Iatrogenic Cushing’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    A.V, Raveendran

    2014-01-01

    Bronchial asthma (BA) and Allergic rhinitis (AR) are common clinical problems encountered in day to day practice, where inhalational corticosteroids (ICS) or intranasal steroids (INS) are the mainstay of treatment. Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome (CS) is a well known complication of systemic steroid administration. ICS /INS were earlier thought to be safe, but now more and more number of case reports of Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome have been reported, especially in those who are taking cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) inhibitors. Comparing to the classical clinical features of spontaneous Cushing syndrome, iatrogenic Cushing syndrome is more commonly associated with osteoporosis, increase in intra-ocular pressure, benign intracranial hypertension, aseptic necrosis of femoral head and pancreatitis, where as hypertension, hirsuitisum and menstrual irregularities are less common. Endocrine work up shows low serum cortisol level with evidence of HPA (hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal) axis suppression. In all patients with features of Cushing syndrome with evidence of adrenal suppression always suspect iatrogenic CS. Since concomitant administration of cytochrome P450 inhibitors in patients on ICS/INS can precipitate iatrogenic CS, avoidance of CYP450 inhibitors, its dose reduction or substitution of ICS are the available options. Along with those, measures to prevent the precipitation of adrenal crisis has to be taken. An update on ICS-/INS- associated iatrogenic CS and its management is presented here. PMID:25674177

  3. The Dynamic Creation of Induction Rules Using Proof Planning 

    E-print Network

    Gow, Jeremy

    A key problem in automating proof by mathematical induction is choosing an induction rule suitable for a given conjecture. Since Boyer & Moore’s NQTHM system the standard approach has been based on recursion analysis, ...

  4. Computer Science Induction to

    E-print Network

    Berger, Ulrich

    Computer Science Induction to Postgraduate Research Studies Ulrich Berger Head of Postgraduate Research Supervision Regulations Progression Regulations Computer Science Induction to Postgraduate Research Studies Ulrich Berger Head of Postgraduate Research Department of Computer Science Swansea

  5. Electromagnetic induction methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electromagnetic induction geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use for agricultural purposes. Electromagnetic induction methods measure the electrical conductivity (or resistivity) for a bulk volume of soil directly beneath the surface. An instrument called a ground conductivity meter...

  6. Biodegradation of Estrogenic Steroidal Hormones 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Sang Hyun

    2011-10-21

    systems (Colborn et al., 1993, Levy, 1997). Annually, 50 million pounds of antibiotics are produced in the United States (FDA, 1999). The family of tetracycline antibiotics, such as chlortetracycline (CTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC), are of greatest... for chlortetracycline (CTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) were 28 ?g L-1 and 321 ?g L-1, respectively, by using a pour plate method, and 2 ?g L-1 and 320 ?g L-1 for N. europaea (Halling-S?rensen, 2001). Several O2 + 2H + 16 studies reported that estrogen...

  7. 3D model of amphioxus steroid receptor complexed with estradiol

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Michael E.; Chang, David J.

    2009-08-28

    The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a 3D model of amphioxus SR complexed with estradiol. This 3D model indicates that although the SR is activated by estradiol, some interactions between estradiol and human ER{alpha} are not conserved in the SR, which can explain the low affinity of estradiol for the SR. These differences between the SR and ER{alpha} in the steroid-binding domain are sufficient to suggest that another steroid is the physiological regulator of the SR. The 3D model predicts that mutation of Glu-346 to Gln will increase the affinity of testosterone for amphioxus SR and elucidate the evolution of steroid-binding to nuclear receptors.

  8. Induction and Analysis of the Alkaloid Mitragynine Content of a Mitragyna speciosa Suspension Culture System upon Elicitation and Precursor Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad Zuldin, Nor Nahazima; Said, Ikram Md.; Mohd Noor, Normah; Zainal, Zamri; Jin Kiat, Chew; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations and combinations of the phytohormones 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), kinetin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on callus induction and to demonstrate the role of elicitors and exogenous precursors on the production of mitragynine in a Mitragyna speciosa suspension culture. The best callus induction was achieved from petiole explants cultured on WPM that was supplemented with 4?mg?L?1 2, 4-D (70.83%). Calli were transferred to liquid media and agitated on rotary shakers to establish Mitragyna speciosa cell suspension cultures. The optimum settled cell volume was achieved in the presence of WPM that contained 3?mg?L?1 2,4-D and 3% sucrose (9.47 ± 0.4667?mL). The treatment of cultures with different concentrations of yeast extract and salicylic acid for different inoculation periods revealed that the highest mitragynine content as determined by HPLC was achieved from the culture treated with 250?mg?L?1 yeast extract (9.275 ± 0.082?mg?L?1) that was harvested on day 6 of culturing; salicylic acid showed low mitragynine content in all concentrations used. Tryptophan and loganin were used as exogenous precursors; the highest level of mitragynine production was achieved in cultures treated with 3??M tryptophan and harvested at 6 days (13.226 ± 1.98?mg?L?1). PMID:24065873

  9. Glia-neuron crosstalk in the neuroprotective mechanisms of sex steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Doncarlos, Lydia L; Melcangi, Roberto C; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2005-04-01

    Proteins involved in the intramitochondrial trafficking of cholesterol, the first step in steroidogenesis, such as the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), are upregulated in the nervous system after injury. Accordingly, a local increase in the levels of steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone, is observed following traumatic injury in the brain and spinal cord. The expression and activity of aromatase, the enzyme that synthesizes estradiol, is also increased in injured brain areas and its inhibition results in an increased neurodegeneration. These findings suggest that an increase in steroidogenesis is part of an overall mechanism used by the nervous tissue to cope with neurodegenerative conditions. Neural steroidogenesis is the result of a coordinated interaction of neurons and glia. For example, after neural injury, there is an upregulation of StAR in neurons and of PBR in microglia and astroglia. Aromatase is expressed in neurons under basal conditions and is upregulated in reactive astrocytes after injury. Some of the steroids produced by glia are neuroprotective. Progesterone and progesterone derivatives produced by Schwann cells, promote myelin formation and the remyelination and regeneration of injured nerves. In the central nervous system, the steroids produced by glia regulate synaptic function, affect anxiety, cognition, sleep and behavior, and exert neuroprotective and reparative roles. In addition, glial cells are targets for steroids and mediate some of the effects of these molecules on neurons, including the regulation of survival and regeneration. PMID:15850667

  10. Steroid Receptor Isoform Expression in Drosophila Nociceptor Neurons Is Required for Normal Dendritic Arbor and Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    McParland, Aidan L.; Follansbee, Taylor L.; Vesenka, Gwendolyn D.; Panaitiu, Alexandra E.; Ganter, Geoffrey K.

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones organize many aspects of development, including that of the nervous system. Steroids also play neuromodulatory and other activational roles, including regulation of sensitivity to painful stimuli in mammals. In Drosophila, ecdysteroids are the only steroid hormones, and therefore the fly represents a simplified model system in which to explore mechanisms of steroid neuromodulation of nociception. In this report, we present evidence that ecdysteroids, acting through two isoforms of their nuclear ecdysone receptor (EcR), modulate sensitivity to noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli in the fly larva. We show that EcRA and EcRB1 are expressed by third instar larvae in the primary nociceptor neurons, known as the class IV multidendritic neurons. Suppression of EcRA by RNA interference in these cells leads to hyposensitivity to noxious stimulation. Suppression of EcRB1 leads to reduction of dendritic branching and length of nociceptor neurons. We show that specific isoforms of the ecdysone receptor play critical cell autonomous roles in modulating the sensitivity of nociceptor neurons and may indicate human orthologs that represent targets for novel analgesic drugs. PMID:26495837

  11. Induction linacs and pulsed power

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1995-07-11

    Progress in electronic power conversion technology is making possible a new class of induction linacs that can operate at extremely high repetition rates. Advances in insulator technology, pulse forming line design and switching may also lead to a new type of high current accelerator with accelerating gradients at least an order of magnitude greater than those attainable today. The evolution of the induction accelerator pulsed power system will be discussed along with some details of these emerging technologies which are at the frontiers of accelerator technology.

  12. Design of long induction linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.; Cole, A.G.

    1990-09-06

    A self-consistent design strategy for induction linacs is presented which addresses the issues of brightness preservation against space charge induced emittance growth, minimization of the beam breakup instability and the suppression of beam centroid motion due to chromatic effects (corkscrew) and misaligned focusing elements. A simple steering algorithm is described that widens the effective energy bandwidth of the transport system.

  13. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Gale (Livermore, CA); Wilt, Michael J. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  14. Steroid-antivirals treatment versus steroids alone for the treatment of Bell’s palsy: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yabing; Zhu, Yong; Ma, Chuan; Zhao, Huaqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: To illustrate whether the steroid-antivirals treatment could acquire a better recovery in patients with Bell’s palsy than the steroids alone treatment. Materials and methods: We conducted an exhaustive search over Pub med/Medline, Ovid, Elsevier search engines and the Cochrane library thereby collecting the randomized controlled trials in the treatment of patients with Bell’s palsy with steroid-antivirals and steroids. The qualities of relevant articles were assessed by GRADE, which was used to present the overall quality of evidence as recommended by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Results: Two investigators evaluated these papers independently, and resolved the disagreements by discussion. At last 8 eligible papers (1816 patients included: 896 treated with steroid-antivirals and 920 treated with steroids alone) match the criteria. Owing to the result (chi2 = 12.57, P = 0.08, I2 = 44%) presented by the formal test for heterogeneity, the fixed effect meta-analysis model was chosen. The facial muscle recovery between the steroids-antivirals group and the steroids alone group show significant differences (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.20-1.94), while the statistical outcome of adverse effect shows no statistical significance (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 0.71-2.31). Conclusions: The present meta-analysis indicates that the steroid-antivirals treatment could improve the recovery rate in patients with Bell’s palsy when comparing with the steroid alone treatment. Clinical significance: This meta-analysis showed that the steroid-antivirals treatment achieved the better outcomes in patients with Bell’s palsy. Clinicians should consider that steroid-antivirals therapy is an alternative choice for the patients with Bell’s palsy. PMID:25785012

  15. 76 FR 72355 - Classification of Two Steroids, Prostanozol and Methasterone, as Schedule III Anabolic Steroids...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug... Methasterone, as Schedule III Anabolic Steroids Under the Controlled Substances Act AGENCY: Drug Enforcement... methasterone (2 ,17 -dimethyl-5 -androstan-17 -ol-3-one). The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)...

  16. Injecting Joints and Tendons With Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Gershon, Sydney L.

    1983-01-01

    The local intra-articular injection of cortisone compounds is a dependable method for giving patients relief from the pain and swelling of arthritic joints. Injecting the diseased synovium surrounding a joint or tendon sheath or lining a bursa is usually an easy procedure, and the first injection has few contraindications if it is done cautiously. Many clinicians therefore readily embark upon treating patients with steroid injections. However, problems, including post-injection flares, infections and hematomata may begin about 12 hours after an injection. Indications and contraindications for administering injections are therefore discussed, and limitations and precautionary measures are explained. PMID:21283480

  17. Cl{sub 2}-based dry etching of the AlGaInN system in inductively coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Hyun; Vartuli, C.B.; Abernathy, C.R.; Donovan, S.M.; Pearton, S.J.; Shul, R.J.; Han, J.

    1997-12-01

    Cl{sub 2}-based Inductively Coupled Plasmas with low additional dc self- biases(-100V) produce convenient etch rates(500-1500 A /min) for GaN, AlN, InN, InAlN and InGaN. A systematic study of the effects of additive gas(Ar, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}), discharge composition and ICP source power and chuck power on etch rate and surface morphology has been performed. The general trends are to go through a maximum in etch rate with percent Cl{sub 2} in the discharge for all three mixtures, and to have an increase(decrease) in etch rate with source power(pressure). Since the etching is strongly ion-assisted, anisotropic pattern transfer is readily achieved. Maximum etch selectivities of approximately 6 for InN over the other nitrides were obtained.

  18. 21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application. 1308.25...Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application. (a)...

  19. Ligand-dependent interactions of coactivators steroid receptor coactivator-1 and peroxisome proliferator-

    E-print Network

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    Ligand-dependent interactions of coactivators steroid receptor coactivator-1 and peroxisome demonstrate that both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor binding protein (PBP) and steroid receptor ligand-dependent transcriptional activation. Nu- clear receptors that are regulated by steroid hormones

  20. Volumetric magnetic induction tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H.-Y.; Ma, L.; Soleimani, M.

    2012-05-01

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a new and emerging type of tomography technique that is able to map the passive electromagnetic properties (in particular conductivity) of an object. Because of its non-invasive feature, it becomes a suitable technique for many industries, such as metal processing and mining. This paper presents a volumetric MIT (VMIT) system based on an existing measurement setup in our 2D system (MIT Mk-I). By increasing the number of sensors in the axial direction, volumetric imaging can be realized and hence can improve the spatial resolution of the reconstructed images. All of the system control, data acquisition and signal demodulation are accomplished by a commercial data acquisition card and the National Instruments graphical programming language. In this paper, both the system architecture and the forward 3D sensitivity model will be presented. The image reconstruction scheme is modified by introducing a 3D sensitivity map to replace the previous 2D sensitivity map used for the MIT Mk-I system. The iterative Landweber technique was implemented as the inverse solver to reconstruct the images. Several laboratory-based experimental results are demonstrated in this paper, with different shapes of imaging objects. The reconstructed images are satisfactory showing for the first time volumetric conductivity reconstruction using a multi-layer MIT system. The results indicate the high-quality image reconstruction using our novel VMIT system for potential use in industrial applications, such as metal flow imaging.

  1. Longitudinal gonadal steroid excretion in free-living male and female meerkats (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Moss, A M; Clutton-Brock, T H; Monfort, S L

    2001-05-01

    Slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta) are small, diurnal, cooperatively breeding mongooses of the family Herpestidae. A prerequisite to fully understanding the mating system of meerkats is the development of a normative reproductive-endocrine database. This study examined longitudinal gonadal steroid excretion in all adult and juvenile individuals of both sexes within a social group of free-living meerkats sampled across an entire breeding season. The specific objectives of this study were to (1) validate noninvasive (fecal and urinary) gonadal steroid hormone monitoring techniques in male (testosterone) and female (estrogens, progestagens) meerkats; (2) test the feasibility of using these noninvasive methods under field conditions; (3) characterize the endocrine correlates associated with the female reproductive cycle, including estrus, gestation, and postpartum estrus; (4) examine longitudinal androgen excretion in males; and (5) determine whether social status (i.e., dominant versus subordinate) affected gonadal steroid excretion. In females, the results demonstrated the physiological validity of noninvasive monitoring in meerkats by corresponding excretory hormone concentrations to major reproductive events (i.e., estrous, pregnancy, parturition). Hormone excretory patterns during estrous intervals suggested possible mechanisms whereby reproductive suppression may operate in female meerkats. In males, androgen excretion did not correspond to changes in reproductive and aggressive behaviors, suggesting that dominance, and hence breeding access to females, was not regulated strictly by gonadal steroid production. The consistency in androgen excretion among male meerkats indicated that reproductive suppression may be mediated by behavioral (i.e., intermale aggression) rather than physiological (i.e., depressed spermatogenesis) mechanisms. PMID:11316421

  2. Bioanalytical validation for simultaneous quantification of non-aromatic steroids in follicular fluid from cattle via ESI-LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Martin; Wirthgen, Elisa; Walz, Christina; Spitschak, Marion; Brenmoehl, Julia; Vanselow, Jens; Schwerin, Manfred; Wimmers, Klaus; Hoeflich, Andreas

    2015-12-15

    The family of steroid hormones is quite attractive for the approach of phenotype monitoring in farm animals. Therefore, we developed a new protocol for the quantitative analysis of natural steroids in follicular fluid from dairy cows. The corresponding steroid profile, which consists of progesterone, corticosterone, hydrocortisone, testosterone, and androstenedione covering three distinct steroid classes, was determined by LC/MS. Quantification is achieved by use of steroid standards diluted in steroid-free follicular fluid as calibrators. Thus, the new protocol does not require deuterated standards. In order to correct for conditional performance of the analytical system we have used dexamethasone as an internal standard. The method was validated according to EMA guidelines. Within- and between-day variations were below 20% for most parameters assessed. All steroids assessed had lower limits of quantification in the range of 2.1 to 4.4ng/ml. We have established a simple and sensitive analytical system in order to step towards a broader and cost-efficient phenotyping analysis in follicular fluid from dairy cows. PMID:26600283

  3. Idiopathic Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis During Pregnancy Treated with Steroids

    PubMed Central

    Samra, Bachar; Yasmin, Mohamad; Arnaout, Sami; Azzi, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare and severe clinical syndrome characterized by a dysregulated hyperinflammatory immune response. The diagnosis of HLH during pregnancy is especially challenging due to the rarity of this condition. The highly variable clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and associated diagnoses accompanying this syndrome further complicate the problem. A pronounced hyperferritinemia in the setting of systemic signs and symptoms along with a negative infectious and rheumatological workup should raise suspicions for HLH. While treatment ideally consists of immunosuppressive chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplant, the potential toxicity to both the pregnant woman and the fetus poses a challenging decision. We report the first case of idiopathic HLH presenting as fever of unknown origin in a pregnant woman successfully treated with steroids. PMID:26487936

  4. The Power of the "Object" to Influence Teacher Induction Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Glenda; Haigh, Mavis; Kane, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore newly qualified New Zealand secondary teachers' varied accounts of induction. We claim that multiple interpretations of objectives for induction programs are a significant source of this variation. With reference to an activity system framework, we identify four primary "objects" of induction that were represented in the…

  5. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng on Hearing and Blood Glucose Levels in Steroid Therapy for Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Park, So-Young; Seo, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Jun-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Korean red ginseng (KRG) has hypoglycemic, antioxidant, antithrombotic, and other beneficial effects in human. The present study evaluate the therapeutic effects of KRG on hearing recovery and glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) undergoing systemic steroid therapy. Methods The patients were divided into 2 groups: the steroid, and the combination of steroid and red ginseng. Pure tone averages (PTA) were assessed at the first visit and 2-month follow-up. All patients underwent fasting blood glucose analyses just before and on the fifth day of treatment. Both groups were treated with a 10-day course of oral methylprednisolone at tapering doses starting from a daily dose of 48 mg. To the combination group, KRG extract was administered by mouth at a daily dose of 3 g for 20 days in addition to methylprednisolone. Hearing gain was calculated comparing the initial PTA and PTA at 2 months' follow-up. Treatment responses were classified according to Siegel's criteria. Results Pretreatment conditions were similar between the steroid (n=37) and combination groups (n=36). At 2 months after the treatment, PTA improved significantly in both groups, but there was no significant difference in the mean hearing gain & recovery rate. The non-diabetic subjects in the steroid group (n=27) exhibited a 24% increase in the mean blood glucose level during the systemic steroid therapy, while those in the combination group (n=34) showed no changes. Conclusion Although the KRG did not provide greater therapeutic effects on hearing recovery, we suggest that red ginseng can be a useful adjuvant to the current steroid therapy to normalize glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients during the treatment of SSNHL. PMID:25177431

  6. Does Steroid Abuse Cause--Or Excuse--Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubell, Adele

    1989-01-01

    Use of anabolic steroids is believed to increase the odds of violent antisocial behavior, thus posing risks to consumers and the general public. Some research shows the danger of steroids in inducing severe adverse psychiatric effects. Certain lawyers use this abuse to plead insanity for their clients. (SM)

  7. Intestinal Parasite Infections and Fecal Steroid Levels in Wild Chimpanzees

    E-print Network

    Muehlenbein, Michael

    Intestinal Parasite Infections and Fecal Steroid Levels in Wild Chimpanzees Michael P. Muehlenbein noninvasive fecal collection methods, the present study evaluates pos- sible relationships between fecal steroid levels and gas- trointestinal parasite infections in the Ngogo chim- panzee community in Kibale

  8. Fossil steroids record the appearance of Demospongiae during the Cryogenian period

    E-print Network

    Grotzinger, John P.

    LETTERS Fossil steroids record the appearance of Demospongiae during the Cryogenian period Gordon D and isotopic geochemistry marked by unusual abundances of methylalkanes, steroids and triterpenoids derived

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT, PERFORMANCE OF INDUCTION MIXERS FOR DISINFECTION OF WET WEATHER FLOWS, US FILTER/STRANCO PRODUCTS WATER CHAMP R F SERIES CHEMICAL INDUCTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wet-Weather Flow Technologies Pilot of the EPA's Technology Verification (ETV) Program under a partnership with NSF International has verified the performawnce of the USFilter/Stranco Products chemical induction mixer used for disinfection of wet-weather flows. The USFilter t...

  10. Electromagnetic induction launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driga, M. D.; Weldon, W. F.; Woodson, H. H.

    1986-11-01

    Design features and potential applications of an electromagnetic induction launcher (EIL) and its power source, a rising frequency generator (RFG), are described. The RFG permits integration of the power supply/accelerator system design, with the generator voltage, frequency, rotor and stator inertias and initial velocities matched to the coaxial accelerator requirements. Analytical models are defined for short and long rotor variants of the RFG, for the accelerated traveling fields of an EIL, and for the projectile design. Conceptual designs are discussed for a coaxial EIL capable of accelerating a 1 kg projectile to 10 km/sec at a continuous 250,000 g acceleration and for an aircraft launcher which could impart a continuous 5 g acceleration to an 18,000 lb load.

  11. Establishment of a specific cell death induction system in Bombyx mori by a transgene with the conserved apoptotic regulator, mouse Bcl-2-associated X protein (mouse Bax).

    PubMed

    Sumitani, M; Sakurai, T; Kasashima, K; Kobayashi, S; Uchino, K; Kanzaki, R; Tamura, T; Sezutsu, H

    2015-12-01

    The induction of apoptosis in vivo is a useful tool for investigating the functions and importance of particular tissues. B-cell leukaemia/lymphoma 2-associated X protein (Bax) functions as a pro-apoptotic factor and induces apoptosis in several organisms. The Bax-mediated apoptotic system is widely conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. In order to establish a tissue-specific cell death system in the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori, we constructed a transgenic silkworm that overexpressed mouse Bax (mBax) in particular tissues by the Gal4-upstream activation sequence system. We found that the expression of mBax induced specific cell death in the silk gland, fat body and sensory cells. Fragmentation of genomic DNA was observed in the fat body, which expressed mBax, thereby supporting apoptotic cell death in this tissue. Using this system, we also demonstrated that specific cell death in sensory cells attenuated the response to the sex pheromone bombykol. These results show that we successfully established a tissue-specific cell death system in vivo that enabled specific deficiencies in particular tissues. The inducible cell death system may provide useful means for industrial applications of the silkworm and possible utilization for other species. PMID:26426866

  12. Sequential inductive learning

    SciTech Connect

    Gratch, J.

    1996-12-31

    This article advocates a new model for inductive learning. Called sequential induction, it helps bridge classical fixed-sample learning techniques (which are efficient but difficult to formally characterize), and worst-case approaches (which provide strong statistical guarantees but are too inefficient for practical use). Learning proceeds as a sequence of decisions which are informed by training data. By analyzing induction at the level of these decisions, and by utilizing the only enough data to make each decision, sequential induction provides statistical guarantees but with substantially less data than worst-case methods require. The sequential inductive model is also useful as a method for determining a sufficient sample size for inductive learning and as such, is relevant to learning problems where the preponderance of data or the cost of gathering data precludes the use of traditional methods.

  13. Induction Linac Pulsers

    SciTech Connect

    Faltens, Andris

    2011-01-07

    The pulsers used in most of the induction linacs evolved from the very large body of work that was done in the U.S. and Great Britain during the development of the pulsed magnetron for radar. The radar modulators started at {approx}100 kW and reached >10 MW by 1945. A typical pulse length was 1 {mu}s at a repetition rate of 1,000 pps. A very comprehensive account of the modulator development is Pulse Generators by Lebacqz and Glasoe, one of the Radiation Laboratory Series. There are many permutations of possible modulators, two of the choices being tube type and line type. In earlier notes I wrote that technically the vacuum tube pulser met all of our induction linac needs, in the sense that a number of tubes, in series and parallel if required, could produce our pulses, regulate their voltage, be useable in feed-forward correctors, and provide a low source impedance. At a lower speed, an FET array is similar, and we have obtained and tested a large array capable of >10 MW switching. A modulator with an electronically controlled output only needs a capacitor for energy storage and in a switched mode can transfer the energy from the capacitor to the load at high efficiency. Driving a full size Astron induction core and a simulated resistive 'beam load' we achieved >50% efficiency. These electronically controlled output pulses can produce the pulses we desire but are not used because of their high cost. The second choice, the line type pulser, visually comprises a closing switch and a distributed or a lumped element transmission line. The typical switch cannot open or stop conducting after the desired pulse has been produced, and consequently all of the initially stored energy is dissipated. This approximately halves the efficiency, and the original cost estimating program LIACEP used this factor of two, even though our circuits are usually worse, and even though our inveterate optimists often omit it. The 'missing' energy is that which is reflected back into the line from mismatches, the energy left in the accelerator module's capacitance, the energy lost in the switch during switching and during the pulse, and the energy lost in the pulse line charging circuit. For example, a simple resistor-limited power supply dissipates as much energy as it delivers to the pulse forming line, giving a factor if two by itself, therefore efficiency requires a more complicated charging system.

  14. Steroid hormone receptors and mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    1977-11-01

    The 1st step in the action of a steroid hormone involves entering a target cell where it is recognized and bound by a soluble macromolecule called a cytosol receptor (Re) specific for that hormone. The receptor hormone complex (ReS) is translocated to the cell's nucleus (RnS) where it binds to a large number of sites on chromatin. The binding of RnS to acceptor sites is thought to make gene sites available for transcription by RNA polymerase which subsequently results in elevated cellular RNA and protein synthesis. The 3-H steroid exchange assay based on the temperature dependence of the rate of steroid dissociation can be used to differentiate occupied and unoccupied receptors. The method has been used to examine the relationship between nuclear binding of the Rn estradiol complex and the stimulation of growth processes in the rat uterus. A single injection of .2 mcg/100 g body weight of estradiol causes the nuclear accumulation and retention of approximately 10-20% of the total number of uterine Re sites. Nuclear occupancy for 6 or more hours appears to be a requirement for stimulation of late uterotrophic events such as DNA synthesis, sustained stimulation of RNA polymerase activities, and cellular hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Estriol, a short-acting estrogen, has been classified as a weak estrogen, but it acts as such only when administered in a single injection, in which case it stimulates all early uterotrophic events but does not stimulate significant uterine growth. When estriol is present in a continuous fashion it is a highly effective estrogen. Longterm nuclear retention of the RnE complexes is necessary for uterine hypertrophy and hyperplasia. RnE complexes appear to interact with the genome to open gene sites for transcription; continued transcriptional activity is required for full uterine growth. Nonsteroidal estrogen antagonists have estrogen properties in some cells but act as estrogen antagonists in others. Progesterone appears to modify or redirect estrogen action by modulating estrogen receptor levels. Progesterone may act by reducing the level of available cytoplasmic estrogen receptors and hence decreasing the likelihood of receptor binding or by interfering with the nuclear retention of the RnE complex and decreasing the ability of these complexes to stimulate transcriptional events. PMID:12299912

  15. Reduction of Matrix-Induced Oxide Interferences on Rare Earth Elements and Platinum Using a Desolvating Nebulizer System with Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, F.

    2013-12-01

    This paper will examine the use of a specialized low-flow desolvating nebulizer system for reduction of oxide mass spectral interferences that can occur in quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS). This nebulizer system uses an inert low-flow nebulizer (100 microliters/min) coupled to an inert, heated membrane desolvator for efficient water vapor removal before sample aerosol injection to the Q-ICP-MS instrument. Water vapor from conventional nebulizer / spray chamber systems used with Q-ICP-MS can cause numerous mass spectral interferences. One general example is metal oxides formed from the combination of oxygen (from injected water) with sample matrix components. Two specific examples of metal oxide interferences will be investigated with and without membrane desolvation: Ba and Ce oxides on several low-mass rare earth elements (Sm, Eu, and Gd) and Hf oxides on platinum. Rare earth elements are critically important components of modern electronics (ex. magnets, lasers, cell phones, computers) and platinum is a widely used catalyst. Figures of merit for both a conventional nebulizer/spray chamber and the desolvating nebulizer systems will include operating conditions, interference intensities and reduction factors, background equivalent concentrations (BECs), and instrument detection limits (IDLs).

  16. Detrending career statistics in professional baseball: Accounting for the steroids era and beyond

    E-print Network

    Petersen, Alexander M; Stanley, H Eugene

    2010-01-01

    There is a long standing debate over how to objectively compare the career achievements of professional athletes from different historical eras. Developing an objective approach will be of particular importance over the next decade as Major League Baseball (MLB) players from the "steroids era" become eligible for Hall of Fame induction. Here we address this issue, as well as the general problem of comparing statistics from distinct eras, by detrending the seasonal statistics of professional baseball players. We detrend player statistics by normalizing achievements to seasonal averages, which accounts for changes in relative player ability resulting from both exogenous and endogenous factors, such as talent dilution from expansion, equipment and training improvements, as well as performance enhancing drugs (PED). In this paper we compare the probability density function (pdf) of detrended career statistics to the pdf of raw career statistics for five statistical categories -- hits (H), home runs (HR), runs bat...

  17. [Control measures for anabolic androgenic steroid medicines].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Mourelle, Raquel; Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo; Ces Gens, Eugenio; Cadórniga Valiño, Luis; Álvaro Esteban, Pilar; Pose Reino, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) can cause serious adverse effects when used without a therapeutic purpose. This article aims to show that the AAS are susceptible to being sold on the black market. We also aim to describe how certain limitations on the health inspection services of the Galician health service to pursue these illegal actions prompted a regulatory initiative demanding that additional actions be granted to community pharmacies when dispensing AAS. Four pharmacy inspections detected the diversion of a total of 3118 packages of AAS, which led to the opening of four disciplinary proceedings. In two of these, specialized police forces were called in as there was sufficient evidence of possible diversion to gymnasiums, resulting in a police operation called Operation Fitness. PMID:25778637

  18. New steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Liu, Tao; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Two new steroidal glycosides were isolated from Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated as 26-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-5?-furostan-12-one-20(22)-ene-3?,23,26-triol-3-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-[?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)]-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)]-?-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-5?-furostan-20(22)-ene-3?,23,26-triol-3-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-[?-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)]-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)]-?-D-galactopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments. PMID:22694659

  19. Translational research on rapid steroid actions.

    PubMed

    Wendler, Alexandra; Wehling, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Translational research is a burgeoning science that shows potential to improve the transition of research from bench to bedside. This novel science explores all major aspects of preclinical and clinical issues which are relevant for the success of translational pharmaceutical or medical device/diagnostic innovations. This includes target risk assessment, biomarker evaluation and predictivity grading both for efficacy and toxicity, early human trial design adequate to guide stop/go decisions on grounds of biomarker panels, and biostatistical methods to analyze multiple readout situations and quantify risk projections. Representing a comparably novel science, rapid steroid actions have been recognized to carry potential clinical implications in various fields. Findings in this field have not yet been successfully translated into clinically relevant new medicines except for neurosteroids. A promising compound is the membrane estrogen receptor agonist STX, which may be applicable for estrogen withdrawal symptoms. Nongenomic vitamin D analogs may be useful as antiinflammatory, anticancer or diabetes preventing agents. Further the membrane thyroid receptor agonist tetrac may be useful in cancer treatment. Unfortunately lazaroids (membrane-only active glucocorticoids), which have been clinically tested as neuroprotective agents, had to be abandoned because of lacking clinical efficacy. Yet, the hierarchy of antirheumatic glucocorticoid action in regard to their clinical potency may better correlate with their membrane effects than their ability to bind to the classic glucocorticoid receptor. To improve the translational success of the rapid actions of steroids research, scientists should become familiar with major aspects of translational work and always seek for translational dimensions in their research. PMID:19782096

  20. Time course of the estradiol-dependent induction of oxytocin receptor binding in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.E.; Ball, G.F.; Coirini, H.; Harbaugh, C.R.; McEwen, B.S.; Insel, T.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Oxytocin (OT) transmission is involved in the steroid-dependent display of sexual receptivity in rats. One of the biochemical processes stimulated by the ovarian steroid 17 beta-estradiol (E2) that is relevant to reproduction is the induction of OT receptor binding in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). The purpose of these experiments was to determine if E2-induced changes in OT receptor binding in the VMN occur within a time frame relevant to cyclic changes in ovarian steroid secretion. OT receptor binding was measured in the VMN of ovariectomized rats implanted for 0-96 h with E2-containing Silastic capsules. The rate of decay of OT receptor binding was measured in another group of animals 6-48 h after capsule removal. Receptors were labeled with the specific OT receptor antagonist ({sup 125}I)d(CH2)5(Tyr(Me)2,Thr4,Tyr-NH2(9))OVT, and binding was measured with quantitative autoradiographic methods. In addition, plasma E2 levels and uterine weights were assessed in animals from each treatment condition. Significant increases in E2-dependent OT receptor binding and uterine weight occurred within 24 h of steroid treatment. After E2 withdrawal, OT receptor binding and uterine weight decreased significantly within 24 h. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that steroid modulation of OT receptor binding is necessary for the induction of sexual receptivity.

  1. Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation with Pontine Perivascular Enhancement Responsive to Steroids with a Significant Elevation of ?-2 Microglobulin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Naoaki; Mori, Harushi; Matsui, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a relapsing-remitting disorder for which steroid administration is a key to control the progression. CLIPPERS can exhibit radiological features similar to malignant lymphoma, whose diagnosis is confounded by prior steroid administration. We report a case of CLIPPERS accompanied by abnormal elevation of ?-2 microglobulin in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A 62-year-old man started to experience numbness in all fingers of his left hand one year ago, which gradually extended to his body trunk and legs on both sides. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated numerous small enhancing spots scattered in his brain and spinal cord. CSF levels of ?-2 microglobulin were elevated; although this often indicates central nervous system involvement in leukemia and lymphoma, the lesions were diagnosed as CLIPPERS based on the pathological findings from a biopsy specimen. We emphasize the importance of biopsy to differentiate between CLIPPERS and malignant lymphoma because the temporary radiological response to steroid might be the same in both diseases but the treatment strategies regarding the use of steroid are quite different. PMID:26713153

  2. Differential effect of aging on B-cell immune responses to cholera toxin in the inductive and effector sites of the mucosal immune system.

    PubMed Central

    Haq, J A; Szewczuk, M R

    1991-01-01

    The age-associated primary immune response of B cells from the Peyer's patches (PP), the lamina propria (LP), the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and the spleen of mice following oral immunization with cholera toxin (CTx) was investigated. The induction of immune responses was assessed in 4-, 11-, and 24-month-old, individual C57BL/6J male mice by determining the number and isotype of anti-CTx ELISPOT-forming cells (SFC) in the PP, LPL, MLN, and spleen and the titer and isotype of serum anti-CTx antibody. The data indicate a significant age-associated decline in immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA anti-CTx SFC in the LP B cells but only in IgA anti-CTx SFC in the PP. No decline was seen in the anti-CTx SFC response in the MLN and spleen. Peroral immunization of mice with CTx resulted in a serum anti-CTx antibody response which was predominantly of the IgG class in all three age groups of mice tested. There was no age-associated decline in anti-CTx IgM, IgG, or IgA titers in serum. Isoelectric focusing and affinity immunoblotting revealed several distinct new antibody clonotypes in the immune serum of old mice following oral immunization with CTx. The results indicate a loss of immune responsiveness to CTx following oral immunization in senescent PP and LP B cells. The MLN and spleen B-cell responses were found to be refractory to the loss of immune function with aging. These findings suggest a differential effect of aging in the inductive and effector sites of the mucosal immune system, and the loss of antigen-specific IgA responses at mucosal sites may have adverse effects on the host's defense against potential pathogens. Images PMID:1879933

  3. Increased expression of cytotoxic effector molecules: different interpretations for steroid-based and steroid-free immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Satterwhite, Thomas; Chua, Mei-Sze; Hsieh, Szu-Chuan; Chang, Stella; Scandling, John; Salvatierra, Oscar; Sarwal, Minnie M

    2003-02-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) effector molecules have been studied as markers of acute rejection in renal allograft recipients on steroid-based immunosuppression. We hypothesized that basal CTL gene expression may vary with time post-transplantation as well as with different immunosuppression protocols (steroid-based or steroid-free). Variations in CTL gene expression may thus impact on the ability to predict acute allograft rejection. We used the non-invasive method of quantitative competitive-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (QC-RT-PCR) to quantify the amounts of CTL effector molecules (granulysin, GL; perforin, P; granzyme B, GB) in serial peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) samples from steroid-free and steroid-based adult and pediatric renal allograft recipients. Patients on both protocols were clinically monitored by protocol biopsies at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-transplantation and for graft function at 1 yr post-transplantation in a separate clinical study. Steroid-free patients with stable graft function showed an increase in GL, P, and GB gene expression over time post-transplantation with the increase being seen largely by the first post-transplant month. A further increase in GL expression was noted at the end of the first post-transplant year in the absence of acute rejection, whereas GB and P levels were unchanged. At comparative time-points post-transplantation, CTL genes were found to be higher in steroid-free patients with stable graft function, compared to steroid-based recipients with either clinically stable graft function or acute rejection. This study suggests that levels of CTL gene expression, although important in a steroid-based regimen to monitor the risk of acute rejection, may not be similarly applied in patients on steroid-free immunosuppression. The early increase in levels seen in steroid-free patients appears to correlate with the total absence of steroids. As steroid-free patients seem to have a lower incidence of acute rejection and better long-term graft function at 1 yr, the early increase in CTL genes in the absence of acute rejection may suggest an early adaptive immune activation response, promoting early graft acceptance in this protocol. PMID:12581329

  4. Induction tool resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Q.; Beard, D.; Hilliker, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    The economics of oil production today require more accurate estimates of the saturation and movability of hydrocarbons in relatively thin formation structures. The advent of array type induction sondes in petroleum well logging increases the information available. However, the ability to resolve thin beds in a complex borehole environment is defined by the physics of the induction method. The information content measured by a hypothetical induction array having all coil spacings is analyzed, and a quantitative expression for the decrease in vertical resolution with radial depth is derived. The pseudo 2-D model used has conductivity variation in the z-direction on a cylindrical shell centered about the tool axis. The radial dependence of the vertical resolution is examined by varying the radius of the cylindrical shell. For brevity in mathematical expressions, a two-coil induction tool is considered as a basic unit. Combinations of the basic unit are studied to quantify the resolution limit and facilitate the induction tool design.

  5. Steroid Hormone Signaling Is Essential to Regulate Innate Immune Cells and Fight Bacterial Infection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jennifer C.; Brandão, Ana S.; Leitão, Alexandre B.; Mantas Dias, Ângela Raquel; Sucena, Élio; Jacinto, António; Zaidman-Rémy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Coupling immunity and development is essential to ensure survival despite changing internal conditions in the organism. Drosophila metamorphosis represents a striking example of drastic and systemic physiological changes that need to be integrated with the innate immune system. However, nothing is known about the mechanisms that coordinate development and immune cell activity in the transition from larva to adult. Here, we reveal that regulation of macrophage-like cells (hemocytes) by the steroid hormone ecdysone is essential for an effective innate immune response over metamorphosis. Although it is generally accepted that steroid hormones impact immunity in mammals, their action on monocytes (e.g. macrophages and neutrophils) is still not well understood. Here in a simpler model system, we used an approach that allows in vivo, cell autonomous analysis of hormonal regulation of innate immune cells, by combining genetic manipulation with flow cytometry, high-resolution time-lapse imaging and tissue-specific transcriptomic analysis. We show that in response to ecdysone, hemocytes rapidly upregulate actin dynamics, motility and phagocytosis of apoptotic corpses, and acquire the ability to chemotax to damaged epithelia. Most importantly, individuals lacking ecdysone-activated hemocytes are defective in bacterial phagocytosis and are fatally susceptible to infection by bacteria ingested at larval stages, despite the normal systemic and local production of antimicrobial peptides. This decrease in survival is comparable to the one observed in pupae lacking immune cells altogether, indicating that ecdysone-regulation is essential for hemocyte immune functions and survival after infection. Microarray analysis of hemocytes revealed a large set of genes regulated at metamorphosis by EcR signaling, among which many are known to function in cell motility, cell shape or phagocytosis. This study demonstrates an important role for steroid hormone regulation of immunity in vivo in Drosophila, and paves the way for genetic dissection of the mechanisms at work behind steroid regulation of innate immune cells. PMID:24204269

  6. Striae and Their Relation to Topical Steroid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Adam, J. E.; Craig, Gibson

    1965-01-01

    Atrophic striae have been reported to occur normally in 35% of adolescents and abnormally in a variety of medical conditions. Recently, the occurrence of striae has been observed in adults after the use of potent topical steroids with occlusion. Pre-existing striae have been found to enlarge after topical steroid therapy, even without occlusion. The mechanism of striae formation appears to be due to the action of the steroids on the dermal connective tissue and/or dermal matrix rather than to mechanical tension. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14270214

  7. Sex steroids in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis): uncoupled maternal plasma and yolking follicle concentrations, potential

    E-print Network

    Wade, Juli

    Sex steroids in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis): uncoupled maternal plasma and yolking follicle Accepted 4 June 2003 Abstract The sex steroids testosterone (T) and estradiol-17b (E2) play important roles steroid levels (which can influence reproductive function) and yolk steroid levels (which can influence

  8. steroids 7 3 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 348355 available at www.sciencedirect.com

    E-print Network

    Miksik, Ivan

    steroids 7 3 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 348­355 available at www.sciencedirect.com journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/steroids is involved in the intracrinic pre- receptor regulation of steroid hormone activity [1]. The key enzyme for glucocorticoids that inactivates these steroids to their C11-oxo derivatives. The distribution of 11HSD2 reflects

  9. Steroids and Standardised Tests: Meritocracy and the Myth of Fair Play in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayles, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Steroid use in professional sports continues to receive much media attention in the United States. The predominant response to the use of steroids in professional sports is negative. Much of the opposition to steroid use focuses on the critical importance of fair play in American society. To the degree that steroids provide some players with an…

  10. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are...

  11. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are...

  12. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are...

  13. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are...

  14. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are...

  15. Coreless Concept for High Gradient Induction Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnykh, Anatoly; /SLAC

    2008-01-07

    An induction linac cell for a high gradient is discussed. The proposed solid state coreless approach for the induction linac topology (SLIM{reg_sign}) is based on nanosecond mode operation. This mode may have an acceleration gradient comparable with gradients of rf- accelerator structures. The discussed induction system has the high electric efficiency. The key elements are a solid state semiconductor switch and a high electric density dielectric with a thin section length. The energy in the induction system is storied in the magnetic field. The nanosecond current break-up produces the high voltage. The induced voltage is used for acceleration. This manner of an operation allows the use of low voltage elements in the booster part and achieves a high accelerating gradient. The proposed topology was tested in POP (proof of principle) experiments.

  16. Phenobarbital induction of cytochromes P-450. High-level long-term responsiveness of primary rat hepatocyte cultures to drug induction, and glucocorticoid dependence of the phenobarbital response.

    PubMed Central

    Waxman, D J; Morrissey, J J; Naik, S; Jauregui, H O

    1990-01-01

    The induction of hepatic cytochromes P-450 by phenobarbital (PB) was studied in rat hepatocytes cultured for up to 5 weeks on Vitrogen-coated plates in serum-free modified Chee's medium then exposed to PB (0.75 mM) for an additional 4 days. Immunoblotting analysis indicated that P-450 forms PB4 (IIB1) and PB5 (IIB2) were induced dramatically (greater than 50-fold increase), up to levels nearly as high as those achieved in PB-induced rat liver in vivo. The newly synthesized cytochrome P-450 was enzymically active, as shown by the major induction of the P-450 PB4-dependent steroid 16 beta-hydroxylase and pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activities in the PB-induced hepatocyte microsomes (up to 90-fold increase). PB induction of these P-450s was markedly enhanced by the presence of dexamethasone (50 nM-1 microM), which alone was not an affective inducing agent, and was inhibited by greater than 90% by 10% fetal bovine serum. The PB response was also inhibited (greater than 85%) by growth hormone (250 ng/ml), indicating that this hormone probably acts directly on the hepatocyte when it antagonizes the induction of P-450 PB4 in intact rats. In untreated hepatocytes, P-450 RLM2 (IIA2), P-450 3 (IIA1) and NADPH P-450 reductase levels were substantially maintained in the cultures for 10-20 days. The latter two enzymes were also inducible by PB to an extent (3-4 fold elevation) that is comparable with that observed in the liver in vivo. Moreover, P-450c (IA1) and P-450 3 (IIA1) were highly inducible by 3-methylcholanthrene (5 microM; 48 h exposure) even after 3 weeks in culture. In contrast, the male-specific pituitary-regulated P-450 form 2c (IIC11) was rapidly lost upon culturing the hepatocytes, suggesting that supplementation of appropriate hormonal factors may be necessary for its expression. The present hepatocyte culture system exhibits a responsiveness to drug inducers that is qualitatively and quantitatively comparable with that observed in vivo, and should prove valuable for more detailed investigations of the molecular and mechanistic basis of the response to PB and its modulation by endogenous hormones. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:2222405

  17. Steroid Induction of Phenylethanolamine-N-methyl Transferase in Adrenomedullary Explants: Independence of

    E-print Network

    Wurtman, Richard

    produced by glucocorticoids does not require an intact adrenal innervation. (Endo- crinology 86: 1466, 1970 eye 21 days previously re- ceived daily injections of dexamethasone or its diluent, as indicated above/mg protein/hr. Total catecholamine (CA) and epinephrine (EPI) levels are expressed as pig/mg protein. * p

  18. Differential regulation of the expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase, estrogen and androgen receptor subtypes in the brain-pituitary-ovarian axis of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) reveals steroid dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Shan-Ru; Pasquier, Jeremy; Yueh, Wen-Shiun; Chen, Guan-Ru; Lee, Yan-Horn; Dufour, Sylvie; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the role of sexual steroids in the regulation of the expression of the single aromatase gene and steroid receptor subtypes in the brain-pituitary-ovarian axis of the Japanese eel. Unlike other teleosts, which possess duplicated genes for aromatase, cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b, expressed in the gonads and in the brain, respectively, eel species possess a single cyp19a1. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that eel brain/gonadal cyp19a1 branches at the basis of both teleost gonadal cyp19a1a and brain cyp19a1b clades. Female eels treated with catfish pituitary homogenate (CPH) to induce sexual maturation showed an increase in the expression of cyp19a1 and aromatase enzymatic activity in the brain and in the ovaries. Treatments with sex steroids (estradiol-17?, E(2) or testosterone, T) revealed that the increase in cyp19a1 expression in the brain may result from E(2)-specific induction. In contrast, the increase in cyp19a1 expression in the ovaries of CPH-treated eels is a result of steroid-independent control, probably from a direct effect of gonadotropins contained in the pituitary extract. Analysis of the expression of estrogen and androgen receptor subtypes, esr-?, esr-?, ar-? and ar-?, in eels treated with CPH or sex steroids revealed differential regulations. In CPH-treated eels, the expression of esr-? and ar-? was significantly increased in the brain, while the expression of ar-? and ar-? was increased in the ovaries. No change was observed in esr-? in any organ. Steroid treatments induced an upregulation by E(2) of esr-?, but not esr-? expression, in the brain, pituitary and ovaries, while no autoregulation by T of its own receptors could be observed. These results reveal both steroid-dependent and -independent mechanisms in the regulation of cyp19a1 and steroid receptor subtype expression in the eel. PMID:22107840

  19. Perioral dermatitis in a child associated with an inhalation steroid

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Praveen; Parashette, Kalyan R; Noronha, Peter

    2010-01-01

    known moderate persistent asthma on treatment with inhaledtreatment is discontinuation of inhaled steroids and substitution with another inhaled medication for asthmatreatment in the recent literature [ 9 ]. The patient’s history of asthma

  20. Anabolic Steroids and Strength and Power Related Athletic Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, David R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficacy of steroids in development of muscular strength in athletes is not proven. Their long-term use is increasingly being associated with liver disorders, including liver cancer, and other health problems. (JD)

  1. SEASONAL VARIATION IN PLASMA SEX STEROID CONCENTRATION IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations is common in mature vertebrates, and is occasionally seen in juvenile animals. In this study, we examine the seasonal pattern of sex hormone concentration in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and make...

  2. Inhibin-non-steroidal regulation of follicle stimulating hormone secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, H.G.; Findlay, J.K. ); de Kretser, D.M. ); Igarashi, M. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of inhibin non-steroidal regulation of follicle stimulating hormone secretion. Topics covered include: FSH regulation, Molecular biology, Radioimmunoassay, Physiology - Testocular inhibin, Physiology - ovarian inhibin, and local actions.

  3. Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of R-4360-18 Power-Plant Installation for XR60 Airplane. 3; Performance of Induction and Exhaust Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, David T.; Hawkins, W. Kent

    1947-01-01

    A study has been made of the performance of the induction and the exhaust systems on the XR60 power-plant installation as part of an investigation conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. Altitude flight conditions from 5000 to 30,000 feet were simulated for a range of engine powers from 750 to 3000 brake horsepower. Slipstream rotation prevented normal pressure recoveries in the right side of the main duct in the region of the right intercooler cooling-air duct inlet. Total-pressure losses in the charge-air flow between the turbosupercharger and the intercoolers were as high as 2.1 inches of mercury. The total-pressure distribution of the charge air at the intercooler inlets was irregular and varied as much as 1.0 inch of mercury from the average value at extreme conditions, Total-pressure surveys at the carburetor top deck showed a variation from the average value of 0.3 inch of mercury at take-off power and 0.05 inch of mercury at maximum cruising power, The carburetor preheater system increased the temperature of the engine charge air a maximum of about 82 F at an average cowl-inlet air temperature of 9 F, a pressure altitude of 5000 feet, and a brake horsepower of 1240.

  4. Induction of caspase-3-like activity in rice following release of cytochrome-f from the chloroplast and subsequent interaction with the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongjuan; Zhu, Xiaonan; Li, Huan; Cui, Jing; Liu, Cheng; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    It has been known that the process of leaf senescence is accompanied by programmed cell death (PCD), and the previous study indicated that dark-induced senescence in detached leaves from rice led to the release of cytochrome f (Cyt f) from chloroplast into the cytoplasm. In this study, the effects of Cyt f on PCD were studied both in vitro and in vivo. In a cell-free system, purified Cyt f activated caspase-3-like protease and endonuclease OsNuc37, and induced DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, Cyt f-induced caspase-3-like activity could be inhibited by MG132, which suggests that the activity was attributed to the 26S proteasome. Conditional expression of Cyt f in the cytoplasm could also activate caspase-3-like activity and DNA fragmentation. Fluorescein diacetate staining and annexin V-FITC/PI double staining demonstrated that Cyt f expression in cytoplasm significantly increased the percentage of PCD protoplasts. Yeast two-hybrid screening showed that Cyt f might interact with E3-ubiquitin ligase and RPN9b, the subunits of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), and other PCD-related proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that the released Cyt f from the chloroplast into the cytoplasm might activate or rescue caspase-3-like activity by interacting with the UPS, ultimately leading to the induction of PCD. PMID:25103621

  5. Radio-Immunotherapy-Induced Immunogenic Cancer Cells as Basis for Induction of Systemic Anti-Tumor Immune Responses – Pre-Clinical Evidence and Ongoing Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Derer, Anja; Deloch, Lisa; Rubner, Yvonne; Fietkau, Rainer; Frey, Benjamin; Gaipl, Udo S.

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) primarily aims to locally destroy the tumor via the induction of DNA damage in the tumor cells. However, the so-called abscopal, namely systemic and immune–mediated, effects of RT move over more and more in the focus of scientists and clinicians since combinations of local irradiation with immune therapy have been demonstrated to induce anti-tumor immunity. We here summarize changes of the phenotype and microenvironment of tumor cells after exposure to irradiation, chemotherapeutic agents, and immune modulating agents rendering the tumor more immunogenic. The impact of therapy-modified tumor cells and damage-associated molecular patterns on local and systemic control of the primary tumor, recurrent tumors, and metastases will be outlined. Finally, clinical studies affirming the bench-side findings of interactions and synergies of radiation therapy and immunotherapy will be discussed. Focus is set on combination of radio(chemo)therapy (RCT) with immune checkpoint inhibitors, growth factor inhibitors, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy. Well-deliberated combination of RCT with selected immune therapies and growth factor inhibitors bear the great potential to further improve anti-cancer therapies. PMID:26500646

  6. Direct reading inductance meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolby, R. B. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A direct reading inductance meter comprised of a crystal oscillator and an LC tuned oscillator is presented. The oscillators function respectively to generate a reference frequency, f(r), and to generate an initial frequency, f(0), which when mixed produce a difference equal to zero. Upon connecting an inductor of small unknown value in the LC circuit to change its resonant frequency to f(x), a difference frequency (f(r)-f(x)) is produced that is very nearly a linear function of the inductance of the inductor. The difference frequency is measured and displayed on a linear scale in units of inductance.

  7. The induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redinz, José Arnaldo

    2015-09-01

    We obtain analytical expressions for the torques and angular speed of an induction motor with a simple geometry, resembling the geometry of the first induction motor investigated by Arago in 1824. The rotor is a conducting disc rotating between the magnetic poles of two off-axis solenoids, displaced in space by 90^\\circ from each other. We apply our results to discuss a theory for the ubiquitous electromechanical watt-hour meter. For comparison of the theoretical result for the angular speed with measurements, we propose a simple experiment in which an induction motor with an aluminum disc rotor is constructed.

  8. Cogan's syndrome: achievement of complete resolution of auditory deficit with steroids

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pritam; Gupta, Monica; Lehl, S S; Singh, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Cogan's syndrome is a rare inflammatory disorder predominantly affecting ocular and audiovestibular apparatus. The typical ocular picture is that of a non-syphilitic interstitial keratitis, while audiovestibular features resemble Meniere's disease. The hearing deficit often does not adequately respond to systemic steroids, which are the mainstay of therapy. Cochlear implants may ameliorate this deficit, but may not be readily available because of financial constraints in the Indian subcontinent. A high index of suspicion and multispecialty coordination will help in the early initiation of therapy and reduce long-term morbidity. We report a case of this rare entity where the recovery of deficits was dramatic on initiation of high-dose steroids. PMID:23704430

  9. Search for the Evolution of Steroid Biosynthesis in the Geological Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocks, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    To study the evolution of the structure of organisms we can directly examine fossilized shells, skeletons and petrified cells. In contrast, for the tentative reconstruction of the phylogeny of biosynthetic pathways, such as steroid anabolism, we rely entirely on the comparative molecular biology of living organisms. Thus, without fossil evidence, the times in geological history when successive steps of a metabolic pathway evolved remain particularly elusive. Molecular clocks of genes coding for the enzymes involved in a biosynthetic pathway might provide a rough guess when a natural product first appeared in geological time, but they are intrinsically unreliable without calibration points in the distant past. However, it might be possible to trace the evolutionary history of some biosynthetic pathways directly in the geological record by searching for hydrocarbon biomarkers of anabolic intermediates. Biomarkers are molecular fossils of natural products. They often retain the diagnostic carbon skeleton of their biological precursor and remain stable over hundreds of millions of years enclosed in organic-rich sedimentary rocks. Sterane hydrocarbons are particularly abundant biomarkers and potentially suitable for the search of biosynthetic intermediates. Steranes are the fossil equivalents of functionalized steroids found in eukaryotes and certain bacteria. The biosynthesis of typical eukaryotic steroids such as cholesterol (C27), ergosterol (C28) and sitosterol (C29) from the acyclic precursor squalene (C30) involves more than 20 enzymatic steps. The most crucial steps include modification of the carbon skeleton by removal of several methyl groups from the ring system and addition of alkyl groups to the steroid side chain. The evolution of this complex pathway must have occurred over geologically significant periods of time and likely involved several preadaptive intermediates that represented structurally less derived but fully functional lipids. Thus, if a molecular corollary of `ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny' applies, it might be possible to detect a sequence of increasingly modified fossil steroids in the geological record and to create a time frame for the evolution of this fundamental biosynthetic pathway. Here we present first results of an extensive search for the fossil remains of evolutionary intermediate steroids in sedimentary successions of Precambrian age.

  10. Regulation of Extraadrenal Steroid 21-Hydroxylase Activity

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Paul C.; Cutrer, Susan; MacDonald, Sue C.; Casey, M. Linette; Parker, C. Richard

    1982-01-01

    We measured deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and progesterone (P) in plasma of 47 women pregnant with a dead fetus and sequentially throughout gestation in 35 women pregnant with a live fetus. When P levels in plasma were low, the plasma levels of DOC in women pregnant with a dead fetus varied but usually were similar to those in women pregnant with a live fetus. However, when P levels were high, the levels of DOC in some women pregnant with a dead fetus were considerably lower than those in women pregnant with a live fetus. To test whether this finding was due to loss of transfer of DOC from fetus to mother or else loss of extraadrenal steroid 21-hydroxylase activity in the mother after death of the fetus, we conducted several studies. The levels of P and DOC in plasma of one woman remained constant from 30 min after fetal death until delivery occurred 13 h later. Estrogen treatment of four women pregnant with a dead fetus brought about an increase in plasma levels of DOC in three of the women. In one woman the ratio of plasma DOC to P was 0.015, a value similar to that found before fetal death, but was 0.003 after fetal death but before estrogen treatment. In two women pregnant with a dead fetus the transfer constants of conversion of plasma P to DOC were 0.011 and 0.005 before, and 0.024 and 0.013, respectively, during estrogen treatment. In one woman pregnant with a deformed fetus with adrenal agenesis, the metabolic clearance rates of DOC before and during estrogen treatment were similar, whereas the plasma production rates of DOC were 2.75 before and 4.31 mg/24 h during estrogen treatment. We suggest that (a) the DOC in plasma of near-term pregnant women arises in part by extraadrenal 21-hydroxylation of plasma P and (b) estrogen stimulates steroid 21-hydroxylase activity in extraadrenal tissues. PMID:6976979

  11. Steroid hormone synthetic pathways in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mostaghel, Elahe A.

    2014-01-01

    While androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) since the seminal recognition of the disease as androgen-dependent by Huggins and Hodges in 1941, therapy is uniformly marked by progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) over a period of about 18 months, with an ensuing median survival of 1 to 2 years. Importantly, castration does not eliminate androgens from the prostate tumor microenvironment. Castration resistant tumors are characterized by elevated tumor androgens that are well within the range capable of activating the AR and AR-mediated gene expression, and by steroid enzyme alterations which may potentiate de novo androgen synthesis or utilization of circulating adrenal androgens. The dependence of CRPC on intratumoral androgen metabolism has been modeled in vitro and in vivo, and residual intratumoral androgens are implicated in nearly every mechanism by which AR-mediated signaling promotes castration-resistant disease. These observations suggest that tissue based alterations in steroid metabolism contribute to the development of CRPC and underscore these metabolic pathways as critical targets of therapy. Herein, we review the accumulated body of evidence which strongly supports intracrine (tumoral) androgen synthesis as an important mechanism underlying PCa progression. We first discuss the presence and significance of residual prostate tumor androgens in the progression of CRPC. We review the classical and non-classical pathways of androgen metabolism, and how dysregulated expression of these enzymes is likely to potentiate tumor androgen production in the progression to CRPC. Next we review the in vitro and in vivo data in human tumors, xenografts, and cell line models which demonstrate the capacity of prostate tumors to utilize cholesterol and adrenal androgens in the production of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and briefly review the potential role of exogenous influences on this process. Finally, we discuss the emerging data regarding mechanisms of response and resistance to potent ligand synthesis inhibitors entering clinical practice, and conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for future therapy. PMID:25379460

  12. Use of steroids for management of varicella pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Ruth; Carter, Ruth; Raza, Mansoor

    2015-01-01

    Varicella pneumonia (VP) is a critical complication of varicella infection and still carries significant morbidity and mortality, often requiring intensive care unit admission. Current accepted treatment is with intravenous aciclovir and organ support, if required. We report two cases of VP with acute respiratory failure, successfully treated with intravenous steroids in addition to aciclovir. Further research into the benefits of steroid therapy in VP is warranted. PMID:26264945

  13. Dying to be big: a review of anabolic steroid use.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, H M; Wright, D; Littlepage, B N

    1992-01-01

    Anabolic steroids use is commonly perceived to be the domain of the higher echelons of competitive athletes. However, a great deal of anabolic steroid use occurs in private gymnasia (non-local authority) among non-competitive recreational athletes. Our study has attempted to give an insight into the prevalence of the use of these drugs, the hazards associated with it, and the public health responses which we have adopted. PMID:1490220

  14. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor for steroid-induced diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Masui, Yoshinori; Yoshikawa, Reo; Kunimatsu, Junwa; Kaneko, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The addition of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP-4) inhibitor has been reported to achieve greater improvements in glucose metabolism with fewer adverse events compared to increasing the metformin dose in type 2 diabetic patients. We present a patient with steroid-induced diabetes whose blood glucose levels were ameliorated by the use of the DPP-4 inhibitor, showing that the DPP-4 inhibitors may be an effective and safe oral anti-diabetic drug for steroid-induced diabetes. PMID:21537433

  15. Bardet-Biedl syndrome presenting with steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Singh, K. K.; Kumar, R.; Prakash, J.; Krishna, A.

    2015-01-01

    Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by postaxial polydactyly, retinitis pigmentosa, central obesity, mental retardation, hypogonadism, and renal involvement. Renal involvement in various forms has been seen in BBS. Cases with nephrotic range proteinuria not responding to steroid have been described in this syndrome. Here we report a case of BBS who presented with nephrotic range proteinuria. The biopsy findings were suggestive of minimal change disease. The child responded well to steroid therapy and remains in remission.

  16. Sex steroid hormones modulate responses to social challenge and opportunity in males of the monogamous convict cichlid, Amatitliana

    E-print Network

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    May 2013 Keywords: Social behavior Androgen Estrogen Testosterone 11-Ketotestosterone Reproduction a bSex steroid hormones modulate responses to social challenge and opportunity in males is associated with social organization and/or mating system. In order to further elucidate the interplay

  17. An Investigation of the Icing and Heated-air De-icing Characteristics of the R-2600-13 Induction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Gilbert E.

    1946-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was made on a Holley 1685-HB carburetor mounted on an R-2600-13 supercharger assembly to determine the icing characteristics and the heated-air de-icing requirements of this portion of the B-25D airplane induction system. Icing has been found to be most prevalent at relatively small throttle openings and, consequently, all runs were made at simulated 60-percent normal rated power condition. Icing characteristics were determined during a series of 15-minute runs over a range of inlet-air conditions. For the de-icing investigation severe impact ice was allowed to form in the induction system and the time required for the recovery of 95 percent of the maximum possible air flow at the original throttle setting was then determined for a range of wet-bulb temperatures. Results of these runs showed that ice on the walls of the carburetor adapter and on the rim of the impeller-shroud portion of the supercharger diffuser plate did not affect engine operation at 60-percent normal rated power. Ice that adversely affected the air flow and the fuel-air ratio was formed only on the central web of the carburetor and then only when the inlet air was saturated or contained free moisture in excess of saturation. No serious ice formations were observed at inlet-air temperatures above 66 0 F or with an inlet-air enthalpy greater than 34 Btu per pound. The maximum temperature at. which any trace of icing could be detected was 1110 F with a relative humidity of approximately 28 percent, The air-flow recovery time for emergency de-icing was 0.3 minute for.an enthalpy of 35 Btu per pound or wet-bulb temperature of 68 0 F. Further increase in enthalpy and wet-bulb temperature above these values resulted in very slight improvement in recovery time. The fuel-air ratio restored by a 5-Minute application of heated air was approximately 7 percent less than the initial value for cold-air conditions.

  18. Albumin, steroid hormones and the origin of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Baker, M E

    2002-10-01

    Albumin, the major serum protein, binds a wide variety of lipophilic compounds including steroids, other lipophilic hormones and various phytochemicals and xenobiotics that bind to receptors for steroids and other lipophilic hormones. Despite albumin's low affinity (K(d) approximately 10(-4) M to 10(-6) M) for these lipophilic compounds, the high concentration of albumin in serum makes this protein a major carrier of steroids and lipophilic hormones and a regulator of their access to receptors. Albumin also functions as a sink for xenobiotics, diminishing the binding of xenobiotics to hormone receptors and other cellular proteins. This protects animals from endocrine disruption by xenobiotics. We propose that these properties of albumin were important in protochordates and primitive vertebrates, such as jawless fish, about 600 to 530 million years ago, just before and during the Cambrian period. It is at that time that the ancestral receptors of adrenal and sex steroids - androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and progestins - arose in multicellular animals. Albumin regulated access of steroids to their receptors, as well as protecting animals from endocrine disruptors, such as phytochemicals, fungal chemicals and phenolics, and other chemicals formed at hydrothermal vents by geochemical processes. Thus, animals in which albumin expression was high had a selective advantage in regulating the steroid response and avoiding endocrine disruption by xenobiotics. PMID:12379496

  19. Induction melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Jay A [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID; Raivo, Brian D [Idaho Falls, ID; Soelberg, Nicholas R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-06-17

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  20. Induction heating coupler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L. (inventor); Copeland, Carl E. (inventor); Swaim, Robert J. (inventor); Coultrip, Robert H. (inventor); Johnston, David F. (inventor); Phillips, W. Morris (inventor); Johnson, Samuel D. (inventor); Dinkins, James R. (inventor); Buckley, John D. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An induction heating device includes a handle having a hollow interior and two opposite ends, a wrist connected to one end of the handle, a U-shaped pole piece having two spaced apart ends, a tank circuit including an induction coil wrapped around the pole piece and a capacitor connected to the induction coil, a head connected to the wrist and including a housing for receiving the U-shaped pole piece, the two spaced apart ends of the pole piece extending outwardely beyond the housing, and a power source connected to the tank circuit. When the tank circuit is energized and a susceptor is placed in juxtaposition to the ends of the U-shaped pole piece, the susceptor is heated by induction heating due to magnetic flux passing between the two ends of the pole piece.