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1

Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

... a good idea to avoid them. What Are Steroids? "Steroids" has more than one meaning. Your body ... are still on the market. Continue Dangers of Steroids Anabolic steroids cause many different types of problems. ...

2

Synergistic Induction of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone -Subunit Gene Expression by Gonadal Steroid Hormone  

E-print Network

Synergistic Induction of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone -Subunit Gene Expression by Gonadal Steroid Hormone Receptors and Smad Proteins Varykina G. Thackray and Pamela L. Mellon Departments of Reproductive by mediating steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. Gonadal ste- roid hormones influence gonadotropin production

Mellon, Pamela L.

3

Steroid maintenance in repeat kidney transplantation: influence of induction agents on outcomes.  

PubMed

The influence of steroid maintenance on the outcomes of repeat kidney transplant (RKT) recipients with respect to induction type is unclear. Using the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network/United Network of Organ Sharing (OPTN/UNOS) database, we identified patients (? 18 years) who underwent deceased donor RKT from January 2000 to December 2008 after receiving induction with rabbit-antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG), alemtuzumab or an IL-2 receptor blocker (IL-2B) and were discharged on a calcineurin inhibitor/mycophenolate mofetil regimen with or without steroids. Of 5634 patients, 3643 received r-ATG (steroid = 3157, no-steroid = 486), 448 alemtuzumab (steroid = 196, no-steroid = 252) and 1543 an IL-2B (steroid = 1465, no-steroid = 78). Unadjusted graft survivals were similar for the no-steroid versus steroid groups for induction with r-ATG [hazard ratio (HR) 0.85 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.70-1.03, P = 0.10], alemtuzumab (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.51-1.14, P = 0.18) and IL-2B (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.56-1.70, P = 0.23). In the adjusted model, steroid use improved graft survival in alemtuzumab (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.25-0.76, P = 0.003) but not in the r-ATG (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.68-1.09, P = 0.21) or IL-2B (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.56-1.70, P = 0.94) groups. Steroid use was associated with inferior patient survival in unadjusted (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.17-1.44, P <0.001) and adjusted (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.14-1.45, P <0.001) models for r-ATG induction, whereas this was not observed with alemtuzumab (unadjusted HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.89-1.37, P = 0.36; adjusted HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.68-1.20, P = 0.49) or IL-2B (unadjusted HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.87-1.18, P = 0.87; adjusted HR 1.15, 95% CI 0.97-1.38, P = 0.12) inductions. Our study showed a graft survival benefit in the alemtuzumab- and patient death risk in the r-ATG-induced RKT recipients discharged on steroids. PMID:24969182

Sureshkumar, Kalathil K; Hussain, Sabiha M; Nashar, Khaled; Marcus, Richard J

2014-07-01

4

Steroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If a radioimmunoassay, a protein binding method, or a colorimetric assay for the assessment of a steroid level is replaced by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the cost for the determination of a steroid level increases at least initially because one must acquire the new HPLC equipment. Therefore, if an older method provides the same results as the new, "advanced" HPLC method, the only advantage resulting from the introduction of a high performance chromatographic assay is that gained by the manufacturer in terms of greater sales. Thus, justification for the assessment of steroids by HPLC is only obtained if the quality and/or quantity of information gained is significantly increased as compared to that provided by the conventional methods. But this evidential relation, that more and better information justifies a higher price in any case, is no longer true in health care, with the birth some years ago of the categoric imperative for the reduction of costs in the medical sector. That is, each new technology introduced for health maintenance should demonstrate at least a stabilizing impact on total medical expenditures. Therefore, after reviewing the presently available HPLC methods for the clinically important steroids, we will consider whether HPLC analyses for these steroids can be recommended without violating this vox populi.

Frey, Felix J.; Frey, Brigitte M.; Benet, Leslie Z.

5

Steroids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Chemistry at Queen Mary University of London has provided an online version of this document from the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The IUPAC has provided numerous documents describing the nomenclature of organic compounds. This specific document issues recommendations for the nomenclature of steroids.

Moss, Gerard P.

2007-09-11

6

Antioxidative and steroid systems in neurological and psychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

A large number of neurological and psychiatric diseases like Morbus Parkinson, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, dementia, schizophrenia and probably also affective disorders show an enhanced production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, alterations of antioxidative systems and beneficial effects of antioxidative substances including steroid compounds such as estrogens have been described in several of these diseases. This review focuses on alterations of antioxidative systems in the course of neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders and on the differential effects of steroids on these systems in the central nervous system. Moreover, a possible clinical relevance of alterations of circulating steroids and of steroid treatment under these conditions is discussed. PMID:16097403

Schmidt, Andreas Johannes; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Vedder, Helmut

2005-01-01

7

Impact of steroid maintenance on the outcomes in first-time deceased donor kidney transplant recipients: Analysis by induction type  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze the impact of steroid maintenance on the outcomes in kidney transplant recipients stratified by induction agent received. METHODS: Patients who underwent first-time deceased donor kidney transplantation between 2000 and 2008 after receiving induction therapy with rabbit-antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG), alemtuzumab or an interleukin-2 receptor blocker (IL-2B) and discharged on a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)-regimen along with or without steroids were identified from the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network/United Network of Organ Sharing database. For each induction type, adjusted overall and death-censored graft as well as patient survivals were compared between patients discharged on steroid vs no steroid. Among r-ATG induced patients, analysis was repeated after splitting the group into low and high immune risk groups. RESULTS: Among the 37217 patients included in the analysis, 17863 received r-ATG (steroid = 13001, no-steroid = 4862), 3028 alemtuzumab (steroid = 852, no-steroid = 2176) and 16326 IL-2B (steroid = 15008, no-steroid = 1318). Adjusted overall graft survival was inferior (HR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.06-1.27, P = 0.002) with similar death-censored graft survival (HR = 0.99, 95%CI: 0.86-1.14, P = 0.86) for steroid vs no-steroid groups in r-ATG induced patients. Both adjusted overall and death-censored graft survivals for steroid vs no-steroid groups were similar in alemtuzumab (HR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.73-1.15, P = 0.47 and HR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.62-1.22, P = 0.43 respectively) and IL-2B (HR = 1.05, 95%CI: 0.91-1.21, P = 0.48 and HR = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.75-1.18, P = 0.60 respectively) induced groups. Adjusted patient survivals were inferior for steroid vs no-steroid groups in r-ATG induced (HR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.15-1.49, P < 0.001) but similar in alemtuzumab (HR = 1.02, 95%CI: 0.75-1.38, P = 0.92) and IL-2B (HR = 1.17, 95%CI: 0.97-1.40, P = 0.10) induced patients. Among the r-ATG induced group there were 4346 patients in the low immune risk and 13517 patients in the high immune risk group. Adjusted overall graft survivals were inferior for steroid vs no steroid groups in both low immune (HR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.09-1.64, P = 0.001) and high immune (HR = 1.18, 95%CI: 1.07-1.30, P = 0.005) risk groups. Adjusted death-censored graft survivals for steroid vs no steroid groups were similar in both low (HR = 1.06, 95%CI: 0.78-1.45, P = 0.70) and high (HR = 1.04, 95%CI: 0.98-1.20, P = 0.60) immune risk groups. Adjusted patient survivals were inferior for steroid vs no steroid groups in both low immune (HR = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.18-2.02, P < 0.001) and high immune (HR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.16-1.51, P = 0.002) risk groups. Overall, there were significantly higher deaths from infections and cardiovascular causes in patients maintained on steroids. CONCLUSION: Our study showed an association between steroid addition to a CNI/MMF-maintenance regimen and increased death with functioning graft in patients receiving r-ATG induction for first-time deceased donor kidney transplantation. PMID:25346892

Sureshkumar, Kalathil K; Hussain, Sabiha M; Thai, Ngoc L; Ko, Tina Y; Nashar, Khaled; Marcus, Richard J

2014-01-01

8

ICT Systems Induction (and Safety)  

E-print Network

ICT Systems Induction (and Safety) Keith Gillow http://www.maths.ox.ac.uk/members/it/info-new-users ICT Systems Induction (and Safety) ­ p. 1 Support/Help · Web pages -- http.maths.ox.ac.uk/members/it/it-notices-policies ICT Systems Induction (and Safety) ­ p. 2 Facilities Access · Many accounts are preopened · Postgrads

9

Single-center experience in pediatric renal transplantation using thymoglobulin induction and steroid minimization.  

PubMed

Our center has offered thymoglobulin induction with steroid minimization to our pediatric renal transplant patients for the last 10 yr. Steroid minimization or avoidance has shown favorable results in survival, kidney function, and growth in previous studies of pediatric patients. We report our experience with this protocol over the past 10 yr with respect to patient/graft survival, acute rejection episodes, renal function, linear growth, bone density, cardiovascular risk factors, and opportunistic infections. A retrospective chart review was performed for pediatric renal transplant patients on the steroid-minimized protocol between January 2002 and December 2011 on an intention to treat basis. Patient demographics, height, weight, serum creatinine, iGFR, biopsies, and survival data were collected. Height and weight z-scores were calculated with EpiInfo 7, using the CDC 2000 growth charts. Survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. eGFR was calculated using the original and modified Schwartz equations. Forty-four pediatric patients were identified, aged 13 months to 19 yr. Five-yr survival was 95.5% for males and 94.4% for females. Only five patients had biopsy-proven ACR, two of which were at more than 12 months post-transplantation. Height delta z-scores from transplant to one, three, and five yr were 0.34, 0.38, and 0.79, respectively. Weight delta z-scores from transplant to one, three, and five yr were 0.87, 0.79, and 0.84, respectively. Mean original Schwartz eGFR was 84.3 ± 15.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , modified Schwartz eGFR was 59.3 ± 11.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , and iGFR was 64.2 ± 8.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at three yr. Of 18 subjects who had a bone density exam, none had a z-score less than -2 on DEXA exam at one-yr post-transplantation. Fifty-one percent of patients were on antihypertensives at the time of transplant compared with 43% at one-yr post-transplantation. Three yr post-transplantation, the average LDL was <100 mg/dL, and average total cholesterol was <200 mg/dL. There were no clinical episodes of EBV or CMV infection. A steroid-minimized protocol with thymoglobulin induction is safe and provides favorable improvement in linear growth, stable graft function, stable or improved cardiovascular risk factors, and normal bone density in pediatric renal transplant patients. PMID:25311592

Warejko, Jillian K; Hmiel, S Paul

2014-12-01

10

Role of Neuroactive Steroids in the Peripheral Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Several reviews have so far pointed out on the relevant physiological and pharmacological role exerted by neuroactive steroids in the central nervous system. In the present review we summarize observations indicating that synthesis and metabolism of neuroactive steroids also occur in the peripheral nerves. Interestingly, peripheral nervous system is also a target of their action. Indeed, as here reported neuroactive steroids are physiological regulators of peripheral nerve functions and they may also represent interesting therapeutic tools for different types of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:22654839

Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Giatti, Silvia; Pesaresi, Marzia; Calabrese, Donato; Mitro, Nico; Caruso, Donatella; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel

2011-01-01

11

Inductive System Monitors Tasks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software developed at Ames Research Center uses artificial intelligence and data mining techniques to build system-monitoring knowledge bases from archived or simulated sensor data. This information is then used to detect unusual or anomalous behavior that may indicate an impending system failure. Currently helping analyze data from systems that help fly and maintain the space shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS), the IMS has also been employed by data classes are then used to build a monitoring knowledge base. In real time, IMS performs monitoring functions: determining and displaying the degree of deviation from nominal performance. IMS trend analyses can detect conditions that may indicate a failure or required system maintenance. The development of IMS was motivated by the difficulty of producing detailed diagnostic models of some system components due to complexity or unavailability of design information. Successful applications have ranged from real-time monitoring of aircraft engine and control systems to anomaly detection in space shuttle and ISS data. IMS was used on shuttle missions STS-121, STS-115, and STS-116 to search the Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLEIDS) data for signs of possible damaging impacts during launch. It independently verified findings of the WLEIDS Mission Evaluation Room (MER) analysts and indicated additional points of interest that were subsequently investigated by the MER team. In support of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, IMS is being deployed as an anomaly detection tool on ISS mission control consoles in the Johnson Space Center Mission Operations Directorate. IMS has been trained to detect faults in the ISS Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) systems. In laboratory tests, it has already detected several minor anomalies in real-time CMG data. When tested on archived data, IMS was able to detect precursors of the CMG1 failure nearly 15 hours in advance of the actual failure event. In the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, IMS successfully performed real-time engine health analysis. IMS was able to detect simulated failures and actual engine anomalies in an F/A-18 aircraft during the course of 25 test flights. IMS is also being used in colla

2008-01-01

12

The Endocannabinoid System and Sex Steroid Hormone-Dependent Cancers  

PubMed Central

The “endocannabinoid system (ECS)” comprises the endocannabinoids, the enzymes that regulate their synthesis and degradation, the prototypical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), some noncannabinoid receptors, and an, as yet, uncharacterised transport system. Recent evidence suggests that both cannabinoid receptors are present in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancer tissues and potentially play an important role in those malignancies. Sex steroid hormones regulate the endocannabinoid system and the endocannabinoids prevent tumour development through putative protective mechanisms that prevent cell growth and migration, suggesting an important role for endocannabinoids in the regulation of sex hormone-dependent tumours and metastasis. Here, the role of the endocannabinoid system in sex steroid hormone-dependent cancers is described and the potential for novel therapies assessed. PMID:24369462

Taylor, Anthony H.; Marczylo, Timothy H.; Willets, Jonathon M.; Konje, Justin C.

2013-01-01

13

Modulation of steroid action in the central and peripheral nervous systems by nuclear receptor  

E-print Network

Modulation of steroid action in the central and peripheral nervous systems by nuclear receptor. Introduction Steroid hormones act throughout the body, including the central and peripheral nervous systems and corepressors, are critical in modulating the transcriptional activity of these steroid receptors, as well

14

Inhaled Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids What are some common inhaled steroids? How are ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...

15

Mortality after steroid-resistant acute cellular rejection and chronic rejection episodes in adult intestinal transplants: report from a single center in induction/preconditioning era.  

PubMed

Steroid-resistant acute cellular rejection (ACR) and chronic rejection (CR) are still major concerns after intestinal transplantation. We report our experience from a single center on 48 adults recipients using 49 grafts from 2001 to 2011, immunosuppressing them initially with daclizumab initially and later Alemtuzumab. Overall patient survival was 41.9% at 10 years while graft survival was 38.5%. The steroid-resistant ACR population of 14 recipients (28.5%) experienced 50% mortality mainly due to sepsis, while the five (8%) CR recipients, included two survivors. All but 1 graft was placed without a liver. CR was often preceded by ACR episodes. Mortality related to steroid-resistant ACR and CR still affects the intestinal transplant population despite induction/preconditioning, especially in the absence of a protective liver effect of the liver. New immunosuppressive strategies are needed. PMID:23769102

Lauro, A; Bagni, A; Zanfi, C; Pellegrini, S; Dazzi, A; Del Gaudio, M; Ravaioli, M; Di Simone, M; Ramacciato, G; Pironi, L; Pinna, A D

2013-06-01

16

21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1385 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test...

2012-04-01

17

Induction machine based flywheel energy storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study introduces a field oriented controlled (FOC) induction machine based flywheel energy storage (FES) system fed from a 20 kHz high frequency (HF) ac link and pulse density modulated (PDM) Converter. The feasibility of FES system is investigated both in software and hardware and is demonstrated successfully in both cases. The investigated system offers a good potential as a

IRFAN ALAN; THOMAS A. LIPO

2003-01-01

18

Widespread Capacity for Steroid Synthesis in the Avian Brain and Song System  

PubMed Central

Steroids exert powerful effects on the brains and behavior of many species, but measures and manipulations of endocrine physiology in songbirds often reveal unexplained connections between steroids and the brain. The zebra finch song system, a sensorimotor neural circuit sensitive to steroids throughout life, organizes and functions largely in apparent independence from gonadally derived steroids. We tested the hypothesis that the zebra finch brain has the capacity for de novo steroidogenesis and that neurally synthesized steroids, neurosteroids, may impact the song system. Using multiple techniques, we demonstrate that the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (CYP11A1), and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/?5-?4 isomerase, the first three factors in the steroidogenic pathway, are expressed in both developing and adult zebra finch brain. Detailed expression mapping at posthatch d 20 (P20) and adult reveals widespread area-specific expression and coexpression patterns for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, CYP11A1, and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/?5-?4 isomerase, which suggest neurosteroids may modulate multiple brain functions, including sensory and motor systems. Notably, whereas expression of other steroidogenic genes such as aromatase has been essentially absent from the song system, each of the major song nuclei express at least a subset of steroidogenic genes described here, establishing the song system as a potential steroidogenic circuit. PMID:16935847

London, Sarah E.; Monks, D. Ashley; Wade, Juli; Schlinger, Barney A.

2010-01-01

19

Steroid hormones and neurosteroids in normal and pathological aging of the nervous system.  

PubMed

Without medical progress, dementing diseases such as Alzheimer's disease will become one of the main causes of disability. Preventing or delaying them has thus become a real challenge for biomedical research. Steroids offer interesting therapeutical opportunities for promoting successful aging because of their pleiotropic effects in the nervous system: they regulate main neurotransmitter systems, promote the viability of neurons, play an important role in myelination and influence cognitive processes, in particular learning and memory. Preclinical research has provided evidence that the normally aging nervous system maintains some capacity for regeneration and that age-dependent changes in the nervous system and cognitive dysfunctions can be reversed to some extent by the administration of steroids. The aging nervous system also remains sensitive to the neuroprotective effects of steroids. In contrast to the large number of studies documenting beneficial effects of steroids on the nervous system in young and aged animals, the results from hormone replacement studies in the elderly are so far not conclusive. There is also little information concerning changes of steroid levels in the aging human brain. As steroids present in nervous tissues originate from the endocrine glands (steroid hormones) and from local synthesis (neurosteroids), changes in blood levels of steroids with age do not necessarily reflect changes in their brain levels. There is indeed strong evidence that neurosteroids are also synthesized in human brain and peripheral nerves. The development of a very sensitive and precise method for the analysis of steroids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) offers new possibilities for the study of neurosteroids. The concentrations of a range of neurosteroids have recently been measured in various brain regions of aged Alzheimer's disease patients and aged non-demented controls by GC/MS, providing reference values. In Alzheimer's patients, there was a general trend toward lower levels of neurosteroids in different brain regions, and neurosteroid levels were negatively correlated with two biochemical markers of Alzheimer's disease, the phosphorylated tau protein and the beta-amyloid peptides. The metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone has also been analyzed for the first time in the aging brain from Alzheimer patients and non-demented controls. The conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone to Delta5-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol and to 7alpha-OH-dehydroepiandrosterone occurred in frontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, cerebellum and striatum of both Alzheimer's patients and controls. The formation of these metabolites within distinct brain regions negatively correlated with the density of beta-amyloid deposits. PMID:14611864

Schumacher, M; Weill-Engerer, S; Liere, P; Robert, F; Franklin, R J M; Garcia-Segura, L M; Lambert, J J; Mayo, W; Melcangi, R C; Parducz, A; Suter, U; Carelli, C; Baulieu, E E; Akwa, Y

2003-09-01

20

Response to pneumococcal vaccine in chronic obstructive lung disease—The effect of ongoing, systemic steroid treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-nine patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) were block-randomized in four groups to investigate, if different degrees of steroid-load influenced the effect of pneumococcal-vaccination on antibody level and clinical variables during 6 months of follow-up. The groups included 13 patients without systemic steroids for the previous 3 months, all vaccinated at entrance in the study and treated with steroids

Johnna Steentoft; Helle Bossen Konradsen; John Hilskov; Gunnar Gislason; Jens Rikardt Andersen

2006-01-01

21

Factors in inductive storage system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practical implementation of an inductive pulsed power supply depends on its size and EMI with neighboring environment. Parametric trade-off is made for the prime power battery and the coil. It is shown that the minimal volume of the battery-coil system with a Brooks coil is achieved at a ratio of their volumes 3:2, respectively. For such systems, a jellyroll

M. Kanter; A. Pokrvailo; N. Shaked; Z. Kaplan

1995-01-01

22

ROLE OF STEROID HORMONES AND DECIDUAL INDUCTION IN THE REGULATION OF ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHORIBOSYL TRANSFERASE ACTIVITY IN RAT ENDOMETRIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

To assess the effect of ovarian steroid hormones on enzyme activity, adenosine diphosphoribosyl transferase (ADPRT) was measured in endometrial nuclei isolated on estrus and on d 4 from rats ovariectomized on estrus (d 0) and treated d 0-3 with (a) vehicle, (b) 1 ug estrone/d (E)...

23

Corneal Bee Sting Controlled with Early Surgical Intervention and Systemic High-Dose Steroid Therapy  

PubMed Central

A 34-year-old Asian woman presented with painful corneal bee sting. Examinations revealed severe corneal swelling with stinger stuck in deep stroma and endothelial cell loss. She was treated with early surgery including stinger removal and anterior chamber irrigation combined with systemic high-dose steroid therapy. Vision and corneal clarity was recovered in 5 days and no additional corneal endothelial damage was observed. This report suggests that early surgical intervention and high-dose steroid therapy appear to be a useful option in the treatment of corneal bee sting. PMID:25580326

Kim, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Moosang; Lee, Seung-Jun; Han, Sang Beom; Hyon, Joon Young

2014-01-01

24

Commercial Vehicle Classification System using Advanced Inductive Loop Technology  

E-print Network

Design and Initial Implementation of an Inductive Signature-Based Real-Time Traffic Performance Measurement SystemDesign and Initial Implementation of an Inductive Signature-Based Real-Time Traffic Performance Measurement System,

Tok, Yeow Chern Andre

2008-01-01

25

14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...induction system duct must be capable of withstanding the effects of temperature extremes, fuel, oil, water, and...deterioration or delamination. (d) For reciprocating engine installations, each induction system duct must be— (1)...

2010-01-01

26

Magnetic induction systems to harvest energy from mechanical vibrations  

E-print Network

This thesis documents the design process for magnetic induction systems to harvest energy from mechanical vibrations. Two styles of magnetic induction systems - magnet-through-coil and magnet-across-coils - were analyzed. ...

Jonnalagadda, Aparna S

2007-01-01

27

Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)  

MedlinePLUS

... Lung Diseases > Quick-Relief Medications > Oral Steroids Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups) How are steroid pills and ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

28

Contactless inductive power pickup system for Maglev applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a newly developed contactless inductive power pickup system for Maglev applications. The system consists of a loosely coupled transformer and two high-frequency power converters. Furthermore, the proposed inductive system was verified through various simulations and experiments. System performances such as magnetic coupling, energy efficiency, and power factor correction effects are included.

Byeong-Mun Song; Robert Kratz; Sam Gurol

2002-01-01

29

A computer simulation of an induction heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the design and analysis of induction heating systems is presented. The method entails the simulation of system performance using an equivalent circuit approach. Equivalent circuit models are obtained for the three parts of an induction heating system: the power source, the impedance matching circuit, and the load. These models are combined into a system model which is

Lawrence R. Egan; Edward P. Furlani

1991-01-01

30

Herbivores, vascular pathways, and systemic induction: facts and artifacts.  

PubMed

Over the past 10 years there has been tremendous growth in our understanding of molecular, chemical, and morphological induction of traits involved in the resistance of plants to herbivores. Although it is well established that the patterns of induction can be constrained by a plant's vascular architecture, studies often fail to account for these constraints. Failure to do so has the potential to severely underestimate both the patterns and extent of induction. Here I review (1) the evidence for vascular control of induced responses, (2) how interspecific variation in phyllotaxy influences spatial patterning of induction, (3) the factors, phloem transport and volatile production, that may break down vascular constraints and lead to more widespread induction, and (4) the experimental approaches that could be compromised when vascular architecture is not considered. I show that vascular constraints in systemic induction are commonplace, but vary among species. I suggest that when induction is more widespread than expected from patterns of phyllotaxy, differences in vascular connectivity and volatile production may be responsible. I argue that advances in the mechanisms of systemic induction, cross-talk between different signal transduction pathways, specificity of induction, costs and benefits of systemic induction, and the effects of induced changes on herbivores and their natural enemies require that experiments be designed to examine and/or control for vascular constraints in systemic induction. PMID:16195841

Orians, Colin

2005-10-01

31

Transport of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity across a swine lagoon/sprayfield system.  

PubMed

The inflow, transformation, and attenuation of natural steroid hormones and phytoestrogens and estrogenic activity were assessed across the lagoon/sprayfield system of a prototypical commercial swine sow operation. Free and conjugated steroid hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progesterone) were detected in urine and feces of sows across reproductive stages, with progesterone being the most abundant steroid hormone. Excreta also contained phytoestrogens indicative of a soy-based diet, particularly, daidzein, genistein, and equol. During storage in barn pits and the anaerobic lagoon, conjugated hormones dissipated, and androgens and progesterone were attenuated. Estrone and equol persisted along the waste disposal route. Following application of lagoon slurry to agricultural soils, all analytes exhibited attenuation within 2 days. However, analytes including estrone, androstenedione, progesterone, and equol remained detectable in soil at 2 months postapplication. Estrogenic activity in the yeast estrogen screen and T47D-KBluc in vitro bioassays generally tracked well with analyte concentrations. Estrone was found to be the greatest contributor to estrogenic activity across all sample types. This investigation encompasses the most comprehensive suite of natural hormone and phytoestrogen analytes examined to date across a livestock lagoon/sprayfield and provides global insight into the fate of these analytes in this widely used waste management system. PMID:25148584

Yost, Erin E; Meyer, Michael T; Dietze, Julie E; Williams, C Michael; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W

2014-10-01

32

Electromagnetic induction systems for discrimination among metallic targets .  

E-print Network

??This dissertation discusses the ability of time- and frequency-domain electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems to discriminate unexploded ordnance (UXO) from clutter. The chief contribution of this… (more)

CHILAKA, SAILAJA

2006-01-01

33

INDUCTIVE SYSTEM HEALTH MONITORING WITH STATISTICAL METRICS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model-based reasoning is a powerful method for performing system monitoring and diagnosis. Building models for model-based reasoning is often a difficult and time consuming process. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS processes nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. In particular, a clustering algorithm forms groups of nominal values for sets of related parameters. This establishes constraints on those parameter values that should hold during nominal operation. During monitoring, IMS provides a statistically weighted measure of the deviation of current system behavior from the established normal baseline. If the deviation increases beyond the expected level, an anomaly is suspected, prompting further investigation by an operator or automated system. IMS has shown potential to be an effective, low cost technique to produce system monitoring capability for a variety of applications. We describe the training and system health monitoring techniques of IMS. We also present the application of IMS to a data set from the Space Shuttle Columbia STS-107 flight. IMS was able to detect an anomaly in the launch telemetry shortly after a foam impact damaged Columbia's thermal protection system.

Iverson, David L.

2005-01-01

34

Antithymocyte globulin induction and rapid steroid taper leads to excellent results in kidney transplantation with donation after cardiac death donors: importance of rejection and delayed graft function.  

PubMed

Recipients of primary transplants from donation after cardiac death (DCD) donors (n = 40) performed from January 2005 to December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and compared with recipients of primary transplants from donation after brain death (DBD) donors (n = 142). Patients received rabbit antithymocyte globulin induction and rapid steroid taper (RST; steroids stopped 5 days after surgery). Maintenance immunosuppression included tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Protocol kidney biopsies, creatinine (Cr), and measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR; determined by cold iothalamate or 24-h creatinine clearance) were obtained at 1, 4, 12, and 24 months. Kidney biopsies for cause were conducted for unexplained elevated Cr, decline in mGFR, or new proteinuria. Biopsies were graded for rejection according to the Banff criteria. Graft survival at 3 years was 90.0% for DCD recipients and 86.6% for DBD recipients (P = NS). Rejection of any grade diagnosed on any biopsy through the first 2 years occurred in 18 DCD (45%) and 50 DBD (35%) recipients. Rejection of a grade more than Banff borderline occurred in 12.5% DCD and 12.7% DBD recipients. At 2 years, the mean ± SEM Cr and mGFR for DCD recipients with rejection were 1.8 ± 0.29 mg/dL and 59.2 ± 8.5 mL/min versus 1.3 ± 0.11 mg/dL and 67.0 ± 7.8 ml/min for those without rejection. For DBD recipients with rejection, Cr and mGFR at 2 years were 1.7 ± 0.12 mg/dL and 54.0 ± 4.4 mL/min versus 1.4 ± 0.11 mg/dL and 66.6 ± 3.3 ml/min for those without rejection (P = NS). Comparing DCD to DBD, there was no statistical difference in mean Cr or mGFR outcomes. Regardless of group, grafts with delayed graft function had lower 3-year survival. DCD primary kidney transplant recipients treated with rabbit antithymocyte induction and RST have short-term graft survival and function equivalent to DBD recipients. RST appears to be acceptable immunosuppression for DCD recipients. PMID:23726612

Mai, M L; Mai, W K; Taner, C B; Prendergast, M B; Wadei, H M; Gonwa, T A

2013-05-01

35

Species characteristics of the hepatic xenobiotic and steroid biotransformation systems of two teleost fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).  

PubMed

Groups of Atlantic cod and rainbow trout were treated (ip) with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), phenobarbital, or peanut oil (controls), and properties of the hepatic xenobiotic and steroid metabolizing enzyme systems were evaluated. In both species, BNF treatment resulted in significant induction of microsomal 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, biphenyl 4-hydroxylase, and phenanthrene oxidation, especially at the 1,2-position. Immunochemical studies with rabbit IgG prepared against the major BNF-inducible cytochrome P-450 in cod, P-450c, revealed increased amounts of immunoreactive protein in liver slices from both species after BNF treatment. The molecular weight of the induced protein was approximately 58,000 Da, as shown by Western blotting. When titrating biphenyl 4-hydroxylation, however, the antibodies distinguished between the two species, inhibiting the activity of BNF-induced cod 90% and that of rainbow trout 40% at 10 mg IgG/nmol P-450. Furthermore, cytochrome b5 content and UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity were significantly induced only in rainbow trout, whereas the specific content of cytochrome P-450 was significantly increased only in cod. Differences between the two species were observed in the levels of constitutive activities, the amount of induction, and in the regioselectivity of phenanthrene oxidation and androstenedione metabolism. Treatment with phenobarbital showed no effect on any of the parameters investigated in either species. The results show that although there are many common features of the hepatic xenobiotic and steroid biotransformation systems of the two teleosts, certain species characteristics exist in constitutive properties and induction responses. PMID:3496689

Goksøyr, A; Andersson, T; Hansson, T; Klungsøyr, J; Zhang, Y; Förlin, L

1987-07-01

36

Analytical equivalent impedance for a planar circular induction heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of analytical expressions is derived for the equivalent impedance in a planar circular induction heating system, used for example in home appliances. The induction system consists of an n-turn planar winding loaded by a conductive material. Expressions that describe the frequency dependence of impedance are provided. The influence of load conductivity, load permeability, and geometrical dimensions is also

J. Acero; R. Alonso; J. M. Burdio; L. A. Barragan; D. Puyal

2006-01-01

37

Anabolic Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

Anabolic steroids are man-made substances related to male sex hormones. Doctors use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed ... some diseases. Bodybuilders and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using ...

38

Steroidal Saponins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

39

Systemic wound induction of potato ( Solanum tuberosum) polyphenol oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have long been reported to be inducible upon biotic or abiotic wounding. However, observations of inducible PPO activity are frequently confounded by failure to distinguish PPO induction from loss of PPO latency, or by failure to distinguish PPO activity from peroxidase activity. We report the systemic induction of PPO activity, and increased steady-state levels of PPOs

Piyada Thipyapong; Michelle D. Hunt; John C. Steffens

1995-01-01

40

14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...duct for an auxiliary power unit must be— (1...within the auxiliary power unit compartment; ...upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to...Induction system ducts that supply air to a cabin...

2012-01-01

41

14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...duct for an auxiliary power unit must be— (1...within the auxiliary power unit compartment; ...upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to...Induction system ducts that supply air to a cabin...

2014-01-01

42

14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...duct for an auxiliary power unit must be— (1...within the auxiliary power unit compartment; ...upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to...Induction system ducts that supply air to a cabin...

2011-01-01

43

14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...duct for an auxiliary power unit must be— (1...within the auxiliary power unit compartment; ...upstream of the auxiliary power unit compartment to...Induction system ducts that supply air to a cabin...

2013-01-01

44

EVALUATION OF AN INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA, MULTICHANNEL SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

An inductively coupled plasma, multielement atomic emission spectrometric analysis system has been evaluated with respect to the Environmental Protection Agency's need for a rapid method for determination of trace elemental concentrations in water. Data are presented on detection...

45

Mycobacterium intracellulare infection of the shoulder and spine in a patient with steroid-treated systemic Lupus erythematosus  

SciTech Connect

Atypical mycobacterial infections of bone are rare. A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus treated with steroids developed an M. intracellulare infection of the shoulder and spine. These infections are insidious and diagnosis is difficult. Marked involvement of one joint, large effusion, or aspirated small synovial fragments suggest an atypical tuberculous joint infection.

Zvetina, J.R.; Rubinstein, H.; Demos, T.C.

1982-05-01

46

Steroid biotransformations in biphasic systems with Yarrowia lipolytica expressing human liver cytochrome P450 genes  

PubMed Central

Background Yarrowia lipolytica efficiently metabolizes and assimilates hydrophobic compounds such as n-alkanes and fatty acids. Efficient substrate uptake is enabled by naturally secreted emulsifiers and a modified cell surface hydrophobicity and protrusions formed by this yeast. We were examining the potential of recombinant Y. lipolytica as a biocatalyst for the oxidation of hardly soluble hydrophobic steroids. Furthermore, two-liquid biphasic culture systems were evaluated to increase substrate availability. While cells, together with water soluble nutrients, are maintained in the aqueous phase, substrates and most of the products are contained in a second water-immiscible organic solvent phase. Results For the first time we have co-expressed the human cytochromes P450 2D6 and 3A4 genes in Y. lipolytica together with human cytochrome P450 reductase (hCPR) or Y. lipolytica cytochrome P450 reductase (YlCPR). These whole-cell biocatalysts were used for the conversion of poorly soluble steroids in biphasic systems. Employing a biphasic system with the organic solvent and Y. lipolytica carbon source ethyl oleate for the whole-cell bioconversion of progesterone, the initial specific hydroxylation rate in a 1.5?L stirred tank bioreactor was further increased 2-fold. Furthermore, the product formation was significantly prolonged as compared to the aqueous system. Co-expression of the human CPR gene led to a 4-10-fold higher specific activity, compared to the co-overexpression of the native Y. lipolytica CPR gene. Multicopy transformants showed a 50-70-fold increase of activity as compared to single copy strains. Conclusions Alkane-assimilating yeast Y. lipolytica, coupled with the described expression strategies, demonstrated its high potential for biotransformations of hydrophobic substrates in two-liquid biphasic systems. Especially organic solvents which can be efficiently taken up and/or metabolized by the cell might enable more efficient bioconversion as compared to aqueous systems and even enable simple, continuous or at least high yield long time processes. PMID:22876969

2012-01-01

47

Wind energy conversion system simulator using variable speed induction motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional synchronous generator in wind energy conversion system are now getting replaced by variable speed induction generator to extract maximum power with wide range of wind speed limit. The design and performance of such system are required a simplified digital simulator, especially for development of optimal control solutions. The proposed work is to make a prototype of an variable

S. W. Mohod; M. V. Aware

2010-01-01

48

An in-progress, open-label, multi-centre study (SAILOR) evaluating whether a steroid-free immunosuppressive protocol, based on ATG induction and a low tacrolimus dose, reduces the incidence of new onset diabetes after transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background Corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are included in renal transplantation immunosuppressive protocols around the world. Well-known side effects are associated with the use of these drugs, including new onset of diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). Long-term patient survival rates are lower among patients with NODAT. The optimal immunosuppressive protocol would therefore include not using corticosteroids and minimization of CNI use. Methods/Design This is a prospective, multi-centre, controlled, randomized, parallel group, open-label study involving kidney transplant patients. The study compares a steroid-free immunosuppressive protocol (study arm A), which is based on low-dose tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) maintenance therapy together with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) induction, with the conventional immunosuppressive protocol (study arm B), being based on low-dose tacrolimus, MMF and steroids together with interleukin-2 receptor (IL2-R) induction. The study is designed to include most normal-risk patients. It will exclude patients seen as at a high risk of rejection. The primary objective of the study is to assess the cumulative incidence of NODAT in the two study arms 12 months after transplantation using the American Diabetes Association type 2 diabetes diagnostic criteria. The composite measure of freedom from acute rejection, graft survival and patient survival will be evaluated. Renal function and chronic changes in the transplanted kidney will be assessed. Discussion If this study confirms conceptual expectations, namely decreased incidence of NODAT, the steroid-free study protocol could be used with all patients. The regimen could be especially beneficial for patients at a high risk of diabetes mellitus. Trial registration Trial registration: EudraCT 2012-000451-13. PMID:24959347

2014-01-01

49

Icing-Protection Requirements for Reciprocating-Engine Induction System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite the development of relatively ice-free fuel-metering systems, the widespread use of alternate and heated-air intakes, and the use of alcohol for emergency de-icing, icing of aircraft-engine induction systems is a serious problem. Investigations have been made to study and to combat all phases of this icing problem. From these investigations, criterions for safe operation and for design of new induction systems have been established. The results were obtained from laboratory investigations of carburetor-supercharger combinations, wind-tunnel investigations of air scoops, multicylinder-engine studies, and flight investigations. Characteristics of three forms of ice, impact, throttling, and fuel evaporation were studied. The effects of several factors on the icing characteristics were also studied and included: (1) atmospheric conditions, (2) engine and air-scoop configurations, including light-airplane system, (3) type fuel used, and (4) operating variables, such as power condition, use of a manifold pressure regulator, mixture setting, carburetor heat, and water-alcohol injection. In addition, ice-detection methods were investigated and methods of preventing and removing induction-system ice were studied. Recommendations are given for design and operation with regard to induction-system design.

Coles, Willard D; Rollin, Vern G; Mulholland, Donald R

1950-01-01

50

RESEARCH Open Access Irinotecan induces steroid and xenobiotic  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Irinotecan induces steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) signaling of the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) in the induction of drug resistance. Indeed, this nuclear receptor by the steroid and xenobiotic receptor SXR, also known as the nuclear receptor PXR (pregnane X receptor) [6

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

51

A Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting with an Acute Abdomen: Successful Treatment with Steroid  

PubMed Central

Abdominal pain continues to pose diagnostic challenges for emergency clinicians. A 56-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital due to severe abdominal pain which presented as occasional epigastric pain five months before and intermittent abdominal pain. She had a past history of ileus twice, for both of which laparotomy was performed without an alimentary tract resection. The wall thickening with marked three-wall structure from terminal ileum to sigmoid colon was seen and bladder wall was irregularly thick and enhanced irregularly. Among the differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen, autoimmune diseases were suspected, especially lupus erythematosus and Henoch-Schönlein purpura. On the second day of admission, abdominal pain worsened. The results of examinations of antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA antibody, ANCA, and the complements were not obtained at that time; however, we started 1-g steroid pulse treatment for three days with success. With the results obtained later, the patient was given a diagnosis of probable systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The present case shows that SLE can present with acute abdomen and should be included in the wide range of the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. PMID:25580129

Fukatsu, Haruka; Sugiyama, Koichi; Kasahara, Akinori; Matsumura, Tadashi

2014-01-01

52

Lack of clinical association and effect of peripheral WBC counts on immune cell function test in kidney transplant recipients with T-cell depleting induction and steroid-sparing maintenance therapy.  

PubMed

The Cylex ImmuKnow assay measures the amount of stimulated ATP production by CD4+ T-cells, and has been used clinically, trying to predict rejection and infection episodes. However, predictive values of this assay after induction therapy with steroid-sparing maintenance protocols are unclear. In this single-center cohort study, we analyzed renal transplant recipients who received T-cell depleting+/-anti-IL2 receptor antibodies and tacrolimus/mycophenolate maintenance without steroids. A total of 4224 ImmuKnow levels in 306 patients were available for analysis. ImmuKnow levels (Mean ± SE) changed over time after induction therapy with a paradoxical initial increase: 419 ± 23, 461 ± 32, 519 ± 14, 411 ± 10, 344 ± 6, and 405 ± 3 for pre-transplant, 0-1 wk, 1 wk-1 mo, 1-3 mos, 3 mos-1 yr, and thereafter. This change was parallel to the evolution of peripheral WBC counts and ImmuKnow levels had weak but significant correlation with WBC counts (R(2)=0.264, P<0.0001). The levels for biopsy-proven rejection (389 ± 56) and borderline/clinical rejection (254 ± 41) were not significantly higher than the levels of quiescent patients. The levels for opportunistic infection (349 ± 48) and other infections (345 ± 27) were not significantly lower than the levels of quiescent patients. The longitudinal changes in ImmuKnow levels were not predictive of rejection or infection. In conclusion, ImmuKnow levels can vary after T-cell depleting induction therapies at various time points, even without significant clinical events. Since ImmuKnow levels seem to be affected by WBC counts, ImmuKnow results need to be interpreted with caution. The effects of leukocytosis or leukopenia caused by immunosuppressive medication on the ImmuKnow assay need further investigation. PMID:24518158

Sageshima, Junichiro; Ciancio, Gaetano; Chen, Linda; Dohi, Takehiko; El-Hinnawi, Ashraf; Paloyo, Siegfredo; Gaynor, Jeffrey J; Mattiazzi, Adela; Guerra, Giselle; Kupin, Warren; Roth, David; Ruiz, Phillip; Burke, George W

2014-03-01

53

Calibration of a magnetic induction system for measurement of hypervelocities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device to measure the velocity and to determine the character of a material launched in a flight tube during the execution of an experiment has been constructed. This measurement device provides a self generating signal, is nonintrusive, compact, and accurate. The signals are reproducible, and it is relatively inexpensive to procure. The MAgnetic Velocity Induction System (MAVIS) has been

S. P. Breeze

1993-01-01

54

Bidirectional power electronic transformer for induction heating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new bi-directional power electronic transformer (PET) for induction heating applications is described. Proposed PET contains primary bi-directional cycloconverter switches, high frequency isolation transformer, matching coil and a parallel resonant heating system. Switching routine is applied in such a way that the output voltage regulation is achieved in the full load variations, even at asymmetrical utility conditions. Simulations are obtained

S. H. Hosseini; M. B. Sharifian; M. Sabahi; A. Yazdanpanah; G. H. Gharehpetian

2008-01-01

55

Induction Linac Systems Experiments for heavy ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory propose to build at LBL the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step toward the eventual goal of a heavy ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Though much smaller than a driver, ILSE will be at full driver scale in several important parameters. Nearly all accelerator components and beam manipulations required for a driver will be tested. It is expected that ILSE will be built in stages as funds and technical progress allow. The first stage, called Elise will include all of the electrostatic quadrupole focused parts of ILSE.

Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bangerter, R.O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Div.

1994-06-01

56

Induction Curing of Thiol-acrylate and Thiolene Composite Systems  

PubMed Central

Induction curing is demonstrated as a novel type of in situ radiation curing that maintains most of the advantages of photocuring while eliminating the restriction of light accessibility. Induction curing is utilized to polymerize opaque composites comprised of thiol-acrylate and thiol-ene resins, nanoscale magnetic particles, and carbon nanotubes. Nanoscale magnetic particles are dispersed in the resin and upon exposure to the magnetic field, these particles lead to induction heating that rapidly initiates the polymerization. Heat transfer profiles and reaction kinetics of the samples are modeled during the reactions with varying induction heater power, species concentration, species type and sample thickness, and the model is compared with the experimental results. Thiol-ene polymerizations achieved full conversion between 1.5 minutes and 1 hour, depending on the field intensity and the composition, with the maximum reaction temperature decreasing from 146 – 87 °C when the induction heater power was decreased from 8 – 3 kW. The polymerization reactions of the thiol-acrylate system were demonstrated to achieve full conversion between 0.6 and 30 minutes with maximum temperatures from 139 to 86 °C. The experimental behavior was characterized and the temperature profile modeled for the thiol-acrylate composite comprised of sub100nm nickel particles and induction heater power in the range of 32 to 20 kW. A 9°C average deviation was observed between the modeling and experimental results for the maximum temperature rise. The model also was utilized to predict reaction temperatures and kinetics for systems with varying thermal initiator concentration, initiator half-life, monomer molecular weight and temperature gradients in samples with varying thickness, thereby demonstrating that induction curing represents a designable and tunable polymerization method. Finally, induction curing was utilized to cure thiol-acrylate systems containing carbon nanotubes where 1 wt% carbon nanotubes resulted in systems where the storage modulus increased from 17.6 ± 0.2 to 21.6 ± 0.1 MPa and an electrical conductivity that increased from <10?7 to 0.33 ± 0.5 S/m. PMID:21765552

Ye, Sheng; Cramer, Neil B.; Stevens, Blake E.; Sani, Robert L.; Bowman, Christopher N.

2011-01-01

57

Electromagnetic induction moisture measurement system acceptance test plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this acceptance test plan (ATP) is to verify that the mechanical, electrical and software features of the ElectroMagnetic Induction (EMI) probe are operating as designed,and that the unit is ready for field service. The accepted EMI and Surface Moisture Measurement Systems (SMMS) will be used primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement of organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

Vargo, G.F., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-01

58

A System for Induction of Oblique Decision Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a new system for induction of oblique decision trees. This system,OC1, combines deterministic hill-climbing with two forms of randomization to find a goodoblique split (in the form of a hyperplane) at each node of a decision tree. Oblique decisiontree methods are tuned especially for domains in which the attributes are numeric, althoughthey can be adapted to symbolic

Sreerama K. Murthy; Simon Kasif; Steven Salzberg

1994-01-01

59

Pulse Detonation Engine Air Induction System Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary mixed-compression inlet design concept for potential pulse-detonation engine (PDE) powered supersonic aircraft was defined and analyzed. The objectives of this research were to conceptually design and integrate an inlet/PDE propulsion system into a supersonic aircraft, perform time-dependent CFD analysis of the inlet flowfield, and to estimate the installed PDE cycle performance. The study was baselined to a NASA Mach 5 Waverider study vehicle in which the baseline over/under turboramjet engines were replaced with a single flowpath PDE propulsion system. As much commonality as possible was maintained with the baseline configuration, including the engine location and forebody lines. Modifications were made to the inlet system's external ramp angles and a rotating cowl lip was incorporated to improve off-design inlet operability and performance. Engines were sized to match the baseline vehicle study's ascent trajectory thrust requirement at Mach 1.2. The majority of this study was focused on a flight Mach number of 3.0. The time-dependent Navier Stokes CFD analyses of a two-dimensional approximation of the inlet was conducted for the Mach 3.0 condition. The Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems-developed FALCON CFD code with a two equation 'k-1' turbulence model was used. The downstream PDE was simulated by an array of four sonic nozzles in which the flow areas were rapidly varied in various opening/closing combinations. Results of the CFD study indicated that the inlet design concept operated successfully at the Mach 3.0 condition, satisfying mass capture, total pressure recovery, and operability requirements. Time-dependent analysis indicated that pressure and expansion waves from the simulated valve perturbations did not effect the inlet's operability or performance.

Pegg, R. J.; Hunter, L. G.; Couch, B. D.

1996-01-01

60

Real-Time System Verification by Kappa-Induction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the first formal verification of a reintegration protocol for a safety-critical, fault-tolerant, real-time distributed embedded system. A reintegration protocol increases system survivability by allowing a node that has suffered a fault to regain state consistent with the operational nodes. The protocol is verified in the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL), where bounded model checking and decision procedures are used to verify infinite-state systems by k-induction. The protocol and its environment are modeled as synchronizing timeout automata. Because k-induction is exponential with respect to k, we optimize the formal model to reduce the size of k. Also, the reintegrator's event-triggered behavior is conservatively modeled as time-triggered behavior to further reduce the size of k and to make it invariant to the number of nodes modeled. A corollary is that a clique avoidance property is satisfied.

Pike, Lee S.

2005-01-01

61

Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

1982-10-01

62

Steroidal Antiandrogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The era of antiandrogens started in 1962 with a steroidal compound. At that time an attempt was made to find progestogens\\u000a for the indication of imminent abortion. Since most progestogens exerted androgenic activity, and consequently presented a\\u000a risk for masculinisation of female fetuses, suitable candidates were investigated for their androgenic potential. It turned\\u000a out that a derivative of hydroxyprogesterone, cyproterone

Fritz H. Schröder; Albert Radlmaier

63

Induction period in the ignition of a particle system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autoignition of a system of particles suspended in a gas is possible at a temperature lower than the ignition point of the individual particle, since the reacting particles heat the gas. During the induction period, before the gas temperature reaches the individual-particle ignition point Ti, the conditions are such that for the individual particle the steady-state regime--equality of heat

V. I. Lisitsyn; É. N. Rumanov; B. I. Khaikin

1971-01-01

64

Modeling of electrostatic recognition processes in the mammalian mitochondrial steroid hydroxylase system.  

PubMed

Adrenodoxin reductase (AR) and adrenodoxin (Adx) are components of the mammalian mitochondrial steroid-hydroxylating system. Crystal structures of Adx, AR and a cross-linked Adx-AR complex have recently been determined. Based on these, we have carried out a modeling and docking study to characterize the recognition between AR, Adx and cytochrome c (Cytc). To rationalize the recognition process, electrostatic potentials were calculated by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equations. In the Adx-AR complex modeled, a negatively charged surface of Adx recognizes a positive surface of AR, as in the crystal structure of the Adx-AR complex, proving the correct parameterization for the energy calculations. After forming salt bridges between the polar primary binding sites of Adx and AR, charge compensation causes a domain movement in AR, which closes the binding cleft by 2-4 A. Thereby, a secondary polar binding site is closed and the electron transfer pathways between the FAD of AR and the [2Fe-2S] cluster of Adx are adjusted. Next, the model structure of a complex between Adx and Cytc was derived. The lowest-energy complex between Adx and Cytc matches earlier chemical modification and cross-linking experiments, which proposed polar interactions of Lys13, Lys27, Lys72 and Lys79 of Cytc with acidic residues in Adx. Because of the short distance of 9.4 A between the redox centers, a complex, productive in electron transfer via a different outlet pathway from the inlet route in Adx, is expected. However, a ternary complex cannot be formed between the Adx-AR complex and Cytc because of steric hindrance. Therefore, a shuttle model for the role of Adx in the electron transfer process to Cytc is preferable to a relay model. In addition, no preferable docking site could be detected for a second Adx when probing the Adx-AR complex, which is required for a quaternary organized-cluster model of all redox partners of the hydroxylase system. PMID:12646371

Müller, Jürgen J; Lapko, Anna; Ruckpaul, Klaus; Heinemann, Udo

2003-01-01

65

Steroid hormones, receptors, and perceptual and cognitive sex differences in the visual system.  

PubMed

Abstract The actions of gonadal steroid hormones induce morphological sex differences in many tissues in the body, including brain. These occur either during development to organize tissues in a sex-specific pattern and/or in adulthood to activate specific cellular pathways. Cellular and morphological changes in the brain, induced by androgens and estrogens, underlie behavioral sex differences in both reproductive and non-reproductive behaviors, including visual perception. A growing body of evidence indicates that some sex differences related to visual perception arise as the result of the organizational actions of gonadal steroid hormones on cerebral cortical pathways involved in visual processing of objects and movement. This review addresses the influence of gonadal steroids on structural, biochemical and morphological changes in tissues in the brain and body. These effects are extended to consider how gonadal hormone effects may contribute to cognitive sex differences across species that are related to processing within the dorsal and ventral visual streams for motion and objects, respectively. Lastly, this review considers the question of how cognitive sex differences related to processing of movement and objects in humans may be reflective of two types of cognitive style that are only superficially related to gender. PMID:25153712

Handa, Robert J; McGivern, Robert F

2015-02-01

66

Control system for an induction motor with energy recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A control circuit for an induction motor powered system is disclosed in which a power factor controlled servo loop is used to control, via the phase angle of firing of a triac, the power input to the motor, as a function of load placed on the motor by machinery of the powered system. Then, upon application of torque by this machinery to the motor, which tends to overspeed the motor, the firing angle of the triac is automatically set to a fixed, and relatively short, firing angle.

Nola, F. J.

1983-11-01

67

Sex steroid-independent effects of photostimulation on the song-control system of white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis).  

PubMed

Brain nuclei within the song-control system of songbirds are seasonally plastic during adulthood. These nuclei are larger in birds exposed to long, spring-like days than short, winter-like days. There is overwhelming evidence that this effect is mediated by testosterone (T). However, castration studies have also demonstrated that photostimulation has gonad-independent effects on song-control system plasticity, but these studies rarely control for extra-gonadal sources of T. In this study, we used anti-androgen and anti-estrogen treatments in combination with castration to determine the sex steroid-independent effects of photostimulation on HVC size and doublecortin immunoreactivity in white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis). Birds were kept on short days or photostimulated for 1 month. Photostimulated birds were intact, castrated and treated with anti-androgens and anti-estrogens, or castrated and treated with T. HVC volumes of photostimulated birds were significantly larger than short-day birds. HVC volume of castrated birds given anti-androgens/-estrogens was significantly larger than short-day birds, indicating a sex steroid-independent effect of photostimulation. Similar results were observed for RA. The number of migrating neurons (immunoreactive for doublecortin) in HVC did not differ between treatment groups. Our data support the view that photostimulation alone can drive song-control system nuclei growth, and that concurrent exposure to T potentiates this growth. Moreover, these effects do not appear dependent on modulation of neuron migration. PMID:24818971

Robertson, Brian D; Hasstedt, Michael R; Vandermeer, Caitlin L; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

2014-08-01

68

Investigation of inductively coupled ultrasonic transducer system for NDE.  

PubMed

Inductive coupling offers a simple solution to wirelessly probe ultrasonic transducers. This paper investigates the theory and feasibility of such an inductively coupled transducer system in the context of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications. The noncontact interface is based on electromagnetic coupling between three coils; one of the coils is physically connected to the transducer, the other two are in a separate probing unit, where they are connected to the transmit and receive channels of the instrumentation. The complete system is modeled as a three-port network with the measured impedance of a bonded piezoelectric ceramic disc representing a sensor attached to an arbitrary solid substrate. The developed transmission line model is a function of the physical parameters of the electromagnetic system, such as the number of turns and diameter of each coil, and their separation. This model provides immediate predictions of electrical input impedance and pulse-echo response. The model has been validated experimentally and a sensitivity analysis of the input parameters performed. This has enabled optimization of the various parameters. Inductively coupled transducer systems have been built for both bulk and guided wave examples. By using chirped excitation and baseline subtraction, inspection distance of up to 700 mm is achieved in single-shot, guided-wave pulse-echo mode measurements with a 5 mm separation between the probing coils and transducer coil on an aluminum plate structure. In the bulk wave example, a delamination in an 8.9-mm-thick carbon fiber composite specimen is successfully identified from the changes in the arrival time of a reflected pulse. PMID:25004474

Zhong, Cheng Huan; Croxford, Anthony J; Wilcox, Paul D

2013-06-01

69

Steroid signaling activation and intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors.  

PubMed

In addition to stimulating gene transcription, sex steroids trigger rapid, non-genomic responses in the extra-nuclear compartment of target cells. These events take place within seconds or minutes after hormone administration and do not require transcriptional activity of sex steroid receptors. Depending on cell systems, activation of extra-nuclear signaling pathways by sex steroids fosters cell cycle progression, prevents apoptosis, leads to epigenetic modifications and increases cell migration through cytoskeleton changes. These findings have raised the question of intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors mediating these responses. During the past years, increasing evidence has shown that classical sex steroid receptors localized in the extra-nuclear compartment or close to membranes of target cells induce these events. The emerging picture is that a process of bidirectional control between signaling activation and sex steroid receptor localization regulates the outcome of hormonal responses in target cells. This mechanism ensures cell cycle progression in estradiol-treated breast cancer cells, and its derangement might occur in progression of human proliferative diseases. These findings will be reviewed here together with unexpected examples of the relationship between sex steroid receptor localization, signaling activation and biological responses in target cells. We apologize to scientists whose reports are not mentioned or extensively discussed owing to space limitations. PMID:21234121

Giraldi, Tiziana; Giovannelli, Pia; Di Donato, Marzia; Castoria, Gabriella; Migliaccio, Antimo; Auricchio, Ferdinando

2010-12-01

70

Steroid signaling activation and intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors  

PubMed Central

In addition to stimulating gene transcription, sex steroids trigger rapid, non-genomic responses in the extra-nuclear compartment of target cells. These events take place within seconds or minutes after hormone administration and do not require transcriptional activity of sex steroid receptors. Depending on cell systems, activation of extra-nuclear signaling pathways by sex steroids fosters cell cycle progression, prevents apoptosis, leads to epigenetic modifications and increases cell migration through cytoskeleton changes. These findings have raised the question of intracellular localization of sex steroid receptors mediating these responses. During the past years, increasing evidence has shown that classical sex steroid receptors localized in the extra-nuclear compartment or close to membranes of target cells induce these events. The emerging picture is that a process of bidirectional control between signaling activation and sex steroid receptor localization regulates the outcome of hormonal responses in target cells. This mechanism ensures cell cycle progression in estradiol-treated breast cancer cells, and its derangement might occur in progression of human proliferative diseases. These findings will be reviewed here together with unexpected examples of the relationship between sex steroid receptor localization, signaling activation and biological responses in target cells. We apologize to scientists whose reports are not mentioned or extensively discussed owing to space limitations. PMID:21234121

Giraldi, Tiziana; Giovannelli, Pia; Di Donato, Marzia; Migliaccio, Antimo; Auricchio, Ferdinando

2010-01-01

71

Topical Steroid-Damaged Skin  

PubMed Central

Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder. PMID:25284849

Abraham, Anil; Roga, Gillian

2014-01-01

72

Modes of operation of the slip ring induction machine in wind energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two modes of operation of the slip ring induction machine are investigated: the double-output induction generator (DOIG) and the double-excited induction generator. The output power, power factor, efficiency, system displacement angle, and firing angle of the two are compared. An optimal scheme of operation combining both modes is proposed. It is shown that the power generated by the DEIG is

M. T. El Hagry; A. A. Mohamed; M. N. Iskander

1989-01-01

73

A High Performance Induction Motor Drive System Using Fuzzy Logic Controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basically, the motor drive system comprises a voltage source inverter-fed induction motor (VSIM): namely a three-phase voltage source inverter and the induction motor. The squirrel-cage induction motor voltage equations are based on an orthogonal d-q reference-rotating frame where the coordinates rotate with the controlled source frequency. The paper presents a novel fuzzy logic controller for high performance induction motor drive

N. B. Muthuselvan; S. S. Dash; P. Somasundaram

2006-01-01

74

Effect of systemic steroids on post-tonsillectomy bleeding and reinterventions: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the risk of postoperative bleeding and reintervention with the use of systemic steroids in patients undergoing tonsillectomy. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, Intute, Biosis, OpenSIGLE, National Technical Information Service, and Google Scholar were searched. References from reviews identified in the search and from included studies were scanned. Review methods Randomised controlled trials comparing the administration of systemic steroids during tonsillectomy with any other comparator were eligible. Primary outcome was postoperative bleeding. Secondary outcomes were the rate of admission for a bleeding episode, reintervention for a bleeding episode, blood transfusion, and mortality. Results Of 1387 citations identified, 29 randomised controlled trials (n=2674) met all eligibility criteria. Seven studies presented a low risk of bias, but none was specifically designed to systematically identify postoperative bleeding. Administration of systemic steroids did not significantly increase the incidence of post-tonsillectomy bleeding (29 studies, n=2674 patients, odds ratio 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.66 to 1.40), I²=0%). We observed a significant increase in the incidence of operative reinterventions for bleeding episodes in patients who received systemic steroids (12, n=1178, 2.27 (1.03 to 4.99), I²=0%). No deaths were reported. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with the findings. Conclusions Although systemic steroids do not appear to increase bleeding events after tonsillectomy, their use is associated with a raised incidence of operative reinterventions for bleeding episodes, which may be related to increased severity of bleeding events. Systemic steroids should be used with caution, and the risks and benefits weighed, for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after tonsillectomy before further research is performed to clarify their condition of use. PMID:22930703

2012-01-01

75

The Detector System for the Stratospheric Kinetic Inductance Polarimeter ( Skip)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stratospheric kinetic inductance polarimeter is a proposed balloon-borne experiment designed to study the cosmic microwave background, the cosmic infrared background and Galactic dust emission by observing 1,133 deg of sky in the Northern Hemisphere with launches from Kiruna, Sweden. The instrument contains 2,317 single-polarization, horn-coupled, aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors ( Lekids). The Lekids will be maintained at 100 mK with an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The polarimeter operates in two configurations, one sensitive to a spectral band centered on 150 GHz and the other sensitive to 260 and 350 GHz bands. The detector readout system is based on the ROACH-1 board, and the detectors will be biased below 300 MHz. The detector array is fed by an F/2.4 crossed-Dragone telescope with a 500 mm aperture yielding a 15 arcmin FWHM beam at 150 GHz. To minimize detector loading and maximize sensitivity, the entire optical system will be cooled to 1 K. Linearly polarized sky signals will be modulated with a metal-mesh half-wave plate that is mounted at the telescope aperture and rotated by a superconducting magnetic bearing. The observation program consists of at least two, 5-day flights beginning with the 150 GHz observations.

Johnson, B. R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Araujo, D.; Bradford, K. J.; Chapman, D.; Day, P. K.; Didier, J.; Doyle, S.; Eriksen, H. K.; Flanigan, D.; Groppi, C.; Hillbrand, S.; Jones, G.; Limon, M.; Mauskopf, P.; McCarrick, H.; Miller, A.; Mroczkowski, T.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, B.; Smiley, B.; Sobrin, J.; Wehus, I. K.; Zmuidzinas, J.

2014-09-01

76

Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

2011-01-01

77

Enzyme induction by drugs. Its relevance to clinical biochemistry.  

PubMed

The properties of the hepatic microsomal, drug detoxicating, enzyme system are reviewed with particular reference to its inducibility. Induction is modified by various factors of which the diet is particularly important. A theoretical model system for induction has been proposed and this is discussed. There are a number of methods for assessing microsomal enzyme induction in man, none of which is ideal. Nevertheless, induction is a well recognized phenomenon in man and has a bearing on the metabolism of a number of endogenous substances. The effect of induction on steroid metabolism and the relationship between inducers, vitamin D, and metabolic bone disease is discussed. Bilirubin metabolism is affected by changes in microsomal enzyme activity and inducers have been used therapeutically in some cases of hyperbilirubinaemia. The relationship between drugs and the hepatic porphyrias is reviewed. The hepatic microsomal enzyme system is but one of many inducible enzymes and the role of induction in general in metabolic regulation is emphasised. PMID:343704

Marshall, W J

1978-01-01

78

Aggregation of induction machines for power system dynamic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a method for the aggregation of induction motor loads. Thevenin's theorem along with some transient characteristics of induction machines are used in calculating the parameters of the equivalent machine. The dynamic response of the resultant machine differs from the sum of the dynamic responses of the individual machines. For a diversified group of induction machines, at least

M. Taleb; M. Akbaba; E. A. Abdullah

1994-01-01

79

Adolescent Steroid Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

80

Xenobiotic induction of cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP2B1) is mediated by the orphan nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and requires steroid co-activator 1 (SRC-1) and the transcription factor Sp1.  

PubMed Central

The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activates the expression of a reporter gene attached to the phenobarbital-response element (PBRE) of the cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP2B1) gene in response to the barbiturate phenobarbital and the plant product picrotoxin. The xenobiotic-mediated increase in transactivation occurs in transfected primary hepatocytes and in liver transfected by biolistic-particle-mediated DNA transfer, but not in the transformed cell lines HepG2, CV-1 and HeLa, which support only constitutive activation of gene expression by CAR. Steroid co-activator 1 (SRC-1) enhances both constitutive and xenobiotic-induced CAR-mediated transactivation via the CYP2B1 PBRE in transfected primary hepatocytes. The nuclear receptor 1 (NR1) site of the PBRE is sufficient for CAR-mediated transactivation, but additional sequences within the PBRE, and hence the proteins that bind to them, are required for the interaction of CAR with SRC-1. The NR2 site of the PBRE binds proteins other than CAR, including an unidentified nuclear receptor heterodimerized with retinoid X receptor alpha. By binding to the proximal promoter of CYP2B1, the transcription factor Sp1 increases both basal transcription and xenobiotic-induced expression via the PBRE. Thus induction of CYP2B1 expression by xenobiotics is mediated by the nuclear receptor CAR and, for optimal expression, requires SRC-1 and Sp1. PMID:11256950

Muangmoonchai, R; Smirlis, D; Wong, S C; Edwards, M; Phillips, I R; Shephard, E A

2001-01-01

81

Birdsong and the neural production of steroids  

PubMed Central

The forebrain circuits involved in singing and audition (the ‘song system’) in songbirds exhibit a remarkable capacity to synthesize and respond to steroid hormones. This review considers how local brain steroid production impacts the development, sexual differentiation, and activity of song system circuitry. The songbird forebrain contains all of the enzymes necessary for the de novo synthesis of steroids - including neuroestrogens - from cholesterol. Steroid production enzymes are found in neuronal cell bodies, but they are also expressed in pre-synaptic terminals in the song system, indicating a novel mode of brain steroid delivery to local circuits. The song system expresses nuclear hormone receptors, consistent with local action of brain-derived steroids. Local steroid production also occurs in brain regions that do not express nuclear hormone receptors, suggesting a non-classical mode-of-action. Recent evidence indicates that local steroid levels can change rapidly within the forebrain, in a manner similar to traditional neuromodulators. Lastly, we consider growing evidence for modulatory interactions between brain-derived steroids and neurotransmitter/neuropeptide networks within the song system. Songbirds have therefore emerged as a rich and powerful model system to explore the neural and neurochemical regulation of social behavior. PMID:19589382

Remage-Healey, Luke; London, Sarah E.; Schinger, Barney A.

2009-01-01

82

Implantable flexible pressure measurement system based on inductive coupling.  

PubMed

One of the currently available treatments for aortic aneurysms is endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). In spite of major advances in the operating techniques, complications still occur and lifelong surveillance is recommended. In order to reduce and even eliminate the commonly used surveillance imaging exams, as well as to reduce follow-up costs, new technological solutions are being pursued. In this paper, we describe the development, including design and performance characterization, of a flexible remote pressure measurement system based on inductive-coupling for post-EVAR monitoring purposes. The telemetry system architecture and operation are described and main performance characteristics discussed. The implantable sensor details are provided and its model is presented. Simulations with the reading circuit and the sensor's model were performed and compared with measurements carried out with air and a phantom as media, in order to characterize the telemetry system and validate the models. The transfer characteristic curve (pressure versus frequency) of the monitoring system was obtained with measurements performed with the sensor inside a controlled pressure vacuum chamber. Additional experimental results which proof the system functionality were obtained within a hydraulic test bench that emulates the aorta. Several innovative aspects, when compared to the state of the art, both in the sensor and in the telemetry system were achieved. PMID:25347867

Oliveira, Cristina C; Sepulveda, Alexandra T; Almeida, Nuno; Wardle, Brian L; da Silva, Jose Machado; Rocha, Luis A

2015-02-01

83

Direct voltage control for standalone wind energy conversion systems with induction generator and energy storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control method for standalone wind energy conversion systems with induction generator and energy storage system (ESS) is proposed in this paper. A fixed-speed self-excited induction generator is directly connected to the standalone power system. An ESS is employed to compensate the power variation from wind generator and load, maintain the power flow balanced. A direct voltage control scheme is

Wei Huang; D. W. Xu

2008-01-01

84

Toroid Joining Gun. [thermoplastic welding system using induction heating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Toroid Joining Gun is a low cost, self-contained, portable low powered (100-400 watts) thermoplastic welding system developed at Langley Research Center for joining plastic and composite parts using an induction heating technique. The device developed for use in the fabrication of large space sructures (LSST Program) can be used in any atmosphere or in a vacuum. Components can be joined in situ, whether on earth or on a space platform. The expanded application of this welding gun is in the joining of thermoplastic composites, thermosetting composites, metals, and combinations of these materials. Its low-power requirements, light weight, rapid response, low cost, portability, and effective joining make it a candidate for solving many varied and unique bonding tasks.

Buckley, J. D.; Fox, R. L.; Swaim, R J.

1985-01-01

85

Calibration of a magnetic induction system for measurement of hypervelocities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A device to measure the velocity and to determine the character of a material launched in a flight tube during the execution of an experiment has been constructed. This measurement device provides a self generating signal, is nonintrusive, compact, and accurate. The signals are reproducible, and it is relatively inexpensive to procure. The MAgnetic Velocity Induction System (MAVIS) has been the technique used to measure projectile velocities in the two-stage light gas gun at Sandia for many years. Several experiments were conducted to study the MAVIS data signatures produced by various metal projectiles at velocities raging from 0.8 km/sec to nearly 7.0 km/sec, as well as fragmented metal projectiles, and a highly conductive carbon plasma. This report deals with the results of those calibration experiments. The data signature study may be used as an aid in the interpretation of the other test data records.

Breeze, S. P.

1993-03-01

86

Kinetic-inductance coupling scheme for superconducting stripline system and its device applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents general properties and applications of the inductive coupling of a superconducting stripline system, which takes advantage of kinetic inductance of thin superconducting films. The authors formulate the system composed of two striplines inductively coupled through a common electrode as a four-port circuitry by obtaining its scattering coefficients in a general form, and also characterize the system with the coupled-mode theory. Based on the analysis, the authors propose new-type of kinetic inductance devices for microwave analog-components, such as directional coupler, microwave switch, variable filter, and efficient coupling elements for striplines. Experiments on stripline coupling with this scheme have been also discussed.

Yoshida, K.; Kudo, K.; Hossain, M.S.; Empuku, K. (Dept. of Electronics, Kyushu Univ. 36, Fukuoka 812 (JP))

1991-03-01

87

Effects of adrenocortical steroids on long-term potentiation in the limbic system: Basic mechanisms and behavioral consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hippocampal structures are a major target for adrenal steroid hormones, and hence these neural regions are some of the most likely mediators of the effects of adrenocortical steroids on behavior. Memory disturbance, in particular biasing toward negative contents, are part of the symptomatology presented by depressive patients. In turn, a sizeable subset of depression also presents with hypercortisolemia. Adrenocortical hormones

B. Dubrovsky; K. Gijsbers; D. Filipini; M. K. Birmingham

1993-01-01

88

Role of steroids in the maturation of ovine oocytes Institute of Animal Physiology, Animal Research Station  

E-print Network

Role of steroids in the maturation of ovine oocytes R. M. MOOR Institute of Animal Physiology of oocytes in sheep. Steroid function during the inductive phase is characterized by (i) elevated levels of progesterone (0.4 and 0.8 nmol/ml in vitro and in vivo respectively). Steroid support is not required

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

89

Low Inductance pulser system drives a fast magnet at DARHT.  

SciTech Connect

The DARHT facility [Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test] uses bremsstrahlung radiation from focused electron beams to produce radiographs. To produce a smaller spot size and, thus, a higher quality radiograph, one must be able to control the emittance of the electron beam. To that end, it is necessary to measure emittance. Emittance is measured by focusing the electron beam to a small size, such that the size is dominated by the emittance, as opposed to the space charge. Our electron beam, at 2 kA, 18 MV and 2 ps, would destroy any imaging target, were the full beam to be focused to minimal spot size for the full beam duration. The solution is to focus the beam for a short duration, a few tens of nanoseconds, using a fast solenoid magnet. This paper reports details of the pulsed power system used to drive the segmented magnet. The system consists of twenty pulsers, driving 60 cables to feed two headers on the magnet. The magnet itself consists of 12 individual loops, each segmented in three parts, for inductance reduction. The system is designed to produce one kilogauss over a 15-cm diameter and 60-cm length. The pulsers incorporate spark gaps that produce the main pulse with a half sine period of 125 ns and also clip the tail of the pulse to prevent refocusing of the beam. A five-to-one ratio between the first and second current peaks has been demonstrated [same polarity peaks].

Rose, E. A. (Evan A.); Bartsch, R. R. (Robert Richard); Custer, D. M. (Daniel M.); Ekdahl, C. A. (Carl A.); Montoya, R. R. (Robert R.); Smith, J. R. (John R.)

2002-01-01

90

Development of magnetic shielding system for breast hyperthermia inductive heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the effect of cylindrical shield to heating area and location of induction heating for breast cancer hyperthermia treatment with hyperthermia inductive heating are presented. To determine heat distribution in the breast, which electric loss density is analyzed for various aperture sizes and radius of shielded cylindrical. It is a technique to control magnetic field intensity and relocate

Thanaset Thosdeekoraphat; Chanchai Thongsopa

2012-01-01

91

Introducing Abduction into (Extensional) Inductive Logic Programming Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an approach for the integration of abduction and induction in Logic Programming. In particular, we show how it is possible to learn an abductive logic program starting from an abductive background knowledge and a set of examples. By integrating Inductive Logic Programming with Abductive Logic Programming we can learn in presence of incomplete knowledge. Incomplete knowledge is handled

Evelina Lamma; Paola Mello; Michela Milano; Fabrizio Riguzzi

1997-01-01

92

Module Eight: Induction; Basic Electricity and Electronics Individualized Learning System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The module covers in greater depth electromagnetic induction, its effects, and how it is used to advantage in electrical circuits; and the physical components, called inductors, designed to take advantage of the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. This module is divided into four lessons: electromagnetism; inductors and flux density, inducing…

Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

93

Production of functional bacteriorhodopsin by an Escherichia coli cell-free protein synthesis system supplemented with steroid detergent and lipid  

PubMed Central

Cell-free expression has become a highly promising tool for the efficient production of membrane proteins. In this study, we used a dialysis-based Escherichia coli cell-free system for the production of a membrane protein actively integrated into liposomes. The membrane protein was the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin, consisting of seven transmembrane ?-helices. The cell-free expression system in the dialysis mode was supplemented with a combination of a detergent and a natural lipid, phosphatidylcholine from egg yolk, in only the reaction mixture. By examining a variety of detergents, we found that the combination of a steroid detergent (digitonin, cholate, or CHAPS) and egg phosphatidylcholine yielded a large amount (0.3–0.7 mg/mL reaction mixture) of the fully functional bacteriorhodopsin. We also analyzed the process of functional expression in our system. The synthesized polypeptide was well protected from aggregation by the detergent-lipid mixed micelles and/or lipid disks, and was integrated into liposomes upon detergent removal by dialysis. This approach might be useful for the high yield production of functional membrane proteins. PMID:19746358

Shimono, Kazumi; Goto, Mie; Kikukawa, Takashi; Miyauchi, Seiji; Shirouzu, Mikako; Kamo, Naoki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

2009-01-01

94

14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...filters. If an air filter is used to protect the engine against foreign material particles in the induction air supply— ...air filter shall have a design feature to prevent material separated from the filter media from...

2014-01-01

95

A novel induction machine design suitable for inverter-driven variable speed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction machines designed for inverter-driven variable speed systems are different from those fed directly from a utility power line. In this paper, a novel design approach for inverter driven induction machines is presented and implemented. This is followed by an investigation on sizing equations and rotor slot shape specifically for this purpose. The proposed approach permits the integration of the

Z. M. Zhao; S. Meng; C. C. Chan; E. W. C. Lo

2000-01-01

96

Performance Optimization of Induction Motor-Pump System Using Photovoltaic Energy Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimization of a photovoltaic pumping system based on an induction motor driven pump that is powered by a solar array is presented in this paper. The motor-pump subsystem is analyzed from the point of view of optimizing the power requirement of the induction motor, which has led to an optimum u-f relationship useful in controlling the motor. The complete

S. R. Bhat; Andre Pittet; B. S. Sonde

1987-01-01

97

Steroids as ?-secretase modulators  

PubMed Central

Aggregation and accumulation of A?42 play an initiating role in Alzheimer's disease (AD); thus, selective lowering of A?42 by ?-secretase modulators (GSMs) remains a promising approach to AD therapy. Based on evidence suggesting that steroids may influence A? production, we screened 170 steroids at 10 ?M for effects on A?42 secreted from human APP-overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary cells. Many acidic steroids lowered A?42, whereas many nonacidic steroids actually raised A?42. Studies on the more potent compounds showed that A?42-lowering steroids were bonafide GSMs and A?42-raising steroids were inverse GSMs. The most potent steroid GSM identified was 5?-cholanic acid (EC50=5.7 ?M; its endogenous analog lithocholic acid was virtually equipotent), and the most potent inverse GSM identified was 4-androsten-3-one-17?-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (EC50=6.25 ?M). In addition, we found that both estrogen and progesterone are weak inverse GSMs with further complex effects on APP processing. These data suggest that certain endogenous steroids may have the potential to act as GSMs and add to the evidence that cholesterol, cholesterol metabolites, and other steroids may play a role in modulating A? production and thus risk for AD. They also indicate that acidic steroids might serve as potential therapeutic leads for drug optimization/development.—Jung, J. I., Ladd, T. B., Kukar, T., Price, A. R., Moore, B. D., Koo, E. H., Golde, T. E., Felsenstein, K. M. Steroids as ?-secretase modulators. PMID:23716494

Jung, Joo In; Ladd, Thomas B.; Kukar, Thomas; Price, Ashleigh R.; Moore, Brenda D.; Koo, Edward H.; Golde, Todd E.; Felsenstein, Kevin M.

2013-01-01

98

One-pot organocatalytic enantioselective Michael-Michael-aldol-Henry reaction cascade. A facile entry to the steroid system with six contiguous stereogenic centers.  

PubMed

An expedited method has been developed for the enantioselective synthesis of highly functionalized steroid systems containing six contiguous stereogenic centers with high enantioselectivities (99% ee). The one-pot methodology comprises a cascade of organocatalytic Michael-Michael-aldol-Henry reactions of 7-nitrohept-3-en-2-one and 5-(1-methyl-2,5-dioxocyclopentyl)pent-2-enal. The structure and absolute configuration of the products were confirmed by X-ray analyses of appropriate products. PMID:24796861

Jhuo, Dai-Huei; Hong, Bor-Cherng; Chang, Chun-Wei; Lee, Gene-Hsiang

2014-05-16

99

Space fabrication demonstration system. [beam builder and induction fastening  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development effort on the composite beam cap fabricator was completed within cost and close to abbreviated goals. The design and analysis of flight weight primary and secondary beam builder structures proceeded satisfactorily but remains curtailed until further funding is made available to complete the work. The induction fastening effort remains within cost and schedule constraints. Tests of the LARC prototype induction welder is continuing in an instrumented test stand comprised of a Dumore drill press (air over oil feed for variable applied loads) and a dynamometer to measure actual welding loads. Continued testing shows that the interface screening must be well impregnated with resin to ensure proper flow when bonding graphite-acrylic lap shear samples. Specimens prepared from 0.030 inch thick graphite-polyethersulfone are also available for future induction fastening evaluation.

1980-01-01

100

NDCX-II PULSED POWER SYSTEM AND INDUCTION CELLS  

SciTech Connect

The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is currently finalizing the design of NDCX-II, the second phase of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, which will use an ion beam to explore Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target hydrodynamics. The ion induction accelerator will include induction cells and Blumleins from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A test stand has been built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test refurbished ATA induction cells and pulsed power hardware for voltage holding and ability to produce various compression and acceleration waveforms. The performance requirements, design modifications, and test results will be presented.

Waldron, W.L.; Reginato, L.L.; Leitner, M.

2009-06-01

101

Review article: use of induction therapy in liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Induction therapy is used relatively infrequently in liver transplantation, but developments in induction regimens and strategies for their use are prompting a re-examination of its benefits. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) induces protracted, dose-dependent lymphocytopenia with preferential reconstitution of regulatory T-lymphocytes. Non-depleting interleukin-2 receptor antagonists (IL-2RA) act selectively on activated T-lymphocytes with a shorter duration of effect. IL-2RA induction with delayed and reduced calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) exposure appears to preserve efficacy, while more aggressive CNI minimisation has been attempted successfully using rATG. Steroid-free tacrolimus monotherapy with rATG or IL-2RA induction is effective if adequate tacrolimus exposure is maintained. Early concerns that addition of induction to a conventional maintenance regimen could lead to accelerated progression of hepatitis C disease, or to an increased risk of hepatocellular cancer recurrence, now appear unfounded using modern regimens. Similarly, with routine use of systemic prophylaxis, recent prospective and retrospective data have not shown a higher rate of infections overall, or cytomegalovirus infection specifically, using rATG or IL-2RA induction. Historical evidence that lymphocyte-depleting agents increased the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma has not been confirmed for rATG. Wider use of induction in liver transplantation is now merited, using individualized strategies to support reduced CNI exposure or steroid-free immunosuppression. PMID:22863028

Rostaing, Lionel; Saliba, Faouzi; Calmus, Yvon; Dharancy, Sébastien; Boillot, Olivier

2012-10-01

102

Analysis of electromechanical interactions in a flywheel system with a doubly fed induction machine  

E-print Network

This paper analyzes the electromechanical inter-action in a flywheel system with a doubly fed induction machine, used for wind farm power smoothing or grid frequency response control. The grid-connected electrical machine ...

Ran, Li

103

Inductive instability in electrodynamic systems with rapidly varying parameters  

E-print Network

layers grows. Similar effects occur in electric circuits with different conductors connected in parallel comprising layers with different magnitudes of elec- tric conductivity or electric circuits with parallel- tion of the electric conductivity or by rapid variations of inductance. In R­C circuits instability

Elperin, Tov

104

DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF INDUCTION PUMP FOR SRE MODERATOR SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-phase linear induction pump was designed, constructed, and ;\\u000a installed in the Sodium Reactor Experiment to control moderator temperature. A ;\\u000a maximum flow rate of 91 gpm was obtained at 760 deg F, at 12.4 psi, and an ;\\u000a efficiency of 1.7%. (C.J.G.)

1958-01-01

105

Increased serum fibroblast growth factor-23 and decreased bone turnover in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus under treatment with cyclosporine and steroid but not steroid only.  

PubMed

In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), low bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with increased age, prolonged disease, low body mass index (BMI), and overlap with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Elevated fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 in cyclosporine A (CsA) users with SLE are associated with decreased active vitamin D and osteocalcin. PMID:25270396

Lai, C-C; Chen, W-S; Chang, D-M; Tsao, Y-P; Wu, T-H; Chou, C-T; Tsai, C-Y

2014-10-01

106

Systemic signalling in photosynthetic induction of Rumex?K-1 (Rumex patientia?×?Rumex tianschaious) leaves.  

PubMed

The rapid induction of photosynthesis is critical for plants under light-fleck environment. Most previous studies about photosynthetic induction focused upon single leaf, but they did not consider the systemic integrity of plant. Here, we verified whether systemic signalling is involved in photosynthetic induction. Rumex?K-1 (Rumex patientia?×?Rumex tianschaious) plants were grown under light-fleck condition. After whole night dark adaptation, different numbers of leaves (system leaf or SL) were pre-illuminated with light, and then the photosynthetic induction of other leaves (target leaf or TL) was investigated. This study showed that the pre-illumination of SL promoted photosynthetic induction in TL. This promotion was independent of the number of SL, the light intensity on SL and the distance between SL and TL, indicating that this systemic signalling is non-dose-dependent. More interestingly, the photosynthetic induction was promoted by only the pre-illumination of morphological upper leaf rather than the pre-illumination of morphological lower leaf, indicating that the transfer of this signal is directional. The results showed that the transfer of this systemic signalling depends upon the phloem. This systemic signalling helps plants to use light energy more efficiently under light flecks. PMID:25124181

Hou, Fei; Jin, Li-Qiao; Zhang, Zi-Shan; Gao, Hui-Yuan

2014-08-15

107

Steroid-Resistant Autoimmune Thrombocytopenia in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Treated with Rituximab  

PubMed Central

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disorder characterized by production of numerous autoantibodies, some of which have pathogenic consequences and result in considerable morbidity. Herein, we present a case of 48-year-old female with SLE having autoimmune hemolytic anemia, autoimmune thrombocytopenia, renal involvement, and recurrent flares of skin manifestations. She did not respond to the conventional therapy and was controlled and treated with Rituximab, a chimeric, monoclonal antiCD20 antibody, which specifically depletes B lymphocytes.

Sardesai, Vasudha V; Sardesai, Vidyadhar R; Agarwal, Trupti D

2015-01-01

108

Steroid-resistant autoimmune thrombocytopenia in systemic lupus erythematosus treated with rituximab.  

PubMed

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disorder characterized by production of numerous autoantibodies, some of which have pathogenic consequences and result in considerable morbidity. Herein, we present a case of 48-year-old female with SLE having autoimmune hemolytic anemia, autoimmune thrombocytopenia, renal involvement, and recurrent flares of skin manifestations. She did not respond to the conventional therapy and was controlled and treated with Rituximab, a chimeric, monoclonal antiCD20 antibody, which specifically depletes B lymphocytes. PMID:25657435

Sardesai, Vasudha V; Sardesai, Vidyadhar R; Agarwal, Trupti D

2015-01-01

109

Age-Related Cochlear Cytokine Gene Expression in the BALB/cJ Mouse with Systemic versus Intra-tympanic Dosing of Steroid Drugs  

PubMed Central

Conclusion Age-related differences in the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the inner ear may contribute to the development of age-related hearing loss. Objectives Age-related hearing loss is characterized by tissue remodeling, ischemia, ion homeostasis, and inflammation. Steroid therapy is an otoprotective strategy that likely acts by reducing inflammation. We examined age-related changes in cytokine gene expression in the cochlea of the BALB/cJ mouse model of premature age-related hearing loss after systemic or intra-tympanic steroid delivery. Methods “Young” (2.5-3 months) and “Old” (5-9 months) mice were treated with dexamethasone or fludrocortisone administered either orally or intra-tympanically. Cytokine gene expression in cochlear RNA was analyzed using prefabricated cDNA arrays. Old groups were compared to Young to identify age-related changes. Results Down-regulation of a cytokine associated with bone remodeling (SPP1) was observed in the untreated Old group. Numerous genes were up- or down-regulated by more than two-fold by steroid treatment, including pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-16) and anti-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:23768053

Tokarz, Sara A.; Pang, Jiaqing; Grosz, Anna; Kempton, J. Beth; Trune, Dennis R.; Pillers, De-Ann M.

2014-01-01

110

Antibiotic and steroid therapy of massive systemic bacillus Calmette-Guerin toxicity.  

PubMed

Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the most effective treatment of carcinoma in situ available today and is superior to chemotherapy in the prevention of bladder tumor recurrence. While therapy is generally well tolerated, serious and even life threatening toxicity can occur. Treatment options for serious infection include isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and cycloserine, but shock may also be secondary to hypersensitivity and require the addition of corticosteroids. The morbidity and mortality of systemically BCG-infected mice treated with single and combined antimicrobial and/or corticosteroid therapies was evaluated. BCG immunized mice were unable to survive doses of BCG which were uniformly tolerated in naive mice. The addition of cycloserine increased survival in mice treated with isoniazid and rifampin, but optimal survival was achieved with isoniazid, rifampin, and prednisolone. These experimental results support the previously reported clinical success of isoniazid, rifampin and prednisolone in patients with septic BCG reactions. PMID:1538474

DeHaven, J I; Traynellis, C; Riggs, D R; Ting, E; Lamm, D L

1992-03-01

111

ent-Steroids: Novel Tools for Studies of Signaling Pathways  

PubMed Central

Membrane receptors are often modulated by steroids and it is necessary to distinguish the effects of steroids at these receptors from effects occurring at nuclear receptors. Additionally, it may also be mechanistically important to distinguish between direct effects caused by binding of steroids to membrane receptors and indirect effects on membrane receptor function caused by steroid perturbation of the membrane containing the receptor. In this regard, ent-steroids, the mirror images of naturally occurring steroids, are novel tools for distinguishing between these various actions of steroids. The review provides a background for understanding the different actions that can be expected of steroids and ent-steroids in biological systems, references for the preparation of ent-steroids, a short discussion about relevant forms of stereoisomerism and the requirements that need to be fulfilled for the interaction between two molecules to be enantioselective. The review then summarizes results of biophysical, biochemical and pharmacological studies published since 1992 in which ent-steroids have been used to investigate the actions of steroids in membranes and/or receptor-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:19103212

Covey, Douglas F.

2008-01-01

112

Switching from systemic steroids to ciclesonide restores the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Treatment of difficult asthma with oral corticosteroids (OCS) may suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Aim In this study we have checked if the substitution of OCS with very high doses of ciclesonide may restore the adrenal function without losing the control of the disease. Material and methods In 5 patients with difficult, uncontrolled asthma despite treatment with OCS, inhaled and systemic glucocorticosteroids were replaced with very high doses of ciclesonide (1600–2400 µg/day). The symptoms of asthma and the lung function were assessed at baseline and on the 28th, 56th and 70th day of treatment, whereas the levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the morning were measured at baseline and on the 28th and the 56th day of treatment. Results In all patients, the control of asthma symptoms, measured with Asthma Control Test questionnaire, improved from the mean score of 9.4 to 19.8 in 70 days. In 4 subjects force expiratory volume in 1 s improved gradually through the entire study reaching a mean improvement of 585 ml in 70 days. The ACTH levels were normalized in 3 patients after 28 days of observation and in all patients after 56 days. The cortisol level was normalized in 4 patients after 28 days and in another subject after 56 days of treatment with ciclesonide. Conclusions Switching from prednisone to very high doses of ciclesonide normalized the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis function and also improved the disease control and the lung function in these 5 patients with difficult asthma. PMID:25097469

Ciebiada, Maciej; Górski, Pawe?

2014-01-01

113

A study of carburetor/induction system icing in general aviation accidents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of the frequency and severity of carburetor/induction icing in general-aviation accidents was performed. The available literature and accident data from the National Transportation Safety Board were collected. A computer analysis of the accident data was performed. Between 65 and 90 accidents each year involve carburetor/induction system icing as a probable cause/factor. Under conditions conducive to carburetor/induction icing, between 50 and 70 percent of engine malfunction/failure accidents (exclusive of those due to fuel exhaustion) are due to carburetor/induction system icing. Since the evidence of such icing may not remain long after an accident, it is probable that the frequency of occurrence of such accidents is underestimated; therefore, some extrapolation of the data was conducted. The problem of carburetor/induction system icing is particularly acute for pilots with less than 1000 hours of total flying time. The severity of such accidents is about the same as any accident resulting from a forced landing or precautionary landing. About 144 persons, on the average, are exposed to death and injury each year in accidents involving carburetor/induction icing as a probable cause/factor.

Obermayer, R. W.; Roe, W. T.

1975-01-01

114

System modeling for the longitudinal beam dynamics control problem in heavy ion induction accelerators  

SciTech Connect

We address the problem of developing system models that are suitable for studying the control of the longitudinal beam dynamics in induction accelerators for heavy ions. In particular, we present the preliminary results of our efforts to devise a general framework for building detailed, integrated models of accelerator systems consisting of pulsed power modular circuits, induction cells, beam dynamics, and control system elements. Such a framework will permit us to analyze and design the pulsed power modulators and the control systems required to effect precise control over the longitudinal beam dynamics.

Payne, A.N.

1993-05-17

115

Acceleration units for the Induction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE)  

SciTech Connect

The design of a high current heavy ion induction linac driver for inertial confinement fusion is optimized by adjusting the acceleration units along the length of the accelerator to match the beam current, energy, and pulse duration at any location. At the low energy end of the machine the optimum is a large number of electrostatically focused parallel beamlets, whereas at higher energies the optimum is a smaller number of magnetically focused beams. ILSE parallels this strategy by using 16 electrostatically focused beamlets at the low end followed by 4 magnetically focused beams after beam combining. 3 refs., 2 figs.

Faltens, A.; Brady, V.; Brodzik, D.; Hansen, L.; Laslett, L.J.; Mukherjee, S.; Bubp, D.; Ravenscroft, D.; Reginato, L.

1989-03-01

116

Induction of a sub-systemic oxidative burst by elicitor-stimulated local oxidative burst in potato plant tissues: a possible systemic signaling in systemic acquired resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hyphal wall component (HWC) elicitor derived from Phytophthora infestans has been known to cause a local induction of oxidative burst (OXB) as well as a systemic OXB and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in potato plants. The systemic induction of OXB was investigated using potato tuber slices and excised compound leaves. The elicitor-induced local OXB which was monitored as luminol-mediated

Hae-Jun Park; Noriyuki Doke; Yoshio Miura; Kazuhito Kawakita; Tomoya Noritake; Hajime Komatsubara

1998-01-01

117

Deposition Of Materials Using A Simple Planar Coil Radio Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasma System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A planar coil RF inductively coupled plasma (PC-RFICP) systems is set up for the purpose of thin film deposition. The system is powered by a 13.56 MHz, 550 W, 50 ? RF generator. The RF power is transferred to the plasma via a planar induction coil. The impedance matching unit consists of an air core step-down transformer and a tunable vacuum capacitor. This system is used for the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film on silicon substrate, and hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) film.

Ng, K. H.; Wong, C. S.; Yap, S. L.; Gan, S. N.

2009-07-01

118

New steroid haptens for radioimmunoasiay: synthesis of steroids  

E-print Network

New steroid haptens for radioimmunoasiay: synthesis of steroids substituted with thioether or ester with antibodies directed uguinst Za-ulkyl bridged steroid huptens ure expected to be highly speci$c due to greater topogruphicul exposure und similurity in conf~wmution to the nutive steroid. The Za-ulkyl bridged huptens were

Desai, Umesh R

119

Dynamic Performances of Tubular Linear Induction Motor for Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline System  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract— Tubular linear induction motor (TLIM) can be used as a capsule pump in a large pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system. Parametric performance evaluation of the designed 1-meter diameter PCP-TLIM system yields encouraging results for practical implementation. The capsule thrust and speed inside the TLIM pump can be calculated from the combination of the PCP fluid mechanics and the

W. Plodpradista

2009-01-01

120

An Alternative Adaptation Mechanism for Model Reference Adaptive System Based Sensorless Induction Motor Drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The model reference adaptive system is one of the methods for speed estimation of a sensorless induction motor drive. The model reference adaptive system comprises of tee blocks—the reference model, the adjustable model, and the adaptation mechanism. A proportional-integral controller is commonly used in the adaptation mechanism. In this article, an alternative structure of the adaptation mechanism is proposed. The

Suman Maiti; Chandan Chakraborty

2010-01-01

121

Optimised solar water pumping system based on an induction motor driven centrifugal pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two power electronic interfaces, each forming a complete photovoltaic pumping system requiring an “off-the-shelf” induction motor driven submersible centrifugal pump have been developed. An in-depth study of the developed system has been carried out by simulation and field tests

C. V. Nayar; E. Vasu; S. J. Phillips

1993-01-01

122

Expert system based automated design technique of a voltage-fed inverter for induction motor drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe expert-system-base automate design of a pulse width modulation (PWM) voltage fed inverter for an induction motor drive on the basis of design specifications provided by the user, who could be a skilled or a semiskilled designer. During a typical consultation with the expert system, the user undergoes an interactive dialogue session in simple English to supply the

Sunil M. Chhaya; Bimd K. Bose

1992-01-01

123

A randomized trial of cyclosporine in steroid-resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized trial of cyclosporine in steroid-resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. To compare the efficacy (induction of remission) and safety of cyclosporine (CsA) with those of supportive therapy in patients with steroid-resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS), we organized an open, prospective, randomized, multicentric, controlled study for parallel groups, stratified for adults and children. Forty-five patients with steroid-resistant INS were randomly assigned

Claudio Ponticelli; Gianfranco Rizzoni; Alberto Edefonti; Paolo Altieri; Emilio Rivolta; Stefano Rinaldi; Luciana Ghio; Egidio Lusvarghi; Rosanna Gusmano; Francesco Locatelli; Sonia Pasquali; Alfonso Castellani; Ornella Della Casa-Alberighi

1993-01-01

124

Epidural Steroid Injections  

MedlinePLUS

... slipped vertebrae’, also known as spondylolisthesis). The epidural space is a fat filled ‘sleeve’ that surrounds the ... spinal cord. Steroids (‘cortisone’) placed into the epidural space have a very potent anti-inflammatory action that ...

125

Marketing Intelligent Systems for consumer behaviour modelling by a descriptive induction approach based on Genetic Fuzzy Systems  

E-print Network

Marketing Intelligent Systems for consumer behaviour modelling by a descriptive induction approach-based Marketing Management Support Systems; we name them as Marketing Intelligent Systems. The most important of Marketing, Business Faculty, University of Granada, Granada, E-18071, Spain b Department of Computer Science

Casillas Barranquero, Jorge

126

Hyperadrenocorticism associated with sex steroid excess.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of sex steroid excess or hyperadrenocorticism in dogs may be challenging. Unlike Cushing's disease, sex steroid excess may have a multitude of manifestations that differ from standard hyperadrenocorticism. In particular, the clinical scenario of a dog with sex steroid imbalance involves one of three systems: dermatologic, reproductive, or hepatic. The history of a dog with hyperadrenocorticism manifesting as sex steroid imbalance often lacks the classical clinical signs of polydipsia and polyuria. Dogs with sex steroid imbalance will often be of specific breeds such as miniature poodles and exhibit trunkal hair loss as the only sign. There is often involvement of the reproductive system, manifested as the growth of perianal adenomas in neutered male or female dogs. The most common laboratory findings consist of elevations in serum alkaline phosphatase and serum alanine transferase. The following article reviews the etiology, common signalment, clinical signs, and laboratory findings associated with atypical hyperadrenocorticism caused by sex steroid imbalance and then explores the medical, surgical, and radiation treatment options. PMID:17542192

Greco, Deborah S

2007-02-01

127

Steroids in aquatic invertebrates.  

PubMed

Steroid molecules are present in all invertebrates, and some of them have established hormonal roles: this is the case for ecdysteroids in arthropods and, to a lesser extent, for vertebrate-type steroids in molluscs. Steroids are not only hormones, they may also fulfill many other functions in chemical communication, chemical defense or even digestive physiology. The increasing occurrence of endocrine disruption problems caused by environmental pollutants, which interfere in particular with reproductive physiology of vertebrates but also of invertebrates has made necessary to better understand the endocrine physiology of the latter and the role of steroids in these processes. So many attempts are being made to better understand the endocrine roles of steroids in arthropods and molluscs, and to establish whether they also fulfill similar functions in other invertebrate phyla. At the moment, both the precise identification of these steroids, the determination of their origin (endogenous versus exogenous) and of their mechanism of action are under active investigation. This research takes profit of the development of genome sequencing programs on many invertebrate species, which allow the identification of receptors and/or biosynthetic enzymes, when related to their vertebrate counterparts, but the story is not so simple, as will be exemplified by estrogen receptors of molluscs. PMID:17238002

Lafont, René; Mathieu, Michel

2007-02-01

128

A magnetic induction heating system with multi-cascaded coils and adjustable magnetic circuit for hyperthermia.  

PubMed

Abstract Based on the characteristics of cancer cells that cannot survive in an environment with temperature over 42?°C, a magnetic induction heating system for cancer treatment is developed in this work. First, the methods and analyses for designing the multi-cascaded coils magnetic induction hyperthermia system are proposed, such as internal impedance measurement of power generator, impedance matching of coils, and analysis of the system. Besides, characteristics of the system are simulated by a full-wave package for engineering optimization. Furthermore, by considering the safety factor of patients, a two-sectional needle is designed for hyperthermia. Finally, this system is employed to test the liver of swine in ex-vivo experiments, and through Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain and NADPH oxidase activity assay, the feasibility of this system is verified. PMID:25379959

Huang, Chi-Fang; Chao, Hsuan-Yi; Chang, Hsun-Hao; Lin, Xi-Zhang

2014-11-01

129

Aggregation of Induction Motors in a Power System Based on Some Special Operating Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a simple method for aggregating three-phase double-cage rotor induction motors connected to a common bus based on their equivalent circuits in power system studies. It is simple to aggregate the motors based on their equivalent circuits under certain operating conditions. The proposed method has been directly derived from the equivalent circuits of motors at a same bus

K. W. Louie; J. R. Marti; H. W. Dommel

2007-01-01

130

A double winding linear induction motor control scheme for PRT system  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase fault tolerance, a double winding linear induction motor (LIM) is proposed for personal rapid transit (PRT) system. In the double winding LIM, two sets of windings are wound in a single yoke, and each of them are controlled by separate inverters. Therefore, the flux continuity must be provided in the region where the two windings are overlaid. Providing

Gubae Kang; Bon-Gwan Gu; Sung-Yong Shin; Kwanghee Nam; Seong-Hwan Yoon; Tae-Kyung Shin

2002-01-01

131

Design and comparison of linear synchronous motor and linear induction motor for electromagnetic aircraft launch system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two basic linear motor designs suitable for an electromagnetic aircraft launch system (EMALS) have been presented in the paper. The motors have been designed with an emphasis on easy assembly and replacement even at the cost of slightly reduced performances. Both, linear permanent magnet synchronous motor (LPMSM) and linear induction motor (LIM) are assembled from modular stator segments which can

G. Stumberger; D. Zarko; M. Timur Aydemir; T.A. Lipo

2003-01-01

132

Research on Low Voltage Ride through of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Power System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the double fed induction generatorpsilas (DFIG) advantage of controlling active and reactive power independently and partly power converter, DFIG is becoming a popular type of wind power generation system. However, the converter is quite sensitive to grid disturbance because of its limited partial capacity compared with the generator rating. Nowadays the grid code in European demands that the

Yongfeng Ren; Hongyan Xu; Jianlin Li; Shuju Hu

2008-01-01

133

Magneto-Inductive NEtworked Rescue System (MINERS): Taking Sensor Networks Underground  

E-print Network

Magneto-Inductive NEtworked Rescue System (MINERS): Taking Sensor Networks Underground Andrew of Oxford firstname.lastname@cs.ox.ac.uk ABSTRACT Wireless underground networks are an emerging technology or a collapse can isolate portions of underground tunnels, severing wired communica- tion links and preventing

Martin, Ralph R.

134

Prion induction involves an ancient system for the sequestration of aggregated proteins and heritable  

E-print Network

Prion induction involves an ancient system for the sequestration of aggregated proteins and heritable changes in prion fragmentation Jens Tyedmersa,b , Sebastian Treuscha,c , Jijun Donga , J. Michael (sent for review December 16, 2009) When the translation termination factor Sup35 adopts the prion state

Lindquist, Susan

135

Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4{prime}-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit {sup 3}H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations.

Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E. (Georgetown Univ. School of Medicine, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-12-01

136

Pharmacology of anabolic steroids  

PubMed Central

Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic–androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided. PMID:18500378

Kicman, A T

2008-01-01

137

Inductive monitoring system constructed from nominal system data and its use in real-time system monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to an Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), its software implementations, hardware embodiments and applications. Training data is received, typically nominal system data acquired from sensors in normally operating systems or from detailed system simulations. The training data is formed into vectors that are used to generate a knowledge database having clusters of nominal operating regions therein. IMS monitors a system's performance or health by comparing cluster parameters in the knowledge database with incoming sensor data from a monitored-system formed into vectors. Nominal performance is concluded when a monitored-system vector is determined to lie within a nominal operating region cluster or lies sufficiently close to a such a cluster as determined by a threshold value and a distance metric. Some embodiments of IMS include cluster indexing and retrieval methods that increase the execution speed of IMS.

Iverson, David L. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

138

Yolk Steroids Decline during Sexual Differentiation in the Alligator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leading explanation of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) in reptiles postulates that (1) ovarian differentiation is directed by estrogen and that (2) estrogen is synthesized in the developing gonad following induction of aromatase expression. However, the source of steroid substrate for aromatization has not yet been identified. In addition, sex ratios vary as a function of clutch, but such biases

A. J. Conley; P. Elf; C. J. Corbin; S. Dubowsky; A. Fivizzani; J. W. Lang

1997-01-01

139

Simple experiments for the control, the evaluation and the diagnosis of inductively coupled plasma sequential systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple experiments based on the use of Ar, Mg, Ba and Zn are proposed to evaluate and control the analytical performance of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system and to identify possible causes of degradation of the results. These experiments allow the ICP user to verify practical resolution, efficiency of ionization and excitation, light absorption, stability and efficiency of the nebulizer, limits of detection and drift. A sequential procedure is described to check each major part of the ICP system.

Poussel, E.; Mermet, J. M.; Samuel, O.

1993-06-01

140

Four Pulse Drive System for the Beam Induction Cells for DARHT Axis 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed drive system allows for the generation of up to four (4) high-quality radiographic pulses along one line-of-sight, having arbitrary pulse spacing (â¼500 ns), using demonstrated technologies. This concept uses a four-pulse drive system to drive both a 16-MeV ensemble of 250-kV, 4-kA induction cells and a four-pulse, 4-MeV injector. The key to this approach lies in the method

J. Downing; R. Carlson; J. Melton; J. Fockler

1999-01-01

141

A four pulse drive system for the beam induction cells and injector for DARHT Axis 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed drive system allows for the generation of up to four high-quality radiographic pulses along one line-of-sight, having arbitrary pulse spacing (≈ 500 ns). This concept uses a four-pulse drive system to drive both a 16 MeV ensemble of 250 kV, 4 kA induction cells and a four-pulse, 4 MeV injector. The key to this approach lies in the

J. Downing; R. Carlson; J. Melton; J. Fockler

1999-01-01

142

USING A HELICOPTER-BORNE EM-INDUCTION SYSTEM TO VALIDATE RADARSAT SEA ICE SIGNATURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field surveys over the past several winters in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and off Labrador use helicopter-borne sensors to validate SAR ice signatures in RADARSAT imagery. Ice-plus- snow thickness profiles were collected using an electromagnetic (EM) induction system towed 15-25m above the ice surface by helicopter. Measurements from the laser altimeter contained in the EM system were high-pass filtered

I. K. Peterson; S. J. Prinsenberg; J. S. Holladay

143

14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...system filters. If an air filter is used to protect the engine...supply— (a) Each air filter must be capable of withstanding...effects of temperature extremes, rain, fuel, oil, and solvents...maintenance; and (b) Each air filter shall have a design...

2010-01-01

144

Investigation of Icing Characteristics of Typical Light Airplane Engine Induction Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The icing characteristics of two typical light-airplane engine induction systems were investigated using the carburetors and manifolds of engines in the horsepower ranges from 65 to 85 and 165 to 185. The smaller system consisted of a float-type carburetor with an unheated manifold and the larger system consisted of a single-barrel pressure-type carburetor with an oil-jacketed manifold. Carburetor-air temperature and humidity limits of visible and serious Icing were determined for various engine power conditions. Several.methods of achieving ice-free induction systems are discussed along with estimates of surface heating requirements of the various induct ion-system components. A study was also made of the icing characteristics of a typical light-airplane air scoop with an exposed filter and a modified system that provided a normal ram inlet with the filter located in a position to Induce inertia separation of the free water from the charge air. The principle of operation of float-type carburetors is proved to make them inherently more susceptible to icing at the throttle plate than pressure-type carburetors.. The results indicated that proper jacketing and heating of all parts exposed to the fuel spray can satisfactorily reduce or eliminate icing in the float-type carburetor and the manifold. Pressure-type carburetors can be protected from serious Icing by proper location of the fuel-discharge nozzle combined with suitable application of heat to critical parts.

Coles, W. D.

1949-01-01

145

Endothelial Tissue Factor Induction by T Lymphocytes in Systemic Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   We evaluated the ability of circulating T lymphocytes obtained from patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) to induce the\\u000a expression of tissue factor (TF) by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and compared the results with those obtained\\u000a from healthy controls. Nine patients with SSc and 10 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects were studied. Peripheral T lymphocytes\\u000a obtained from SSc

S. Della Bella; L. Mussoni; M. Molteni; S. Colli; C. Zulian; M. Camera; E. Tremoli; R. Scorza

1999-01-01

146

A Power-Efficient Wireless Capacitor Charging System Through an Inductive Link  

PubMed Central

A power-efficient wireless capacitor charging system for inductively powered applications has been presented. A bank of capacitors can be directly charged from an ac source by generating a current through a series charge injection capacitor and a capacitor charger circuit. The fixed charging current reduces energy loss in switches, while maximizing the charging efficiency. An adaptive capacitor tuner compensates for the resonant capacitance variations during charging to keep the amplitude of the ac input voltage at its peak. We have fabricated the capacitor charging system prototype in a 0.35-?m 4-metal 2-poly standard CMOS process in 2.1 mm2 of chip area. It can charge four pairs of capacitors sequentially. While receiving 2.7-V peak ac input through a 2-MHz inductive link, the capacitor charging system can charge each pair of 1 ?F capacitors up to ±2 V in 420 ?s, achieving a high measured charging efficiency of 82%. PMID:24678284

Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2014-01-01

147

Development of a Respiratory Inductive Plethysmography Module Supporting Multiple Sensors for Wearable Systems  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present an RIP module with the features of supporting multiple inductive sensors, no variable frequency LC oscillator, low power consumption, and automatic gain adjustment for each channel. Based on the method of inductance measurement without using a variable frequency LC oscillator, we further integrate pulse amplitude modulation and time division multiplexing scheme into a module to support multiple RIP sensors. All inductive sensors are excited by a high-frequency electric current periodically and momentarily, and the inductance of each sensor is measured during the time when the electric current is fed to it. To improve the amplitude response of the RIP sensors, we optimize the sensing unit with a matching capacitor parallel with each RIP sensor forming a frequency selection filter. Performance tests on the linearity of the output with cross-sectional area and the accuracy of respiratory volume estimation demonstrate good linearity and accurate lung volume estimation. Power consumption of this new RIP module with two sensors is very low. The performance of respiration measurement during movement is also evaluated. This RIP module is especially desirable for wearable systems with multiple RIP sensors for long-term respiration monitoring. PMID:23201991

Zhang, Zhengbo; Zheng, Jiewen; Wu, Hao; Wang, Weidong; Wang, Buqing; Liu, Hongyun

2012-01-01

148

Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

149

Use of fuzzy inference system for condition monitoring of induction motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three phase induction motors are commonly used in industry due to its robustness, simplicity of its construction and high reliability. The tasks performed by these motors grow increasingly complex because of modern industries hence there is a need to determine the faults. Early detection of faults will reduce an unscheduled machine downtime that can upset production deadlines and may cause heavy financial losses. This paper is focused in developing a computer based system using Fuzzy Inference system's membership function. An unusual increase in vibration of the motor could be an indicator of faulty condition hence the vibration of the motor of an induction motor was used as an input, whereas the output is the motor condition. An inference system of the Fuzzy Logic was created to classify the vibration characteristics of the motor which is called vibration analysis. The system classified the motor of the gas distribution pump condition as from 'acceptable' to 'monitor closely'. The early detection of unusual increase in vibration of the induction motor is an important part of a predictive maintenance for motor driven machinery.

Janier, Josefina B.; Zaim Zaharia, M. F.; Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abd.

2012-09-01

150

C20 steroids  

PubMed Central

1. The metabolism of 3-hydroxy-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10)-trien-20-one, a possible product of the aromatization of progesterone or pregnenolone, has been studied. 2. After oral administration of this C20 steroid as the 21-14C-labelled compound to two groups of rabbits, the excretion pattern of metabolites in the urine was examined. 3. At 14 days after administration, 3·3–6·5% of the radioactivity had appeared in the urine, 71–79% in the faeces and approx. 10% remained in the gut. 4. A metabolite, isolated from urine mainly as the unconjugated steroid, was identified as 19-norpregna-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,20?-diol and constituted 18·5–22% of the total urinary radioactivity. 5. A minor component of the urinary unconjugated steroids was identified as 19-norpregna-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17?,20?-triol. 6. A further 2–7·5% of the total urinary radioactivity, isolated only from the urinary sulphate fraction, was tentatively identified as an 18-oxygenated derivative of the administered steroid. PMID:6049395

Schulster, D.; Kellie, A. E.

1967-01-01

151

Steroids. A Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

152

Aerosol steroids for the treatment of peristomal mucocutaneous breakdown due to severe eczema  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION We describe a novel treatment of mucocutaneous peristomal junction breakdown in a patient with severe eczema using aerosol steroids, where conventional methods failed to achieve healing. PRESENTATION OF CASE Observation and photographic evidence showing resolution of severe peristomal eczema in a patient, in whom systemic steroids were contraindicated, using a topical aerosol steroid. We found complete resolution of peristomal eczema and symptoms within four weeks. DISCUSSION Topical aerosol steroids are better tolerated than alcohol based steroid preparations, achieve improved stoma appliance adherence in comparison to oil based steroid preparations and reduce systemic side effects in comparison to systemic oral steroids. CONCLUSION Aerosol steroids appear to be a safe and effective way to treat refractory peristomal eczema and may be of use in other peristomal inflammatory conditions including contact dermatitis. PMID:25437668

Nicholson, J.; Sriskandarajah, S.; Moore, J.; Clouston, H.; Telford, K.

2014-01-01

153

A completely isolated three-phase to three-phase induction motor\\/induction generation power conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two squirrel cage induction machines interconnected via a parallel resonant high-frequency AC link and associated switching pulse density modulated (PDM) converters are investigated, one operating as a generator and the other as a motor. The real power of the generator is controlled so as to maintain the proper link voltage and match the power between the input and output. Current

Irfan Alan; T.A. Lipo

1992-01-01

154

Control of a polyphase induction generator\\/induction motor power conversion system completely isolated from the utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two squirrel cage induction machines interconnected via a 20 kHz parallel resonant high frequency (HF) AC link and associated switching pulse density modulated (PDM) power converters are investigated, one operating as a generator and the other as a motor. No capacitors are used for the excitation of the generator or motor. Instead, the real power of the generator is controlled

Irfan Alan; Thomas A. Lipo

1994-01-01

155

Dynamic Average-Value Modeling of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind energy conversion system, the rotor of a wound rotor induction generator is connected to the grid via a partial scale ac/ac power electronic converter which controls the rotor frequency and speed. In this research, detailed models of the DFIG wind energy conversion system with Sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulation (SPWM) scheme and Optimal Pulse-Width Modulation (OPWM) scheme for the power electronic converter are developed in detail in PSCAD/EMTDC. As the computer simulation using the detailed models tends to be computationally extensive, time consuming and even sometimes not practical in terms of speed, two modified approaches (switching-function modeling and average-value modeling) are proposed to reduce the simulation execution time. The results demonstrate that the two proposed approaches reduce the simulation execution time while the simulation results remain close to those obtained using the detailed model simulation.

Shahab, Azin

156

A current monitoring system for diagnosing electrical failures in induction motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Induction motors are critical components in industrial processes. A motor failure may yield an unexpected interruption at the industrial plant, with consequences in costs, product quality, and safety. Many of these faulty situations in three phase induction motors have an electrical reason. Among different detection approaches proposed in the literature, those based on stator current monitoring are advantageous due to its non-invasive properties. One of these techniques resorts to spectrum analysis of machine line current. Another non-invasive technique is the Extended Park's Vector Approach, which allows the detection of inter-turn short circuits in the stator winding. This article presents the development of an on-line current monitoring system that uses both techniques for fault detection and diagnosis in the stator and in the rotor. Based on experimental observations and on the knowledge of the electrical machine, a knowledge-based system was constructed in order to carry out the diagnosis task from these estimated data.

Acosta, G. G.; Verucchi, C. J.; Gelso, E. R.

2006-05-01

157

Three-year outcomes in kidney transplant patients randomized to steroid-free immunosuppression or steroid withdrawal, with enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium and cyclosporine: the infinity study.  

PubMed

In a six-month, multicenter, open-label trial, de novo kidney transplant recipients at low immunological risk were randomized to steroid avoidance or steroid withdrawal with IL-2 receptor antibody (IL-2RA) induction, enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS: 2160?mg/day to week 6, 1440?mg/day thereafter), and cyclosporine. Results from a 30-month observational follow-up study are presented. Of 166 patients who completed the core study on treatment, 131 entered the follow-up study (70 steroid avoidance, 61 steroid withdrawal). The primary efficacy endpoint of treatment failure (clinical biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) graft loss, death, or loss to follow-up) occurred in 21.4% (95% CI 11.8-31.0%) of steroid avoidance patients and 16.4% (95% CI 7.1-25.7%) of steroid withdrawal patients by month 36 (P = 0.46). BPAR had occurred in 20.0% and 11.5%, respectively (P = 0.19). The incidence of adverse events with a suspected relation to steroids during months 6-36 was 22.9% versus 37.1% (P = 0.062). By month 36, 32.4% and 51.7% of patients in the steroid avoidance and steroid withdrawal groups, respectively, were receiving oral steroids. In conclusion, IL-2RA induction with early intensified EC-MPS dosing and CNI therapy in de novo kidney transplant patients at low immunological risk may achieve similar three-year efficacy regardless of whether oral steroids are withheld for at least three months. PMID:24829794

Thierry, A; Mourad, G; Büchler, M; Choukroun, G; Toupance, O; Kamar, N; Villemain, F; Le Meur, Y; Legendre, C; Merville, P; Kessler, M; Heng, A-E; Moulin, B; Queré, S; Di Giambattista, F; Lecuyer, A; Touchard, G

2014-01-01

158

Modeling of an inductive adder kicker pulser for a proton radiography system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. An all solid-state prototype kicker pulser for a proton radiography system has been designed and fabricated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Multiple solid state modulators stacked in an inductive-adder configuration are utilized in this kicker pulser design. Each modulator is comprised of multiple metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) which quickly switch the energy storage capacitors across magnetic

L. Wang; G. J. Caporaso; E. G. Cook

2001-01-01

159

A multifrequency magnetic induction tomography system using planar gradiometers: data collection and calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a 14-channel multifrequency magnetic induction tomography system (MF-MIT) for biomedical applications. The excitation field is produced by a single coil and 14 planar gradiometers are used for signal detection. The object under measurement was rotated (16 steps per turn) to obtain a full data set for image reconstruction. We make measurements at frequencies from 50 kHz to 1

J. Rosell-Ferrer; R. Merwa; P. Brunner; H. Scharfetter

2006-01-01

160

Inductively coupled plasma -- Atomic emission spectroscopy glove box assembly system at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inductively coupled plasma\\/atomic emission spectroscopy [ICP\\/AES (ICP)] system for elemental analyses in support of vitrification processing was first installed in 1986. The initial instrument was a Jobin Yvon (JY) Model JY-70 ICP that consisted of sequential and simultaneous spectrometers for analysis of nonradioactive samples as radioactive surrogates. The JY-70 ICP continued supporting nonradioactive testing during the Functional and Checkout

J. H. Marlow; K. M. McCarthy; N. R. Tamul

1999-01-01

161

Principle of a multi-load\\/single converter system for low power induction heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction heating appliances used for cooking generally include two or four inductors and in the most common solution, a converter is connected to each inductor. The main aim of this paper is to suggest a way of building a multi-load\\/single converter system, based on the use of a series-resonant ZVS inverter supplying several resonant loads. The principle can be

F. Forest; E. Laboure; F. Costa; J. Y. Gaspard

2000-01-01

162

Conducted electromagnetic emissions in induction motor drive systems. II. Frequency domain models  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt.I see ibid., vol.13, no.4, p.757-67 (1998). Predicting conducted emissions in pulsewidth modulation (PWM) inverter induction motor drive systems requires various frequency-dependent effects to be considered. A frequency domain method has advantages in such cases compared to a time domain approach. Based on the modal analysis presented in Part I, this paper develops frequency domain models to evaluate the

L. Ran; S. Gokani; J. Clare; K. J. Bradley; C. Christopoulos

1998-01-01

163

14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2014-01-01

164

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2014-01-01

165

14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2012-01-01

166

14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2013-01-01

167

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2010-01-01

168

14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2010-01-01

169

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2011-01-01

170

14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2011-01-01

171

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2013-01-01

172

14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each...

2012-01-01

173

Nonprescription steroids on the Internet.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular Web sites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March 2006 and June 2006 revealed that approximately half of the Web sites advocated their "safe" use, and roughly one third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The Web sites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the Web sites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment, and policy are discussed. PMID:22080724

Clement, Christen L; Marlowe, Douglas B; Patapis, Nicholas S; Festinger, David S; Forman, Robert F

2012-02-01

174

Nonprescription Steroids on the Internet  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular websites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March and June, 2006 revealed that approximately half of the websites advocated their “safe” use, and roughly one-third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The websites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the websites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment and policy are discussed. PMID:22080724

McDonald, Christen L.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Patapis, Nicholas S.; Festinger, David S.; Forman, Robert F.

2008-01-01

175

The cytochrome P450 system of atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): I. Basal properties and induction of P450 1A1 in liver of immature and mature fish.  

PubMed

The major components of the cytochrome P450 (P450) system in liver microsomes of Atlantic salmon were studied using spectrophotometric, catalytic and immunochemical techniques. In juvenile fish sampled during the winter season, high basal activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) were found. The Km for 7-ethoxyresorufin was 0.4 µM, and Vmax 1.23 nmol/min/mg protein in juvenile fish. In mature fish sampled from the same group of fish in December, EROD activity was barely detectable (20-30 pmol/min/mg protein). Treatment with the P450 1A1 inducer ?-naphthoflavone (BNF) resulted in almost 2-fold induction of total P450, and 30-40-fold induction of EROD activity in immature fish. A similar fold increase was seen in mature fish. The differences in EROD activity between untreated and BNF-treated fish, was accompanied by similar differences in a P450 1A1 cross-reacting protein (Mr=58,000 D) in immunochemical studies using rabbit anti-cod P450 1A1 IgG. However, judging from these studies, the levels of P450 1A1-protein in mature salmon far exceeded those accounted for by the measured EROD activity in comparison to immature fish (both before and after BNF-treatment), indicating inhibiting effects of sex steroids on the measured activity. This effect was not seen on 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity. A long-term storage experiment indicated that Atlantic salmon liver microsomes can be stored for 2 years at -80°C in 20% glycerol without losing more than 20-40% of its catalytic activity. PMID:24213730

Goksøyr, A; Larsen, H E

1991-12-01

176

Initial measurements on a prototype inductive adder for the CLIC kicker systems  

E-print Network

The CLIC study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC pre-damping rings and damping rings will produce, through synchrotron radiation, ultra-low emittance beam with high bunch charge. To avoid beam emittance increase, the damping ring kicker systems must provide extremely flat, high-voltage, pulses. The specifications for the extraction kickers of the DRs are particularly demanding: the flattops of the pulses must be ±12.5 kV with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 % (±2.5 V). An inductive adder is a very promising approach to meeting the specifications. To achieve ultra-flat pulses with a fast rise time the output impedance of the inductive adder needs to be well matched to the system impedance. The parasitic circuit elements of the inductive adder have a significant effect upon the output impedance and these values are very difficult to calculate accurately analytically. To predict these paramet...

Holma, Janne

2013-01-01

177

Steroid-Associated Hip Joint Collapse in Bipedal Emus  

PubMed Central

In this study we established a bipedal animal model of steroid-associated hip joint collapse in emus for testing potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of steroid-associated joint collapse in preclinical settings. Five adult male emus were treated with a steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) induction protocol using combination of pulsed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and methylprednisolone (MPS). Additional three emus were used as normal control. Post-induction, emu gait was observed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and blood was collected for routine examination, including testing blood coagulation and lipid metabolism. Emus were sacrificed at week 24 post-induction, bilateral femora were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. Asymmetric limping gait and abnormal MRI signals were found in steroid-treated emus. SAON was found in all emus with a joint collapse incidence of 70%. The percentage of neutrophils (Neut %) and parameters on lipid metabolism significantly increased after induction. Micro-CT revealed structure deterioration of subchondral trabecular bone. Histomorphometry showed larger fat cell fraction and size, thinning of subchondral plate and cartilage layer, smaller osteoblast perimeter percentage and less blood vessels distributed at collapsed region in SAON group as compared with the normal controls. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed poor mineral matrix and more osteo-lacunae outline in the collapsed region in SAON group. The combination of pulsed LPS and MPS developed in the current study was safe and effective to induce SAON and deterioration of subchondral bone in bipedal emus with subsequent femoral head collapse, a typical clinical feature observed in patients under pulsed steroid treatment. In conclusion, bipedal emus could be used as an effective preclinical experimental model to evaluate potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of ON-induced hip joint collapse in patients. PMID:24204675

Zheng, Li-Zhen; Liu, Zhong; Lei, Ming; Peng, Jiang; He, Yi-Xin; Xie, Xin-Hui; Man, Chi-Wai; Huang, Le; Wang, Xin-Luan; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Xiao, De-Ming; Wang, Da-Ping; Chen, Yang; Feng, Jian Q.; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Ge; Qin, Ling

2013-01-01

178

Steroid-associated hip joint collapse in bipedal emus.  

PubMed

In this study we established a bipedal animal model of steroid-associated hip joint collapse in emus for testing potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of steroid-associated joint collapse in preclinical settings. Five adult male emus were treated with a steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) induction protocol using combination of pulsed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and methylprednisolone (MPS). Additional three emus were used as normal control. Post-induction, emu gait was observed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and blood was collected for routine examination, including testing blood coagulation and lipid metabolism. Emus were sacrificed at week 24 post-induction, bilateral femora were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. Asymmetric limping gait and abnormal MRI signals were found in steroid-treated emus. SAON was found in all emus with a joint collapse incidence of 70%. The percentage of neutrophils (Neut %) and parameters on lipid metabolism significantly increased after induction. Micro-CT revealed structure deterioration of subchondral trabecular bone. Histomorphometry showed larger fat cell fraction and size, thinning of subchondral plate and cartilage layer, smaller osteoblast perimeter percentage and less blood vessels distributed at collapsed region in SAON group as compared with the normal controls. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed poor mineral matrix and more osteo-lacunae outline in the collapsed region in SAON group. The combination of pulsed LPS and MPS developed in the current study was safe and effective to induce SAON and deterioration of subchondral bone in bipedal emus with subsequent femoral head collapse, a typical clinical feature observed in patients under pulsed steroid treatment. In conclusion, bipedal emus could be used as an effective preclinical experimental model to evaluate potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of ON-induced hip joint collapse in patients. PMID:24204675

Zheng, Li-Zhen; Liu, Zhong; Lei, Ming; Peng, Jiang; He, Yi-Xin; Xie, Xin-Hui; Man, Chi-Wai; Huang, Le; Wang, Xin-Luan; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Xiao, De-Ming; Wang, Da-Ping; Chen, Yang; Feng, Jian Q; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Ge; Qin, Ling

2013-01-01

179

Laser sampling system for an inductively-coupled atomic emission spectrometer. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A laser sampling system was attached to a Perkin Elmer Optima 3000 inductively-coupled plasma, atomic emission spectrometer that was already installed and operating in the Chemistry and Geochemistry Department at the Colorado School of Mines. The use of the spectrometer has been highly successful. Graduate students and faculty from at least four different departments across the CSM campus have used the instrument. The final report to NSF is appended to this final report. Appendices are included which summarize several projects utilizing this instrument: acquisition of an inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer for the geochemistry program; hydrogen damage susceptibility assessment for high strength steel weldments through advanced hydrogen content analysis, 1996 and 1997 annual reports; and methods for determination of hydrogen distribution in high strength steel welds.

NONE

1998-02-15

180

Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module  

PubMed Central

Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the ease of quantification and experimental manipulation, the zebra finch song system has great potential for use in undergraduate labs. Unfortunately, the underlying costs prohibit use of this system in undergraduate labs. Further, the time required to perform a developmental study renders such undertakings unrealistic within a single academic term. We have overcome these barriers by creating digital tools, including an image library of song nuclei from zebra finch brains. Students using this library replicate and extend a published experiment examining the dose of estradiol required to masculinize the female zebra finch brain. We have used this library for several terms, and students not only obtain significant experimental results but also make gains in understanding content, experimental controls, and inferential statistics (analysis of variance and post hoc tests). We have provided free access to these digital tools at the following website: http://mdcune.psych.ucla.edu/modules/birdsong. PMID:21633071

Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; McCauley, Lisa M. Beck; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran

2011-01-01

181

15?-Hydroxylation of a steroid (13-ethyl-gon-4-en-3,17-dione) by Penicillium raistrickii in an ionic liquid/aqueous biphasic system.  

PubMed

Biphasic processes are used in whole-cell biotransformation to overcome the low water solubility of substrates and products as well as their inhibitory effects on the biocatalyst. Commercially available [NTf(2)]- and [PF(6)]-based ionic liquids (ILs) were used in a biphasic system for the 15?-hydroxylation of 13-ethyl-gon-4-en-3,17-dione by Penicillium raistrickii. With the substrate at 5 g l(-1) and a volume ratio of IL to buffer, buffer pH and cell density at, 1:9, 6.5, 16.8 g(DW) l(-1), respectively, the 15?-hydroxylation of 13-ethyl-gon-4-en-3,17-dione was achieved with a yield of 70 % after 72 h using [BMIm][NTf(2)] in a 50 ml biphasic system. This is compared to a 30 % yield in a monophasic aqueous system. This suggests the potential industrial application of ILs-based biphasic systems for steroid biotransformation. PMID:22829288

Mao, Shuhong; Hu, Xiaojie; Hua, Boyuan; Wang, Na; Liu, Xiaoguang; Lu, Fuping

2012-11-01

182

Steroid receptor expression in the fish inner earvaries with sex, social status, and reproductive state  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gonadal and stress-related steroid hormones are known to influence auditory function across vertebrates but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for steroid-mediated auditory plasticity at the level of the inner ear remain unknown. The presence of steroid receptors in the ear suggests a direct pathway for hormones to act on the peripheral auditory system, but little is known about

Karen P Maruska; Russell D Fernald

2010-01-01

183

An inductively powered telemetry system for temperature, EKG, and activity monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An implant telemetry system for the simultaneous monitoring of temperature, activity, and EKG from small animals, such as rats, was designed with the feature that instead of a battery the system is energized by an inductive field. A 250 kHz resonant coil surrounds the cage (30 x 30 x 20 cm) and provides the approximately 100 microns of power required to operate the implant transmitter while allowing the animal unrestrained movement in the cage. The implant can also be battery operated if desired. RF transmission is in the 8-10 MHz band, which allows the use of a simple, essentially single IC chip, receiver.

Fryer, T. B.; Lund, G. F.; Williams, B. A.

1978-01-01

184

Systemic response to ultraviolet radiation involves induction of leukocytic IL-1? and inflammation in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet radiation is a pervasive stimulus with wide-ranging effects on all living forms. The effects of UV vary from physiological to pathological, depending on levels of exposure, but the immune response at the organismal level is not well understood. We use the zebrafish embryo and larva to study immune responses to UV stress in vivo. UV exposure causes inflammation characterized by systemic induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Leukocytes are an important component of this systemic response and upregulate IL-1? expression proportional to the dose of UV exposure. Increased levels of this proinflammatory cytokine counteract the lethal effect of high doses of UV. PMID:24965777

Banerjee, Sanjita; Leptin, Maria

2014-08-01

185

Extranuclear steroid receptors are essential for steroid hormone actions.  

PubMed

Steroid hormones are produced throughout the phylogenetic tree, from plants to mammals. In the past 40 years, steroid receptors localized to the nucleus have been recognized as being important to mediating steroid action in many organs. This action mainly arises from the regulation of key genes that are important for organ development and function. These include but are not limited to genes influencing the reproductive tract, mammary glands, bone, brain, fat differentiation, pituitary hormone regulation, and metabolic effects in many organs. Unfortunately, steroids also promote the development of hormone-responsive cancers, including breast, uterus, and prostate cancer. It has also been shown that steroid receptors exist outside the nucleus in many organs and cells, with unclear impact for normal development, health, and disease. This review describes the evidence from many laboratories that these receptors exist and function with nuclear receptors to provide the full impact of all steroid hormones. PMID:25587652

Levin, Ellis R

2015-01-14

186

Regulating the immune system: the induction of regulatory T cells in the periphery  

PubMed Central

The immune system has evolved a variety of mechanisms to achieve and maintain tolerance both centrally and in the periphery. Central tolerance is achieved through negative selection of autoreactive T cells, while peripheral tolerance is achieved primarily via three mechanisms: activation-induced cell death, anergy, and the induction of regulatory T cells. Three forms of these regulatory T cells have been described: those that function via the production of the cytokine IL-10 (T regulatory 1 cells), transforming growth factor beta (Th3 cells), and a population of T cells that suppresses proliferation via a cell-contact-dependent mechanism (CD4+CD25+ TR cells). The present review focuses on the third form of peripheral tolerance – the induction of regulatory T cells. The review will address the induction of the three types of regulatory T cells, the mechanisms by which they suppress T-cell responses in the periphery, the role they play in immune homeostasis, and the potential these cells have as therapeutic agents in immune-mediated disease. PMID:15380036

Buckner, Jane H; Ziegler, Steven F

2004-01-01

187

Synthesis of an anaesthetic agent administration system using fuzzy inductive reasoning.  

PubMed

Control of the depth of anaesthesia is a difficult undertaking. Progress has been made during recent years by use of different methodologies and monitoring systems that suggest the safe amount of an anaesthetic drug, considering the condition of an individual patient. Despite these improvements, anaesthetists still rely heavily on personal experience when suggesting the anaesthetic dosage during surgical operations. The purposes of this paper are twofold. One is a description of the design of an anaesthetic agent control system using a qualitative modelling and simulation methodology called Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning (FIR). A comparison with a system developed for the same application using a neural network approach is also presented. The second purpose is a discussion of the problem of separating system-generic from patient-specific behaviour in the context of inductive modeling using the FIR methodology. In order to be useful, the model generated by FIR should reflect upon system-generic behavioural characteristics exclusively, while suppressing patient-specific behavioural patterns. A technique based on combining knowledge obtained from different patients is designed that makes it possible to derive a single model characterizing a specific class of similar patients undergoing similar operations, preserving the common characteristics of all these patients while filtering out the specific behavioural patterns of any one of the individual patients from whom the data were obtained. PMID:8798291

Nebot, A; Cellier, F E; Linkens, D A

1996-05-01

188

Mach 6.5 air induction system design for the Beta 2 two-stage-to-orbit booster vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary, two-dimensional, mixed compression air induction system is designed for the Beta II Two Stage to Orbit booster vehicle to minimize installation losses and efficiently deliver the required airflow. Design concepts, such as an external isentropic compression ramp and a bypass system were developed and evaluated for performance benefits. The design was optimized by maximizing installed propulsion/vehicle system performance. The resulting system design operating characteristics and performance are presented. The air induction system design has significantly lower transonic drag than similar designs and only requires about 1/3 of the bleed extraction. In addition, the design efficiently provides the integrated system required airflow, while maintaining adequate levels of total pressure recovery. The excellent performance of this highly integrated air induction system is essential for the successful completion of the Beta II booster vehicle mission.

Midea, Anthony C.

1991-01-01

189

Mach 6.5 air induction system design for the Beta II Two-Stage-to-Orbit booster vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary, two-dimensional, mixed compression air induction system is designed for the Beta II Two-Stage-to-Orbit booster vehicle to minimize installation losses and efficiently deliver the required airflow. Design concepts, such as an external isentropic compression ramp and a bypass system, are developed and evaluated for performance benefits. The design is optimized by maximizing installed propulsion/vehicle system performance, and the resulting system design operating characteristics and performance are presented. The air induction system design has significantly lower transonic drag than similar designs, and only requires approximately 1/3 of the bleed extraction. In addition, the design efficiently provides the integrated system required airflow, while maintaining adequate levels of total pressure recovery. The excellent performance of this highly integrated air induction system is essential for the successful completion of the Beta II booster vehicle mission.

Midea, Anthony C.

1991-01-01

190

Induction of levansucrase in Bacillus subtilis: an antitermination mechanism negatively controlled by the phosphotransferase system.  

PubMed Central

The target of the induction by sucrose of the levansucrase gene is a transcription terminator (sacRt) located upstream from the coding sequence, sacB. The two-gene locus sacX-sacY (formerly sacS) and the ptsI gene were previously shown to be involved in this induction. ptsI encodes enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system. SacX is strongly homologous to sucrose-specific phosphotransferase system-dependent permeases. SacY is a positive regulator of sacB. Here we show that SacY is probably an antiterminator interacting directly with sacRt, since in Escherichia coli the presence of the sacY gene stimulates the expression of a reporter gene fused downstream from sacRt. Missense mutations affecting sacY were sequenced, and the sacB regulation was studied in isogenic strains carrying these mutations or in vitro-generated mutations affecting sacX, sacY, or ptsI. The phenotype of double mutants suggests a model in which SacX might be a sucrose sensor that would be phosphorylated by the phosphotransferase system and, in this state, could inhibit the SacY antiterminator. Exogenous sucrose, or a mutation inactivating the phosphotransferase system, would dephosphorylate SacX and allow antitermination at sacRt. PMID:2105292

Crutz, A M; Steinmetz, M; Aymerich, S; Richter, R; Le Coq, D

1990-01-01

191

Development of a plasma coating system for induction melting zirconium in a graphite crucible  

SciTech Connect

A plasma coating system has been developed for induction melting zirconium at 1900 C using a graphite crucible. This laminated coating system consists of plasma spraying the following materials onto the graphite: (1) molybdenum or tungsten, (2) a 50% blend by weight of the metal powder and calcia-stabilized zirconium oxide, and (3) calcia-stabilized zirconia followed by painting a final coating of nonstabilized zirconia on top of the plasma-sprayed coating system. Zirconium was melted in argon using both laminating systems without any degradation of the graphite crucible and with only a minimal amount of carbon absorption. This novel approach that is being proposed as an alternative method of melting zirconium alloys offers substantial cost savings over the standard practice of electric arc melting using a consumable electrode.

Bird, E.L.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

1993-05-26

192

High-power MOSFETs and fast-switching thyristors utilized as opening switches for inductive storage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking aim at the utilization of inductive storage systems with their manifold advantages for pulsed power applications (e.g., higher energy density, lower operating voltage), this paper focuses on semiconductor devices applied as opening switches in the inductive storage circuit. The devices investigated in this study, unipolar power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and bipolar thyristors, represent a wide range of power

Sigo Scharnholz; Volker Brommer; Günter Buderer; Emil Spahn

2003-01-01

193

Experimental Research on Induction Systems of an Air-breathing Valveless Pulse Detonation Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An air-breathing valveless PDE model was designed and manufactured, which was made up of subsonic inlet, mixing chamber, ignition chamber, detonation chamber. The total pressure recovery coefficient, flux coefficient and intake resistance with six different induction systems were measured by a semi free subsonic flow field. The proof-of-principle experiments of PDE model with different induction systems were all successfully carried out, by using liquid gasoline-air mixture with low-energy system (total stored energy less than 50 mJ). The measured detonation wave pressure ratio was very close to that of C-J detonation. The air-breathing PDE model was easy to initiate and worked in good condition. The deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) and operation frequency effect on pressure traces were also investigated by experiments. The results indicated the oscillation of pressure peak at P6 enhanced with the operation frequency increased. DDT accomplished before P6 and the DDT distance was about 0.9 m (from the ignitor).

Wang, Zhi-wu; Chen, Xinggu; Zheng, Long-xi; Peng, Changxin; Yan, Chuan-jun

2012-06-01

194

Renal transplantation using belatacept without maintenance steroids or calcineurin inhibitors.  

PubMed

Kidney transplantation remains limited by toxicities of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and steroids. Belatacept is a less toxic CNI alternative, but existing regimens rely on steroids and have higher rejection rates. Experimentally, donor bone marrow and sirolimus promote belatacept's efficacy. To investigate a belatacept-based regimen without CNIs or steroids, we transplanted recipients of live donor kidneys using alemtuzumab induction, monthly belatacept and daily sirolimus. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive unfractionated donor bone marrow. After 1 year, patients were allowed to wean from sirolimus. Patients were followed clinically and with surveillance biopsies. Twenty patients were transplanted, all successfully. Mean creatinine (estimated GFR) was 1.10 ± 0.07 mg/dL (89 ± 3.56 mL/min) and 1.13 ± 0.07 mg/dL (and 88 ± 3.48 mL/min) at 12 and 36 months, respectively. Excellent results were achieved irrespective of bone marrow infusion. Ten patients elected oral immunosuppressant weaning, seven of whom were maintained rejection-free on monotherapy belatacept. Those failing to wean were successfully maintained on belatacept-based regimens supplemented by oral immunosuppression. Seven patients declined immunosuppressant weaning and three patients were denied weaning for associated medical conditions; all remained rejection-free. Belatacept and sirolimus effectively prevent kidney allograft rejection without CNIs or steroids when used following alemtuzumab induction. Selected, immunologically low-risk patients can be maintained solely on once monthly intravenous belatacept. PMID:24684552

Kirk, A D; Guasch, A; Xu, H; Cheeseman, J; Mead, S I; Ghali, A; Mehta, A K; Wu, D; Gebel, H; Bray, R; Horan, J; Kean, L S; Larsen, C P; Pearson, T C

2014-05-01

195

Development of ferrite core applicator system for deep-induction hyperthermia  

SciTech Connect

To achieve deep-induction hyperthermia, a ferrite core applicator system has been developed. The clinical goal is to produce a temperature rise of 7.5 C at 10 cm tissue depth. Deep heating becomes possible by introducing an auxiliary electrode to control an eddy current. The auxiliary electrode has been designed to optimize the eddy current with respect to the magnetic flux density. The optimization was performed by solving the fundamental equation using the finite-element method (FEM). A flexible auxiliary electrode, which can be used for clinical treatments, has been manufactured. Heating tests have been conducted with the new applicator system, which operates at 4.0 MHz. The experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of producing a temperature rise of 7.5 C at 10 cm depth, without heating an overlaying fat layer.

Kotsuka, Youji; Shigematsu, Yasushi [Tokai Univ., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan)] [Tokai Univ., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Hankui, Eiji [NEC Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Resources and Environment Protection Research Labs.] [NEC Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Resources and Environment Protection Research Labs.

1996-10-01

196

Icogenin, a new cytotoxic steroidal saponin isolated from Dracaena draco.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the cytotoxic effect induced by a new natural steroidal saponin, icogenin, on the myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60. Icogenin was found to be a cytotoxic compound IC(50) 2.6+/-0.9microM at 72h, with growth inhibition caused by the induction of apoptosis, as determined by microscopy of nuclear changes and the fragmentation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. PMID:15265493

Hernández, Juan C; León, Francisco; Quintana, José; Estévez, Francisco; Bermejo, Jaime

2004-08-15

197

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies of living systems  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation focuses on the development of methods for stable isotope metabolic tracer studies in living systems using inductively coupled plasma single and dual quadrupole mass spectrometers. Sub-nanogram per gram levels of molybdenum (Mo) from human blood plasma are isolated by the use of anion exchange alumina microcolumns. Million-fold more concentrated spectral and matrix interferences such as sodium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, etc. in the blood constituents are removed from the analyte. The recovery of Mo from the alumina column is 82 {+-} 5% (n = 5). Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is utilized for the quantitative ultra-trace concentration determination of Mo in bovine and human blood samples. The average Mo concentration in reference bovine serum determined by this method is 10.2 {+-} 0.4 ng/g, while the certified value is 11.5 {+-} 1.1 ng/g (95% confidence interval). The Mo concentration of one pool of human blood plasma from two healthy male donors is 0.5 {+-} 0.1 ng/g. The inductively coupled plasma twin quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-TQMS) is used to measure the carbon isotope ratio from non-volatile organic compounds and bio-organic molecules to assess the ability as an alternative analytical method to gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-combustion-IRMS). Trytophan, myoglobin, and {beta}-cyclodextrin are chosen for the study, initial observation of spectral interference of {sup 13}C{sup +} with {sup 12}C{sup 1}H{sup +} comes from the incomplete dissociation of myoglobin and/or {beta}-cyclodextrin.

Luong, E.

1999-05-10

198

Using a Computer Algebra System to Facilitate the Learning of Mathematical Induction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical induction is one of the major proof techniques taught to mathematics students in the first years of their undergraduate degrees. In addition to its importance to mathematics, induction is also required for computer science and related disciplines. However, even if the concepts of a proof by induction are taught and understood, many…

McAndrew, Alasdair

2010-01-01

199

Simulation study for a new magnetic induction tomography coil system with weakly perturbing in conducting background.  

PubMed

Biomedical magnetic induction tomography (MIT) aims to reconstruct the passive electrical properties within biological tissues, especially the electrical conductivity. A weak perturbation inside a conducting object is put in the improved MIT coil system which uses the two-arm Archimedean spiral coil as the excitation coil and the circular coil as the receiver coil. The forward problem for this model is calculated by three-dimension electromagnetic simulation experiments. Under the different simulation conditions, the phase shift of voltage induced in the receiver coil is compared with that for the common model using the circular coil as the excitation and receiver coil. The results show that the sensitivity to the improved model is much higher than that to the common model except for the case that the perturbation appears in y-axis, which effectively confirms the previous conclusions and indicates that the improved coil system has the potential advantage for MIT image reconstruction. PMID:25570161

Ziyi Zhang; Peiguo Liu; Dongming Zhou; Liang Zhang; Hengdong Lei

2014-08-01

200

Bringing GC-MS profiling of steroids into clinical applications.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of steroid biosynthesis and excretion are responsible for the development and prevention of endocrine disorders, such as metabolic syndromes, cancers, and neurodegenerative diseases. Due to their biochemical roles in endocrine system, qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroid hormones in various biological specimens is needed to elucidate their altered expression. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based steroid profiling can reveal the states of metabolites in biological systems and provide comprehensive insights by allowing comparisons between metabolites present in cells, tissues, or organisms. In addition, the activities of many enzymes related to steroid metabolism often lead to hormonal imbalances that have serious consequences, and which are responsible for the progress of hormone-dependent diseases. In contrast to immunoaffinity-based enzyme assays, MS-based methods are more reproducible in quantification. In particular, high-resolution gas chromatographic (GC) separation of steroids with similar chemical structures can be achieved to provide rapid and reproducible results with excellent purification. GC-MS profiling therefore has been widely used for steroid analysis, and offers the basis for techniques that can be applied to large-scale clinical studies. Recent advances in analytical technologies combined with inter-disciplinary strategies, such as physiology and bioinformatics, will help in understanding the biochemical roles of steroid hormones. Therefore, comprehensive analytical protocols in steroid analysis for different research purposes may contribute to the elucidation of complex metabolic processes relevant to steroid function in many endocrine disorders, and in the identification of diagnostic biomarkers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 34: 219-236, 2015. PMID:24965919

Choi, Man Ho; Chung, Bong Chul

2015-04-01

201

The Prototype Inductive Adder With Droop Compensation for the CLIC Kicker Systems  

E-print Network

The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC predamping rings and damping rings (DRs) will produce, through synchrotron radiation, an ultralow emittance beam with high bunch charge. To avoid beam emittance increase, the DR kicker systems must provide extremely flat, high-voltage, pulses. The specifications for the extraction kickers of the DRs are particularly demanding: the flattops of the pulses must be ±12.5 kV with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02% (±2.5 V). An inductive adder is a very promising approach to meeting the specifications. Recently, a five-layer prototype has been built at CERN. Passive analog modulation has been applied to compensate the voltage droop, for example of the pulse capacitors. The output waveforms of the prototype inductive adder have been compared with predictions of the voltage droop and pulse shape. Conclusions are drawn concern...

Holma, J

2014-01-01

202

The microsomal mixed function oxidase system of amphibians and reptiles: components, activities and induction.  

PubMed

This article reviews current research in amphibian and reptilian cytochromes P450, important to the overall understanding of xenobiotic metabolism in the ecosystem and the evolution of P450s. Amphibians and reptilians contain the normal mixed function oxidase system (MFO). In general the MFO content and activities are less than those found in mammals, but only a few of the known activities have been examined in these vertebrate classes. Research to date has focused on two families of cytochromes P450, CYP1 and 2. The isoforms examined catalyze the classic activities but there have been notable absences. The total number of isoforms present and the breadth of substrates metabolized are yet unknown. Induction by foreign compounds (xenobiotics) is lengthier and yields lower levels of induced activity than is typically found in mammals. When these animals are pretreated with 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) and beta-naphthaflavone (BNF), which are known to induce the same isoform in mammals, multiple isoforms are induced with different activities. Phenobarbital-pretreatment in turtles and alligators induces cytochromes P450 and suggestive data indicates induction in the lizard Agama lizard and the newt Pleurodeles waltl. In amphibians and reptiles a CYP2B protein does appear to be present along with constitutive activities associated with the 2 family of cytochromes P450. The markedly different response to classic inducers combined with lower or absent activities alters the view of how amphibians and reptilians respond to xenobiotic challenges. PMID:9972453

Ertl, R P; Winston, G W

1998-11-01

203

Steroids and the blood-brain barrier: therapeutic implications.  

PubMed

Steroids have a wide spectrum of impact, serving as fundamental regulators of nearly every physiological process within the human body. Therapeutic applications of steroids are equally broad, with a diverse range of medications and targets. Within the central nervous system (CNS), steroids influence development, memory, behavior, and disease outcomes. Moreover, steroids are well recognized as to their impact on the vascular endothelium. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) at the level of the brain microvascular endothelium serves as the principle interface between the peripheral circulation and the brain. Steroids have been identified to impact several critical properties of the BBB, including cellular efflux mechanisms, nutrient uptake, and tight junction integrity. Such actions not only influence brain homeostasis but also the delivery of CNS-targeted therapeutics. A greater understanding of the respective steroid-BBB interactions may shed further light on the differential treatment outcomes observed across CNS pathologies. In this chapter, we examine the current therapeutic implications of steroids respective to BBB structure and function, with emphasis on glucocorticoids and estrogens. PMID:25307223

Witt, Ken A; Sandoval, Karin E

2014-01-01

204

A novel variable-frequency three-phase induction motor drive system using only three controlled switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel variable-frequency motor drive system for a three-phase induction machine. In this drive system, the machine is excited by unidirectional stator currents shaped and sequenced such that a rotating air-gap flux is induced so that the machine can operate. Due to the unidirectional nature of the currents, an \\

Brian A. Welchko; Thomas A. Lipo

2001-01-01

205

Induction of systemic resistance by Pseudomonas fluorescens in radish cultivars differing in susceptibility to fusarium wilt, using a novel bioassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas fluorescens-mediated induction of systemic resistance in radish against fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.raphani) was studied in a newly developed bioassay using a rockwool system. In this bioassay the pathogen and bacterium were confirmed to be confined to spatially separate locations on the plant root, throughout the experiment. Pathogen inoculum obtained by mixing peat with microconidia and subsequent incubation

M. Leeman; J. A. van Pelt; F. M. den Ouden; M. Heinsbroek; P. A. H. M. Bakker; B. Schippers

1995-01-01

206

Anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse and performance-enhancing drugs among adolescents.  

PubMed

Adolescents use a wide variety of drugs and supplements, including anabolic steroids, to improve their sports performance and physical appearance. Prevalence rates for steroid use generally range between 4% and 12% among male adolescents and between 0.5% and 2% for female adolescents. Although the short-term health effects of anabolic steroids such as effects on the liver, serum lipids, reproductive and cardiovascular systems, and moods and behavior have been increasingly studied, the long-term health effects are not well known. Steroid users are more likely to be boys, participate in strength-related sports, and use other illicit drugs. The effects of many other potential risk factors have not been fully elucidated, however. Assessment of anabolic steroid abuse includes physical and mental status and laboratory examinations. Steroid cessation, supportive therapy, and adjunctive pharmacotherapies are all employed in treating steroid abuse and dependence. PMID:9894044

Bahrke, M S; Yesalis, C E; Brower, K J

1998-10-01

207

Computer expert system for spectral line simulation and selection in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta, Part B (SAB). This hardcopy text, comprising the main body and an appendix, is accompanied by a disk with programs, data files and a brief manual. The main body discusses purpose, design principle and usage of the computer software for the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) expert system. The appendix provides a brief instruction on the manipulation of the demonstration program and relevant information on accessing the diskette. The computer software of the expert system has been developed in C++ language to simulate spectra and to select analytical lines in ICP-AES. This expert system is based on a comprehensive model of non-LTE ICP-AES, which includes expertise in plasma discharges, analyte ionization and excitation, and spectral-line shapes. The system also provides several databases in which essential elemental and spectral data are stored. A logic reasoning engine is utilized for selection of the best analytical line with a main criterion of minimizing the true detection limit. The system is user-friendly with pop-up menus, an editor for database operation, and a graphic interface for the display of simulated spectra. The system can simulate spectra and predict spectral interferences with good accuracy.

Yang, Pengyuan; Ying, Hai; Wang, Xiaoru; Huang, Benli

1996-07-01

208

Systemic Induction of the Small Antibacterial Compound in the Leaf Exudate During Benzothiadiazole-elicited Systemic Acquired Resistance in Pepper.  

PubMed

Plants protect themselves from diverse potential pathogens by induction of the immune systems such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Most bacterial plant pathogens thrive in the intercellular space (apoplast) of plant tissues and cause symptoms. The apoplastic leaf exudate (LE) is believed to contain nutrients to provide food resource for phytopathogenic bacteria to survive and to bring harmful phytocompounds to protect plants against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we employed the pepper-Xanthomonas axonopodis system to assess whether apoplastic fluid from LE in pepper affects the fitness of X. axonopodis during the induction of SAR. The LE was extracted from pepper leaves 7 days after soil drench-application of a chemical trigger, benzothiadiazole (BTH). Elicitation of plant immunity was confirmed by significant up-regulation of four genes, CaPR1, CaPR4, CaPR9, and CaCHI2, by BTH treatment. Bacterial fitness was evaluated by measuring growth rate during cultivation with LE from BTH- or water-treated leaves. LE from BTH-treatment significantly inhibited bacterial growth when compared to that from the water-treated control. The antibacterial activity of LE from BTH-treated samples was not affected by heating at 100°C for 30 min. Although the antibacterial molecules were not precisely identified, the data suggest that small (less than 5 kDa), heat-stable compound(s) that are present in BTH-induced LE directly attenuate bacterial growth during the elicitation of plant immunity. PMID:25288963

Lee, Boyoung; Park, Yong-Soon; Yi, Hwe-Su; Ryu, Choong-Min

2013-09-01

209

Multiphysics Modeling of an Annular Linear Induction Pump With Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An annular linear induction pump (ALIP) that could be used for circulating liquid-metal coolant in a fission surface power reactor system is modeled in the present work using the computational COMSOL Multiphysics package. The pump is modeled using a two-dimensional, axisymmetric geometry and solved under conditions similar to those used during experimental pump testing. Real, nonlinear, temperature-dependent material properties can be incorporated into the model for both the electrically-conducting working fluid in the pump (NaK-78) and structural components of the pump. The intricate three-phase coil configuration of the pump is implemented in the model to produce an axially-traveling magnetic wave that is qualitatively similar to the measured magnetic wave. The model qualitatively captures the expected feature of a peak in efficiency as a function of flow rate.

Kilbane, J.; Polzin, K. A.

2014-01-01

210

Electrical engineering and nontechnical design variables of multiple inductive loop systems for auditoriums.  

PubMed

This research analyzed both engineering and nontechnical issues involved in the use of Induction Loop Amplification (ILA) devices in auditoriums or large gathering places for hard-of-hearing individuals. A variety of parameters need to be taken into account to determine an optimal shape/configuration for the ILA device. In many cases, an optimal configuration is different from those proposed for classroom use (Ross, 1969; Hodgson, 1986; Clevenger, 1992). Experimental results were obtained for a double-loop configuration in such a setting (a university gymnasium/auditorium in this case). The results demonstrate that a double-loop configuration is a viable possibility for auditorium use. Several variables using this configuration were examined, and experimentation was done. Various implications, including consequent nontechnical issues specific to this application, are discussed as well. Technical and nontechnical aspects of the ILA configuration need to be examined together when designing an optimal system. PMID:15304441

Alterovitz, Gil

2004-01-01

211

Measurement of the target current by inductive probe during laser interaction on terawatt laser system PALS.  

PubMed

Measurements of the return-current flowing through a solid target irradiated with the sub-nanosecond kJ-class Prague Asterix Laser System is reported. A new inductive target probe was developed which allows us measuring the target current derivative in a kA/ns range. The dependences of the target current on the laser pulse energy for cooper, graphite, and polyethylene targets are reported. The experiment shows that the target current is proportional to the deposited laser energy and is strongly affected by the shot-to-shot fluctuations. The corresponding maximum target charge exceeded a value of 10 ?C. A return-current dependence of the electromagnetic pulse produced by the laser-target interaction is presented. PMID:25362393

Cikhardt, J; Krása, J; De Marco, M; Pfeifer, M; Velyhan, A; Krouský, E; Cikhardtová, B; Klír, D; Rezá?, K; Ullschmied, J; Skála, J; Kubeš, P; Kravárik, J

2014-10-01

212

Measurement of the target current by inductive probe during laser interaction on terawatt laser system PALS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the return-current flowing through a solid target irradiated with the sub-nanosecond kJ-class Prague Asterix Laser System is reported. A new inductive target probe was developed which allows us measuring the target current derivative in a kA/ns range. The dependences of the target current on the laser pulse energy for cooper, graphite, and polyethylene targets are reported. The experiment shows that the target current is proportional to the deposited laser energy and is strongly affected by the shot-to-shot fluctuations. The corresponding maximum target charge exceeded a value of 10 ?C. A return-current dependence of the electromagnetic pulse produced by the laser-target interaction is presented.

Cikhardt, J.; Krása, J.; De Marco, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Velyhan, A.; Krouský, E.; Cikhardtová, B.; Klír, D.; ?ezá?, K.; Ullschmied, J.; Skála, J.; Kubeš, P.; Kravárik, J.

2014-10-01

213

Steroids in Athletics: One University's Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an account of one university's experience in conducting an investigation into possible steroid use by student athletes and the development of a program to deal with the problem. Discusses why athletes use steroids and how steroids are taken. Concludes it is likely many steroid-related deaths of athletes go undetected. (Author/ABL)

Lopez, Mike

1990-01-01

214

Research Article Open Access Steroids & Hormonal Science  

E-print Network

Research Article Open Access Steroids & Hormonal Science Hojo et al., J Steroids Hormon Sci 2014, S4 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7536.S4-002 J Steroids Hormon Sci Neurosteroids ISSN:2157-7536 JSHS-estradiol (E2), progesterone (PROG) and estrone [1], which is similar to hippocampus-synthesized steroids

Kawato, Suguru

215

Development of microwave kinetic inductance detectors and their readout system for LiteBIRD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primordial gravitational waves generated by inflation have produced an odd-parity pattern B-mode in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. LiteBIRD (Light satellite for the studies of B-mode polarization and Inflation from cosmic background Radiation Detection) aims at detecting this B-mode polarization precisely. It requires about 2000 detectors capable of detecting a frequency range from 50 GHz to 250 GHz with ultra low noise. Superconducting detectors are suitable for this requirement. We have fabricated and tested microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) and developed a new readout system. We have designed antenna-coupled MKIDs. Quasi-particles are created by incident radiation and are detected as a change of the surface impedance of a superconductor strip. This change of the surface impedance is translated into the change of the resonant frequency of a microwave signal transmitted through the resonator. We also have developed a new readout system for MKIDs. The newly developed readout system is not only able to read out the amplitude and the phase data with the homodyne detection for multi-channels, but also provides a unique feature of tracking the resonant frequency of the target resonator. This mechanism enables us to detect signals with a large dynamic range. We report on the recent R&D status of the developing MKIDs and on the read-out system for LiteBIRD.

Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Ishino, H.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Mima, S.; Okamura, T.; Sato, N.; Tomaru, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Yuasa, T.; Watanabe, H.

2013-12-01

216

Evaluation of a closed loop inductive power transmission system on an awake behaving animal subject.  

PubMed

This paper presents in vivo experimental results for a closed loop wireless power transmission system to implantable devices on an awake behaving animal subject. In this system, wireless power transmission takes place across an inductive link, controlled by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. Induced voltage on the implantable secondary coil is rectified, digitized by a 10-bit analog to digital converter, and transmitted back to the primary via back telemetry. Transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) circuitry were mounted on the back of an adult rat with a nominal distance of ~7 mm between their coils. Our experiments showed that the closed loop system was able to maintain the Rx supply voltage at the designated 3.8 V despite changes in the coils' relative distance and alignment due to animal movements. The Tx power consumption changed between 410 ~ 560 mW in order to deliver 27 mW to the receiver. The open loop system, on the other hand, showed undesired changes in the Rx supply voltage while the Tx power consumption was constant at 660 mW. PMID:22256112

Kiani, Mehdi; Kwon, Ki Yong; Zhang, Fei; Oweiss, Karim; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2011-01-01

217

Steroid Assays in Paediatric Endocrinology  

PubMed Central

Most steroid disorders of the adrenal cortex come to clinical attention in childhood and in order to investigate these problems, there are many challenges to the laboratory which need to be appreciated to a certain extent by clinicians. The analysis of sex steroids in biological fluids from neonates, over adrenarche and puberty present challenges of specificities and concentrations often in small sample sizes. Different reference ranges are also needed for interpretations. For around 40 years, quantitative assays for the steroids and their regulatory peptide hormones have been possible using immunoassay techniques. Problems are recognised and this review aims to summarise the benefits and failings of immunoassays and introduce where tandem mass spectrometry is anticipated to meet the clinical needs for steroid analysis in paediatric endocrine investigations. It is important to keep a dialogue between clinicians and the laboratory, especially when any laboratory result does not make sense in the clinical investigation. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274330

2010-01-01

218

Are Steroids Worth the Risk?  

MedlinePLUS

... body hair. Testosterone levels can also affect how aggressive a person is. Athletes sometimes take anabolic steroids ... balding or hair loss weight gain mood swings aggression problems sleeping high blood pressure greater chance of ...

219

Non-steroidal drug-induced glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Numerous systemically used drugs are involved in drug-induced glaucoma. Most reported cases of non-steroidal drug-induced glaucoma are closed-angle glaucoma (CAG). Indeed, many routinely used drugs that have sympathomimetic or parasympatholytic properties can cause pupillary block CAG in individuals with narrow iridocorneal angle. The resulting acute glaucoma occurs much more commonly unilaterally and only rarely bilaterally. CAG secondary to sulfa drugs is a bilateral non-pupillary block type and is due to forward movement of iris–lens diaphragm, which occurs in individuals with narrow or open iridocorneal angle. A few agents, including antineoplastics, may induce open-angle glaucoma. In conclusion, the majority of cases with glaucoma secondary to non-steroidal medications are of the pupillary block closed-angle type and preventable if the at-risk patients are recognized and treated prophylactically. PMID:21637303

Razeghinejad, M R; Pro, M J; Katz, L J

2011-01-01

220

Bioactive steroidal alkaloids from Buxus macowanii Oliv.  

PubMed

Chemical investigation of the crude methanolic extract of Buxus macowanii resulted in the isolation of five new steroidal alkaloids, 31-hydroxybuxatrienone (1), macowanioxazine (2), 16?-hydroxymacowanitriene (3), macowanitriene (4), macowamine (5), along with five known steroidal bases, Nb-demethylpapillotrienine (6), moenjodaramine (7), irehine (8), buxbodine B (9) and buxmicrophylline C (10). Structures of compounds 1-10 were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 belong to a rare class of Buxus alkaloids having ?(1,2) 9(10?19) abeo triene system. All isolates were evaluated for in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and found to exhibit moderate to weak anti-AChE activity with IC50 values in the range of 10.8-98?M. Compounds 1 and 6 were also moderately active in BACE1 inhibitory assay. PMID:25528196

Lam, Cheuk W; Wakeman, Andrew; James, Abin; Ata, Athar; Gengan, Robert M; Ross, Samir A

2015-03-01

221

Whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates for in-duct and portable ventilation systems.  

PubMed

A novel method for determining whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates attributable to central and portable ventilation/air cleaning systems is described. The method is used to characterize total and air-cleaner-specific particle removal rates during operation of four in-duct air cleaners and two portable air-cleaning devices in a fully instrumented test home. Operation of in-duct and portable air cleaners typically increased particle removal rates over the baseline rates determined in the absence of operating a central fan or an indoor air cleaner. Removal rates of 0.3- to 0.5-microm particles ranged from 1.5 hr(-1) during operation of an in-duct, 5-in. pleated media filter to 7.2 hr(-1) for an in-duct electrostatic air cleaner in comparison to a baseline rate of 0 hr(-1) when the air handler was operating without a filter. Removal rates for total particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) mass concentrations were 0.5 hr(-1) under baseline conditions, 0.5 hr(-1) during operation of three portable ionic air cleaners, 1 hr(-1) for an in-duct 1-in. media filter, 2.4 hr(-1) for a single high-efficiency particle arrestance (HEPA) portable air cleaner, 4.6 hr(-1) for an in-duct 5-in. media filter, 4.7 hr(-1) during operation of five portable HEPA filters, 6.1 hr(-1) for a conventional in-duct electronic air cleaner, and 7.5 hr(-1) for a high efficiency in-duct electrostatic air cleaner. Corresponding whole house clean air delivery rates for PM2.5 attributable to the air cleaner independent of losses within the central ventilation system ranged from 2 m3/min for the conventional media filter to 32 m3/min for the high efficiency in-duct electrostatic device. Except for the portable ionic air cleaner, the devices considered here increased particle removal indoors over baseline deposition rates. PMID:19044163

Macintosh, David L; Myatt, Theodore A; Ludwig, Jerry F; Baker, Brian J; Suh, Helen H; Spengler, John D

2008-11-01

222

Pulsed IR inductive lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed inductive discharge is a new alternative method of pumping active gas laser media. The work presents results of experimental investigations of near, mid, and far IR inductive gas lasers (H2, HF, and CO2) operating at different transitions of atoms and molecules with different mechanisms of formation of inversion population. The excitation systems of a pulsed inductive cylindrical discharge (pulsed inductively coupled plasma) and pulsed RF inductive discharge in the gases are developed. Various gas mixtures including H2, N2, He, Ne, F2, NF3, and SF6 are used. Characteristics of near IR H2 laser radiation are investigated. Maximal pulse peak power of 7?kW is achieved. The possibility of using a pulsed inductive discharge as a new method of pumping HF laser active medium is demonstrated. The pulsed RF inductive CO2 laser is created and a total efficiency of 17% is achieved.

Razhev, A. M.; Churkin, D. S.; Kargapol’tsev, E. S.

2014-07-01

223

Improving power system dynamic behavior through doubly fed induction machines controlled by static converter using fuzzy control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a control strategy applied to a doubly fed induction machine (DFIM) for wind generation in a medium power system. In order to control the active power and reactive power exchange between the machine and the grid, the rotor is fed by a link of AC-DC-AC converters modeled as voltage and controlled current sources, respectively. The control of

Rogério G. de Almeida; J. A. Peças Lopes; J. A. L. Barreiros

2004-01-01

224

Reduced growth and seed set following chemical induction of pathogen defence: does systemic acquired resistance (SAR) incur allocation costs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Although most theories on plant defence assume that costs will result from the production and maintenance of defensive traits, studies on the costs of induced defence against pathogens are comparatively rare. 2 We focus on fitness costs resulting from the chemical induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a rather unspecific form of defence, which can be induced by

Martin Heil; Andrea Hilpert; Werner Kaiser; K. Eduard Linsenmair

2000-01-01

225

Dehydroepiandrosterone: A neuroactive steroid.  

PubMed

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate bound form (DHEAS) are important steroids of mainly adrenal origin. They are produced also in gonads and in the brain. Dehydroepiandrosterone easily crosses the brain-blood barrier and in part is also produced locally in the brain tissue. In the brain, DHEA exerts its effects after conversion to either testosterone and dihydrotestosterone or estradiol via androgen and estrogen receptors present in the most parts of the human brain, through mainly non-genomic mechanisms, or eventually indirectly via the effects of its metabolites formed locally in the brain. As a neuroactive hormone, DHEA in co-operation with other hormones and transmitters significantly affects some aspects of human mood, and modifies some features of human emotions and behavior. It has been reported that its administration can increase feelings of well-being and is useful in ameliorating atypical depressive disorders. It has neuroprotective and antiglucocorticoid activity and modifies immune reactions, and some authors have also reported its role in degenerative brain diseases. Here we present a short overview of the possible actions of dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate in the brain, calling attention to various mechanisms of their action as neurosteroids and to prospects for the knowledge of their role in brain disorders. PMID:24704258

Stárka, Luboslav; Dušková, Michaela; Hill, Martin

2015-01-01

226

Manchester code telemetry system for well logging using quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive resonance.  

PubMed

In this paper, a quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance method is proposed to improve the recovery of MIL-STD-1553 Manchester code with several frequency components from attenuated, distorted, and drifted signal for data telemetry in well logging, and corresponding telemetry system is developed. Required resonant frequency and quality factor are derived, and the quasi-parallel LC resonant circuit is established at the receiving end of the logging cable to suppress the low-pass filtering effect caused by the distributed capacitance of the cable and provide balanced pass for all the three frequency components of the Manchester code. The performance of the method for various encoding frequencies and cable lengths at different bit energy to noise density ratios (Eb/No) have been evaluated in the simulation. A 5 km single-core cable used in on-site well logging and various encoding frequencies were employed to verify the proposed telemetry system in the experiment. Results obtained demonstrate that the telemetry system is feasible and effective to improve the code recovery in terms of anti-attenuation, anti-distortion, and anti-drift performances, decrease the bit error rate, and increase the reachable transmission rate and distance greatly. PMID:25085159

Xu, Lijun; Chen, Jianjun; Cao, Zhang; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

2014-07-01

227

Manchester code telemetry system for well logging using quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance method is proposed to improve the recovery of MIL-STD-1553 Manchester code with several frequency components from attenuated, distorted, and drifted signal for data telemetry in well logging, and corresponding telemetry system is developed. Required resonant frequency and quality factor are derived, and the quasi-parallel LC resonant circuit is established at the receiving end of the logging cable to suppress the low-pass filtering effect caused by the distributed capacitance of the cable and provide balanced pass for all the three frequency components of the Manchester code. The performance of the method for various encoding frequencies and cable lengths at different bit energy to noise density ratios (Eb/No) have been evaluated in the simulation. A 5 km single-core cable used in on-site well logging and various encoding frequencies were employed to verify the proposed telemetry system in the experiment. Results obtained demonstrate that the telemetry system is feasible and effective to improve the code recovery in terms of anti-attenuation, anti-distortion, and anti-drift performances, decrease the bit error rate, and increase the reachable transmission rate and distance greatly.

Xu, Lijun; Chen, Jianjun; Cao, Zhang; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

2014-07-01

228

Steroid Signaling System Responds Differently to Temperature and Hormone Manipulation in the Red-Eared Slider Turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), a Reptile with Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many reptiles, including the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Temperature determines gonadal sex during the middle of embryogenesis, or the temperature-sensitive period (TSP), when gonadal sex is labile to both temperature and hormones – particularly estrogen. The biological actions of steroid hormones are mediated by their receptors as defined here as the classic transcriptional

M. Ramsey; D. Crews

2007-01-01

229

VraSR Two-Component Regulatory System and Its Role in Induction of pbp2 and vraSR Expression by Cell Wall Antimicrobials in Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VraS\\/VraR two-component system (VraSR) regulates transcriptional induction of penicillin-binding protein 2 (encoded by pbp2) by vancomycin in Staphylococcus aureus. We have now defined the vraSR operon and determined that its induction by -lactams as well as by vancomycin is autoregulated. Induction of the pbp2 and vraSR operons by -lactams and related compounds within 1 hour after exposure to the

Shaohui Yin; Robert S. Daum; Susan Boyle-Vavra

2006-01-01

230

Systemic Bud Induction and Retinoic Acid Signaling Underlie Whole Body Regeneration in the Urochordate Botrylloides leachi  

PubMed Central

Regeneration in adult chordates is confined to a few model cases and terminates in restoration of restricted tissues and organs. Here, we study the unique phenomenon of whole body regeneration (WBR) in the colonial urochordate Botrylloides leachi in which an entire adult zooid is restored from a miniscule blood vessel fragment. In contrast to all other documented cases, regeneration is induced systemically in blood vessels. Multiple buds appear simultaneously in newly established regeneration niches within vasculature fragments, stemming from composites of pluripotent blood cells and terminating in one functional zooid. We found that retinoic acid (RA) regulates diverse developmental aspects in WBR. The homologue of the RA receptor and a retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-related gene were expressed specifically in blood cells within regeneration niches and throughout bud development. The addition of RA inhibitors as well as RNA interference knockdown experiments resulted in WBR arrest and bud malformations. The administration of all-trans RA to blood vessel fragments resulted in doubly accelerated regeneration and multibud formation, leading to restored colonies with multiple zooids. The Botrylloides system differs from known regeneration model systems by several fundamental criteria, including epimorphosis without the formation of blastema and the induction of a “multifocal regeneration niche” system. This is also to our knowledge the first documented case of WBR from circulating blood cells that restores not only the soma, but also the germ line. This unique Botrylloides WBR process could serve as a new in vivo model system for regeneration, suggesting that RA signaling may have had ancestral roles in body restoration events. PMID:17341137

Rinkevich, Yuval; Paz, Guy; Rinkevich, Baruch; Reshef, Ram

2007-01-01

231

Epidural steroid injections: update on efficacy, safety, and newer medications for injection.  

PubMed

The best evidence for epidural injection appears to be in the setting of radicular pain with epidural steroid and non--steroid injections more efficacious than non-epidural injections. Studies showed the efficacy of non-particulate steroid to approach the efficacy of particulate steroid and very limited comparisons demonstrated no significant difference between epidural steroid and epidural non--steroid (local anesthetic) injection. Preliminary studies evaluating epidural injection of disease modifying anti--rheumatic drugs such etanercept and tocilizumab showed conflicting results and had significant limitations. Randomized studies support better efficacy of transforaminal injection due to greater incidence of ventral epidural spread of injectate when compared to interlaminar injection. Thus, the transforaminal approach is recommended when unilateral radicular pain is limited to one nerve root. However, the transforaminal approach is associated with greater incidence of central nervous system injury, including paraplegia, attributed to embolization of the particulate steroid. Recent studies showed that non--particulate steroids potentially last as long as particulate steroids. Therefore non-particulate steroid should be used in initial transforaminal epidural injection. Future studies should look into the role of adjunct diagnostic aids, including digital subtraction angiography, in detecting intravascular injection and the ideal site of needle placement, whether it is the safe triangle or the triangle of Kambin. Finally, the role of epidural disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in the management of back pain needs to be better elucidated. PMID:25311951

Kozlov, N; Benzon, H T; Malik, K

2014-10-14

232

Induction therapy in pancreas transplantation.  

PubMed

Induction therapy, the initial high-dose bolus of immunosuppression given perioperatively to transplant patients, is almost ubiquitous in pancreas transplantation. Despite the frequent use, scientific data on the risks and benefits of induction therapy are scarce, especially as it concerns use specifically for pancreas transplantation. Indeed, none of the currently used induction agents are approved as induction therapy for pancreas transplantation, yet potential benefit is largely extrapolated from trials in kidney transplant recipients. This review summarizes which induction therapy agents are available both now and historically, their mechanisms of action, and provides an overview of the published literature describing the use of these agents in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant and solitary pancreas transplant recipients. In summary, there are two multicenter randomized trials, several single-center randomized trials, and many other single-center descriptive reports. Overall, the main benefit of induction therapy is the ability to wean steroids earlier, and the main downside is a higher risk of opportunistic infections. Despite a lack of solid evidence, over 90% of pancreas transplants performed annually in the United States receive some type of induction immunosuppression. PMID:23672537

Niederhaus, Silke V; Kaufman, Dixon B; Odorico, Jon S

2013-07-01

233

14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...is requested. (b) Each cold air induction system opening must...If fuel can accumulate in any air induction system, that system must...systems from entering the engine intake system; and (2) The air inlet ducts must be located...

2010-01-01

234

Green Light for Steroid Hormones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. In his Perspective, D. Russell describes two papers--one in this week's issue of Science (Li et al., p. 398) and one in the 19 April issue of Cell (M. Szekeres et al.)--which report on two enzymes that synthesize steroid hormones cloned from Arabidopsis. These enzymes, DET2 and CPD, are in the biosynthetic pathway for brassinolides, steroids that seem to participate in the regulation of gene expression by light.

David W. Russell (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center;Department of Molecular Genetics)

1996-04-19

235

Effects of voltage unbalance and system harmonics on the performance of doubly fed induction wind generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inherent difficulties in management of electric power in the presence of an increasing demand for more energy, non-conventional loads such as digital appliances, and non-sustainable imported fossil fuels has initiated a multi-folded effort by many countries to restructure the way electric energy is generated, dispatched, and consumed. Smart power grid is the manifestation of many technologies that would eventually transforms the existing power grid into a more flexible, fault resilient, and intelligent system. Integration of distributed renewable energy sources plays a central role in successful implementation of this transformation. Among the renewable options, wind energy harvesting offers superior engineering and economical incentives with minimal environmental impacts. Doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) have turned into a serious contender for wind energy generators due to their flexibility in control of active and reactive power with minimal silicon loss. Significant presence of voltage unbalance and system harmonics in finite inertia transmission lines can potentially undermine the reliability of these wind generators. The present dissertation has investigated the impacts of system unbalances and harmonics on the performance of the DFIG. Our investigation indicates that these effects can result in an undesirable undulation in the rotor shaft which can potentially invoke mechanical resonance, thereby causing catastrophic damages to the installations and the power grid. In order to remedy the above issue, a control solution for real time monitoring of the system unbalance and optimal excitation of the three phase rotor currents in a DFIG is offered. The optimal rotor currents will create appropriate components of the magneto-motive force in the airgap that will actively compensate the undesirable magnetic field originated by the stator windings. Due to the iterative nature of the optimization procedure, field reconstruction method has been incorporated. Field reconstruction method provides high precision results at a considerably faster pace as compared to finite element method. Our results indicate that by just-in-time detection of the system unbalance and employment of the optimal rotor currents damaging torque pulsation can be effectively eliminated. The side effects of the proposed method in changing the core, copper, and silicon losses are minor and well justified when reliability of the wind generation units are considered.

Kiani, Morgan Mozhgan

236

Hypochlorite Oxidation of Select Androgenic Steroids  

EPA Science Inventory

Steroid hormones are vital for regulation of various biological functions including sexual development. Elevated concentrations of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids have been shown to adversely affect normal development in indigenous aqueous species. Androgens and their s...

237

Steroid Injections for the Carpal Tunnel Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Steroid Injections for the Carpal Tunnel Syndrome The full report is titled “Methylprednisolone Injections for the Carpal ... treatment is wrist splinting. When splinting is ineffective, steroid injections are often given and provide relief. However, ...

238

Steroids for Treating Cancer (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Crisp Choosing Safe Toys Checkups: What to Expect Ebola: What to Know Steroids for Treating Cancer KidsHealth > Parents > Cancer Center > Treatment & Prevention > Steroids for Treating Cancer Print A A ...

239

Local Control of Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis.  

E-print Network

??abstractSteroids are essential for vertebrate physiology during pre- and postnatal life. Whereas the skeleton structure of cyclopenta[?]phenanthrene rings is common to all steroid molecules, differences… (more)

J. Hofland (Jan)

2012-01-01

240

STEROID RECEPTOR COACTIVATOR-2 EXPRESSION IN BRAIN AND PHYSICAL ASSOCIATIONS WITH STEROID RECEPTORS  

E-print Network

STEROID RECEPTOR COACTIVATOR-2 EXPRESSION IN BRAIN AND PHYSICAL ASSOCIATIONS WITH STEROID RECEPTORS and cognition. Work from our lab and others has shown that the nuclear receptor coactivators, steroid receptor for coactiva- tors to function with steroid receptors, they must be ex- pressed in the same cells. Indeed, SRC

241

Stability Analysis of a Wind Energy Conversion System Based on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator Fed by a Matrix Converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the performance of a grid-connected wind energy conversion system (WECS), based on a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) fed by a matrix converter (MC), is presented. The MC replaces the back-to-back converters conventionally used to control a DFIG. The MC is operated with close-to-unity power factor at the grid side. Stability issues related to the operation of

Roberto Cardenas; RubÉn Pena; GermÁn Tobar; Jon Clare; Patrick Wheeler; Greg Asher

2009-01-01

242

Induction of Systemic Acquired Resistance in Cotton Foliage Does Not Adversely Affect the Performance of an Entomopathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baculoviral efficacy against lepidopteran larvae is substantially impacted by the host plant. Here, we characterized how baculoviral\\u000a pathogenicity to cotton-fed Heliothis virescens larvae is affected by induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Numerous studies have shown that SAR induced by the\\u000a plant elicitor benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH) can protect against plant pathogens, but reports on the impacts of SAR

Ruth C. Plymale; Gary W. Felton; Kelli Hoover

2007-01-01

243

The Spatial Effects of Antenna Configuration in a Large Area Inductively Coupled Plasma System for Flat Panel Displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial distributions of plasma parameters such as electron density, electron temperature and electric potential were investigated using a commercial simulation software (COMSOLTM) to predict the effects of antenna configuration in a large area inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system for flat panel displays. Nine planar antenna sets were evenly placed above a ceramic window. While the electron density was influenced by both the input current and gas pressure, the electron temperature and electric potential were dominantly affected by the gas pressure.

Seon-Geun, Oh; Young-Jun, Lee; Jae-Hong, Jeon; Jong-Hyeon, Seo; Hee-Hwan, Choe

2014-08-01

244

A cage induction generator using back to back PWM converters for variable speed grid connected wind energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new control scheme of a variable speed grid connected wind energy generation system is presented. The scheme uses a cage induction generator driven by an emulated wind turbine with two back-to-back voltage-fed PWM inverters to interface the generator and the grid. The machine currents are controlled using an indirect vector control technique. The generator torque is controlled to drive

R. Pena; Roberto Cardenas; R. Blasco; G. Asher; J. Clare

2001-01-01

245

Management issues with exogenous steroid therapy  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are extensively used for various inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, but long term use of these agents is not without complications. Almost every GC formulations (e.g. oral, topical, inhaled, etc.) can cause systemic side effects. It can range from minor side effects (e.g. weight gain) to life-threatening effects (e.g. adrenal suppression, sepsis, etc.), which may require immediate intervention. Therefore, the decision to institute steroid therapy always requires careful consideration of the relative risk and benefit in each patient. The objectives of this study are to discuss monitoring of patients on GCs and management of the complications of GCs. PMID:24910822

Patt, Hiren; Bandgar, Tushar; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

2013-01-01

246

Female reproductive steroids and neuronal excitability.  

PubMed

Oestrogen and progesterone have specific receptors in the central nervous system and are able to regulate neuronal development and plasticity, neuronal excitability, mitochondrial energy production, and neurotransmitter synthesis, release, and transport. On neuronal excitability, estradiol and progesterone seem to have an opposite effect, with estradiol being excitatory and progesterone and its derivative allopregnanolone being inhibitory. Estradiol augments N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated glutamate receptor activity, while progesterone enhances gamma-aminobutyric acid-mediated chloride conductance. Sex steroid regulation of the balance of neuroexcitatory and neuroinhibitory activities may have a role in modulating clinical susceptibility to different neurological conditions such as migraine, catamenial epilepsy, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and premenstrual syndrome. PMID:21533709

Finocchi, C; Ferrari, M

2011-05-01

247

Sex Differences and Steroid Hormone Receptors  

E-print Network

Sex Differences and Steroid Hormone Receptors NEUS 501 October 24, 2014 #12;Sexual Differentiation of the Brain · Genetic sex determination · Steroid hormones · Sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior · Steroid hormone receptors and behavior · New genetic approaches to studying sexual differentiation

Alford, Simon

248

Steroidal glycosides from tubers of Ophiopogon japonicus.  

PubMed

A new steroidal saponin, named ophiopogonin E (1), has been isolated from the tubers of Ophiopogon japonicus, along with five known steroidal saponins (2-6). The structure of the new steroidal glycoside was characterized by spectroscopic analysis and acid-catalyzed hydrolysis as pennogenin 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1). PMID:16931432

Cheng, Z-H; Wu, T; Yu, B-Y

2006-09-01

249

Roles of sex and gonadal steroids in mammalian pheromonal communication.  

PubMed

A brain circuit (the accessory olfactory system) that originates in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and includes the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) plus additional forebrain regions mediates many of the effects of pheromones, typically comprised of a variety of non-volatile and volatile compounds, on aspects of social behavior. A second, parallel circuit (the main olfactory system) that originates in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and includes the main olfactory bulb (MOB) has also been shown to detect volatile pheromones from conspecifics. Studies are reviewed that point to specific roles of several different steroids and their water-soluble metabolites as putative pheromones. Other studies are reviewed that establish an adult, 'activational' role of circulating sex hormones along with sex differences in the detection and/or processing of non-steroidal pheromones by these two olfactory circuits. Persisting questions about the role of sex steroids in pheromonal processing are posed for future investigation. PMID:23872334

Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

2013-10-01

250

Conservative management of bilateral pneumoparotitis with sialendoscopy and steroid irrigation.  

PubMed

Pneumoparotitis is a rare condition related to retrograde airflow into the ductal system of the gland and secondary infections. Although counselling is enough in the majority of cases, persistent problems require surgery. Sialendoscopy and ductal irrigation with steroids have never been described as a treatment option. We present the case of a 61-year-old man with recurrent bilateral parotid swellings who had three episodes of sialadenitis on the right side within 2?years. Massage of the glands revealed air bubbles coming out from both papillae. A previous CT scan confirmed the presence of air in both parotid glands. The patient underwent sialendoscopy and irrigation of the ductal system with prednisolone. Ductal irrigation with steroids in three additional sessions led to a significant improvement of symptoms 6?months later. Sialendoscopy and irrigation with steroids could be another treatment modality in cases of recurrent pneumoparotitis avoiding major surgery. PMID:25355739

Konstantinidis, Iordanis; Chatziavramidis, Angelos; Constantinidis, Jannis

2014-01-01

251

Steroid and sterol hormone action  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 21 selections. Some of the titles are: Estrogen control of vitellogenin gene transcription and mRNA stability; Inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor conversion to the DNA-binding state and inhibition of subunit dissociation; Steroid regulation of rRNA synthesis; Messenger RNA-S14 as a model of thyroid hormone action at the hepatocellular level; and The oxysterol receptor.

Spelsberg, T.C.; Kumar, R.

1987-01-01

252

Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete  

PubMed Central

Anabolic steroid use by amateur and professional athletes and body builders is common. Patients may be using these drugs to enhance muscle bulk or athletic performance. An informed family physician comfortable with the topic can counsel patients on risks and side effects. This article reviews findings, offers recommendations, and discusses whether physicians should agree to monitor users. PMID:21229078

Geddes, John A.

1991-01-01

253

Biodegradation of Estrogenic Steroidal Hormones  

E-print Network

and Ha-yun Kim for their love and support made it possible to complete my research work. vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT... Page Conclusion ...................................................................................... 55 IV THE EFFECT OF MICROBIAL ACTIVITY ON STEROIDAL ESTROGEN REMOVAL USING TURKEY LITTER ENRICHMENT CULTURE (TLEC...

Kim, Sang Hyun

2011-10-21

254

Modulation of corneal wound healing after excimer laser keratomileusis using topical mitomycin C and steroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 193-nm excimer laser system was used to create deep stromal ablations in seven New Zealand white rabbits and shallow ablations in three. Eyes were randomized for treatment with topical mitomycin C, steroids, and erythromycin; topical steroids and erythromycin; or topical erythromycin only. All treatment regimens were instituted twice daily for 14 days. All eyes reepithelialized normally within 3 to

J. H. Talamo; S. Gollamudi; W. R. Green; Z. De La Cruz; V. Filatov; W. J. Stark

1991-01-01

255

The Relationship between Glucocorticoid Binding and Tyrosine Aminotransferase Induction in Hepatoma Tissue Culture Cells  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoid receptors with many properties suggesting their involvement in the hormonal induction of tyrosine aminotransferase have been detected in rat hepatoma tissue culture cells. These „specific receptors” approach saturation as the steroid concentrations required for maximal induction are reached. Inducer analogs influence cortisol binding to the specific receptors in direct relation to their influence on cortisol induction. The inducer association with and dissociation from specific receptors are rapid enough to account for the kinetics of induction and deinduction. Chromatographic studies suggest the specific receptors bind unaltered dexamethasone and cortisol. „Nonspecific” association of steroids with the cells also occurs and can be distinguished from specific binding. PMID:4315614

Baxter, John D.; Tomkins, Gordon M.

1970-01-01

256

Energy Efficiency of Corona Discharge Reactor Driven by Inductive Energy Storage System Pulsed Power Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of a pulse corona reactor driven by an inductive energy storage (IES) pulsed power generator are described in this paper with focusing on the influence of streamer-to-glow transition on NO removal efficiency. A pulsed high voltage with a short rise time of under 30 ns is employed to generate streamer discharges homogeneously in whole the discharge region. Fast recovery

K. Takaki; K. Kanesawa; S. Mukaigawa; T. Fujiwara; T. Go

2007-01-01

257

Intelligent fault diagnosis system of induction motor based on transient current signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for induction motor fault diagnosis based on transient signal using component analysis and support vector machine (SVM). The start-up transient current signal is selected as features source for fault diagnosis. Preprocessing of transient current signal is performed using smoothing and discrete wavelet transform to highlight the salient features of faults. In this work, independent component

Achmad Widodo; Bo-Suk Yang; Dong-Sik Gu; Byeong-Keun Choi

2009-01-01

258

A prototype genetic algorithm-enhanced rough set-based rule induction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to learn from empirical data or the observation of a real world and accurately predict future instances is an important feature expected in human. It allows knowledge to be gained by experience and decision rules induced from empirical data. One of the major obstacles in performing rule induction from empirical data is the inconsistency of information about a

Li-Pheng Khoo; Lian-Yin Zhai

2001-01-01

259

Voltage controllable power factor corrector based inductive coupling power transfer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposed a novel inductive coupling power transfer (ICPT) topology to improve the power factor, output voltage regulation and efficiency. The proposed ICPT is mainly constructed by a voltage controllable power factor corrector (VC-PFC) and a LLC resonant circuit. Additionally, the series compensation and series-parallel compensation are used in the primary and the secondary sides of the coupling transformer

Liang-Rui Chen; Hai-Wen Chang; Chia-Hsuan Wu; Chung-Ming Young; Neng-Yi Chu

2012-01-01

260

A comparison of load commutated inverter systems for induction heating and melting applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative analysis of a current source inverter and a voltage source inverter suitable for induction heating and melting applications is presented. Both power supplies considered operate on the principle of load commutation. The comparison is based on criteria such as input power factor, component ratings, maximum and minimum operating frequencies, operation under varying load conditions, inverter starting capability, and

Francis P. Dawson; Praveen Jain

1991-01-01

261

Electrochemical and electrical aspects of low-frequency electromagnetic current induction in biological systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of electromagnetic current induction to modulate cell and tissue behavior via cell surface electrochemistry is considered in detail. It is shown that a strong correlation exists between electrochemical kinetic phenomena at cell surfaces, observable via transient impedance measurements, and the choice of induced current waveform parameters. In particular, the current pathway involving specific adsorption, such as that of

Arthur A. Pilla; Philippe Sechaud; Bruce R. McLeod

1983-01-01

262

The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), beyond xenobiotic metabolism  

PubMed Central

The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) (also known as pregnane X receptor or PXR) is a nuclear hormone receptor activated by a diverse array of endogenous hormones, dietary steroids, pharmaceutical agents, and xenobiotic compounds. SXR has an enlarged, flexible, hydrophobic ligand binding domain (LBD) which is remarkably divergent across mammalian species and SXR exhibits considerable differences in its pharmacology among mammals. The broad response profile of SXR has led to the development of "the steroid and xenobiotic sensor hypothesis". SXR has been established as a xenobiotic sensor that coordinately regulates xenobiotic clearance in the liver and intestine via induction of genes involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. In the past few years, research has revealed new and mostly unsuspected roles for SXR in modulating inflammation, bone homeostasis, vitamin D metabolism, lipid homeostasis, energy homeostasis and cancer. The identification of SXR as a xenobiotic sensor has provided an important tool for studying new mechanisms through which diet, chemical exposure, and environment ultimately impact health and disease. The discovery and pharmacological development of new PXR modulators might represent an interesting and innovative therapeutic approach to combat various diseases. PMID:19240808

Zhou, Changcheng; Verma, Suman; Blumberg, Bruce

2009-01-01

263

The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), beyond xenobiotic metabolism.  

PubMed

The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) (also known as pregnane X receptor or PXR) is a nuclear hormone receptor activated by a diverse array of endogenous hormones, dietary steroids, pharmaceutical agents, and xenobiotic compounds. SXR has an enlarged, flexible, hydrophobic ligand binding domain (LBD) which is remarkably divergent across mammalian species and SXR exhibits considerable differences in its pharmacology among mammals. The broad response profile of SXR has led to the development of "the steroid and xenobiotic sensor hypothesis". SXR has been established as a xenobiotic sensor that coordinately regulates xenobiotic clearance in the liver and intestine via induction of genes involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. In the past few years, research has revealed new and mostly unsuspected roles for SXR in modulating inflammation, bone homeostasis, vitamin D metabolism, lipid homeostasis, energy homeostasis and cancer. The identification of SXR as a xenobiotic sensor has provided an important tool for studying new mechanisms through which diet, chemical exposure, and environment ultimately impact health and disease. The discovery and pharmacological development of new PXR modulators might represent an interesting and innovative therapeutic approach to combat various diseases. PMID:19240808

Zhou, Changcheng; Verma, Suman; Blumberg, Bruce

2009-01-01

264

Generalized hidden-mapping ridge regression, knowledge-leveraged inductive transfer learning for neural networks, fuzzy systems and kernel methods.  

PubMed

Inductive transfer learning has attracted increasing attention for the training of effective model in the target domain by leveraging the information in the source domain. However, most transfer learning methods are developed for a specific model, such as the commonly used support vector machine, which makes the methods applicable only to the adopted models. In this regard, the generalized hidden-mapping ridge regression (GHRR) method is introduced in order to train various types of classical intelligence models, including neural networks, fuzzy logical systems and kernel methods. Furthermore, the knowledge-leverage based transfer learning mechanism is integrated with GHRR to realize the inductive transfer learning method called transfer GHRR (TGHRR). Since the information from the induced knowledge is much clearer and more concise than that from the data in the source domain, it is more convenient to control and balance the similarity and difference of data distributions between the source and target domains. The proposed GHRR and TGHRR algorithms have been evaluated experimentally by performing regression and classification on synthetic and real world datasets. The results demonstrate that the performance of TGHRR is competitive with or even superior to existing state-of-the-art inductive transfer learning algorithms. PMID:24710838

Deng, Zhaohong; Choi, Kup-Sze; Jiang, Yizhang; Wang, Shitong

2014-12-01

265

Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, as well as pulmonary hypertension. Whether such differences are inherent and/or whether sex steroids play a role in modulating these differences is currently under investigation. The purpose of this review is to define sex differences in lung structure/function under normal and specific disease states, with exploration of whether and how sex hormone signaling mechanisms may explain these clinical observations. Focusing on adult age groups, the review addresses the following: 1) inherent sex differences in lung anatomy and physiology; 2) the importance of certain time points in life such as puberty, pregnancy, menopause, and aging; 3) expression and signaling of sex steroid receptors under normal vs. disease states; 4) potential interplay between different sex steroids; 5) the question of whether sex steroids are beneficial or detrimental to the lung; and 6) the potential use of sex steroid signaling as biomarkers and therapeutic avenues in lung diseases. The importance of focusing on sex differences and sex steroids in the lung lies in the increasing incidence of lung diseases in women and the need to address lung diseases across the life span. PMID:22240244

Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.

2012-01-01

266

The Steroid Metabolome of Adrenarche  

PubMed Central

Adrenarche is an endocrine developmental process whereby humans and select nonhuman primates increase adrenal output of a series of steroids, especially dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). The timing of adrenarche varies between primates, but in humans, serum levels of DHEAS are seen to increase around 6 years of age. This phenomenon corresponds with the development and expansion of the zona reticularis (ZR) of the adrenal gland. The physiological phenomena that trigger the onset of adrenarche are still unknown; however the biochemical pathways leading to this event have been elucidated in detail. There are numerous reviews examining the process of adrenarche, most of which, have focused on the changes within the adrenal as well as the phenotypic results of adrenarche. This article reviews the recent and past studies that show the breadth of changes in the circulating steroid metabolome that occurs during the process of adrenarche. PMID:22715193

Rege, Juilee; Rainey, William E.

2014-01-01

267

Alcoholic Hepatitis: Steroids vs. Pentoxifylline  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) remains a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality in the United States and is actually increasing in certain areas of Europe. Thus, there is a pressing need for new therapies/approaches. Major barriers for reducing morbidity, mortality, and costs of care include: lack of translational animal and human studies of new therapies for AH; limited trials of combination therapies in AH targeted at specific disease mechanisms (e.g., gut permeability, cytokines, oxidative stress); limited studies on non-invasive, non-mortality end points; few studies on mechanisms of steroid non-responsiveness; and inadequate prognostic indicators, to name only a few. In spite of these gaps, we have made major advances in understanding mechanisms for AH and appropriate therapies for AH. This article reviews mechanisms and rationale for use of steroids and pentoxifylline in AH and future directions in therapy. PMID:23750115

Smart, Laura; Gobejishvili, Leila; Crittenden, Neil; Barve, Shirish; McClain, Craig J.

2013-01-01

268

Perioperative Stress-Dose Steroids  

PubMed Central

Supraphysiologic corticosteroid doses have routinely been considered the perioperative standard of care over the past six decades for patients on long-term steroid therapy. However, the accumulation of data over this period is beginning to suggest that such a practice may not be necessary. The majority of these studies are retrospective reviews or small prospective cohorts, but there are two small prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trials, one prospective primate trial, and several systematic reviews addressing the issue. Based on this developing evidence, patients on long-term exogenous steroids do not require high-dose perioperative corticosteroids and should instead remain on their baseline maintenance dose, with the understanding that secondary adrenal insufficiency should be considered for unexplained perioperative hypotension in these patients. PMID:24436668

Kelly, Kristin N.; Domajnko, Bastian

2013-01-01

269

Steroid measurement with LC-MS/MS. Application examples in pediatrics.  

PubMed

The correct measurement of steroids is vital for the diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), apparent mineralocorticoid excess, familial hyperaldosteronism type I, primary aldosteronism, Cushing's disease, adrenal insufficiency, etc. Steroid diagnostics also plays an important role in disorders of sexual differentiation and gonadal function. Steroid metabolism is involved in evaluations for precocious puberty, premature thelarche, and polycystic-ovary disease. Finally, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is considered to be one of the major systems involved in fetal programming or in stress regulation. Most methods for the determination of steroid hormones are based on immunoassays, which are rapid and easy to perform. However, the reliability of several steroid immunoassays has been shown to be questionable because of the lack of specificity and of matrix effects. Immunological methods, especially direct assays, often overestimate true steroid values. Patient follow-up over time or between laboratories, as well as longitudinal studies, are therefore extremely difficult. This is of particular importance in pediatrics. Liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is an increasingly common tool in the clinical laboratory and has the potential to overcome the limitations of immunoassays. LC-MS/MS affords the specificity, imprecision, and limits of quantification necessary for the reliable measurement of steroids, expanding diagnostic capabilities. In addition to the high throughput, the method requires minimal sample preparation and a small sample volume. All these features make it an attractive method to use in a clinical setting. Moreover, LC-MS/MS has the advantage that a spectrum of steroid hormones can be measured simultaneously. Steroid profiling is a very effective method for distinguishing almost all steroid-related disorders. It allows accurate diagnosis and is very useful in many clinical situations. Steroid profiles open up new vistas. The applicability for clinical samples and questions in pediatric endocrinology will be discussed. PMID:20036331

Rauh, Manfred

2010-08-01

270

Steroidal saponins from Asparagus acutifolius.  

PubMed

Six new steroidal saponins (1-6) were isolated from the roots of A. acutifolius L., together with a known spirostanol glycoside (7). Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D NMR, FABMS and HRESIMS). Compounds 4-7 demonstrated antifungal activity against the human pathogenic yeasts C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis with MICs values between 12.5 and 100 microg/ml. PMID:17449075

Sautour, Marc; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

2007-10-01

271

Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are mainly used to treat androgen deficiency syndromes and, more recently, catabolic states\\u000a such as AIDS-associated wasting. There is no evidence in the reviewed literature that AAS abuse or dependence develops from\\u000a the therapeutic use of AAS. Conversely, 165 instances of AAS dependence have been reported among weightlifters and bodybuilders\\u000a who, as part of their weight training

Kirk J. Brower

2002-01-01

272

Application of an inductive energy storage pulsed-power generation with POS for a laser system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, capacitive energy storage pulsed-power generators, for example a Blumlein generator, and magnetic compression and capacitive-transfer type of circuits, are used as a power supply of a pulse laser exited by discharge. Their operations are possible by using only a closing switch. Many practical and commercial switches have been already developed. An inductive energy storage pulsed-power generator with storage inductor

Masaki Kamatani; Satoshi Ihara; Saburoh Satoh; Chobei Yamabe

2000-01-01

273

Modulation of Xenobiotic Receptors by Steroids  

PubMed Central

Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate the expression of their target genes. NRs play important roles in many human diseases, including metabolic diseases and cancer, and are therefore a key class of therapeutic targets. Steroids play important roles in regulating nuclear receptors; in addition to being ligands of steroid receptors, steroids (and their metabolites) also regulate other NRs, such as the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor (termed xenobiotic receptors), which participate in steroid metabolism. Xenobiotic receptors have promiscuous ligand-binding properties, and their structurally diverse ligands include steroids and their metabolites. Therefore, steroids, their metabolism and metabolites, xenobiotic receptors, steroid receptors, and the respective signaling pathways they regulate have functional interactions. This review discusses these functional interactions and their implications for activities mediated by steroid receptors and xenobiotic receptors, focusing on steroids that modulate pathways involving the pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. The emphasis of the review is on structure-function studies of xenobiotic receptors bound to steroid ligands. PMID:23884115

Banerjee, Monimoy; Robbins, Delira; Chen, Taosheng

2013-01-01

274

Role of salicylic acid in induction of plant defense system in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA), a plant hormone plays an important role in induction of plant defense against a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses through morphological, physiological and biochemical mechanisms. A series of experiments were carried out to evaluate the biochemical response of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants to a range of SA concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM). Water treated plants were maintained as control. Activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated and amounts of total phenols, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and proteins were calculated after 96 h of treatment. Plants responded very quickly to SA at 1.5 mM and showed higher induction of POD and PPO activities, besides the higher accumulation of phenols, H2O2 and proteins. Plants treated with SA at 2 mM showed phytotoxic symptoms. These results suggest that SA at 1.5 mM is safe to these plants and could be utilized for the induction of plant defense. PMID:22057329

War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; War, Mohd Yousf; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2011-01-01

275

Current concepts in anabolic-androgenic steroids.  

PubMed

Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone. According to surveys and media reports, the legal and illegal use of these drugs is gaining popularity. Testosterone restores sex drive and boosts muscle mass, making it central to 2 of society's rising preoccupations: perfecting the male body and sustaining the male libido. The anabolic effects of AAS have been questioned for decades, but recent scientific investigation of supraphysiologic doses supports the efficacy of these regimens. Testosterone has potent anabolic effects on the musculoskeletal system, including an increase in lean body mass, a dose-related hypertrophy of muscle fibers, and an increase in muscle strength. For athletes requiring speed and strength and men desiring a cosmetic muscle makeover, illegal steroids are a powerful lure, despite the risk of subjective side effects. Recent clinical studies have discovered novel therapeutic uses for physiologic doses of AAS, without any significant adverse effects in the short term. In the wake of important scientific advances during the past decade, the positive and negative effects of AAS warrant reevaluation. Guidelines for the clinical evaluation of AAS users will be presented for sports medicine practitioners. PMID:14977687

Evans, Nick A

2004-03-01

276

In vivo detection of fluctuating brain steroid levels in zebra finches.  

PubMed

This protocol describes a method for the in vivo measurement of steroid hormones in brain circuits of the zebra finch. A guide cannula is surgically implanted into the skull, microdilysate is collected through a microdialysis probe that is inserted into the cannula, and steroid concentrations in the microdialysate are determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In some cases, the steroids measured are derived locally (e.g., neural estrogens in males), whereas in other cases, the steroids measured reflect systemic circulating levels and/or central conversion (e.g., the primary androgen testosterone and the primary glucocorticoid corticosterone). A reverse-microdialysis ("retrodialysis") method that can be used to deliver pharmacological agents into the brain to influence local steroid neurochemistry as well as behavior is also discussed. PMID:25342066

Ikeda, Maaya; Rensel, Michelle A; Schlinger, Barney A; Remage-Healey, Luke

2014-12-01

277

Effects of systemic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on nociception during tail ischaemia and on reperfusion hyperalgesia in rats.  

PubMed

1. We have investigated the effects of five non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on nociception during ischaemia and on reperfusion hyperalgesia in rats. 2. We induced tail ischaemia in conscious rats by applying a tourniquet at the base of the tail until the rats exhibited co-ordinated escape behaviour when we released the tourniquet. 3. We assessed hyperalgesia by measuring the tail flick latency following tail immersion in water at 49 degrees C, before applying and immediately after releasing the tourniquet, and then at 30 min intervals for 2 h. 4. Intraperitoneal injection of NSAIDs prior to applying the tourniquet had no effect on the co-ordinated escape behaviour during ischaemia, nor on tail flick latency in the absence of prior ischaemia. However all the drugs attenuated reperfusion hyperalgesia in a log dose-dependent manner. Doses required to abolish hyperalgesia, were indomethacin 5 mg kg-1, diclofenac sodium 42 mg kg-1, ibuprofen 54 mg kg-1, dipyrone 168 mg kg-1 and paracetamol 170 mg kg-1. 5. We conclude that the mechanisms underlying nociception during ischaemia are not the same as those underlying reperfusion hyperalgesia. Moreover our procedure provides a rapid and more humane method for measuring the antinociceptive potency of NSAIDs. PMID:1559131

Gelgor, L; Butkow, N; Mitchell, D

1992-02-01

278

Exploring the risks associated with induction of labour: a retrospective study using the NIMATS database. Northern Ireland Maternity System.  

PubMed

Induction of labour is a valuable obstetric procedure, providing obstetricians with the means to intervene should the health of the fetus be in jeopardy. Currently the most common reason for induction of labour is prolonged pregnancy, as obstetricians and midwives are concerned about the risks of postmaturity such as stillbirth, intrapartum asphyxia and birth trauma which are often associated with prolonged pregnancy (Lagrew & Freeman 1986). A retrospective comparative study was carried out in a large maternity unit to identify whether or not there was clinical evidence to support a policy of elective induction for post-term pregnancy. Three years' data were extracted from the Northern Ireland Maternity System (NIMATS) by writing new queries to the system. These data on 3262 women who delivered during 1994-96 were analysed to compare the outcomes for women who were induced with women who delivered spontaneously. Although the findings from the study in many instances failed to demonstrate statistical significance between the groups they did however, have important clinical significance. For example, those women who were induced had a 5% higher rate of caesarean section, 17% higher rate of epidural analgesia and on average a greater estimated blood loss. Statistical significance was evident when the apgar scores of the infants were compared; those induced had lower Apgars at 1 minute (7. 78 in the induced group compared to 7.9 in the spontaneous group [P < 0.01]) and at 5 min (8.99 in the induced group compared to 9.05 in the spontaneous group [P < 0.02]). PMID:10672100

Duff, C; Sinclair, M

2000-02-01

279

PLANT SCIENCES: Plant Genes on Steroids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Plants, like animals, use steroid hormones to regulate their development. However, in plants, the steroid hormone is bound by a receptor at the cell surface instead of a nuclear receptor. In a Perspective, Sablowski and Harberd discuss studies published here (He et al.) and elsewhere that provide the missing link between binding of the steroid by its receptor and changes in the expression of target genes.

Robert Sablowski (John Innes Centre;Department of Cell and Developmental Biology); Nicholas P. Harberd (John Innes Centre;Department of Cell and Developmental Biology)

2005-03-11

280

Gamma-irradiation activates biochemical systems: induction of nitrate reductase activity in plant callus.  

PubMed Central

Gamma-irradiation induced high levels of nitrate reductase activity (NADH:nitrate oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.6.1) in callus of Haworthia mirabilis Haworth. Subcultures of gamma-irradiated tissues showed autonomous growth on minimal medium. We were able to mimic the effects of gamma-irradiation by inducing nitrate reductase activity in unirradiated callus with exogenous auxin and kinetin. These results revealed that induction of nitrate reductase activity by gamma-irradiation is mediated through in vitro activation of hormone synthesis in callus cells. PMID:6957874

Pandey, K N; Sabharwal, P S

1982-01-01

281

Inductive Inference: Theory and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a great deal of theoretical and experimental work in computer science on inductive inference systems, that is, systems that try to infer general rules from examples. However, a complete and applicable theory of such systems is still a distant goal. This survey highlights and explains the main ideas that have been developed in the study of inductive

Dana Angluin; Carl H. Smith

1983-01-01

282

The CN2 Induction Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems for inducing concept descriptions from examples are valuable tools for assisting in the task of knowledge acquisition for expert systems. This paper presents a description and empirical evaluation of a new induction system, CN2, designed for the efficient induction of simple, comprehensible production rules in domains where problems of poor description language and\\/or noise may be present. Implementations of

Peter Clark; Tim Niblett

1989-01-01

283

Linear induction accelerator  

DOEpatents

A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

1988-06-21

284

Steroid metabolism by monkey and human spermatozoa  

SciTech Connect

Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from monkey and human were washed and incubated with tritium labelled androgens or estradiol to study the pattern of spermatozoa steroid metabolism. When equal concentrations of steroid substrates were used for incubation, monkey and human spermatozoa showed very similar pattern of steroid conversion. Spermatozoa from both species converted testosterone mainly to androstenedione, but reverse conversion of androstenedione to testosterone was negligible. Estradiol-17 beta was converted mainly to estrone. The close similarity between the spermatozoa of monkey and men in their steroid metabolic pattern indicates that the rhesus monkey could be an useful animal model to study the effect of drugs on the metabolic pattern of human spermatozoa.

Rajalakshmi, M.; Sehgal, A.; Pruthi, J.S.; Anand-Kumar, T.C.

1983-05-01

285

Intra-arterial methylprednisolone for severe steroid refractory gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease.  

PubMed

Acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a significant complication of bone marrow transplantation with approximately half of patients being refractory to steroids. There are numerous second-line systemic immunosuppressive treatments but the overall prognosis is poor and these therapies are associated with high mortality due to infection. An alternative approach to systemic treatment for GVHD is targeted delivery of immunosuppression. We present two pediatric cases with steroid-refractory gastrointestinal GVHD who clinically responded to intra-arterial steroid administration. We also review the literature regarding this treatment modality with a particular emphasis in children. PMID:25053422

Bhuller, Kaljit S; Heran, Manraj K S; Wu, John K M; Rassekh, S Rod

2014-12-01

286

Rational design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of three new alkylating steroidal esters.  

PubMed

Recent studies have indicated that minor functional changes on the steroidal part of complex molecules, comprising of an alkylating moiety and a steroidal congener, lead to compounds with enhanced biological activity. The observed induction of the genotoxic, cytotoxic and antileukemic effects suggest a determinative role of the steroidal congener on the mechanism of action. In order to further elucidate the structural requirements responsible for this, we designed and synthesized a new modified steroid, carrying a 17beta-acetamide substituent and a B lactamic ring, and studied the ability of its esters with three potent nitrogen mustards to induce sister chromatid exchange (SCEs) and to inhibit cell proliferation in normal human lymphocytes in vitro. The role of the steroidal skeleton was clearly stated by the results of the in vitro evaluation of the final compounds, as all three derivatives proved better inducers of SCE (58-102 SCE/cell) and cell division delays (1.18-1.25 PRI) than the simple nitrogen mustards (24-38 SCE/cell and 1.51-1.62 PRI). Obviously, the steroidal module enhances the formation of DNA adducts that cannot be repaired by excision repair enzymes probably through the induction of the interaction of these complex compounds with different base sequences or by disabling the repair mechanisms through the blockage of the enzymes responsible for excision repair. On the other hand, it seems that these compounds also act through a parallel site of action responsible for cell death when their primary binding site becomes saturated, as in higher concentrations two of the derivatives tested showed enhanced cytotoxicity while their ability to induce SCE stabilized. PMID:17105438

Fousteris, M A; Koutsourea, A I; Lagonikakos, N P; Arsenou, E S; Spyridonidou, C; Mourelatos, D; Nikolaropoulos, S S

2006-11-01

287

The mutual inductance calculation between circular and quadrilateral coils at arbitrary attitudes using a rotation matrix for airborne transient electromagnetic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance testing and calibration of airborne transient electromagnetic (ATEM) systems are conducted to obtain the electromagnetic response of ground loops. It is necessary to accurately calculate the mutual inductance between transmitting coils, receiving coils and ground loops to compute the electromagnetic responses. Therefore, based on Neumann's formula and the measured attitudes of the coils, this study deduces the formula for the mutual inductance calculation between circular and quadrilateral coils, circular and circular coils, and quadrilateral and quadrilateral coils using a rotation matrix, and then proposes a method to calculate the mutual inductance between two coils at arbitrary attitudes (roll, pitch, and yaw). Using coil attitude simulated data of an ATEM system, we calculate the mutual inductance of transmitting coils and ground loops at different attitudes, analyze the impact of coil attitudes on mutual inductance, and compare the computational accuracy and speed of the proposed method with those of other methods using the same data. The results show that the relative error of the calculation is smaller and that the speed-up is significant compared to other methods. Moreover, the proposed method is also applicable to the mutual inductance calculation of polygonal and circular coils at arbitrary attitudes and is highly expandable.

Ji, Yanju; Wang, Hongyuan; Lin, Jun; Guan, Shanshan; Feng, Xue; Li, Suyi

2014-12-01

288

Induction of decision trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology for building knowledge-based systems by inductive inference from examples has been demonstrated successfully in several practical applications. This paper summarizes an approach to synthesizing decision trees that has been used in a variety of systems, and it describes one such system, ID3, in detail. Results from recent studies show ways in which the methodology can be modified to

J. Ross Quinlan

1986-01-01

289

Steroidal esters from Ferula sinkiangensis.  

PubMed

Two new steroidal esters with an unusual framework, Sinkiangenorin A and B, a new organic acid glycoside, Sinkiangenorin C, and four known lignin compounds were isolated from the seeds of Ferula sinkiangensis. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All of the isolated compounds were tested against Hela, K562 and AGS human cancer cell lines. Sinkiangenorin C showed cytotoxic activity against AGS cells with an IC50 of 36.9 ?M. PMID:24979220

Li, Guangzhi; Li, Xiaojin; Cao, Li; Shen, Liangang; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Junchi; Zhang, Lijing; Si, Jianyong

2014-09-01

290

Steroids, triterpenoids and molecular oxygen  

PubMed Central

There is a close connection between modern-day biosynthesis of particular triterpenoid biomarkers and presence of molecular oxygen in the environment. Thus, the detection of steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons far back in Earth history has been used to infer the antiquity of oxygenic photosynthesis. This prompts the question: were these compounds produced similarly in the past? In this paper, we address this question with a review of the current state of knowledge surrounding the oxygen requirement for steroid biosynthesis and phylogenetic patterns in the distribution of steroid and triterpenoid biosynthetic pathways. The hopanoid and steroid biosynthetic pathways are very highly conserved within the bacterial and eukaryotic domains, respectively. Bacteriohopanepolyols are produced by a wide range of bacteria, and are methylated in significant abundance at the C2 position by oxygen-producing cyanobacteria. On the other hand, sterol biosynthesis is sparsely distributed in distantly related bacterial taxa and the pathways do not produce the wide range of products that characterize eukaryotes. In particular, evidence for sterol biosynthesis by cyanobacteria appears flawed. Our experiments show that cyanobacterial cultures are easily contaminated by sterol-producing rust fungi, which can be eliminated by treatment with cycloheximide affording sterol-free samples. Sterols are ubiquitous features of eukaryotic membranes, and it appears likely that the initial steps in sterol biosynthesis were present in their modern form in the last common ancestor of eukaryotes. Eleven molecules of O2 are required by four enzymes to produce one molecule of cholesterol. Thermodynamic arguments, optimization of function and parsimony all indicate that an ancestral anaerobic pathway is highly unlikely. The known geological record of molecular fossils, especially steranes and triterpanes, is notable for the limited number of structural motifs that have been observed. With a few exceptions, the carbon skeletons are the same as those found in the lipids of extant organisms and no demonstrably extinct structures have been reported. Furthermore, their patterns of occurrence over billion year time-scales correlate strongly with environments of deposition. Accordingly, biomarkers are excellent indicators of environmental conditions even though the taxonomic affinities of all biomarkers cannot be precisely specified. Biomarkers are ultimately tied to biochemicals with very specific functional properties, and interpretations of the biomarker record will benefit from increased understanding of the biological roles of geologically durable molecules. PMID:16754609

Summons, Roger E; Bradley, Alexander S; Jahnke, Linda L; Waldbauer, Jacob R

2006-01-01

291

JAMA Patient Page: Steroid Injections to Treat Back Pain  

MedlinePLUS

JAMA PATIENT PAGE Steroid Injections to Treat Back Pain Example of epidural steroid injection for back pain SIDE VIEW (CROSS SECTION) Needle inserted using fluoroscopic guidance Steroid Epidural space Dura (membrane covering ...

292

21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308.34...OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds,...

2014-04-01

293

Original article Steroid sulfatase activity in homogenates, microsomes  

E-print Network

Original article Steroid sulfatase activity in homogenates, microsomes and purified Leydig cells (received 12 December 1988, accepted 10 April 1989) Summary - Steroid sulfatase (STS) activity was studied. These data suggest that the steroid sulfatase expressed in total testicular microsomes (activity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

294

The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), beyond xenobiotic metabolism  

E-print Network

The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), beyond xenobiotic metabolism Changcheng Zhou , Suman, Irvine, California, USA (BB) The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) (also known as pregnane X receptor steroids, pharmaceutical agents, and xenobiotic compounds. SXR has an enlarged, flexible, hydrophobic

Blumberg, Bruce

295

21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308.34...OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds,...

2011-04-01

296

21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308.34...OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds,...

2013-04-01

297

21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section 1308.34...OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds,...

2012-04-01

298

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression  

E-print Network

Neural sensitivity to sex steroids predicts individual differences in aggression: implications related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T and neural steroid sensitivity in predicting behaviour, we measured

299

Steroids  

MedlinePLUS

... and Affect Teens The Negative Health Effects of Marijuana Use Legal Consequences of Drug Use Treatment and ... Previous Pause Next The Dangers and Consequences of Marijuana Marijuana News & Headlines Drugged Driving—What You Should ...

300

Role of Sex Steroid Hormones in Bacterial-Host Interactions  

PubMed Central

Sex steroid hormones play important physiological roles in reproductive and nonreproductive tissues, including immune cells. These hormones exert their functions by binding to either specific intracellular receptors that act as ligand-dependent transcription factors or membrane receptors that stimulate several signal transduction pathways. The elevated susceptibility of males to bacterial infections can be related to the usually lower immune responses presented in males as compared to females. This dimorphic sex difference is mainly due to the differential modulation of the immune system by sex steroid hormones through the control of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines expression, as well as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expression and antibody production. Besides, sex hormones can also affect the metabolism, growth, or virulence of pathogenic bacteria. In turn, pathogenic, microbiota, and environmental bacteria are able to metabolize and degrade steroid hormones and their related compounds. All these data suggest that sex steroid hormones play a key role in the modulation of bacterial-host interactions. PMID:23509808

García-Gómez, Elizabeth; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

2013-01-01

301

Simultaneous operation of a polychromator and monochromator on a single-source inductively coupled plasma emission system  

SciTech Connect

Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) is a popular analytical technique for routine multielement analysis. An argon plasma, which is sustained by a radio-frequency field, serves as the atomization excitation source for emission spectroscopy. With commercial instrumentation the atomic emission is monitored with either a direct reader (polychromator) or a scanning monochromator. The topic of this paper is the development of software for simultaneous operation of both the polychromator and the monochromator with a single plasma source. The hardware for this system includes an LSI-11/23 as the main computer with satellite FALCON SBC-11/21 single-board computers for hardware control and data acquisition. TSX-Plus, a multi-user operating system, is being employed for software development on the LSI-11/23.

Keller, J M; Heine, D R; Rogers, C W

1982-01-01

302

Metalloregulation of yeast membrane steroid receptor homologs  

PubMed Central

Zinc is an essential micronutrient that can also be toxic. An intricate mechanism exists in yeast that maintains cellular zinc within an optimal range. The centerpiece of this mechanism is the Zap1p protein, a transcription factor that senses zinc deficiency and responds by up-regulating genes involved in zinc metabolism. A microarray screen for novel Zap1p target genes suggested a role in zinc homeostasis for four homologous yeast genes. The expression of two of these genes, YDR492w and YOL002c, suggested direct regulation by Zap1p, whereas the expression of YOL002c and a third homologous gene, YOL101c, was induced by high zinc. YDR492w and YOL002c are confirmed to be direct Zap1p target genes. The induction of YOL002c and YOL101c by toxic metal ion exposure is shown to be mediated by the Mga2p hypoxia sensor. Furthermore, YOL101c is induced by deletion of the Aft1p iron-responsive transcription factor. These three genes, along with a fourth yeast homolog, YLR023c, have phenotypic effects on zinc tolerance and Zap1p activity. Because of their metalloregulation, zinc-related phenotypes, and highly conserved motifs containing potential metal-binding residues, this family has been renamed the IZH gene family (Implicated in Zinc Homeostasis). Furthermore, these genes are regulated by exogenous fatty acids, suggesting a dual role in lipid metabolism. The IZH genes encode membrane proteins that belong to a ubiquitous protein family that includes hemolysin III and vertebrate membrane steroid receptors. We propose that the IZH genes affect zinc homeostasis either directly or indirectly by altering sterol metabolism. PMID:15060275

Lyons, Thomas J.; Villa, Nancy Y.; Regalla, Lisa M.; Kupchak, Brian R.; Vagstad, Anna; Eide, David J.

2004-01-01

303

Stress, Ethanol, and Neuroactive Steroids  

PubMed Central

Neurosteroids play a crucial role in stress, alcohol dependence and withdrawal, and other physiological and pharmacological actions by potentiating or inhibiting neurotransmitter action. This review article focuses on data showing that the interaction among stress, ethanol, and neuroactive steroids may result in plastic molecular and functional changes of GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission. The molecular mechanisms by which stress-ethanol-neuroactive steroids interactions can produce plastic changes in GABAA receptors have been studied using different experimental models in vivo and in vitro in order to provide useful evidence and new insights into the mechanisms through which acute and chronic ethanol and stress exposure modulate the activity of GABAergic synapses. We show detailed data on a) the effect of acute and chronic stress on peripheral and brain neurosteroid levels and GABAA receptor gene expression and function; b) ethanol-stimulated brain steroidogenesis; c) plasticity of GABAA receptor after acute and chronic ethanol exposure. The implications of these new mechanistic insights to our understanding of the effects of ethanol during stress are also discussed. The understanding of these neurochemical and molecular mechanisms may shed new light on the physiopathology of diseases, such as anxiety, in which GABAergic transmission play a pivotal role. These data may also lead to the need for new anxiolytic, hypnotic and anticonvulsant selective drugs devoid of side effects. PMID:17555824

Biggio, Giovanni; Concas, Alessandra; Follesa, Paolo; Sanna, Enrico; Serra, Mariangela

2010-01-01

304

A novel steroidal alkaloid from Fritillaria shuchengensis.  

PubMed

A novel steroidal alkaloid, suchengbeisine (1), along with two known steroidal alkaloids, N-oxide of verticinone (2) and zhebeininoside (3), were isolated from the bulbs of Fritillaria shuchengensis S. C. Chen et S. F. Yin. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by intensive spectroscopic methods, including NMR, IR, CD and MS. PMID:22886818

Huang, Shuai; Zhou, Xian-li; Wen, Juan; Wang, Cui-juan; Wang, Hong-yan; Shan, Lian-hai; Weng, Jie

2013-07-01

305

Scientists Report Advance in Understanding Steroid Receptors  

Cancer.gov

Scientists have long known that proteins called steroid receptors play a critical role in switching on hormone-responsive genes. What has been unclear is how these proteins orchestrate the process, a key issue in learning to control genes activated by steroid hormones such as androgen and estrogen.

306

Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Steroid Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory and Profile of Mood States to assess psychological characteristics in 72 adolescent males: 24 adolescent athletes who reported steroid use, 24 athletes with no steroid use, and 24 nonathletes. Although some personality variables differentiated between athletes and nonathletes, no personality variables…

Burnett, Kent F.; Kleiman, Mark E.

1994-01-01

307

Steroids Update, Part 1 and Part 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part 1 of this two-part article describes the views of a physician who believes that athletes who want to take steroids are best protected by receiving a prescription and monitoring. Part 2 discusses the more general view of physicians that steroids should not be prescribed but perhaps should be monitored. (MT)

Miller, Calvin; Duda, Marty

1986-01-01

308

Control of a wind park with doubly fed induction generators in support of power system stability in case of grid faults  

E-print Network

Control of a wind park with doubly fed induction generators in support of power system stability connected wind power plants based on conventional technology. 1 Introduction Due to the increasing penetration of wind power the power system operators are revising nowa- days the grid codes in several

309

Transgenic system for conditional induction and rescue of chronic myocardial hibernation provides insights into genomic programs of hibernation  

PubMed Central

A key energy-saving adaptation to chronic hypoxia that enables cardiomyocytes to withstand severe ischemic insults is hibernation, i.e., a reversible arrest of contractile function. Whereas hibernating cardiomyocytes represent the critical reserve of dysfunctional cells that can be potentially rescued, a lack of a suitable animal model has hampered insights on this medically important condition. We developed a transgenic mouse system for conditional induction of long-term hibernation and a system to rescue hibernating cardiomyocytes at will. Via myocardium-specific induction (and, in turn, deinduction) of a VEGF-sequestering soluble receptor, we show that VEGF is indispensable for adjusting the coronary vasculature to match increased oxygen consumption and exploit this finding to generate a hypoperfused heart. Importantly, ensuing ischemia is tunable to a level at which large cohorts of cardiomyocytes are driven to enter a hibernation mode, without cardiac cell death. Relieving the VEGF blockade even months later resulted in rapid revascularization and full recovery of contractile function. Furthermore, we show that left ventricular remodeling associated with hibernation is also fully reversible. The unique opportunity to uncouple hibernation from other ischemic heart phenotypes (e.g., infarction) was used to determine the genetic program of hibernation; uncovering hypoxia-inducible factor target genes associated with metabolic adjustments and induced expression of several cardioprotective genes. Autophagy, specifically self-digestion of mitochondria, was identified as a key prosurvival mechanism in hibernating cardiomyocytes. This system may lend itself for examining the potential utility of treatments to rescue dysfunctional cardiomyocytes and reverse maladaptive remodeling. PMID:18162550

May, Dalit; Gilon, Dan; Djonov, Valentin; Itin, Ahuva; Lazarus, Alon; Gordon, Oren; Rosenberger, Christian; Keshet, Eli

2008-01-01

310

Transgenic system for conditional induction and rescue of chronic myocardial hibernation provides insights into genomic programs of hibernation.  

PubMed

A key energy-saving adaptation to chronic hypoxia that enables cardiomyocytes to withstand severe ischemic insults is hibernation, i.e., a reversible arrest of contractile function. Whereas hibernating cardiomyocytes represent the critical reserve of dysfunctional cells that can be potentially rescued, a lack of a suitable animal model has hampered insights on this medically important condition. We developed a transgenic mouse system for conditional induction of long-term hibernation and a system to rescue hibernating cardiomyocytes at will. Via myocardium-specific induction (and, in turn, deinduction) of a VEGF-sequestering soluble receptor, we show that VEGF is indispensable for adjusting the coronary vasculature to match increased oxygen consumption and exploit this finding to generate a hypoperfused heart. Importantly, ensuing ischemia is tunable to a level at which large cohorts of cardiomyocytes are driven to enter a hibernation mode, without cardiac cell death. Relieving the VEGF blockade even months later resulted in rapid revascularization and full recovery of contractile function. Furthermore, we show that left ventricular remodeling associated with hibernation is also fully reversible. The unique opportunity to uncouple hibernation from other ischemic heart phenotypes (e.g., infarction) was used to determine the genetic program of hibernation; uncovering hypoxia-inducible factor target genes associated with metabolic adjustments and induced expression of several cardioprotective genes. Autophagy, specifically self-digestion of mitochondria, was identified as a key prosurvival mechanism in hibernating cardiomyocytes. This system may lend itself for examining the potential utility of treatments to rescue dysfunctional cardiomyocytes and reverse maladaptive remodeling. PMID:18162550

May, Dalit; Gilon, Dan; Djonov, Valentin; Itin, Ahuva; Lazarus, Alon; Gordon, Oren; Rosenberger, Christian; Keshet, Eli

2008-01-01

311

THE ROLE OF ESTROGEN IN THE INDUCTION AND MODULATION OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHROMATOSUS (SLE) .  

E-print Network

??Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by circulating auto-antibodies to nuclear and cytoplasmic self antigens. A striking female predominance has been… (more)

Feng, Feng

2006-01-01

312

Motion control with induction motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction motors (IM) provide a very wide speed range, mechanically robust and relatively low cost motion control option. An up-to-date summary of the status of induction motor motion control technology is the subject of this paper. The topics which this paper includes are as follows: basic motion control system requirements; field orientation instantaneous torque control principles for induction motors (FO-IM);

ROBERT D. LORENZ; THOMAS A. LIPO; DONALD W. NOVOTNY

1994-01-01

313

Induction of some defense-related genes and oxidative burst is required for the establishment of systemic acquired resistance in Capsicum annuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inoculation of primary pepper leaves with an avirulent strain of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in the non-inoculated, secondary leaves. This SAR response was accompanied by the systemic expression of the defense-related genes, a systemic microoxidative burst generating H2O2, and the systemic induction of both ion-leakage and callose deposition in the non-inoculated, secondary leaves. Some

Sung Chul Lee; Byung Kook Hwang

2005-01-01

314

Steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to hecogenin 3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl(1 ? 4)-?-d-galactopyranoside, two new steroidal saponins were isolated from the aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris L. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence, especially 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques, the structures of the new saponins were established as 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-[{?-d-xylopyranosyl(1 ? 3)}{?-d-galactopyranosyl(1 ? 2)}-?-d-glucopyranosyl (1 ? 4)-?-d-glucopyranosyl]-5?-furost-20(22)-en-12-one-3?,26-diol and 26-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-3-O-[rm[{?-d-xylopyranosyl(1 ? 3){?-d-galactopyranosyl(1 ? 2)}-?-d-glucopyranosyl (1 ? 4)-?-d-glucopyranosyl]-5?-furostan-12-one-3?,22,26-triol.

Gong Wu; Shanhao Jiang; Fuxiang Jiang; Dayuan Zhu; Houming Wu; Shaokai Jiang

1996-01-01

315

Performance of an Annular Linear Induction Pump with Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of performance testing of an annular linear induction pump are presented. The pump electromagnetically pumps liquid metal through a circuit specially designed to allow for quantification of the performance. Testing was conducted over a range of conditions, including frequencies of 33, 36, 39, and 60 Hz, liquid metal temperatures from 125 to 525 C, and input voltages from 5 to 120 V. Pump performance spanned a range of flow rates from roughly 0.16 to 5.7 L/s (2.5 to 90 gpm), and pressure head less than 1 to 90 kPa (less than 0.145 to 13 psi). The maximum efficiency measured during testing was slightly greater than 6%. The efficiency was fairly insensitive to input frequency from 33 to 39 Hz, and was markedly lower at 60 Hz. In addition, the efficiency decreased as the NaK temperature was raised. The performance of the pump operating on a variable frequency drive providing 60 Hz power compared favorably with the same pump operating on 60 Hz power drawn directly from the electrical grid.

Polzin, Kurt A.; Schoenfeld, Michael; Pearson, J. Boise; Webster, Kenneth; Godfroy, Thomas; Adkins, Harold E., Jr.; Werner, James E.

2010-01-01

316

Measurement of Steroid Concentrations in Brain Tissue: Methodological Considerations  

PubMed Central

It is well recognized that steroids are synthesized de novo in the brain (neurosteroids). In addition, steroids circulating in the blood enter the brain. Steroids play numerous roles in the brain, such as influencing neural development, adult neuroplasticity, behavior, neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. In order to understand the regulation and functions of steroids in the brain, it is important to directly measure steroid concentrations in brain tissue. In this brief review, we discuss methods for the detection and quantification of steroids in the brain. We concisely present the major advantages and disadvantages of different technical approaches at various experimental stages: euthanasia, tissue collection, steroid extraction, steroid separation, and steroid measurement. We discuss, among other topics, the potential effects of anesthesia and saline perfusion prior to tissue collection; microdissection via Palkovits punch; solid phase extraction; chromatographic separation of steroids; and immunoassays and mass spectrometry for steroid quantification, particularly the use of mass spectrometry for “steroid profiling.” Finally, we discuss the interpretation of local steroid concentrations, such as comparing steroid levels in brain tissue with those in the circulation (plasma vs. whole blood samples; total vs. free steroid levels). We also present reference values for a variety of steroids in different brain regions of adult rats. This brief review highlights some of the major methodological considerations at multiple experimental stages and provides a broad framework for designing studies that examine local steroid levels in the brain as well as other steroidogenic tissues, such as thymus, breast, and prostate. PMID:22654806

Taves, Matthew D.; Ma, Chunqi; Heimovics, Sarah A.; Saldanha, Colin J.; Soma, Kiran K.

2011-01-01

317

Impact of high preoperative steroid doses on postoperative complications among patients on prolonged preoperative steroid therapy.  

PubMed

Corticosteroids are essential to maintain the organic homeostasis. Steroid, glucocorticoid or its synthetic analog is widely used for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Prolonged steroid therapy is reported to cause the susceptibility to infection, impaired wound healing and psychoneurosis, however whether the quantity of taking the preoperative steroid is associated the postoperative complication is still unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether the steroid dose in patients on prolonged preoperative steroid therapy is associated postoperative morbidity and mortality. Twenty-five patients taking steroid for various illnesses and underwent the surgery under general anesthesia were selected in this study. The mean +/- standard deviation and the median of the steroid dose converted into hydrocortisone (mg/day) were 39.2 +/- 31.0 and 20, respectively. Of 25 cases, postoperative complications were seen in 10 cases. The postoperative complication was severe based on the grade of Clavien and Dindo by ANOVA as the doses of taking steroid increased (p = 0.0171). The grave postoperative complication classified as Clavien and Dindo grade III occurred with 100% sensitivity and 87% specificity for the steroid dose converted into hydrocortisone > 80 mg/day. Preoperative taking the large amount of steroid (> 80 mg/day) could cause a grave complication. More careful selection of the operative procedure might improve the mobidity rate. PMID:24693677

Iguchi, Tomohiro; Shirabe, Ken; Inoue, Kentaro; Ito, Shuhei; Ohga, Takefumi; Nozoe, Tadahiro; Ezaki, Takahiro; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Soejima, Yuji; Ikegami, Toru; Yamashita, Yo-Ichi; Kawanaka, Hirofumi; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Saeki, Hiroshi; Morita, Masaru; Maehara, Yoshihiko

2013-12-01

318

Characterization of a novel non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist  

SciTech Connect

Selective antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are desirable for the treatment of hypercortisolemia associated with Cushing's syndrome, psychic depression, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and glaucoma. NC3327, a non-steroidal small molecule with potent binding affinity to GR (K{sub i} = 13.2 nM), was identified in a high-throughput screening effort. As a full GR antagonist, NC3327 greatly inhibits the dexamethasone (Dex) induction of marker genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, but has a minimal effect on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a GR responsive pro-inflammatory gene. Interestingly, the compound recruits neither coactivators nor corepressors to the GR complex but competes with glucocorticoids for the interaction between GR and a coactivator peptide. Moreover, NC3327 does not trigger GR nuclear translocation, but significantly blocks Dex-induced GR transportation to the nucleus, and thus appears to be a 'competitive' GR antagonist. Therefore, the non-steroidal compound, NC3327, may represent a new class of GR antagonists as potential therapeutics for a variety of cortisol-related endocrine disorders.

Li, Qun-Yi; Zhang, Meng [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China) [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Hallis, Tina M.; DeRosier, Therese A. [Cell Systems Division, Invitrogen, Madison, WI (United States)] [Cell Systems Division, Invitrogen, Madison, WI (United States); Yue, Jian-Min; Ye, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Mais, Dale E. [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China) [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); MPI Research, Mattawan, MI (United States); Wang, Ming-Wei, E-mail: wangmw@mail.shcnc.ac.cn [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China) [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

2010-01-15

319

Anabolic-androgenic steroids. Current issues.  

PubMed

The use of drugs to enhance physical performance has been observed for thousands of years. Today, individuals continue to use a variety of substances, including anabolic-androgenic steroids, in the hope of enhancing their performance and appearance. Rumours persist regarding the incidence of the nonmedical use of anabolic steroids by athletes and nonathletes: however, true estimates are now available based on the results of systematic surveys. Although the vast majority of the athletic community accepts that anabolic steroids enhance performance and appearance, the extent to which this occurs and the factors influencing such effects remain incompletely understood and documented. Refinement of our knowledge of the ergogenic effects of anabolic steroids is not without merit; however, the existing scientific evidence coupled with an overwhelming number of anecdotal accounts argues against devoting significant resources to this area of investigation at present. The short term health effects of anabolic steroids have been increasingly studied and reviewed, and while anabolic steroid use has been associated with several adverse and even fatal effects, the incidence of serious effects thus far reported has been extremely low. The long term effects of anabolic steroid use are generally unknown. Unfortunately, the lack of scientific information on long term health effects has impeded, if not precluded, the formation of effective health education and drug abuse prevention strategies. Consequently, efforts should be expanded in the areas of prevention and education. PMID:7618010

Yesalis, C E; Bahrke, M S

1995-05-01

320

Exploring the role of sex steroids through studies of receptor deficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decades of study have described a number roles fulfilled by the steroid hormones and their respective receptors in sexual\\u000a differentiation and development, reproductive function and behavior, and more recently in the function and maintenance of\\u000a non-reproductive organ systems, such as skeletal muscle, bone and coronary tissues. The biological effects of the steroid\\u000a hormones are believed to be mediated in part

John F. Couse; Kenneth S. Korach

1998-01-01

321

Sensorless performance evaluation of induction motors  

E-print Network

In this thesis, various aspects of induction motor performance are discussed. The importance of the speed-torque curve for an induction motor system and its various applications are emphasized. Difficulties in the presently available methods...

Ahmed, Shehab

2000-01-01

322

Facilitated Intranasal Induction of Mucosal and Systemic Immunity to Mutans Streptococcal Glucosyltransferase Peptide Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Synthetic peptide vaccines which are derived from functional domains of Streptococcus mutans glucosyltransferases (GTF) have been shown to induce protective immunity in Sprague-Dawley rats after subcutaneous injection in the salivary gland region. Since mucosal induction of salivary immunity would be preferable in humans, we explored methods to induce mucosal antibody in the rat to the GTF peptide vaccines HDS and HDS-GLU after intranasal administration. Several methods of facilitation of the immune response were studied: the incorporation of peptides in bioadhesive poly(d,l-lactide-coglycolide) (PLGA) microparticles, the use of monoepitopic (HDS) or diepitopic (HDS-GLU) peptide constructs, or the use of mucosal adjuvants. Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses were not detected after intranasal administration of diepitopic HDS-GLU peptide constructs in alum or after incorporation into PLGA microparticles. However, significant primary and secondary salivary IgA and serum IgG antibody responses to HDS were induced in all rats when cholera holotoxin (CT) or a detoxified mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (R192G LT) were intranasally administered with HDS peptide constructs in PLGA. Coadministration of LT with HDS resulted in predominantly IgG2a responses in the serum, while coadministration with CT resulted in significant IgG1 and IgG2a responses to HDS. Serum IgG antibody, which was induced to the HDS peptide construct by coadministration with these adjuvants, also bound intact mutans streptococcal GTF in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and inhibited its enzymatic activity. Thus, immune responses which are potentially protective for dental caries can be induced to peptide-based GTF vaccines after mucosal administration if combined with the CT or LT R192G mucosal adjuvant. PMID:11447149

Smith, Daniel J.; King, William F.; Barnes, Leigh A.; Trantolo, Debra; Wise, Donald L.; Taubman, Martin A.

2001-01-01

323

Torsional Vibration Effects on Induction Machine Current and Torque Signatures in Gearbox-Based Electromechanical System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring of heavy-duty electromechanical systems is crucial for their preventive maintenance planning. In these systems, the mechanical anomalies such as load troubles, great torque dynamic variations, and torsional oscillations lead to shaft fatigue and aging of other mechanical parts such as bearings and gearboxes. In this paper, a gearbox-based electromechanical system is investigated. Initially, a simple gearbox dynamic model

Shahin Hedayati Kia; Humberto Henao; GÉrard-AndrÉ Capolino

2009-01-01

324

Steroidal saponins from Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk.  

PubMed

Five new steroidal saponins, Pallidifloside D (1), Pallidifloside E (2), Pallidifloside G (5), Pallidifloside H (6) and Pallidifloside I (7), together with seven other steroidal saponins (3, 4, 8-12) were isolated from the dry bulbs of Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk. Their structures were established by spectroscopic techniques (IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR) and chemical means. The isolated steroidal saponins were evaluated for cyotoxic activity against human C6 brain gliomas and Hela cervix cancer cell lines using MTT assays. Compounds 1, 10, 11, 12 showed cytotoxicity against C6 and Hela cell lines with IC(50) values in the range of 5.1-75.8?M. PMID:22450263

Shen, Shuo; Li, Guoyu; Huang, Jian; Chen, Chaojun; Ren, Bu; Lu, Ga; Tan, Yong; Zhang, Jiaxu; Li, Xian; Wang, Jinhui

2012-06-01

325

Comparative Study of Control Strategies for the Doubly Fed Induction Generator in Wind Energy Conversion Systems: A DSP-Based Implementation Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the comparison of three different strategies for the control of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) in wind energy conversion systems (WECS). Three of the most widespread and well-performing control approaches are implemented in an experimental setup based on ad igital signal processor (DSP), namely, vector control, direct torque control, and direct power control. Said control methods

Etienne Tremblay; Sergio Atayde; Ambrish Chandra

2011-01-01

326

In 14th IEEE Symposium on Computer Based Medical Systems (CBMS'2001), 26-27 July, Bethesda A Case for Supplementing Evidence Base Medicine with Inductive  

E-print Network

). A Case for Supplementing Evidence Base Medicine with Inductive Clinical Knowledge: Towards a Technology Technology-- within traditional Evidence Based Medicine systems to derive all-encompassing clinical evidence with additional technology-mediated clinical evidence. 1. Introduction Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is best

Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

327

CLASSIFICATION OF BINARY MASS SPECTRA OF TOXIC COMPOUNDS WITH AN INDUCTIVE EXPERT SYSTEM AND COMPARISON WITH SIMCA CLASS MODELING (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of an inexpensive, inductive rule-building expert system, 1ST CLASS, using the ID3 algorithm was compared to that of SIMCA class modeling in classifying the binary mass spectra of 78 toxic and related compounds. The compressed mass spectra consisted of 17 masses c...

328

Characteristics of Steroid Users in an Adolescent School Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined rates of steroid use among Ontario adolescent students. Findings from 3,892 students revealed that 1.1 percent reported using steroids over past year. Steroid users were significantly more likely to use stimulants, caffeine, and relaxants than were nonsteroid users. Demographically, steroid users were significantly more likely to be male…

Adlaf, Edward M.; Smart, Reginald G.

1992-01-01

329

New therapies in steroid-sensitive and steroid-resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) respond initially to steroid therapy, repeated courses for\\u000a patients with relapses often cause significant steroid toxicity. Patients with frequent relapses who develop steroid dependency\\u000a thus require alternative treatment. The first such options have been considered to be cyclophosphamide or levamisole, although\\u000a the latter is no longer available in many countries. There is

Michael van Husen; Markus J. Kemper

2011-01-01

330

Influence of System Integration and Packaging on Its Inductive Power Link for an Integrated Wireless Neural Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an integrated wireless neural interface based on the Utah electrode array, the implanted electronics are supplied with power through inductive coupling between two coils. This inductive link is affected by conductive and dielectric materials and media surrounding the implant coil. In this study, the influences of the integration of an implant coil on a silicon-based IC and electrode array,

Reid R. Harrison; Florian Solzbacher

2009-01-01

331

Steroid hormone signalling links reproduction to lifespan in dietary-restricted Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Dietary restriction (DR) increases healthspan and longevity in many species, including primates, but it is often accompanied by impaired reproductive function. Whether signals associated with the reproductive system contribute to or are required for DR effects on lifespan has not been established. Here we show that expression of the cytochrome P450 DAF-9/CYP450 and production of the steroid hormone ?(7)-dafachronic acid (DA) are increased in C. elegans subjected to DR. DA signalling through the non-canonical nuclear hormone receptor NHR-8/NHR and the nutrient-responsive kinase let-363/mTOR is essential for DR-mediated longevity. Steroid signalling also affects germline plasticity in response to nutrient deprivation and this is required to achieve lifespan extension. These data demonstrate that steroid signalling links germline physiology to lifespan when nutrients are limited, and establish a central role for let-363/mTOR in integrating signals derived from nutrients and steroid hormones. PMID:25209682

Thondamal, Manjunatha; Witting, Michael; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Aguilaniu, Hugo

2014-01-01

332

Symptomatic Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis After a Single Local Epidural Steroid Injection  

SciTech Connect

Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder that can manifest with progressive neurological deficits. It is characterized by abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated epidural fat commonly associated with the administration of exogenous steroids associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies, and Cushing syndrome (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). Occasionally, spinal epidural lipomatosis may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or in patients with endocrinopathies, primarily in obese individuals (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). However, spinal lumbar epidural lipomatosis resulting from local steroid injection has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 45-year-old diabetic man with claudication that was probably due to symptomatic lumbar spinal lipomatosis resulting from a single local epidural steroid injection.

Tok, Chung Hong, E-mail: rogertok@gmail.com; Kaur, Shaleen [University of Malaya, Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine (Malaysia); Gangi, Afshin [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Radiology B (France)

2011-02-15

333

Symptomatic spinal epidural lipomatosis after a single local epidural steroid injection.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder that can manifest with progressive neurological deficits. It is characterized by abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated epidural fat commonly associated with the administration of exogenous steroids associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies, and Cushing syndrome (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). Occasionally, spinal epidural lipomatosis may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or in patients with endocrinopathies, primarily in obese individuals (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202-211, 2005). However, spinal lumbar epidural lipomatosis resulting from local steroid injection has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 45-year-old diabetic man with claudication that was probably due to symptomatic lumbar spinal lipomatosis resulting from a single local epidural steroid injection. PMID:20859631

Tok, Chung Hong; Kaur, Shaleen; Gangi, Afshin

2011-02-01

334

Dielectric screening of early differentiation patterns in mesenchymal stem cells induced by steroid hormones.  

PubMed

In the framework of this study, target identification and localization of differentiation patterns by means of dielectric spectroscopy is presented. Here, a primary pre-osteoblastic bone marrow-derived MBA-15 cellular system was used to study the variations in the dielectric properties of mesenchymal stem cells while exposed to differentiation regulators. Using the fundamentals of mixed dielectric theories combined with finite numerical tools, the permittivity spectra of MBA-15 cell suspensions have been uniquely analyzed after being activated by steroid hormones to express osteogenic phenotypes. Following the spectral analysis, significant variations were revealed in the dielectric properties of the activated cells in comparison to the untreated populations. Based on the differentiation patterns of MBA-15, the electrical modifications were found to be highly correlated with the activation of specific cellular mechanisms which directly react to the hormonal inductions. In addition, by describing the dielectric dispersion in terms of transfer functions, it is shown that the spectral perturbations are well adapted to variations in the electrical characteristics of the cells. The reported findings vastly emphasize the tight correlation between the cellular and electrical state of the differentiated cells. It therefore emphasizes the vast abilities of impedance-based techniques as potential screening tools for stem cell analysis. PMID:19837013

Ron, Amit; Shur, Irena; Daniel, Ramiz; Singh, Ragini Raj; Fishelson, Nick; Croitoru, Nathan; Benayahu, Dafna; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi

2010-06-01

335

Requirement of Salicylic Acid for the Induction of Systemic Acquired Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that salicylic acid acts as an endogenous signal responsible for inducing systemic acquired resistance in plants. The contribution of salicylic acid to systemic acquired resistance was investigated in transgenic tobacco plants harboring a bacterial gene encoding salicylate hydroxylase, which converts salicylic acid to catechol. Transgenic plants that express salicylate hydroxylase accumulated little or no salicylic acid

Thomas Gaffney; Leslie Friedrich; Bernard Vernooij; David Negrotto; Gordon Nye; Scott Uknes; Eric Ward; Helmut Kessmann; John Ryals

1993-01-01

336

Topical steroid addiction in atopic dermatitis  

PubMed Central

The American Academy of Dermatology published a new guideline regarding topical therapy in atopic dermatitis in May 2014. Although topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome had been mentioned as possible side effects of topical steroids in a 2006 review article in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, no statement was made regarding this illness in the new guidelines. This suggests that there are still controversies regarding this illness. Here, we describe the clinical features of topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome, based on the treatment of many cases of the illness. Because there have been few articles in the medical literature regarding this illness, the description in this article will be of some benefit to better understand the illness and to spur discussion regarding topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome. PMID:25378953

Fukaya, Mototsugu; Sato, Kenji; Sato, Mitsuko; Kimata, Hajime; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Dozono, Haruhiko; Yoshizawa, Jun; Minaguchi, Satoko

2014-01-01

337

Steroids: Pharmacology, Complications, and Practice Delivery Issues  

PubMed Central

Background Since their identification nearly 80 years ago, steroids have played a prominent role in the treatment of many disease states. Many of the clinical roles of steroids are related to their potent antiinflammatory and immune-modulating properties. Methods This review summarizes the basic pharmacology, complications, and practice delivery issues regarding steroids. Results Clinically relevant side effects of steroids are common and problematic. Side effects can occur at a wide range of doses and vary depending on the route of administration. The full spectrum of side effects can be present even in patients taking low doses. Conclusions Practitioners must be aware that these drugs might exacerbate a preexisting condition or present a new medical condition. Knowledge of the clinical implications of prescribing these agents is critical. PMID:24940130

Ericson-Neilsen, William; Kaye, Alan David

2014-01-01

338

Experimental system, and its evaluation for the control of surgically inducted infections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect is reported to design, fabricate, test and evaluate a prototype experimental system for the control of surgically induced infections. The purpose is to provide the cleanest possible environment within a hospital surgery room and eliminate contamination sources that could cause infections during surgery. The system design is described. The system provides for a portable laminar flow clean room, a full bubble helmet system with associated communications and ventilation subsystems for operating room personnel, and surgical gowns that minimize the migration of bacteria. The development test results consisting of portability, laminar flowrate, air flow pattern, electrostatic buildup, noise level, ventilation, human factors, electrical and material compatibility tests are summarized. The conclusions are that the experimental system is effective in reducing the airborne and wound contamination although the helmets and gowns may not be a significant part of this reduction. Definitive conclusions with regard to the infection rate cannot be made at this time.

Tevebaugh, M. D.; Nelson, J. P.

1972-01-01

339

Anabolic-androgenic steroids and aggression in castrated male rats.  

PubMed

The resident-intruder paradigm of aggression was utilized to evaluate the aggression-inducing properties of two anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) compounds, methyltestosterone and stanozolol, in castrated male rats. Three weekly tests were conducted. On test week three, castrated males treated with methyltestosterone displayed levels of aggression equivalent to the levels displayed by castrated males treated with testosterone propionate on most of the behavioral indices assessed. In contrast, treatment with stanozolol at the dose used in this study was completely ineffective in eliciting aggressive behavior. AAS effects on aggression were mirrored by their ability to stimulate seminal vesicle growth. There were no effects of AAS treatments on the levels of locomotor activity. These findings highlight the heterogeneity of AAS effects on the nervous system and behavior and indicate that the psychological effects reported by human AAS abusers may depend upon the distinct chemical structures of the abused steroids. PMID:7824579

Clark, A S; Barber, D M

1994-11-01

340

Steroid-induced Kager's fat pad atrophy.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of Kager's fat pad atrophy and fibrosis in a 60-year-old woman 1 year after a steroid injection for Achilles tendinopathy. There are few published reports of steroid-induced atrophy affecting deeper layers of fat tissue. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to illustrate its features using magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the scientific literature is also presented. PMID:24615408

Taneja, Atul K; Santos, Durval C B

2014-08-01

341

Steroids from the gorgonian Isis hippuris.  

PubMed

Six new polyoxygenated steroids, hippuristerones J-L (1-3), hippuristerols E-F (4, 5), and a novel gorgosteroid, 1alpha,3beta,5beta,11alpha-tetrahydroxygorgostan-6-one (6), were isolated from the gorgonian Isis hippuris. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison of the NMR data with those of related steroids. PMID:16180815

Chao, Chih-Hua; Huang, Long-Fei; Wu, Shwu-Li; Su, Jui-Hsin; Huang, Ho-Cheng; Sheu, Jyh-Horng

2005-09-01

342

Steroid hormones in the development of postpartum depression.  

PubMed

Postpartum depression affects 10-15 % women after childbirth. There is no currently generally accepted theory about the causes and mechanisms of postpartum mental disorders. The principal hypothesis concerns the association with sudden changes in the production of hormones affecting the nervous system of the mother and, on the other hand, with the ability of receptor systems to adapt to these changes. We observed changes in steroidogenesis in the period around spontaneous delivery. We collected three samples of maternal blood. The first sampling was 4 weeks prior to term; the second sampling was after the onset of uterine contractions (the beginning of spontaneous labour); the third sampling was during the third stage of labour (immediately after childbirth). Additionally, we collected mixed umbilical cord blood. The almost complete steroid metabolome was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry followed by RIA for some steroids. Mental changes in women in the peripartum period were observed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The local Ethics Committee approved the study. We found already the changes in androgens levels correlating with postpartum mood disorders four weeks prior to childbirth. The strongest correlations between steroid and postpartum mood change were found in venous blood samples collected from mothers after childbirth and from umbilical cord blood. The main role played testosterone, possibly of maternal origin, and estrogens originating from the fetal compartment. These results suggest that changes in both maternal and fetal steroidogenesis are involved in the development of mental changes in the postpartum period. Descriptions of changes in steroidogenesis in relation to postpartum depression could help clarify the causes of this disease, and changes in some steroid hormones are a promising marker of mental changes in the postpartum period. PMID:24908233

Pa?ízek, A; Mikešová, M; Jirák, R; Hill, M; Koucký, M; Pašková, A; Velíková, M; Adamcová, K; Šrámková, M; Jandíková, H; Dušková, M; Stárka, L

2014-01-01

343

New steroid derivative with hypoglycemic activity  

PubMed Central

Data indicates that some steroid derivatives may induce changes on glucose levels; nevertheless, data are very confusing. Therefore, more pharmacological data are needed to characterize the activity induced by the steroid derivatives on glucose levels. The aim of this study was to synthesize a new steroid derivative for evaluate its hypoglycemic activity. The effects of steroid derivative on glucose concentration were evaluated in a diabetic animal model using glibenclamide and metformin as controls. In addition, the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate was bound to Tc-99m using radioimmunoassay methods, to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the steroid derivative over time. The results showed that the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate induces changes on the glucose levels in similar form than glibenclamide. Other data showed that the biodistribution of Tc-99m-steroid derivativein brain was higher in comparison with spleen, stomach, intestine liver and kidney. In conclusion, the pregnenolone-dihydrotestosterone conjugate exerts hypoglycemic activity and this phenomenon could depend of its physicochemical properties which could be related to the degree of lipophilicity of the steroidderivative.

Lauro, Figueroa-Valverde; Francisco, Díaz-Cedillo; Lenin, Hau-Heredia; Elodia, García-Cervera; Eduardo, Pool-Gómez; Marcela, Rosas-Nexticapa; Bety, Sarabia-Alcocer

2014-01-01

344

Biosynthesis and metabolism of steroids in molluscs.  

PubMed

Molluscs are the second most diverse animal group, they are ecologically important and they are considered excellent indicators of ecosystem health. Some species have been widely used in pollution biomonitoring programs; however, their endocrinology is still poorly known. Despite some studies reporting the presence of (vertebrate-type) steroids in molluscs, information regarding enzymatic pathways involved in steroid synthesis and further catabolism of those steroids is still fragmentary. Regarding steroidogenesis, a number of excellent studies were performed in the 70s using different radio-labelled steroid precursors and detecting the formation of different metabolites. But, since then a long gap of research exist until the late 90s when the 'endocrine disruption' issue raised the need of a better knowledge of mollusc (and invertebrate) endocrinology in order to assess alterations caused by pollutants. Here we summarize past and recent studies dealing with steroid biosynthesis and metabolism in different mollusc species. Most of these studies suggest the involvement of steroids in mollusc reproduction. However, the knowledge is still fragmentary and many questions remain to be answered. PMID:21184826

Fernandes, Denise; Loi, Barbara; Porte, Cinta

2011-11-01

345

Induction of systemic resistance against tobacco mosaic virus by Ningnanmycin in tobacco.  

PubMed

Ningnanmycin (NNM) is an antiviral agent firstly isolated from Strepcomces noursei var·xichangensisn. Studies have shown that NNM promotes PAL, POD and SOD activity and possesses antiviral activity against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). In this study, our results demonstrated that NNM inhibited the polymerization process of TMV coat protein (TMV-CP) in vitro and promoted the systemic accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), which are the markers of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). An non-expressor, pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) that regulates SAR and induces systemic resistance (ISR), increased. In addition, the Jaz3 expression increase showed that NNM also induced ISR. Based on the results of this work and earlier reports, it is suggesting that NNM induces tobacco systemic resistance against TMV via activating multiple plant defense signaling pathways. PMID:24861928

Han, Yongguang; Luo, Yue; Qin, Shirong; Xi, Lei; Wan, Bo; Du, Linfang

2014-05-01

346

SALT segmented primary mirror: commissioning capacitive edge sensing system and performance comparison with inductive sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SAMS (Segment Alignment Measurement System) is a capacitance-based edge sensing solution for the active alignment of the 10m SALT segmented primary mirror. Commissioning and calibrating the system has been an ongoing task in an attempt to counteract the unfavourable response of the sensors to high humidity conditions and high dust levels. Several solutions were implemented and tested including real-time

Sebastien Buous; John Menzies; Hitesh Gajjar

2008-01-01

347

Steroidal saponins from Dioscorea preussii.  

PubMed

Three new steroidal saponins, named diospreussinosides A-C (1-3), along with two known ones (4, 5) were isolated from rhizomes of Dioscorea preussii. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry as (25S)-17?,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), (25S)-17?,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), and (24S,25R)-17?,24,25-trihydroxyspirost-5-en-3?-yl-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)]-?-D-glucopyranoside (3). The spirostane-type skeleton of compound 3 possessing an unusual dihydroxylation pattern on the F-ring is reported for the first time. Cytotoxicity of compounds 2-5 was evaluated against two human colon carcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and HCT 116). PMID:24928475

Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Tanaka, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

2014-09-01

348

Improved direct torque control of an induction generator used in a wind conversion system connected to the grid.  

PubMed

This paper presents a modulated hysteresis direct torque control (MHDTC) applied to an induction generator (IG) used in wind energy conversion systems (WECs) connected to the electrical grid through a back-to-back converter. The principle of this strategy consists in superposing to the torque reference a triangular signal, as in the PWM strategy, with the desired switching frequency. This new modulated reference is compared to the estimated torque by using a hysteresis controller as in the classical direct torque control (DTC). The aim of this new approach is to lead to a constant frequency and low THD in grid current with a unit power factor and a minimum voltage variation despite the wind variation. To highlight the effectiveness of the proposed method, a comparison was made with classical DTC and field oriented control method (FOC). The obtained simulation results, with a variable wind profile, show an adequate dynamic of the conversion system using the proposed method compared to the classical approaches. PMID:23615169

Abdelli, Radia; Rekioua, Djamila; Rekioua, Toufik; Tounzi, Abdelmounaïm

2013-07-01

349

Laboratory Investigation of Ice Formation and Elimination in the Induction System of a Large Twin-engine Cargo Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The icing characteristics, the de-icing rate with hot air, and the effect of impact ice on fuel metering and mixture distribution have been determined in a laboratory investigation of that part of the engine induction system consisting of a three-barrel injection-type carburetor and a supercharger housing with spinner-type fuel injection from an 18-cylinder radial engine used on a large twin-engine cargo airplane. The induction system remained ice-free at carburetor-air temperatures above 36 F regardless of the moisture content of the air. Between carburetor-air temperatures of 32 F and 36 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious throttling ice formed in the carburetor because of expansion cooling of the air; at carburetor-air temperatures below 32 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious impact-ice formations occurred, Spinner-type fuel injection at the entrance to the supercharger and heating of the supercharger-inlet elbow and the guide vanes by the warn oil in the rear engine housing are design features that proved effective in eliminating fuel-evaporation icing and minimized the formation of throttling ice below the carburetor. Air-flow recovery time with fixed throttle was rapidly reduced as the inlet -air wet -bulb temperature was increased to 55 F; further temperature increase produced negligible improvement in recovery time. Larger ice formations and lower icing temperatures increased the time required to restore proper air flow at a given wet-bulb temperature. Impact-ice formations on the entrance screen and the top of the carburetor reduced the over-all fuel-air ratio and increased the spread between the over-all ratio and the fuel-air ratio of the individual cylinders. The normal spread of fuel-air ratio was increased from 0.020 to 0.028 when the left quarter of the entrance screen was blocked in a manner simulating the blocking resulting from ice formations released from upstream duct walls during hot-air de-icing.

Colis, William D

1947-01-01

350

Induction machine  

DOEpatents

A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

Owen, Whitney H. (Ogden, UT)

1980-01-01

351

Development of vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for wide measurement range of number density using a dual-tube inductively coupled plasma light source  

SciTech Connect

A vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for a wide measurement range of atomic number densities is developed. Dual-tube inductively coupled plasma was used as a light source. The probe beam profile was optimized for the target number density range by changing the mass flow rate of the inner and outer tubes. This system was verified using cold xenon gas. As a result, the measurement number density range was extended from the conventional two orders to five orders of magnitude.

Kuwahara, Akira; Matsui, Makoto; Yamagiwa, Yoshiki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-4 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561, Shizuoka (Japan)

2012-12-15

352

Control strategies for enhanced power smoothing in wind energy systems using a flywheel driven by a vector-controlled induction machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel control strategy for power smoothing in wind energy applications, especially those feeding a stand-alone load. The system is based on a vector-controlled induction machine driving a flywheel and addresses the problem of regulating the DC-link system voltage against both input power surges\\/sags from a wind turbine or sudden changes in load demand. The control is

Roberto Cárdenas; Rubén Peña; Greg Asher; Jon Clare

2001-01-01

353

Control system design and small-signal analysis of a phase-shift-controlled series-resonant inverter for induction heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phase-shift-controlled series-resonant inverter operating at zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) is used as the power supply for an induction heating system. This system has two control loops: the phase-shift control loop regulates the output power; and the frequency control loop ensures ZVS for all load conditions. The design and implementation of these control loops are explained. The complete closed-loop small-signal model is

L. Grajales; F. C. Lee

1995-01-01

354

Development of a Native Escherichia coli Induction System for Ionic Liquid Tolerance  

PubMed Central

The ability to solubilize lignocellulose makes certain ionic liquids (ILs) very effective reagents for pretreating biomass prior to its saccharification for biofuel fermentation. However, residual IL in the aqueous sugar solution can inhibit the growth and function of biofuel-producing microorganisms. In E. coli this toxicity can be partially overcome by the heterologous expression of an IL efflux pump encoded by eilA from Enterobacter lignolyticus. In the present work, we used microarray analysis to identify native E. coli IL-inducible promoters and develop control systems for regulating eilA gene expression. Three candidate promoters, PmarR’, PydfO’, and PydfA’, were selected and compared to the IPTG-inducible PlacUV5 system for controlling expression of eilA. The PydfA’ and PmarR’ based systems are as effective as PlacUV5 in their ability to rescue E. coli from typically toxic levels of IL, thereby eliminating the need to use an IPTG-based system for such tolerance engineering. We present a mechanistic model indicating that inducible control systems reduce target gene expression when IL levels are low. Selected-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry analysis revealed that at high IL concentrations EilA protein levels were significantly elevated under the control of PydfA’ and PmarR’ in comparison to the other promoters. Further, in a pooled culture competition designed to determine fitness, the strain containing pPmarR’-eilA outcompeted strains with other promoter constructs, most significantly at IL concentrations above 150 mM. These results indicate that native promoters such as PmarR’ can provide effective systems for regulating the expression of heterologous genes in host engineering and simplify the development of industrially useful strains. PMID:24983352

Frederix, Marijke; Hütter, Kimmo; Leu, Jessica; Batth, Tanveer S.; Turner, William J.; Rüegg, Thomas L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Adams, Paul D.; Keasling, Jay D.; Thelen, Michael P.; Dunlop, Mary J.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

2014-01-01

355

An Improved SF6 System for the FXR Induction Linac Blumlein Switches  

SciTech Connect

The now-mature FXR (Flash X-Ray) radiographic facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will be briefly described with emphasis on its pulsed power system. The heart of each accelerating cell's pulse forming Blumlein is it's sulfur hexafluoride-based triggered closing switch. FXR's recent upgrade to a recirculating SF{sub 6} gas reclamation system will be described and the resulting accelerator performance and reliability improvements documented. This was accompanied by a detailed switch breakdown study on FXR's Test Stand and the recent analysis of the resulting statistics will be shown.

DeHope, W; Kihara, R; Griffin, K L; Ong, M; Ross, T

2007-06-16

356

Effects of centrifugation on gonadal and adrenocortical steroids in rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many endocrine systems are sensitive to external changes in the environment. Both the pituitary adrenal and pituitary gonadal systems are affected by stress including centrifugation stress. The effect of centrifugation on the pituitary gonadal and pituitary adrenocortical systems was examined by measuring the gonadal and adrenal steroids in the plasma and brain following different duration and intensity of centrifugation stress in rats. Two studies were completed and the results are presented. The second study was carried out to describe the developmental changes of brain, plasma and testicular testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in Sprague Dawley rats so that the effect of centrifugation stress on the pituitary gonadal syatem could be better evaluated in future studies.

Kakihana, R.; Butte, J. C.

1980-01-01

357

A methodology for two-dimensional finite element analysis of electromagnetically driven flow in induction stirring systems  

SciTech Connect

Induction technologies are extensively used for stirring of molten metal by means of electromagnetic forces generated from the interaction between induced currents in the melt and the associated magnetic field. The range of applications extends from scrap melting in induction furnaces to melt stirring in continuous casting. This paper describes an integral closure approach for 2-D analysis of electromagnetically driven flow in inductively coupled molten metal using the finite-element method. This methodology, which restricts the solution domain to the conduction region(s), was demonstrated for flows generated by complex electromagnetic fields, and computed results were found to be in good agreement with measurements.

Natarajan, T.T. (USS Steel Technical Center, Monroeville, PA (United States)); El-Kaddah, N. (Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States))

1999-05-01

358

An electromagnetic induction method for monitoring variation in soil moisture in agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of soil water extraction by trees in agroforestry systems has long been seen as an important step towards understanding their functioning. Traditional methods of soil moisture monitoring have been employed with some success but limitations in utilising them efficiently across both time and space have led to restrictions in their use. An

N. I. HuthA; P. L. PoultonA

2007-01-01

359

Induction of systemic acquired resistance in cotton by BTH has a negligible effect on phytophagous insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether or not chemical changes in plants in response to pests (insects and pathogens) are general or specific remains unclear. Some evidence indicates that an induced response (IR) to arthropods via the octadecanoid pathway represents a distinct mechanism from the salicylic acid-based pathway of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to pathogens. To further test this hypothesis, young cotton seedlings were activated

Moshe Inbar; Hamed Doostdar; Dan Gerling; Richard T. Mayer

2001-01-01

360

Intracrine sex steroid synthesis and signaling in human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Peripheral intracrine sex steroid synthesis from adrenal precursors dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate has evolved in humans. We sought to establish if there are differences in intracrine, paracrine, and endocrine regulation of sex steroids by primary cultures of human skin epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Microarray analysis identified multifunctional genes modulated by steroids, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) mRNA expression, enzymatic assay aromatase activity, scratch assay cell migration, immunocytochemistry ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and collagen gel fibroblast contraction. All steroidogenic components were present, although only keratinocytes expressed the organic anion organic anion transporter protein (OATP) 2B1 transporter. Both expressed the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER1). Steroids modulated multifunctional genes, up-regulating genes important in repair and aging [angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), lamin B1 (LMNB1), and thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP)]. DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), DHEA, and 17?-estradiol stimulated keratinocyte and fibroblast migration at early (4 h) and late (24-48 h) time points, suggesting involvement of genomic and nongenomic signaling. Migration was blocked by aromatase and steroid sulfatase (STS) inhibitors confirming intracrine synthesis to estrogen. Testosterone had little effect, implying it is not an intermediate. Steroids stimulated fibroblast contraction but not ?-SMA expression. Mechanical wounding reduced fibroblast aromatase activity but increased keratinocyte activity, amplifying the bioavailability of intracellular estrogen. Cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes provide a biologically relevant model system to investigate the complex pathways of sex steroid intracrinology in human skin.-Pomari, E., Valle, L. D., Pertile, P., Colombo, L., and Thornton, M. J. Intracrine sex steroid synthesis and signaling in human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. PMID:25392269

Pomari, Elena; Valle, Luisa Dalla; Pertile, Paolo; Colombo, Lorenzo; Thornton, M Julie

2015-02-01

361

Regulation of brain microglia by female gonadal steroids.  

PubMed

Microglial cells are the primary mediators of the CNS immune defense system and crucial for shaping inflammatory responses. They represent a highly dynamic cell population which is constantly moving and surveying their environment. Acute brain damage causes a local attraction and activation of this immune cell type which involves neuron-to-glia and glia-to-glia interactions. The prevailing view attributes microglia a "negative" role such as defense and debris elimination. More topical studies also suggest a protective and "positive" regulatory function. Estrogens and progestins exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in the CNS in acute and chronic brain diseases. Recent work revealed that microglial cells express subsets of classical and non-classical estrogen and progesterone receptors in a highly dynamic way. In this review article, we would like to stress the importance of microglia for the spreading of neural damage during hypoxia, their susceptibility to functional modulation by sex steroids, the potency of sex hormones to switch microglia from a pro-inflammatory M1 to neuroprotective M2 phenotype, and the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory properties including the inflammasome. We will further discuss the possibility that the neuroprotective action of sex steroids in the brain involves an early and direct modulation of local microglia cell function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Sex steroids and brain disorders'. PMID:24607811

Habib, Pardes; Beyer, Cordian

2015-02-01

362

Phenolic A ring requirement for the neuroprotective effects of steroids.  

PubMed

Estrogens are reported to reduce the incidence of Alzheimer's disease and 17beta-estradiol (betaE2), the potent, naturally occurring estrogen, exerts neuroprotective effects in a variety of in vivo and in vitro model systems. The present study elucidates the structural requirements of steroids and related compounds for neuroprotectivity at low nM doses. All estrogens tested with an intact phenolic A ring protected SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells from the toxic effects of serum-deprivation. All 3-O-methyl ether cogeners tested were inactive indicating the importance of a phenolic A ring. The diphenolic estrogen mimic diethylstilbesterol (DES) was neuroprotective and retention of a single phenolic function was sufficient to retain neuroprotective activity. The di-O-methyl ether of DES was inactive. The following steroids which lack a phenolic A ring were also inactive: testosterone; dihydrotestosterone; progesterone; corticosterone; prednisolone; 6 alpha-methylprednisolone; aldosterone; and cholesterol. Finally, phenol, lipophilic phenols, and tetrahydronapthol were inactive. These results suggest that a phenolic A ring and at least three rings of the steroid nucleus are necessary for the neuroprotective activity of estrogens. PMID:9459189

Green, P S; Gordon, K; Simpkins, J W

1997-01-01

363

Treatment of steroid-dependent bronchial asthma with cyclosporin.  

PubMed

The treatment of chronic severe asthma is unsatisfactory for many patients. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of treatment of steroid-dependent asthma with cyclosporin. We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel group trial on the effect of cyclosporin on pulmonary function, asthma severity and tapering of prednisone in 34 steroid-dependent asthmatics (mean oral prednisone dose: 16 mg.day-1). The study consisted of: 1) baseline period (12 weeks); 2) experimental period divided into two parts: Part I (12 weeks) cyclosporin or placebo treatment; Part II (22 weeks) cyclosporin or placebo treatment and oral prednisone reduction; and 3) follow-up observation (8 weeks). Asthma symptoms score, pulmonary function tests (daily peak expiratory flow (PEF) and bi-weekly forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MEF50), biochemical profile and blood cyclosporin levels were monitored throughout the study. Following cyclosporin administration, a slight beneficial effect on some subjective parameters of asthma severity was observed. At the same time, no beneficial effect on pulmonary function was noted. The time trends analysis of mean daily prednisone doses between the treatment groups revealed a statistically significant difference indicating that, during prednisone reduction, cyclosporin seemed to be slightly more efficient than placebo in reducing the requirement for systemic corticosteroid, even though the steroid reduction was accompanied by slight impairment of some pulmonary function. However, there was no significant difference in the final dose reduction between the treatment groups. These data and the known toxicity of the drug suggest a limited place for cyclosporin treatment in steroid-dependent bronchial asthma. PMID:7589392

Nizankowska, E; Soja, J; Pinis, G; Bochenek, G; S?adek, K; Domaga?a, B; Pajak, A; Szczeklik, A

1995-07-01

364

Induction of Protein Secretory Pathway Is Required for Systemic Acquired Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plants, systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is established as a result of NPR1-regulated expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Using gene expression profiling in Arabidopsis, we found that in addition to controlling the expression of PR genes, NPR1 also directly controls the expression of the protein secretory pathway genes. Up-regulation of these genes is essential for SAR, because mutations in some

Dong Wang; Natalie D. Weaver; Meenu Kesarwani; Xinnian Dong

2005-01-01

365

Anabolic steroids and cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Recent reports from needle exchange programmes and other public health initiatives have suggested growing use of anabolic steroids (AS) in the UK and other countries. Data indicate that AS use is not confined to body-builders or high-level sportsmen. Use has spread to professionals working in emergency services, casual fitness enthusiasts and subelite sportsmen and women. Although the precise health consequences of AS use is largely undefined, AS use represents a growing public health concern. Data regarding the consequences of AS use on cardiovascular health are limited to case studies and a modest number of small cohort studies. Numerous case studies have linked AS use with a variety of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events or endpoints, including myocardial infarction, stroke and death. Large-scale epidemiological studies to support these links are absent. Consequently, the impact of AS use upon known CVD risk factors has been studied in relatively small, case-series studies. Data relating AS use to elevated blood pressure, altered lipid profiles and ECG abnormalities have been reported, but are often limited in scope, and other studies have often produced equivocal outcomes. The use of AS has been linked to the appearance of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy as well as endothelial dysfunction but the data again remains controversial. The mechanisms responsible for the negative effect of AS on cardiovascular health are poorly understood, especially in humans. Possibilities include direct effects on myocytes and endothelial cells, reduced intracellular Ca2+ levels, increased release of apoptogenic factors, as well as increased collagen crosslinks between myocytes. New data relating AS use to cardiovascular health risks are emerging, as novel technologies are developed (especially in non-invasive imaging) that can assess physiological structure and function. Continued efforts to fully document the cardiovascular health consequences of AS use is important to provide a clear, accurate, public health message to the many groups now using AS for performance and image enhancement. PMID:22229259

Angell, Peter; Chester, Neil; Green, Danny; Somauroo, John; Whyte, Greg; George, Keith

2012-02-01

366

Enhanced induction of heme oxygenase-1 suppresses thrombus formation and affects the protein C system in sepsis.  

PubMed

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) displays anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities in sepsis. Here, we investigated the effects of HO-1 on thrombus formation and the protein C system in a septic C57BL/6 mouse model induced by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). Septic mice were either preinjected with the vehicle, pretreated with hemin (an HO-1 inducer) or zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP, an HO-1 inhibitor), or given a combination of hemin + ZnPP. CLP increased significantly the hepatic expression of HO-1; increased thrombosis in livers, kidneys, and lungs; shortened the prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT); elevated the levels of tumor necrosis factor-1? (TNF-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and thrombomodulin (TM); reduced the levels of protein C (PC) and activated protein C (aPC); and downregulated hepatic expression of PC and TM. The preadministration of hemin to septic mice increased the expression and activity of HO-1; inhibited thrombosis in the preceding 3 organs; prolonged PT and APTT; inhibited the production of TNF-? and IL-6; upregulated the expression of PC and TM in livers; elevated the plasma levels of PC and aPC; and reduced the plasma levels of TM. In contrast, ZnPP showed opposite effects to hemin and reversed the effects of hemin by inhibiting the activity of HO-1. The administration of tricarbonyl dichloro ruthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2), which is a CO-releasing molecule, had a similar effect to hemin on thrombosis and the protein C system. The data indicate that the enhanced induction of HO-1 inhibits thrombus formation and affects the protein C system in sepsis. PMID:22243794

Fei, Dongsheng; Meng, Xianglin; Zhao, Mingran; Kang, Kai; Tan, Gang; Pan, Shangha; Luo, Yunpeng; Liu, Wen; Nan, Chuanchuan; Jiang, Hongchi; Krissansen, Geoffrey W; Zhao, Mingyan; Sun, Xueying

2012-02-01

367

Regulated restriction endonuclease expression: A novel, radiomimetic model of DNA double strand break induction  

SciTech Connect

Exposure of mammalian cells to ionizing radiations (IR) produces a plethora of damages in DNA and non-DNA targets. Although DNA double strand breaks (DSB) are thought to be the critical lesion generated by IR with respect to conventional cytotoxicity, it is clear that signaling events regulating cellular responses to IR arise from multiple other lesions in addition to these. The authors are interested in identifying cellular signaling events that derive from DSB specifically, as well as the distal effects (e.g., repair, apoptosis, cell cycle delay) of such signaling. Although electroporation of restriction enzymes might afford an approach to such studies, serious concerns would be raised by the non-uniformity of enzyme transfer and general disruption of the intracellular environment (with the possibility of associated signaling processes) when using this method. The authors have established a radiomimetic model for DSB induction, based upon expression of a hybrid steroid hormone receptor: this system is subject to tight, rapid postranslational regulation of endonuclease activity via addition or withdrawl of the cognate hormone ligand. In preliminary experiments, The authors have demonstrated ligand dose and exposure time-dependent cytotoxicity and DSB induction (the latter assayed by PFGE). Cytogenetic characterization of this system, as well as studies of the interaction between enzyme- and IR-generated DSB are in progress. RNA differential display and subtractive enrichment cloning approaches will ultimately be used to identify genes whose expression changes as a consequence of isolated DSB induction.

Radany, E.H.; Pu, A.T. [Univ. of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1997-10-01

368

Induction of mucosal tolerance in SLE: A sniff or a sip away from ameliorating lupus?  

PubMed Central

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by aberrant immune responses against intracellularly derived self antigens. Treatment for SLE relies on the use of aggressive immunosuppressants and steroids that are nonspecific and can cause serious adverse effects. The observation that a systemic immune tolerance to self antigens or generation of regulatory T cells may follow mucosal (nasal or oral) exposure to self proteins or monoclonal antibody against CD3 respectively suggests that induction of mucosal tolerance offers the basis of a side effect free therapy that could re-establish the ability to distinguish self from non-self and restore peripheral tolerance in individuals susceptible to developing autoimmune diseases. Here I review studies on mucosal tolerance in autoimmune diseases and discuss the therapeutic potential of inducing tolerance for the treatment of SLE. PMID:18938110

Wu, Henry Yim

2009-01-01

369

Apparatus and method for reducing inductive coupling between levitation and drive coils within a magnetic propulsion system  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method is disclosed for reducing inductive coupling between levitation and drive coils within a magnetic levitation system. A pole array has a magnetic field. A levitation coil is positioned so that in response to motion of the magnetic field of the pole array a current is induced in the levitation coil. A first drive coil having a magnetic field coupled to drive the pole array also has a magnetic flux which induces a parasitic current in the levitation coil. A second drive coil having a magnetic field is positioned to attenuate the parasitic current in the levitation coil by canceling the magnetic flux of the first drive coil which induces the parasitic current. Steps in the method include generating a magnetic field with a pole array for levitating an object; inducing current in a levitation coil in response to motion of the magnetic field of the pole array; generating a magnetic field with a first drive coil for propelling the object; and generating a magnetic field with a second drive coil for attenuating effects of the magnetic field of the first drive coil on the current in the levitation coil.

Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

2001-01-01

370

The induction of splenic suppressor T cells through an immune-privileged site requires an intact sympathetic nervous system.  

PubMed

Antigen injection into the eye's anterior chamber (AC) induces the antigen-specific suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) that is mediated by NKT cells and splenic CD8+ suppressor T cells. Because the AC, uveal tissues, the thymus and spleen required to induce anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID) have dense sympathetic innervations, we examined the effects of chemical sympathectomy of mice by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on the induction of the suppression of contact sensitivity to trinitrophenol (TNP) induced by the injection of TNP-bovine serum albumin (BSA) into the anterior chamber. DTH measured as contact sensitivity to picrylchloride was not induced in mice that received 6-OHDA before immunization with TNP-BSA. Although spleen cells from 6-OHDA-treated TNP-BSA-immunized mice produced IFN-gamma when stimulated by TNP-BSA, the number of DTH-initiating hepatic NKT cells was reduced markedly in 6-OHDA-treated mice. Chemically denervated mice did not produce splenic suppressor T cells or thymic NKT cells that activate splenic suppressor T cells. We suggest that an intact sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is required to maintain cellular immunoregulation. PMID:15265662

Li, Xingya; Taylor, Shiv; Zegarelli, Benjamin; Shen, Shujing; O'Rourke, James; Cone, Robert E

2004-08-01

371

Inductively Coupled Plasma and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Etching of InGaAlP Compound Semiconductor System  

SciTech Connect

Current and future generations of sophisticated compound semiconductor devices require the ability for submicron scale patterning. The situation is being complicated since some of the new devices are based on a wider diversity of materials to be etched. Conventional IUE (Reactive Ion Etching) has been prevalent across the industry so far, but has limitations for materials with high bond strengths or multiple elements. IrI this paper, we suggest high density plasmas such as ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) and ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma), for the etching of ternary compound semiconductors (InGaP, AIInP, AlGaP) which are employed for electronic devices like heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) or high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), and photonic devices such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers. High density plasma sources, opeiating at lower pressure, are expected to meet target goals determined in terms of etch rate, surface morphology, surface stoichiometry, selectivity, etc. The etching mechanisms, which are described in this paper, can also be applied to other III-V (GaAs-based, InP-based) as well as III-Nitride since the InGaAIP system shares many of the same properties.

Abernathy, C.R.; Hobson, W.S.; Hong, J.; Lambers, E.S.; Pearton, S.J.; Shul, R.J.

1998-11-04

372

Optimization of a laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma "time of flight" mass spectrometry system for short transient signal acquisition.  

PubMed

Simultaneous ion sampling and sequential detection offered by inductively coupled plasma 'time of flight' mass spectrometry (ICP-TOFMS) provides advantages for the analysis of short transient concentration-variable signals as produced in laser ablation. In order to investigate the capabilities of ICP-TOFMS in combination with an excimer laser ablation system, ablation studies on reference materials and geological samples were carried out. Various ICP-TOFMS parameters were optimized for laser-induced aerosols. Transverse rejection ion pulse was used to extend the dynamic range in concentration. A reduced volume ablation cell was designed and used in order to increase the sample density in the ICP. Results for 63 simultaneously measured isotopes (SRM 610 from NIST) lead to limits of detection in the 1-100 microg/g range for a 80 microm crater diameter (10 Hz, 1.2 mJ pulse energy). The reproducibility of signal ratios was determined to be better than 2% RSD for transient signals using 102 ms integration time. These optimized parameters were then used for the analysis of tin-rich fluid inclusions. Preliminary results of multielement analysis and isotopic ratio determinations on individual fluid inclusions (63 isotopes, 102 ms integration time) demonstrate the capabilities of ICP-TOFMS in combination with laser ablation. PMID:11220828

Bleiner, D; Hametner, K; Günther, D

2000-09-01

373

Induction of systemic resistance in plants by biochar, a soil-applied carbon sequestering agent.  

PubMed

Biochar is the solid coproduct of biomass pyrolysis, a technique used for carbon-negative production of second-generation biofuels. The biochar can be applied as a soil amendment, where it permanently sequesters carbon from the atmosphere as well as improves soil tilth, nutrient retention, and crop productivity. In addition to its other benefits in soil, we found that soil-applied biochar induces systemic resistance to the foliar fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) and Leveillula taurica (powdery mildew) on pepper and tomato and to the broad mite pest (Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks) on pepper. Levels of 1 to 5% biochar in a soil and a coconut fiber-tuff potting medium were found to be significantly effective at suppressing both diseases in leaves of different ages. In long-term tests (105 days), pepper powdery mildew was significantly less severe in the biochar-treated plants than in the plants from the unamended controls although, during the final 25 days, the rate of disease development in the treatments and controls was similar. Possible biochar-related elicitors of systemic induced resistance are discussed. PMID:20701489

Elad, Yigal; David, Dalia Rav; Harel, Yael Meller; Borenshtein, Menahem; Kalifa, Hananel Ben; Silber, Avner; Graber, Ellen R

2010-09-01

374

Validation of a paleo river system derived by ground based electromagnetic induction measurements with satellite based RapidEye images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphological remnants of an inactive river system that has been filled by younger sediments can provide datable proxies about past climatic conditions. However, sediment composition of their infillings is a challenge for agriculture, in particular for precision agriculture. Differential crop development and yield reduction are often a consequence of lateral and vertical textural inhomogeneities. Several studies have shown that buried river systems can be traced by the use of remote sensing. However, the appearance of crop marks strongly depends on environmental conditions, and therefore, the reliance of remotely acquired data can become time and cost expensive. Soil physical properties which are related to textural differences can be mapped fast and cost-effective by the use of near surface geophysics. Especially electromagnetic induction (EMI), which measures soil apparent conductivity (ECa), has become a tool of choice to characterize large areas in high resolution. The introduction of multiple coil EMI systems as well as the quantification of respective measurements enables a reliable multilayer inversion. The aim of this study was to map a postglacial river system on agricultural fields and to mark out buried remains such as trenches and bomb craters of World War II. In summer 2012 ten fields (17 ha) were mapped with the CMD MiniExplorer, a multiple coil EMI system especially appropriate for near surface applications, after the harvest of winter wheat and sugar beet. At elevated sandy sites meander like patterns with higher conductivity were mapped. ECa measurements were verified by textural data taken from directed soil samples and vertical ECa logs. Sediment thickness was evaluated on soil cores and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) transects. Furthermore, ERT quantified ECa measurements were correlated with satellite as well as destructive derived leaf area index (LAI) measurements. In 3 of 71 LAI maps derived by multispectral RapidEye imagery crop marks were clearly visible following a dry season in spring 2011. These patterns are in coincidence with higher conductivity patterns caused by a higher amount of silt and clay. Good correlations were found for LAI measurements taken during a growing season with underlying sediments especially in the early stages of plant development. Finally, ECa measurements of two heterogeneous fields were used for a 3D layer inversion which will be further implemented into landscape models. This study shows that multiple EMI measurements can be successfully used to recover buried river systems, highlight possible sample locations and support farmers to manage their fields more precisely.

Rudolph, Sebastian; von Hebel, Christian; Ali, Mohammed; Stadler, Anja; Herbst, Michael; Montzka, Carsten; Pätzold, Stefan; Weihermüller, Lutz; van der Kruk, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

2013-04-01

375

Planar induction of anteroposterior pattern in the developing central nervous system of Xenopus laevis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has long been thought that anteroposterior (A-P) pattern in the vertebrate central nervous system is induced in the embryo's dorsal ectoderm exclusively by signals passing vertically from underlying, patterned dorsal mesoderm. Explants from early gastrulae of the frog Xenopus laevis were prepared in which vertical contact between dorsal ectoderm and mesoderm was prevented but planar contact was maintained. In these, four position-specific neural markers (engrailed-2, Krox-20, XlHbox 1, and XlHbox 6) were expressed in the ectoderm in the same A-P order as in the embryo. Thus, planar signals alone, following a path available in the normal embryo, can induce A-P neural pattern.

Doniach, T.; Phillips, C. R.; Gerhart, J. C.

1992-01-01

376

Highly chlorinated PCBs inhibit the human xenobiotic response mediated by the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR).  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of persistent organic contaminants suspected to cause adverse effects in wildlife and humans. In rodents, PCBs bind to the aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) and pregnane X receptors (PXR) inducing the expression of catabolic cytochrome p450 enzymes of the CYP1A and 3A families. We found that certain highly chlorinated PCBs are potent activators of rodent PXR but antagonize its human ortholog, the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), inhibiting target gene induction. Thus, exposure to PCBs may blunt the human xenobiotic response, inhibiting the detoxification of steroids, bioactive dietary compounds, and xenobiotics normally mediated by SXR. The antagonistic PCBs are among the most stable and abundant in human tissues. These findings have important implications for understanding the biologic effects of PCB exposure and the use of animal models to predict the attendant risk. PMID:14754570

Tabb, Michelle M; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Grün, Felix; Zhou, Changcheng; Welsh, William J; Blumberg, Bruce

2004-02-01

377

Gene regulation by steroid hormones III  

SciTech Connect

In this book, the authors discuss the latest advances in molecular endocrinology: - steroid receptor binding to DNA sequences of hormonally controlled genes, - structure of genes controlled by steroid hormones, - heterogeneity of steroid receptors, - immunochemical approaches to receptor studies, and - the most recent approaches to steroid hormone action and biological response. The Contents discussed are: Biochemical Evidence for the Exclusive Nuclear Localization of the Estrogen Receptor. - Structure, Dynamics, and Cloning of the Estrogen Receptor. - Structure, Dynamics, and Cloning of the Estrogen Receptor - Physical and Functional Parameters of Isolated Estrogen Receptor - Type II Binding Sites: Cellular Origin and an Endogeneous Ligand. - The Two Phosphorylation Reactions of the Progesterone Receptor. - Receptor Mediated Action of the Vitamin D Hormone. - Characterization of the Nuclear Binding Sites (Acceptor Sites) for a Steroid Receptor. Antibodies in Estrogen, Progesterone, Glucocorticoid, Vitamin D Receptors and Autoantibodies to Antrogene Receptor. - Isolation and Characterization of cDNA probes for Human CBG and Rat ABP. Ornithine Decarboxy lase mRNAs in Murine Kidney: Structure and Regulation by Androgens - Glucocorticoid Receptors and the Control of Gene Expression. - Activation and Regulation of the Vitellogenin Gene Family. - Intra- and Intercellular Aspects of the Hormonal Regulation of the ..cap alpha..2..mu.. Globulin Gene Expression. - Hormonal Regulation of Sexually Differentiated Isozymes of Cytochrome P-450 in Rat Liver. - Interaction of Thyroid Hormone and Carbohydrates on Hepatic Gene Expression.

Roy, A.K.; Clark, J.H.

1987-01-01

378

Improvement of the capabilities of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry by replacing the desolvation system of an ultrasonic nebulization system with a pre-evaporation tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of replacing the desolvation system (i.e., heater/condenser (HC) and membrane desolvator (MD)) of an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) system with a pre-evaporation tube (PET) that is heated to about 400 °C on the analytical capabilities of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was investigated. A multivariate optimisation was conducted in each case to find operating conditions maximizing plasma robustness. Under optimum conditions, the analytical performance of ICP-OES was significantly improved (i.e., better sensitivity, detection limit and plasma robustness) with USN-PET compared to that achieved with both the commercially-available USN-HC-MD and a conventional pneumatic nebulizer/spray chamber sample introduction system. However, only the USN-PET approach allows the determination of Hg, which appears to otherwise be lost in the heater/condenser system. Using a simple external calibration, without any matrix matching, and using an argon emission line for internal standardization, the results obtained for the determination of trace elements in certified soil reference materials (SRM 2710 and 2711) by USN-PET were in good agreement with certified values. This is unlike with conventional sample introduction systems where internal standardization using an Ar line is unusual, as it does not compensate for physical interferences, and either internal standardization (with internal standards added to the sample and standard solutions) or matrix-matched calibration is required.

Asfaw, Alemayehu; Beauchemin, Diane

2010-05-01

379

Magnetic field-driven induction of ZENK in the trigeminal system of pigeons (Columba livia).  

PubMed

Magnetoreception remains one of the few unsolved mysteries in sensory biology. The upper beak, which is innervated by the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1), has been suggested to contain magnetic sensors based on ferromagnetic structures. Recently, its existence in pigeons has been seriously challenged by studies suggesting that the previously described iron-accumulations are macrophages, not magnetosensitive nerve endings. This raised the fundamental question of whether V1 is involved in magnetoreception in pigeons at all. We exposed pigeons to either a constantly changing magnetic field (CMF), to a zero magnetic field providing no magnetic information, or to CMF conditions after V1 was cut bilaterally. Using immediate early genes as a marker of neuronal responsiveness, we report that the trigeminal brainstem nuclei of pigeons, which receive V1 input, are activated under CMF conditions and that this neuronal activation disappears if the magnetic stimuli are removed or if V1 is cut. Our data suggest that the trigeminal system in pigeons is involved in processing magnetic field information and that V1 transmits this information from currently unknown, V1-associated magnetosensors to the brain. PMID:25232052

Lefeldt, Nele; Heyers, Dominik; Schneider, Nils-Lasse; Engels, Svenja; Elbers, Dana; Mouritsen, Henrik

2014-11-01

380

Induction of Systemic Resistance of Benzothiadiazole and Humic Acid in Soybean Plants Against Fusarium Wilt Disease  

PubMed Central

The ability of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and/or humic acid (HA) used as seed soaking to induce systemic resistance against a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was examined in four soybean cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Alone and in combination the inducers were able to protect soybean plants against damping-off and wilt diseases compared with check treatment. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations (Minia and New Valley governorates). The tested treatments significantly reduced damping-off and wilt diseases and increased growth parameters, except the number of branches per plant and also increased seed yield. Application of BTH (0.25 g/L) + HA (4 g/L) was the most potent in this respect. Soybean seed soaking in BTH + HA produced the highest activities of the testes of oxidative enzymes followed by BTH in the four soybean cultivars. HA treatment resulted in the lowest increases of these oxidative enzymes. Similar results were obtained with total phenol but HA increased total phenol more than did BTH in all tested cultivars. PMID:22783118

Ismail, Mamdoh Ewis; Morsy, Kadry Mohamed

2011-01-01

381

Interactions Between Plant Growth Promoting Fungi and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus Mosseae and Induction of Systemic Resistance to Anthracnose Disease in Cucumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cucumber plants were treated with plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF), Phoma sp. (isolates GS8-2 and GS8-3) and Penicillium simplicissimum (isolate GP17-2) with or without the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus mosseae. Induction of systemic resistance in cucumber against the anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum\\u000a orbiculare was tested to evaluate the nature of the interaction between the PGPF and AMF. Root

W. A. Chandanie; M. Kubota; M. Hyakumachi

2006-01-01

382

[Induction chemotherapy for solid tumors].  

PubMed

Surgical treatment for solid malignancies, which is the gold standard for operable tumors, is being combined with nonsurgical modalities with an increasing frequency. Advanced cancers that are not curable by surgery alone are subjected to sophisticated multimodality regimens. Accordingly, the sequence and timing of integrated combined treatment modalities are essential. Traditionally, the common objective of induction chemotherapy has been to reduce the risk of distant disease recurrence. Administration of chemotherapy before other treatment has many theoretical advantages. Induction chemotherapy can result in tumor downstaging, thus increasing the rate of conservative surgery. In cases of more advanced disease, induction chemotherapy can render inoperable tumors resectable. Other advantages of induction chemotherapy include the ability to obtain information about tumor response, which can be used to study the biologic effects of chemotherapy and assess long-term disease-free survival(DFS)and overall survival(OS). Induction chemotherapy as a component of primary treatment has been shown in several studies and meta-analyses to decrease the incidence of metastatic disease. Currently, the terms induction, primary, preoperative, basal and neoadjuvant are all used to describe chemotherapy given as initial treatment. There are 2 methods of induction chemotherapy: intra-arterial induction chemotherapy and induction systemic chemotherapy. The clinical results of several trials of arterial infusion chemotherapy alone as induction chemotherapy for advanced cancer revealed that 20-30% higher response rates can be achieved. However, the benefits of prolonged survival rates and improved quality of life are not consistently realized. Induction arterial infusion chemotherapy did not gain enthusiastic support for several different malignancies. Induction systemic chemotherapy is mainly used in patients with stage II/III disease to improve surgical outcomes and increase the rate of breast-conserving surgery in the breast cancer case, although clinical studies have not revealed a significant improvement in DFS or OS. The favorable response rate and achievement of pathological complete response(pCR)have favorable effects on DFS in breast cancer patients. The available data suggest a minimal benefit for additional chemotherapy after surgery in patients with residual disease. New targets must be identified to develop non-cross-resistant agents for patients with residual disease after prior chemotherapy. New genomic and proteomic tools must be developed to identify predictive markers for response to primary systemic therapy that allow clinicians to develop more personalized therapy, new strategic options, and new biologic agents and avoid unnecessary regimens. The side effects of induction chemotherapy depend on the types of drugs, their doses, and the duration of treatment. PMID:23863642

Taguchi, Tetsuo

2013-06-01

383

A steroid isolated from the water mold Achlya heterosexualis induces neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Using 22R-hydroxycholesterol as a sub-structure to screen natural compound databases, we identified a naturally occurring steroid (sc-7) with a 16-acetoxy-22R-hydroxycholesterol moiety, in which the hydroxyl groups in positions 3 and 22 are esterified by an acetoxy group and in which the carbon in position 26 carries a functional diacetylamino. sc-7 is an analog of the sex steroids dehydro-oogoniol and antheridiol, can be isolated from the water mold Achlya heterosexualis, and promoted neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Mouse embryonic teratocarcinoma P19 cells exposed to sc-7 for 2days followed by a 5-day wash-out differentiated into cholinergic neurons that expressed specific neuronal markers and displayed axonal formation. Axons continued growing up to 28days after treatment. In vivo, infusion of sc-7 for 2weeks into the left ventricle of the rat brain followed by a 3-week wash-out induced bromodeoxyuridine uptake by cells of the ependymal layer and subventricular zone that co-localized with doublecortin and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining, demonstrating induction of proliferation and differentiation of neuronal progenitors. Migrating neuroblasts were also observed in the corpus callosum. Thus, under these experimental conditions, adult ependymal cells resumed proliferation and differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest that sc-7 is an interesting molecule for stimulating in situ neurogenesis from resident neuronal progenitors as part of neuron replacement therapy. sc-7 did not bind to nuclear steroid receptors and was not metabolized as a steroid, supporting our hypothesis that the neurogenic effect of sc-7 is not likely due to a steroid-like effect. PMID:22138207

Lecanu, Laurent; Hashim, Areej I; McCourty, Althea; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

2012-02-01

384

Transsynaptic trophic effects of steroid hormones in an avian model of adult brain plasticity.  

PubMed

The avian song control system provides an excellent model for studying transsynaptic trophic effects of steroid sex hormones. Seasonal changes in systemic testosterone (T) and its metabolites regulate plasticity of this system. Steroids interact with the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to influence cellular processes of plasticity in nucleus HVC of adult birds, including the addition of newborn neurons. This interaction may also occur transsynpatically; T increases the synthesis of BDNF in HVC, and BDNF protein is then released by HVC neurons on to postsynaptic cells in nucleus RA where it has trophic effects on activity and morphology. Androgen action on RA neurons increases their activity and this has a retrograde trophic effect on the addition of new neurons to HVC. The functional linkage of sex steroids to BDNF may be of adaptive value in regulating the trophic effects of the neurotrophin and coordinating circuit function in reproductively relevant contexts. PMID:25285401

Brenowitz, Eliot A

2014-10-01

385

Application of an Electro-Magnetic Induction Technique for the Magnetization up to 100 T in a Vertical Single-turn Coil System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The system was developed for the magnetization measurement in the vertical single-turn coil (V-STC) system at ISSP, which can generate magnetic fields over 100 T in a semi-destructive manner. We have adjusted the electro-magnetic induction method to our V-STC. The new system was applied to the manganite with the perovskite-type structure Bi1/2Ca1/2MnO3. The total magnetization process was obtained up to 105 T in excellent quality comparable to those obtained by the non-destructive long pulse magnet.

Sakakura, R.; Matsuda, Y. H.; Tokunaga, M.; Kojima, E.; Takeyama, S.

2010-04-01

386

Induction plasma tube  

DOEpatents

An induction plasma tube having a segmented, fluid-cooled internal radiation shield is disclosed. The individual segments are thick in cross-section such that the shield occupies a substantial fraction of the internal volume of the plasma enclosure, resulting in improved performance and higher sustainable plasma temperatures. The individual segments of the shield are preferably cooled by means of a counterflow fluid cooling system wherein each segment includes a central bore and a fluid supply tube extending into the bore. The counterflow cooling system results in improved cooling of the individual segments and also permits use of relatively larger shield segments which permit improved electromagnetic coupling between the induction coil and a plasma located inside the shield. Four embodiments of the invention, each having particular advantages, are disclosed.

Hull, Donald E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01

387

Induction plasma tube  

DOEpatents

An induction plasma tube having a segmented, fluid-cooled internal radiation shield is disclosed. The individual segments are thick in cross-section such that the shield occupies a substantial fraction of the internal volume of the plasma enclosure, resulting in improved performance and higher sustainable plasma temperatures. The individual segments of the shield are preferably cooled by means of a counterflow fluid cooling system wherein each segment includes a central bore and a fluid supply tube extending into the bore. The counterflow cooling system results in improved cooling of the individual segments and also permits use of relatively larger shield segments which permit improved electromagnetic coupling between the induction coil and a plasma located inside the shield. Four embodiments of the invention, each having particular advantages, are disclosed.

Hull, D.E.

1982-07-02

388

REVIEW ARTICLE Nuclear Receptor Coactivators: Essential Players for Steroid Hormone  

E-print Network

REVIEW ARTICLE Nuclear Receptor Coactivators: Essential Players for Steroid Hormone Action hormones have profound effects on homeostasis, develop- ment, reproduction and behaviour. Many of the biological effects of steroid hormones are mediated through their respective receptors, which are members

389

Incidence of intravascular penetration in transforaminal cervical epidural steroid injections.  

PubMed

STUDY DESIGN A prospective, observational, human, study was conducted. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the incidence of vascular penetration during fluoroscopically guided, contrast-enhanced transforaminal cervical epidural steroid injections, and to determine whether the observation of blood in the needle hub can be used to predict a vascular injection. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Incorrectly placed intravascular cervical spinal injections result in medication flow systemically and not to the desired target. A recently published study demonstrates a high incidence of intravascular injections in transforaminal lumbosacral epidural injections. No studies so far have evaluated the incidence of vascular injections in transforaminal cervical epidural steroid injections, nor have they calculated the ability of observed blood in the needle hub to predict a vascular injection in the cervical spine.METHODS The incidence of fluoroscopically confirmed intravascular uptake of contrast was prospectively observed in 337 patients treated with cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injections. The ability of observed blood in the needle hub to predict intravascular injection was also investigated. For each subject, the injection level was chosen on the basis of the clinical scenario including history, physical examination, and review of imaging studies. Some patients had multilevel injections. Using fluoroscopic guidance, the authors placed a 25-gauge needle into the epidural space using a transforaminal approach according to accepted standard technique. Needle tip location was confirmed with biplanar imaging. The presence or absence of blood in the needle hub spontaneously ("flash") and after attempted aspiration by pulling back on the syringe's plunger was documented. Contrast then was injected under real-time fluoroscopy to determine whether the location of the needle tip was intravascular. The results were recorded in a prospective manner indicating the presence or absence of blood in the needle hub and whether a vascular pattern was noted with contrast injection, and these were correlated. Relevant epidemiologic data also were recorded. RESULTS The study included 504 transforaminal epidural steroid injections. The overall rate of fluoroscopically confirmed intravascular contrast injections was 19.4%. Use of observed blood in the needle hub to predict intravascular injections was 97% specific, but only 45.9% sensitive. There was no significant difference in intravascular rates related to age or gender. CONCLUSIONS As compared with a previous study of lumbosacral epidural steroid injections, there is an overall higher incidence of intravascular injections with cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injections. Use of observed blood in the needle hub to predict an intravascular injection is not sensitive, and therefore the absence of blood in the needle hub despite aspiration is not reliable. The reported sensitivity and specificity rates are similar to lumbar data. Fluoroscopically guided procedures without contrast confirmation instill medications intravascularly, and therefore not in the desired epidural location. This study confirms that there is a need not only for fluoroscopic guidance, but also for contrast instillation in cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injections. PMID:12544950

Furman, Michael B; Giovanniello, Michael T; O'Brien, Erin M

2003-01-01

390

Sex Steroid Effects at Target Tissues: Mechanisms of Action  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This review outlines new advances in our understanding of the spectrum of steroid hormone ligands, newly recognized target tissues, structure-function relationships of steroid receptors, and, finally, their genomic and nongenomic actions. Sex-based specific effects are often related to the different steroid hormone mileu in men compared with women. Understanding the mechanisms of sex steroid action gives insight into the differences in normal physiology and disease states.

Margaret E. Wierman (University of Colorado Veterans Affairs Medical Center)

2007-03-01

391

Induction of Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter in Dogs Using Methacholine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic infusion of methacholine has been used to facilitate induction of atrial fibrillation. However, the dose-response relationship, reproducibility and effect of anesthetic agents on induction are not well understood. The use of methacholine to facilitate electrical induction of sustained (>10 minutes duration) atrial fibrillation or flutter was examined. In 25 dogs induction of atrial arrhythmias was attempted using a series

Stuart P. Thomas; David L. Ross

1999-01-01

392

Induction of NAD(P)H:quinone reductase in murine hepatoma cells by phenolic antioxidants, azo dyes, and other chemoprotectors: a model system for the study of anticarcinogens  

SciTech Connect

Exposure of murine hepatoma (Hepa 1c1c7) cells to a variety of chemical agents known to protect animals against the neoplastic, mutagenic, and other toxic effects of chemical carcinogens results in dose- and time-dependent inductions of NAD(P)H:quinone reductase (EC 1.6.99.2). This enzyme protects against quinone toxicity by promoting obligatory two-electron reductions that divert quinones from oxidative cycling or direct interactions with critical nucleophiles. Quinone reductase levels are stable in culture, are easily measured, and are useful markers for the inductive effects of chemoprotective agents. The Hepa 1c1c7 system responds to chemoprotective compounds such as phenolic antioxidants /e.g., BHA (3(2)-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole), BHT (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene), and tert-butylhydroquinone/, lipophilic azo dyes belonging to the 1,1'-azonaphthalene, Sudan I (1-phenylazo-2-naphthol), and Sudan III (1-(4-phenylazophenylazo)-2-naphthol) families, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, coumarin and various other lactones, flavonoids, and certain sulfur compounds (e.g., benzylisothiocyanate, dithiolthiones, and dithiocarbamates), all of which are recognized enzyme inducers and chemoprotectors in vivo. Quinone reductase induction in Hepa 1c1c7 cells therefore provides a simple, versatile, and reliable system for the evaluation of the potency, kinetics, and mechanism of action of anticarcinogens.

De Long, M.J.; Prochaska, H.J.; Talalay, P.

1986-02-01

393

ORIGINAL PAPER Steroidal Metabolites Transformed by Marchantia polymorpha  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Steroidal Metabolites Transformed by Marchantia polymorpha Cultures Block Breast was measured by a tritiated water release assay and by direct measurement of bio- transformed steroids using by real-time PCR. Steroidal products 3 and 4 revealed a highly significant inhibition of MCF-7 cell growth

Paré, Paul W.

394

Neuropsychopharmacological properties of neuroactive steroids in depression and anxiety disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroactive steroids modulate neurotransmission through modulation of specific neurotransmitter receptors such as ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. Preclinical studies suggested that neuroactive steroids may modulate anxiety- and depression-related behaviour and may contribute to the therapeutical effects of antidepressant drugs. Attenuations of 3?-reduced neuroactive steroids have been observed during major depression. This disequilibrium can be corrected by successful treatment with

Daniela Eser; Cornelius Schüle; Elena Romeo; Thomas C. Baghai; Flavia di Michele; Augusto Pasini; Peter Zwanzger; Frank Padberg; Rainer Rupprecht

2006-01-01

395

Hypercholesterolemia in Male Power Lifters Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurement of serum cholesterol concentrations in male power lifters who used anabolic-androgenic steroids for eight weeks, three years, or eight years indicated that mean serum cholesterol levels increased with drug use, but decreased promptly to near pre-steroid levels after steroid use ended. (Author/CB)

Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

1988-01-01

396

The Incidence of Anabolic Steroid Use among Competitive Bodybuilders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated incidence of anabolic steroid use among 380 competitive male and female bodybuilders in Kansas and Missouri. Results indicated more than half (54 percent) of the male bodybuilders were using steroids on a regular basis compared to 10 percent of the female competitors. Found main reason for use of steroids was desire to win. (Author/TE)

Tricker, Ray; And Others

1989-01-01

397

Steroids and Other Ergogenic Aids: A Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Steroids have become one of society's "short cuts" to athletic prowess and success. This guide includes information and teaching materials for educators and others who work with youth on how to teach that steroids are drugs, that drugs can harm and kill, and that a "no-use" policy applies to steroids as well as to alcohol and other drugs. It is…

Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

398

Original article Metabolic effects of C21 steroids  

E-print Network

Original article Metabolic effects of C21 steroids in female Epinephelus akaara (Teleostei-dihydroprogesterone, or a combination of the last 2 steroids, were injected into different groups of immature female Epinephelus. None of the steroids tested had significant effects on ser- um electrolyte level, and hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic

Boyer, Edmond

399

Original article Effect of the increase of steroid binding plasma  

E-print Network

Original article Effect of the increase of steroid binding plasma levels after passive immunization to increase sex steroid bin- ding levels in plasma and thus to overcome the negative feedback of oestradiol-17 testosterone increased sex steroid binding levels in plas- ma of underfed heifers and reduced the amount of E2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

400

Annual Cycles of Steroid Hormone Production, Gonad Development, and Reproductive  

E-print Network

Annual Cycles of Steroid Hormone Production, Gonad Development, and Reproductive Behavior and ultimate function of this extended preovulatory mating are un- known. Annual cycles of the gonadal steroids their choice of mates. This estuary sample population shows higher ab- solute steroid levels and distinct

Tricas, Timothy C.

401

ACCELERATED COMMUNICATION Enantiomers of Neuroactive Steroids Support a  

E-print Network

ACCELERATED COMMUNICATION Enantiomers of Neuroactive Steroids Support a Specific Interaction with the GABA-C Receptor as the Mechanism of Steroid Action Wenjun Li, Douglas F. Covey, Juha-Matti Alakoskela steroids can either potentiate or inhibit a variety of membrane channels. Most studies have suggested

Steinbach, Joe Henry

402

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Familial steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Familial steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome in Southern Israel: clinical January 2007 # IPNA 2007 Abstract Reports on genetically informative steroid-re- sponsive (sensitive with a high rate of consanguinity. The clinical presentation and steroid response of its 11 affected

Friedman, Nir

403

COMMUNICATION The Discovery of Steroids and Other Novel FKBP  

E-print Network

COMMUNICATION The Discovery of Steroids and Other Novel FKBP Inhibitors Using a Molecular Docking with dissociation constants in the low micromolar range. The discovery that FK506 binding protein is a steroid the steroid binding mode and con®rmed the interactions predicted by the docking program. # 1999 Academic Press

Sanner, Michel

404

RESEARCH ARTICLE Coming of Age: Steroid Hormones of Wild Immature  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Coming of Age: Steroid Hormones of Wild Immature Baboons (Papio cynocephalus populations. In the present study we present steroid profiles for a wild population of baboons (Papio was character- ized by high and declining levels of fGC and fT, whereas steroid concentrations were low during

Alberts, Susan C

405

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN OVARIAN STEROIDS OR PROGESTAGENS AND LH RELEASE  

E-print Network

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN OVARIAN STEROIDS OR PROGESTAGENS AND LH RELEASE J. PELLETIER J. THIMONIER). Little is known about the effect of steroids at the hypothalamic level, although it is thought steroids and hypothalamo-pituitary activity is the variation of pituitary responsiveness to LRF during

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

406

Serotonergic neurons respond to nutrients and regulate the timing of steroid hormone biosynthesis in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

The temporal transition of development is flexibly coordinated in the context of the nutrient environment, and this coordination is essential for organisms to increase their survival fitness and reproductive success. Steroid hormone, a key player of the juvenile-to-adult transition, is biosynthesized in a nutrient-dependent manner; however, the underlying genetic mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that the biosynthesis of insect steroid hormone, ecdysteroid, is regulated by a subset of serotonergic neurons in Drosophila melanogaster. These neurons directly innervate the prothoracic gland (PG), an ecdysteroid-producing organ and share tracts with the stomatogastric nervous system. Interestingly, the projecting neurites morphologically respond to nutrient conditions. Moreover, reduced activity of the PG-innervating neurons or of serotonin signalling in the PG strongly correlates with a delayed developmental transition. Our results suggest that serotonergic neurons form a link between the external environment and the internal endocrine system by adaptively tuning the timing of steroid hormone biosynthesis. PMID:25502946

Shimada-Niwa, Yuko; Niwa, Ryusuke

2014-01-01

407

Dynamic feedback circuits function as a switch for shaping a maturation-inducing steroid pulse in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Steroid hormones trigger the onset of sexual maturation in animals by initiating genetic response programs that are determined by steroid pulse frequency, amplitude and duration. Although steroid pulses coordinate growth and timing of maturation during development, the mechanisms generating these pulses are not known. Here we show that the ecdysone steroid pulse that drives the juvenile-adult transition in Drosophila is determined by feedback circuits in the prothoracic gland (PG), the major steroid-producing tissue of insect larvae. These circuits coordinate the activation and repression of hormone synthesis, the two key parameters determining pulse shape (amplitude and duration). We show that ecdysone has a positive-feedback effect on the PG, rapidly amplifying its own synthesis to trigger pupariation as the onset of maturation. During the prepupal stage, a negative-feedback signal ensures the decline in ecdysone levels required to produce a temporal steroid pulse that drives developmental progression to adulthood. The feedback circuits rely on a developmental switch in the expression of Broad isoforms that transcriptionally activate or silence components in the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway. Remarkably, our study shows that the same well-defined genetic program that stimulates a systemic downstream response to ecdysone is also utilized upstream to set the duration and amplitude of the ecdysone pulse. Activation of this switch-like mechanism ensures a rapid, self-limiting PG response that functions in producing steroid oscillations that can guide the decision to terminate growth and promote maturation. PMID:24173800

Moeller, Morten E.; Danielsen, E. Thomas; Herder, Rachel; O’Connor, Michael B.; Rewitz, Kim F.

2013-01-01

408

Self-actuated nuclear reactor shutdown system using induction pump to facilitate sensing of core coolant temperature  

DOEpatents

A self-actuated shutdown system incorporated into a reactivity control assembly in a nuclear reactor includes pumping means for creating an auxiliary downward flow of a portion of the heated coolant exiting from the fuel assemblies disposed adjacent to the control assembly. The shutdown system includes a hollow tubular member which extends through the outlet of the control assembly top nozzle so as to define an outer annular flow channel through the top nozzle outlet separate from an inner flow channel for primary coolant flow through the control assembly. Also, a latching mechanism is disposed in an inner duct of the control assembly and is operable for holding absorber bundles in a raised position in the control assembly and for releasing them to drop them into the core of the reactor for shutdown purposes. The latching mechanism has an inner flow passage extending between and in flow communication with the absorber bundles and the inner flow channel of the top nozzle for accommodating primary coolant flow upwardly through the control assembly. Also, an outer flow passage separate from the inner flow passage extends through the latching mechanism between and in flow communication with the inner duct and the outer flow channel of the top nozzle for accommodating inflow of a portion of the heated coolant from the adjacent fuel assemblies. The latching mechanism contains a magnetic material sensitive to temperature and operable to cause mating or latching together of the components of the latching mechanism when the temperature sensed is below a known temperature and unmating or unlatching thereof when the temperature sensed is above a given temperature. The temperature sensitive magnetic material is positioned in communication with the heated coolant flow through the outer flow passage for directly sensing the temperature thereof. Finally, the pumping means includes a jet induction pump nozzle and diffuser disposed adjacent the bottom nozzle of the control assembly and in flow communication with the inlet thereof. The pump nozzle is operable to create an upward driving flow of primary coolant through the pump diffuser and then to the absorber bundles. The upward driving flow of primary coolant, in turn, creates a suction head within the outer flow channel of the top nozzle and thereby an auxiliary downward flow of the heated coolant portion exiting from the upper end of the adjacent fuel assemblies through the outer flow channel to the pump nozzle via the outer flow passage of the latching mechanism and an annular space between the outer and inner spaced ducts of the control assembly housing. The temperature of the heated coolant exiting from the adjacent fuel assemblies can thereby be sensed directly by the temperature sensitive magnetic material in the latching mechanism.

Sievers, Robert K. (N. Huntingdon, PA); Cooper, Martin H. (Churchill, PA); Tupper, Robert B. (Greensburg, PA)

1987-01-01

409

Natural occurrence of steroid hormones in food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural occurrence of the sex steroid hormones progesterone, testosterone, 17?-estradiol and estrone in food was investigated in a survey of the German market basket. The main metabolic precursors, intermediates and metabolites (pregnenolone, androstenedione, hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dihydrotestosterone, androsterone, 17?-estradiol and estriol) were also included in the investigation. Particular attention was paid to DHEA, which is said to have anti-aging

Sonja Hartmann; Markus Lacorn; Hans Steinhart

1998-01-01

410

Hepatoma associated with anabolic steroid therapy.  

PubMed

A patient with Fanconi's anemia who developed a hepatoma after 50 months of therapy with anabolic steroids is reported. The lesion presented as a cold focal defect on a Tc99m sulfur colloid scintigram, but was avascular on dynamic scintigraphy. Both the unusual avascularity of the hepatoma, and its association with anabolic steriod therapy are discussed. PMID:169708

Holder, L E; Gnarra, D J; Lampkin, B C; Nishiyama, H; Perkins, P

1975-08-01

411

Steroid Hormone Measurement in Epidemiological Studies  

Cancer.gov

July 17, 2014 10:30 AM - 11:30 AM Shady Grove, Room TE406 + Add to Outlook Calendar Speaker: Neal E. Craft, Ph.D. President Craft Technologies, Inc. Print This Page Steroid Hormone Measurement in Epidemiological Studies DCEG Seminar News & Events

412

Neurology of sex steroids and oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

Under normal circumstances, sex steroids interact with diverse neural substrates to modulate a host of activities essential to the preservation of the individual and the species. In addition, sex hormones play an important role in various human neurologic conditions including strokes, migraine, certain movement disorders and peripheral neuropathies, and possibly even the behavior of CNS neoplasms. PMID:3025581

Schipper, H M

1986-11-01

413

Preventing Anabolic Steroid Use: Guidelines and Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information about anabolic steroids should be included in the school health curriculum as early as possible. The paper presents suggestions for planning education programs and offers a variety of activities and strategies appropriate for many age groups, including case studies, story completion, posters, demonstrations, projects, creative writing,…

Nutter, June; Rauhe, Betty

1997-01-01

414

High-frequency induction machine models for calculation and prediction of common mode stator ground currents in electric drive systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the calculation of the common mode (CM) ground current in voltage source - inverter fed induction machines a simplified (SHF) and a distributed (DHF) high-frequency equivalent circuit are compared. The SHF circuit needs measured parameters of the electric machines, but gives good results in comparison to the measured CM ground current. The DHF circuit predicts the CM currents purely

Oliver Magdun; Andreas Binder; Calin Purcarea; Alexander Rocks

2009-01-01

415

Photoaffinity Labeling with a Neuroactive Steroid Analogue 6-AZI-PREGNANOLONE LABELS VOLTAGE-DEPENDENT ANION CHANNEL-1 IN RAT BRAIN*  

E-print Network

in the central nervous system by an unknown mechanism. In this study we have used a novel neuroactive steroid ana concentrations. The photolabeled 35-kDa pro- tein was isolated from rat brain by two-dimensional PAGE between the ability of various neuroactive steroid ana- logues to modulate GABAA receptors

Steinbach, Joe Henry

416

Puberty, steroids and GABAA receptor plasticity  

PubMed Central

Summary GABAA receptors (GABAR) mediate most inhibition in the CNS and are also a target for neuroactive steroids such as 3?,5[?]?-THP (3?OH-5[?]?-OH-pregnan-20-one or [allo]pregnanolone). Although these steroids robustly enhance current gated by ?1?2? GABAR, we have shown that 3?,5[?]?-THP effects at recombinant ?4?2? GABAR depend on the direction of Cl- flux, where the steroid increases outward flux, but decreases inward flux through the receptor. This polarity-dependent inhibition of ?4?2? GABAR resulted from an increase in the rate and extent of rapid desensitization of the receptor, recorded from recombinant receptors expressed in HEK-293 cells with whole cell voltage clamp techniques. This inhibitory effect of 3?,5[?]?-THP was not observed at other receptor subtypes, suggesting it was selective for ?4?2? GABAR. Furthermore, it was prevented by a selective mutation of basic residue arginine 353 in the intracellular loop of the receptor, suggesting that this might be a putative chloride modulatory site. Expression of ?4?? GABAR increases markedly at extrasynaptic sites at the onset of puberty in female mice. At this time, 3?,5[?]?–THP decreased the inhibitory tonic current, recorded with perforated patch techniques to maintain the physiological Cl- gradient. By decreasing this shunting inhibition, 3?,5[?]?–THP increased the excitability of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells at puberty: These effects of the steroid were opposite to those observed before puberty when 3?,5[?]?–THP reduced neuronal excitability as a pre-synaptic effect. Behaviorally, the excitatory effect of 3?,5[?]?–THP was reflected as an increase in anxiety at the onset of puberty in female mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that the emergence of ?4?2? GABAR at the onset of puberty reverses the effect of a stress steroid. These findings may be relevant for the mood swings and increased response to stressful events reported in adolescence. PMID:19523771

Smith, Sheryl S.; Aoki, Chiye; Shen, Hui

2009-01-01

417

Steroid and steroid glucuronide profiles in urine during pregnancy determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of steroids and their glucuronides in urine samples. The method provides high sensitivity and fast analysis, as both steroids and their glucuronides can be analyzed directly without hydrolysis or complex sample preparation. The method was applied in profiling of targeted and nontargeted steroids and steroid glucuronides during pregnancy. The concentrations of 11 of 27 targeted steroids and steroid glucuronides and the concentrations of 25 nontargeted steroid glucuronides increased about 10-400 fold during the pregnancy. The concentrations of most of these 36 compounds began to increase in the first days of the pregnancy, increased gradually during the pregnancy, achieved a maximum in late pregnancy, and decreased sharply after delivery. Exceptionally, the concentrations of allopregnanolone and 17-hydroxypregnenolone started to increase later than those of the other steroids. Moreover, the concentrations of E2 glucuronides began to decrease one week before the delivery, in contrast to most of the steroids and steroid glucuronides, whose concentrations dropped sharply during the delivery. Concentrations of 34 compounds decreased noticeably when the subject was on sick leave owing a series of painful contractions. The results suggest that steroids and especially steroid glucuronides may provide a valuable diagnostic tool to follow the course of pregnancy. PMID:24176505

Jäntti, Sirkku E; Hartonen, Minna; Hilvo, Mika; Nygren, Heli; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Ketola, Raimo A; Kostiainen, Risto

2013-11-13

418

Pseudomonas spp.-induced systemic resistance to Botrytis cinerea is associated with induction and priming of defence responses in grapevine.  

PubMed

Non-pathogenic rhizobacteria Pseudomonas spp. can reduce disease in plant tissues through induction of a defence state known as induced systemic resistance (ISR). This resistance is based on multiple bacterial determinants, but nothing is known about the mechanisms underlying rhizobacteria-induced resistance in grapevine. In this study, the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 to induce resistance in grapevine against Botrytis cinerea is demonstrated. Both strains also triggered an oxidative burst and phytoalexin (i.e. resveratrol and viniferin) accumulation in grape cells and primed leaves for accelerated phytoalexin production upon challenge with B. cinerea. Treatment of cell cultures with crude cell extracts of bacteria strongly enhanced oxidative burst, but resulted in comparable amounts of phytoalexins and resistance to B. cinerea to those induced by living bacteria. This suggests the production of bacterial compounds serving as inducers of disease resistance. Using other strains with different characteristics, it is shown that P. fluorescens WCS417 (Pch-deficient), P. putida WCS358 (Pch- and SA-deficient) and P. fluorescens Q2-87 (a DAPG producer) were all capable of inducing resistance to an extent similar to that induced by CHA0. However, in response to WCS417 (Pch-negative) the amount of H2O2 induced is less than for the CHA0. WCS417 induced low phytoalexin levels in cells and lost the capacity to prime for phytoalexins in the leaves. This suggests that, depending on the strain, SA, pyochelin, and DAPG are potentially effective in inducing or priming defence responses. The 7NSK2 mutants, KMPCH (Pch- and Pvd-negative) and KMPCH-567 (Pch-, Pvd-, and SA-negative) induced only partial resistance to B. cinerea. However, the amount of H2O2 triggered by KMPCH and KMPCH-567 was similar to that induced by 7NSK2. Both mutants also led to a low level of phytoalexins in grapevine cells, while KMPCH slightly primed grapevine leaves for enhanced phytoalexins. This highlights the importance of SA, pyochelin, and/or pyoverdin in priming phytoalexin responses and induced grapevine resistance by 7NSK2 against B. cinerea. PMID:19812243

Verhagen, Bas W M; Trotel-Aziz, Patricia; Couderchet, Michel; Höfte, Monica; Aziz, Aziz

2010-01-01

419

Gym and tonic: a profile of 100 male steroid users.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To identify unsupervised anabolic steroid regimens used by athletes. METHODS: 100 athletes attending four gymnasia were surveyed using an anonymous self administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Anabolic steroid doses ranged from 250 to 3200 mg per week and users combined different drugs to achieve these doses. Injectable and oral preparations were used in cycles lasting four to 12 weeks. Eighty six per cent of users admitted to the regular use of drugs other than steroids for various reasons, including additional anabolic effects, the minimisation of steroid related side effects, and withdrawal symptoms. Acne, striae, and gynaecomastia were the most commonly reported subjective side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple steroids are combined in megadoses and self administered in a cyclical fashion. Polypharmacy is practised by over 80% of steroid users. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy along with acne, striae, and gynaecomastia are frequent physical signs associated with steroid use. Images Figure 2 PMID:9132214

Evans, N A

1997-01-01

420

Selective steroid oxyfunctionalisation by CYP154C5, a bacterial cytochrome P450  

PubMed Central

Background Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases – able to regio- and stereoselectively hydroxylate non-activated carbon atoms – are important enzymes for the synthesis of valuable intermediates in the production of steroid hormones in the pharmaceutical industry. However, up to now only a few bacterial enzymes able to hydroxylate steroids have been reported. CYP154C5 from Nocardia farcinica IFM 10152, a bacterial P450 monooxygenase, was previously shown to convert testosterone to 16?-hydroxytestosterone. Since the hydroxylation at 16?-position is of special interest for the pharmaceutical industry, we have studied this enzyme in more detail to investigate its activity and selectivity in bioconversions of further steroids. Results CYP154C5 was coexpressed in Escherichia coli together with putidaredoxin and putidaredoxin reductase from Pseudomonas putida as redox partners for electron transfer and applied in bioconversions of various pregnanes and androstanes [pregnenolone (1), dehydroepiandrosterone (2), progesterone (3), androstenedione (4), testosterone (5) and nandrolone (6)]. Structure elucidation of the formed products revealed an exclusive regio- and stereoselectivity of CYP154C5, always yielding the corresponding 16?-hydroxylated steroids. Application of whole cells expressing the three components, P450, Pdx and PdR, in steroid biotransformations resulted in significantly higher conversions and total turnover numbers (TTN) compared to reactions using cell-free extracts. Additionally, considerably higher substrate loads (up to 15 mM) were tolerated by the whole-cell system. Furthermore, turnover numbers (TON) were determined for the six different steroids using whole cells. Thus, testosterone was found to be the worst substrate with a TON of only 0.8 ?mol substrate consumed min-1 ?mol-1 CYP154C5, while progesterone and pregnenolone were converted the fastest resulting in TON of 3.3 ?mol substrate consumed min-1 ?mol-1 CYP154C5. Conclusion CYP154C5 from N. farcinica constitutes a promising catalyst due to its high regio- and stereoselectivity in the hydroxylation of different steroids as well as its efficient expression in E. coli at high yields. Using this enzyme, 16?-hydroxylated steroids, which are important precursors for the synthesis of high value steroidal drugs in the pharmaceutical industry, can be selectively produced on preparative scale with TTN (?mol substrate consumed ?mol-1 CYP154C5) exceeding 2000. PMID:24134652

2013-01-01

421

Synaptocrine Signaling: Steroid Synthesis and Action at the Synapse  

PubMed Central

Sex steroids have long been recognized for their dramatic impact on brain and behavior, including rapid modulation of membrane excitability. It is a widely held perception that these molecules are largely derived from peripheral sources and lack the spatial and temporal specificity ascribed to classical neuromodulatory systems. Neuromodulatory systems, in contrast, are defined by their regulated neuronal presynaptic secretion and by their functional modulation of perisynaptic events. Here we provide evidence for regulated presynaptic estrogen synthesis and functional postsynaptic actions. These results meet all the criteria for a neuromodulatory system and shift our perception of estrogens from that of peripheral signals exclusively to include that of a signaling system intrinsic to the brain itself. We apply the term synaptocrine to describe this form of neuromodulation. PMID:21622487

Saldanha, Colin J.; Remage-Healey, Luke

2011-01-01

422

Steroids induce acetylcholine receptors on cultured human muscle: Implications for myasthenia gravis  

SciTech Connect

Antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), which are diagnostic of the human autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis, block AChR function and increase the rate of AChR degradation leading to impaired neuromuscular transmission. Steroids are frequently used to alleviate symptoms of muscle fatigue and weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis because of their well-documented immunosuppressive effects. The authors show here that the steroid dexamethasone significantly increases total surface AChRs on cultured human muscle exposed to myasthenia gravis sera. The results suggest that the clinical improvement observed in myasthenic patients treated with steroids is due not only to an effect on the immune system but also a direct effect on muscle. They propose that the identification and development of pharmacologic agents that augment receptors and other proteins that are reduced by human genetic or autoimmune disease will have broad therapeutic applications.

Kaplan, I.; Blakely, B.T.; Pavlath, G.K.; Travis, M.; Blau, H.M. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (USA))

1990-10-01

423

Modulation of corneal wound healing after excimer laser keratomileusis using topical mitomycin C and steroids  

SciTech Connect

A 193-nm excimer laser system was used to create deep stromal ablations in seven New Zealand white rabbits and shallow ablations in three. Eyes were randomized for treatment with topical mitomycin C, steroids, and erythromycin; topical steroids and erythromycin; or topical erythromycin only. All treatment regimens were instituted twice daily for 14 days. All eyes reepithelialized normally within 3 to 5 days. During 10 weeks of follow-up, all eyes developed moderate reticular subepithelial haze without significant differences among treatment groups. Results of light, fluorescence, and electron microscopic examination showed anterior stromal scarring and markedly reduced new subepithelial collagen formation in the group treated with mitomycin C, corticosteroids, and erythromycin. Focal abnormalities of Descemet's membrane and endothelial abnormalities were present in all treatment groups. Combination therapy with topical steroids, mitomycin C, and erythromycin to control the corneal wound healing response after refractive laser surgery appears promising and warrants further study.

Talamo, J.H.; Gollamudi, S.; Green, W.R.; De La Cruz, Z.; Filatov, V.; Stark, W.J. (Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (USA))

1991-08-01

424

The Brain of Teleost Fish, a Source, and a Target of Sexual Steroids  

PubMed Central

Neurosteroids are defined as steroids de novo synthesized in the central nervous system. While the production of neurosteroids is well documented in mammals and amphibians, there is less information about teleosts, the largest group of fish. Teleosts have long been known for their high brain aromatase and 5?-reductase activities, but recent data now document the capacity of the fish brain to produce a large variety of sex steroids. This article aims at reviewing the available information regarding expression and/or activity of the main steroidogenic enzymes in the brain of fish. In addition, the distribution of estrogen, androgen, and progesterone nuclear receptors is documented in relation with the potential sites of production of neurosteroids. Interestingly, radial glial cells acting as neuronal progenitors, appear to be a potential source of neurosteroids, but also a target for centrally and/or peripherally produced steroids. PMID:22194715

Diotel, Nicolas; Do Rego, Jean-Luc; Anglade, Isabelle; Vaillant, Colette; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Vaudry, Hubert; Kah, Olivier

2011-01-01

425

Gluteal mass in a bodybuilder: radiological depiction of a complication of anabolic steroid use.  

PubMed

The use of anabolic steroids by bodybuilders is relatively common and associated with many side effects. Local side effects include tissue necrosis and soft tissue infection at the injection site. Systemic effects may be early epiphyseal closure in the immature skeleton, testicular atrophy, sterility, acne, gynaecomastia and liver disorders such as hepatitis. We report an unusual case of a bodybuilder who developed a large painful inflammatory soft tissue mass in his gluteal area. Multi-modality imaging showed direct evidence revealing the underlying cause of the mass being depot steroid injections. PMID:12042941

Al-Ismail, Khalid; Torreggiani, William C; Munk, Peter L; Nicolaou, Savvas

2002-06-01

426

Invasive fungal sinusitis in a healthy athlete due to long-term anabolic steroid use.  

PubMed

Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is a potentially fatal infection that affects immunocompromised patients. Prognosis is generally poor despite aggressive medical and surgical treatments. We present the first reported case of invasive fungal sinusitis in a healthy 18-year-old male athlete who was taking anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). The effects of excessive AAS use on the immune system are not fully understood, but there may be consequences at supraphysiological concentrations. This case demonstrates potential immunomodulatory effects of anabolic steroids and highlights a previously unknown cause of invasive fungal sinusitis. PMID:24459005

Kim, Irene A; Thompson, Christopher F; Kedeshian, Paul A; Palma-Diaz, Fernando; Suh, Jeffrey D

2014-08-01

427

Control of target gene specificity during metamorphosis by the steroid response gene E93  

PubMed Central

Hormonal control of sexual maturation is a common feature in animal development. A particularly dramatic example is the metamorphosis of insects, in which pulses of the steroid hormone ecdysone drive the wholesale transformation of the larva into an adult. The mechanisms responsible for this transformation are not well understood. Work in Drosophila indicates that the larval and adult forms are patterned by the same underlying sets of developmental regulators, but it is not understood how the same regulators pattern two distinct forms. Recent studies indicate that this ability is facilitated by a global change in the responsiveness of target genes during metamorphosis. Here we show that this shift is controlled in part by the ecdysone-induced transcription factor E93. Although long considered a dedicated regulator of larval cell death, we find that E93 is expressed widely in adult cells at the pupal stage and is required for many patterning processes at this time. To understand the role of E93 in adult patterning, we focused on a simple E93-dependent process, the induction of the Dll gene within bract cells of the pupal leg by EGF receptor signaling. In this system, we show that E93 functions to cause Dll to become responsive to EGF receptor signaling. We demonstrate that E93 is both necessary and sufficient for directing this switch. E93 likely controls the responsiveness of many other target genes because it is required broadly for patterning during metamorphosis. The wide conservation of E93 orthologs suggests that similar mechanisms control life-cycle transitions in other organisms, including vertebrates. PMID:22308414

Mou, Xiaochun; Duncan, Dianne M.; Baehrecke, Eric H.; Duncan, Ian

2012-01-01

428

Analysis of in situ electric field and specific absorption rate in human models for wireless power transfer system with induction coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the in situ electric field in anatomically based human models for the magnetic field from an inductive wireless power transfer system developed on the basis of the specifications of the wireless power consortium. The transfer system consists of two induction coils covered by magnetic sheets. Both the waiting and charging conditions are considered. The transfer frequency considered in this study is 140 kHz, which is within the range where the magneto-quasi-static approximation is valid. The SAR and in situ electric field in the chest and arm of the models are calculated by numerically solving the scalar potential finite difference equation. The electromagnetic modelling of the coils in the wireless power transfer system is verified by comparing the computed and measured magnetic field distributions. The results indicate that the peak value of the SAR averaged over a 10 g of tissue and that of the in situ electric field are 72 nW kg-1 and 91 mV m-1 for a transmitted power of 1 W, Consequently, the maximum allowable transmitted powers satisfying the exposure limits of the SAR (2 W kg-1) and the in situ electric field (18.9 V m-1) are found to be 28 MW and 43 kW. The computational results show that the in situ electric field in the chest is the most restrictive factor when compliance with the wireless power transfer system is evaluated according to international guidelines.

Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; Onishi, Teruo

2014-07-01

429

High-Throughput Functional Screening of Steroid Substrates with Wild-Type and Chimeric P450 Enzymes  

PubMed Central

The promiscuity of a collection of enzymes consisting of 31 wild-type and synthetic variants of CYP1A enzymes was evaluated using a series of 14 steroids and 2 steroid-like chemicals, namely, nootkatone, a terpenoid, and mifepristone, a drug. For each enzyme-substrate couple, the initial steady-state velocity of metabolite formation was determined at a substrate saturating concentration. For that, a high-throughput approach was designed involving automatized incubations in 96-well microplate with sixteen 6-point kinetics per microplate and data acquisition using LC/MS system accepting 96-well microplate for injections. The resulting dataset was used for multivariate statistics aimed at sorting out the correlations existing between tested enzyme variants and ability to metabolize steroid substrates. Functional classifications of both CYP1A enzyme variants and steroid substrate structures were obtained allowing the delineation of global structural features for both substrate recognition and regioselectivity of oxidation. PMID:25243177

Truan, Gilles; Pompon, Denis

2014-01-01

430

Steroids from the Soft Coral Sinularia crassa  

PubMed Central

One new sterol, crassarosterol A (1), and four new steroidal glycosides, crassarosterosides A–D (2–5) were isolated from the Formosan soft coral Sinularia crassa. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined using the Mosher’s method. The absolute configurations for the sugar moieties of 2–5 were determined by HPLC analysis on the o-tolylthiocarbamates derived from the liberated sugar after acid hydrolysis. Compounds 2 and 4 could significantly inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory iNOS protein at 10 µM. In contrast, 1–3 were found to stimulate the expression of COX-2 protein at this concentration. Steroids 1 and 4 also showed cytotoxicity toward the selected human liver cancer cells. PMID:22412811

Chao, Chih-Hua; Chou, Kuei-Ju; Huang, Chiung-Yao; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Wu, Yang-Chang; Dai, Chang-Feng; Sheu, Jyh-Horng

2012-01-01

431

Cytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave sisalana.  

PubMed

Two new steroidal saponins, 8 and 10, along with 7 known steroidal sapogenins and saponins (1-7) and a furostanol saponin (9) were isolated from Agave sisalana Perrine ex Engelm. The structures of these two new compounds were identified and characterized by 1D and 2D?NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In addition, acid hydrolysis and GC-FID were used to confirm the sugar moieties of 8 and 10. The cytotoxic effects of 1-10 on MCF-7, NCI-H460, and SF-268 cancer cells were evaluated, and among them, compound 10 proved to be the most cytotoxic with IC?? values of 1.2, 3.8, and 1.5 µM, respectively. PMID:21243587

Chen, Pi-Yu; Chen, Chin-Hui; Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lee, Ching-Kuo

2011-06-01

432

Spinal subdural abscess following epidural steroid injection.  

PubMed

The authors report the case of a 58-year-old man who presented with a cervicothoracolumbosacral spinal subdural abscess about a month after receiving an epidural steroid injection for management of low-back pain due to L5-S1 disc herniation. Although he presented with symptoms concerning for a spinal etiology, the subdural empyema was not evident on the initial MRI study and was observed on imaging 5 days later. This patient was successfully managed with surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment, and he is doing well more than 21 months after the operation. It is possible that a prior history of disc herniation or other spinal abnormality may increase a patient's risk of developing spinal subdural empyema. This case illustrates the risk of infection following spinal epidural steroid injections and the importance of early recognition and intervention to successfully treat an extensive subdural abscess. PMID:25343407

Kraeutler, Matthew J; Bozzay, Joseph D; Walker, Matthew P; John, Kuruvilla

2015-01-01

433

Acute confusion secondary to steroid eye drops.  

PubMed

We present a case of a 90-year-old woman who presented to the acute medical unit with a new onset presentation of confusion. Her abbreviated mental test on admission was 5/10. Biochemical screen including full blood count, urea and electrolytes, C reactive protein and liver function test and imaging such as chest X-ray and CT of the head were normal. The patient had recently been started on steroid eye drops for shingles. Suspension of this medication was followed by a resolution of confusion with the abbreviated mental test on discharge improving to 9/10. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first presentation of a link between steroid eye drops and acute confusion. PMID:25540207

Farooq, Umar; Dallol, Bander

2014-01-01

434

LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the installation, testing, and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste (HLW) samples in a hot cell environment. The work was completed by the Analytical Process Development (APD) group in accordance with Task Order 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S Laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method.

SEIDEL CM; JAIN J; OWENS JW

2009-02-23

435

LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the installation, testing and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste samples in a hot cell environment. The 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method.

LOCKREM LL; OWENS JW; SEIDEL CM

2009-03-26

436

Development of an inductively-coupled MR coil system for imaging and spectroscopic analysis of an implantable bioartificial construct at 11.1T  

PubMed Central

Developing a method to non-invasively monitor tissue engineered constructs is critical for the optimization of construct design and for assessing therapeutic efficacy. For this purpose, NMR is a powerful technique that can be used to obtain both images and spectroscopic data. But the inherent sensitivity of NMR limits the observation of a bioartificial construct with current NMR surface coil technology. In this study, we address this limitation through the development of an inductively-coupled, implantable coil system, demonstrate its use at high field (11.1T), and investigate the use of this coil system for monitoring a bioartificial construct in vitro and in vivo. The results establish that large gains in signal-to-noise can be obtained with this coil system over that obtainable with a surface coil. This coil system provides a means to quantitatively analyze the structure and function of implanted bioartificial organs. PMID:20373400

Volland, Nelly A.; Mareci, Thomas H.; Constantinidis, Ioannis; Simpson, Nicholas E.

2010-01-01

437

Separation and purification of two isomorphic steroids by a novel extractive drowning out crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel extraction drowning out crystallization technology was brought forward for separation and purification of two isomorphic steroid pharmaceutical intermediates. In this process, extraction and crystallization are conducted in the same crystallizer simultaneously. The two immiscible (partial miscible) liquid phases were achieved by adding water into the toluene–DMF system. The role played by water is both as an antisolvent for

Qiang Nie; Jingkang Wang; Qiuxiang Yin

2006-01-01

438

Music increase altruism through regulating the secretion of steroid hormones and peptides.  

PubMed

Music is well known for its effect on human behavior especially of their bonding and empathy towards others. Music provokes one's emotion and activates mirror neurons and reward system. It also regulates social hormones such as steroid hormones or peptides, and increases empathy, pro-sociality and altruism. As a result, it improves one's reproductive success. PMID:25459139

Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

2014-12-01

439

A Computational Model to Predict Rat Ovarian Steroid Secretion from In Vitro Experiments with Endocrine  

E-print Network

with Endocrine Disruptors Nadia Quignot1,2 *, Fre´de´ric Y. Bois1,2 1 Chair of Mathematical Modeling for Systems are a serious health concern, and numerous studies have been devoted to studying the effects of endocrine, and their response to endocrine disruption. The model is able to predict ovarian sex steroid concentrations under

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

440

Effect of longterm misoprostol coadministration with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a histological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostaglandins are widely used in the prevention and healing of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastric and duodenal ulcers, but their longterm effect on the human gastric mucosa is unknown. This study assessed the effect of coadministration of prostaglandins with NSAIDs on the histology of the gastroduodenal mucosa. Histological appearances (using the Sydney system) of gastric biopsy specimens from 180

K Shah; A B Price; I C Talbot; K D Bardhan; C G Fenn; I Bjarnason

1995-01-01

441

Limonoid and Steroidal Saponin from Azadirachta indica.  

PubMed

A new limonoid, 17-(5-methoxy-2-oxofuran-3-yl)-28-deoxonimbolide (1), and a new C21 steroidal saponin, 2?,4?-dihydroxy-pregn-5-en-16-one-3?-O-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with 11 known compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of the leaves of Azadirachta indica. The structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis and putative biosynthetic origins. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against six bacterial strains. PMID:25381190

Liu, Lu; Zhao, Yun-Li; Cheng, Gui-Guang; Chen, Ying-Ying; Qin, Xu-Jie; Song, Chang-Wei; Yang, Xing-Wei; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

2014-11-01

442

Urinary steroids in women with androgenic alopecia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the nature of the hormonal overproduction in androgenic alopecia.Design and methods: Urinary steroid metabolites were measured after enzyme hydrolysis and methoxym-silyl derivatization by capillary gas chromatography in 56 women with androgenic alopecia and in 17 control healthy laboratory women workers.Results: Elevated C19 metabolites of testosterone and androstendione, hyperandrogenemia (p < 0.01), and increased cortisol (p < 0.01)

Susan Juricskay; Enikõ Telegdy

2000-01-01

443

ANABOLIC-ANDROGENIC STEROID DEPENDENCE? INSIGHTS FROM ANIMALS AND HUMANS  

PubMed Central

Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. They are taken in large quantities by athletes and others to increase performance, with negative health consequences. As a result, in 1991 testosterone and related AAS were declared controlled substances. However, the relative abuse and dependence liability of AAS have not been fully characterized. In humans, it is difficult to separate the direct psychoactive effects of AAS from reinforcement due to their systemic anabolic effects. However, using conditioned place preference and self-administration, studies in animals have demonstrated that AAS are reinforcing in a context where athletic performance is irrelevant. Furthermore, AAS share brain sites of action and neurotransmitter systems in common with other drugs of abuse. In particular, recent evidence links AAS with opioids. In humans, AAS abuse is associated with prescription opioid use. In animals, AAS overdose produces symptoms resembling opioid overdose, and AAS modify the activity of the endogenous opioid system. PMID:18275992

Wood, Ruth I.

2008-01-01

444

Steroid Analysis in Saliva: An overview  

PubMed Central

The first report of steroid analysis in saliva was more than thirty years ago. Since that time its popularity has increased due to the attractiveness of non-invasive, repeated and simple stress-free sampling. It has proved a popular sampling fluid for psychobiology, sports medicine, pharmacology and paediatric studies as well as in the area of complementary medicine. In the diagnostic laboratory, salivary progesterone and oestradiol have been used for assessing ovarian function and 17?-OH progesterone for the diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Salivary cortisol is used for investigating adrenal function and recently there has been considerable interest in the use of bedtime salivary cortisol levels as a screening test for Cushing’s disease. However, there are several caveats on the use of saliva including collection techniques, the variable matrix of saliva, sensitivity, steroid stability, the presence of binding proteins and reference range anomalies. This brief review will attempt to address these issues and provide a balanced approach to steroid analysis in saliva. PMID:17268582

Lewis, John G

2006-01-01

445

Steroidal Compounds in Commercial Parenteral Lipid Emulsions  

PubMed Central

Parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions made from various plant oils contain steroidal compounds, called phytosterols. During parenteral administration of lipid emulsions, phytosterols can reach levels in the blood that are many fold higher than during enteral administration. The elevated phytosterol levels have been associated with the development of liver dysfunction and the rare development of liver failure. There is limited information available in the literature related to phytosterol concentrations in lipid emulsions. The objective of the current study was to validate an assay for steroidal compounds found in lipid emulsions and to compare their concentrations in the most commonly used parenteral nutrition lipid emulsions: Liposyn® II, Liposyn® III, Lipofundin® MCT, Lipofundin® N, Structolipid®, Intralipid®, Ivelip® and ClinOleic®. Our data demonstrates that concentrations of the various steroidal compounds varied greatly between the eight lipid emulsions, with the olive oil-based lipid emulsion containing the lowest levels of phytosterols and cholesterol, and the highest concentration of squalene. The clinical impression of greater incidences of liver dysfunction with soybean versus MCT/LCT and olive/soy lipid emulsions may be reflective of the levels of phytosterols in these emulsions. This information may help guide future studies and clinical care of patients with lipid emulsion-associated liver dysfunction. PMID:23016123

Xu, Zhidong; Harvey, Kevin A.; Pavlina, Thomas; Dutot, Guy; Hise, Mary; Zaloga, Gary P.; Siddiqui, Rafat A.

2012-01-01

446

Sex steroids regulation of appetitive behavior.  

PubMed

Appetite is the desire to satisfy the need to consume food, felt as hunger. It is regulated by the balance of food intake and energy expenditure via signals between the brain, the digestive tract and the adipose tissue. Males and females vary in terms of eating behavior as well as the way the body fat is stored. Energy balance and body fat distribution are part of the sexual dimorphism in many mammalian species including human beings. These sex dissimilarities could be related to the different sex steroid hormone profile in each sex. Gonadal steroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Human epidemiological and experimental animal studies have shown that estradiol has a key role in the control of food intake and energy balance. Estradiol has long been known to inhibit feeding in animals. There are important changes in food intake patterns during the estrous cycle, with a reduction of food intake around the time of ovulation, when estradiol presents its highest levels. Men have less total fat and more central fat distribution which carries a much greater risk for metabolic disorders while women have more total fat and more gluteal/femoral subcutaneous fat distribution. Men and postmenopausal women accumulate more fat in the intraabdominal depot. This review is focused on the mechanism by which sex steroids affect feeding behavior and fat distribution. PMID:22827220

Bautista, C J; Martínez-Samayoa, P M; Zambrano, E

2012-10-01

447

Comparison of liquid chromatography-microchip/mass spectrometry to conventional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of steroids.  

PubMed

The feasibility of a microfluidic-based liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometric system (HPLC-Chip/ESI/MS) was studied and compared to a conventional narrow-bore liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometric (LC-ESI/MS) system for the analysis of steroids. The limits of detection (LODs) for oxime derivatized steroids, expressed as concentrations, were slightly higher with the HPLC-Chip/MS system (50-300 pM) using an injection volume of 0.5 ?L than with the conventional LC-ESI/MS (10-150 pM) using an injection volume of 40 ?L. However, when the LODs are expressed as injected amounts, the sensitivity of the HPLC-Chip/MS system was about 50 times higher than with the conventional LC-ESI/MS system. The results indicate that the use of HPLC-Chip/MS system is clearly advantageous only in the analysis of low-volume samples. Both methods showed good linearity and good quantitative and chromatographic repeatability. In addition to the instrument comparisons with oxime derivatized steroids, the feasibility of the HPLC-Chip/MS system in the analysis of non-derivatized and oxime derivatized steroids was compared. The HPLC-Chip/MS method developed for non-derivatized steroids was also applied to the quantitative analysis of 15 mouse plasma samples. PMID:22405309

Ahonen, Linda; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Saarelainen, Taija; Paviala, Jenni; Ketola, Raimo A; Auriola, Seppo; Poutanen, Matti; Kostianen, Risto

2012-04-01

448

ENDOGENOUS CARDIOTONIC STEROIDS AND SALT-SENSITIVE HYPERTENSION  

PubMed Central

Endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS), also called digitalis like factors, have been postulated to play important roles in pathogenesis of hypertension for nearly half of a century. For the past 50 years biomedical scientists have been in quest of an unidentified factor or hormone that both increases blood pressure and renal sodium excretion; this “natriuretic hormone” was, in fact, postulated to interact with the Na/K-ATPase. Recent discoveries have led to the identification of steroid molecules which are present in humans, rodents and amphibians, and which, in a complex manner, interact with each other and with the other systems that regulate renal salt handling and contribute to the salt-sensitivity of blood pressure. Recent findings include the specific identification of endogenous cardenolide (endogenous ouabain) and bufadienolide (marinobufagenin) CTS in humans along with the delineation of mechanisms by which CTS can signal through the Na/K-ATPase. Although CTS were first considered important in the regulation of renal sodium transport and arterial pressure, more recent work implicates these hormones in the central regulation of blood pressure and regulation of cell growth, and development of cardiovascular and renal fibrosis in particular. PMID:20347967

Fedorova, Olga V.; Shapiro, Joseph I.; Bagrov, Alexei Y.

2010-01-01

449

Inhalational Steroids and Iatrogenic Cushing’s Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Bronchial asthma (BA) and Allergic rhinitis (AR) are common clinical problems encountered in day to day practice, where inhalational corticosteroids (ICS) or intranasal steroids (INS) are the mainstay of treatment. Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome (CS) is a well known complication of systemic steroid administration. ICS /INS were earlier thought to be safe, but now more and more number of case reports of Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome have been reported, especially in those who are taking cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) inhibitors. Comparing to the classical clinical features of spontaneous Cushing syndrome, iatrogenic Cushing syndrome is more commonly associated with osteoporosis, increase in intra-ocular pressure, benign intracranial hypertension, aseptic necrosis of femoral head and pancreatitis, where as hypertension, hirsuitisum and menstrual irregularities are less common. Endocrine work up shows low serum cortisol level with evidence of HPA (hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal) axis suppression. In all patients with features of Cushing syndrome with evidence of adrenal suppression always suspect iatrogenic CS. Since concomitant administration of cytochrome P450 inhibitors in patients on ICS/INS can precipitate iatrogenic CS, avoidance of CYP450 inhibitors, its dose reduction or substitution of ICS are the available options. Along with those, measures to prevent the precipitation of adrenal crisis has to be taken. An update on ICS-/INS- associated iatrogenic CS and its management is presented here.

A.V, Raveendran

2014-01-01

450

Steroid conversion with CYP106A2 – production of pharmaceutically interesting DHEA metabolites  

PubMed Central

Background Steroids are lipophilic compounds with a gonane skeleton and play an important role in higher organisms. Due to different functionalizations - mainly hydroxylations - at the steroid molecule, they vary highly in their mode of action. The pharmaceutical industry is, therefore, interested in hydroxysteroids as therapeutic agents. The insertion of hydroxyl groups into a steroid core, however, is hardly accomplishable by classical chemical means; that is because microbial steroid hydroxylations are investigated and applied since decades. CYP106A2 is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 13368, which was first described in the late 1970s and which is capable to hydroxylate a variety of 3-oxo-delta4 steroids at position 15beta. CYP106A2 is a soluble protein, easy to express and to purify in high amounts, which makes this enzyme an interesting target for biotechnological purposes. Results In this work a focused steroid library was screened in vitro for new CYP106A2 substrates using a reconstituted enzyme assay. Five new substrates were identified, including dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone. NMR-spectroscopy revealed that both steroids are mainly hydroxylated at position 7beta. In order to establish a biotechnological system for the preparative scale production of 7beta-hydroxylated dehydroepiandrosterone, whole-cell conversions with growing and resting cells of B. megaterium ATCC1336 the native host of CYP1062 and also with resting cells of a recombinant B. megaterium MS941 strain overexpressing CYP106A2 have been conducted and conversion rates of 400 muM/h (115 mg/l/h) were obtained. Using the B. megaterium MS941 overexpression strain, the selectivity of the reaction was improved from 0.7 to 0.9 for 7beta-OH-DHEA. Conclusions In this work we describe CYP106A2 for the first time as a regio-selective hydroxylase for 3-hydroxy-delta5 steroids. DHEA was shown to be converted to 7beta-OH-DHEA which is a highly interesting human metabolite, supposed to act as neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory agent. Optimization of the whole-cell system using different B. megaterium strains lead to a conversion of DHEA with B. megaterium showing high selectivity and conversion rates and displaying a volumetric yield of 103 mg/l/h 7beta-OH-DHEA. PMID:24903845

2014-01-01

451

Closely Related Antibody Receptors Exploit Fundamentally Different Strategies for Steroid Recognition  

SciTech Connect

Molecular recognition by the adaptive immune system relies on specific high-affinity antibody receptors that are generated from a restricted set of starting sequences through homologous recombination and somatic mutation. The steroid binding antibody DB3 and the catalytic Diels-Alderase antibody 1E9 derive from the same germ line sequences but exhibit very distinct specificities and functions. However, mutation of only two of the 36 sequence differences in the variable domains, Leu{sup H47}Trp and Arg{sup H100}Trp, converts 1E9 into a high-affinity steroid receptor with a ligand recognition profile similar to DB3. To understand how these changes switch binding specificity and function, we determined the crystal structures of the 1E9 Leu{sup H47}Trp/Arg{sup H100}Trp double mutant (1E9dm) as an unliganded Fab at 2.05 {angstrom} resolution and in complex with two configurationally distinct steroids at 2.40 and 2.85 {angstrom}. Surprisingly, despite the functional mimicry of DB3, 1E9dm employs a distinct steroid binding mechanism. Extensive structural rearrangements occur in the combining site, where residue H47 acts as a specificity switch and H100 adapts to different ligands. Unlike DB3, 1E9dm does not use alternative binding pockets or different sets of hydrogen-bonding interactions to bind configurationally distinct steroids. Rather, the different steroids are inserted more deeply into the 1E9dm combining site, creating more hydrophobic contacts that energetically compensate for the lack of hydrogen bonds. These findings demonstrate how subtle mutations within an existing molecular scaffold can dramatically modulate the function of immune receptors by inducing unanticipated, but compensating, mechanisms of ligand interaction.

Verdino, P.; Aldag, C.; Hilvert, D.; Wilson, I.A.

2009-05-26

452

Fsh controls gene expression in fish both independently of and through steroid mediation.  

PubMed

The mechanisms and the mediators relaying Fsh action on testicular functions are poorly understood. Unlike in mammals, in fish both gonadotropins (Fsh and Lh) are able to efficiently stimulate steroidogenesis, likely through a direct interaction with their cognate receptors present on the Leydig cells. In this context, it is crucial to understand if Fsh effects are mediated through the production of steroids. To address this issue we performed transcriptome studies after in vitro incubations of rainbow trout testis explants in the presence of Fsh alone or in combination with trilostane, an inhibitor of ?4- steroidogenesis. Trilostane significantly reduced or suppressed the response of many genes to Fsh (like wisp1, testis gapdhs, cldn11, inha, vt1 or dmrt1) showing that, in fish, important aspects of Fsh action follow indirect pathways and require the production of ?4-steroids. What is more, most of the genes regulated by Fsh through steroid mediation were similarly regulated by Lh (and/or androgens). In contrast, the response to Fsh of other genes was not suppressed in the presence of trilostane. These latter included genes encoding for anti-mullerian hormone, midkine a (pleiotrophin related), angiopoietine-related protein, cyclins E1 and G1, hepatocyte growth factor activator, insulin-like growth factor 1b/3. A majority of those genes were preferentially regulated by Fsh, when compared to Lh, suggesting that specific regulatory effects of Fsh did not depend on steroid production. Finally, antagonistic effects between Fsh and steroids were found, in particular for genes encoding key factors of steroidogenesis (star, hsd3b1, cyp11b2-2) or for genes of the Igf system (igf1b/3). Our study provides the first clear evidence that, in fish, Fsh exerts ?4-steroid-independent regulatory functions on many genes which are highly relevant for the onset of spermatogenesis. PMID:24194844

Sambroni, Elisabeth; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Le Gac, Florence

2013-01-01

453

GABA and Neuroactive Steroid Interactions in Glia: New Roles for Old Players?  

PubMed Central

In recent years it has becoming clear that glial cells of the central and peripheral nervous system play a crucial role from the earliest stages of development throughout adult life. Glial cells are important for neuronal plasticity, axonal conduction and synaptic transmission. In this respect, glial cells are able to produce, uptake and metabolize many factors that are essential for neuronal physiology, including classic neurotransmitters and neuroactive steroids. In particular, neuroactive steroids, which are mainly synthesized by glial cells, are able to modulate some neurotransmitter receptors affecting both glia and neurons. Among the signaling systems that are specialized for neuron-glial communication, we can include neurotransmitter GABA. The main focus of this review is to illustrate the cross-talk between neurons and glial cells in terms of GABA neurotransmission and actions of neuroactive steroids. To this purpose, we will review the presence of the different GABA receptors in the glial cells of the central and peripheral nervous system. Then, we will discuss their modulation by some neuroactive steroids. PMID:18615153

Magnaghi, Valerio

2007-01-01

454

A non-immersed induction conductivity system for controlling supersaturation in corrosive media: the case of gibbsite crystals agglomeration in Bayer liquors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agglomeration of gibbsite Al(OH) 3 crystallites is an important stage of the Bayer process, aiming at increasing the initial size of the particles. In the present work, a semi-continuous crystallizer working at constant and imposed supersaturation, and equipped with an automatic withdrawal system was developed to study the agglomeration of gibbsite crystals in supersaturated Bayer liquors. The liquor conductivity was measured using an induction conductivity system placed around the crystallizer, the conductivity regulation being used to work at constant supersaturation. Using this system allowed one to work with both a small crystallizer and a highly corrosive and abrasive suspension of gibbsite in a five molar caustic soda solution at 70°C. Analyses of the withdrawals were carried out with an Elzone particle counter, in order to draw {N(t)}/{N(0) = f(t)} plots, representing the decrease of crystal number with time, due to agglomeration.

Seyssiecq, I.; Veesler, S.; Boistelle, R.

1996-11-01

455

Elective induction: When? Ever?  

PubMed

The frequency of labor induction has increased significantly in recent years. Although medically indicated inductions comprise a portion of this increase, elective inductions have increased in frequency as well. Given that elective inductions, by definition, provide no benefit from a strictly medical standpoint, it is particularly important to evaluate whether women who undergo these inductions incur greater risks than those who labor spontaneously. This article will assess whether elective inductions are associated with changes in pregnancy outcomes, and evaluate how these associations are influenced by parity and cervical ripeness. PMID:17513939

Grobman, William A

2007-06-01

456

3D model of amphioxus steroid receptor complexed with estradiol  

SciTech Connect

The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a 3D model of amphioxus SR complexed with estradiol. This 3D model indicates that although the SR is activated by estradiol, some interactions between estradiol and human ER{alpha} are not conserved in the SR, which can explain the low affinity of estradiol for the SR. These differences between the SR and ER{alpha} in the steroid-binding domain are sufficient to suggest that another steroid is the physiological regulator of the SR. The 3D model predicts that mutation of Glu-346 to Gln will increase the affinity of testosterone for amphioxus SR and elucidate the evolution of steroid-binding to nuclear receptors.

Baker, Michael E., E-mail: mbaker@ucsd.edu [Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0693 (United States); Chang, David J. [Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0693 (United States)] [Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0693 (United States)

2009-08-28

457

Improved synthesis of 2'-deoxyadenosine and 5-methyluridine by Escherichia coli using an auto-induction system.  

PubMed

Nucleoside analogues are used widely for the treatment of viral diseases and cancer, however the preparation of some important intermediates of these nucleoside analogues, including 2'-deoxyadenosine (dAR) and 5-methyluridine (5-MU), remains inconvenient. To optimize the synthesis of dAR and 5-MU, recombinant strains and auto-induction medium were employed in this study. E. coli BL21(DE3) strains overexpressing purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), uridine phosphorylase (UP) and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) were constructed and cultured in auto-induction ZYM-Fe-5052 medium for 8 h. The cultures of these strains were then used directly to synthesize dAR and 5-MU. Under optimized conditions, 30 mM adenine was converted to 29 mM dAR in 1 h, and 32 mM 5-MU was obtained from 60 mM thymine, using 6% (v/v) cell solutions as biocatalysts. These results indicate that our convenient and efficient method is ideal for the preparation of dAR and 5-MU, and has potential for the preparation of other nucleoside analogue intermediates. PMID:22806868

Xiong, Juan; Zhang, Wenquan; Su, Jingtan; Shangguan, Junlong; Lin, Yin; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Rongqing; Xie, Liping; Wang, Hongzhong

2012-02-01

458

Induction and analysis of the alkaloid mitragynine content of a Mitragyna speciosa suspension culture system upon elicitation and precursor feeding.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations and combinations of the phytohormones 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), kinetin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on callus induction and to demonstrate the role of elicitors and exogenous precursors on the production of mitragynine in a Mitragyna speciosa suspension culture. The best callus induction was achieved from petiole explants cultured on WPM that was supplemented with 4?mg?L?¹ 2,4-D (70.83%). Calli were transferred to liquid media and agitated on rotary shakers to establish Mitragyna speciosa cell suspension cultures. The optimum settled cell volume was achieved in the presence of WPM that contained 3?mg?L?¹ 2,4-D and 3% sucrose (9.47 ± 0.4667?mL). The treatment of cultures with different concentrations of yeast extract and salicylic acid for different inoculation periods revealed that the highest mitragynine content as determined by HPLC was achieved from the culture treated with 250?mg?L?¹ yeast extract (9.275 ± 0.082?mg?L?¹) that was harvested on day 6 of culturing; salicylic acid showed low mitragynine content in all concentrations used. Tryptophan and loganin were used as exogenous precursors; the highest level of mitragynine production was achieved in cultures treated with 3? ?M tryptophan and harvested at 6 days (13.226 ± 1.98?mg?L?¹). PMID:24065873

Mohamad Zuldin, Nor Nahazima; Said, Ikram Md; Mohd Noor, Normah; Zainal, Zamri; Jin Kiat, Chew; Ismail, Ismanizan

2013-01-01

459

Induction and Analysis of the Alkaloid Mitragynine Content of a Mitragyna speciosa Suspension Culture System upon Elicitation and Precursor Feeding  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations and combinations of the phytohormones 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), kinetin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on callus induction and to demonstrate the role of elicitors and exogenous precursors on the production of mitragynine in a Mitragyna speciosa suspension culture. The best callus induction