Sample records for stiffness measurement lsm

  1. Applicability and variability of liver stiffness measurements according to probe position

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Ingiliz; Kim Pav Chhay; Pascal Lebray; Yen Ngo; Yves Benhamou; Dominique Thabut; Vlad Ratziu; Mona Munteanu; Dominique Roulot; Thierry Poynard

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the liver stiffness measurement (LSM) applicability and variability with reference to three probe positions according to the region of liver biopsy. METHODS: The applicability for LSM was defined as at least 10 valid measurements with a success rate greater than 60% and an interquartile range\\/median LSM < 30%. The LSM variability compared the inter-position concordance and the

  2. Liver Stiffness Measurement among Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B and C: Results from a 5-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Karen M.; Mössner, Belinda K.; Hansen, Janne F.; Jarnbjer, Erik F.; Pedersen, Court; Christensen, Peer B.

    2014-01-01

    Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) is widely used to evaluate liver fibrosis, but longitudinal studies are rare. The current study was aimed to monitor LSM during follow-up, and to evaluate the association of LSM data with mortality and liver-related outcomes. We included all patients with chronic viral hepatitis and valid LSM using Fibroscan. Information about liver biopsy, antiviral treatment, and clinical outcome was obtained from medical records and national registers. The study included 845 patients: 597 (71%) with hepatitis C virus (HCV), 235 (28%) with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 13 (2%) with dual infection. The initial LSM distribution (<7/7–9.9/10–16.9/?17 kPa) was 58%/16%/14%/12%. Among patients with initial LSM values of 7–9.9 kPa, 60% of HCV patients and 83% of HBV patients showed LSM values of <7 kPa at the latest follow-up. Progression rates (defined as >20% and >2 kPa increase, with one measure >7 kPa) were 3.4/100 person years (PY) for HCV and 1.5/100 PY for HBV infected patients. Patients with LSM values of ?17 kPa had the same liver-related complication incidence as patients with biopsy-proven cirrhosis (11.1 versus 12.1/100 PY). Thirteen liver-related deaths occurred among HCV patients (0.6/100 PY), but none among HBV patients. Among patients who died of liver-related causes, all but one had baseline LSM values of ?17 kPa. Overall, patients with LSM values <17 kPa were not associated with adverse outcomes. In contrast, LSM values ?17 kPa were associated with significant risk of liver-related problems. The results of the current study suggest that clinical decisions should not be taken based on a single LSM measurement. PMID:25369038

  3. Measurement and modeling of muon-induced neutrons in LSM in application for direct dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Valentin; EDELWEISS Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    Due to a very low event rate expected in direct dark matter search experiments, a good understanding of every background component is crucial. Muon-induced neutrons constitute a prominent background, since neutrons lead to nuclear recoils and thus can mimic a potential dark matter signal. EDELWEISS is a Ge-bolometer experiment searching for WIMP dark matter. It is located in the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM, France). We have measured muon-induced neutrons by means of a neutron counter based on Gd-loaded liquid scintillator. Studies of muon-induced neutrons are presented and include development of the appropriate MC model based on Geant4 and analysis of a 1000-days measurement campaign in LSM. We find a good agreement between measured rates of muon-induced neutrons and those predicted by the developed model with full event topology. The impact of the neutron background on current EDELWEISS data-taking as well as for next generation experiments such as EURECA is briefly discussed.

  4. Measurement and modeling of muon-induced neutrons in LSM in application for direct dark matter searches

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, Valentin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut für Kernphysik, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut für Kernphysik, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Collaboration: EDELWEISS Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    Due to a very low event rate expected in direct dark matter search experiments, a good understanding of every background component is crucial. Muon-induced neutrons constitute a prominent background, since neutrons lead to nuclear recoils and thus can mimic a potential dark matter signal. EDELWEISS is a Ge-bolometer experiment searching for WIMP dark matter. It is located in the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM, France). We have measured muon-induced neutrons by means of a neutron counter based on Gd-loaded liquid scintillator. Studies of muon-induced neutrons are presented and include development of the appropriate MC model based on Geant4 and analysis of a 1000-days measurement campaign in LSM. We find a good agreement between measured rates of muon-induced neutrons and those predicted by the developed model with full event topology. The impact of the neutron background on current EDELWEISS data-taking as well as for next generation experiments such as EURECA is briefly discussed.

  5. OroSTIFF: Face-referenced measurement of perioral stiffness in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Shin-Ying; Kieweg, Douglas; Lee, Jaehoon

    2010-01-01

    A new device and automated measurement technology known as OroSTIFF is described to characterize non-participatory perioral stiffness in healthy adults for eventual application to patients with orofacial movement disorders associated with neuromotor disease, traumatic injury, or congenital clefts of the upper lip. Previous studies of perioral biomechanics required head stabilization for extended periods of time during measurement which precluded sampling patients with involuntary body/head movements (dyskinesias), or pediatric subjects. The OroSTIFF device is face-referenced and avoids the complications associated with head-restraint. Supporting data of non-participatory perioral tissue stiffness using OroSTIFF are included from 10 male and 10 female healthy subjects. The OroSTIFF device incorporates a pneumatic glass air cylinder actuator instrumented for pressure, and an integrated subminiature displacement sensor to encode lip aperture. Perioral electromyograms were simultaneously sampled to confirm passive muscle state for the superior and inferior divisions of the orbicularis oris muscles. Perioral stiffness, derived as a quotient from resultant force (?F) and interangle span (?X), was modeled with multilevel regression techniques. Real-time calculation of the perioral stiffness function demonstrated a significant quadratic relation between imposed interangle stretch and resultant force. This stiffness growth function also differed significantly between males and females. This study demonstrates the OroSTIFF ‘proof-of-concept’ for cost-effective non-invasive stimulus generation and derivation of perioral stiffness in a group of healthy unrestrained adults, and a case study to illustrate the dose-dependent effects of Levodopa on perioral stiffness in an individual with advanced Parkinson’s disease who exhibited marked dyskinesia and rigidity. PMID:20185131

  6. Measuring Interfacial Stiffness of Adhesively-Bonded Wood

    E-print Network

    Nairn, John A.

    1 Measuring Interfacial Stiffness of Adhesively-Bonded Wood Edward A. Le FPInnovations - Engineered Interfacial Stiffness of Adhesively-Bonded Wood Abstract Future Abstract (100 to 150 words) 1. Introduction Adhesive bonds in wood composites have two roles. The first is to hold elements of the composite together

  7. Measurement of normal contact stiffness of fractal rough surfaces

    E-print Network

    Chongpu Zhai; Sébastien Bevand; Yixiang Gan; Dorian Hanaor; Gwénaëlle Proust; Bruno Guelorget; Delphine Retraint

    2014-09-03

    We investigate the effects of roughness and fractality on the normal contact stiffness of rough surfaces. Samples of isotropically roughened aluminium surfaces are considered. The roughness and fractal dimension were altered through blasting using different sized particles. Subsequently, surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) was applied to the surfaces in order to modify the surface at the microscale. The surface topology was characterised by interferometry based profilometry. The normal contact stiffness was measured through nanoindentation with a flat tip utilising the partial unloading method. We focus on establishing the relationships between surface stiffness and roughness, combined with the effects of fractal dimension. The experimental results, for a wide range of surfaces, showed that the measured contact stiffness depended very closely on surfaces' root mean squared (RMS) slope and their fractal dimension, with correlation coefficients of around 90\\%, whilst a relatively weak correlation coefficient of 57\\% was found between the contact stiffness and RMS roughness.

  8. Nanoindenter Stiffness Measurements on a MEMS Sound Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, R.; Brewer, L.; Karunasiri, G.

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate a novel technique to extract the various components of the stiffness (or compliance) measured along the surface of a MEMS directional sound sensor. Because the sensor comprises a cantilever beam mounted on torsion springs, the overall stiffness consists of various compliance components added in series. Stiffness measurements made using a nanoindenter are found to agree with an analytical model and a finite element model (FEM) of the sensor. Moreover, by exploiting the differing power-law characteristics of the individual compliance components, we demonstrate extraction of the separate components from a logarithmic plot of the overall stiffness. Finally, we measure the ultimate (failure) strength of the sensor, from which we obtain the maximum acoustic intensity the sensor can tolerate.

  9. Measuring Ascending Aortic Stiffness In Vivo in Mice Using Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Maggie M.; Barodka, Viachaslau; Abraham, Theodore P.; Steppan, Jochen; Shoukas, Artin A.; Butlin, Mark; Avolio, Alberto; Berkowitz, Dan E.; Santhanam, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    We present a protocol for measuring in vivo aortic stiffness in mice using high-resolution ultrasound imaging. Aortic diameter is measured by ultrasound and aortic blood pressure is measured invasively with a solid-state pressure catheter. Blood pressure is raised then lowered incrementally by intravenous infusion of vasoactive drugs phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Aortic diameter is measured for each pressure step to characterize the pressure-diameter relationship of the ascending aorta. Stiffness indices derived from the pressure-diameter relationship can be calculated from the data collected. Calculation of arterial compliance is described in this protocol. This technique can be used to investigate mechanisms underlying increased aortic stiffness associated with cardiovascular disease and aging. The technique produces a physiologically relevant measure of stiffness compared to ex vivo approaches because physiological influences on aortic stiffness are incorporated in the measurement. The primary limitation of this technique is the measurement error introduced from the movement of the aorta during the cardiac cycle. This motion can be compensated by adjusting the location of the probe with the aortic movement as well as making multiple measurements of the aortic pressure-diameter relationship and expanding the experimental group size. PMID:25489936

  10. Cellular mechanoadaptation to substrate mechanical properties: contributions of substrate stiffness and thickness to cell stiffness measurements using AFM.

    PubMed

    Vichare, Shirish; Sen, Shamik; Inamdar, Mandar M

    2014-02-28

    Mechanosensing by adherent cells is usually studied by quantifying cell responses on hydrogels that are covalently linked to a rigid substrate. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) represents a convenient way of characterizing the mechanoadaptation response of adherent cells on hydrogels of varying stiffness and thickness. Since AFM measurements reflect the effective cell stiffness, therefore, in addition to measuring real cytoskeletal alterations across different conditions, these measurements might also be influenced by the geometry and physical properties of the substrate itself. To better understand how the physical attributes of the gel influence AFM stiffness measurements of cells, we have used finite element analysis to simulate the indentation of cells of various spreads resting on hydrogels of varying stiffness and thickness. Consistent with experimental results, our simulation results indicate that for well spread cells, stiffness values are significantly over-estimated when experiments are performed on cells cultured on soft and thin gels. Using parametric studies, we have developed scaling relationships between the effective stiffness probed by AFM and the bulk cell stiffness, taking cell and tip geometry, hydrogel properties, nuclear stiffness and cell contractility into account. Finally, using simulated mechanoadaptation responses, we have demonstrated that a cell stiffening response may arise purely due to the substrate properties. Collectively, our results demonstrate the need to take hydrogel properties into account while estimating cell stiffness using AFM indentation. PMID:24651595

  11. The interday reliability of leg and ankle musculotendinous stiffness measures.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Ken A; Murphy, Aron J; Watsford, Mark L; Rees, Sven

    2006-11-01

    Two popular methods of assessing lower body musculotendinous stiffness include the hopping and oscillation tests. The disparity and paucity of reliability data prompted this investigation into leg musculotendinous stiffness (Kleg) and ankle musculotendinous stiffness (Kank) measures. Kleg and Kank were assessed on three separate occasions in 20 female subjects. Kleg was determined using bilateral hopping procedures conducted at 2.2 Hz and 3.2 Hz frequencies. Kank was assessed by perturbation of the subject's ankle musculotendinous unit on an instrumented calf raise apparatus at 70% of maximum isometric force (MIF). Excellent reliability was produced for all Kleg measures between all days, whereas Kank exhibited acceptable reliability after one session of familiarization. No relationship was evident between Kleg and Kank. It was concluded that no familiarization session was required for Kleg at the test frequencies and conditions tested, whereas at least one familiarization session was needed to ensure the reliable assessment of Kank. PMID:17293626

  12. An Ultrawideband Radar Based Pulse Sensor for Arterial Stiffness Measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teh-Ho Tao; Shin-Jen Hu; Jla-Hung Peng; Su-Chen Kuo

    2007-01-01

    A novel pulse sensor based on ultrawideband (UWB) radar to detect the arterial vessel movements on various sites on human body without applying external pressure on the arterial vessel was designed and evaluated for aortic stiffness measurement. The UWB pulse sensor was evaluated for its functional performance and human study was carried out to validate the UWB sensor as a

  13. Stiffness Measurement of Burkitt's Lymphoma Cells with Atomic Force Microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mi Li; Lianqing Liu; Ning Xi; Yuechao Wang; Zaili Dong; Xiubin Xiao; Weijing Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Cell stiffness is closely related to human health and diseases. Measuring the mechanical property of individual cells may help us to understand the mechanism of diseases at cell level and provide new methods for disease diagnosis and personalized treatment. In this paper, the poly-l-lysine was used to immobilize Burkitt's lymphoma (BL)cells onto the glass substrate for being imaged in fluid

  14. Physical Activity is Independently Associated with Multiple Measures of Arterial Stiffness in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas M. Edwards; Stephen R. Daniels; Randall P. Claytor; Philip R. Khoury; Lawrence M. Dolan; Thomas R. Kimball; Elaine M. Urbina

    Objective: Physical activity (PA) is associated with decreased levels of arterial stiffness in adults, but the relationship between PA and multiple measures of arterial stiffness in adolescents and young adults is not clear. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that PA is an independent predictor of multiple measures of arterial stiffness in adolescents and young adults.Materials\\/Methods:

  15. “An Impediment to Living Life”: Why and How Should We Measure Stiffness in Polymyalgia Rheumatica?

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, Sarah Louise; Hughes, Rodney; Walsh, Margaret; Day, John; Newton, Marion; Pease, Colin; Kirwan, John; Morris, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore patients’ concepts of stiffness in polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), and how they think stiffness should be measured. Methods Eight focus groups were held at three centres involving 50 patients with current/previous PMR. Each group had at least one facilitator and one rapporteur making field notes. An interview schedule was used to stimulate discussion. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using an inductive thematic approach. Results Major themes identified were: symptoms: pain, stiffness and fatigue; functional impact; impact on daily schedule; and approaches to measurement. The common subtheme for the experience of stiffness was “difficulty in moving”, and usually considered as distinct from the experience of pain, albeit with a variable overlap. Some participants felt stiffness was the “overwhelming” symptom, in that it prevented them carrying out “fundamental activities” and “generally living life”. Diurnal variation in stiffness was generally described in relation to the daily schedule but was not the same as stiffness severity. Some participants suggested measuring stiffness using a numeric rating scale or a Likert scale, while others felt that it was more relevant and straightforward to measure difficulty in performing everyday activities rather than about stiffness itself. Conclusions A conceptual model of stiffness in PMR is presented where stiffness is an important part of the patient experience and impacts on their ability to live their lives. Stiffness is closely related to function and often regarded as interchangeable with pain. From the patients’ perspective, visual analogue scales measuring pain and stiffness were not the most useful method for reporting stiffness; participants preferred numerical rating scales, or assessments of function to reflect how stiffness impacts on their daily lives. Assessing function may be a pragmatic solution to difficulties in quantifying stiffness. PMID:25955770

  16. PolyMUMPs MEMS device to measure mechanical stiffness of single cells in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnat, S.; King, H.; Forbrigger, C.; Hubbard, T.

    2015-02-01

    A method of experimentally determining the mechanical stiffness of single cells by using differential displacement measurements in a two stage spring system is presented. The spring system consists of a known MEMS reference spring and an unknown cellular stiffness: the ratio of displacements is related to the ratio of stiffness. A polyMUMPs implementation for aqueous media is presented and displacement measurements made from optical microphotographs using a FFT based displacement method with a repeatability of ~20?nm. The approach was first validated on a MEMS two stage spring system of known stiffness. The measured stiffness ratios of control structures (i) MEMS spring systems and (ii) polystyrene microspheres were found to agree with theoretical values. Mechanical tests were then performed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s yeast) in aqueous media. Cells were placed (using a micropipette) inside MEMS measuring structures and compressed between two jaws using an electrostatic actuator and displacements measured. Tested cells showed stiffness values between 5.4 and 8.4?N?m?1 with an uncertainty of 11%. In addition, non-viable cells were tested by exposing viable cells to methanol. The resultant mean cell stiffness dropped by factor of 3 × and an explicit discrimination between viable and non-viable cells based on mechanical stiffness was seen.

  17. Extending Bell's Model: How Force Transducer Stiffness Alters Measured Unbinding Forces and Kinetics of Molecular Complexes

    E-print Network

    Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    Extending Bell's Model: How Force Transducer Stiffness Alters Measured Unbinding Forces Forced unbinding of complementary macromolecules such as ligand-receptor complexes can reveal energetic dissociation events, disparities in measured unbinding force FR among these methods lead to marked variation

  18. Localized cell stiffness measurement using axial movement of an optically trapped microparticle.

    PubMed

    Dy, Mary-Clare; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Sugiura, Tadao

    2013-11-01

    A simple optical tweezers design is proposed to manipulate particles in the axial direction and estimate particle position with nanometer sensitivity. Balb3T3 cell is probed using two different-sized particles, and the localized cell stiffness is evaluated using Hertz model. A series of experiments are performed to obtain the necessary parameters for the cell stiffness computation: particle displacement, trapping stiffness, force exertion, and cell deformation. The computed cell stiffness measurements are 17 and 40 Pa using 4 ?m- and 2 ?m-sized particles, respectively. Results suggest that the proposed optical tweezers scheme can measure the stiffness of a particular cell locale using Hertz model, offering insights about how cells respond to outside mechanical stimulus. PMID:23934015

  19. Stiffness of cancer cells measured with an AFM indentation method.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kozaburo; Iwata, Mayumi

    2015-09-01

    The stiffness of cancer cells and its changes during metastasis are very important for understanding the pathophysiology of cancer cells and the mechanisms of metastasis of cancer. As the first step of the studies on the mechanics of cancer cells during metastasis, we determined the elasticity and stiffness of cancer cells with an indentation method using an atomic force microscope (AFM), and compared with those of normal cells. In most of the past AFM studies, Young?s elastic moduli of cells have been calculated from force-indentation data using Hertzian model. As this model is based on several important assumptions including infinitesimal strain and Hooke?s linear stress-strain law, in the exact sense it cannot be applied to cells that deform very largely and nonlinearly. To overcome this problem, we previously proposed an equation F=a[exp(b?)-1] to describe relations between force (F) and indentation (?), where a and b are parameters relating with cellular stiffness. In the present study, we applied this method to cancer cells instead of Young?s elastic modulus. The conclusions obtained are: 1) AFM indentation test data of cancer cells can be very well described by the above equation, 2) cancer cells are softer than normal cells, and 3) there are no significant locational differences in the stiffness of cancer cells between the central and the peripheral regions. These methods and results are useful for studying the mechanics of cancer cells and the mechanisms of metastasis. PMID:26004036

  20. Measuring the Characteristic Topography of Brain Stiffness with Magnetic Resonance Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Matthew C.; Huston, John; Jack, Clifford R.; Glaser, Kevin J.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Chen, Jun; Manduca, Armando; Felmlee, Joel P.; Ehman, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To develop a reliable magnetic resonance elastography (MRE)-based method for measuring regional brain stiffness. Methods First, simulation studies were used to demonstrate how stiffness measurements can be biased by changes in brain morphometry, such as those due to atrophy. Adaptive postprocessing methods were created that significantly reduce the spatial extent of edge artifacts and eliminate atrophy-related bias. Second, a pipeline for regional brain stiffness measurement was developed and evaluated for test-retest reliability in 10 healthy control subjects. Results This technique indicates high test-retest repeatability with a typical coefficient of variation of less than 1% for global brain stiffness and less than 2% for the lobes of the brain and the cerebellum. Furthermore, this study reveals that the brain possesses a characteristic topography of mechanical properties, and also that lobar stiffness measurements tend to correlate with one another within an individual. Conclusion The methods presented in this work are resistant to noise- and edge-related biases that are common in the field of brain MRE, demonstrate high test-retest reliability, and provide independent regional stiffness measurements. This pipeline will allow future investigations to measure changes to the brain’s mechanical properties and how they relate to the characteristic topographies that are typical of many neurologic diseases. PMID:24312570

  1. Supplementary Table 1. Sequences of the various peptides identified by Mass spectrometry analysis in the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex purified from the lsm1-6, lsm1-8 and lsm1-9, 14 cells.

    E-print Network

    Bedwell, David M.

    Supplementary Table 1. Sequences of the various peptides identified by Mass spectrometry analysis in the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex purified from the lsm1-6, lsm1-8 and lsm1-9, 14 cells. Protein Peptides sequenced Mutant from which the complex was purified Pat1p DVTDSLTNVDLASSGSSSTGSSAAAVASK lsm1

  2. Experimental measure of arm stiffness during single reaching movements with a time-frequency analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pierobon, Alberto; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R.

    2013-01-01

    We tested an innovative method to estimate joint stiffness and damping during multijoint unfettered arm movements. The technique employs impulsive perturbations and a time-frequency analysis to estimate the arm's mechanical properties along a reaching trajectory. Each single impulsive perturbation provides a continuous estimation on a single-reach basis, making our method ideal to investigate motor adaptation in the presence of force fields and to study the control of movement in impaired individuals with limited kinematic repeatability. In contrast with previous dynamic stiffness studies, we found that stiffness varies during movement, achieving levels higher than during static postural control. High stiffness was associated with elevated reflexive activity. We observed a decrease in stiffness and a marked reduction in long-latency reflexes around the reaching movement velocity peak. This pattern could partly explain the difference between the high stiffness reported in postural studies and the low stiffness measured in dynamic estimation studies, where perturbations are typically applied near the peak velocity point. PMID:23945781

  3. Integration of acoustic radiation force and optical imaging for blood plasma clot stiffness measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caroline W; Perez, Matthew J; Helmke, Brian P; Viola, Francesco; Lawrence, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Despite the life-preserving function blood clotting serves in the body, inadequate or excessive blood clot stiffness has been associated with life-threatening diseases such as stroke, hemorrhage, and heart attack. The relationship between blood clot stiffness and vascular diseases underscores the importance of quantifying the magnitude and kinetics of blood's transformation from a fluid to a viscoelastic solid. To measure blood plasma clot stiffness, we have developed a method that uses ultrasound acoustic radiation force (ARF) to induce micron-scaled displacements (1-500 ?m) on microbeads suspended in blood plasma. The displacements were detected by optical microscopy and took place within a micro-liter sized clot region formed within a larger volume (2 mL sample) to minimize container surface effects. Modulation of the ultrasound generated acoustic radiation force allowed stiffness measurements to be made in blood plasma from before its gel point to the stage where it was a fully developed viscoelastic solid. A 0.5 wt % agarose hydrogel was 9.8-fold stiffer than the plasma (platelet-rich) clot at 1 h post-kaolin stimulus. The acoustic radiation force microbead method was sensitive to the presence of platelets and strength of coagulation stimulus. Platelet depletion reduced clot stiffness 6.9 fold relative to platelet rich plasma. The sensitivity of acoustic radiation force based stiffness assessment may allow for studying platelet regulation of both incipient and mature clot mechanical properties. PMID:26042775

  4. Integration of Acoustic Radiation Force and Optical Imaging for Blood Plasma Clot Stiffness Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caroline W.; Perez, Matthew J.; Helmke, Brian P.; Viola, Francesco; Lawrence, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the life-preserving function blood clotting serves in the body, inadequate or excessive blood clot stiffness has been associated with life-threatening diseases such as stroke, hemorrhage, and heart attack. The relationship between blood clot stiffness and vascular diseases underscores the importance of quantifying the magnitude and kinetics of blood’s transformation from a fluid to a viscoelastic solid. To measure blood plasma clot stiffness, we have developed a method that uses ultrasound acoustic radiation force (ARF) to induce micron-scaled displacements (1-500 ?m) on microbeads suspended in blood plasma. The displacements were detected by optical microscopy and took place within a micro-liter sized clot region formed within a larger volume (2 mL sample) to minimize container surface effects. Modulation of the ultrasound generated acoustic radiation force allowed stiffness measurements to be made in blood plasma from before its gel point to the stage where it was a fully developed viscoelastic solid. A 0.5 wt % agarose hydrogel was 9.8-fold stiffer than the plasma (platelet-rich) clot at 1 h post-kaolin stimulus. The acoustic radiation force microbead method was sensitive to the presence of platelets and strength of coagulation stimulus. Platelet depletion reduced clot stiffness 6.9 fold relative to platelet rich plasma. The sensitivity of acoustic radiation force based stiffness assessment may allow for studying platelet regulation of both incipient and mature clot mechanical properties. PMID:26042775

  5. Turtle utricle dynamic behavior using a combined anatomically accurate model and experimentally measured hair bundle stiffness.

    PubMed

    Davis, J L; Grant, J W

    2014-12-01

    Anatomically correct turtle utricle geometry was incorporated into two finite element models. The geometrically accurate model included appropriately shaped macular surface and otoconial layer, compact gel and column filament (or shear) layer thicknesses and thickness distributions. The first model included a shear layer where the effects of hair bundle stiffness was included as part of the shear layer modulus. This solid model's undamped natural frequency was matched to an experimentally measured value. This frequency match established a realistic value of the effective shear layer Young's modulus of 16 Pa. We feel this is the most accurate prediction of this shear layer modulus and fits with other estimates (Kondrachuk, 2001b). The second model incorporated only beam elements in the shear layer to represent hair cell bundle stiffness. The beam element stiffness's were further distributed to represent their location on the neuroepithelial surface. Experimentally measured striola hair cell bundles mean stiffness values were used in the striolar region and the mean extrastriola hair cell bundles stiffness values were used in this region. The results from this second model indicated that hair cell bundle stiffness contributes approximately 40% to the overall stiffness of the shear layer-hair cell bundle complex. This analysis shows that high mass saccules, in general, achieve high gain at the sacrifice of frequency bandwidth. We propose the mechanism by which this can be achieved is through increase the otoconial layer mass. The theoretical difference in gain (deflection per acceleration) is shown for saccules with large otoconial layer mass relative to saccules and utricles with small otoconial layer mass. Also discussed is the necessity of these high mass saccules to increase their overall system shear layer stiffness. Undamped natural frequencies and mode shapes for these sensors are shown. PMID:25445820

  6. Liver Stiffness: A Significant Relationship with the Waveform Pattern in the Hepatic Vein.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Tadashi; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Kiyono, Soichiro; Kondo, Takayuki; Shimada, Taro; Takahashi, Masanori; Yokosuka, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Tadashi

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the relationship between liver stiffness and hepatic vein waveform patterns in 42 patients with chronic hepatitis and 55 with cirrhosis. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) values (FibroScan, Echosens, Paris, France) were significantly lower in the triphasic pattern group (11.3 ± 8.4 kPa) than in the monophasic pattern (32.5 ± 23.5 kPa, p = 0.001) and biphasic pattern (25.6 ± 18.1 kPa, p = 0.001) groups, indicating no significant relationship with portal pressure. The ability to diagnose cirrhosis represented by the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.921 (83.6% sensitivity, 90.5% specificity, best cutoff value: 16.9 kPa) by LSM and 1.000 (best cutoff value: 19.4 kPa) by LSM combined with the monophasic pattern. This study revealed a close linkage between liver stiffness and hepatic vein waveform findings, resulting in a better understanding of hepatic vein hemodynamics and wider application of its analysis. PMID:25858000

  7. Measurement of passive ankle stiffness in subjects with chronic hemiparesis using a novel ankle robot

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Anindo; Bever, Christopher T.; Forrester, Larry W.; Macko, Richard F.; Hogan, Neville

    2011-01-01

    Our objective in this study was to assess passive mechanical stiffness in the ankle of chronic hemiparetic stroke survivors and to compare it with those of healthy young and older (age-matched) individuals. Given the importance of the ankle during locomotion, an accurate estimate of passive ankle stiffness would be valuable for locomotor rehabilitation, potentially providing a measure of recovery and a quantitative basis to design treatment protocols. Using a novel ankle robot, we characterized passive ankle stiffness both in sagittal and in frontal planes by applying perturbations to the ankle joint over the entire range of motion with subjects in a relaxed state. We found that passive stiffness of the affected ankle joint was significantly higher in chronic stroke survivors than in healthy adults of a similar cohort, both in the sagittal as well as frontal plane of movement, in three out of four directions tested with indistinguishable stiffness values in plantarflexion direction. Our findings are comparable to the literature, thus indicating its plausibility, and, to our knowledge, report for the first time passive stiffness in the frontal plane for persons with chronic stroke and older healthy adults. PMID:21346215

  8. Multijoint Muscle Regulation Mechanisms Examined by Measured Human Arm Stiffness and EMG Signals

    E-print Network

    Osu, Rieko

    Multijoint Muscle Regulation Mechanisms Examined by Measured Human Arm Stiffness and EMG Signals, Rieko and Hiroaki Gomi. Multijoint muscle regulation mech- anisms examined by measured human arm- skeletal system can be controlled by regulating muscle activation and neural feedback gain. To understand

  9. Measurement of the UH-60A Hub Large Rotor Test Apparatus Control System Stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kufeld, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    This purpose of this report is to provides details of the measurement of the control system stiffness of the UH-60A rotor hub mounted on the Large Rotor Test Apparatus (UH-60A/LRTA). The UH-60A/LRTA was used in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel to complete the full-scale wind tunnel test portion of the NASA / ARMY UH-60A Airloads Program. This report describes the LRTA control system and highlights the differences between the LRTA and UH-60A aircraft. The test hardware, test setup, and test procedures are also described. Sample results are shown, including the azimuthal variation of the measured control system stiffness for three different loadings and two different dynamic actuator settings. Finally, the azimuthal stiffness is converted to fixed system values using multi-blade transformations for input to comprehensive rotorcraft prediction codes.

  10. Piezoelectric Sensor to Measure Soft and Hard Stiffness with High Sensitivity for Ultrasonic Transducers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Rui; Su, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wen-Jin; Chang, Shuo-Hung

    2015-01-01

    During dental sinus lift surgery, it is important to monitor the thickness of the remaining maxilla to avoid perforating the sinus membrane. Therefore, a sensor should be integrated into ultrasonic dental tools to prevent undesirable damage. This paper presents a piezoelectric (PZT) sensor installed in an ultrasonic transducer to measure the stiffness of high and low materials. Four design types using three PZT ring materials and a split PZT for actuator and sensor ring materials were studied. Three sensor locations were also examined. The voltage signals of the sensor and the displacement of the actuator were analyzed to distinguish the low and high stiffness. Using sensor type T1 made of the PZT-1 material and the front location A1 provided a high sensitivity of 2.47 Vm/kN. The experimental results demonstrated that our design can measure soft and hard stiffness. PMID:26110400

  11. Correlation of Ultrasound-Measured Common Carotid Artery Stiffness With Pathological Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Wada; Kuniyasu Kodaira; Kentaro Fujishiro; Ken-ichi Maie; Eiji Tsukiyama; Tsutomu Fukumoto; Tomoko Uchida; Sayaka Yamazaki

    2010-01-01

    To quantitatively and noninvasively evaluate com- mon carotid atherosclerosis in a series of patients, we mea- sured the stiffness parameter p, which represents the mechan- ical properties of the vessel. \\/3 was calculated from the relationship between blood pressure and the diameter of the artery as measured by an ultrasonic, phase-locked, echo- tracking system. Increases in the severity grade of

  12. Force Spectroscopy with Dual-Trap Optical Tweezers: Molecular Stiffness Measurements and Coupled Fluctuations Analysis

    E-print Network

    Ritort, Felix

    Force Spectroscopy with Dual-Trap Optical Tweezers: Molecular Stiffness Measurements and Coupled Fluctuations Analysis M. Ribezzi-Crivellari and F. Ritort * Departament de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de of which is the coupling of fluctuations along different spatial directions, which may affect any optical

  13. Lsm2 and Lsm3 bridge the interaction of the Lsm1-7 complex with Pat1 for decapping activation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Donghui; Muhlrad, Denise; Bowler, Matthew W; Jiang, Shimin; Liu, Zhou; Parker, Roy; Song, Haiwei

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex is the most critical activator of mRNA decapping in eukaryotic cells and plays many roles in normal decay, AU-rich element-mediated decay, and miRNA silencing, yet how Pat1 interacts with the Lsm1-7 complex is unknown. Here, we show that Lsm2 and Lsm3 bridge the interaction between the C-terminus of Pat1 (Pat1C) and the Lsm1-7 complex. The Lsm2-3-Pat1C complex and the Lsm1-7-Pat1C complex stimulate decapping in vitro to a similar extent and exhibit similar RNA-binding preference. The crystal structure of the Lsm2-3-Pat1C complex shows that Pat1C binds to Lsm2-3 to form an asymmetric complex with three Pat1C molecules surrounding a heptameric ring formed by Lsm2-3. Structure-based mutagenesis revealed the importance of Lsm2-3-Pat1C interactions in decapping activation in vivo. Based on the structure of Lsm2-3-Pat1C, a model of Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex is constructed and how RNA binds to this complex is discussed. PMID:24247251

  14. Liver Stiffness Measurement-Based Scoring System for Significant Inflammation Related to Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mei-Zhu; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Chen, Guo-Liang; Huang, Wen-Qi; Min, Feng; Chen, Tian; Xu, Jin-Chao; Pan, Jin-Shui

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers. Methods The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n?=?327), and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement. Results An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+) patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(?) patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+) patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(?) patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+) and HBeAg(?) patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ?3). Conclusions Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation. PMID:25360742

  15. Differentiating untreated and cross-linked porcine corneas of the same measured stiffness with optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiasong; Han, Zhaolong; Singh, Manmohan; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2014-11-01

    Structurally degenerative diseases, such as keratoconus, can significantly alter the stiffness of the cornea, directly affecting the quality of vision. Ultraviolet-induced collagen cross-linking (CXL) effectively increases corneal stiffness and is applied clinically to treat keratoconus. However, measured corneal stiffness is also influenced by intraocular pressure (IOP). Therefore, experimentally measured changes in corneal stiffness may be attributable to the effects of CXL, changes in IOP, or both. We present a noninvasive measurement method using phase-stabilized swept-source optical coherence elastography to distinguish between CXL and IOP effects on measured corneal stiffness. This method compared the displacement amplitude attenuation of a focused air-pulse-induced elastic wave. The damping speed of the displacement amplitudes at each measurement position along the wave propagation were compared for different materials. This method was initially tested on gelatin and agar phantoms of the same stiffness for validation. Consequently, untreated and CXL-treated porcine corneas of the same measured stiffness, but at different IOPs, were also evaluated. The results suggest that this noninvasive method may have the potential to detect the early stages of ocular diseases such as keratoconus or may be applied during CLX procedures by factoring in the effects of IOP on the measured corneal stiffness.

  16. Role for LSM genes in the regulation of circadian rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Santángelo, Soledad; Mancini, Estefanía; Francey, Lauren J.; Schlaen, Ruben Gustavo; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Hogenesch, John B.; Yanovsky, Marcelo J.

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that core spliceosomal components differentially affect RNA processing of specific genes; however, whether changes in the levels or activities of these factors control specific signaling pathways is largely unknown. Here we show that some SM-like (LSM) genes, which encode core components of the spliceosomal U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex, regulate circadian rhythms in plants and mammals. We found that the circadian clock regulates the expression of LSM5 in Arabidopsis plants and several LSM genes in mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus. Further, mutations in LSM5 or LSM4 in Arabidopsis, or down-regulation of LSM3, LSM5, or LSM7 expression in human cells, lengthens the circadian period. Although we identified changes in the expression and alternative splicing of some core clock genes in Arabidopsis lsm5 mutants, the precise molecular mechanism causing period lengthening remains to be identified. Genome-wide expression analysis of either a weak lsm5 or a strong lsm4 mutant allele in Arabidopsis revealed larger effects on alternative splicing than on constitutive splicing. Remarkably, large splicing defects were not observed in most of the introns evaluated using RNA-seq in the strong lsm4 mutant allele used in this study. These findings support the idea that some LSM genes play both regulatory and constitutive roles in RNA processing, contributing to the fine-tuning of specific signaling pathways. PMID:25288739

  17. Role for LSM genes in the regulation of circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Perez-Santángelo, Soledad; Mancini, Estefanía; Francey, Lauren J; Schlaen, Ruben Gustavo; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Hogenesch, John B; Yanovsky, Marcelo J

    2014-10-21

    Growing evidence suggests that core spliceosomal components differentially affect RNA processing of specific genes; however, whether changes in the levels or activities of these factors control specific signaling pathways is largely unknown. Here we show that some SM-like (LSM) genes, which encode core components of the spliceosomal U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex, regulate circadian rhythms in plants and mammals. We found that the circadian clock regulates the expression of LSM5 in Arabidopsis plants and several LSM genes in mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus. Further, mutations in LSM5 or LSM4 in Arabidopsis, or down-regulation of LSM3, LSM5, or LSM7 expression in human cells, lengthens the circadian period. Although we identified changes in the expression and alternative splicing of some core clock genes in Arabidopsis lsm5 mutants, the precise molecular mechanism causing period lengthening remains to be identified. Genome-wide expression analysis of either a weak lsm5 or a strong lsm4 mutant allele in Arabidopsis revealed larger effects on alternative splicing than on constitutive splicing. Remarkably, large splicing defects were not observed in most of the introns evaluated using RNA-seq in the strong lsm4 mutant allele used in this study. These findings support the idea that some LSM genes play both regulatory and constitutive roles in RNA processing, contributing to the fine-tuning of specific signaling pathways. PMID:25288739

  18. Pulmonary Vascular Stiffness: Measurement, Modeling, and Implications in Normal and Hypertensive Pulmonary Circulations

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Kendall S.; Lammers, Steven R.; Shandas, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of pulmonary vascular stiffness, discusses its increasingly recognized importance as a diagnostic marker in the evaluation of pulmonary vascular disease, and describes methods to measure and model it clinically, experimentally, and computationally. It begins with a description of systems-level methods to evaluate pulmonary vascular compliance and recent clinical efforts in applying such techniques to better predict patient outcomes in pulmonary arterial hypertension. It then progresses from the systems-level to the local level, discusses proposed methods by which upstream pulmonary vessels increase in stiffness, introduces concepts around vascular mechanics, and concludes by describing recent work incorporating advanced numerical methods to more thoroughly evaluate changes in local mechanical properties of pulmonary arteries. PMID:23733649

  19. Morphology and transverse stiffness of Drosophila myofibrils measured by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Nyland, L R; Maughan, D W

    2000-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy was used to investigate the surface morphology and transverse stiffness of myofibrils from Drosophila indirect flight muscle exposed to different physiologic solutions. I- and A-bands were clearly observed, and thick filaments were resolved along the periphery of the myofibril. Interfilament spacings correlated well with estimates from previous x-ray diffraction studies. Transverse stiffness was measured by using a blunt tip to indent a small section of the myofibrillar surface in the region of myofilament overlap. At 10 nm indention, the effective transverse stiffness (K( perpendicular)) of myofibrils in rigor solution (ATP-free, pCa 4.5) was 10.3 +/- 5.0 pN nm(-1) (mean +/- SEM, n = 8); in activating solution (pCa 4.5), 5.9 +/- 3.1 pN nm(-1); and in relaxing solution (pCa 8), 4.4 +/- 2.0 pN nm(-1). The apparent transverse Young's modulus (E( perpendicular)) was 94 +/- 41 kPa in the rigor state and 40 +/- 17 kPa in the relaxed state. The value of E( perpendicular) for calcium-activated myofibrils (55 +/- 29 kPa) was approximately a tenth that of Young's modulus in the longitudinal direction, a difference that at least partly reflects the transverse flexibility of the myosin molecule. PMID:10692334

  20. Liver stiffness measurements by means of supersonic shear imaging in patients without known liver pathology.

    PubMed

    Sirli, Roxana; Bota, Simona; Sporea, Ioan; Jurchis, Ana; Popescu, Alina; Gradinaru-Tasc?u, Oana; Szilaski, Milana

    2013-08-01

    We used supersonic shear imaging to determine the liver stiffness (LS) values of 82 patients without known liver pathology and studied the factors that influence these measurements. Five LS measurements were made in each subject, and the median value, expressed in kilopascals, was calculated. Reliable LS measurements were obtained in 84.5% of patients. Higher body mass index and older age were associated with failure to obtain reliable measurements. The mean value of LS measurements determined by SSI in our cohort of patients without known liver pathology was 6 ± 1.4 kPa. The mean LS measurements determined by SSI for men were significantly higher than those for women; body mass index did not significantly influence SSI measurements. Thus, 6 kPa is the mean SSI value in patients without known liver pathology, with higher values being obtained in men. PMID:23743106

  1. Review of MRI-based measurements of pulse wave velocity: a biomarker of arterial stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Wentland, Andrew L.; Grist, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Western world. In the early development of atherosclerosis, vessel walls remodel outwardly such that the vessel luminal diameter is minimally affected by early plaque development. Only in the late stages of the disease does the vessel lumen begin to narrow—leading to stenoses. As a result, angiographic techniques are not useful for diagnosing early atherosclerosis. Given the absence of stenoses in the early stages of atherosclerosis, CVD remains subclinical for decades. Thus, methods of diagnosing atherosclerosis early in the disease process are needed so that affected patients can receive the necessary interventions to prevent further disease progression. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a biomarker directly related to vessel stiffness that has the potential to provide information on early atherosclerotic disease burden. A number of clinical methods are available for evaluating global PWV, including applanation tonometry and ultrasound. However, these methods only provide a gross global measurement of PWV—from the carotid to femoral arteries—and may mitigate regional stiffness within the vasculature. Additionally, the distance measurements used in the PWV calculation with these methods can be highly inaccurate. Faster and more robust magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences have facilitated increased interest in MRI-based PWV measurements. This review provides an overview of the state-of-the-art in MRI-based PWV measurements. In addition, both gold standard and clinical standard methods of computing PWV are discussed. PMID:24834415

  2. Handheld Resonance Sensor Instrumentation towards Faster Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer - Stiffness Measurements on a Soft Tissue Phantom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Jalkanen

    \\u000a Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer among men. Standard methods for detecting and diagnosing prostate cancer\\u000a are not sensitive enough. Radical prostatectomy is a procedure where the prostate is removed as a treatment for prostate cancer.\\u000a Objectively measured prostate stiffness could be a clinical marker for prostate cancer and this could be accomplished with\\u000a a stiffness sensitive

  3. The benefits of the orthogonal LSM models

    E-print Network

    Z. Mikulasek

    2007-11-28

    In the last few decades both the volume of high-quality observing data on variable stars and common access to them have boomed; however the standard used methods of data processing and interpretation have lagged behind this progress. The most popular method of data treatment remains for many decades Linear Regression (LR) based on the principles of Least Squares Method (LSM) or linearized LSM. Unfortunately, we have to state that the method of linear regression is not as a rule used accordingly namely in the evaluation of uncertainties of the LR parameters and estimates of the uncertainty of the LR predictions. We present the matrix version of basic relations of LR and the true estimate of the uncertainty of the LR predictions. We define properties of the orthogonal LR models and show how to transform general LR models into orthogonal ones. We give relations for orthogonal models for common polynomial series.

  4. Profile stiffness measurements in the Helically Symmetric experiment and comparison to nonlinear gyrokinetic calculationsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, G. M.; Faber, B. J.; Likin, K. M.; Talmadge, J. N.; Anderson, D. T.; Anderson, F. S. B.

    2015-05-01

    Stiffness measurements are presented in the quasi-helically symmetric experiment (HSX), in which the neoclassical transport is comparable to that in a tokamak and turbulent transport dominates throughout the plasma. Electron cyclotron emission is used to measure the local electron temperature response to modulated electron cyclotron resonant heating. The amplitude and phase of the heat wave through the steep electron temperature gradient (ETG) region of the plasma are used to determine a transient electron thermal diffusivity that is close to the steady-state diffusivity. The low stiffness in the region between 0.2 ? r/a ? 0.4 agrees with the scaling of the steady-state heat flux with temperature gradient in this region. These experimental results are compared to gyrokinetic calculations in a flux-tube geometry using the gyrokinetic electromagnetic numerical experiment code with two kinetic species. Linear simulations show that the ETG mode may be experimentally relevant within r/a ? 0.2, while the Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) is the dominant long-wavelength microturbulence instability across most of the plasma. The TEM is primarily driven by the density gradient. Non-linear calculations of the saturated heat flux driven by the TEM and ETG bracket the experimental heat flux.

  5. Shearwave Dispersion Ultrasonic Vibrometry (SDUV) for measuring prostate shear stiffness and viscosity – An in vitro pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Urban, M.W.; Fatemi, M.; Greenleaf, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports shear stiffness and viscosity “virtual biopsy” measurements of three excised non-cancerous human prostates using shearwave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) in vitro. Improved methods for prostate guided-biopsy are required to effectively guide needle biopsy to the suspected site. In addition, tissue stiffness measurement helps identifying a suspected site to perform biopsy because stiffness has been shown to correlate with pathology. More importantly, early detection of prostate cancer may guide minimally-invasive therapy and eliminate insidious procedures. In this work, “virtual” biopsies were taken in multiple locations in three excised prostates. Then, SDUV shear elasticity and viscosity measurements have been performed at the selected “suspicious” locations within the prostates. SDUV measurements of prostate elasticity and viscosity are generally in agreement with preliminary values reported previously in the literature. It is however important to emphasize that the obtained viscoelastic parameters values are local, and not a mean value for the whole prostate. PMID:20595086

  6. Intracardiac Echocardiography (ICE) Measurement of Dynamic Myocardial Stiffness with Shear Wave Velocimetry

    PubMed Central

    Hollender, Peter J.; Wolf, Patrick D.; Goswami, Robi; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic Radiation Force (ARF)-based methods have been demonstrated to be a viable tool for noninvasively estimating tissue elastic properties, and shear wave velocimetry has been used to quantitatively measure the stiffening and relaxation of myocardial tissue in open-chest experiments. Dynamic stiffness metrics may prove to be indicators for certain cardiac diseases, but a clinically-viable means of remotely generating and tracking transverse wave propagation in myocardium is needed. Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) catheter-tip transducers are demonstrated here as a viable tool for making this measurement. ICE probes achieve favorable proximity to the myocardium, enabling the use of shear wave velocimetry from within the right ventricle throughout the cardiac cycle. This work describes the techniques used to overcome the challenges of using a small probe to perform ARF-driven shear wave velocimetry, and presents in vivo porcine data showing the effectiveness of this method in the interventricular septum. Acoustic Radiation Force (ARF)-based methods have been demonstrated to be a viable tool for noninvasively estimating tissue elastic properties, and shear wave velocimetry has been used to quantitatively measure the stiffening and relaxation of myocardial tissue in open-chest experiments. Dynamic stiffness metrics may prove to be indicators for certain cardiac diseases, but a clinically-viable means of remotely generating and tracking transverse wave propagation in myocardium is needed. Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) catheter-tip transducers are demonstrated here as a viable tool for making this measurement. ICE probes achieve favorable proximity to the myocardium, enabling the use of shear wave velocimetry from within the right ventricle throughout the cardiac cycle. This work describes the techniques used to overcome the challenges of using a small probe to perform ARF-driven shear wave velocimetry, and presents in vivo porcine data showing the effectiveness of this method in the interventricular septum. PMID:22579544

  7. Modeling of precipitation and Cr depletion profiles of Inconel 600 during heat treatments and LSM procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Bao; Kenji Shinozaki; Muneyuki Inkyo; Tomohisa Miyoshi; Motomichi Yamamoto; Yoichi Mahara; Hiroshi Watanabe

    2006-01-01

    A model based on the thermodynamic and kinetic was conducted to simulate the Cr depletion profiles near the grain boundary in Inconel 600 during the heat treatments and laser surface melting (LSM) process using Thermo-Calc and Dictra code. Based on the good agreement of Cr concentration distribution during heat treatments measured by experiments, the microsegregation of Cr induced by cellular

  8. Evaluation of Stiffness Changes in a High-Rise Building by Measurements of Lateral Displacements Using GPS Technology

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Ill Soo; Park, Jae Hwan; Kim, Yousok; Sohn, Hong Gyoo; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-01-01

    The outrigger truss system is one of the most frequently used lateral load resisting structural systems. However, little research has been reported on the effect of installation of outrigger trusses on improvement of lateral stiffness of a high-rise building through full-scale measurements. In this paper, stiffness changes of a high-rise building due to installation of outrigger trusses have been evaluated by measuring lateral displacements using a global positioning system (GPS). To confirm the error range of the GPS measurement system used in the full-scale measurement tests, the GPS displacement monitoring system is investigated through a free vibration test of the experimental model. Then, for the evaluation of lateral stiffness of a high-rise building under construction, the GPS displacement monitoring system is applied to measurements of lateral displacements of a 66-story high-rise building before and after installation of outrigger truss. The stiffness improvement of the building before and after the installation is confirmed through the changes of the natural frequencies and the ratios of the base shear forces to the roof displacements. PMID:24233025

  9. Ankle ROM and stiffness measured at rest and during gait in individuals with and without diabetic sensory neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smita Rao; Charles Saltzman; H. John Yack

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of our study was to examinethe relationship between ankledorsiflexion(DF) range of motion (ROM) and stiffness measured at rest (passively) and plantar loading during gait in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) and sensory neuropathy. Specifically, we sought to address three questions for this at-risk patient population: (1) Does peak passive DF ROM predict ankle DF ROM

  10. The FRX-C/LSM compression experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Siemon, R.E.; Taggart, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    After two years of preparation, hardware for high-power FRC compression heating studies is now being installed onto FRX-C/LSM. FRCs will be formed and translated out of the theta-pinch source, and into a compressor where the external B-field will be increased from 0.4 to 2 T in 55 ..mu..s. The compressed FRC can then be translated into a third stage for further study. A principal experimental goal is to study FRC confinement at the high energy density, n(T/sub e/ + T/sub i/) less than or equal to 1.0 /times/ 10/sup 22/ keV/m/sup 3/, associated with the large external field. Experiments are scheduled to begin in April. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in the measurement of arterial stiffness: recent evidence and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Munakata, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is a vascular measure that has been reported to predict cardiovascular events. It is important to measure arterial stiffness in order to determine current vascular status and treatment strategy. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is a unique measure of systemic arterial stiffness that is measured by brachial and tibial arterial wave analyses. Measurement of baPWV is easy and is reproducible. For more than a decade, this measure has been used broadly in East Asian countries. Meta-analysis of cohort studies conducted in the general population with hypertension, diabetes, or end-stage renal disease, and other high-risk individuals have shown that a 1 m/s increase in baPWV is associated with 12% increase in the risk of cardiovascular events. Thus, the Japanese Circulation Society has proposed that a baPWV of 1800 cm/s is a threshold for high-risk category. For baPWV to be clinically applicable, we must confirm that circulation of the lower limbs are normal by examining brachial ankle blood pressure index. In cases of peripheral arterial disease, the reliability of baPWV measurement is attenuated. To further confirm the clinical usefulness of this measure, we need to examine the hypothesis that baPWV-guided therapy could improve prognosis in high-risk patients. PMID:25392144

  12. Microfluidic acoustic trapping force and stiffness measurement using viscous drag effect

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungwoo; Jeong, Jong Seob; Shung, K. Kirk

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that it was possible to individually trap 70 ?m droplets flowing within a 500 ?m wide microfluidic channel by a 24 MHz single element piezo-composite focused transducer. In order to further develop this non-invasive approach as a microfluidic particle manipulation tool of high precision, the trapping force needs to be calibrated to a known force, i.e., viscous drag force arising from the fluid flow in the channel. However, few calibration studies based on fluid viscosity have been carried out with focused acoustic beams for moving objects in microfluidic environments. In this paper, the acoustic trapping force (Ftrapping) and the trap stiffness (or compliance k) are experimentally determined for a streaming droplet in a microfluidic channel. Ftrapping is calibrated to viscous drag force produced from syringe pumps. Chebyshev-windowed chirp coded excitation sequences sweeping the frequency range from 18 MHz to 30 MHz is utilized to drive the transducer, enabling the beam transmission through the channel/fluid interface for interrogating the droplets inside the channel. The minimum force (Fmin,trapping) required for initially immobilizing drifting droplets is determined as a function of pulse repetition frequency (PRF), duty factor (DTF), and input voltage amplitude (Vin) to the transducer. At PRF = 0.1 kHz and DTF = 30%, Fmin,trapping is increased from 2.2 nN for Vin = 22 Vpp to 3.8 nN for Vin = 54 Vpp. With a fixed Vin = 54 Vpp and DTF = 30%, Fmin,trapping can be varied from 3.8 nN at PRF = 0.1 kHz to 6.7 nN at PRF = 0.5 kHz. These findings indicate that both higher driving voltage and more frequent beam transmission yield stronger traps for holding droplets in motion. The stiffness k can be estimated through linear regression by measuring the trapping force (Ftrapping) corresponding to the displacement (x) of a droplet from the trap center. By plotting Ftrapping – x curves for certain values of Vin (22/38/54 Vpp) at DTF = 10% and PRF = 0.1 kHz, k is measured to be 0.09, 0.14, and 0.20 nN/?m, respectively. With variable PRF from 0.1 to 0.5 kHz at Vin = 54 Vpp, k is increased from 0.20 to 0.42 nN/?m. It is shown that a higher PRF leads to a more compliant trap formation (or a stronger Ftrapping) for a given displacement x. Hence the results suggest that this acoustic trapping method has the potential as a noninvasive manipulation tool for individual moving targets in microfluidics by adjusting the transducer’s excitation parameters. PMID:22824623

  13. Growth, spectral, thermal, optical, mechanical and etching studies of l-lysine semi-maleate (l-LSM) single crystals.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, V; Renuka, N; Ramesh Babu, R; Ramamurthi, K

    2014-10-31

    Organic nonlinear optical material, l-lysine semi-maleate (l-LSM) single crystals were grown by slow cooling solution growth technique. The crystal system of grown l-LSM was confirmed by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analyzes. Functional groups of the grown crystal have been identified by Fourier Transform Infrared spectral analysis. The proton and carbon NMR spectral studies confirm the presence of hydrogen and carbon in the grown l-LSM. The melting and thermal decomposition temperatures of the crystal were determined using thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. Optical transparency, second harmonic generation efficiency, micro hardness, dielectric constant and loss, refractive index and birefringence have also been measured. Further, the growth patterns and dislocations present in the grown crystal are studied. PMID:25467679

  14. Growth, spectral, thermal, optical, mechanical and etching studies of L-lysine semi-maleate (L-LSM) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, V.; Renuka, N.; Ramesh Babu, R.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2015-02-01

    Organic nonlinear optical material, L-lysine semi-maleate (L-LSM) single crystals were grown by slow cooling solution growth technique. The crystal system of grown L-LSM was confirmed by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analyzes. Functional groups of the grown crystal have been identified by Fourier Transform Infrared spectral analysis. The proton and carbon NMR spectral studies confirm the presence of hydrogen and carbon in the grown L-LSM. The melting and thermal decomposition temperatures of the crystal were determined using thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. Optical transparency, second harmonic generation efficiency, micro hardness, dielectric constant and loss, refractive index and birefringence have also been measured. Further, the growth patterns and dislocations present in the grown crystal are studied.

  15. Zeiss LSM 510 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope User Guide

    E-print Network

    Pace, Norman

    Iron Man Zeiss LSM 510 Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope User Guide v. 1.3 (11 of the microscope 13 APPENDIX C ­ Configuring the Light Path 14 #12;Iron Man User Guide v. 1.3 3 Quick) Leave the microscope on a low power objective for next user. If someone is signed up within

  16. Feasibility study of superconducting LSM rocket launcher system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshida, Kinjiro; Ohashi, Takaaki; Shiraishi, Katsuto; Takami, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    A feasibility study is presented concerning an application of a superconducting linear synchronous motor (LSM) to a large-scale rocket launcher, whose acceleration guide tube of LSM armature windings is constructed 1,500 meters under the ground. The rocket is released from the linear launcher just after it gets to a peak speed of about 900 kilometers per hour, and it flies out of the guide tube to obtain the speed of 700 kilometers per hour at the height of 100 meters above ground. The linear launcher is brought to a stop at the ground surface for a very short time of 5 seconds by a quick control of deceleration. Very large current variations in the single-layer windings of the LSM armature, which are produced at the higher speed region of 600 to 900 kilometers per hour, are controlled successfully by adopting the double-layer windings. The proposed control method makes the rocket launcher ascend stably in the superconducting LSM system, controlling the Coriolis force.

  17. Do higher dialysate calcium concentrations increase vascular stiffness in haemodialysis patients as measured by aortic pulse wave velocity?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Haemodialysis patients have an increased prevalence of hypertension and risk of cardiovascular mortality and stroke. Higher dialysate calcium concentrations have been reported to cause both an acute and chronic increase in arterial stiffness. We therefore looked at changes in arterial stiffness in established haemodialysis patients to determine whether there was a threshold effect of dialysate calcium concentration linked to change in arterial stiffness. Methods We performed pulse wave velocity measurements six months apart in patients dialysing with calcium concentrations of 1.0, 1.25, 1.35 and ?1.5 mmol/l. Results 289 patients, 62.2% male, mean age 65.5?±?15.7 years, weight body mass index 25.8?±?5.4 kg/m2 ,47.9% diabetic were studied. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 148.4?±?28.6 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 80.2?±?15.5 mmHg. Mean pulse wave velocity increased over time (9.66?±?2.0 vs 10.13?±?2.16 m/s; p?

  18. LSM-YSZ Cathodes with Reaction-Infiltrated Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Chun; Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, StevenJ.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2006-01-31

    To improve the LSM-YSZ cathode performance of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), Sm0.6Sr0.4CoO3-sigma (SSC) perovskite nanoparticles are incorporated into the cathodes by a reaction-infiltration process. The SSC particles are {approx}20 to 80nm in diameter, and intimately adhere to the pore walls of the preformed LSM-YSZ cathodes. The SSC particles dramatically enhance single-cell performance with a 97 percent H2+3 percent H2O fuel, between 600 C and 800 C. Consideration of a simplified TPB (triple phase boundary) reaction geometry indicates that the enhancement may be attributed to the high electrocatalytic activity of SSC for electrochemical reduction of oxygen in a region that can be located a small distance away from the strict triple phase boundaries. The implication of this work for developing high-performance electrodes is also discussed.

  19. COMMUNICATION Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Mengesha; R. R. Vallance; R. Mittal

    2011-01-01

    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be

  20. Extending Bell's Model: How Force Transducer Stiffness Alters Measured Unbinding Forces and Kinetics of Molecular Complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily B. Walton; Sunyoung Lee; Krystyn J. Van Vliet

    2008-01-01

    Forced unbinding of complementary macromolecules such as ligand-receptor complexes can reveal energetic and kinetic details governing physiological processes ranging from cellular adhesion to drug metabolism. Although molecular-level experiments have enabled sampling of individual ligand-receptor complex dissociation events, disparities in measured unbinding force FR among these methods lead to marked variation in inferred binding energetics and kinetics at equilibrium. These discrepancies

  1. Magnetization measurements reveal the local shear stiffness of hydrogels probed by ferromagnetic nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, P.; Tschöpe, A.; Birringer, R.

    2014-12-01

    The local mechanical coupling of ferromagnetic nanorods in hydrogels was characterized by magnetization measurements. Nickel nanorods were synthesized by the AAO-template method and embedded in gelatine hydrogels with mechanically soft or hard matrix properties determined by the gelatine weight fraction. By applying a homogeneous magnetic field during gelation the nanorods were aligned along the field resulting in uniaxially textured ferrogels. The magnetization curves of the soft ferrogel exhibited not only important similarities but also characteristic differences as compared to the hard ferrogel. The hystereses measured in a field parallel to the texture axis were almost identical for both samples indicating effective coupling of the nanorods with the polymer network. By contrast, measurements in a magnetic field perpendicular to the texture axis revealed a much higher initial susceptibility of the soft as compared to the hard ferrogel. This difference was attributed to the additional rotation of the nanorods allowed by the reduced shear modulus in the soft ferrogel matrix. Two methods for data analysis were presented which enabled us to determine the shear modulus of the gelatine matrix which was interpreted as a local rather than macroscopic quantity in consideration of the nanoscale of the probe particles.

  2. Beetle adhesive hairs differ in stiffness and stickiness: in vivo adhesion measurements on individual setae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, James M. R.; Federle, Walter

    2011-05-01

    Leaf beetles are able to climb on smooth and rough surfaces using arrays of micron-sized adhesive hairs (setae) of varying morphology. We report the first in vivo adhesive force measurements of individual setae in the beetle Gastrophysa viridula, using a smooth polystyrene substrate attached to a glass capillary micro-cantilever. The beetles possess three distinct adhesive pads on each leg which differ in function and setal morphology. Visualisation of pull-offs allowed forces to be measured for each tarsal hair type. Male discoidal hairs adhered with the highest forces (919 ± 104 nN, mean ± SE), followed by spatulate (582 ± 59 nN) and pointed (127 ± 19 nN) hairs. Discoidal hairs were stiffer in the normal direction (0.693 ± 0.111 N m-1) than spatulate (0.364 ± 0.039 N m-1) or pointed (0.192 ± 0.044 N m-1) hairs. The greater adhesion on smooth surfaces and the higher stability of discoidal hairs help male beetles to achieve strong adhesion on the elytra of females during copulation. A comparison of pull-off forces measured for single setae and whole pads (arrays) revealed comparable levels of adhesive stress. This suggests that beetles are able to achieve equal load sharing across their adhesive pads so that detachment through peeling is prevented.

  3. Inverse measurement of stiffness by the normalization technique for J-integral fracture toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-07

    The single specimen normalization technique for J-integral fracture toughness has been successfully employed by several researchers to study the strongly non-linear fracture response of ductile semicrystalline polymers. As part of the normalization technique the load and the plastic component of displacement are normalized. The normalized data is then fit with a normalization function that approximates a power law for small displacements that are dominated by blunting and smoothly transitions to a linear relationship for large displacements that are dominated by stable crack extension. Particularly for very ductile polymers the compliance term used to determine the plastic displacement can dominate the solution and small errors in determining the elastic modulus can lead to large errors in the normalization or even make it ill-posed. This can be further complicated for polymers where the elastic modulus is strong strain rate dependent and simply using a 'quasistatic' modulus from a dogbone measurement may not equate to the dominant strain rate in the compact tension specimen. The current work proposes directly measuring the compliance of the compact tension specimen in the solution of J-integral fracture toughness and then solving for the elastic modulus. By comparison with a range of strain rate data the dominant strain rate can then be determined.

  4. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings.

    PubMed

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R; Mittal, R

    2011-03-01

    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa?cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 µN mm(-1) h(-1). For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm(-1). PMID:21160117

  5. Optimal Selection of Measurement Configurations for Stiffness Model Calibration of Anthropomorphic Manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchik, Alexandr; Wu, Yier; Pashkevich, Anatol; Caro, Stéphane; Furet, Benoît

    2012-03-01

    The paper is devoted to the elastostatic calibration of industrial robots, which is used for precise machining of large-dimensional parts made of composite materials. In this technological process, the interaction between the robot and the workpiece causes essential elastic deflections of the manipulator components that should be compensated by the robot controller using relevant elastostatic model of this mechanism. To estimate parameters of this model, an advanced calibration technique is applied that is based on the non-linear experiment design theory, which is adopted for this particular application. In contrast to previous works, it is proposed a concept of the user-defined test-pose, which is used to evaluate the calibration experiments quality. In the frame of this concept, the related optimization problem is defined and numerical routines are developed, which allow generating optimal set of manipulator configurations and corresponding forces/torques for a given number of the calibration experiments. Some specific kinematic constraints are also taken into account, which insure feasibility of calibration experiments for the obtained configurations and allow avoiding collision between the robotic manipulator and the measurement equipment. The efficiency of the developed technique is illustrated by an application example that deals with elastostatic calibration of the serial manipulator used for robot-based machining.

  6. Diagnosis of GLDAS LSM based aridity index and dryland identification.

    PubMed

    Ghazanfari, Sadegh; Pande, Saket; Hashemy, Mehdy; Sonneveld, Ben

    2013-04-15

    The identification of dryland areas is crucial for guiding policy aimed at intervening in water-stressed areas and addressing the perennial livelihood or food insecurity of these areas. However, the prevailing aridity indices (such as UNEP aridity index) have methodological limitations that restrict their use in delineating drylands and may be insufficient for decision-making frameworks. In this study, we propose a new aridity index based on based on 3 decades of soil moisture time series by accounting for site-specific soil and vegetation that partitions precipitation into the competing demands of evaporation and runoff. Our proposed aridity index is the frequency at which the dominant soil moisture value at a location is not exceeded by the dominant soil moisture values in all of the other locations. To represent the dominant spatial template of the soil moisture conditions, we extract the first eigenfunction from the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis from 3 GLDAS land surface models (LSMs): VIC, MOSAIC and NOAH at 1 × 1 degree spatial resolution. The EOF analysis reveals that the first eigenfunction explains 33%, 43% and 47% of the VIC, NOAH and MOSAIC models, respectively. We compare each LSM aridity indices with the UNEP aridity index, which is created based on LSM data forcings. The VIC aridity index displays a pattern most closely resembling that of UNEP, although all of the LSM-based indices accurately isolate the dominant dryland areas. The UNEP classification identifies portions of south-central Africa, southeastern United States and eastern India as drier than predicted by all of the LSMs. The NOAH and MOSAIC LSMs categorize portions of southwestern Africa as drier than the other two classifications, while all of the LSMs classify portions of central India as wetter than the UNEP classification. We compare all aridity maps with the long-term average NDVI values. Results show that vegetation cover in areas that the UNEP index classifies as drier than the other three LSMs (NDVI values are mostly greater than 0). Finally, the unsupervised clustering of global land surface based on long-term mean temperature and precipitation, soil texture and land slope reveals that areas classified as dry by the UNEP index but not by the LSMs do not have dry region characteristics. The dominant cluster for these areas has high water holding capacity. We conclude that the LSM-based aridity index may identify dryland areas more effectively than the UNEP aridity index because the former incorporates the role of vegetation and soil in the partitioning of precipitation into evaporation, runoff and infiltration. PMID:23500019

  7. Gear tooth stiffness reduction measurement using modal analysis and its use in wear fault severity assessment of spur gears

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isa Yesilyurt; Fengshou Gu; Andrew D. Ball

    2003-01-01

    Due to excessive service load, inappropriate operating conditions or simply end of life fatigue, damage can occur in gears. When a fault, either distributed or localised, is incurred by gears, the stiffness and consequently vibration characteristics of the damaged tooth will change. A possible non-destructive technique for damage detection and severity assessment can be derived from vibration analysis. This paper

  8. Measurement by LASER-Generated Ultrasound of Four Stiffness Coefficients of an Anisotropic Material at Elevated Temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Audoin; C. Bescond

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasonic waves are generated through a composite material by means of a noncontact technique. It uses a Nd:Yag LASER for the generation and an interferometric probe for the detection of acoustic waveforms. From a suitable set of experimental data, an inversion scheme is used for the recovering of four stiffness coefficients. They characterize the elasticity in a principal plane of

  9. Peri-Implantation Lethality in Mice Lacking the Sm Motif-Containing Protein Lsm4

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Emilio; Oohashi, Toshitaka; Ahmad, Marianne; Stamm, Stefan; Fässler, Reinhard

    2000-01-01

    Small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) are particles present only in eukaryotic cells. They are involved in a large variety of RNA maturation processes, most notably in pre-mRNA splicing. Several of the proteins typically found in snRNPs contain a sequence signature, the Sm domain, conserved from yeast to mammals. By using a promoter trap strategy to target actively transcribed loci in murine embryonic stem cells, a new murine gene encoding an Sm motif-containing protein was identified. Database searches revealed that it is the mouse orthologue of Lsm4p, a protein found in yeast and human cells and putatively associated with U6 snRNA. Introduction of the geo reporter gene cassette under the control of the murine Lsm4 (mLsm4) endogenous promoter showed that the gene was ubiquitously transcribed in embryonic and adult tissues. The insertion of the geo cassette disrupted the mLsm4 allele, and homozygosity for the mutation led to a recessive embryonic lethal phenotype. mLsm4-null zygotes survived to the blastocyst stages, implanted into the uterus, but died shortly thereafter. The early death of mLsm4p-null mice suggests that the role of mLsm4p in splicing is essential and cannot be compensated by other Lsm proteins. PMID:10629062

  10. SURFACE DISCONTINUITY MODELLING BY LSM THROUGH PATCH ADAPTATION AND USE OF EDGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pateraki; E. Baltsavias

    This paper handles the aspect of least squares matching (LSM) for DSM generation and focuses mainly on the exploitation of edge information in the least squares approach. The mathematical model of LSM employs an affine transformation to model geometrical distortions between the template and the search images. However, the model, when used for single points that lie close or on

  11. Lase Ultrasonic Web Stiffness tester

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Patterson, Ph.D., IPST at Ga Tech

    2009-01-12

    The objective is to provide a sensor that uses non-contact, laser ultrasonics to measure the stiffness of paper during the manufacturing process. This will allow the manufacturer to adjust the production process in real time, increase filler content, modify fiber refining and as result produce a quality product using less energy. The sensor operates by moving back and forth across the paper web, at pre-selected locations firing a laser at the sheet, measuring the out-of-plane velocity of the sheet then using that measurement to calculate sheet stiffness.

  12. Single-step direct measurement of amyloid fibrils stiffness by peak force quantitative nanomechanical atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamcik, Jozef; Berquand, Alexandre; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2011-05-01

    We present an original application of a new atomic force microscopy mode called peak force tapping for the investigation of the mechanical properties of ?-lactoglobulin amyloid fibrils. The values of Young's modulus obtained by this technique are in perfect agreement with the indirect evaluation of fibrils stiffness obtained by combining polymer physics and topological statistical analysis on fibrils' structural conformations. This technique shows great promise in the estimation of the elastic properties of nanostructured objects relevant in biology, soft matter, and nanotechnology.

  13. Tenure in transition : case of the LSM Cooperative Housing Estate, Lublin, Poland

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Sanjay M

    1992-01-01

    This thesis explores various tenure models as a means to understand development in transition. The emergence of new markets, aspirations, needs and varied agendas of the actors in the LSM Cooperative Housing Estate in ...

  14. Characterization and Comparison of Different Cathode Materials for SC-SOFC: LSM, BSCF, SSC and LSCF

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Characterization and Comparison of Different Cathode Materials for SC-SOFC: LSM, BSCF, SSC cathode materials for Single Chamber Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SC-SOFC) (La0.8Sr0.2MnO3- (LSM), Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0 Chamber, Solid Oxide Fuel cell, SSC. 1 Introduction Single Chamber Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SC-SOFC) show

  15. The passive stiffness of the wrist and forearm.

    PubMed

    Formica, Domenico; Charles, Steven K; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Hogan, Neville; Krebs, Hermano I

    2012-08-01

    Because wrist rotation dynamics are dominated by stiffness (Charles SK, Hogan N. J Biomech 44: 614-621, 2011), understanding how humans plan and execute coordinated wrist rotations requires knowledge of the stiffness characteristics of the wrist joint. In the past, the passive stiffness of the wrist joint has been measured in 1 degree of freedom (DOF). Although these 1-DOF measurements inform us of the dynamics the neuromuscular system must overcome to rotate the wrist in pure flexion-extension (FE) or pure radial-ulnar deviation (RUD), the wrist rarely rotates in pure FE or RUD. Instead, understanding natural wrist rotations requires knowledge of wrist stiffness in combinations of FE and RUD. The purpose of this report is to present measurements of passive wrist stiffness throughout the space spanned by FE and RUD. Using a rehabilitation robot designed for the wrist and forearm, we measured the passive stiffness of the wrist joint in 10 subjects in FE, RUD, and combinations. For comparison, we measured the passive stiffness of the forearm (in pronation-supination), as well. Our measurements in pure FE and RUD agreed well with previous 1-DOF measurements. We have linearized the 2-DOF stiffness measurements and present them in the form of stiffness ellipses and as stiffness matrices useful for modeling wrist rotation dynamics. We found that passive wrist stiffness was anisotropic, with greater stiffness in RUD than in FE. We also found that passive wrist stiffness did not align with the anatomical axes of the wrist; the major and minor axes of the stiffness ellipse were rotated with respect to the FE and RUD axes by ?20°. The direction of least stiffness was between ulnar flexion and radial extension, a direction used in many natural movements (known as the "dart-thrower's motion"), suggesting that the nervous system may take advantage of the direction of least stiffness for common wrist rotations. PMID:22649208

  16. Simultaneous measurement of the maximum oscillation amplitude and the transient decay time constant of the QCM reveals stiffness changes of the adlayer.

    PubMed

    Marxer, C Galli; Coen, M Collaud; Bissig, H; Greber, U F; Schlapbach, L

    2003-10-01

    Interpretation of adsorption kinetics measured with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) can be difficult for adlayers undergoing modification of their mechanical properties. We have studied the behavior of the oscillation amplitude, A(0), and the decay time constant, tau, of quartz during adsorption of proteins and cells, by use of a home-made QCM. We are able to measure simultaneously the frequency, f, the dissipation factor, D, the maximum amplitude, A(0), and the transient decay time constant, tau, every 300 ms in liquid, gaseous, or vacuum environments. This analysis enables adsorption and modification of liquid/mass properties to be distinguished. Moreover the surface coverage and the stiffness of the adlayer can be estimated. These improvements promise to increase the appeal of QCM methodology for any applications measuring intimate contact of a dynamic material with a solid surface. PMID:14504678

  17. Nano-indentation at the surface contact level: applying a harmonic frequency for measuring contact stiffness of self-assembled monolayers adsorbed on Au.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Wei; Liao, Jiunn-Der

    2008-08-01

    In this study, the well-ordered alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of varied chain lengths and tail groups were employed as examples for nano-characterization on their mechanical properties. A novel nano-indentation technique with a constant harmonic frequency was applied on SAMs chemically adsorbed on Au to explore their contact mechanics, and furthermore to interpret how SAM molecules respond to an infinitesimal oscillation force without pressing them. Experimental results demonstrated that the harmonic contact stiffness along with the measured displacement of SAMs/Au was distinguishable using a dynamic contact modulus with the distinct feature of phase angles. Phase angles resulted from the relaxing continuation of an applied harmonic frequency and mostly influenced by the outermost tail group of SAM molecules. The harmonic contact stiffness of SAM molecules obviously increased with the densely packed alkyl chains and relatively intense agglomeration of the head group at the anchoring site. As a consequence, the result of this work is relevant to contact mechanics at the surface contact level for the distinction of molecular substances attached on a solid surface. Furthermore it is particularly anticipated to identify biological molecules of variable qualities under a fluid-like micro-environment. PMID:21828795

  18. On the Stiffness and Stiffness Control of Redundant Manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikhail M. Svinin; Shigeyuki Hosoe; Masaru Uchiyama; Zhi Wei Luo

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of the stiffness of redundant manipulators is undertaken in this paper. First, the matrix of the force-dependent stiffness is derived and its basic properties are analyzed. In particular, in the planar case the stability conditions for the force dependent stiffness (and gravity-dependent stiffness) are obtained in the analytical form. Next, dual properties of the stiffness and compliance are

  19. Haptic Identification of Stiffness and Force Magnitude Steven A. Cholewiak,

    E-print Network

    Tan, Hong Z.

    Haptic Identification of Stiffness and Force Magnitude Steven A. Cholewiak, 1 Hong Z. Tan, 1 investigated the channel capacity for transmitting information through stiffness or force magnitude. Specifically, we measured the number of stiffness or force- magnitude levels that can be reliably identified

  20. Measurements of the Stiffness and Thickness of the Pavement Asphalt Layer Using the Enhanced Resonance Search Method

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Nur Mustakiza; Yusoff, Nur Izzi Md.; Hardwiyono, Sentot; Mohd Nayan, Khairul Anuar

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced resonance search (ERS) is a nondestructive testing method that has been created to evaluate the quality of a pavement by means of a special instrument called the pavement integrity scanner (PiScanner). This technique can be used to assess the thickness of the road pavement structure and the profile of shear wave velocity by using the principle of surface wave and body wave propagation. In this study, the ERS technique was used to determine the actual thickness of the asphaltic pavement surface layer, while the shear wave velocities obtained were used to determine its dynamic elastic modulus. A total of fifteen locations were identified and the results were then compared with the specifications of the Malaysian PWD, MDD UKM, and IKRAM. It was found that the value of the elastic modulus of materials is between 3929?MPa and 17726?MPa. A comparison of the average thickness of the samples with the design thickness of MDD UKM showed a difference of 20 to 60%. Thickness of the asphalt surface layer followed the specifications of Malaysian PWD and MDD UKM, while some of the values of stiffness obtained are higher than the standard. PMID:25276854

  1. Measurements of the stiffness and thickness of the pavement asphalt layer using the enhanced resonance search method.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Nur Mustakiza; Yusoff, Nur Izzi Md; Hardwiyono, Sentot; Nayan, Khairul Anuar Mohd; El-Shafie, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced resonance search (ERS) is a nondestructive testing method that has been created to evaluate the quality of a pavement by means of a special instrument called the pavement integrity scanner (PiScanner). This technique can be used to assess the thickness of the road pavement structure and the profile of shear wave velocity by using the principle of surface wave and body wave propagation. In this study, the ERS technique was used to determine the actual thickness of the asphaltic pavement surface layer, while the shear wave velocities obtained were used to determine its dynamic elastic modulus. A total of fifteen locations were identified and the results were then compared with the specifications of the Malaysian PWD, MDD UKM, and IKRAM. It was found that the value of the elastic modulus of materials is between 3929 MPa and 17726 MPa. A comparison of the average thickness of the samples with the design thickness of MDD UKM showed a difference of 20 to 60%. Thickness of the asphalt surface layer followed the specifications of Malaysian PWD and MDD UKM, while some of the values of stiffness obtained are higher than the standard. PMID:25276854

  2. Optimisation of processing and microstructural parameters of LSM cathodes to improve the electrochemical performance of anode-supported SOFCs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. C. Haanappel; J. Mertens; D. Rutenbeck; C. Tropartz; W. Herzhof; D. Sebold; F. Tietz

    2005-01-01

    To improve the electrochemical performance of LSM-based anode-supported single cells, a systematic approach was taken for optimising processing and materials parameters. Four parameters were investigated in more detail: (1) the LSM\\/YSZ mass ratio of the cathode functional layer, (2) the grain size of LSM powder for the cathode current collector layer, (3) the thickness of the cathode functional layer and

  3. Athletic Footwear, Leg Stiffness, and Running Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Mark; Fiolkowski, Paul; Conrad, Bryan; Brunt, Denis; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2006-01-01

    Context: The leg acts as a linear spring during running and hopping and adapts to the stiffness of the surface, maintaining constant total stiffness of the leg-surface system. Introducing a substance (eg, footwear) may affect the stiffness of the leg in response to changes in surface stiffness. Objective: To determine if the type of athletic footwear affects the regulation of leg stiffness in dynamic activities. Design: Repeated-measures design. Setting: Motion analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Nine healthy adults (age = 28 ± 6.8 years, mass = 71.6 ± 12.9 kg) free from lower extremity injuries. Intervention(s): Subjects hopped at 2.2 Hz on a forceplate under 3 footwear conditions (barefoot, low-cost footwear, high-cost footwear). Subjects ran on a treadmill at 2 speeds (2.23 m/s, 3.58 m/s) under the same footwear conditions. Main Outcome Measure(s): Limb stiffness was calculated from forceplate data. Kinematic data (knee and ankle angles at initial contact and peak joint excursion after contact) were collected during running. We calculated 1-way repeated-measures (stiffness) and 2-way (speed by footwear) repeated-measures analyses of variance (running kinematics) to test the dependent variables. Results: A significant increase in leg stiffness from the barefoot to the “cushioned” shoe condition was noted during hopping. When running shod, runners landed in more dorsiflexion but had less ankle motion than when running barefoot. No differences were seen between the types of shoes. The primary kinematic difference was identified as running speed increased: runners landed in more knee flexion. At the ankle, barefoot runners increased ankle motion to a significantly greater extent than did shod runners as speed increased. Conclusions: Footwear influences the maintenance of stiffness in the lower extremity during hopping and joint excursion at the ankle in running. Differences in cushioning properties of the shoes tested did not appear to be significant. PMID:17273463

  4. Improvement of LSM performance under co-sintering at high temperature via CeO2 addition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Wiff; K. Jono; M. Suzuki; S. Suda; F. Hashimoto

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes the use of CeO2 as additive for La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 cathodes (LSM) in order to increase both their thermal stability and electrochemical properties after co-sintering with YSZ-electrolyte at 1350°C. Results show that non CeO2-added LSM is instable at 1350°C, whereas in CeO2-added LSM cathodes the instability is drastically reduced. Besides, results show a correlation between CeO2 addition into LSM

  5. Theoretical analysis of segmented Wolter/LSM X-ray telescope systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Chao, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    The Segmented Wolter I/LSM X-ray Telescope, which consists of a Wolter I Telescope with a tilted, off-axis convex spherical Layered Synthetic Microstructure (LSM) optics placed near the primary focus to accommodate multiple off-axis detectors, has been analyzed. The Skylab ATM Experiment S056 Wolter I telescope and the Stanford/MSFC nested Wolter-Schwarzschild x-ray telescope have been considered as the primary optics. A ray trace analysis has been performed to calculate the RMS blur circle radius, point spread function (PSF), the meridional and sagittal line functions (LST), and the full width half maximum (PWHM) of the PSF to study the spatial resolution of the system. The effects on resolution of defocussing the image plane, tilting and decentrating of the multilayer (LSM) optics have also been investigated to give the mounting and alignment tolerances of the LSM optic. Comparison has been made between the performance of the segmented Wolter/LSM optical system and that of the Spectral Slicing X-ray Telescope (SSXRT) systems.

  6. Aortic stiffness: pathophysiology, clinical implications, and approach to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Salil; Rivera, Oscar; Oliveros, Rene; Chilton, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Aortic stiffness is a hallmark of aging, and classic cardiovascular risk factors play a role in accelerating this process. Current changes in medicine, which focus on preventive care, have led to a growing interest in noninvasive evaluation of aortic stiffness. Aortic stiffness has emerged as a good tool for further risk stratification because it has been linked to increased risk of atherosclerotic heart disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke. This has led to the invention and validation of multiple methods to measure aortic stiffness. Pulse wave velocity is emerging as the gold standard for evaluation of aortic stiffness. This review focuses on the pathophysiology involved in aortic stiffness, methods available for evaluation of aortic stiffness, the importance of central pressure as a predictor of future cardiovascular events, and therapies that affect aortic stiffness. PMID:24910511

  7. Stiffness analysis and experimental validation of robotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Stiffness can be considered of primary importance in order to guarantee the successful use of any robotic system for a given task. Therefore, this paper proposes procedures for carrying out both numerical and experimental estimations of stiffness performance for multibody robotic systems. The proposed numerical procedure is based on models with lumped parameters for deriving the Cartesian stiffness matrix. Stiffness performance indices are also proposed for comparing stiffness performance. Then, an experimental procedure for the evaluation stiffness performance is proposed as based on a new measuring system named as Milli-CATRASYS (Milli Cassino Tracking System) and on a trilateration technique. Cases of study are reported to show the soundness and engineering feasibility of both the proposed numerical formulation for stiffness analysis and experimental validation of stiffness performance.

  8. Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells IV. On the Ohmic loss in anode supported button cells with LSM or LSCF cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zigui; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Templeton, Jared W.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2010-05-08

    Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) with a variety of YSZ electrolyte thicknesses were fabricated by tape casting and lamination. The preparation of the YSZ electrolyte tapes with various thicknesses was accomplished by using doctor blades with different gaps between the precision machined, polished blade and the casting surface. The green tape was cut into discs, sintered at 1385°C for 2 h, and subsequently creep-flattened at 1350°C for 2 h. Either LSCF with an SDC interlayer or LSM+YSZ composite was used as the cathode material for the fuel cells. The ohmic resistances of these anode-supported fuel cells were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at temperatures from 500°C to 750°C. A linear relationship was found between the ohmic resistance of the fuel cell and the YSZ electrolyte thickness at all the measuring temperatures for both LSCF and LSM+YSZ cathode fuel cells. The ionic conductivities of the YSZ electrolyte, derived for the fuel cells with LSM+YSZ or LSCF cathodes, were independent of the cathode material and cell configuration. The ionic conductivities of the YSZ electrolyte was slightly lower than that of the bulk material, possibly due to Ni-doping into the electrolyte. The fuel cell with a SDC interlayer and LSCF cathode showed larger intercept resistance than the fuel cell with LSM+YSZ cathode, which was possibly due to the imperfect contact between the SDC interlayer and the YSZ electrolyte and the migration of Zr into the SDC interlayer to form an insulating solid solution during cell fabrication. Calculations of the contribution of the YSZ electrolyte to the total ohmic resistance showed that YSZ was still a satisfactory electrolyte at temperatures above 650°C. Explorations should be directed to reduce the intercept resistance to achieve significant improvement in cell performance.

  9. Electrochemical Performance and Stability of the Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: III. Role of volatile boron species on LSM/YSZ and LSCF

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiao Dong; Templeton, Jared W.; Zhu, Zihua; Chou, Y. S.; Maupin, Gary D.; Lu, Zigui; Brow, R. K.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2010-09-02

    Boron oxide is a key component to tailor the softening temperature and viscosity of the sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cells. The primary concern regarding the use of boron containing sealing glasses is the volatility of boron species, which possibly results in cathode degradation. In this paper, we report the role of volatile boron species on the electrochemical performance of LSM/YSZ and LSCF cathodes at various SOFC operation temperatures. The transport rate of boron, ~ 3.24×10-12 g/cm2•sec was measured at 750°C with air saturated with 2.8% moisture. A reduction in power density was observed in cells with LSM/YSZ cathodes after introduction of the boron source to the cathode air stream. Partial recovery of the power density was observed after the boron source was removed. Results from post-test secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis the partial recovery in power density correlated with partil removal of the deposited boron by the clean air stream. The presence of boron was also observed in LSCF cathodes by SIMS analysis, however the effect of boron on the electrochemical performance of LSCF cathode was negligible. Coverage of triple phase boundaries in LSM/YSZ was postulated as the cause for the observed reduction in electrochemical performance.

  10. Magnetic negative stiffness dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiang; Zhu, Songye

    2015-07-01

    This communication presents the design principle and experimental validation of two novel configurations of magnetic negative stiffness dampers (MNSDs), both of which are composed of several permanent magnets arranged in a conductive pipe. The MNSD, as a passive device, efficiently integrates negative stiffness and eddy-current damping in a simple and compact design, in which the negative stiffness behavior depends on the different arrangements of the permanent magnets. When applied to structural vibration control, passive MNSD may achieve a performance comparable with semi-active or active control in some applications. Laboratory experiments of small-scale prototypes successfully verified the proposed MNSD design concept.

  11. Electromechanical Dynamics Simulations of Superconducting LSM Rocket Launcher System in Attractive-Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshida, Kinjiro; Hayashi, Kengo; Takami, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    Further feasibility study on a superconducting linear synchronous motor (LSM) rocket launcher system is presented on the basis of dynamic simulations of electric power, efficiency and power factor as well as the ascending motions of the launcher and rocket. The advantages of attractive-mode operation are found from comparison with repulsive-mode operation. It is made clear that the LSM rocket launcher system, of which the long-stator is divided optimally into 60 sections according to launcher speeds, can obtain high efficiency and power factor.

  12. Adiponectin and Arterial Stiffness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azra Mahmud; John Feely

    2005-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipocytokine, is reduced in hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease (CAD). Arterial stiffness, as aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in hypertension and diabetes, and as augmentation index (AIx) in CAD, is independently associated with cardiovascular mortality. We explored the relationship between adiponectin and arterial stiffness in essential hypertension.Methods: Seventy-six untreated patients, 34 women, aged 47 ±

  13. LSm1 binds to the Dengue virus RNA 3' UTR and is a positive regulator of Dengue virus replication.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yangchao; Yang, Jing; Ye, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Miao, Yunbo; Ding, Tianbing; Xiang, Chen; Lei, Yingfeng; Xu, Zhikai

    2015-06-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that can cause severe disease in humans. The DENV positive strand RNA genome contains 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) that have been shown to be required for virus replication and interaction with host cell proteins. In the present study LSm1 was identified as a host cellular protein involved in DENV RNA replication. By using two independent methodologies, we demonstrated a critical interaction between LSm1 and the 3' UTR of DENV. Furthermore, the confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that the interaction between LSm1 and viral RNA is located in P?body around nucleoli in the cytoplasm. LSm1 knockdown by siRNA specifically reduced the levels of viral RNA in DENV?infected cells and infectious DENV particles in the supernatant. These results provide evidence that LSm1 binding to the DENV RNA 3' UTR positively regulates DENV RNA replication. PMID:25872476

  14. Measurements of Drag Torque and Lift Off Speed and Identification of Stiffness and Damping in a Metal Mesh Foil Bearing 

    E-print Network

    Chirathadam, Thomas A.

    2010-07-14

    must demonstrate adequate load capacity, reliable rotordynamic performance, and low frictional losses in a high temperature environment. The thesis presents the measurements of MMFB break-away torque, rotor lift off and touchdown speeds, temperature...

  15. Muscle short-range stiffness can be used to estimate the endpoint stiffness of the human arm

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao; Murray, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the human arm are regulated to maintain stability across many tasks. The static mechanics of the arm can be characterized by estimates of endpoint stiffness, considered especially relevant for the maintenance of posture. At a fixed posture, endpoint stiffness can be regulated by changes in muscle activation, but which activation-dependent muscle properties contribute to this global measure of limb mechanics remains unclear. We evaluated the role of muscle properties in the regulation of endpoint stiffness by incorporating scalable models of muscle stiffness into a three-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the human arm. Two classes of muscle models were tested: one characterizing short-range stiffness and two estimating stiffness from the slope of the force-length curve. All models were compared with previously collected experimental data describing how endpoint stiffness varies with changes in voluntary force. Importantly, muscle properties were not fit to the experimental data but scaled only by the geometry of individual muscles in the model. We found that force-dependent variations in endpoint stiffness were accurately described by the short-range stiffness of active arm muscles. Over the wide range of evaluated arm postures and voluntary forces, the musculoskeletal model incorporating short-range stiffness accounted for 98 ± 2, 91 ± 4, and 82 ± 12% of the variance in stiffness orientation, shape, and area, respectively, across all simulated subjects. In contrast, estimates based on muscle force-length curves were less accurate in all measures, especially stiffness area. These results suggest that muscle short-range stiffness is a major contributor to endpoint stiffness of the human arm. Furthermore, the developed model provides an important tool for assessing how the nervous system may regulate endpoint stiffness via changes in muscle activation. PMID:21289133

  16. Theoretical analysis of Wolter/LSM X-ray telescope systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Chao, S.

    1985-01-01

    A ray tracing analysis has been performed for the spectral slicing zoom X-ray telescope for configurations in which a convex layered synthetic microstructure (LSM) optic is placed in front of the prime focus or a concave LSM optic is placed behind the prime focus. The analysis has considered the geometrical shape of the LSM optic to be either a hyperboloid, sphere, ellipsoid or constant optical path aspheric element for two configurations of the glancing incidence X-ray telescope: the ATM Experimental S-056 Wolter I system and the Stanford/MSFC Wolter-Schwarzchild nested system. For the different systems the RMS blur circle radii, the point spread function (PSF), the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the PSF have been evaluated as a function of field angle and magnification of the secondary to determine resolution of the system. The effects of decentration and tilt of the selected LSM element on the performance of the system have been studied to determine mounting and alignment tolerances.

  17. Regardless-of-Speed Superconducting LSM Controlled-Repulsive MAGLEV Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshida, Kinjiro; Egashira, Tatsuya; Hirai, Ryuichi

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes a new repulsive Maglev vehicle which a superconducting linear synchronous motor (LSM) can levitate and propel simultaneously, independently of the vehicle speeds. The combined levitation and propulsion control is carried out by controlling mechanical-load angle and armature-current. Dynamic simulations show successful operations with good ride-quality by using a compact control method proposed here.

  18. The Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex promotes viral RNA translation and replication by differential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jungfleisch, Jennifer; Chowdhury, Ashis; Alves-Rodrigues, Isabel; Tharun, Sundaresan; Díez, Juana

    2015-08-01

    The Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex binds to the 3' end of cellular mRNAs and promotes 3' end protection and 5'-3' decay. Interestingly, this complex also specifically binds to cis-acting regulatory sequences of viral positive-strand RNA genomes promoting their translation and subsequent recruitment from translation to replication. Yet, how the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex regulates these two processes remains elusive. Here, we show that Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex acts differentially in these processes. By using a collection of well-characterized lsm1 mutant alleles and a system that allows the replication of Brome mosaic virus (BMV) in yeast we show that the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex integrity is essential for both, translation and recruitment. However, the intrinsic RNA-binding ability of the complex is only required for translation. Consistent with an RNA-binding-independent function of the Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex on BMV RNA recruitment, we show that the BMV 1a protein, the sole viral protein required for recruitment, interacts with this complex in an RNA-independent manner. Together, these results support a model wherein Lsm1-7-Pat1 complex binds consecutively to BMV RNA regulatory sequences and the 1a protein to promote viral RNA translation and later recruitment out of the host translation machinery to the viral replication complexes. PMID:26092942

  19. Stiff magnetofluid cosmological model

    SciTech Connect

    Bali, R.; Tyagi, A.

    1988-05-01

    We investigate the behavior of the magnetic field in a cosmological model filled with a stiff perfect fluid in general relativity. The magnetic field is due to an electric current along the x axis. The behavior of the model when a magnetic field is absent is also discussed.

  20. Advanced Glycation End-Products and Arterial Stiffness in Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie McNulty; Azra Mahmud; John Feely

    2007-01-01

    Background: The formation of advanced glycation end-products is associated with arterial stiffness in experimental models and alagebrium (formerly known as ALT-711), an advanced glycation end-product cross-link breaker, has been shown to reduce arterial stiffness in elderly subjects.Methods: We related plasma concentrations of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), measured using a noncompetitive immunoassay, and markers of aortic stiffness—pulse wave velocity (PWV) and

  1. Experiments on dynamic stiffness and damping of tapered bore seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, D. P.

    1987-01-01

    Stiffness and damping were measured in tapered bore ring seals with air as the sealed fluid. Excitation was provided by a known unbalance in the shaft which rotated in the test seals. Results were obtained for various seal supply pressures, clearances, unbalance amounts, and shaft speeds. Stiffness and damping varied little with unbalance level, indicating linearity of the seal. Greater variation was observed with speed and particularly supply pressure. A one-dimensional analysis predicted stiffness fairly well, but considerably overestimated damping.

  2. Transient elastography-derived liver stiffness measurements were found to be useful for predicting liver infiltration in a case of mature T-cell neoplasm involving liver dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Kunimoto; Narita, Yutaka; Ota, Yasunori; Komatsu, Norio; Koike, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Transient elastography (TE) is a novel, non-invasive imaging technique for measuring liver stiffness (LS). It is considered to be useful for predicting the severity of fibrosis and the risk of cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the association between the presence of diffuse regions of increased cell density in the liver and elevated LS values has not been assessed. We experienced a case in which a mature T-cell neoplasm had invaded the liver, but the infiltrating lesion was not detected by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) or fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT scans. Instead, the tumor's presence was indicated by the change in the patient's TE-derived LS values after chemotherapy. At diagnosis liver dysfunction was detected in a biochemical examination, and mean LS value was as high as 25.4 kPa [interquartile range (IQR): 0.3, success rate (SR):100%]. After chemotherapy, the patient's mean LS value fell to 4.3 kPa (IQR: 0.8, SR:100%). A follow-up pathological investigation demonstrated that proliferating abnormal T-cells were no longer present in the patient's liver. This is the first report to describe the use of LS data to support a diagnosis of liver infiltration by tumor cells exhibiting a portal and sinusoidal distribution pattern rather than a focal pattern. Elevated TE-derived LS values should lead to hepatic tumor infiltration being considered during initial examinations or a suspicion of recurrence during follow-up examination of lymphoma patients who achieve complete remission, even when radiological investigations do not detect abnormalities in the liver. PMID:26097615

  3. Transient elastography-derived liver stiffness measurements were found to be useful for predicting liver infiltration in a case of mature T-cell neoplasm involving liver dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Kunimoto; Narita, Yutaka; Ota, Yasunori; Komatsu, Norio; Koike, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Transient elastography (TE) is a novel, non-invasive imaging technique for measuring liver stiffness (LS). It is considered to be useful for predicting the severity of fibrosis and the risk of cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the association between the presence of diffuse regions of increased cell density in the liver and elevated LS values has not been assessed. We experienced a case in which a mature T-cell neoplasm had invaded the liver, but the infiltrating lesion was not detected by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) or fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT scans. Instead, the tumor’s presence was indicated by the change in the patient’s TE-derived LS values after chemotherapy. At diagnosis liver dysfunction was detected in a biochemical examination, and mean LS value was as high as 25.4 kPa [interquartile range (IQR): 0.3, success rate (SR):100%]. After chemotherapy, the patient’s mean LS value fell to 4.3 kPa (IQR: 0.8, SR:100%). A follow-up pathological investigation demonstrated that proliferating abnormal T-cells were no longer present in the patient’s liver. This is the first report to describe the use of LS data to support a diagnosis of liver infiltration by tumor cells exhibiting a portal and sinusoidal distribution pattern rather than a focal pattern. Elevated TE-derived LS values should lead to hepatic tumor infiltration being considered during initial examinations or a suspicion of recurrence during follow-up examination of lymphoma patients who achieve complete remission, even when radiological investigations do not detect abnormalities in the liver.

  4. The valuation of multidimensional American real options using the LSM simulation method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gonzalo Cortazar; Miguel Gravet; Jorge Urzua

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we show how a multidimensional American real option may be solved using the LSM simulation method originally proposed by Longstaff and Schwartz (2001, The Review of the Financial Studies 14(1): 113-147) for valuing a financial option and how this method can be used in a complex setting. We extend a well-known natural resource real option model, initially

  5. Effect of LSM-YSZ cathode on thin-electrolyte solid oxide fuel cell performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsepin Tsai; Scott A. Barnett

    1997-01-01

    The effect of cathode composition, processing and structure on the performance of medium-temperature (600–800 °C) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is described. The cathodes and physical supports for the SOFCs were two-phase mixtures of (La1 ? xSrx)1 ? yMnO3 (LSM) and Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), the electrolytes were < 10 ?m thick YSZ, and the anodes were Ni-YSZ with Y-doped CeO2

  6. Contribution of cation-? interactions to the stability of Sm/LSm oligomeric assemblies.

    PubMed

    Muci?, Ivana D; Nikoli?, Milan R; Stojanovi?, Sr?an ?

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we have analyzed the influence of cation-? interactions to the stability of Sm/LSm assemblies and their environmental preferences. The number of interactions formed by arginine is higher than lysine in the cationic group, while histidine is comparatively higher than phenylalanine and tyrosine in the ? group. Arg-Tyr interactions are predominant among the various pairs analyzed. The furcation level of multiple cation-? interactions is much higher than that of single cation-? interactions in Sm/LSm interfaces. We have found hot spot residues forming cation-? interactions, and hot spot composition is similar for all aromatic residues. The Arg-Phe pair has the strongest interaction energy of -8.81 kcal mol(-1) among all the possible pairs of amino acids. The extent of burial of the residue side-chain correlates with the ??G of binding for residues in the core and also for hot spot residues cation-? bonded across the interface. Secondary structure of the cation-? residues shows that Arg and Lys preferred to be in strand. Among the ? residues, His prefers to be in helix, Phe prefers to be in turn, and Tyr prefers to be in strand. Stabilization centers for these proteins showed that all the five residues found in cation-? interactions are important in locating one or more of such centers. More than 50 % of the cation-? interacting residues are highly conserved. It is likely that the cation-? interactions contribute significantly to the overall stability of Sm/LSm proteins. PMID:25408427

  7. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (inventor); Polites, Michael E. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  8. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (inventor); Polites, Michael E. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  9. Development of engineering prototype of Life Support Module (LSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The development of an engineering prototype of a life support system is discussed. The module consists of an electrocardiogram, a defibrillator, a resuscitator, and an aspirator, as well as body temperature and blood pressure measuring instruments. A drug kit is included.

  10. Stiffness regulation by reflex action in the normal human hand.

    PubMed

    Carter, R R; Crago, P E; Keith, M W

    1990-07-01

    1. The torque and electromyographic (EMG) responses to stretch of the first dorsal interosseous muscle (externally imposed joint rotation) were recorded in five normal human subjects. The total measured stiffness was decomposed into three individual stiffness components; passive, intrinsic, and reflex. 2. The passive component was measured with the subject relaxed. Compared with the total response at the height of short latency reflex action, the passive component comprised 6-32% of the total stiffness recorded at an initial torque level of 20 N-cm [15-39% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)]. The passive response also reflected a significant acceleration component during rapid joint rotation due primarily to digit inertia. 3. The intrinsic stiffness component, attributed to the mechanical properties of the active muscle fibers, was estimated by recording the response to joint rotation with the muscle activated in a distributed manner using a single intramuscular electrode. The dynamic stiffness (measured at the end of a ramp displacement) and the static stiffness (measured 1 s after onset of the displacement) both scaled in a straight-line manner with the initial torque level. This relationship held whether the initial torque level was varied by changes in recruitment or temporal summation. 4. The reflex component was calculated by subtracting the passive and the estimated intrinsic component from the total response. The timing of the EMG signal recorded during measurement of the total response and the fact that the estimated intrinsic component matched the total active response over the first 65-100 ms after displacement onset supported the case that this was the true reflex component. The peak of the reflex activity occurred 155-360 ms after displacement onset and, at this peak, accounted for 18-44% of the total stiffness (at an initial torque level of 20 N-cm). 5. Over the low to intermediate torque range employed, we observed that both intrinsic muscle stiffness and total stiffness increased with initial torque. Because total stiffness increased more rapidly than intrinsic stiffness, the difference between them (equal to reflex stiffness) also increased with initial torque. Furthermore, when the total active response trials (passive stiffness removed) were shifted vertically so that the initial torque levels matched, it was seen that reflex action did not reduce the stiffness range to less than the stiffness range encountered for the intrinsic response alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2388060

  11. Influences of tendon stiffness, joint stiffness, and electromyographic activity on jump performances using single joint.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Keitaro; Morimoto, Masanori; Komuro, Teruaki; Tsunoda, Naoya; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2007-02-01

    The present study aimed to examine the influences of tendon stiffness, joint stiffness, and electromyographic activity on jump performances consisting of a single-joint movement. Twenty-four men performed three kinds of unilateral maximal jump using only the ankle joint (squat jump: SJ; countermovement jump: CMJ; drop jump: DJ) on the sledge apparatus. The relative differences in the jump height of CMJ and DJ compared to SJ were defined as pre-stretch augmentation. During jumping exercises, electromyographic activities (mEMG) were recorded from the plantar flexors. Ankle joint stiffness was calculated as the change in the joint torque divided by the change in ankle joint angle during the eccentric phase of DJ. Achilles tendon stiffness was measured using ultrasonography during isometric plantar flexion. No significant correlations were found between joint stiffness and pre-stretch augmentation in both CMJ and DJ. On the contrary, tendon stiffness was significantly correlated with pre-stretch augmentation in both CMJ (r = -0.471) and DJ (r = -0.502). The relative mEMG value of CMJ (to that of SJ) during the concentric phase was significantly correlated with pre-stretch augmentation (r = 0.481), although this relationship was not found in DJ. These results suggested that (1) the greater jump height in CMJ could be explained by both the tendon elasticity and the increased activation level of muscle, (2) tendon elasticity played a more significant role in the enhancement of jump height during DJ, and (3) joint stiffness was not related to either pre-stretch augmentation or tendon stiffness. PMID:17106717

  12. Biaxial strain and variable stiffness in aponeuroses

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Emanuel; Roberts, Thomas J

    2009-01-01

    The elastic structures of many muscles include both an extramuscular free tendon as well as a sheet-like aponeurosis. An important distinguishing feature of aponeuroses is that these tendinous structures function as the attachment and insertion surfaces of muscle fascicles and therefore surround a substantial portion of the muscle belly. As a result, aponeuroses must expand both parallel (longitudinal) and perpendicular (transverse) to a muscle's line of action when contracting muscles bulge to maintain a constant volume. In this study, we use biplanar high-speed fluoroscopy to track the strain patterns of the turkey lateral gastrocnemius aponeurosis during active and passive force production in situ. We find that the behaviour of the aponeurosis during passive force production is consistent with uniaxial loading, as aponeuroses stretch only in the longitudinal direction. By contrast, our results show that aponeuroses are stretched in both longitudinal and transverse directions during active force production and that transverse strains are on average 4 times greater than longitudinal strains. Biaxial loading of aponeuroses appears to effectively modulate longitudinal stiffness, as we find the measured stiffness in the longitudinal direction varies in proportion to transverse strain. We conclude that biaxial strain during active force production distinguishes aponeuroses from free tendons and may function to dynamically modulate stiffness along the axis of muscle force production. It is likely that consideration of strains measured only in the longitudinal direction result in an underestimation of aponeurosis stiffness as well as its capacity for elastic energy storage. PMID:19596897

  13. Nonlinear stiffness characteristics of the annular ligament.

    PubMed

    Lauxmann, M; Eiber, A; Haag, F; Ihrle, S

    2014-10-01

    The annular ligament provides a compliant connection of the stapes to the oval window. To estimate the stiffness characteristics of the annular ligament, human temporal bone measurements were conducted. A force was applied sequentially at several points on the stapes footplate leading to different patterns of displacement with different amounts of translational and rotational components. The spatial displacement of the stapes footplate was measured using a laser vibrometer. The experiments were performed on several stapes with dissected chain and the force was increased stepwise, resulting in load-deflection curves for each force application point. The annular ligament exhibited a progressive stiffening characteristic in combination with an inhomogeneous stiffness distribution. When a centric force, orientated in the lateral direction, was applied to the stapes footplate, the stapes head moved laterally and in the posterior-inferior direction. Based on the load-deflection curves, a mechanical model of the annular ligament was derived. The mathematical representation of the compliance of the annular ligament results in a stiffness matrix with a nonlinear dependence on stapes displacement. This description of the nonlinear stiffness allows simulations of the sound transfer behavior of the middle ear for different preloads. PMID:25324078

  14. Dynamic Changes in LSM Nanoparticles on YSZ: A Model System for Non-stationary SOFC Cathode Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S; Gorte, R J; Orme, C A; Nelson, A J

    2009-01-05

    The interaction between nanoparticles of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) and single crystal yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Nanoparticles of LSM were deposited directly onto single crystal YSZ substrates (100) using an ultrasonic spray nozzle. As samples were annealed from 850 C to 1250 C, nanoparticles gradually decreased in height and eventually disappeared completely. Subsequent reduction in H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O at 700 C resulted in the reappearance of nanoparticles. Studies were carried out on identical regions of the sample allowing the same nanoparticles to be characterized at different temperatures. Morphological changes indicate the formation of a thin layer of LSM, and XPS results support the observation by indicating an increase in signal from the La and Sr and a decrease in signal from the Y and Zr with increasing temperature. SEM/EDX was used to verify that the nanoparticles in the reduced sample contained La. The changes in the LSM/YSZ morphology may be important in explaining the non-stationary behavior observed in operating fuel cells. The thin layer of LSM initially results in poor cathode performance; reducing conditions then lead to film disruptions, indicating nano/microporosity, that increase oxygen ion diffusion and performance.

  15. Variable mechanical stiffness control based on human stiffness estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chowarit Mitsantisuk; Kiyoshi Ohishi; Seiichiro Katsura

    2011-01-01

    Control of the human-robot interaction system presents many challenges, which include the consideration in terms of the properties of human operators, sensor device, and linkage mechanisms of the robot. This paper presents the application of a variable mechanical stiffness control based on a human stiffness estimation. In the controller design, dual disturbance observers with respect to two operation modes, namely

  16. POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Obesity has divergent effects on aortic stiffness

    E-print Network

    POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Obesity has divergent effects on aortic stiffness in young and old velocity (PWV), a measure of central arterial stiffness, is an independent predictor of cardio- vascular on the association between obesity and aortic stiffness have been mixed, with some studies showing a positive

  17. Diagnosing Aorta Stiffness by Temporal Analysis of Echocardiographic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsi; Yen, Tsu-Chiang; Lee, Doyal

    2005-03-01

    In the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, information about the intracardiac system function and blood flow can be obtained by echocardiography due to its high spatial resolution capability. However, seldom message is known about the aorta stiffness. This work investigated a method to quantitatively analyze the aorta stiffness. The aorta was modeled as a periodic-force-driven damping oscillator, in which the aorta stiffness was the damping factor. From the analysis of echocardiographic images, the delay time of the maximal aorta distention relative to the R-peak of the electrocardiographic trace was measured to reveal the aorta stiffness. A study based on 10 samples suggested that a delay time greater than 0.17 sec could be a criterion to diagnose that the aorta is quite stiff. This method could also clearly discern some abnormal cardiac performance. A large-scale study with this method should be conducted in the future.

  18. Working Stiff: PBS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A feature at Public Broadcasting Service's Web Lab, this site offers tales and advice from the front lines of working America. The Workplace Diaries section offers daily updates from the "Work-A-Day World." Diarists include a Northwest customer service rep, a Midwest teacher, an Illinois casino worker, and a Midwest utility worker. The Free Advice section allows users to submit workplace troubles to the site's expert problem-solver. Current Feature Articles include a guide to interoffice romance and a discussion of worker privacy in the workplace. Additional offerings at the site include a worker forum, Stress-O-Meter, and the Working Stiff Action Guide, which contains information on workplace activism.

  19. Boundary Stiffness Regulates Fibroblast Behavior in Collagen Gels

    PubMed Central

    John, Jeffrey; Quinlan, Angela Throm; Silvestri, Chiara; Billiar, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have illustrated the profound dependence of cellular behavior on the stiffness of 2D culture substrates. The goal of this study was to develop a method to alter the stiffness cells experience in a standard 3D collagen gel model without affecting the physiochemical properties of the extracellular matrix. A device was developed utilizing compliant anchors (0.048–0.64 N m?1) to tune the boundary stiffness of suspended collagen gels in between the commonly utilized free and fixed conditions (zero and infinite stiffness boundary stiffness). We demonstrate the principle of operation with finite element analyses and a wide range of experimental studies. In all cases, boundary stiffness has a strong influence on cell behavior, most notably eliciting higher basal tension and activated force (in response to KCl) and more pronounced remodeling of the collagen matrix at higher boundary stiffness levels. Measured equibiaxial forces for gels seeded with 3 million human foreskin fibroblasts range from 0.05 to 1 mN increasing monotonically with boundary stiffness. Estimated force per cell ranges from 17 to 100 nN utilizing representative volume element analysis. This device provides a valuable tool to independently study the effect of the mechanical environment of the cell in a 3D collagen matrix. PMID:20012205

  20. Stiffness Corrections for the Vibration Frequency of a Stretched Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornung, H. G.; Durie, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the need of introducing corrections due to wire stiffness arising from end constraints and wire axis distribution curvature in the measurement of ac electrical frequency by exciting transverse standing waves in a stretched steel wire. (SL)

  1. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of LSM and LSF perovskites as anode materials for high temperature steam electrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiangrong Kong; Yong Zhang; Changsheng Deng; Jingming Xu

    2009-01-01

    La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 (LSM) and La0.8Sr0.2FeO3 (LSF) perovskites used as the anode materials for high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) were synthesized by sol–gel self-propagating method. These two powders were mixed with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders, respectively to fabricate composite anodes of solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). The LSM–YSZ and LSF–YSZ composite anodes were tested at 1073K SOEC working temperature under electrolysis conditions,

  2. Nonlinear vibration of thick stiff fabric with small flexural stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.-P.; Wang, S.-Z.; Wu, W.-Y.; Gu, H.-B.

    2008-02-01

    Dynamic behaviour of fabric is very complex during weaving, dyeing and finishing processes. Thick stiff fabric vibration has great influence not only on the fabric itself but also on the performance of machine. The theoretic analysis for the nonlinear free vibration of thick stiff fabric with small flexural stiffness is put forward in the paper. The nonlinear partial differential equation is derived by applying the flexible thin plate theory, and then transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equation by the Galerkin method. The approximate analytical solution is obtained by the homotopy perturbation method.

  3. Switchable stiffness scanning microscope probe

    E-print Network

    Mueller-Falcke, Clemens T. (Clemens Tobias)

    2005-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has rapidly gained widespread utilization as an imaging device and micro/nano-manipulator during recent years. This thesis investigates the new concept of a dual stiffness scanning probe with ...

  4. A bipolar functionality of Q/N-rich proteins: Lsm4 amyloid causes clearance of yeast prions

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Keita; Kurahashi, Hiroshi; Pack, Chan-Gi; Sako, Yasushi; Nakamura, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Prions are epigenetic modifiers that cause partially loss-of-function phenotypes of the proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The molecular chaperone network that supports prion propagation in the cell has seen a great progress in the last decade. However, the cellular machinery to activate or deactivate the prion states remains an enigma, largely due to insufficient knowledge of prion-regulating factors. Here, we report that overexpression of a [PSI+]-inducible Q/N-rich protein, Lsm4, eliminates the three major prions [PSI+], [URE3], and [RNQ+]. Subcloning analysis revealed that the Q/N-rich region of Lsm4 is responsible for the prion loss. Lsm4 formed an amyloid in vivo, which seemed to play a crucial role in the prion elimination. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy analysis revealed that in the course of the Lsm4-driven [PSI+] elimination, the [PSI+] aggregates undergo a size increase, which ultimately results in the formation of conspicuous foci in otherwise [psi?]-like mother cells. We also found that the antiprion activity is a general property of [PSI+]-inducible factors. These data provoked a novel “unified” model that explains both prion induction and elimination by a single scheme. PMID:23512891

  5. Effect of ECM Stiffness on Integrin-Ligand Binding Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gawain; Wen, Qi

    2014-03-01

    Many studies have shown that cells respond to the stiffness of their extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the mechanism of this stiffness sensing is not fully understood. We believe that cells probe stiffness by applying intracellular force to the ECM via the integrin-mediated adhesions. The linkage of integrins to the cytoskeleton has been modeled as a slip clutch, which has been shown to affect focal adhesion formation and hence force transmission in a stiffness dependent manner. In contrast, the bonds between integrins and ECM have been characterized as ``catch bonds.'' It is unclear how ECM viscoelasticity affects these catch bonds. We report, for the first time, the effects of ECM stiffness on the binding strength of integrins to ECM ligands by measuring the rupture force of individual integrin-ligand bonds of cells on collagen-coated polyacrylamide gels. Results show that the integrin-collagen bonds of 3T3 fibroblasts are nearly four times stronger on a stiff (30 kPa) gel than on a soft (3 kPa) gel. The stronger integrin bonds on stiffer substrates can promote focal adhesion formation. This suggests that the substrate stiffness regulates the cell-ECM adhesions not only by affecting the cytoskeleton-integrin links but also by modulating the binding of integrins to the ECM.

  6. Evaluation of NOAH LSM in predicting soil temperature and moisture at two tropical sites of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Anwesha; Mandal, Manabottam

    2014-05-01

    The soil temperature and moisture are important initial conditions to weather and climate models. Due to the sparsity of observations, surface and subsurface soil temperature and moisture are usually generated using land surface models (LSM). Hence it is important to test the performance of LSMs in predicting these parameters. The NOAH LSM has consistently performed well in studies which compared different land surface models [2, 3] and the performance of the model has been examined over different regions [1, 4]. However, performance of NOAH LSM over India has not been extensively investigated. In the present study, the simulation skill of 1-D NOAH LSM with respect to soil temperature and moisture has been evaluated at two sites in India namely Kharagpur and Ranchi, for a period of two years 2009-2010 in both cases. Model simulated soil temperature and soil moisture over Kharagpur have been validated against observation at three depths, namely 10 cm, 20 cm and 50 cm. For Ranchi, soil temperature has been validated at 10 cm, 20 cm and 40 cm and soil moisture at 15 cm, 30 cm and 45 cm. The parameters have been validated at observation frequency and at daily frequency. Soil moisture is well estimated by the model at all depths and over all time scales at these sites. It is suspected that the model has slower infiltration rate and higher evaporation rate or faster lateral run off than actual values. The model shows a dry bias in the monsoon period and a wet bias in other seasons with maximum over-prediction during spring and winter. The diurnal range of soil temperature is well simulated by the model in all seasons both at Ranchi and Kharagpur. Soil temperature is generally over predicted by the model with a maximum warm bias in spring and minimum in monsoon. Over Ranchi, the model over-prediction decreases with depth at all seasons hinting at possible inaccuracies in representation of land-atmosphere exchange coefficients at least over sites considered in this study. 1. Chen F and Coauthors. 2007. Description and evaluation of the characteristics of the NCAR high-resolution land data assimilation system. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. 46: 694-713. 2. Mitchell KE, Lohmann D, Houser PR. 2004. The multi-institution North American land data assimilation system (NLDAS): utilizing multiple GCIP products and partners in a continental distributed hydrological modeling system. J. Geophys. Res. 109: D07S90 3. Schaake J, et al. 2004. An intercomparison of soil moisture fields in the North American land data assimilation system (NLDAS). J. Geophys. Res. 109: D01S90 4. Xia Y. and Coauthors. 2013. Validation of NOAH-simulated soil temperature in the North American land data assimilation system phase 2. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. 52: 455-471.

  7. Effects of age and diabetes on scleral stiffness.

    PubMed

    Coudrillier, Baptiste; Pijanka, Jacek; Jefferys, Joan; Sorensen, Thomas; Quigley, Harry A; Boote, Craig; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-07-01

    The effects of diabetes on the collagen structure and material properties of the sclera are unknown but may be important to elucidate whether diabetes is a risk factor for major ocular diseases such as glaucoma. This study provides a quantitative assessment of the changes in scleral stiffness and collagen fiber alignment associated with diabetes. Posterior scleral shells from five diabetic donors and seven non-diabetic donors were pressurized to 30?mm Hg. Three-dimensional surface displacements were calculated during inflation testing using digital image correlation (DIC). After testing, each specimen was subjected to wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements of its collagen organization. Specimen-specific finite element models of the posterior scleras were generated from the experimentally measured geometry. An inverse finite element analysis was developed to determine the material properties of the specimens, i.e., matrix and fiber stiffness, by matching DIC-measured and finite element predicted displacement fields. Effects of age and diabetes on the degree of fiber alignment, matrix and collagen fiber stiffness, and mechanical anisotropy were estimated using mixed effects models accounting for spatial autocorrelation. Older age was associated with a lower degree of fiber alignment and larger matrix stiffness for both diabetic and non-diabetic scleras. However, the age-related increase in matrix stiffness was 87% larger in diabetic specimens compared to non-diabetic controls and diabetic scleras had a significantly larger matrix stiffness (p?=?0.01). Older age was associated with a nearly significant increase in collagen fiber stiffness for diabetic specimens only (p?=?0.06), as well as a decrease in mechanical anisotropy for non-diabetic scleras only (p?=?0.04). The interaction between age and diabetes was not significant for all outcomes. This study suggests that the age-related increase in scleral stiffness is accelerated in eyes with diabetes, which may have important implications in glaucoma. PMID:25751456

  8. Lipedema is associated with increased aortic stiffness.

    PubMed

    Szolnoky, G; Nemes, A; Gavallér, H; Forster, T; Kemény, L

    2012-06-01

    Lipedema is a disproportional obesity due to unknown pathomechanism. Its major hallmark is frequent hematoma formation related to increased capillary fragility and reduced venoarterial reflex. Beyond microangiopathy, both venous and lymphatic dysfunction have also been documented. However, arterial circulation in lipedema has not been examined, and therefore we explored aortic elastic properties by echocardiography. Fourteen women with and 14 without lipedema were included in the study. Each subject consented to blood pressure measurement, physical examination, and transthoracic echocardiography. Aortic stiffness index (beta), distensibility, and strain were evaluated from aortic diameter and blood pressure data. Mean systolic (30.0 +/- 3.2 vs. 25.5 +/- 3.6, P < 0.05) and diastolic (27.8 +/- 3.3 vs. 22.3 +/- 3.1) aortic diameters (in mm) and aortic stiffness index (9.05 +/- 7.45 vs. 3.76 +/- 1.22, P < 0.05) were significantly higher, while aortic strain (0.082 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.143 +/- 0.038, P < 0.05) and distensibility (2.24 +/- 1.07 vs. 4.38 +/- 1.61, P < 0.05) were significantly lower in lipedematous patients compared to controls. Thus, lipedema is characterized with increased aortic stiffness. PMID:23057152

  9. Positive Association Between Adipose Tissue and Bone Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Berg, R M; Wallaschofski, H; Nauck, M; Rettig, R; Markus, M R P; Laqua, R; Friedrich, N; Hannemann, A

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is often considered to have a protective effect against osteoporosis. On the other hand, several recent studies suggest that adipose tissue may have detrimental effects on bone quality. We therefore aimed to investigate the associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) or abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and bone stiffness. The study involved 2685 German adults aged 20-79 years, who participated in either the second follow-up of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2) or the baseline examination of the SHIP-Trend cohort. VAT and abdominal SAT were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging. Bone stiffness was assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the heel (Achilles InSight, GE Healthcare). The individual risk for osteoporotic fractures was determined based on the QUS-derived stiffness index and classified in low, medium, and high risk. Linear regression models, adjusted for sex, age, physical activity, smoking status, risky alcohol consumption, diabetes, and height (in models with VAT or abdominal SAT as exposure), revealed positive associations between BMI, WC, VAT or abdominal SAT, and the QUS variables broadband-ultrasound attenuation or stiffness index. Moreover, BMI was positively associated with speed of sound. Our study shows that all anthropometric measures including BMI and, WC as well as abdominal fat volume are positively associated with bone stiffness in the general population. As potential predictors of bone stiffness, VAT and abdominal SAT are not superior to easily available measures like BMI or WC. PMID:25929703

  10. Rationale and study design of the Prospective comparison of Angiotensin Receptor neprilysin inhibitor with Angiotensin receptor blocker MEasuring arterial sTiffness in the eldERly (PARAMETER) study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Bryan; Cockcroft, John R; Kario, Kazuomi; Zappe, Dion H; Cardenas, Pamela; Hester, Allen; Brunel, Patrick; Zhang, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hypertension in elderly people is characterised by elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) and increased pulse pressure (PP), which indicate large artery ageing and stiffness. LCZ696, a first-in-class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), is being developed to treat hypertension and heart failure. The Prospective comparison of Angiotensin Receptor neprilysin inhibitor with Angiotensin receptor blocker MEasuring arterial sTiffness in the eldERly (PARAMETER) study will assess the efficacy of LCZ696 versus olmesartan on aortic stiffness and central aortic haemodynamics. Methods and analysis In this 52-week multicentre study, patients with hypertension aged ?60?years with a mean sitting (ms) SBP ?150 to <180 and a PP>60?mm?Hg will be randomised to once daily LCZ696 200?mg or olmesartan 20?mg for 4?weeks, followed by a forced-titration to double the initial doses for the next 8?weeks. At 12–24?weeks, if the BP target has not been attained (msSBP <140? and ms diastolic BP <90?mm?Hg), amlodipine (2.5–5?mg) and subsequently hydrochlorothiazide (6.25–25?mg) can be added. The primary and secondary endpoints are changes from baseline in central aortic systolic pressure (CASP) and central aortic PP (CAPP) at week 12, respectively. Other secondary endpoints are the changes in CASP and CAPP at week 52. A sample size of 432 randomised patients is estimated to ensure a power of 90% to assess the superiority of LCZ696 over olmesartan at week 12 in the change from baseline of mean CASP, assuming an SD of 19?mm?Hg, the difference of 6.5?mm?Hg and a 15% dropout rate. The primary variable will be analysed using a two-way analysis of covariance. Ethics and dissemination The study was initiated in December 2012 and final results are expected in 2015. The results of this study will impact the design of future phase III studies assessing cardiovascular protection. Clinical trials identifier EUDract number 2012-002899-14 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01692301. PMID:24496699

  11. Stiffness and damping characteristics of aluminum in creep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Berkovits

    1977-01-01

    Tensile creep tests conducted at 200 C were performed on annealed commercially pure aluminum specimens in order to measure the dominant elevated temperature dislocation processes. Testing consisted of applying small lateral loads to measure flexural stiffness, and vibrating the specimens laterally in order to measure dynamic modulus and internal damping. It was concluded that (1) the strain hardening increased static

  12. Accurate spring constant calibration for very stiff atomic force microscopy cantilevers

    SciTech Connect

    Grutzik, Scott J.; Zehnder, Alan T. [Field of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [Field of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Gates, Richard S.; Gerbig, Yvonne B.; Smith, Douglas T.; Cook, Robert F. [Nanomechanical Properties Group, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)] [Nanomechanical Properties Group, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    There are many atomic force microscopy (AFM) applications that rely on quantifying the force between the AFM cantilever tip and the sample. The AFM does not explicitly measure force, however, so in such cases knowledge of the cantilever stiffness is required. In most cases, the forces of interest are very small, thus compliant cantilevers are used. A number of methods have been developed that are well suited to measuring low stiffness values. However, in some cases a cantilever with much greater stiffness is required. Thus, a direct, traceable method for calibrating very stiff (approximately 200 N/m) cantilevers is presented here. The method uses an instrumented and calibrated nanoindenter to determine the stiffness of a reference cantilever. This reference cantilever is then used to measure the stiffness of a number of AFM test cantilevers. This method is shown to have much smaller uncertainty than previously proposed methods. An example application to fracture testing of nanoscale silicon beam specimens is included.

  13. Exchange Stiffness in Thin-Film Cobalt Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyrich, Charles

    The exchange stiffness, Aex, is one of the key parameters controlling magnetization reversal in magnetic materials but is very difficult to measure, especially in thin films. We developed a new technique for measuring the exchange stiffness of a magnetic material based on the formation of a spin spiral within two antiferromagnetically coupled ferromagnetic films [1]. Using this method, I was able to measure the exchange stiffness of thin film Co alloyed with Cr, Fe, Ni, Pd, Pt and Ru. The results of this work showed that the rate at which a substituent element reduces the exchange stiffness is not directly related to its effect on the magnetization of the alloy. These measured trends have been understood by combining measurements of element specific magnetic moments obtained using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and material specific modeling based on density functional theory (DFT) within the local density approximation (LDA). The experimental results also hint at significant reduction of the exchange stiffness at the interface that can account for the difference between our results and those obtained on bulk materials.

  14. Abstract--The paper focuses on the stiffness modeling of parallel manipulators composed of non-perfect serial chains,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    industrial robotics, stiffness becomes one of the most important performance measures that defines poten on the manipulator stiff- ness behavior. However, this problem has attracted very li- mited attention in robotics for a serial chain [7] and to compute the Cartesian stiffness matrix even for singular configurations

  15. Substrate stiffness together with soluble factors affects chondrocyte mechanoresponses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Xie, Jing; Deng, Linhong; Yang, Liu

    2014-09-24

    Tissue cells sense and respond to differences in substrate stiffness. In chondrocytes, it has been shown that substrate stiffness regulates cell spreading, proliferation, chondrogenic gene expression, and TGF-? signaling. But how the substrate stiffness together with soluble factors influences the mechanical properties of chondrocyte is still unclear. In this study, we cultured goat articular chondrocytes on polyacrylamide gels of 1, 11, and 90 kPa (Young's modulus), and measured cellular stiffness, traction force, and response to stretch in the presence of TGF-?1 or IL-1?. We found that TGF-?1 increased cellular stiffness and traction force and enhanced the response to stretch, while IL-1? increased cellular stiffness, but lowered traction force and weakened the response to stretch. Importantly, the effects of TGF-?1 on chondrocyte mechanics were potent in cells cultured on 90 kPa substrates, while the effects of IL-1? were potent on 1 kPa substrates. We also demonstrated that such changes of chondrocyte mechanoresponse were due to not only the changes of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion, but also the alteration of chondrocyte extracellular matrix synthesis. Taken together, these results provide insights into how chondrocytes integrate physical and biochemical cues to regulate their biomechanical behavior, and thus have implications for the design of optimized mechanical and biochemical microenvironments for engineered cartilage. PMID:25162787

  16. Stiffness characterisation of microcantilevers based on conducting polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alici, Gursel; Higgins, Michael J.

    2008-12-01

    The object of this paper is to characterise the stiffness of microfabricated cantilevers consisting of two electroactive polymer (polypyrrole (PPy)) layers, and two gold layers with a negligible thickness and a layer of porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which serves as a backing layer and electrolyte storage tank. This composite cantilever structure is used as polymer actuators or famously known as artificial muscles when tailored appropriately. The polymer microactuators considered in this study, which were fabricated using a laser ablation technique, could operate both in aqueous and non-aqueous media. The stiffness characterization of the microactuators is critical to assess their suitability to numerous applications including the micromanipulation of living cells, bio-analytical nanosystems, datastorage, labon- chip, microvalve, microswitch, microshutter, cantilever light modulators, micro-optical instrumentation, artificial muscles for micro and macro robotic sytems and similar. The stiffness measurement method followed in this study is a static deflection measurement method, using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The stiffness constants of the microactuators while they were in passive (no electrochemical activation) and active (electrochemically activated) states were measured separately, and their statistical comparison was provided. The possible error sources for the stiffness measurement method are elaborated.

  17. Aortic stiffness and distensibility among hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Meenakshisundaram, R; Kamaraj, K; Murugan, S; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, P

    2009-09-01

    Hypertension is one among many factors that contribute to aortic stiffness, which has repercussions mainly on the heart. To assess aortic stiffness among essential hypertensives of South India and its relationship with gender. An analytical study was designed to assess aortic stiffness among 60 nonobese, nonalcoholic, nonsmoking, and non-caffeine consuming essential hypertensives without any overt illness or infection, and compared with 30 healthy age- and sex-matched nonhypertensives. They were assessed clinically and also by laboratory means. Their left ventricular mass (LV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were measured using Transthoracic echocardiogram. Aortic systolic and diastolic diameters were measured by using M-mode echocardiography during consecutive beats and averaged for each case. Finally, aortic stiffness was calculated. The data were analyzed statistically. Hypertensives were divided into Group I, consisting of patients with hypertension at least for 5 years, who were not adherent to medication, and Group II, consisting of patients with hypertension of duration between 6 months and 1 year. There were 20 males and 10 females in each group. There was no significant difference between the hypertensive groups and a control, normotensive, group with regard to BMI or total cholesterol. The means of LV mass (in grams), systolic BP (in mmHg), diastolic BP (in mmHg), aortic systolic diameter (in mm), aortic diastolic diameter (in mm), aortic distensibility (in mm), and aortic stiffness found in Group I, Group II, and controls were 105.8 +/- 23.8, 101.5 +/- 21, and 84 +/- 9.8; 138 +/- 14.2, 153 +/- 17.1, and 120 +/- 8.3; 90.5 +/- 11.6, 101.7 +/- 17.1, and 76.5 +/- 5; 30.85 +/- 2.6, 28.7 +/- 2.6, and 27.7 +/- 2.4; 28.7 +/- 2.2, 25.8 +/- 2.5, and 24.2 +/- 2.5; 2.14 +/- 0.3, 2.84 +/- 0.5, and 3.5 +/- 0.6; and 1.31 +/- 0.09, 1.14 +/- 0.1, and 1.04 +/- 0.08, respectively. The differences between the hypertensive groups and the control group were significant. Aortic stiffness was greater in hypertensives and it was independent of gender, but increased with duration of hypertension. Hypertension has effects on the aorta (decreased aortic distensibility and increased aortic stiffness) and left ventricle (increased left ventricular mass and left ventricular hypertrophy). These changes can be identified and monitored while the patient is on antihypertensive therapy along with life-style modifications, as these are reversible. Nevertheless, these aspects do not receive due attention in medical education and training on hypertension. PMID:19751418

  18. Immunohistochemical (cLSM) and ultrastructural analysis of the central nervous system and sense organs in Aeolosoma hemprichi (Annelida, Aeolosomatidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hessling; Günter Purschke

    2000-01-01

    The Aeolosomatidae are very small limnetic or terrestrial annelids of apparently simple organisation and uncertain phylogenetic\\u000a position. They have been placed either at the base of the Clitellata, as a highly derived taxon within the Clitellata closely\\u000a related to the Naididae, or as their sister group within the „Polychaeta”. A combined immunohistochemical (cLSM) and ultrastructural\\u000a investigation of the central nervous

  19. Hydration Status Is Associated with Aortic Stiffness, but Not with Peripheral Arterial Stiffness, in Chronically Hemodialysed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bia, Daniel; Galli, Cintia; Valtuille, Rodolfo; Zócalo, Yanina; Wray, Sandra A.; Armentano, Ricardo L.; Cabrera Fischer, Edmundo I.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adequate fluid management could be essential to minimize high arterial stiffness observed in chronically hemodialyzed patients (CHP). Aim. To determine the association between body fluid status and central and peripheral arterial stiffness levels. Methods. Arterial stiffness was assessed in 65 CHP by measuring the pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a central arterial pathway (carotid-femoral) and in a peripheral pathway (carotid-brachial). A blood pressure-independent regional arterial stiffness index was calculated using PWV. Volume status was assessed by whole-body multiple-frequency bioimpedance. Patients were first observed as an entire group and then divided into three different fluid status-related groups: normal, overhydration, and dehydration groups. Results. Only carotid-femoral stiffness was positively associated (P < 0.05) with the hydration status evaluated through extracellular/intracellular fluid, extracellular/Total Body Fluid, and absolute and relative overhydration. Conclusion. Volume status and overload are associated with central, but not peripheral, arterial stiffness levels with independence of the blood pressure level, in CHP.

  20. Chains of oscillators with negative stiffness elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady V.; Sevel, Greg

    2014-12-01

    Negative stiffness is not allowed by thermodynamics and hence materials and systems whose global behaviour exhibits negative stiffness are unstable. However the stability is possible when these materials/systems are elements of a larger system sufficiently stiff to stabilise the negative stiffness elements. In order to investigate the effect of stabilisation we analyse oscillations in a chain of n linear oscillators (masses and springs connected in series) when some of the springs' stiffnesses can assume negative values. The ends of the chain are fixed. We formulated the necessary stability condition: only one spring in the chain can have negative stiffness. Furthermore, the value of negative stiffness cannot exceed a certain critical value that depends upon the (positive) stiffnesses of other springs. At the critical negative stiffness the system develops an eigenmode with vanishing frequency. In systems with viscous damping vanishing of an eigenfrequency does not yet lead to instability. Further increase in the value of negative stiffness leads to the appearance of aperiodic eigenmodes even with light damping. At the critical negative stiffness the low dissipative mode becomes non-dissipative, while for the high dissipative mode the damping coefficient becomes as twice as high as the damping coefficient of the system. A special element with controllable negative stiffness is suggested for designing hybrid materials whose stiffness and hence the dynamic behaviour is controlled by the magnitude of applied compressive force.

  1. Relative stiffness of flat conductor cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The measurement of the bending moment required to obtain a given deflection in short lengths of flat conductor cable (FCC) is presented in this report. Experimental data were taken on 10 different samples of FCC and normalized to express all bending moments (relative stiffness factor) in terms of a cable 5.1 cm (2.0 in.) in width. Data are presented in tabular and graphical form for the covenience of designers who may be interested in finding torques exerted on critical components by short lengths of FCC.

  2. Visualizing the Structural Evolution of LSM/xYSZ Composite Cathodes for SOFC by in-situ Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Yang, Ling; Ren, Fei; An, Ke

    2014-06-01

    Thermal stability of composite cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells, the mixtures of (La0.8Sr0.2)0.95MnO3-? (LSM) and (Y2O3)x(ZrO2)1-x (xYSZ, x = 3, 6, 8 and 10), is determined using in-situ neutron diffraction. Thanks to the most advanced high flux neutron source, our work highlights the visualization of the phase evolutions in heterogeneous material systems at high temperatures, along with the analysis of the diffusion activities of transition metal ions that reveal the reaction mechanism and kinetics. It is found that the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition in YSZ at T > 900°C leads to a heterogeneous redistribution of Mn ions. The subsequent reaction of LSM and YSZ occurring at T > 1100°C is revealed as a three-stage kinetic process, yielding La2Zr2O7, SrZrO3 and MnO. The diffusion activities of Y, Mn and La ions in the heterogeneous systems at elevated temperatures are derived by the structural analysis, and the three-stage reaction of YSZ and LSM is found strongly correlated to ions' behaviors as functions of temperature.

  3. Visualizing the Structural Evolution of LSM/xYSZ Composite Cathodes for SOFC by in-situ Neutron Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yan [ORNL] [ORNL; Yang, Ling [ORNL] [ORNL; Ren, Fei [ORNL] [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Composite cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells, the mixtures of (La0.8Sr0.2)0.95MnO3- (LSM) and (Y2O3)x(ZrO2)1-x (xYSZ, x = 3, 6, 8 and 10), have the thermal stability unraveled at elevated temperatures by using in-situ neutron diffraction. The Rietveld refinement analysis of neutron diffraction visualizes the phase evolutions and the ion activities in the material systems. The phase transition of tetragonal YSZ at T > 900 C leads to a heterogeneous redistribution of Mn ions. The reaction of LSM and YSZ occurring at T > 1100 C was revealed as a three-stage process, yielding La2Zr2O7, SrZrO3 and MnO. The activities of Y, Mn and La ions at elevated temperatures are derived by the structural analysis, and the three-stage reaction of YSZ and LSM was found strongly correlated to ions behaviors.

  4. Visualizing the Structural Evolution of LSM/xYSZ Composite Cathodes for SOFC by in-situ Neutron Diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Yang, Ling; Ren, Fei; An, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Thermal stability of composite cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells, the mixtures of (La0.8Sr0.2)0.95MnO3?? (LSM) and (Y2O3)x(ZrO2)1?x (xYSZ, x = 3, 6, 8 and 10), is determined using in-situ neutron diffraction. Thanks to the most advanced high flux neutron source, our work highlights the visualization of the phase evolutions in heterogeneous material systems at high temperatures, along with the analysis of the diffusion activities of transition metal ions that reveal the reaction mechanism and kinetics. It is found that the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition in YSZ at T > 900°C leads to a heterogeneous redistribution of Mn ions. The subsequent reaction of LSM and YSZ occurring at T > 1100°C is revealed as a three-stage kinetic process, yielding La2Zr2O7, SrZrO3 and MnO. The diffusion activities of Y, Mn and La ions in the heterogeneous systems at elevated temperatures are derived by the structural analysis, and the three-stage reaction of YSZ and LSM is found strongly correlated to ions' behaviors as functions of temperature. PMID:24899139

  5. Visualizing the structural evolution of LSM/xYSZ composite cathodes for SOFC by in-situ neutron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Yang, Ling; Ren, Fei; An, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Thermal stability of composite cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells, the mixtures of (La0.8Sr0.2)0.95MnO(3-?) (LSM) and (Y2O3)(x)(ZrO2)(1-x) (xYSZ, x = 3, 6, 8 and 10), is determined using in-situ neutron diffraction. Thanks to the most advanced high flux neutron source, our work highlights the visualization of the phase evolutions in heterogeneous material systems at high temperatures, along with the analysis of the diffusion activities of transition metal ions that reveal the reaction mechanism and kinetics. It is found that the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition in YSZ at T > 900°C leads to a heterogeneous redistribution of Mn ions. The subsequent reaction of LSM and YSZ occurring at T > 1100°C is revealed as a three-stage kinetic process, yielding La2Zr2O7, SrZrO3 and MnO. The diffusion activities of Y, Mn and La ions in the heterogeneous systems at elevated temperatures are derived by the structural analysis, and the three-stage reaction of YSZ and LSM is found strongly correlated to ions' behaviors as functions of temperature. PMID:24899139

  6. LV wall segmentation using the variational level set method (LSM) with additional shape constraint for oedema quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, K.; Gao, H.; Payne, A.; Soraghan, J.; Berry, C.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper an automatic algorithm for the left ventricle (LV) wall segmentation and oedema quantification from T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images is presented. The extent of myocardial oedema delineates the ischaemic area-at-risk (AAR) after myocardial infarction (MI). Since AAR can be used to estimate the amount of salvageable myocardial post-MI, oedema imaging has potential clinical utility in the management of acute MI patients. This paper presents a new scheme based on the variational level set method (LSM) with additional shape constraint for the segmentation of T2-weighted CMR image. In our approach, shape information of the myocardial wall is utilized to introduce a shape feature of the myocardial wall into the variational level set formulation. The performance of the method is tested using real CMR images (12 patients) and the results of the automatic system are compared to manual segmentation. The mean perpendicular distances between the automatic and manual LV wall boundaries are in the range of 1-2 mm. Bland-Altman analysis on LV wall area indicates there is no consistent bias as a function of LV wall area, with a mean bias of -121 mm2 between individual investigator one (IV1) and LSM, and -122 mm2 between individual investigator two (IV2) and LSM when compared to two investigators. Furthermore, the oedema quantification demonstrates good correlation when compared to an expert with an average error of 9.3% for 69 slices of short axis CMR image from 12 patients.

  7. Multifunctional piezoelectric stiffness\\/energy for monitoring the health of structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelah Wakha; Majeed A. Majed; Abhijit Dasgupta; Darryll J. Pines

    2003-01-01

    A new mechanical multifunctional dual-stiffness sensor for in-situ real-time stiffness and energy density measurements was developed at the University of Maryland. This sensor is composed of 2 sub-sensors a stiff and compliant subsensor. The sensor has the ability to predict the elastic field of a given host structure based on the strain state of the two sub-sensors integrated into the

  8. Multi-fingered haptic palpation utilizing granular jamming stiffness feedback actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Ranzani, Tommaso; Sareh, Sina; Seneviratne, Lakmal D.; Dasgupta, Prokar; Wurdemann, Helge A.; Althoefer, Kaspar

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes a multi-fingered haptic palpation method using stiffness feedback actuators for simulating tissue palpation procedures in traditional and in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. Soft tissue stiffness is simulated by changing the stiffness property of the actuator during palpation. For the first time, granular jamming and pneumatic air actuation are combined to realize stiffness modulation. The stiffness feedback actuator is validated by stiffness measurements in indentation tests and through stiffness discrimination based on a user study. According to the indentation test results, the introduction of a pneumatic chamber to granular jamming can amplify the stiffness variation range and reduce hysteresis of the actuator. The advantage of multi-fingered palpation using the proposed actuators is proven by the comparison of the results of the stiffness discrimination performance using two-fingered (sensitivity: 82.2%, specificity: 88.9%, positive predicative value: 80.0%, accuracy: 85.4%, time: 4.84 s) and single-fingered (sensitivity: 76.4%, specificity: 85.7%, positive predicative value: 75.3%, accuracy: 81.8%, time: 7.48 s) stiffness feedback.

  9. Measurement of Drag Torque, Lift Off Speed, and Identification of Frequency Dependent Stiffness and Damping Coefficients of a Shimmed Bump-Type Foil Bearing 

    E-print Network

    Norsworthy, Joshua D

    2014-11-26

    This thesis presents measurements characterizing the static and dynamic performance of a BFB configured with shims of two thicknesses (30 ?m and 50 ?m). Parameters of interest include drag torque, rotor lift off speed, and the estimation of force...

  10. The eigenscrew decomposition of spatial stiffness matrices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuguang Huang; Joseph M. Schimmels

    2000-01-01

    A manipulator system is modeled as a kinematically unconstrained rigid body suspended by elastic devices. The structure of spatial stiffness is investigated by evaluating the stiffness matrix “primitives”-the rank-1 matrices that compose a spatial stiffness matrix. Although the decomposition of a rank-2 or higher stiffness matrix into the sum of rank-1 matrices is not unique, one property of the set

  11. Response of initial field to stiffness perturbation

    E-print Network

    Chen-Wu Wu

    2014-03-19

    Response of initial elastic field to stiffness perturbation and its possible application is investigated. Virtual thermal softening is used to produce the stiffness reduction for demonstration. It is interpreted that the redistribution of the initial strain will be developed by the non-uniform temperature elevation, as which leads to the non-uniform reduction of the material stiffness. Therefore, the initial filed is related to the stiffness perturbation and incremental field in a matrix form after eliminating the thermal expansion effect.

  12. Zero Stiffness Tensegrity Structures M. Schenk a

    E-print Network

    Guest, Simon

    Zero Stiffness Tensegrity Structures M. Schenk a S.D. Guest b, J.L. Herder a aMechanical, Maritime members with a zero rest length allow the construction of tensegrity struc- tures that are in equilibrium, they have zero stiffness. The zero-stiffness modes are not internal mechanisms, as they involve first

  13. Stiffness Analysis of Overconstrained Parallel Manipulators

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    equations for the unloaded manipulator configuration, which allows computing the stiffness matrix mechanisms, Stiffness modeling, Parallelogram-based linkage, Orthoglide robot 1. Introduction Parallel-effector. Numerically, this property is defined through the "stiffness matrix" K, which gives the relation between

  14. Stiffness Performance of Multibody Robotic Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Carbone

    2006-01-01

    Stiffness can be considered of primary importance in order to guarantee the successful use of any robotic system for a given task. Therefore, this paper proposes procedures for carrying out both numerical and experimental estimations of stiffness performance for multibody robotic systems. The numerical procedure is based on models with lumped parameters for deriving the Cartesian stiffness matrix. The experimental

  15. Theoretical and experimental investigation of architected core materials incorporating negative stiffness elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Keefe, Andrew; Carter, William B.; Henry, Christopher P.; McKnight, Geoff P.

    2014-04-01

    Structural assemblies incorporating negative stiffness elements have been shown to provide both tunable damping properties and simultaneous high stiffness and damping over prescribed displacement regions. In this paper we explore the design space for negative stiffness based assemblies using analytical modeling combined with finite element analysis. A simplified spring model demonstrates the effects of element stiffness, geometry, and preloads on the damping and stiffness performance. Simplified analytical models were validated for realistic structural implementations through finite element analysis. A series of complementary experiments was conducted to compare with modeling and determine the effects of each element on the system response. The measured damping performance follows the theoretical predictions obtained by analytical modeling. We applied these concepts to a novel sandwich core structure that exhibited combined stiffness and damping properties 8 times greater than existing foam core technologies.

  16. Synchrotron based measurements of the soft x-ray performance of thin film multilayer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kania, D.R.; Bartlett, R.J.; Trela, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using synchrotron radiation, measuring system has been developed to test the performance of layered synthetic microstructures (LSMs) from 50 to 500 eV. The measurement techniques are reviewed, and results are compared to theoretical predictions of LSM performance. (LEW)

  17. An AFM-based stiffness clamp for dynamic control of rigidity.

    PubMed

    Webster, Kevin D; Crow, Ailey; Fletcher, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become a powerful tool for measuring material properties in biology and imposing mechanical boundary conditions on samples from single molecules to cells and tissues. Constant force or constant height can be maintained in an AFM experiment through feedback control of cantilever deflection, known respectively as a 'force clamp' or 'position clamp'. However, stiffness, the third variable in the Hookean relation F?=?kx that describes AFM cantilever deflection, has not been dynamically controllable in the same way. Here we present and demonstrate a 'stiffness clamp' that can vary the apparent stiffness of an AFM cantilever. This method, employable on any AFM system by modifying feedback control of the cantilever, allows rapid and reversible tuning of the stiffness exposed to the sample in a way that can decouple the role of stiffness from force and deformation. We demonstrated the AFM stiffness clamp on two different samples: a contracting fibroblast cell and an expanding polyacrylamide hydrogel. We found that the fibroblast, a cell type that secretes and organizes the extracellular matrix, exhibited a rapid, sub-second change in traction rate (dF/dt) and contraction velocity (dx/dt) in response to step changes in stiffness between 1-100 nN/µm. This response was independent of the absolute contractile force and cell height, demonstrating that cells can react directly to changes in stiffness alone. In contrast, the hydrogel used in our experiment maintained a constant expansion velocity (dx/dt) over this range of stiffness, while the traction rate (dF/dt) changed with stiffness, showing that passive materials can also behave differently in different stiffness environments. The AFM stiffness clamp presented here, which is applicable to mechanical measurements on both biological and non-biological samples, may be used to investigate cellular mechanotransduction under a wide range of controlled mechanical boundary conditions. PMID:21408137

  18. Enhanced Stiffness Modeling, Identification and Characterization for Robot Manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gürsel Alici; Bijan Shirinzadeh

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the enhanced stiffness modeling and analysis of robot manipulators, and a methodology for their stiffness identification and characterization. Assuming that the manipulator links are infinitely stiff, the enhanced stiffness model contains: 1) the passive and active stiffness of the joints and 2) the active stiffness created by the change in the manipulator configuration, and by external force

  19. Influence of Passive Stiffness of Hamstrings on Postural Stability

    PubMed Central

    Kuszewski, Micha?; Gnat, Rafa?; Sobota, Grzegorz; My?liwiec, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore whether passive stiffness of the hamstrings influences the strategy of maintaining postural stability. A sample of 50 subjects was selected; the final analyses were based on data of 41 individuals (33 men, 8 women) aged 21 to 29 (mean = 23.3, SD = 1.1) years. A quasi- experimental ex post facto design with repeated measures was used. Categories of independent variables were obtained directly prior to the measurement of the dependent variables. In stage one of the study, passive knee extension was measured in the supine position to assess hamstring stiffness. In stage two, the magnitude of postural sway in antero-posterior direction was measured, while varying the body position on a stabilometric platform, both with and without visual control. The margin of safety was used as a measure of postural control. The magnitude of the margin of safety increased significantly between the open-eye and closed-eye trials. However, although we registered a visible tendency for a larger increase of the margin of safety associated with lower levels of passive hamstrings stiffness, no significant differences were found. Therefore, this study demonstrated that hamstring stiffness did not influence the strategy used to maintain postural stability. PMID:25964809

  20. Influence of passive stiffness of hamstrings on postural stability.

    PubMed

    Kuszewski, Micha?; Gnat, Rafa?; Sobota, Grzegorz; My?liwiec, Andrzej

    2015-03-29

    The aim of the study was to explore whether passive stiffness of the hamstrings influences the strategy of maintaining postural stability. A sample of 50 subjects was selected; the final analyses were based on data of 41 individuals (33 men, 8 women) aged 21 to 29 (mean = 23.3, SD = 1.1) years. A quasi- experimental ex post facto design with repeated measures was used. Categories of independent variables were obtained directly prior to the measurement of the dependent variables. In stage one of the study, passive knee extension was measured in the supine position to assess hamstring stiffness. In stage two, the magnitude of postural sway in antero-posterior direction was measured, while varying the body position on a stabilometric platform, both with and without visual control. The margin of safety was used as a measure of postural control. The magnitude of the margin of safety increased significantly between the open-eye and closed-eye trials. However, although we registered a visible tendency for a larger increase of the margin of safety associated with lower levels of passive hamstrings stiffness, no significant differences were found. Therefore, this study demonstrated that hamstring stiffness did not influence the strategy used to maintain postural stability. PMID:25964809

  1. Increased cardiovascular stiffness and impaired age-related functional status.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mousumi M; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Morgan, Timothy M; Hire, Don G; Vasu, Sujethra; Brinkley, Tina E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Hamilton, Craig A; Soots, Sandra; Hundley, William G

    2015-05-01

    Our objective was to determine if increased cardiovascular (CV) stiffness is associated with disability in middle-aged and older adults at risk for congestive heart failure. CV stiffness (brachial pulse pressure/left ventricular stroke volume indexed to body surface area) and total disability (the summed assessment of activities of daily living, mobility, and instrumental activities of daily living) were measured in 445 individuals. A subset of 109 randomly selected individuals also underwent physical function testing. Total disability was associated with CV stiffness (p = .01), driven by an association with mobility (p = .005), but not activities of daily living (p = .13) or instrumental activities of daily living (p = .61). After accounting for age, these correlations remained significant for men (p = .04), but not for women. CV stiffness was also associated with increased 400-m walk time (p = .02). In middle-aged and elderly men at risk for congestive heart failure, CV stiffness is associated with decreased mobility and physical function, and increased overall disability. PMID:24963155

  2. Chronic permanent hypoxemia predisposes to mild elevation of liver stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Tahiri, Mohamed; Drighil, Abdenasser; Jalal, Yasmine; Ghellab, Dounia; Hliwa, Wafaa; Fouad, Haddad; Badre, Wafaa; Bellabah, Ahmad; Habbal, Rachida; Alaoui, Rhimou

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of long term permanent hypoxemia noticed in patients with non operated congenital cyanogenic cyanotic cardiopathy on liver stiffness. METHODS: We included ten adult patients with non operated inoperate cyanotic cardiopathy and ten matched patients for age and gender admitted to the gastroenterology department for proctologic diseases; Clinical and laboratory data were collected [age, gender, body mass index, oxygen saturation, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glycemia and cholesterol]. Measurement of hepatic stiffness by transient elastography was carried out in all patients using the Fibroscan device. All patients underwent an echocardiography to eliminate congestive heart failure. RESULTS: Among the patients with cyanotic cardiopathy, median liver stiffness 5.9 ± 1.3 kPa was greater than control group (4.7 ± 0.4 kPa) (P = 0.008). Median levels of GOT, GPT, gamma-glutamyltransferase, glycemia and cholesterol were comparable in cardiopathy and control group. In regression analysis including age, gender, body mass index, oxygen saturation, GOT, GPT, glycemia, cholesterol showed that only oxygen saturation was related to liver stiffness (r = -0.63 P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Chronic permanent hypoxemia can induce mild increase of liver stiffness, but further studies are needed to explore the histological aspects of liver injury induced by chronic permanent hypoxemia. PMID:25132776

  3. A Stiffness Switch in Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kol, Nitzan; Shi, Yu; Tsvitov, Marianna; Barlam, David; Shneck, Roni Z.; Kay, Michael S.; Rousso, Itay

    2007-01-01

    After budding from the cell, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other retrovirus particles undergo a maturation process that is required for their infectivity. During maturation, HIV particles undergo a significant internal morphological reorganization, changing from a roughly spherically symmetric immature particle with a thick protein shell to a mature particle with a thin protein shell and conical core. However, the physical principles underlying viral particle production, maturation, and entry into cells remain poorly understood. Here, using nanoindentation experiments conducted by an atomic force microscope (AFM), we report the mechanical measurements of HIV particles. We find that immature particles are more than 14-fold stiffer than mature particles and that this large difference is primarily mediated by the HIV envelope cytoplasmic tail domain. Finite element simulation shows that for immature virions the average Young's modulus drops more than eightfold when the cytoplasmic tail domain is deleted (930 vs. 115 MPa). We also find a striking correlation between the softening of viruses during maturation and their ability to enter cells, providing the first evidence, to our knowledge, for a prominent role for virus mechanical properties in the infection process. These results show that HIV regulates its mechanical properties at different stages of its life cycle (i.e., stiff during viral budding versus soft during entry) and that this regulation may be important for efficient infectivity. Our report of this maturation-induced “stiffness switch” in HIV establishes the groundwork for mechanistic studies of how retroviral particles can regulate their mechanical properties to affect biological function. PMID:17158573

  4. Factors influencing left-ventricular stiffness.

    PubMed

    Yettram, A L; Grewal, B S; Dawson, J R; Gibson, D G

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relative contributions of geometrical and material factors to overall left-ventricular cavity stiffness. Left-ventricular cavity shapes were reconstructed using a computer and the variation of myocardial elastic modulus was calculated, by the finite element method, through the passive phase of diastole when rising volume coincided with rising pressure. Geometric data were obtained from biplane cineangiography, with micromanometer pressure measurements, for ten patients with left ventricular disease. Dimensional analysis was applied to the initial and derived data from which the influences of myocardial compliance, wall thickness-to-long dimension ratio, and aspect ratio (long-to-short axes) were determined. The ratio between the volume elasticity and the myocardial modulus of elasticity, the normalized stiffness ratio (NSR), is proposed as a useful index of left ventricular mechanical behaviour in diastole. The volume elasticity of the chamber is dependent not only upon the myocardium elastic modulus and the wall thickness ratio, but also on the shape of the chamber. Changes in the thickness/radius ratio of the ventricle have less effect upon its distention than those in the long dimension/radius ratio. The left ventricle becomes more spherical in shape through diastole and hence becomes stiffer by this geometric mechanism. PMID:1569735

  5. Diagnosis of GLDAS LSM based aridity index and dryland identification for socioeconomic aspect of water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazanfari, S.; Pande, S.; Hashemy, M.; Naseri M., M.

    2012-04-01

    Water resources scarcity plays an important role in socioeconomic aspect of livelihood pattern in dryland areas. Hydrological perspective of aridity is required for social and economic coping Strategies. Identification of dryland areas is crucial to guide policy aimed at intervening in water stressed areas and addressing its perennial livelihood or food insecurity. Yet, prevailing aridity indices are beset with methodological limitations that restrict their use in delineating drylands and, might be insuffient for decision making frameworks. Palmer's Drought Severity index (PDSI) reports relative soil moisture deviations from long term means, which does not allow cross comparisons, while UNEP's aridity index, the ratio of annual evaporative demand to rainfall supply, ignores site specific soil and vegetation characteristics that are needed for appropriate water balance assessment. We propose to refine UNEP's aridity index by accounting for site specific soil and vegetation to partition precipitation into competing demands of evaporation and runoff. We create three aridity indices at a 1 x 1 degree spatial resolution based on 3 decades of soil moisture time series from three GLDAS Land Surface Models (LSM's): VIC, MOSAIC and NOAH. We compare each LSM model aridity map with the UNEP aridity map which was created based on LSM data forcing. Our approach is to extract the first Eigen function from Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis that represents the dominant spatial template of soil moisture conditions of the three LSM's. Frequency of non-exceedence of this dominant soil moisture mode for a location by all other locations is used as our proposed aridity index. The EOF analysis reveals that the first Eigen function explains, respectively, 33%, 43% and 47% of the VIC, NOAH and MOSAIC models. The temporal coefficients associated with the first OF (Orthogonal Function) for all three LSMS clearly show seasonality with a discrete jump in trend around the year 1999 for NOAH and MOSAIC. The VIC aridity index displays a pattern most closely resembling that of UNEP though all LSM based indices isolate dominant dryland areas, correctly. The UNEP classification identifies some parts of south central Africa, southeast United States and eastern India as drier than all LSMs. NOAH and MOSAIC categorize parts of SouthWestern Africa drier than the other two classifications, while all LSMs classify parts of central India wetter than the UNEP classification. We find long term average NDVI values showing vegetation cover in areas that UNEP classifies drier than other three LSMs. Finally, based on unsupervised clustering of global land surface based on long term mean temperature and precipitation, soil texture and land slope, areas classified as dry by UNEP but wet by LSMs have relatively wet characteristics while areas classified as wet by UNEP but dry by LSMs have dry characteristics. We conclude that LSM based aridity index identifies dryland areas other than UNEP aridity index since the former also incorporates the role of vegetation and soil in partitioning of precipitation into evaporation, runoff and infiltration.

  6. Human arm stiffness characteristics during the maintenance of posture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Flash; F. Mussa-Ivaldi

    1990-01-01

    When the hand is displaced from an equilibrium position, the muscles generate elastic forces to restore the original posture. In a previous study, Mussa-Ivaldi et al. (1985) have measured and characterized the field of elastic forces associated with hand posture in the horizontal plane. Hand stiffness which describes the relation between force and displacement vectors in the vicinity of equilibrium

  7. Modifiable risk factors for increased arterial stiffness in outpatient nephrology.

    PubMed

    Elewa, Usama; Fernandez-Fernandez, Beatriz; Alegre, Raquel; Sanchez-Niño, Maria D; Mahillo-Fernández, Ignacio; Perez-Gomez, Maria Vanessa; El-Fishawy, Hussein; Belal, Dawlat; Ortiz, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. Arterial stiffness increases with age. However, modifiable risk factors such as smoking, BP and salt intake also impact on PWV. The finding of modifiable risk factors may lead to the identification of treatable factors, and, thus, is of interest to practicing nephrologist. We have now studied the prevalence and correlates of arterial stiffness, assessed by PWV, in 191 patients from nephrology outpatient clinics in order to identify modifiable risk factors for arterial stiffness that may in the future guide therapeutic decision-making. PWV was above normal levels for age in 85/191 (44.5%) patients. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, systolic BP, diabetes mellitus, serum uric acid and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy or calcium-containing medication were independent predictors of PWV. A new parameter, Delta above upper limit of normal PWV (Delta PWV) was defined to decrease the weight of age on PWV values. Delta PWV was calculated as (measured PWV) - (upper limit of the age-adjusted PWV values for the general population). Mean±SD Delta PWV was 0.76±1.60 m/sec. In multivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, active smoking and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy remained independent predictors of higher delta PWV, while age, urinary potassium and beta blocker therapy were independent predictors of lower delta PWV. In conclusion, arterial stiffness was frequent in nephrology outpatients. Systolic blood pressure, smoking, serum uric acid, calcium-containing medications, potassium metabolism and non-use of beta blockers are modifiable factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in Nephrology outpatients. PMID:25880081

  8. Toward an assembly line for U7 snRNPs: interactions of U7-specific Lsm proteins with PRMT5 and SMN complexes.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, Teldja N; Pillai, Ramesh S; Däpp, Christoph; Chari, Ashwin; Meister, Gunter; Kambach, Christian; Fischer, Utz; Schümperli, Daniel

    2005-10-14

    The survival of motor neurons (SMN) complex mediates the assembly of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) involved in splicing and histone RNA processing. A crucial step in this process is the binding of Sm proteins onto the SMN protein. For Sm B/B', D1, and D3, efficient binding to SMN depends on symmetrical dimethyl arginine (sDMA) modifications of their RG-rich tails. This methylation is achieved by another entity, the PRMT5 complex. Its pICln subunit binds Sm proteins whereas the PRMT5 subunit catalyzes the methylation reaction. Here, we provide evidence that Lsm10 and Lsm11, which replace the Sm proteins D1 and D2 in the histone RNA processing U7 snRNPs, associate with pICln in vitro and in vivo without receiving sDMA modifications. This implies that the PRMT5 complex is involved in an early stage of U7 snRNP assembly and hence may have a second snRNP assembly function unrelated to sDMA modification. We also show that the binding of Lsm10 and Lsm11 to SMN is independent of any methylation activity. Furthermore, we present evidence for two separate binding sites in SMN for Sm/Lsm proteins. One recognizes Sm domains and the second one, the sDMA-modified RG-tails, which are present only in a subset of these proteins. PMID:16087681

  9. Impact of Irrigation Methods on LSM Spinup and Initialization of WRF Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawston, P.; Santanello, J. A.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Beaudoing, H.

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, irrigation represents the largest consumption of fresh water and accounts for approximately one-third of all water usage. Irrigation has been shown to modify local hydrology and regional climate through a repartitioning of water at the surface and through the atmosphere, and can in some cases drastically change the terrestrial energy budget in agricultural areas during the growing season. Vegetation cover and soil moisture primarily control water and energy fluxes from the surface so accurate representation of the land surface characteristics is key to determining and predicting atmospheric conditions. This study utilizes NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (NU-WRF) model to investigate changes in land-atmosphere interactions resulting from drip, flood, and sprinkler irrigation methods. The study area encompasses a 500 km x 600 km region of the Central Great Plains including portions of Nebraska, Kansas, Iowa, and Missouri. This area provides a steep irrigation gradient, as much of the western region is heavily irrigated while minimal irrigation occurs in the eastern section. Five-year irrigated LIS spinups were used to initialize two-day, 1-km WRF forecasts. Two forecast periods were chosen, one in a drier than normal year (2006) and one in a wetter than normal year (2008) to evaluate the sensitivity of the irrigation approaches and impacts to the background climate conditions. The offline and coupled simulation results show that both LIS spinups and NU-WRF forecasts are sensitive to irrigation and irrigation methods, as exhibited by significant changes to temperature, soil moisture, boundary layer height, and the partitioning of latent and sensible heat fluxes. Dry year impacts are greater than those in the wet year suggesting that the magnitude of these changes is dependent on the existing precipitation regime. Sprinkler and flood irrigation schemes impact the NU-WRF forecast the most, while drip irrigation has a comparatively small effect. Evaluation of the irrigation schemes using observations of soil moisture, fluxes, and meteorological state variables shows that a realistic characterization of the land surface in terms of land cover classification, soil type, and soil moisture anomalies via a LSM spinup are critical to producing a proper simulation of irrigation in land surface and coupled models.

  10. Matrix Stiffness Corresponding to Strictured Bowel Induces a Fibrogenic Response in Human Colonic Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Laura A.; Rodansky, Eva S.; Sauder, Kay L.; Horowitz, Jeffrey C.; Mih, Justin D.; Tschumperlin, Daniel J.; Higgins, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Crohn’s disease is characterized by repeated cycles of inflammation and mucosal healing which ultimately progress to intestinal fibrosis. This inexorable progression towards fibrosis suggests that fibrosis becomes inflammation-independent and auto-propagative. We hypothesized that matrix stiffness regulates this auto-propagation of intestinal fibrosis. Methods The stiffness of fresh ex vivo samples from normal human small intestine, Crohn’s disease strictures, and the unaffected margin were measured with a microelastometer. Normal human colonic fibroblasts were cultured on physiologically normal or pathologically stiff matrices corresponding to the physiological stiffness of normal or fibrotic bowel. Cellular response was assayed for changes in cell morphology, ?-smooth muscle actin (?SMA) staining, and gene expression. Results Microelastometer measurements revealed a significant increase in colonic tissue stiffness between normal human colon and Crohn’s strictures as well as between the stricture and adjacent tissue margin. In Ccd-18co cells grown on stiff matrices corresponding to Crohn’s strictures, cellular proliferation increased. Pathologic stiffness induced a marked change in cell morphology and increased ?SMA protein expression. Growth on a stiff matrix induced fibrogenic gene expression, decreased matrix metalloproteinase and pro-inflammatory gene expression, and was associated with nuclear localization of the transcriptional cofactor MRTF-A. Conclusions Matrix stiffness, representative of the pathological stiffness of Crohn’s strictures, activates human colonic fibroblasts to a fibrogenic phenotype. Matrix stiffness affects multiple pathways suggesting the mechanical properties of the cellular environment are critical to fibroblast function and may contribute to autopropagation of intestinal fibrosis in the absence of inflammation, thereby contributing to the intractable intestinal fibrosis characteristic of Crohn’s disease. PMID:23502354

  11. Aortic diameter, wall stiffness, and wave reflection in systolic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Gary F; Conlin, Paul R; Dunlap, Mark E; Lacourcière, Yves; Arnold, J Malcolm O; Ogilvie, Richard I; Neutel, Joel; Izzo, Joseph L; Pfeffer, Marc A

    2008-01-01

    Systolic hypertension is associated with increased pulse pressure (PP) and increased risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However the pathogenesis of increased PP remains controversial. One hypothesis suggests that aortic dilatation, wall stiffening and increased pulse wave velocity result from elastin fragmentation, leading to a premature reflected pressure wave that contributes to elevated PP. An alternative hypothesis suggests that increased proximal aortic stiffness and reduced aortic diameter leads to mismatch between pressure and flow, giving rise to an increased forward pressure wave and increased PP. To evaluate these two hypotheses, we measured pulsatile hemodynamics and proximal aortic diameter directly using tonometry, ultrasound imaging, and Doppler in 167 individuals with systolic hypertension. Antihypertensive medications were withdrawn for at least 1 week before study. Patients with PP above the median (75 mm Hg) had lower aortic diameter (2.94+/-0.36 versus 3.13+/-0.28 cm, P<0.001) and higher aortic wall stiffness (elastance-wall stiffness product: 16.1+/-0.7 versus 15.7+/-0.7 ln[dyne/cm], P<0.001) with no difference in augmentation index (19.9+/-10.4 versus 17.5+/-10.0%, P=0.12). Aortic diameter and wall stiffness both increased with advancing age (P<0.001). However, an inverse relation between PP and aortic diameter remained significant (P<0.001) in models that adjusted for age, sex, height, and weight and then further adjusted for aortic wall stiffness, augmentation index, and mean arterial pressure. Among individuals with systolic hypertension, increased PP is primarily attributable to increased wall stiffness and reduced aortic diameter rather than premature wave reflection. PMID:18071054

  12. Dynamic stiffness and damping of externally pressurized gas lubricated journal bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, D. P.; Thayer, W. J.; Cunningham, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    A rigid vertical shaft was operated with known amounts of unbalance at speeds up to 30,000 rpm and gas supply pressure ratios to 4.8. From measured amplitude and phase angle data, dynamic stiffness and damping coefficients of the bearings were determined. The measured stiffness was proportional to the supply pressure, while damping was little affected by supply pressure. Damping dropped rapidly as the fractional frequency whirl threshold was approached. A small eccentricity analysis overpredicted the stiffness by 4 to 55 percent. Predicted damping was close to measured at low speeds but higher at high speeds

  13. Passive Apaptive Damping for High Stiffness-low Mass Materials Incorporating Negative Stiffness Elements 

    E-print Network

    Cha, Gene

    2013-11-07

    High stiffness / low mass materials or structures reduce structure weight in transportation, but show little inherent damping. A new composite material that exhibits high stiffness and high damping might reduce issues with ...

  14. Infinitely stiff composite via a rotation-stabilized negative-stiffness phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochmann, D. M.; Drugan, W. J.

    2011-07-01

    We show that an elastic composite material having a component with sufficiently negative stiffness to produce positive-infinite composite stiffness can be stabilized by the gyroscopic forces produced by composite rotation.

  15. Torsion Stiffness of a Protein Pair Determined by Magnetic Particles

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, X.J.A.; van Noorloos, J.M.; Jacob, A.; van IJzendoorn, L.J.; de Jong, A.M.; Prins, M.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability to measure torsion stiffness of a protein complex by applying a controlled torque on a magnetic particle. As a model system we use protein G bound to an IgG antibody. The protein pair is held between a magnetic particle and a polystyrene substrate. The angular orientation of the magnetic particle shows an oscillating behavior upon application of a rotating magnetic field. The amplitude of the oscillation increases with a decreasing surface coverage of antibodies on the substrate and with an increasing magnitude of the applied field. For decreasing antibody coverage, the torsion spring constant converges to a minimum value of 1.5 × 103 pN·nm/rad that corresponds to a torsion modulus of 4.5 × 104 pN·nm2. This torsion stiffness is an upper limit for the molecular bond between the particle and the surface that is tentatively assigned to a single protein G–IgG protein pair. This assignment is supported by interpreting the measured stiffness with a simple mechanical model that predicts a two orders of magnitude larger stiffness for the protein G–IgG complex than values found for micrometer length dsDNA. This we understand from the structural properties of the molecules, i.e., DNA is a long and flexible chain-like molecule, whereas the antibody-antigen couple is orders of magnitude smaller and more globular in shape due to the folding of the molecules. PMID:21539795

  16. Stiffness and damping characteristics of aluminum in creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkovits, A.

    1977-01-01

    Tensile creep tests conducted at 200 C were performed on annealed commercially pure aluminum specimens in order to measure the dominant elevated temperature dislocation processes. Testing consisted of applying small lateral loads to measure flexural stiffness, and vibrating the specimens laterally in order to measure dynamic modulus and internal damping. It was concluded that (1) the strain hardening increased static stiffness and decreased internal damping during early creep, and (2) the dynamic modulus remained essentially constant at the elastic value during creep. These results imply that primary creep may constitute a mechanism of recovery of dislocatory disorder induced by yielding the material during loading, and that the inelastic modulus utilized as a mathematical concept in several creep buckling theories is not a directly measurable material property.

  17. Advanced damper with high stiffness and high hysteresis damping based on negative structural stiffness

    E-print Network

    Lakes, Roderic

    Advanced damper with high stiffness and high hysteresis damping based on negative structural online 8 April 2013 Keywords: Damping Stiffness Columns Buckling Uniaxial Compression Experimental techniques Structures a b s t r a c t High structural damping combined with high stiffness is achieved

  18. On Zero Stiffness Mark Schenk and Simon D Guest

    E-print Network

    Guest, Simon

    preprint On Zero Stiffness Mark Schenk and Simon D Guest Abstract Zero stiffness structures have and iv) zero stiffness. Each perspective on zero stiffness provides different methods of analysis and design. This paper reviews the concept of zero stiffness and categorises examples from the literature

  19. Stiffness analysis of multi-fingered robot hands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Choi; W. K. Chung; Y. Youm

    1993-01-01

    The stiffness of a grasp is analyzed on the basis of the generalized virtual stiffness (GVS) model. Considering that the normal and lateral stiffness of the finger usually are not decoupled due to kinematics and mechanical design, GVS is formulated as coupled virtual springs. The authors relate GVS to the effective fingertip stiffness including the additional stiffness at the joint

  20. Stiffness matrix formulation for double row angular contact ball bearings: Analytical development and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunduz, Aydin; Singh, Rajendra

    2013-10-01

    Though double row angular contact ball bearings are widely used in industrial, automotive, and aircraft applications, the scientific literature on double row bearings is sparse. It is also shown that the stiffness matrices of two single row bearings may not be simply superposed to obtain the stiffness matrix of a double row bearing. To overcome the deficiency in the literature, a new, comprehensive, analytical approach is proposed based on the Hertzian theory for back-to-back, face-to-face, and tandem arrangements. The elements of the five-dimensional stiffness matrix for double row angular contact ball bearings are computed given either the mean bearing displacement or the mean load vector. The diagonal elements of the proposed stiffness matrix are verified with a commercial code for all arrangements under three loading scenarios. Some changes in stiffness coefficients are investigated by varying critical kinematic and geometric parameters to provide more insight. Finally, the calculated natural frequencies of a shaft-bearing experiment are successfully compared with measurements, thus validating the proposed stiffness formulation. For double row angular contact ball bearings, the moment stiffness and cross-coupling stiffness terms are significant, and the contact angle changes under loads. The proposed formulation is also valid for paired (duplex) bearings which behave as an integrated double row unit when the surrounding structural elements are sufficiently rigid.

  1. Leg stiffness and joint stiffness while running to and jumping over an obstacle.

    PubMed

    Mauroy, G; Schepens, B; Willems, P A

    2014-01-22

    During running, muscles of the lower limb act like a linear spring bouncing on the ground. When approaching an obstacle, the overall stiffness of this leg-spring system (k(leg)) is modified during the two steps preceding the jump to enhance the movement of the center of mass of the body while leaping the obstacle. The aim of the present study is to understand how k(leg) is modified during the running steps preceding the jump. Since k(leg) depends on the joint torsional stiffness and on the leg geometry, we analyzed the changes in these two parameters in eight subjects approaching and leaping a 0.65 m-high barrier at 15 km h(-1). Ground reaction force (F) was measured during 5-6 steps preceding the obstacle using force platform and the lower limb movements were recorded by camera. From these data, the net muscular moment (M(j)), the angular displacement (?(j)) and the lever arm of F were evaluated at the hip, knee and ankle. At the level of the hip, the M(j)-?(j) relation shows that muscles are not acting like torsional springs. At the level of the knee and ankle, the M(j)-?(j) relation shows that muscles are acting like torsional springs: as compared to steady-state running, the torsional stiffness k(j) decreases from ~1/3 two contacts before the obstacle, and increases from ~2/3 during the last contact. These modifications in k(j) reflect in changes in the magnitude of F but also to changes in the leg geometry, i.e. in the lever arms of F. PMID:24275441

  2. Mechanisms, Pathophysiology, and Therapy of Arterial Stiffness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan J. Zieman; Vojtech Melenovsky; David A. Kass

    2010-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is a growing epidemic associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events, dementia, and death. Decreased compliance of the central vasculature alters arterial pressure and flow dynamics and impacts cardiac performance and coronary perfusion. This article reviews the structural, cellular, and genetic contributors to arterial stiffness, including the roles of the scaffolding proteins, extracellular matrix, inflammatory molecules, endothelial cell

  3. Anesthetic Implications in Stiff-Person Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel O. Johnson; Kirk A. Miller

    1995-01-01

    A 46-yr-old female presented to the operating room for repair of an intrathecal baclofen pump. Her diagnosis of SPS was based on clinical presentation and the presence of an autoantibody against the central nervous system enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). The syndrome began as muscle stiffness in her lower extremities and insidiously progressed to a state of constant stiffness resulting

  4. Affine connections for the Cartesian stiffness matrix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milos Zefran; Vijay Kumar

    1997-01-01

    We study the 6×6 Cartesian stiffness matrix. We show that the stiffness of a rigid body subjected to conservative forces and moments is described by a (0,2) tensor which is the Hessian of the potential function. The key observation of the paper is that since the Hessian depends on the choice of an affine connection in the task space, so

  5. Averaging in damping by parametric stiffness excitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fadi Dohnal; Ferdinand Verhulst

    2007-01-01

    Stability investigations of vibration quenching employing the concept of actuators with a variable stiffness are pre- sented. Systems with an arbitrary number of degrees of freedom with linear spring- and damping-elements are considered, that are subject to self-excitation as well as parametric stiffness excitation. General conditions for full vibration suppression and conditions of instability are derived analytically by applying a

  6. Concept for design of variable stiffness damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, J. J.

    1967-01-01

    Damping mechanism, containing polymeric-like materials is applicable to a wide range of shock and vibration. The polymeric-like material changes from a relatively stiff material to a relatively soft, rubbery material in the region of their glass transition temperatures. The energy absorption characteristics and stiffness are controllable with temperature.

  7. Comparison Between Neck and Shoulder Stiffness Determined by Shear Wave Ultrasound Elastography and a Muscle Hardness Meter.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Ryota; Kusama, Saki

    2015-08-01

    The goals of this study were to compare neck and shoulder stiffness values determined by shear wave ultrasound elastography with those obtained with a muscle hardness meter and to verify the correspondence between objective and subjective stiffness in the neck and shoulder. Twenty-four young men and women participated in the study. Their neck and shoulder stiffness was determined at six sites. Before the start of the measurements, patients rated their present subjective symptoms of neck and shoulder stiffness on a 6-point verbal scale. At all measurement sites, the correlation coefficients between the values of muscle hardness indices determined by the muscle hardness meter and shear wave ultrasound elastography were not significant. Furthermore, individuals' subjective neck and shoulder stiffness did not correspond to their objective symptoms. These results suggest that the use of shear wave ultrasound elastography is essential to more precisely assess neck and shoulder stiffness. PMID:25944285

  8. On the development of planar actuators for variable stiffness devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henke, Markus; Gerlach, Gerald

    2013-04-01

    This contribution describes the development, the potential and the limitations of planar actuators for controlling bending devices with variable stiffness. Such structures are supposed to be components of new smart, self-sensing and -controlling composite materials for lightweight constructions. To realize a proper stiffness control, it is necessary to develop reliable actuators with high actuation capabilities based on smart materials. Several actuator designs driven by electroactive polymers (EAPs) are presented and discussed regarding to their applicability in such structures. To investigate the actuators, variable-flexural stiffness devices based on the control of its area moment of inertia were developed. The devices consist of a multi-layer stack of thin, individual plates. Stiffness variation is caused by planar actuators which control the sliding behavior between the layers by form closure structures. Previous investigations have shown that actuators with high actuation potential are needed to ensure reliable connections between the layers. For that reason, two kinds of EAPs Danfoss PolyPower and VHB 4905 by 3M, have been studied as driving unit. These EAP-driven actuators will be compared based on experimental measurements and finite element analyses.

  9. Rolling Element Bearing Stiffness Matrix Determination (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Parker, R.

    2014-01-01

    Current theoretical bearing models differ in their stiffness estimates because of different model assumptions. In this study, a finite element/contact mechanics model is developed for rolling element bearings with the focus of obtaining accurate bearing stiffness for a wide range of bearing types and parameters. A combined surface integral and finite element method is used to solve for the contact mechanics between the rolling elements and races. This model captures the time-dependent characteristics of the bearing contact due to the orbital motion of the rolling elements. A numerical method is developed to determine the full bearing stiffness matrix corresponding to two radial, one axial, and two angular coordinates; the rotation about the shaft axis is free by design. This proposed stiffness determination method is validated against experiments in the literature and compared to existing analytical models and widely used advanced computational methods. The fully-populated stiffness matrix demonstrates the coupling between bearing radial, axial, and tilting bearing deflections.

  10. Effects of mechanical forces on cytoskeletal remodeling and stiffness of cultured smooth muscle cells 

    E-print Network

    Na, Sungsoo

    2009-06-02

    -class of atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of cell mechanics. The model showed that the degree of substrate stretch and the geometry of the AFM tip dramatically affect the measured cell stiffness. Consistent with previous studies, the model showed...

  11. Association between arterial stiffness and variations in estrogen-related genes

    E-print Network

    Peter, Inga

    Increased arterial stiffness and wave reflection have been identified as cardiovascular disease risk factors. In light of significant sex differences and the moderate heritability of vascular function measures, we hypothesized ...

  12. Anomalies in stiffness and damping of a 2D discrete viscoelastic system due to negative stiffness components

    E-print Network

    Lakes, Roderic

    Anomalies in stiffness and damping of a 2D discrete viscoelastic system due to negative stiffness containing a negative stiffness phase, anomalies in stiffness and damping have been observed experimentally Available online 24 February 2006 Abstract The recent development of using negative stiffness inclusions

  13. The difference between stiffness and quasi-stiffness in the context of biomechanical modeling.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Elliott J; Gregg, Robert D; Hargrove, Levi J; Sensinger, Jonathon W

    2013-02-01

    The ankle contributes the majority of mechanical power during walking and is a frequently studied joint in biomechanics. Specifically, researchers have extensively investigated the torque-angle relationship for the ankle during dynamic tasks, such as walking and running. The slope of this relationship has been termed the "quasi-stiffness." However, over time, researchers have begun to interchange the concepts of quasi-stiffness and stiffness. This is an especially important distinction as researchers currently begin to investigate the appropriate control systems for recently developed powered prosthetic legs. The quasi-stiffness and stiffness are distinct concepts in the context of powered joints, and are equivalent in the context of passive joints. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the difference between the stiffness and quasi-stiffness using a simple impedance-controlled inverted pendulum model and a more sophisticated biped walking model, each with the ability to modify the trajectory of an impedance controller's equilibrium angle position. In both cases, stiffness values are specified by the controller and the quasi-stiffness are shown during a single step. Both models have widely varying quasi-stiffness but each have a single stiffness value. Therefore, from this simple modeling approach, the differences and similarities between these two concepts are elucidated. PMID:23212310

  14. The Difference between Stiffness and Quasi-stiffness in the Context of Biomechanical Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Elliott J.; Gregg, Robert D.; Hargrove, Levi J.; Sensinger, Jonathon W.

    2014-01-01

    The ankle contributes the majority of mechanical power during walking and is a frequently studied joint in biomechanics. Specifically, researchers have extensively investigated the torque-angle relationship for the ankle during dynamic tasks, such as walking and running. The slope of this relationship has been termed the “quasi-stiffness.” However, over time, researchers have begun to interchange the concepts of quasi-stiffness and stiffness. This is an especially important distinction as researchers currently begin to investigate the appropriate control systems for recently developed powered prosthetic legs. The quasi-stiffness and stiffness are distinct concepts in the context of powered joints, and are equivalent in the context of passive joints. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the difference between the stiffness and quasi-stiffness using a simple impedance controlled inverted pendulum model and a more sophisticated biped walking model, each with the ability to modify the trajectory of an impedance controller’s equilibrium angle position. In both cases, stiffness values are specified by the controller and the quasi-stiffness are shown during a single step. Both models have widely varying quasi-stiffness but each have a single stiffness value. Therefore, from this simple modeling approach, the differences and similarities between these two concepts are elucidated. PMID:23212310

  15. Arterial stiffness, central hemodynamics, and cardiovascular risk in hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Palatini, Paolo; Casiglia, Edoardo; G?sowski, Jerzy; G?uszek, Jerzy; Jankowski, Piotr; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Saladini, Francesca; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Van Bortel, Luc; Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes several scientific contributions at the recent Satellite Symposium of the European Society of Hypertension, held in Milan, Italy. Arterial stiffening and its hemodynamic consequences can be easily and reliably measured using a range of noninvasive techniques. However, like blood pressure (BP) measurements, arterial stiffness should be measured carefully under standardized patient conditions. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity has been proposed as the gold standard for arterial stiffness measurement and is a well recognized predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcome. Systolic BP and pulse pressure in the ascending aorta may be lower than pressures measured in the upper limb, especially in young individuals. A number of studies suggest closer correlation of end-organ damage with central BP than with peripheral BP, and central BP may provide additional prognostic information regarding cardiovascular risk. Moreover, BP-lowering drugs can have differential effects on central aortic pressures and hemodynamics compared with brachial BP. This may explain the greater beneficial effect provided by newer antihypertensive drugs beyond peripheral BP reduction. Although many methodological problems still hinder the wide clinical application of parameters of arterial stiffness, these will likely contribute to cardiovascular assessment and management in future clinical practice. Each of the abovementioned parameters reflects a different characteristic of the atherosclerotic process, involving functional and/or morphological changes in the vessel wall. Therefore, acquiring simultaneous measurements of different parameters of vascular function and structure could theoretically enhance the power to improve risk stratification. Continuous technological effort is necessary to refine our methods of investigation in order to detect early arterial abnormalities. Arterial stiffness and its consequences represent the great challenge of the twenty-first century for affluent countries, and “de-stiffening” will be the goal of the next decades. PMID:22174583

  16. Medial Tibiofemoral-Joint Stiffness in Males and Females Across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Patricia; Rijke, Arie; Hertel, Jay; Ingersoll, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Analyzing ligament stiffness between males and females at 3 maturational stages across the lifespan may provide insight into whether changes in ligament behavior with aging may contribute to joint laxity. Objective: To compare the stiffness of the medial structures of the tibiofemoral joint and the medial collateral ligament to determine if there are differences at 3 distinct ages and between the sexes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 108 healthy and physically active volunteers with no previous knee surgery, no acute knee injury, and no use of exogenous hormones in the past 6 months participated. They were divided into 6 groups based on sex and age (8–10, 18–40, 50–75 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Ligament stiffness of the tibiofemoral joint was measured with an arthrometer in 0° and 20° of tibiofemoral-joint flexion. The slope values of the force-strain line that represents stiffness of the medial tibiofemoral joint at 0° and the medial collateral ligament at 20° of flexion were obtained. Results: When height and mass were controlled, we found a main effect (P < .001) for age group: the 8- to 10-year olds were less stiff than both the 18- to 40- and the 50- to 75-year-old groups. No effects of sex or tibiofemoral-joint position on stiffness measures were noted when height and mass were included as covariates. Conclusions: Prepubescent medial tibiofemoral-joint stiffness was less than postpubescent knee stiffness. Medial tibiofemoral-joint stiffness was related to height and mass after puberty in men and women. PMID:24955624

  17. Association between systemic arterial stiffness and age-related macular degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiichi Sato; Gilbert T. Feke; Ephraim Y. Appelbaum; Marcel N. Menke; Clement L. Trempe; J. Wallace McMeel

    2006-01-01

    Background  A number of epidemiological studies suggest that age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cardiovascular disease share the same risk factors. Systemic arterial stiffness is a clear indicator of cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether there is an association between directly measured systemic arterial stiffness and the presence of AMD.Methods  We used a SphygmoCor 2000 system to noninvasively measure two indicators of the systemic

  18. STIFFNESS MODELING OF ROBOTIC-MANIPULATORS UNDER AUXILIARY LOADINGS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 STIFFNESS MODELING OF ROBOTIC-MANIPULATORS UNDER AUXILIARY LOADINGS Alexandr Klimchik a and external loadings. It also produces the Cartesian stiffness matrix. This allows to extend the classical, France KEYWORDS Stiffness analysis, passive joints, auxiliary loading, static equilibrium, non

  19. Design Optimization of Robot Manipulators over Global Stiffness Performance Evaluation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Design Optimization of Robot Manipulators over Global Stiffness Performance Evaluation Eric for the design optimization of robot manipulators with respect to multiple global stiffness objectives of our work resides : · in a systematic analytical calculation of the equivalent stiffness matrix

  20. Steady-state stiffness of utricular hair cells depends on macular location and hair bundle structure

    PubMed Central

    Spoon, Corrie; Moravec, W. J.; Rowe, M. H.; Grant, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial and temporal properties of head movement are encoded by vestibular hair cells in the inner ear. One of the most striking features of these receptors is the orderly structural variation in their mechanoreceptive hair bundles, but the functional significance of this diversity is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that hair bundle structure is a significant contributor to hair bundle mechanics by comparing structure and steady-state stiffness of 73 hair bundles at varying locations on the utricular macula. Our first major finding is that stiffness of utricular hair bundles varies systematically with macular locus. Stiffness values are highest in the striola, near the line of hair bundle polarity reversal, and decline exponentially toward the medial extrastriola. Striolar bundles are significantly more stiff than those in medial (median: 8.9 ?N/m) and lateral (2.0 ?N/m) extrastriolae. Within the striola, bundle stiffness is greatest in zone 2 (106.4 ?N/m), a band of type II hair cells, and significantly less in zone 3 (30.6 ?N/m), which contains the only type I hair cells in the macula. Bathing bundles in media that break interciliary links produced changes in bundle stiffness with predictable time course and magnitude, suggesting that links were intact in our standard media and contributed normally to bundle stiffness during measurements. Our second major finding is that bundle structure is a significant predictor of steady-state stiffness: the heights of kinocilia and the tallest stereocilia are the most important determinants of bundle stiffness. Our results suggest 1) a functional interpretation of bundle height variability in vertebrate vestibular organs, 2) a role for the striola in detecting onset of head movement, and 3) the hypothesis that differences in bundle stiffness contribute to diversity in afferent response dynamics. PMID:21918003

  1. Steady-state stiffness of utricular hair cells depends on macular location and hair bundle structure.

    PubMed

    Spoon, Corrie; Moravec, W J; Rowe, M H; Grant, J W; Peterson, E H

    2011-12-01

    Spatial and temporal properties of head movement are encoded by vestibular hair cells in the inner ear. One of the most striking features of these receptors is the orderly structural variation in their mechanoreceptive hair bundles, but the functional significance of this diversity is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that hair bundle structure is a significant contributor to hair bundle mechanics by comparing structure and steady-state stiffness of 73 hair bundles at varying locations on the utricular macula. Our first major finding is that stiffness of utricular hair bundles varies systematically with macular locus. Stiffness values are highest in the striola, near the line of hair bundle polarity reversal, and decline exponentially toward the medial extrastriola. Striolar bundles are significantly more stiff than those in medial (median: 8.9 ?N/m) and lateral (2.0 ?N/m) extrastriolae. Within the striola, bundle stiffness is greatest in zone 2 (106.4 ?N/m), a band of type II hair cells, and significantly less in zone 3 (30.6 ?N/m), which contains the only type I hair cells in the macula. Bathing bundles in media that break interciliary links produced changes in bundle stiffness with predictable time course and magnitude, suggesting that links were intact in our standard media and contributed normally to bundle stiffness during measurements. Our second major finding is that bundle structure is a significant predictor of steady-state stiffness: the heights of kinocilia and the tallest stereocilia are the most important determinants of bundle stiffness. Our results suggest 1) a functional interpretation of bundle height variability in vertebrate vestibular organs, 2) a role for the striola in detecting onset of head movement, and 3) the hypothesis that differences in bundle stiffness contribute to diversity in afferent response dynamics. PMID:21918003

  2. An acoustic startle alters knee joint stiffness and neuromuscular control.

    PubMed

    DeAngelis, A I; Needle, A R; Kaminski, T W; Royer, T R; Knight, C A; Swanik, C B

    2015-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the nervous system contributes to non-contact knee ligament injury, but limited evidence has measured the effect of extrinsic events on joint stability. Following unanticipated events, the startle reflex leads to universal stiffening of the limbs, but no studies have investigated how an acoustic startle influences knee stiffness and muscle activation during a dynamic knee perturbation. Thirty-six individuals were tested for knee stiffness and muscle activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings. Subjects were seated and instructed to resist a 40-degree knee flexion perturbation from a relaxed state. During some trials, an acoustic startle (50?ms, 1000?Hz, 100?dB) was applied 100?ms prior to the perturbation. Knee stiffness, muscle amplitude, and timing were quantified across time, muscle, and startle conditions. The acoustic startle increased short-range (no startle: 0.044?±?0.011?N·m/deg/kg; average startle: 0.047?±?0.01?N·m/deg/kg) and total knee stiffness (no startle: 0.036?±?0.01?N·m/deg/kg; first startle 0.027?±?0.02?N·m/deg/kg). Additionally, the startle contributed to decreased [vastus medialis (VM): 13.76?±?33.6%; vastus lateralis (VL): 6.72?±?37.4%] but earlier (VM: 0.133?±?0.17?s; VL: 0.124?±?0.17?s) activation of the quadriceps muscles. The results of this study indicate that the startle response can significantly disrupt knee stiffness regulation required to maintain joint stability. Further studies should explore the role of unanticipated events on unintentional injury. PMID:25212407

  3. Symmetrical dimethylation of arginine residues in spliceosomal Sm protein B/B' and the Sm-like protein LSm4, and their interaction with the SMN protein.

    PubMed Central

    Brahms, H; Meheus, L; de Brabandere, V; Fischer, U; Lührmann, R

    2001-01-01

    Arginine residues in RG-rich proteins are frequently dimethylated posttranslationally by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). The most common methylation pattern is asymmetrical dimethylation, a modification important for protein shuttling and signal transduction. Symmetrically dimethylated arginines (sDMA) have until now been confined to the myelin basic protein MBP and the Sm proteins D1 and D3. We show here by mass spectrometry and protein sequencing that also the human Sm protein B/B' and, for the first time, one of the Sm-like proteins, LSm4, contain sDMA in vivo. The symmetrical dimethylation of B/B', LSm4, D1, and D3 decisively influences their binding to the Tudor domain of the "survival of motor neurons" protein (SMN): inhibition of dimethylation by S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) abolished the binding of D1, D3, B/B', and LSm4 to this domain. A synthetic peptide containing nine sDMA-glycine dipeptides, but not asymmetrically modified or nonmodified peptides, specifically inhibited the interaction of D1, D3, B/B', LSm4, and UsnRNPs with SMN-Tudor. Recombinant D1 and a synthetic peptide could be methylated in vitro by both HeLa cytosolic S100 extract and nuclear extract; however, only the cytosolic extract produced symmetrical dimethylarginines. Thus, the Sm-modifying PRMT is cytoplasmic, and symmetrical dimethylation of B/B', D1, and D3 is a prerequisite for the SMN-dependent cytoplasmic core-UsnRNP assembly. Our demonstration of sDMAs in LSm4 suggests additional functions of sDMAs in tri-UsnRNP biogenesis and mRNA decay. Our findings also have interesting implications for the understanding of the aetiology of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). PMID:11720283

  4. Experimental exposure to diesel exhaust increases arterial stiffness in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magnus Lundbäck; Nicholas L Mills; Andrew Lucking; Stefan Barath; Ken Donaldson; David E Newby; Thomas Sandström; Anders Blomberg

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Vascular dysfunction reduces arterial compliance and increases central arterial pressure and left ventricular after-load. We determined the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on arterial compliance using a validated non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. METHODS: In a double-blind randomized fashion, 12 healthy volunteers were

  5. log(Tissue Stiffness) Development time

    E-print Network

    Discher, Dennis

    of proteins, namely collagen plus cardiac- specific excitation-contraction proteins. Rapid softening-Contraction and Collagen Proteins, whereas Brain Remains SoHeartBeat log(Tissue Stiffness) Development time Excitation-Contraction Collagen #12;Current

  6. Stiffness matrices of carbon nanotube structures

    E-print Network

    Samaroo, Kirk J. (Kirk Jerome)

    2005-01-01

    An analytical modeling study was done to determine the stiffness matrices of the lattice structure of graphene, the planar building block of carbon nanotubes. Through continuum linear elastic analysis and a displacement-based ...

  7. Effects of substitution on the exchange stiffness and magnetization of Co films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyrich, C.; Zamani, A.; Huttema, W.; Arora, M.; Harrison, D.; Rashidi, F.; Broun, D.; Heinrich, B.; Mryasov, O.; Ahlberg, M.; Karis, O.; Jönsson, P. E.; From, M.; Zhu, X.; Girt, E.

    2014-12-01

    An antiferromagnetically coupled FM/NM/FM (FM = ferromagnet, NM = normal metal) trilayer structure responds to an external magnetic field by the formation of a magnetic-moment spring within the FM layers. We show that the exchange stiffness (Aex) of an FM layer can be determined by fitting the field-dependent magnetization, M (H ) , of the FM/NM/FM trilayer to a micromagnetic model. Using this method, we have measured the exchange stiffness of thin-film Co alloyed with Cr, Fe, Ni, Pd, Pt, and Ru. The results show that the rate at which a substituent element reduces the exchange stiffness is not directly related to its effect on the magnetization of the alloy. The observed trends have been understood by material-specific modeling based on density functional theory within the local density approximation. The stiffness measurements are in agreement with Brillouin light scattering carried out on thicker Co films.

  8. High-frequency mode conversion technique for stiff lesion detection with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE).

    PubMed

    Mariappan, Yogesh K; Glaser, Kevin J; Manduca, Armando; Romano, Anthony J; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K; Yin, Meng; Ehman, Richard L

    2009-12-01

    A novel imaging technique is described in which the mode conversion of longitudinal waves is used for the qualitative detection of stiff lesions within soft tissue using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) methods. Due to the viscoelastic nature of tissue, high-frequency shear waves attenuate rapidly in soft tissues but much less in stiff tissues. By introducing minimally-attenuating longitudinal waves at a significantly high frequency into tissue, shear waves produced at interfaces by mode conversion will be detectable in stiff regions, but will be significantly attenuated and thus not detectable in the surrounding soft tissue. This contrast can be used to detect the presence of stiff tissue. The proposed technique is shown to readily depict hard regions (mimicking tumors) present in tissue-simulating phantoms and ex vivo breast tissue. In vivo feasibility is demonstrated on a patient with liver metastases in whom the tumors are readily distinguished. Preliminary evidence also suggests that quantitative stiffness measurements of stiff regions obtained with this technique are more accurate than those from conventional MRE because of the short shear wavelengths. This rapid, qualitative technique may lend itself to applications in which the localization of stiff, suspicious neoplasms is coupled with more sensitive techniques for thorough characterization. PMID:19859936

  9. Arthroscopic assessment of human cartilage stiffness of the femoral condyles and the patella with a new tactile sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Uchio; M Ochi; N Adachi; K Kawasaki; J Iwasa

    2002-01-01

    We measured the stiffness of the cartilage of the human femoral condyles via an ultrasonic tactile sensor under arthroscopic control. The stiffness and the degeneration of articular cartilage were assessed in 105 knees in 74 patients (39 men, 35 women, age: 9–72 years) who underwent arthroscopic observation or surgery. Twenty-five knees suffered from traumatic cartilage injury, 14 from osteochondritis dissecans,

  10. Effects of Upper-Limb Posture on Endpoint Stiffness during Force Targeting Tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei-Rong Wang; Ju-Ying Chang; Kao-Chi Chung

    Endpoint stiffness is characterized as the relationship between externally imposed displacements of the hand and the elastic\\u000a forces generated in response and can be estimated during the application of short-term perturbations to endpoint based on\\u000a measured force and position data. This research was aimed to investigate biomechanical properties via estimation of upper\\u000a limb endpoint stiffness and joint torques during force

  11. Contribution of passive stiffness to ankle plantarflexor moment during gait after stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anouk Lamontagne; Francine Malouin; Carol L. Richards

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To measure the contribution of passive stiffness to the ankle plantarflexor moment during gait in subjects with hemiparesis early after stroke. The relationship of passive stiffness with gait speed was also examined.Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive.Patients and Other Participants: A sample of convenience of 14 patients (54.7 ± 10.9yrs) with a hemiparesis for less than 5 months and 11 healthy controls

  12. Fluid damping and fluid stiffness of tube arrays in crossflow

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.; Zhu, S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    Motion-dependent fluid forces acting on a tube array were measured as a function of excitation frequency, excitation amplitude, and flow velocity. Fluid-damping and fluid-stiffness coefficients were obtained from measured motion-dependent fluid forces as a function of reduced flow velocity and excitation amplitude. The water channel and test setup provide a sound facility for obtaining key coefficients for fluidelastic instability of tube arrays in crossflow. Once the motion-dependent fluid-force coefficients have been measured, a reliable design guideline, based on the unsteady flow theory, can be developed for fluidelastic instability of tube arrays in crossflow.

  13. Temporal response of arterial stiffness to ultra-marathon.

    PubMed

    Burr, J F; Phillips, A A; Drury, T C; Ivey, A C; Warburton, D E R

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the arterial stiffness of male ultra-marathon runners (n = 9) using pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and radial tonometry over the course of an ultra-marathon and during recovery. Measures were collected at rest, immediately following 45?km/75?km of running, then following 60 and 90?min of recovery. No statistical difference was found between baseline cfPWV and normative values. The cfPWV of ultra-endurance runners decreased at 45?km (3.4 ± 1.6?m/s, p=0.006), followed by an increase (1.6 ± 1.8?m/s, p = 0.04) toward baseline levels at the 75?km mark. Radial tonometry measures also indicated small artery stiffness was transiently increased after 75?km. The amount of training time (r = 0.82, p = 0.007) and the duration of a typical training session (r = 0.73, p = 0.03) were correlated strongly with persisting decrements in large artery compliance at 60?min of recovery. The finding that arterial stiffness decreased at the 45?km distance and then reverted back toward baseline levels with prolonged running, may indicate a role of exercise duration or accumulated stress for affecting vascular compliance. At present, it is premature to suggest that athletes should alter training or racing practices to protect vascular health. PMID:24408767

  14. Hamstrings Stiffness and Landing Biomechanics Linked to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Loading

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, J. Troy; Norcross, Marc F.; Cannon, Lindsey N.; Zinder, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Greater hamstrings stiffness is associated with less anterior tibial translation during controlled perturbations. However, it is unclear how hamstrings stiffness influences anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) loading mechanisms during dynamic tasks. Objective: To evaluate the influence of hamstrings stiffness on landing biomechanics related to ACL injury. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 36 healthy, physically active volunteers (18 men, 18 women; age = 23 ± 3 years, height = 1.8 ± 0.1 m, mass = 73.1 ± 16.6 kg). Intervention(s): Hamstrings stiffness was quantified via the damped oscillatory technique. Three-dimensional lower extremity kinematics and kinetics were captured during a double-legged jump-landing task via a 3-dimensional motion-capture system interfaced with a force plate. Landing biomechanics were compared between groups displaying high and low hamstrings stiffness via independent-samples t tests. Main Outcome Measure(s): Hamstrings stiffness was normalized to body mass (N/m·kg?1). Peak knee-flexion and -valgus angles, vertical and posterior ground reaction forces, anterior tibial shear force, internal knee-extension and -varus moments, and knee-flexion angles at the instants of each peak kinetic variable were identified during the landing task. Forces were normalized to body weight, whereas moments were normalized to the product of weight and height. Results: Internal knee-varus moment was 3.6 times smaller in the high-stiffness group (t22 = 2.221, P = .02). A trend in the data also indicated that peak anterior tibial shear force was 1.1 times smaller in the high-stiffness group (t22 = 1.537, P = .07). The high-stiffness group also demonstrated greater knee flexion at the instants of peak anterior tibial shear force and internal knee-extension and -varus moments (t22 range = 1.729–2.224, P < .05). Conclusions: Greater hamstrings stiffness was associated with landing biomechanics consistent with less ACL loading and injury risk. Musculotendinous stiffness is a modifiable characteristic; thus exercises that enhance hamstrings stiffness may be important additions to ACL injury-prevention programs. PMID:24303987

  15. The stiffness of frog skinned muscle fibres at altered lateral filament spacing.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Y E; Simmons, R M

    1986-01-01

    When the surface membrane is removed from a frog muscle fibre the myofibrils swell, so that the spacing between the filaments increases by 10-30%. In this study, the stiffness of skinned fibres was measured when the lateral spacing of the filament lattice was reduced osmotically using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), a synthetic linear polymer. In the absence of PVP, the apparent stiffness of relaxed skinned fibres measured during ramp stretches was about 0.05-0.1 of the stiffness of intact fibres. The stiffness increased when the lattice spacing was decreased. The mechanical characteristics of resting stiffness in the presence of PVP (or bovine serum albumin) were similar to those of the short-range elastic component of resting intact fibres. However, when the spacing of skinned fibres was reduced osmotically to that of the intact lattice, the stiffness of skinned fibres was about 1.6 times higher. In the absence of PVP, Ca2+-activated skinned fibres were less stiff than are fully active intact fibres during isometric tetani. The skinned fibre force-extension relation was markedly curved. As the filament spacing was reduced, the stiffness of the Ca2+-activated skinned fibres increased, with little change in isometric tension, and the force-extension curve became more linear. Experiments at varied filament overlap and during feed-back control of sarcomere length, monitored by laser diffraction, showed that PVP increased the stiffness of the sarcomeres. The increase of active stiffness in the presence of PVP could be partially dissociated from the increase of resting stiffness by inclusion of Mg tripolyphosphate in the bathing solutions. It is concluded that the low stiffness and the non-linearity of the force-extension curve observed in fully activated skinned fibres are due primarily to the increase of filament separation that occurs when a fibre is skinned. The mechanism may be related to an increased angle between the subfragment-2 part of the cross-bridge and the backbone of the thick filament, perhaps leading to buckling of cross-bridges under compression. PMID:3491904

  16. Stiffness analysis of the humanoid robot WABIAN-RIV: modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Carbone; Hun-ok Limz; Atsuo Takanishi; Marco Ceccarelli

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a humanoid robot named as WABIAN-RIV (WAseda BIpedal humANoid Refined IV) is analyzed in terms of stiffness characteristics. This paper proposes basic models and a formulation in order to deduce the stiffness matrix as a function of the most important stiffness parameters of the WABIAN architecture. The proposed formulation is useful for numerical estimation of stiffness performances.

  17. STIFFNESS SYNTHESIS OF A VARIABLE GEOMETRY PLANAR ROBOT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabil Simaan; Moshe Shoham

    This paper addresses the problem of task-based stiffness synthesis of a variable geometry three DOF (Degrees Of Freedom) planar robot. The synthesis considers the case where the robot has a limited number of free geometric parameters and constant actuator stiffness coefficients. This defines twenty problems of stiffness synthesis, in which, three parameters of the stiffness matrix are controlled according to

  18. On the Normal Form of a Spatial Stiffness Matrix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney G. Roberts

    2002-01-01

    A key result in the study of spatial stiffness matrices is Loncaric's normal form. When a spatial stiffness matrix is described in an appropriate coordinate frame, it will have a particularly simple structure. In this form, the 3×3 off-diagonal blocks of the stiffness matrix are diagonal. It has been shown that generically, a spatial stiffness matrix can be written in

  19. On the problem of determination of spring stiffness parameters for

    E-print Network

    Tokyo, University of

    into the conventional spring mesh model. Keywords. Mass-spring system, Finite element method, Stiffness matrix stiffness parameters by way of minimization of the matrix norm of the stiffness matrix of a triangle meshOn the problem of determination of spring stiffness parameters for spring-mesh models Huynh QUANG

  20. Nanoscale structure and microscale stiffness of DNA nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Schiffels, Daniel; Liedl, Tim; Fygenson, Deborah K

    2013-08-27

    We measure the stiffness of tiled DNA nanotubes (HX-tubes) as a function of their (defined) circumference by analyzing their micrometer-scale thermal deformations using fluorescence microscopy. We derive a model that relates nanoscale features of HX-tube architecture to the measured persistence lengths. Given the known stiffness of double-stranded DNA, we use this model to constrain the average spacing between and effective stiffness of individual DNA duplexes in the tube. A key structural feature of tiled nanotubes that can affect stiffness is their potential to form with discrete amounts of twist of the DNA duplexes about the tube axis (supertwist). We visualize the supertwist of HX-tubes using electron microscopy of gold nanoparticles, attached to specific sites along the nanotube. This method reveals that HX-tubes tend not to form with supertwist unless forced by sequence design, and, even when forced, supertwist is reduced by elastic deformations of the underlying DNA lattice. We compare the hybridization energy gained upon closing a duplex sheet into a tube with the elastic energy paid for deforming the sheet to allow closure. In estimating the elastic energy we account for bending and twisting of the individual duplexes as well as shearing between them. We find the minimum supertwist state has minimum free energy, and global untwisting of forced supertwist is energetically favorable, consistent with our experimental data. Finally, we show that attachment of Cy3 dyes or changing counterions can cause nanotubes to adopt a permanent writhe with micrometer-scale pitch and amplitude. We propose that the coupling of local twist and global counter-twist may be useful in characterizing perturbations of DNA structure. PMID:23879368

  1. Musculoskeletal stiffness changes linearly in response to increasing load during walking gait.

    PubMed

    Caron, Robert R; Lewis, Cara L; Saltzman, Elliot; Wagenaar, Robert C; Holt, Kenneth G

    2015-04-13

    Development of biologically inspired exoskeletons to assist soldiers in carrying load is a rapidly expanding field. Understanding how the body modulates stiffness in response to changing loads may inform the development of these exoskeletons and is the purpose of the present study. Seventeen subjects walked on a treadmill at a constant preferred walking velocity while nine different backpack loading conditions ranging from 12.5% to 40% bodyweight (BW) were introduced in an ascending and then descending order. Kinematic data were collected using Optotrak, a 3D motion analysis system, and used to estimate the position of the center of mass (COM). Two different estimates of stiffness were computed for the stance phase of gait. Both measures of stiffness were positively and linearly related to load magnitudes, with the slopes of the relationships being larger for the descending than the ascending conditions. These results indicate that changes in mechanical stiffness brought about in the musculoskeletal system vary systematically during increases in load to ensure that critical kinematic variables measured in a previous publication remain invariant (Caron et al., 2013). Changes in stiffness and other kinematics measured at the 40% BW condition suggest a boundary in which gait stiffness control limit is reached and a new gait pattern is required. Since soldiers are now carrying up to 96% of body weight, the need for research with even heavier loads is warranted. These findings have implications on the development of exoskeletons to assist in carrying loads. PMID:25678200

  2. The cross-sectional association of sitting time with carotid artery stiffness in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Quan L; Blizzard, Christopher L; Sharman, James E; Magnussen, Costan G; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity is negatively associated with arterial stiffness. However, the relationship between sedentary behaviour and arterial stiffness is poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of sedentary behaviour with arterial stiffness among young adults. Design Cross-sectional. Setting 34 study clinics across Australia during 2004–2006. Participants 2328 participants (49.4% male) aged 26–36?years who were followed up from a nationally representative sample of Australian schoolchildren in 1985. Measurements Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid ultrasound. Sitting time per weekday and weekend day, and physical activity were self-reported by questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated as physical work capacity at a heart rate of 170?bpm. Anthropometry, blood pressure, resting heart rate and blood biochemistry were measured. Potential confounders, including strength training, education, smoking, diet, alcohol consumption and parity, were self-reported. Rank correlation was used for analysis. Results Sitting time per weekend day, but not per weekday, was correlated with arterial stiffness (males r=0.11 p<0.01, females r=0.08, p<0.05) and cardiorespiratory fitness (males r?=??0.14, females r?=??0.08, p<0.05), and also with fatness and resting heart rate. One additional hour of sitting per weekend day was associated with 5.6% (males p=0.046) and 8.6% (females p=0.05) higher risk of having metabolic syndrome. These associations were independent of physical activity and other potential confounders. The association of sitting time per weekend day with arterial stiffness was not mediated by resting heart rate, fatness or metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a positive association of sitting time with arterial stiffness. The greater role of sitting time per weekend day in prediction of arterial stiffness and cardiometabolic risk than that of sitting time per weekday may be due to better reflection of discretionary sitting behaviour. PMID:24604484

  3. Stiffness Estimation and Nonlinear Control of Robots with Variable Stiffness Actuation

    E-print Network

    De Luca, Alessandro

    of estimating on line the nonlinear stiffness of flexible transmissions in robots with variable stiffness motion, the flexible transmission should behave in a nonlinear way. This can be obtained either through independent motors are used at each joint and motion is transmitted through nonlinear flexible transmissions

  4. Constraint-based equilibrium and stiffness control of variable stiffness actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Howard; David J. Braun; Sethu Vijayakumar

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research effort has gone into the design of variable passive stiffness actuators (VSAs). A number of different mechanical designs have been proposed, aimed at either a biomorphic (i.e., antagonistic) design, compactness, or simplified modelling and control. In this paper, we propose a (model-based) unified control methodology that is able to exploit the benefits of variable stiffness independent of the

  5. Normalized stiffness ratios for mechanical characterization of isotropic acoustic foams.

    PubMed

    Sahraoui, Sohbi; Brouard, Bruno; Benyahia, Lazhar; Parmentier, Damien; Geslain, Alan

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a method for the mechanical characterization of isotropic foams at low frequency. The objective of this study is to determine the Young's modulus, the Poisson's ratio, and the loss factor of commercially available foam plates. The method is applied on porous samples having square and circular sections. The main idea of this work is to perform quasi-static compression tests of a single foam sample followed by two juxtaposed samples having the same dimensions. The load and displacement measurements lead to a direct extraction of the elastic constants by means of normalized stiffness and normalized stiffness ratio which depend on Poisson's ratio and shape factor. The normalized stiffness is calculated by the finite element method for different Poisson ratios. The no-slip boundary conditions imposed by the loading rigid plates create interfaces with a complex strain distribution. Beforehand, compression tests were performed by means of a standard tensile machine in order to determine the appropriate pre-compression rate for quasi-static tests. PMID:25669274

  6. Glycine Receptor Autoimmune Spectrum With Stiff-Man Syndrome Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    McKeon, Andrew; Martinez-Hernandez, Eugenia; Lancaster, Eric; Matsumoto, Joseph Y.; Harvey, Robert J.; McEvoy, Kathleen M.; Pittock, Sean J.; Lennon, Vanda A.; Dalmau, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether glycine receptor ?1 subunit-specific autoantibodies (GlyR?1-IgG) occur in a broader spectrum of brainstem and spinal hyperexcitability disorders than the progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus phenotype recognized to date, and to ascertain disease specificity. Design Retrospective, case-control study. Settings Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, and University of Barcelona, Spain. Patients Eighty-one patients with stiff-man syndrome phenotype, 80 neurologic control subjects, and 20 healthy control subjects. Intervention Glycine receptor ?1–transfected cells to test serum or cerebrospinal fluid from cases and control subjects. Main Outcome Measures Frequency of GlyR?1-IgG positivity among stiff-man syndrome phenotype cases and control subjects. Comparison of GlyR?1-IgG seropositive and seronegative cases. Results Seropositive cases (12% of cases) included 9 with stiff-man syndrome (4 classic; 5 variant; 66% were glutamic acid decarboxylase 65–IgG positive) and 1 with progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. Immunotherapy responses were noted more frequently in GlyR?1-IgG–positive cases (6 of 7 improved) than in seronegative cases (7 of 25 improved; P=.02). The single seropositive control patient had steroid-responsive vision loss and optic atrophy with inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid. Conclusions Glycine receptor ?1–IgG aids identification of autoimmune brainstem/spinal cord hyperexcitability disorders and may extend to the glycinergic visual system. PMID:23090334

  7. Use of reflectance interference contrast microscopy to characterize the endothelial glycocalyx stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Job, Kathleen M.; Dull, Randal O.

    2012-01-01

    Reflectance interference contrast microscopy (RICM) was used to study the mechanics of the endothelial glycocalyx. This technique tracks the vertical position of a glass microsphere probe that applies very light fluctuating loads to the outermost layer of the bovine lung microvascular endothelial cell (BLMVEC) glycocalyx. Fluctuations in probe vertical position are used to estimate the effective stiffness of the underlying layer. Stiffness was measured before and after removal of specific glycocalyx components. The mean stiffness of BLMVEC glycocalyx was found to be ?7.5 kT/nm2 (or ?31 pN/nm). Enzymatic digestion of the glycocalyx with pronase or hyaluronan with hyaluronidase increased the mean effective stiffness of the glycocalyx; however, the increase of the mean stiffness on digestion of heparan sulfate with heparinase III was not significant. The results imply that hyaluronan chains act as a cushioning layer to distribute applied forces to the glycocalyx structure. Effective stiffness was also measured for the glycocalyx exposed to 0.1%, 1.0%, and 4.0% BSA; glycocalyx compliance increased at two extreme BSA concentrations. The RICM images indicated that glycocalyx thickness increases with BSA concentrations. Results demonstrate that RICM is sensitive to detect the subtle changes of glycocalyx compliance at the fluid-fiber interface. PMID:22505668

  8. Association between arterial stiffness and peritoneal small solute transport rate.

    PubMed

    Zhe, Xing-wei; Tian, Xin-kui; Chen, Wei; Guo, Li-juan; Gu, Yue; Chen, Hui-min; Tang, Li-jun; Wang, Tao

    2008-05-01

    While cardiovascular disease accounts for 40-50% of the mortality in dialysis patients, and while a high peritoneal transport in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is an independent predictor of outcome, it is unclear if there are any links. Aortic stiffness has become established as a cardiovascular risk factor. We thus studied pulse wave velocity (PWV) in CAPD patients to explore the possible link between peritoneal small solute transport and aortic stiffness. CAPD patients (n = 76, 27 M/49 F) in our center were included in the present study. Aortic stiffness was assessed by brachial pulse pressure (PP) and carotid-femoral PWV. Patients' peritoneal small solute transport rate was assessed by D/P(cr) at 4 h. Extracellular water over total body water (E/T ratio) was assessed by means of bioimpedance analysis. C-reactive protein was also measured. Carotid-femoral PWV was positively associated with patients' age (r = 0.555; P < 0.01), time on peritoneal dialysis (r = 0.332; P < 0.01), diabetic status (r = 0.319; P < 0.01), D/P(cr) (r = 0.241; P < 0.05), PP (r = 0.475; P < 0.01), and E/T (r = 0.606; P < 0.01). In a multivariate regression analysis, carotid-femoral PWV was independently determined by E/T (P < 0.01), PP (P < 0.01), age (P < 0.01), and D/P(cr) (P < 0.05). D/P(cr), in addition to E/T, age, and PP, was an independent predictor of elevated carotid-femoral PWV in CAPD patients, suggesting that there might be a link between high aortic stiffness and increased peritoneal small solute transport rate. PMID:18471172

  9. Stiffness-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Kevin J; Felmlee, Joel P; Manduca, Armando; Kannan Mariappan, Yogesh; Ehman, Richard L

    2006-01-01

    An imaging method is introduced in which the signal in MR images is affected by the stiffness distribution in the object being imaged. Intravoxel phase dispersion (IVPD) that occurs during MR elastography (MRE) acquisitions decreases the signal in soft regions more than in stiff regions due to changes in shear wave amplitude and wavelength. The IVPD effect is enhanced by lowpass filtering the MR k-space data with a circular Gaussian lowpass filter. A processing method is introduced to take the time series of MRE magnitude images with IVPD and produce a final stiffness-weighted image (SWI) by calculating the minimum signal at each pixel from a small number of temporal samples. The SWI technique is demonstrated in phantom studies as well as in the case of a preserved postmortem breast tissue specimen with a stiff lesion created by focused ultrasound ablation to mimic a breast cancer. When free of significant sources of depth-dependent wave attenuation, interference, and boundary effects, SWI is a simple, fast, qualitative technique that does not require the use of phase unwrapping or inversion algorithms for localizing stiff regions in an object. PMID:16342158

  10. Design and Testing of a Dynamically-Tuned Magnetostrictive Spring with Electrically-Controlled Stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheidler, Justin; Asnani, Vivake M.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the development of an electrically-controlled, variable-stiffness spring based on magnetostrictive materials. The device, termed a magnetostrictive Varispring, can be applied as a semi-active vibration isolator or switched stiffness vibration controller for reducing transmitted vibrations. The Varispring is designed using 1D linear models that consider the coupled electrical response, mechanically-induced magnetic diffusion, and the effect of internal mass on dynamic stiffness. Modeling results illustrate that a Terfenol-D-based Varispring has a rise time almost an order of magnitude smaller and a magnetic diffusion cut-off frequency over two orders of magnitude greater than a Galfenol-based Varispring. The results motivate the use of laminated Terfenol-D rods for a greater stiffness tuning range and increased bandwidth. The behavior of a prototype Varispring is examined under vibratory excitation up to 6 MPa and 25 Hz using a dynamic load frame. For this prototype, stiffness is indirectly varied by controlling the excitation current. Preliminary measurements of continuous stiffness tuning via sinusoidal currents up to 1 kHz are presented. The measurements demonstrate that the Young's modulus of the Terfenol-D rod inside the Varispring can be continuously varied by up to 21.9 GPa. The observed stiffness tuning range is relatively constant up to 500 Hz, but significantly decreases thereafter. The stiffness tuning range can be greatly increased by improving the current and force control such that a more consistent current can be applied and the Varispring can be accurately tested at a more optimal bias stress.

  11. Augmented vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and adhesion when hypertension is superimposed on aging.

    PubMed

    Sehgel, Nancy L; Sun, Zhe; Hong, Zhongkui; Hunter, William C; Hill, Michael A; Vatner, Dorothy E; Vatner, Stephen F; Meininger, Gerald A

    2015-02-01

    Hypertension and aging are both recognized to increase aortic stiffness, but their interactions are not completely understood. Most previous studies have attributed increased aortic stiffness to changes in extracellular matrix proteins that alter the mechanical properties of the vascular wall. Alternatively, we hypothesized that a significant component of increased vascular stiffness in hypertension is due to changes in the mechanical and adhesive properties of vascular smooth muscle cells, and that aging would augment the contribution from vascular smooth muscle cells when compared with the extracellular matrix. Accordingly, we studied aortic stiffness in young (16-week-old) and old (64-week-old) spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto wild-type controls. Systolic and pulse pressures were significantly increased in young spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared with young Wistar-Kyoto rats, and these continued to rise in old spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared with age-matched controls. Excised aortic ring segments exhibited significantly greater elastic moduli in both young and old spontaneously hypertensive rats versus Wistar-Kyoto rats. were isolated from the thoracic aorta, and stiffness and adhesion to fibronectin were measured by atomic force microscopy. Hypertension increased both vascular smooth muscle cell stiffness and vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion, and these increases were both augmented with aging. By contrast, hypertension did not affect histological measures of aortic collagen and elastin, which were predominantly changed by aging. These findings support the concept that stiffness and adhesive properties of vascular smooth muscle cells are novel mechanisms contributing to the increased aortic stiffness occurring with hypertension superimposed on aging. PMID:25452471

  12. Preliminary investigation of the mechanisms underlying the effects of manipulation: exploration of a multi-variate model including spinal stiffness, multifidus recruitment, and clinical findings

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Julie M.; Koppenhaver, Shane L.; Kawchuk, Gregory N.; Teyhen, Deydre S.; Hebert, Jeffrey J.; Childs, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Prospective case series. Objective Examine spinal stiffness in subjects with low back pain (LBP) receiving spinal manipulative therapy (SMT), evaluate associations between stiffness characteristics and clinical outcome, and explore a multi-variate model of SMT mechanisms as related to effects on stiffness, lumbar multifidus (LM) recruitment and status on a clinical prediction rule (CPR) for SMT outcomes. Summary of Background Data Mechanisms underlying the clinical effects of SMT are poorly understood. Many explanations have been proposed, but few studies have related potential mechanisms to clinical outcomes or considered multiple mechanisms concurrently. Methods Subjects with LBP were treated with 2 SMT sessions over 1 week. CPR status was assessed at baseline. Clinical outcome was based on the Oswestry disability index (ODI). Mechanized indentation measures of spinal stiffness and ultrasonic measures of LM recruitment were taken before and after each SMT, and after 1 week. Global and terminal stiffness were calculated. Multivariate regression was used to evaluate the relationship between stiffness variables and percentage ODI improvement. Zero-order correlations among stiffness variables, LM recruitment changes, CPR status, and clinical outcome were examined. Path analysis was used to evaluate a multi-variate model of SMT effects. Results Forty-eight subjects (54% female) had complete stiffness data. Significant immediate decreases in global and terminal stiffness occurred post-SMT regardless of outcome. ODI improvement was related to greater immediate decrease in global stiffness (p=0.025), and less initial terminal stiffness (p=0.01). Zero-order correlations and path analysis supported a multi-variate model suggesting clinical outcome of SMT is mediated by improvements in LM recruitment and immediate decrease in global stiffness. Initial terminal stiffness and CPR status may relate to outcome though their relationship with LM recruitment. Conclusions The underlying mechanisms explaining the benefits of SMT appear to be multi-factorial. Both spinal stiffness characteristics and LM recruitment changes appear to play a role. PMID:21358568

  13. Localization to, and Effects of Pbp1, Pbp4, Lsm12, Dhh1, and Pab1 on Stress Granules in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kylie D. Swisher; Roy Parker

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of translation and mRNA degradation in eukaryotic cells involves the formation of cytoplasmic mRNP granules referred to as P-bodies and stress granules. The yeast Pbp1 protein and its mammalian ortholog, Ataxin-2, localize to stress granules and promote their formation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pbp1 also interacts with the Pab1, Lsm12, Pbp4, and Dhh1 proteins. In this work, we determined

  14. Nanoscale directional motion towards regions of stiffness.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tienchong; Zhang, Hongwei; Guo, Zhengrong; Guo, Xingming; Gao, Huajian

    2015-01-01

    How to induce nanoscale directional motion via some intrinsic mechanisms pertaining to a nanosystem remains a challenge in nanotechnology. Here we show via molecular dynamics simulations that there exists a fundamental driving force for a nanoscale object to move from a region of lower stiffness toward one of higher stiffness on a substrate. Such nanoscale directional motion is induced by the difference in effective van der Waals potential energy due to the variation in stiffness of the substrate; i.e., all other conditions being equal, a nanoscale object on a stiffer substrate has lower van der Waals potential energy. This fundamental law of nanoscale directional motion could lead to promising routes for nanoscale actuation and energy conversion. PMID:25615480

  15. Strain redistribution in the canine femur resulting from hip implants of different stiffnesses.

    PubMed

    Szivek, J A; Magee, F P; Hanson, T; Hedley, A K

    1994-01-01

    Bone remodeling adjacent to orthopedic implants has been attributed to bone strain changes. Although many animal studies have assessed bone remodeling near implants, the altered bone strains and even the strains in the intact bone prior to implantation have not been mapped extensively. Instead, bone changes are often correlated with implant stiffnesses. In this study, a benchtop loading system was developed using measurements from in vivo strain analysis to simulate physiologic loading of a canine femur. The effect on bone strains of three different stiffness canine hip implants with the same anatomic shape were compared by taking measurements from the proximal greyhound femur during loading. Peak compressive and tensile strains of the order of 200 to 400 microstrain were measured in the intact and implanted femora. The measurements indicate that during simulated in vivo loading, none of the implants substantially alter the normal strain state of the bone. If initial axial strains significantly affect the remodeling response of bone, the similarity of measurements with the different implants in place suggests that the same remodeling response would be expected to both the stiffest and least stiff implant, as has been noted in animal studies adjacent to the intermediate stiffness implant. It also suggests that this implant shape and initial bone implant interface condition can compensate for strain reductions expected near stiff straight-stemmed implants. PMID:8049183

  16. U7 snRNP-specific Lsm11 protein: dual binding contacts with the 100 kDa zinc finger processing factor (ZFP100) and a ZFP100-independent function in histone RNA 3? end processing

    PubMed Central

    Azzouz, Teldja N.; Gruber, Andreas; Schümperli, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The 3? cleavage generating non-polyadenylated animal histone mRNAs depends on the base pairing between U7 snRNA and a conserved histone pre-mRNA downstream element. This interaction is enhanced by a 100 kDa zinc finger protein (ZFP100) that forms a bridge between an RNA hairpin element upstream of the processing site and the U7 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP). The N-terminus of Lsm11, a U7-specific Sm-like protein, was shown to be crucial for histone RNA processing and to bind ZFP100. By further analysing these two functions of Lsm11, we find that Lsm11 and ZFP100 can undergo two interactions, i.e. between the Lsm11 N-terminus and the zinc finger repeats of ZFP100, and between the N-terminus of ZFP100 and the Sm domain of Lsm11, respectively. Both interactions are not specific for the two proteins in vitro, but the second interaction is sufficient for a specific recognition of the U7 snRNP by ZFP100 in cell extracts. Furthermore, clustered point mutations in three phylogenetically conserved regions of the Lsm11 N-terminus impair or abolish histone RNA processing. As these mutations have no effect on the two interactions with ZFP100, these protein regions must play other roles in histone RNA processing, e.g. by contacting the pre-mRNA or additional processing factors. PMID:15824063

  17. Elastic Stiffness of a Skyrmion Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nii, Y.; Kikkawa, A.; Taguchi, Y.; Tokura, Y.; Iwasa, Y.

    2014-12-01

    We observe the elastic stiffness and ultrasonic absorption of a Skyrmion crystal in the chiral-lattice magnet MnSi. The Skyrmion crystal lattice exhibits a stiffness 3 orders of magnitude smaller than that of the atomic lattice of MnSi, being as soft as the flux line lattice in type-II superconductors. The observed anisotropic elastic responses are consistent with the cylindrical shape of the Skyrmion spin texture. Phenomenological analysis reveals that the spin-orbit coupling is responsible for the emergence of anisotropic elasticity in the Skyrmion lattice.

  18. Basic study of intrinsic elastography: Relationship between tissue stiffness and propagation velocity of deformation induced by pulsatile flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Ryo; Iwasaki, Ryosuke; Arakawa, Mototaka; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro; Saijo, Yoshifumi

    2015-07-01

    We proposed an estimation method for a tissue stiffness from deformations induced by arterial pulsation, and named this proposed method intrinsic elastography (IE). In IE, assuming that the velocity of the deformation propagation in tissues is closely related to the stiffness, the propagation velocity (PV) was estimated by spatial compound ultrasound imaging with a high temporal resolution of 1 ms. However, the relationship between tissue stiffness and PV has not been revealed yet. In this study, the PV of the deformation induced by the pulsatile pump was measured by IE in three different poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) phantoms of different stiffnesses. The measured PV was compared with the shear wave velocity (SWV) measured by shear wave imaging (SWI). The measured PV has trends similar to the measured SWV. These results obtained by IE in a healthy male show the possibility that the mechanical properties of living tissues could be evaluated by IE.

  19. Mental stress response, arterial stiffness, and baroreflex sensitivity in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Lipman, Ruth D; Grossman, Paul; Bridges, Sarah E; Hamner, J W; Taylor, J Andrew

    2002-07-01

    This study examined the relationship of pressor responses during mental stress to arterial stiffness and baroreflex sensitivity. Hemodynamic responses of 24 healthy individuals (51-86 years old) to two mental stress tasks (math and speech) were compared with common carotid artery mechanical stiffness and autonomic nervous system regulation of blood pressure as measured by using the modified Oxford technique. At the ages studied, no effect of age on stress task responsiveness, carotid stiffness, or baroreflex sensitivity was observed. Carotid stiffness and baroreflex sensitivity demonstrated a strong inverse relation. Change in heart rate during the speech task was correlated with arterial stiffness, and the increase in mean arterial pressure was associated with carotid stiffness and was inversely correlated to baroreflex sensitivity. These associations suggest that acute hemodynamic reactions to mental stress among healthy adults are determined, in part, by structural properties of arterial vessels and sensitivity of arterial baroreflex. These observations may provide a mechanistic link between the physiology of cardiovascular reactivity to stress and risk of cardiovascular events in middle-aged and older individuals. PMID:12084798

  20. Topography compensation for haptization of a mesh object and its stiffness distribution.

    PubMed

    Yim, Sunghoon; Jeon, Seokhee; Choi, Seungmoon

    2015-01-01

    This work was motivated by the need for perceptualizing nano-scale scientific data, e.g., those acquired by a scanning probe microscope, where collocated topography and stiffness distribution of a surface can be measured. Previous research showed that when the topography of a surface with spatially varying stiffness is rendered using the conventional penalty-based haptic rendering method, the topography perceived by the user could be significantly distorted from its original model. In the worst case, a higher region with a smaller stiffness value can be perceived to be lower than a lower region with a larger stiffness value. This problem was explained by the theory of force constancy: the user tends to maintain an invariant contact force when s/he strokes the surface to perceive its topography. In this paper, we present a haptization algorithm that can render the shape of a mesh surface and its stiffness distribution with high perceptual accuracy. Our algorithm adaptively changes the surface topography on the basis of the force constancy theory to deliver adequate shape information to the user while preserving the stiffness perception. We also evaluated the performance of the proposed haptization algorithm in comparison to the constraint-based algorithm by examining relevant proximal stimuli and carrying out a user experiment. Results demonstrated that our algorithm could improve the perceptual accuracy of shape and reduce the exploration time, thereby leading to more accurate and efficient haptization. PMID:25794366

  1. Local dynamic stability of spine muscle activation and stiffness patterns during repetitive lifting.

    PubMed

    Graham, Ryan B; Brown, Stephen H M

    2014-12-01

    To facilitate stable trunk kinematics, humans must generate appropriate motor patterns to effectively control muscle force and stiffness and respond to biomechanical perturbations and/or neuromuscular control errors. Thus, it is important to understand physiological variables such as muscle force and stiffness, and how these relate to the downstream production of stable spine and trunk movements. This study was designed to assess the local dynamic stability of spine muscle activation and rotational stiffness patterns using Lyapunov analyses, and relationships to the local dynamic stability of resulting spine kinematics, during repetitive lifting and lowering at varying combinations of lifting load and rate. With an increase in the load lifted at a constant rate there was a trend for decreased local dynamic stability of spine muscle activations and the muscular contributions to spine rotational stiffness; although the only significant change was for the full state space muscle activation stability (p < 0.05). With an increase in lifting rate with a constant load there was a significant decrease in the local dynamic stability of spine muscle activations and the muscular contributions to spine rotational stiffness (p ? 0.001 for all measures). These novel findings suggest that the stability of motor inputs and the muscular contributions to spine rotational stiffness can be altered by external task demands (load and lifting rate), and therefore are important variables to consider when assessing the stability of the resulting kinematics. PMID:25322265

  2. A novel magnetorheological elastomer isolator with negative changing stiffness for vibration reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Sun, S. S.; Du, H.; Li, W. H.; Alici, G.; Deng, H. X.

    2014-10-01

    Magneto-rheological elastomers (MREs) have attracted notable credits in the development of smart isolators and absorbers due to their controllable stiffness and damping properties. For the purpose of mitigating unwanted structural and/or machinery vibrations, the traditional MRE-based isolators have been generally proven effective because the MR effect can increase the stiffness when the magnetic field is strengthened. This study presents a novel MRE isolator that experienced reduced stiffness when the applied current was increased. This innovative work was accomplished by applying a hybrid magnet (electromagnet and permanent magnets) onto a multilayered MRE structure. To characterise this negative changing stiffness concept, a multilayered MRE isolator with a hybrid magnet was first designed, fabricated and then tested to measure its properties. An obvious reduction of the effective stiffness and natural frequency of the proposed MRE isolator occurred when the current was continuously adjusted. This device could also work as a conventional MRE isolator as its effective stiffness and natural frequency also increased when a negative current was applied. Further testing was carried out on a one-degree-of-freedom system to assess how effectively this device could isolate vibration. In this experiment, two cases were considered; in each case, the vibration of the primary system was obviously attenuated under ON-OFF control logic, thus demonstrating the feasibility of this novel design as an alternative adaptive vibration isolator.

  3. Substrate stiffness regulates cellular uptake of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Changjin; Butler, Peter J; Tong, Sheng; Muddana, Hari S; Bao, Gang; Zhang, Sulin

    2013-04-10

    Nanoparticle (NP)-bioconjugates hold great promise for more sensitive disease diagnosis and more effective anticancer drug delivery compared with existing approaches. A critical aspect in both applications is cellular internalization of NPs, which is influenced by NP properties and cell surface mechanics. Despite considerable progress in optimization of the NP-bioconjugates for improved targeting, the role of substrate stiffness on cellular uptake has not been investigated. Using polyacrylamide (PA) hydrogels as model substrates with tunable stiffness, we quantified the relationship between substrate stiffness and cellular uptake of fluorescent NPs by bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). We found that a stiffer substrate results in a higher total cellular uptake on a per cell basis, but a lower uptake per unit membrane area. To obtain a mechanistic understanding of the cellular uptake behavior, we developed a thermodynamic model that predicts that membrane spreading area and cell membrane tension are two key factors controlling cellular uptake of NPs, both of which are modulated by substrate stiffness. Our experimental and modeling results not only open up new avenues for engineering NP-based cancer cell targets for more effective in vivo delivery but also contribute an example of how the physical environment dictates cellular behavior and function. PMID:23484640

  4. On the numerical solution of stiff systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuran Guzel; Mustafa Bayram

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we use power series method to solve stiff ordinary differential equations of the first order and an ordinary differential equation of any order by converting it into a system of differential of the order one. Theoretical considerations has been discussed and some examples were presented to show the ability of the method for linear and nonlinear systems

  5. Exploiting Variable Stiffness in Explosive Movement Tasks

    E-print Network

    Vijayakumar, Sethu

    Exploiting Variable Stiffness in Explosive Movement Tasks David J. Braun, Matthew Howard and Sethu actuation is advantageous to robot control once high-performance, explosive tasks, such as throwing, hitting highly dynamic, explosive movements. Such movements are characterised by a large release of energy over

  6. [Anaesthetic management of Stiff Man syndrome].

    PubMed

    Marín, T; Hernando, D; Kinast, N; Churruca, I; Sabate, S

    2015-04-01

    Stiff Man syndrome or stiff-person syndrome is a rare autoimmune disorder. It is characterized by increased axial muscular tone and limb musculature, and painful spasms triggered by stimulus. The case is presented of a 44-year-old man with stiff-person syndrome undergoing an injection of botulinum toxin in the urethral sphincter under sedation. Before induction, all the surgical team were ready in order to minimise the anaesthetic time. The patient was monitored by continuous ECG, SpO2 and non-invasive blood pressure. He was induced with fractional dose of propofol 150 mg, fentanyl 50 ?g and midazolam 1mg. Despite careful titration, the patient had an O2 saturation level of 90%,which was resolved by manual ventilation. There was no muscle rigidity or spasm during the operation. Post-operative recovery was uneventful and the patient was discharged 2 days later. A review of other cases is presented. The anaesthetic concern in patients with stiff-person syndrome is the interaction between the anaesthetic agents, the preoperative medication, and the GABA system. For a safe anaesthetic management, total intravenous anaesthesia is recommended instead of inhalation anaesthetics, as well as the close monitoring of the respiratory function and the application of the electrical nerve stimulator when neuromuscular blockers are used. PMID:25060949

  7. Diamond's elastic stiffnesses from 322 K to 10 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliori, Albert; Ledbetter, Hassel; Leisure, Robert G.; Pantea, C.; Betts, J. B.

    2008-09-01

    Using resonant-ultrasound spectroscopy, we measured diamond's monocrystal elastic-stiffness coefficients C11, C12, and C44, between 322 and 10 K. Changes are small and smooth: The bulk modulus B =(C11+2C12)/3 increases about 1 part in 1000, describable by a quasiharmonic Einstein-oscillator model. Zero-temperature Cij correspond to a 2244-K Debye characteristic temperature. Using a low-temperature form of the Grüneisen-Debye model, we calculated an overall thermodynamic Grüneisen parameter of ? =1.26; using a high-temperature form we calculated 0.71; the lattice specific heat yields ? =1.10.

  8. Assessment of passive knee stiffness and viscosity in individuals with spinal cord injury using pendulum test.

    PubMed

    Joghtaei, Mahmoud; Arab, Amir Massoud; Hashemi-Nasl, Hamed; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Tokhi, Mohammad Osman

    2015-03-01

    Objective Stiffness and viscosity represent passive resistances to joint motion related with the structural properties of the joint tissue and of the musculotendinous complex. Both parameters can be affected in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this study was to measure passive knee stiffness and viscosity in patients with SCI with paraplegia and healthy subjects using Wartenberg pendulum test. Design Non-experimental, cross-sectional, case-control design. Setting An outpatient physical therapy clinic, University of social welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Iran. Patients A sample of convenience sample of 30 subjects participated in the study. Subjects were categorized into two groups: individuals with paraplegic SCI (n = 15, age: 34.60 ± 9.18 years) and 15 able-bodied individuals as control group (n = 15, age: 30.66 ± 11.13 years). Interventions Not applicable. Main measures Passive pendulum test of Wartenberg was used to measure passive viscous-elastic parameters of the knee (stiffness, viscosity) in all subjects. Results Statistical analysis (independent t-test) revealed significant difference in the joint stiffness between healthy subjects and those with paraplegic SCI (P = 0.01). However, no significant difference was found in the viscosity between two groups (P = 0.17). Except for first peak flexion angle, all other displacement kinematic parameters exhibited no statistically significant difference between normal subjects and subjects with SCI. Conclusions Patients with SCI have significantly greater joint stiffness compared to able-bodied subjects. PMID:25437824

  9. Scaling of Fluid Flow and Seismic Stiffness of Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovitch, C.; Nolte, D.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    A firm understanding of the relationship between the hydraulic and mechanical properties of fractures has been long sought. Seismic techniques probe the mechanical properties of fractures, e.g. fracture specific stiffness. Providing a connection between fluid flow and fracture stiffness would enable remote estimation of the flow properties in the subsurface. Linking theses two properties would improve society's ability to assess the risk related to the extraction of drinkable water, oil production, and the storage of CO2 in subsurface reservoirs. This relationship is complicated because the subsurface is composed of a hierarchy of structures and processes that span a large range of length and time scales. A scaling approach enables researchers to translate laboratory measurements towards the field scale and vise a versa. We performed a computational study of the scaling of the flow-stiffness relationship for planar fractures with uncorrelated aperture distributions. Three numerical models were required to study the scaling properties of the flow-stiffness relationship for single fractures. Firstly, the fracture topologies where constructed using a stratified continuum percolation method. Only uncorrelated fracture geometries were considered to provide a baseline of understanding for the different interacting critical thresholds occurring in the hydraulic and mechanical properties. Secondly, fracture stiffness was calculated by modeling the deformation of asperities and a deformable half space. This model computed the displacement-stress curves for a given fracture, from which the stiffness was extracted. Thirdly, due to the sensitive nature of the critical phenomena associated with fluid flow through fractures, two network flow models were used for verification. The fractures were first modeled as a network of elliptical pipes and the corresponding linear system of equations was solved. The second method consisted of using a lattice grid network, where the flow is computed using the "cubic law." Fractures were generated at five sizes (1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, and 0.0625m) to provide an order of magnitude variation. Each fracture was constructed such that the contact area ranged from approximately 5% to 30%. The rocks were given the properties of granite and stressed to a maximum load of 70MPa. The deformation solver was given 50 steps to reach the final load so that its flow rate could be monitored during each loading step. The results clearly showed a dependence on scale. Under low loads flow-stiffness was in an effective medium regime. However as the load increased, a distinct scale dependence emerged. This occurs because as the load increases there is an overall increase in contact area, which in turn moves the flow dynamics into a critical regime. From this finite size scaling effect, we analyzed how the uncorrelated topologies length scales changed under load to compute the flow exponents for the system. Acknowledgments: Geosciences Research Program, Office of Basic Energy Sciences US Department of Energy (DE-FG02-09ER16022), the Geo-mathematical Imaging Group at Purdue University, and the Purdue Research Foundation.

  10. Passive Apaptive Damping for High Stiffness-low Mass Materials Incorporating Negative Stiffness Elements

    E-print Network

    Cha, Gene

    2013-11-07

    systems and structures. The material comprises three constituents: negative springs, positive springs, and damping elements. These components help achieve high stiffness with passive adaptive response over a frequency range. When applying sinusoidal loads...

  11. Design and characterization of tunable stiffness flexural bearings

    E-print Network

    Ramirez, Aaron Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Compressed flexures have a downwards-tunable stiffness in their compliant directions; their stiffness can theoretically be reduced by up to four orders of magnitude. The compression-stiffiness relation is linear for most ...

  12. WAVE OF STIFFNESS PROPAGATING ALONG THE SURFACE OF THE NEWT EGG DURING CLEAVAGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TSUYOSHI SAWAI; MITSUKI YONEDA

    1974-01-01

    Inthe eggs of the newt, Cynops (Triturus) pyrrhogaster, change in stiffness of the cortex was measured in various regions at the time of the cleavage .Measurements were per- formed by Mitchison andSwarm's cell elastimeter method with a modification, in which two fine pipettes were attached to the surface of one egg at the same time, in order to compare the

  13. Influences of tendon stiffness, joint stiffness, and electromyographic activity on jump performances using single joint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keitaro Kubo; Masanori Morimoto; Teruaki Komuro; Naoya Tsunoda; Hiroaki Kanehisa; Tetsuo Fukunaga

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the influences of tendon stiffness, joint stiffness, and electromyographic activity on\\u000a jump performances consisting of a single-joint movement. Twenty-four men performed three kinds of unilateral maximal jump\\u000a using only the ankle joint (squat jump: SJ; countermovement jump: CMJ; drop jump: DJ) on the sledge apparatus. The relative\\u000a differences in the jump height of CMJ

  14. Effects of weight loss and insulin reduction on arterial stiffness in the SAVE trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic arterial stiffness contributes to the negative health effects of obesity and insulin resistance, which include hypertension, stroke, and increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity are individually associated with improved central arterial stiffness; however, their combined effects on arterial stiffness are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine how insulin levels modify the improvements in arterial stiffness seen with weight loss in overweight and obese young adults. Methods To assess the effects of weight loss and decreased fasting insulin on vascular stiffness, we studied 339 participants in the Slow the Adverse Effects of Vascular Aging (SAVE) trial. At study entry, the participants were aged 20–45, normotensive, non-diabetic, and had a body-mass index of 25–39.9?kg/m2. Measures of pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the central (carotid-femoral (cfPWV)), peripheral (femoral-ankle (faPWV)), and mixed (brachial-ankle (baPWV)) vascular beds were collected at baseline and 6?months. The effects of 6-month change in weight and insulin on measures of PWV were estimated using multivariate regression. Results After adjustment for baseline risk factors and change in systolic blood pressure, 6-month weight loss and 6-month change in fasting insulin independently predicted improvement in baPWV but not faPWV or cfPWV. There was a significant interaction between 6-month weight change and change in fasting insulin when predicting changes in baPWV (p?stiffness. This improvement in vascular stiffness with weight loss and insulin declines may occur throughout the vasculature and may not be limited to individual vascular beds. Trial registration NCT00366990 PMID:22998737

  15. Human motor control consequences of thixotropic changes in muscular short-range stiffness.

    PubMed

    Axelson, H W; Hagbarth, K E

    2001-08-15

    1. The primary aim of the present study was to explore whether in healthy subjects the muscle contractions required for unrestrained voluntary wrist dorsiflexions are adjusted in strength to thixotropy-dependent variations in the short-range stiffness encountered in measurements of passive torque resistance to imposed wrist dorsiflexions. 2. After a period of rest, only the first movement in a series of passive wrist dorsiflexions of moderate amplitude exhibited clear signs of short-range stiffness in the torque response. During analogous types of voluntary movements, the extensor EMG during the first movement after rest showed a steep initial rise of activity, which apparently served to compensate for the short-range stiffness. 3. The passive torque resistance to minute repetitive wrist dorsiflexions (within the range of short-range stiffness) was markedly reduced after various types of mechanical agitation. During analogous low-amplitude voluntary wrist dorsiflexions the extensor EMG signals were weaker after than before agitation. 4. Mechanical agitation also led to enhancement of passive dorsiflexion movements induced by weak constant torque pulses. In an analogous way, the movement-generating capacity of weak voluntary extensor activations (as determined by EMG recordings) was greatly enhanced by mechanical agitation. 5. The signals from a force transducer probe pressed against the wrist flexor tendons--during passive wrist dorsiflexions--revealed short-range stiffness responses which highly resembled those observed in the torque measurements, suggesting that the latter to a large extent emanated from the stretched, relaxed flexor muscles. During repetitive stereotyped voluntary wrist dorsiflexions, a close correspondence was observed between the degree of short-range stiffness as sensed by the wrist flexor tension transducer and the strength of the initial extensor activation required for movement generation. 6. The results provide evidence that the central nervous system in its control of voluntary movements takes account of and compensates for the history-dependent degree of inherent short-range stiffness of the muscles antagonistic to the prime movers. PMID:11507177

  16. Stiffness Properties Of Laminated Graphite/Epoxy Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolbert, R. Noel

    1988-01-01

    Report discusses stiffnesses of cylindrical shells formed from composite graphite/epoxy laminates, as calculated from traditional composite-lamination theory. Shells evaluated for use as cases for solid-fuel rocket motors. Stiffness results compared with quasi-experimental stiffnesses developed from pressure tests of cylindrical bottles. Sensitivities of stiffnesses to variations in constituent materials and in geometric parameters examined with help of two computer programs, included in appendix to report.

  17. Stiffness analysis and experimental validation of robotic systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Carbone

    2011-01-01

    Stiffness can be considered of primary importance in order to guarantee the successful use of any robotic system for a given\\u000a task. Therefore, this paper proposes procedures for carrying out both numerical and experimental estimations of stiffness\\u000a performance for multibody robotic systems. The proposed numerical procedure is based on models with lumped parameters for\\u000a deriving the Cartesian stiffness matrix. Stiffness

  18. Active stiffness control of a manipulator in cartesian coordinates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kenneth Salisbury

    1980-01-01

    A method of actively controlling the apparent stiffness of a manipulator end effecter is presented. The approach allows the programmer to specify the three transnational and three rotational stiffness of a frame located arbitrarily in hand coordinates. Control of the nominal position of the hand then permits simultaneous position and force control. Stiffness may be changed under program control to

  19. The geometric stiffness of triangular composite-materials shell elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Gal; R. Levy

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of the geometric stiffness matrix for Newton type large rotation analysis of composite thin shell structures. The geometric stiffness matrix is derived from load perturbation of the discrete equilibrium equations of a given linear finite element formulation. The geometric stiffness matrix is extracted from the gradient, in global coordinates, of the element nodal

  20. A Modified Face Seal For Positive Film Stiffness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lipshitz; I. Etsion

    1978-01-01

    A modified face seal having a positive film stiffness is described and analyzed. The axial film stiffness is obtained by simply extending the seal nosepiece towards the shaft, thereby producing an annular clearance seal in series with the original face seal.Conditions for maximum film stiffness and pressure balance operation of the modified seal are derived. A comparison is made between

  1. Static stiffness modeling of a novel hybrid redundant robot machine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Li; Huapeng Wu; Heikki Handroos

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a modeling method to study the stiffness of a hybrid serial–parallel robot IWR (Intersector Welding Robot) for the assembly of ITER vacuum vessel. The stiffness matrix of the basic element in the robot is evaluated using matrix structural analysis (MSA); the stiffness of the parallel mechanism is investigated by taking account of the deformations of both hydraulic

  2. STIFFNESS SYNTHESIS OF A VARIABLE GEOMETRY PLANAR ROBOT

    E-print Network

    Simaan, Nabil

    STIFFNESS SYNTHESIS OF A VARIABLE GEOMETRY PLANAR ROBOT Nabil Simaan and Moshe Shoham Robotics, in which, three parameters of the stiffness matrix are controlled according to task requirements robot, Re-configurable, Stiffness Synthesis, Gröbner bases. 1. Introduction Robots are used to perform

  3. The Spatial Stiffness Matrix from Simple Stretched Springs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon M. Selig

    2000-01-01

    Looks at the stiffness matrix of some simple but very general systems of springs supporting a rigid body. The stiffness matrix is found by symbolically differentiating the potential function. After a short example attention turns to the general structure of the stiffness matrix and in particular the principal screws introduced by Ball (1900)

  4. A General Formulation for the Stiffness Matrix of Parallel Mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , numerous papers deal with the stiffness matrix (SM) of robotic manipu- lators (See section 2). HoweverA General Formulation for the Stiffness Matrix of Parallel Mechanisms Cyril Quennouelle Starting from the definition of a stiffness matrix, the authors present a new formula- tion

  5. Stiffness Analysis Of Multi-Chain Parallel Robotic Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anatoly Pashkevich; Damien Chablat; Philippe Wenger

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a new stiffness modelling method for multi-chain parallel robotic manipulators with flexible links and compliant actuating joints. In contrast to other works, the method involves a FEA-based link stiffness evaluation and employs a new solution strategy of the kinetostatic equations, which allows computing the stiffness matrix for singular postures and to take into account influence of the

  6. Stiffness Modeling for an Orthogonal 3-PUU Compliant Parallel Micromanipulator

    E-print Network

    Li, Yangmin

    Stiffness Modeling for an Orthogonal 3-PUU Compliant Parallel Micromanipulator Qingsong Xu-- The stiffness modeling for a compliant parallel manipulator (CPM) is very important since it provides a basis compliant element, the analytical stiffness model for a spatial CPM is established by a straightforward

  7. Stiffness Modeling of a Spatial 3-DOF Compliant Parallel Micromanipulator

    E-print Network

    Li, Yangmin

    Stiffness Modeling of a Spatial 3-DOF Compliant Parallel Micromanipulator Qingsong Xu and Yangmin@umac.mo Abstract-- The stiffness modeling for a compliant parallel manipulator (CPM) is very important since the compliance of each compliant element, which is then applied to stiffness modeling of the 3-PRC CPM

  8. STIFFNESS MAPPING OF PLANAR COMPLIANT PARALLEL MECHANISMS IN A

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    STIFFNESS MAPPING OF PLANAR COMPLIANT PARALLEL MECHANISMS IN A SERIAL ARRANGEMENT Hyun K. Jung of a mechanism having two planar compliant parallel mechanisms in a serial arrangement. The stiffness matrix of the mechanism. A numerical example is presented. Keywords: Stiffness matrix, compliant coupling, parallel

  9. An EKF-based approach for estimating leg stiffness during walking.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Diaz, Claudia; Menegaz, Henrique M; Bó, Antônio P L; Borges, Geovany A

    2013-01-01

    The spring-like behavior is an inherent condition for human walking and running. Since leg stiffness k(leg) is a parameter that cannot be directly measured, many techniques has been proposed in order to estimate it, most of them using force data. This paper intends to address this problem using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based on the Spring-Loaded Inverted Pendulum (SLIP) model. The formulation of the filter only uses as measurement information the Center of Mass (CoM) position and velocity, no a priori information about the stiffness value is known. From simulation results, it is shown that the EKF-based approach can generate a reliable stiffness estimation for walking. PMID:24111412

  10. Variable Stiffness Panel Structural Analyses With Material Nonlinearity and Correlation With Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Gurdal, Zafer

    2006-01-01

    Results from structural analyses of three tow-placed AS4/977-3 composite panels with both geometric and material nonlinearities are presented. Two of the panels have variable stiffness layups where the fiber orientation angle varies as a continuous function of location on the panel planform. One variable stiffness panel has overlapping tow bands of varying thickness, while the other has a theoretically uniform thickness. The third panel has a conventional uniform-thickness [plus or minus 45](sub 5s) layup with straight fibers, providing a baseline for comparing the performance of the variable stiffness panels. Parametric finite element analyses including nonlinear material shear are first compared with material characterization test results for two orthotropic layups. This nonlinear material model is incorporated into structural analysis models of the variable stiffness and baseline panels with applied end shortenings. Measured geometric imperfections and mechanical prestresses, generated by forcing the variable stiffness panels from their cured anticlastic shapes into their flatter test configurations, are also modeled. Results of these structural analyses are then compared to the measured panel structural response. Good correlation is observed between the analysis results and displacement test data throughout deep postbuckling up to global failure, suggesting that nonlinear material behavior is an important component of the actual panel structural response.

  11. An Integrated Indenter-ARFI Imaging System for Tissue Stiffness Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Liang; Palmeri, Mark L.; Bouchard, Richard R.; Nightingale, Roger W.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop and characterize an integrated indenter-ARFI (acoustic radiation force impulse) imaging system. This system is capable of acquiring matched datasets of ARFI images and stiffness profiles from ex vivo tissue samples, which will facilitate correlation of ARFI images of tissue samples with independently-characterized material properties. For large and homogeneous samples, the indenter can be used to measure the Young's moduli by using Boussinesq's solution for a load on the surface of a semi-infinite isotropic elastic medium. Experiments and finite element method (FEM) models were designed to determine the maximum indentation depth and minimum sample size for accurate modulus reconstruction using this solution. Applying these findings, indentation measurements were performed on three calibrated commercial tissue-mimicking phantoms and the results were in good agreement with the calibrated stiffness. For heterogeneous tissue samples, indentation can be used independently to characterize relative stiffness variation across the sample surface, which can then be used to validate the stiffness variation in registered ARFI images. Tests were performed on heterogeneous phantoms and freshly-excised colon cancer specimens to detect the relative stiffness and lesion sizes using the combined system. Normalized displacement curves across the lesion surface were calculated and compared. Good agreement of the lesion profiles was observed between indentation and ARFI imaging. PMID:18939611

  12. Stiffness matrix of manipulators with passive joints: computational aspects 1 Abstract--The paper focuses on stiffness matrix computation

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Stiffness matrix of manipulators with passive joints: computational aspects 1 Abstract--The paper focuses on stiffness matrix computation for manipulators with passive joints, compliant actuators of a robotic system. To evaluate stiffness properties, several methods can be applied such as Finite Element

  13. Nonlinear Decoupled Motion-Stiffness Control and Collision Detection/Reaction for the VSA-II Variable Stiffness Device

    E-print Network

    De Luca, Alessandro

    in robots with elastic joints of constant stiffness [15], [16]. For some instances of 1-dof arms]. More in general, two classes of multi-dof robots with variable joint stiffness have been consideredNonlinear Decoupled Motion-Stiffness Control and Collision Detection/Reaction for the VSA

  14. The effect of substrate stiffness, thickness, and cross-linking density on osteogenic cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Conleth A; Vaughan, Ted J; Billiar, Kristen L; McNamara, Laoise M

    2015-04-01

    Osteogenic cells respond to mechanical changes in their environment by altering their spread area, morphology, and gene expression profile. In particular, the bulk modulus of the substrate, as well as its microstructure and thickness, can substantially alter the local stiffness experienced by the cell. Although bone tissue regeneration strategies involve culture of bone cells on various biomaterial scaffolds, which are often cross-linked to enhance their physical integrity, it is difficult to ascertain and compare the local stiffness experienced by cells cultured on different biomaterials. In this study, we seek to characterize the local stiffness at the cellular level for MC3T3-E1 cells plated on biomaterial substrates of varying modulus, thickness, and cross-linking concentration. Cells were cultured on flat and wedge-shaped gels made from polyacrylamide or cross-linked collagen. The cross-linking density of the collagen gels was varied to investigate the effect of fiber cross-linking in conjunction with substrate thickness. Cell spread area was used as a measure of osteogenic differentiation. Finite element simulations were used to examine the effects of fiber cross-linking and substrate thickness on the resistance of the gel to cellular forces, corresponding to the equivalent shear stiffness for the gel structure in the region directly surrounding the cell. The results of this study show that MC3T3 cells cultured on a soft fibrous substrate attain the same spread cell area as those cultured on a much higher modulus, but nonfibrous substrate. Finite element simulations predict that a dramatic increase in the equivalent shear stiffness of fibrous collagen gels occurs as cross-linking density is increased, with equivalent stiffness also increasing as gel thickness is decreased. These results provide an insight into the response of osteogenic cells to individual substrate parameters and have the potential to inform future bone tissue regeneration strategies that can optimize the equivalent stiffness experienced by a cell. PMID:25863052

  15. Light weight high-stiffness stage platen

    DOEpatents

    Spence, Paul A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An improved light weight, stiff stage platen for photolithography is provided. The high stiffness of the stage platen is exemplified by a relatively high first resonant vibrational mode as determined, for instance, by finite element modal analysis. The stage platen can be employed to support a chuck that is designed to secure a mask or wafer. The stage platen includes a frame that has interior walls that define an interior region and that has exterior walls wherein the outer surfaces of at least two adjacent walls are reflective mirror surfaces; and a matrix of ribs within the interior region that is connected to the interior walls wherein the stage platen exhibits a first vibrational mode at a frequency of greater than about 1000 Hz.

  16. METHOD OF HYPERBOLIC SYSTEMS WITH STIFF RELAXATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. B. LOWRIE; J. E. MOREL

    2001-03-01

    Three methods are analyzed for solving a linear hyperbolic system that contains stiff relaxation. We show that the semi-discrete discontinuous Galerkin method, with a linear basis, is accurate when the relaxation time is unresolved (asymptotically preserving--AP). A recently developed central method is shown to be non-AP. To discriminate between AP and non-AP methods, we argue that one must study problems that are diffusion dominated.

  17. In vivo tibial stiffness is maintained by whole bone morphology and cross-sectional geometry in growing female mice

    PubMed Central

    Main, Russell P.; Lynch, Maureen E.; van der Meulen, Marjolein C.H.

    2010-01-01

    Whole bone morphology, cortical geometry, and tissue material properties modulate skeletal stresses and strains that in turn influence skeletal physiology and remodeling. Understanding how bone stiffness, the relationship between applied load and tissue strain, is regulated by developmental changes in bone structure and tissue material properties is important in implementing biophysical strategies for promoting healthy bone growth and preventing bone loss. The goal of this study was to relate developmental patterns of in vivo whole bone stiffness to whole bone morphology, cross-sectional geometry, and tissue properties using a mouse axial loading model. We measured in vivo tibial stiffness in three age groups (6wks, 10wks, 16wks old) of female C57Bl/6 mice during cyclic tibial compression. Tibial stiffness was then related to cortical geometry, longitudinal bone curvature, and tissue mineral density using microcomputed tomography (microCT). Tibial stiffness and the stresses induced by axial compression were generally maintained from 6 to 16wks of age. Growth-related increases in cortical cross-sectional geometry and longitudinal bone curvature had counteracting effects on induced bone stresses and, therefore, maintained tibial stiffness similarly with growth. Tissue mineral density increased slightly from 6 to 16wks of age, and although the effects of this increase on tibial stiffness were not directly measured, its role in the modulation of whole bone stiffness was likely minor over the age range examined. Thus, whole bone morphology, as characterized by longitudinal curvature, along with cortical geometry, plays an important role in modulating bone stiffness during development and should be considered when evaluating and designing in vivo loading studies and biophysical skeletal therapies. PMID:20673665

  18. Nonlinear effects on the stiffness of bolted joints

    SciTech Connect

    Lehnhoff, T.F. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Wistehuff, W.E. [General Motors Corp., Pontiac, MI (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Axisymmetric finite element modeling of bolted joints was performed to show the effects of the magnitude and position of the external load, member thickness, and member material on the bolt and member stiffnesses. The member stiffness of the bolted joint was found to decrease 10 to 42 percent for the 20-mm to 8-mm bolts, respectively, as the magnitude of the external load was increased. Member stiffness appears to be independent of the radial location of the external load and increases as the member thickness decreases. Member stiffness decreased by a factor of 2.5 to 3 with a change in the member material from steel to aluminum. The cast iron members had a decrease in member stiffness of a factor of 1.7 to 1.9. The aluminum over cast iron combination had a member stiffness between the aluminum and cast iron alone. Bolt stiffnesses varied by less than two percent for changes in the magnitude of the external load for all bolt sizes and member materials, except for the 8-mm bolt where stiffness increased by approximately 11 percent. Changes in radial position of the external load had no effect on the bolt stiffness. A 3 to 13-percent decrease in the bolt stiffness was found when changing from steel to aluminum members. A 2 to 3-percent bolt stiffness decrease resulted when the member material was changed from steel to cast iron and similarly from steel to the aluminum over cast iron combination.

  19. Ground-based measurements of soil water storage in Texas

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    :956-963 SAND Soil Water Storage (NLDAS) #12;Sensor Technologies and Scale Spatial Support LSM operate at >km2Ground-based measurements of soil water storage in Texas Todd Caldwell Bridget Scanlon Di Long it? How do we modeling it? How can we measure it? · Current technologies · What's in Texas What

  20. Characterization of the vocal fold vertical stiffness in a canine model

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Liran; Dembinski, Doug; Gutmark, Ephraim; Khosla, Sid

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Characterizing the vertical stiffness gradient that exists between the superior and inferior aspects of the medial surface of the vocal fold. Characterization of this stiffness gradient could elucidate the mechanism behind the divergent glottal shape observed during closing. Study Design Basic science. Methods Indentation testing of the folds was done in a canine model. Stress-strain curves are generated using a customized load-cell and the differential Young's modulus is calculated as a function of strain. Results Results from 11 larynges show that stress increases as a function of strain more rapidly in the inferior aspect of the fold. The calculations for local Young's modulus show that at high strain values a stiffness gradient is formed between the superior and inferior aspects of the fold. Conclusions For small strain values, which are observed at low subglottal pressures, the stiffness of the tissue is similar in both the superior and inferior aspects of the vocal fold. Consequently, the lateral force that is applied by the glottal flow at both aspects results in almost identical displacements, yielding no divergence angle. Conversely, at higher strain values, which are measured in high subglottal pressure, the inferior aspect of the vocal fold is much stiffer than the superior edge; thus any lateral force that is applied at both aspects will result in a much greater displacement of the superior edge, yielding a large divergence angle. The increased stiffness observed at the inferior edge could be due to the proximity of the conus elasticus. PMID:24495431

  1. The effect of sprung (suspended) floors on leg stiffness during grand jeté landings in ballet.

    PubMed

    Hackney, James; Brummel, Sara; Jungblut, Kara; Edge, Carissa

    2011-09-01

    This study compared stiffness of the landing leg in ballet dancers performing grand jeté on a sprung floor to leg stiffness during the same movement on a hard floor (wood on concrete). Leg stiffness was calculated as the ratio of vertical ground reaction force (in Newtons) to compression of the lower limb (in meters). Thirteen female dancers were measured for five repetitions each at the point of maximum leg compression while landing grand jeté on both of the surfaces, such that 20 milliseconds of data were represented for each trial. The stiffness of the landing leg at the point of maximum compression was decreased by a mean difference score of 6168.0 N/m ± 11,519.5 N/m on the hard floor compared to the sprung floor. Paired t-test yielded a one-tailed probability of p = 0.038. This effect was seen in 11 of the 13 participants. The finding of increased stiffness of the landing leg in the sprung floor condition suggests that some of the force of landing the leap was absorbed by the surface, and therefore did not need to be absorbed by the landing leg itself. This in turn implies that a sprung dance floor may help to prevent dance-related injuries. PMID:22040759

  2. Modeling of nonlinear complex stiffness of dual-chamber pneumatic spring for precision vibration isolations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Joon

    2007-04-01

    Dual-chamber pneumatic springs are widely in the vibration isolation systems for precision instruments such as optical devices or nano-scale equipments owing to their superior stiffness- and damping-characteristics. In order to facilitate their design optimization or active control, a more accurate mathematical model or complex stiffness is needed. So far nonlinearities have not been dealt with. Experimental results we obtained rigorously for a dual-chamber pneumatic spring exhibit significantly amplitude dependent nonlinear behavior, which cannot be described by linear models in earlier researches. In this paper, an improvement for the complex stiffness model is presented by taking two major considerations. One is to consider the amplitude-dependent complex stiffness of diaphragm necessarily employed for prevention of air leakage. The other is to use a dynamic model for oscillating flow in capillary tube connecting the two pneumatic chambers instead of unidirectional flow model. The proposed nonlinear complex stiffness model, which reflects dependency on both frequency and excitation amplitude is shown to be very valid by comparison with the experimental measurements. Such an accurate nonlinear model for the dual-chamber pneumatic springs would contribute to more effective design or control of vibration isolation systems.

  3. Targeting Fold Stiffness to Design Enhanced Origami Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskohl, Philip; Bazzan, Giorgio; Abbott, Andrew; Durstock, Michael; Vaia, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Structures with adaptive geometry are increasingly of interest for actuation, sensing and packaging applications. Origami structures, by definition, can ``shape-shift'' between multiple geometric configurations that are predefined by a pattern of folds. Plastic deformation and local failure at the fold lines transform an originally homogenous material into a grid with locally tailored mechanical properties that bias the response of the overall structure to external loading. Typically, origami structures focus on uniformly stiff fold lines with rigid facets. In this study, we discuss how localized variations in stiffness can influence global properties, including energy budget to transition from flat to folded structure, the preferred path through configuration space, and the final mechanical response of the folded architecture. A simple, bi-stable origami fold pattern is laser machined into polypropylene sheets of different compliance and the critical load of the transition is measured. We model the structure as a truss with bar elongation, folding, and facet bending in order to predict ways to enhance or mitigate the critical load. Targeting local folding properties to modify global performance directly extends to the analysis of more complex architectures.

  4. Optical imaging of resting-state functional connectivity in a novel arterial stiffness model

    PubMed Central

    Guevara, Edgar; Sadekova, Nataliya; Girouard, Hélène; Lesage, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of unilateral increases in carotid stiffness on cortical functional connectivity measures in the resting state. Using a novel animal model of induced arterial stiffness combined with optical intrinsic signals and laser speckle imaging, resting state functional networks derived from hemodynamic signals are investigated for their modulation by isolated changes in stiffness of the right common carotid artery. By means of seed-based analysis, results showed a decreasing trend of homologous correlation in the motor and cingulate cortices. Furthermore, a graph analysis indicated a randomization of the cortex functional networks, suggesting a loss of connectivity, more specifically in the motor cortex lateral to the treated carotid, which however did not translate in differentiated metabolic activity. PMID:24298398

  5. Dynamic Stiffness and Damping Characteristics of a High-Temperature Air Foil Journal Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.; Prahl, Joseph M.; Heshmat, Hooshang

    2001-01-01

    Using a high-temperature optically based displacement measurement system, a foil air bearing's stiffness and damping characteristics were experimentally determined. Results were obtained over a range of modified Sommerfeld Number from 1.5E6 to 1.5E7, and at temperatures from 25 to 538 C. An Experimental procedure was developed comparing the error in two curve fitting functions to reveal different modes of physical behavior throughout the operating domain. The maximum change in dimensionless stiffness was 3.0E-2 to 6.5E-2 over the Sommerfeld Number range tested. Stiffness decreased with temperature by as much as a factor of two from 25 to 538 C. Dimensionless damping was a stronger function of Sommerfeld Number ranging from 20 to 300. The temperature effect on damping being more qualitative, showed the damping mechanism shifted from viscous type damping to frictional type as temperature increased.

  6. Active tactile sensing of stiffness and surface condition using balloon expansion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Tanaka; Kazuki Doumoto; Akihito Sano; Hideo Fujimoto

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a tactile sensor that is friendly to body tissue and measure stiffness and surface conditions such as sliminess. Active tactile sensing by balloon expansion using fluid is proposed. A balloon is contacted with an object and expanded by using fluid. Sensing mechanism is discussed through observation of the balloon expansion and theoretical analysis. Experiments

  7. APOE polymorphism is associated with lipid profile, but not with arterial stiffness in the general population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael O Alvim; Silvia RS Freitas; Noely E Ferreira; Paulo CJL Santos; Roberto S Cunha; José G Mill; José E Krieger; Alexandre C Pereira

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of death and disability in developed countries. In most cases, the progress of CVD is influenced by environmental factors and multifactorial inheritance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between APOE genotypes, cardiovascular risk factors, and a non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness in the Brazilian population. METHODS: A total

  8. Optimized movement trajectories and joint stiffness in unperturbed, inertially loaded movements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Hasan

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to integrate theoretically the mechanical, electromyographic, and psychophysical lines of inquiry into the control of movement by investigating the significance of joint stiffness in the reduction of effort. Attention is focused on single-joint, unperturbed movements of specified duration performed from one specified position to another in the presence of an inertial load. A theoretical measure of

  9. In Vivo Determination of Hepatic Stiffness Using Steady-State Free Precession Magnetic Resonance Elastography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter Klatt; Patrick Asbach; Jens Rump; Sebastian Papazoglou; Rajan Somasundaram; Jens Modrow; Ingolf Sack

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to introduce an magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) protocol based on fractional motion encoding and planar wave acquisition for rapid measurements of in vivo human liver stiffness. Materials and Methods: Vibrations of a remote actuator membrane were fed by a rigid rod to the patient's surface beneath the right costal arch resulting in axial

  10. Application of electro mechanical stiffness modulation in biomimetic hair flow sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Droogendijk; C. M. Bruinink; R. G. P. Sanders; G. J. M. Krijnen

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new electromechanical interfacing scheme to improve the low-frequency response of energy buffering type transducers. The method is based on periodic modulation of the stiffness in the sensory system which allows to up-convert the signals of interest to frequencies where measurement is less troubled by noise or other detrimental effects. We demonstrate this principle by means of capacitive

  11. Relation Between Coronary Artery Disease, Aortic Stiffness, and Left Ventricular Structure in a Population Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph D. Gatzka; James D. Cameron; Bronwyn A. Kingwell; Anthony M. Dart

    To elucidate the relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD), aortic stiffness, and left ventricular structure, we recruited 55 subjects (33 men; average age, 6361 years) with previously unknown CAD from a healthy general population sample, as well as 55 control subjects matched for gender, age, and serum cholesterol level. We measured arterial blood pressure and the systolic expansion of the

  12. Effect of end-ring stiffness on buckling of pressure-loaded stiffened conical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. C.; Williams, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Buckling studies were conducted on truncated 120 deg conical shells having large end rings and many interior reinforcing rings that are typical of aeroshells used as spacecraft decelerators. Changes in base-end-ring stiffness were accomplished by simply machining away a portion of the base ring between successive buckling tests. Initial imperfection measurements from the test cones were included in the analytical model.

  13. Ulnar and tibial bending stiffness as an index of bone strength in synchronized swimmers and gymnasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael T. C. Liang; Sara B. Arnaud; Charles R. Steele; Patrick Hatch; Alexjandro Moreno

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare a mechanical property of bone in world-class female athletes with different loading histories. Bone bending stiffness or EI (E is the modulus of elasticity and I, the moment of inertia) was measured noninvasively with the mechanical response tissue analyzer, that analyzes the response of bone to a vibratory stimulus. We evaluated the

  14. An improved spinning lens test to determine the stiffness of the human lens

    PubMed Central

    Burd, H.J.; Wilde, G.S.; Judge, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that age-related changes in lens stiffness are significant for the development of presbyopia. However, precise details on the relative importance of age-related changes in the stiffness of the lens, in comparison with other potential mechanisms for the development of presbyopia, have not yet been established. One contributing factor to this uncertainty is the paucity and variability of experimental data on lens stiffness. The available published data generally indicate that stiffness varies spatially within the lens and that stiffness parameters tend to increase with age. However, considerable differences exist between these published data sets, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The current paper describes new and improved methods, based on the spinning lens approach pioneered by Fisher, R.F. (1971) ‘The elastic constants of the human lens’, Journal of Physiology, 212, 147–180, to make measurements on the stiffness of the human lens. These new procedures have been developed in an attempt to eliminate, or at least substantially reduce, various systematic errors in Fisher’s original experiment. An improved test rig has been constructed and a new modelling procedure for determining lens stiffness parameters from observations made during the test has been devised. The experiment involves mounting a human lens on a vertical rotor so that the lens spins on its optical axis (typically at 1000 rpm). An automatic imaging system is used to capture the outline of the lens, while it is rotating, at pre-determined angular orientations. These images are used to quantify the deformations developed in the lens as a consequence of the centripetal forces induced by the rotation. Lens stiffness is inferred using axisymmetric finite element inverse analysis in which a nearly-incompressible neo-Hookean constitutive model is used to represent the mechanics of the lens. A numerical optimisation procedure is used to determine the stiffness parameters that provide a best fit between the finite element model and the experimental data. Sample results are presented for a human lens of age 33 years. PMID:21040722

  15. Mapping stiffness perception in the brain with an fMRI-compatible particle-jamming haptic interface.

    PubMed

    Menon, Samir; Stanley, Andrew A; Zhu, Jack; Okamura, Allison M; Khatib, Oussama

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate reliable neural responses to changes in haptic stiffness perception using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) compatible particle-jamming haptic interface. Our haptic interface consists of a silicone tactile surface whose stiffness we can control by modulating air-pressure in a sub-surface pouch of coarsely ground particles. The particles jam together as the pressure decreases, which stiffens the surface. During fMRI acquisition, subjects performed a constant probing task, which involved continuous contact between the index fingertip and the interface and rhythmic increases and decreases in fingertip force (1.6 Hz) to probe stiffness. Without notifying subjects, we randomly switched the interface's stiffness (switch time, 300-500 ms) from soft (200 N/m) to hard (1400 N/m). Our experiment design's constant motor activity and cutaneous tactile sensation helped disassociate neural activation for both from stiffness perception, which helped localized it to a narrow region in somatosensory cortex near the supra-marginal gyrus. Testing different models of neural activation, we found that assuming indepedent stiffness-change responses at both soft-hard and hard-soft transitions provides the best explanation for observed fMRI measurements (three subjects; nine four-minute scan runs each). Furthermore, we found that neural activation related to stiffness-change and absolute stiffness can be localized to adjacent but disparate anatomical locations. We also show that classical finger-tapping experiments activate a swath of cortex and are not suitable for localizing stiffness perception. Our results demonstrate that decorrelating motor and sensory neural activation is essential for characterizing somatosensory cortex, and establish particle-jamming haptics as an attractive low-cost method for fMRI experiments. PMID:25570387

  16. A comparison of muscle stiffness and musculoarticular stiffness of the knee joint in young athletic males and females.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; De Vito, Giuseppe; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Fong, Daniel T P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the gender-specific differences in peak torque (PT), muscle stiffness (MS) and musculoarticular stiffness (MAS) of the knee joints in a young active population. Twenty-two male and twenty-two female recreational athletes participated. PT of the knee joint extensor musculature was assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer, MS of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle was measured in both relaxed and contracted conditions, and knee joint MAS was quantified using the free oscillation technique. Significant gender differences were observed for all dependent variables. Females demonstrated less normalized PT (mean difference (MD)=0.4Nm/kg, p=0.005, ?(2)=0.17), relaxed MS (MD=94.2N/m, p<.001, ?(2)=0.53), contracted MS (MD=162.7N/m, p<.001, ?(2)=0.53) and MAS (MD=422.1N/m, p<.001, ?(2)=0.23) than males. MAS increased linearly with the external load in both genders with males demonstrating a significantly higher slope (p=0.019) than females. The observed differences outlined above may contribute to the higher knee joint injury incidence and prevalence in females when compared to males. PMID:25835773

  17. Tube width fluctuations of entangled stiff polymers

    E-print Network

    Jens Glaser; Klaus Kroy

    2011-09-29

    The tube-like cages of stiff polymers in entangled solutions have been shown to exhibit characteristic spatial heterogeneities. We explain these observations by a systematic theory generalizing previous work by D. Morse (Phys. Rev. E 63:031502, 2001). With a local version of the binary collision approximation (BCA), the distribution of confinement strengths is calculated, and the magnitude and the distribution function of tube radius fluctuations are predicted. Our main result is a unique scaling function for the tube radius distribution, in good agreement with experimental and simulation data.

  18. Effect of adherend material stiffness and geometrical stiffness on strength of adhesively bonded joints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyomi Mori; Hiroaki Isono; Toshio Sugibayashi

    1992-01-01

    The effect of adherend stiffness on the joint strength is examined by varying the adherend material and varying aspect ratio of the adherend dimension. The joint type used in this study is a stepped-lap bonded joint. The joint materials are three kinds of metals, carbon steel, brass and aluminum alloy, for the adherends and an epoxy resin for the adhesive.

  19. Vibration transmission through rolling element bearings, part I: Bearing stiffness formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, T. C.; Singh, R.

    1990-06-01

    Current bearing models, based on either ideal boundary condition or purely translational stiffness element description, cannot explain how the vibratory motion may be transmitted from the rotating shaft to the casing and other connecting structures in rotating mechanical equipment. For example, a vibration model of a rotating system based upon the existing bearing models can predict only the purely in-plane type motion on the flexible casing plate given only the bending motion on the shaft. However, experimental results have shown that the casing plate motion is primarily flexural or out-of-plane type. In this paper this issue is claridied quantitatively and qualitatively by developing a new mathematical model for the precision rolling element bearings from basic principles. A comprehensive bearing stiffness matrix [ K] bm of dimension six is proposed which clearly demonstrates a coupling between the shaft bending motion and the flexural motion on the casing plate. A numerical scheme which involves a solution of non-linear algebraic equations is proposed for the estimation of the stiffness coefficients given the mean bearing load vector. A second method which requires the direct evaluation of these stiffness coefficients given the mean bearing displacement vector is also discussed. Some of the translational stiffness coefficients of the proposed bearing matrix have been verified by using available analytical and experimental data. Further validation of [ K] bm is not possible as coupling coefficients are never measured. Also, parametric studies on the effect of unloaded contact angle, preload or bearing type are included. These results lead to a complete characterization of the bearing stiffness matrix. The theory is used to analyze vibration transmission properties in the companion paper, Part II.

  20. Properties of the Grasp Stiffness Matrix and Conservative Control Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inmin Kao; Chi Ngo

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present fundamental properties of stiffness matrices as applied in analysis of grasping and dextrous manipulation in configuration spaces and linear Euclidean R3×3 space without rotational components. A conservative-stiffness matrix in such spaces needs to satisfy both symmetric and exact differential criteria. Two types of stiffness matrices are discussed: constant and configuration-dependent matrices. The symmetric part of

  1. On the Stiffness and Stability of Gough-Stewart Platforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikhail M. Svinin; Shigeyuki Hosoe; Masaru Uchiyama

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with a class of parallel mechanisms, called Gough-Stewart platforms. For these mechanisms, pre-loaded by driving forces, the stiffness matrix is derived and its basic properties are established. It is shown when the stiffness matrix becomes asymmetric, how the parametric imbalance may influence the system stability, and how the center of stiffness depends on the force pre-loading. Next,

  2. Properties of the grasp stiffness matrix and conservative control strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kao; C. Ngo

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present fundamental properties of stiffness matrices as applied in analysis of grasping and dexterous manipulation in configuration spaces and linear Euclidean R{sup 3x3} space without rotational components. A conservative-stiffness matrix in such spaces needs to satisfy both symmetric and exact differential criteria. Two types of stiffness matrices are discussed: constant and configuration-dependent matrices are discussed:

  3. Stiffness Analysis Of Multi-Chain Parallel Robotic Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anatoly Pashkevich; Alexandr Klimchik; Damien Chablat; Philippe Wenger

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a new stiffness modelling method for multi-chain parallel\\u000arobotic manipulators with flexible links and compliant actuating joints. In\\u000acontrast to other works, the method involves a FEA-based link stiffness\\u000aevaluation and employs a new solution strategy of the kinetostatic equations,\\u000awhich allows computing the stiffness matrix for singular postures and to take\\u000ainto account influence of the

  4. STIFF: Converting Scientific FITS Images to TIFF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertin, Emmanuel

    2011-10-01

    STIFF is a program that converts scientific FITS1 images to the more popular TIFF2 format for illustration purposes. Most FITS readers and converters do not do a proper job at converting FITS image data to 8 bits. 8-bit images stored in JPEG, PNG or TIFF files have the intensities implicitely stored in a non-linear way. Most current FITS image viewers and converters provide the user an incorrect translation of the FITS image content by simply rescaling linearly input pixel values. A first consequence is that the people working on astronomical images usually have to apply narrow intensity cuts or square-root or logarithmic intensity transformations to actually see something on their deep-sky images. A less obvious consequence is that colors obtained by combining images processed this way are not consistent across such a large range of surface brightnesses. Though with other software the user is generally afforded a choice of nonlinear transformations to apply in order to make the faint stuff stand out more clearly in the images, with the limited selection of choices provides, colors will not be accurately rendered, and some manual tweaking will be necessary. The purpose of STIFF is to produce beautiful pictures in an automatic and consistent way.

  5. Modified face seal for positive film stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.; Lipshitz, A. (inventors)

    1981-01-01

    The film stiffness of a face seal is improved without increasing the sealing and dam area by using an apparatus which includes a primary seal ring in the form of a nose piece. A spring forces a sealing surface on the seal ring into sealing contact with a seat to form a face seal. A circumferential clearance seal is formed in series with this face seal by a lip on the piece. The width of the surface of the lip is substantially the same as the width of the sealing surface on the face seal and the clearance between the surface on the lip and the shaft is substantially the same as the spacing between the face sealing surfaces on the face seal when the shaft is rotating. The circumferential clearance seal restricts the flow of fluid from a main cavity to an intermediate cavity with a resulting pressure drop. The hydrostatic opening face is strongly dependent on the face seal clearance, and the desired axial stiffness is achieved.

  6. Towards ultra-stiff materials: Surface effects on nanoporous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Dingjie; Xie, Yi Min; Huang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Shiwei, E-mail: shiwei.zhou@rmit.edu.au [Centre for Innovative Structures and Materials, School of Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Li, Qing [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2014-09-08

    The significant rise in the strength and stiffness of porous materials at nanoscale cannot be described by conventional scaling laws. This letter investigates the effective Young's modulus of such materials by taking into account surface effect in a microcellular architecture designed for an ultralight material whose stiffness is an order of magnitude higher than most porous materials. We find that by considering the surface effects the predicted stiffness using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory compares well to experimental data for spongelike nanoporous gold with random microstructures. Analytical results show that, of the two factors influencing the effective Young's modulus, the residual stress is more important than the surface stiffness.

  7. Stiffness Analysis Of Multi-Chain Parallel Robotic Systems

    E-print Network

    Pashkevich, Anatoly; Wenger, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a new stiffness modelling method for multi-chain parallel robotic manipulators with flexible links and compliant actuating joints. In contrast to other works, the method involves a FEA-based link stiffness evaluation and employs a new solution strategy of the kinetostatic equations, which allows computing the stiffness matrix for singular postures and to take into account influence of the internal forces. The advantages of the developed technique are confirmed by application examples, which deal with stiffness analysis of the Orthoglide manipulator.

  8. Stiffness Analysis Of Multi-Chain Parallel Robotic Systems

    E-print Network

    Pashkevich, Anatoly; Chablat, Damien; Wenger, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a new stiffness modelling method for multi-chain parallel robotic manipulators with flexible links and compliant actuating joints. In contrast to other works, the method involves a FEA-based link stiffness evaluation and employs a new solution strategy of the kinetostatic equations, which allows computing the stiffness matrix for singular postures and to take into account influence of the external forces. The advantages of the developed technique are confirmed by application examples, which deal with stiffness analysis of a parallel manipulator of the Orthoglide family

  9. Study of flexible fin and compliant joint stiffness on propulsive performance: theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Kancharala, A K; Philen, M K

    2014-09-01

    The caudal fin is a major source of thrust generation in fish locomotion. Along with the fin stiffness, the stiffness of the joint connecting the fish body to the tail plays a major role in the generation of thrust. This paper investigates the combined effect of fin and joint flexibility on propulsive performance using theoretical and experimental studies. For this study, fluid-structure interaction of the fin has been modeled using the 2D unsteady panel method coupled with nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The compliant joint has been modeled as a torsional spring at the leading edge of the fin. A comparison of self-propelled speed and efficiency with parameters such as heaving and pitching amplitude, oscillation frequency, flexibility of the fin and the compliant joint is reported. The model also predicts the optimized stiffnesses of the compliant joint and the fin for maximum efficiency. Experiments have been carried out to determine the effect of fin and joint stiffness on propulsive performance. Digital image correlation has been used to measure the deformation of the fins and the measured deformation is coupled with the hydrodynamic model to predict the performance. The predicted theoretical performance behavior closely matches the experimental values. PMID:24737004

  10. Effects of Morphology vs. Cell–Cell Interactions on Endothelial Cell Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Stroka, Kimberly M.; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2011-01-01

    Biological processes such as atherogenesis, wound healing, cancer cell metastasis, and immune cell transmigration rely on a delicate balance between Cell–Cell and cell–substrate adhesion. Cell mechanics have been shown to depend on substrate factors such as stiffness and ligand presentation, while the effects of Cell–Cell interactions on the mechanical properties of cells has received little attention. Here, we use atomic force microscopy to measure the Young’s modulus of live human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In varying the degree of Cell–Cell contact in HUVECs (single cells, groups, and monolayers), we observe that increased cell stiffness correlates with an increase in cell area. Further, we observe that HUVECs stiffen as they spread onto a glass substrate. When we weaken Cell–Cell junctions (i.e., through a low dose of cytochalasin B or treatment with a VE-cadherin antibody), we observe that cell–substrate adhesion increases, as measured by focal adhesion size and density, and the stiffness of cells within the monolayer approaches that of single cells. Our results suggest that while morphology can roughly be used to predict cell stiffness, Cell–Cell interactions may play a significant role in determining the mechanical properties of individual cells in tissues by careful maintenance of cell tension homeostasis. PMID:21359128

  11. Cell prestress. I. Stiffness and prestress are closely associated in adherent contractile cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ning; Tolic-Norrelykke, Iva Marija; Chen, Jianxin; Mijailovich, Srboljub M.; Butler, James P.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Stamenovic, Dimitrije; Ingber, D. E. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    The tensegrity hypothesis holds that the cytoskeleton is a structure whose shape is stabilized predominantly by the tensile stresses borne by filamentous structures. Accordingly, cell stiffness must increase in proportion with the level of the tensile stress, which is called the prestress. Here we have tested that prediction in adherent human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. Traction microscopy was used to measure the distribution of contractile stresses arising at the interface between each cell and its substrate; this distribution is called the traction field. Because the traction field must be balanced by tensile stresses within the cell body, the prestress could be computed. Cell stiffness (G) was measured by oscillatory magnetic twisting cytometry. As the contractile state of the cell was modulated with graded concentrations of relaxing or contracting agonists (isoproterenol or histamine, respectively), the mean prestress ((t)) ranged from 350 to 1,900 Pa. Over that range, cell stiffness increased linearly with the prestress: G (Pa) = 0.18(t) + 92. While this association does not necessarily preclude other interpretations, it is the hallmark of systems that secure shape stability mainly through the prestress. Regardless of mechanism, these data establish a strong association between stiffness of HASM cells and the level of tensile stress within the cytoskeleton.

  12. Evaluation of Compressive Strength and Stiffness of Grouted Soils by Using Elastic Waves

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Mo; Kim, Jong-Sun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Lee, Jong-Sub

    2014-01-01

    Cement grouted soils, which consist of particulate soil media and cementation agents, have been widely used for the improvement of the strength and stiffness of weak ground and for the prevention of the leakage of ground water. The strength, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio of grouted soils have been determined by classical destructive methods. However, the performance of grouted soils depends on several parameters such as the distribution of particle size of the particulate soil media, grouting pressure, curing time, curing method, and ground water flow. In this study, elastic wave velocities are used to estimate the strength and elastic modulus, which are generally obtained by classical strength tests. Nondestructive tests by using elastic waves at small strain are conducted before and during classical strength tests at large strain. The test results are compared to identify correlations between the elastic wave velocity measured at small strain and strength and stiffness measured at large strain. The test results show that the strength and stiffness have exponential relationship with elastic wave velocities. This study demonstrates that nondestructive methods by using elastic waves may significantly improve the strength and stiffness evaluation processes of grouted soils. PMID:25025082

  13. Evaluation of compressive strength and stiffness of grouted soils by using elastic waves.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Mo; Kim, Jong-Sun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Lee, Jong-Sub

    2014-01-01

    Cement grouted soils, which consist of particulate soil media and cementation agents, have been widely used for the improvement of the strength and stiffness of weak ground and for the prevention of the leakage of ground water. The strength, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio of grouted soils have been determined by classical destructive methods. However, the performance of grouted soils depends on several parameters such as the distribution of particle size of the particulate soil media, grouting pressure, curing time, curing method, and ground water flow. In this study, elastic wave velocities are used to estimate the strength and elastic modulus, which are generally obtained by classical strength tests. Nondestructive tests by using elastic waves at small strain are conducted before and during classical strength tests at large strain. The test results are compared to identify correlations between the elastic wave velocity measured at small strain and strength and stiffness measured at large strain. The test results show that the strength and stiffness have exponential relationship with elastic wave velocities. This study demonstrates that nondestructive methods by using elastic waves may significantly improve the strength and stiffness evaluation processes of grouted soils. PMID:25025082

  14. On eigenmodes, stiffness, and sensitivity of atomic force microscope cantilevers in air versus liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Kiracofe, Daniel; Raman, Arvind [Birck Nanotechnology Center and School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47904-2088 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The effect of hydrodynamic loading on the eigenmode shapes, modal stiffnesses, and optical lever sensitivities of atomic force microscope (AFM) microcantilevers is investigated by measuring the vibrations of such microcantilevers in air and water using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. It is found that for rectangular tipless microcantilevers, the measured fundamental and higher eigenmodes and their equivalent stiffnesses are nearly identical in air and in water. However, for microcantilevers with a tip mass or for picket shaped cantilevers, there is a marked difference in the second (and higher) eigenmode shapes between air and water that leads to a large decrease in their modal stiffness in water as compared to air as well as a decrease in their optical lever sensitivity. These results are explained in terms of hydrodynamic interactions of microcantilevers with nonuniform mass distribution. The results clearly demonstrate that tip mass and hydrodynamic loading must be taken into account in stiffness calibration and optical lever sensitivity calibration while using higher-order eigenmodes in dynamic AFM.

  15. Effect of femoral stiffness on bone remodeling after uncemented arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sychterz, C J; Topoleski, L D; Sacco, M; Engh, C A

    2001-08-01

    The current study examined the relationships among femoral stiffness, implant stiffness, and bone remodeling in 40 femurs retrieved at autopsy from 20 patients with unilateral uncemented hip replacements. The purpose of the study was to determine if the magnitude of periprosthetic bone loss after arthroplasty was correlated with, and could be predicted from, stem and femoral stiffness terms. For analysis, the contralateral normal femur was used as a control to represent the unremodeled condition of the in vivo implanted femur. Bone loss attributable to remodeling was quantified by video-densitometric analysis. Stiffness terms were calculated as the product of the elastic modulus and geometric properties digitized from cross-sectional slab radiographs. Femoral stiffness calculations accounted for variations in modulus attributable to patient differences in bone mineral density and geometric properties attributable to differences in the shape of individual femurs. Similarly, calculations of implant stiffness accounted for variations in implant shape. Results showed axial bone stiffness was the variable most strongly correlated with bone loss. Individual stem stiffness terms were not significantly correlated with bone loss. Multiple linear regression analysis, using stem-to-bone stiffness ratios as independent variables, accounted for 46% of the variance in bone loss data. In the regression analysis, the axial stem-to-bone stiffness ratio was the strongest correlate with bone loss. Although these results show the influence of mechanical stiffness factors on bone remodeling, other factors (hormonal status, drugs, disease, activity level) could represent the variance in bone loss data not accounted for in the study. PMID:11501814

  16. Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on stiffness and force-producing characteristics of the ankle in active women.

    PubMed

    Rees, Sven S; Murphy, Aron J; Watsford, Mark L; McLachlan, Ken A; Coutts, Aaron J

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching on musculotendinous unit (MTU) stiffness of the ankle joint. Twenty active women were assessed for maximal ankle range of motion, maximal strength of planter flexors, rate of force development, and ankle MTU stiffness. Subjects were randomly allocated into an experimental (n = 10) group or control group (n = 10). The experimental group performed PNF stretching on the ankle joint 3 times per week for 4 weeks, with physiological testing performed before and after the training period. After training, the experimental group significantly increased ankle range of motion (7.8%), maximal isometric strength (26%), rate of force development (25%), and MTU stiffness (8.4%) (p < 0.001). Four weeks of PNF stretching contributed to an increase in MTU stiffness, which occurred concurrently with gains to ankle joint range of motion. The results confirm that MTU stiffness and joint range of motion measurements appear to be separate entities. The increased MTU stiffness after the training period is explained by adaptations to maximal isometric muscle contractions, which were a component of PNF stretching. Because a stiffer MTU system is linked with an improved the ability to store and release elastic energy, PNF stretching would benefit certain athletic performance due to a reduced contraction time or greater mechanical efficiency. The results of this study suggest PNF stretching is a useful modality at increasing a joint's range of motion and its strength. PMID:17530973

  17. Left ventricular chamber stiffness at rest as a determinant of exercise capacity in heart failure subjects with decreased ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Timothy E; Karamanoglu, Mustafa; Ehsani, Ali A; Kovács, Sándor J

    2004-11-01

    Impaired exercise tolerance, determined by peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak), is predictive of mortality and the necessity for cardiac transplantation in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). However, the role of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function at rest, reflected by chamber stiffness assessed echocardiographically, as a determinant of exercise tolerance is unknown. Increased LV chamber stiffness and limitation of VO2 peak are known correlates of HF. Yet, the relationship between chamber stiffness and VO2 peak in subjects with HF has not been fully determined. Forty-one patients with HF New York Heart Association [(NYHA) class 2.4 +/- 0.8, mean +/- SD] had echocardiographic studies and VO2 peak measurements. Transmitral Doppler E waves were analyzed using a previously validated method to determine k, the LV chamber stiffness parameter. Multiple linear regression analysis of VO(2 peak) variance indicated that LV chamber stiffness k (r2 = 0.55) and NYHA classification (r2 = 0.43) were its best independent predictors and when taken together account for 59% of the variability in VO2 peak. We conclude that diastolic function at rest, as manifested by chamber stiffness, is a major determinant of maximal exercise capacity in HF. PMID:15208299

  18. Hepatic and Splenic Stiffness Augmentation Assessed with MR Elastography in an in vivo Porcine Portal Hypertension Model

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Meng; Kolipaka, Arunark; Woodrum, David A.; Glaser, Kevin J.; Romano, Anthony J; Manduca, Armando; Talwalkar, Jayant A.; Araoz, Philip A.; McGee, Kiaran P.; Anavekar, Nandan S.; Ehman, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the influence of portal pressure on the shear stiffness of the liver and spleen in a well-controlled in vivo porcine model with MR Elastography (MRE). A significant correlation between portal pressure and tissue stiffness could be used to noninvasively assess increased portal venous pressure (portal hypertension), which is a frequent clinical condition caused by cirrhosis of the liver and is responsible for the development of many lethal complications. Materials and Methods During multiple intra-arterial infusions of Dextran-40 in three adult domestic pigs in vivo, 3-D abdominal MRE was performed with left ventricle and portal catheters measuring blood pressure simultaneously. Least-squares linear regressions were used to analyze the relationship between tissue stiffness and portal pressure. Results Liver and spleen stiffness have a dynamic component that increases significantly following an increase in portal or left ventricular pressure. Correlation coefficients with the linear regressions between stiffness and pressure exceeded 0.8 in most cases. Conclusion The observed stiffness-pressure relationship of the liver and spleen could provide a promising noninvasive method for assessing portal pressure. Using MRE to study the tissue mechanics associated with portal pressure may provide new insights into the natural history and pathophysiology of hepatic diseases and may have significant diagnostic value in the future. PMID:23418135

  19. Acoustic and perceptual effects of changes in body layer stiffness in symmetric and asymmetric vocal fold models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoyan; Kreiman, Jody; Gerratt, Bruce R; Garellek, Marc

    2013-01-01

    At present, it is not well understood how changes in vocal fold biomechanics correspond to changes in voice quality. Understanding such cross-domain links from physiology to acoustics to perception in the "speech chain" is of both theoretical and clinical importance. This study investigates links between changes in body layer stiffness, which is regulated primarily by the thyroarytenoid muscle, and the consequent changes in acoustics and voice quality under left-right symmetric and asymmetric stiffness conditions. Voice samples were generated using three series of two-layer physical vocal fold models, which differed only in body stiffness. Differences in perceived voice quality in each series were then measured in a "sort and rate" listening experiment. The results showed that increasing body stiffness better maintained vocal fold adductory position, thereby exciting more high-order harmonics, differences that listeners readily perceived. Changes to the degree of left-right stiffness mismatch and the resulting left-right vibratory asymmetry did not produce perceptually significant differences in quality unless the stiffness mismatch was large enough to cause a change in vibratory mode. This suggests that a vibration pattern with left-right asymmetry does not necessarily result in a salient deviation in voice quality, and thus may not always be of clinical significance. PMID:23297917

  20. Threshold bracing stiffness of two story frames

    E-print Network

    Khader, Ghassan Sudki

    1982-01-01

    . 6 and rewriting in matrix form gives P = K'd 48 tH 2 03 P (a) pz~6z pz~g Ps~&z P mz, 6z mz, 6z mz, 6z mq, 6z M- Pz Pz Pz (b) Fig. 17. ? Continuous Beam with Axial Force 49 f P1 61 B, Pz 62 P 3 63 B3 (4. 7) 1 1 1 1 K11 Kzz K13 K14 0... and simplifying gives 2P K h (1. 5) At the buckling load P equation 1. 5 becomes cr P K = 2? cr h (1. 6) Equation 1. 6 gives an easy to calculate upper bound value of the re- quired stiffness to have a braced frame. Equation 1, 6, however, is valid only...

  1. Cartesian stiffness control of the JPL\\/Stanford\\/Salisbury hand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Starr

    1988-01-01

    To be useful as a dexterous end effector in assembly operations, a multifingered hand must be position-controlled to allow preshaping, and force-controlled to apply and regulate grasp forces. The author describes an implementation of stiffness control on the Salisbury hand, from tendon tension control to coordinated Cartesian object stiffness control. Substantial joint friction effects were observed which were predicted well

  2. Stochastic dynamics with fatigue-induced stiffness degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sobczyk; J. Trebicki

    2000-01-01

    This article deals with stochastic dynamics coupled with simultaneous evolution of degradation of the system properties. We provide a general formulations and interpretations of various response-degradation problems associated with randomly vibrating systems and then an efficient analysis of vibratory systems with fatigue-induced stiffness degradation is presented. First, an approach to the random vibration problem with empirical characterization of stiffness degradation

  3. Joint Stiffness Identification of Industrial Serial Robots Claire Dumasa

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Joint Stiffness Identification of Industrial Serial Robots Claire Dumasa , St´ephane Caroa , Mehdi a new methodology for the joint stiffness identification of industrial serial robots and as consequence for the evaluation of both translational and rotational displacements of the robot's end-effector subject

  4. Geometric Characteristics of Antagonistic Stiffness in Redundantly Actuated Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung-ju Yi; Robert A. Freeman

    1993-01-01

    Parallel closed-chain mechanical architectures allow for redundant actuation in the force domain. Antagonistic actuation, afforded by this input force redundancy, in conjunction with nonlinear linkage geometry, creates an effective stiffness directly analogous to that of a wound metal spring. A general stiffness model for such systems is derived, and it is shown that the constitutive relationship between actuation effort and

  5. Extraordinary stiffness tunability through thermal expansion of nonlinear defect modes

    E-print Network

    Marc Serra-Garcia; Joseph Lydon; Chiara Daraio

    2014-11-19

    Incremental stiffness characterizes the variation of a material's force response to a small deformation change. Typically materials have an incremental stiffness that is fixed and positive, but recent technologies, such as super-lenses, low frequency band gap materials and acoustic cloaks, are based on materials with zero, negative or extremely high incremental stiffness. So far, demonstrations of this behavior have been limited either to a narrow range of frequencies, temperatures, stiffness or to specific deformations. Here we demonstrate a mechanism to tune the static incremental stiffness that overcomes those limitations. This tunability is achieved by driving a nonlinear defect mode in a lattice. As in thermal expansion, the defect's vibration amplitude affects the force at the boundary, hence the lattice's stiffness. By using the high sensitivities of nonlinear systems near bifurcation points, we tune the magnitude of the incremental stiffness over a wide range: from positive, to zero, to arbitrarily negative values. The particular deformation where the incremental stiffness is modified can be arbitrarily selected varying the defect's driving frequency. We demonstrate this experimentally in a compressed array of spheres and propose a general theoretical model.

  6. a Study of Stiff Converging Problems in Magnetic Field Calculation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Ali Golbazi

    1985-01-01

    This thesis is mainly devoted to the numerical solutions of stiff converging problems in magnetic fields. Stiff problems are the ones whose converging process in iterative methods is extremely slow. The solution of many micromagnetic problems lead to unbounded nonlinear partial differential equations. A standard technique to convert these problems to boundary value problems is to assume that the geometry

  7. Kinetics of stiff-legged gait: induced acceleration analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick O. Riley; D. Casey Kerrigan

    1999-01-01

    Treating spastic paretic stiff-legged gait, defined as reduced knee flexion in swing, holds a high priority in the rehabilitation of patients with upper motor neuron lesions. We propose a method to determine the relative contributions of hip, knee, and ankle inpairments to this disability. We analyzed the gait of ten patients with stiff-legged gait (SLG) due to a single stroke

  8. Cartesian stiffness matrix of manipulators with passive joints: Analytical approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anatoly Pashkevich; Alexandr Klimchik; Stéphane Caro; Damien Chablat

    2011-01-01

    ? Abstract—The paper focuses on stiffness matrix computation for manipulators with passive joints. It proposes both explicit analytical expressions and an efficient recursive procedure that are applicable in general case and allow obtaining the desired matrix either in analytical or numerical form. Advantages of the developed technique and its ability to produce both singular and non-singular stiffness matrices are illustrated

  9. Intelligent Compliance Control for Robot Manipulators Using Adaptive Stiffness Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byoung-ho Kim; Nak Young Chong; Oh Sang-rok; Il Hong Suh; Young-jo Cho

    1999-01-01

    A compliance control strategy for robot manipulators is proposed by employing a self-adjusting stiffness function. To be specific, each entry of the diagonal stiffness matrix corresponding to task coordinate in Cartesian space is adaptively adjusted during contact along the corresponding axis based on the contact force with its environment. It can also be used for both unconstrained and constrained motions

  10. Stiffness Matrix Synthesis Algorithms for Pre-loaded Planar Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun Geun Yu; Rodney G. Roberts

    2006-01-01

    The force regulation and inevitable positional inaccuracy of traditional control system can be compensated by the compliance\\/stiffness mechanism. The compliance\\/stiffness of a robotic mechanism is usually modeled by a 6 by 6 symmetric positive definite matrix at an equilibrium point using screw theory. When an external wrench is exerted on the mechanism and the mechanism moves away from its equilibrium,

  11. Note on the normal form of a spatial stiffness matrix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney G. Roberts

    2001-01-01

    There has been some recent interest in the problem of designing compliance mechanisms with a given spatial stiffness matrix. A key result that has proven useful in the design of such mechanisms is Loncaric's normal form. When a spatial stiffness matrix is described in an appropriate coordinate frame, it will have a particularly simple structure. In this form the 3×3

  12. A Systematic Analytical Method for PKM Stiffness Matrix Calculation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Deblaise; Xavier Hernot; Patrick Maurine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to propose a new approach for the calculation of PKM stiffness matrix by using an analytical method based on matrix structural analysis. This method has as the main advantage to be systematic and it also can be applied to hyper-static PKM stiffness analysis. The implementation of the proposed method is fast and convenient and

  13. Stiffness matrix method for foot force distribution of walking vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. C. Gao; S. M. Song

    1990-01-01

    A general method, called the stiffness matrix method, is developed to determine the foot forces of walking vehicles, taking into account the elasticity of the leg structures, the actuating systems, and the terrain. Also derived are the analytical expressions of the stiffness matrix for the popular pantograph-type legs when only the leg elasticity is considered. The method is effective and

  14. Cartesian stiffness matrix of manipulators with passive joints: Analytical approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Pashkevich; A. Klimchik; S. Caro; D. Chablat

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on stiffness matrix computation for manipulators with passive joints. It proposes both explicit analytical expressions and an efficient recursive procedure that are applicable in general case and allow obtaining the desired matrix either in analytical or numerical form. Advantages of the developed technique and its ability to produce both singular and non-singular stiffness matrices are illustrated by

  15. A methodology for joint stiffness identification of serial robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Dumas; Stephane Caro; Mehdi Cherif; Sebastien Garnier; Benoit Furet

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for joint stiffness identification of serial robots. This methodology aims at evaluating all joint stiffness values responsible for both translational and rotational displacements of the robot end-effector subject to an external wrench (force and torque). The links of the robot are supposed to be quite stiffer than the joints and not known as it

  16. Modeling and Control of Stiff Robots for Flexible Manufacturing

    E-print Network

    and conceptual flexibility of a robot for SMEs. Additionally, concepts that aid the SMEs to achieve the requiredModeling and Control of Stiff Robots for Flexible Manufacturing #12;#12;Modeling and Control of Stiff Robots for Flexible Manufacturing Isolde Dressler Department of Automatic Control Lund University

  17. Column dampers with negative stiffness: high damping at small amplitude

    E-print Network

    Lakes, Roderic

    ! 1! Column dampers with negative stiffness: high damping at small amplitude adapted from Kalathur, H., Lakes, R. S., Column dampers with negative stiffness: high damping at small amplitude, Smart negative; the moduli become complex to allow viscoelastic behavior. As modulus is tuned, damping

  18. Aerodynamic stiffness effects in rotational galloping at high wind speeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. W. van Oudheusden

    1996-01-01

    An investigation is made of aerodynamic stiffness effects on the dynamics of rotational galloping at high wind speeds. The system is analysed as a perturbation of the Hamiltonian system in which the aerodynamic stiffness is included. The analysis agrees with the experimentally observed behaviour. Both the frequency and mode shape of the oscillation are affected, while the amplitude of the

  19. VAGINAL DEGENERATION FOLLOWING IMPLANTATION OF SYNTHETIC MESH WITH INCREASED STIFFNESS

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Rui; Abramowitch, Steven; Knight, Katrina; Palcsey, Stacy; Nolfi, Alexis; Feola, Andrew; Stein, Susan; Moalli, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the impact of the prototype prolapse mesh Gynemesh PS to that of two new generation lower stiffness meshes, UltraPro and SmartMesh, on vaginal morphology and structural composition. Design A mechanistic study employing a non-human primate (NHP) model. Setting Magee-Womens Research Institute at the University of Pittsburgh. Population Parous rhesus macaques, with similar age, weight, parity and POP-Q scores. Methods Following IACUC approval, 50 rhesus macaques were implanted with Gynemesh PS (n=12), UltraPro with its blue line perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of vagina (n=10), UltraPro with its blue line parallel to the longitudinal axis of vagina (n=8) and SmartMesh (n=8) via sacrocolpopexy following hysterectomy. Sham operated animals (n=12) served as controls. Main Outcome Measures The mesh-vagina complex (MVC) was removed after 12 weeks and analyzed for histomorphology, in situ cell apoptosis, total collagen, elastin, glycosaminoglycan content and total collagenase activity. Appropriate statistics and correlation analyses were performed accordingly. Results Relative to sham and the two lower stiffness meshes, Gynemesh PS had the greatest negative impact on vaginal histomorphology and composition. Compared to sham, implantation with Gynemesh PS caused substantial thinning of the smooth muscle layer (1557 ± 499?m vs 866 ± 210 ?m, P=0.02), increased apoptosis particularly in the area of the mesh fibers (P=0.01), decreased collagen and elastin content (20% (P=0.03) and 43% (P=0.02), respectively) and increased total collagenase activity (135% (P=0.01)). GAG (glycosaminoglycan), a marker of tissue injury, was the highest with Gynemesh PS compared to sham and other meshes (P=0.01). Conclusion Mesh implantation with the stiffer mesh Gynemesh PS induced a maladaptive remodeling response consistent with vaginal degeneration. PMID:23240802

  20. Reduced pulmonary function is associated with central arterial stiffness in men.

    PubMed

    Zureik, M; Benetos, A; Neukirch, C; Courbon, D; Bean, K; Thomas, F; Ducimetière, P

    2001-12-15

    The association of impaired pulmonary function with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been reported in several prospective studies. The nature of this association and the mechanisms underlying it are unknown. Both atherosclerosis and central arterial stiffness might be involved. We recently reported, in a 4-yr longitudinal study, that reduced lung function predicts the development of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. In the present study, we report the associations of aortic stiffness with lung function measurements. One hundred and ninety-four men, aged 30 to 70 yr and free of coronary heart disease, who volunteered for a standard health examination were included. FEV(1) and FVC were used to assess lung function. Aortic stiffness was estimated from the carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (PWV), which increases proportionally with an increase in aortic stiffness. PWV was significantly and negatively associated with FEV(1) and FVC (partial correlation coefficients adjusted for age and height: -0.27 [p < 0.001] and -0.24 [p < 0.001], respectively). For every 1 SD increase in PWV (2.5 m/s), FEV(1) decreased by 195.2 +/- 50.1 ml (p < 0.001) in an age- and height-adjusted analysis. The corresponding decrease in FVC was 190.4 +/- 55.0 ml (p < 0.001). Further adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (weight, smoking habits, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and hypertension) did not markedly alter these results. In addition, negative associations of PWV with lung function measurements were observed within each category of cardiovascular risk factors. This study suggests that reduced pulmonary function is independently associated with aortic stiffness in men. The interrelations between pulmonary and vascular alterations should be thoroughly investigated. PMID:11751184

  1. Leg stiffness decreases during a run to exhaustion at the speed at VO2max.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Philip R; Caplan, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Vertical and leg stiffness are related to running speed. In endurance running, the ability to maintain stiffness might be more important than the absolute stiffness magnitude. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in vertical and leg stiffness during an exhaustive. Six sub-elite runners (24.2, s = 4.2 years; 1.81, s = 0.03 m; 73.4, s = 4.4 kg) participated in this study. They performed preliminary tests to determine lactate threshold, lactate turnpoint, [Formula: see text]O2max, s[Formula: see text]O2max and a series of isokinetic endurance tests. During the run to exhaustion runners were videoed (50 Hz) to determine contact and flight times, from which leg (Kleg) and vertical (Kvert) stiffness were calculated. During the run Kleg showed a significant decrease [P = 0.030, effect size statistics (ES) = 0.74], however, the decrease in Kvert was non-significant and of a small magnitude (P = 0.051, ES = 0.32). The distance covered during the run was correlated with ?Kleg (r = -0.868) but not ?Kvert (r = 0.684). ?Kleg was very strongly related to ? ground contact time (r = -0.937) and ? step length (r = -0.957). The ? ground contact time had a near perfect relationship with ? step length (r = 0.995). Isokinetic measures were not significantly correlated with either ?Kleg. The ability to maintain a short ground contact time appears to be a key determinant of maintaining performance during a run to exhaustion. Minimising this is important for maintaining Kleg. Kleg was not significantly related to isokinetic measures. PMID:24410623

  2. DETERIORATION IN BIOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE VAGINA FOLLOWING IMPLANTATION OF A HIGH STIFFNESS PROLAPSE MESH

    PubMed Central

    Feola, Andrew; Abramowitch, Steven; Jallah, Zegbeh; Stein, Suzan; Barone, William; Palcsey, Stacy; Moalli, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Objective Define the impact of prolapse mesh on the biomechanical properties of the vagina by comparing the prototype Gynemesh PS (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) to 2 new generation lower stiffness meshes, SmartMesh (Coloplast, Minneapolis, MN) and UltraPro (Ethicon). Design A study employing a non-human primate model Setting University of Pittsburgh Population 45 parous rhesus macaques Methods Meshes were implanted via sacrocolpexy after hysterectomy and compared to Sham. Because its stiffness is highly directional UltraPro was implanted in two directions: UltraPro Perpendicular (less stiff) and UltraPro Parallel (more stiff), with the indicated direction referring to the blue orientation lines. The mesh-vaginal complex (MVC) was excised en toto after 3 months. Main Outcome Measures Active mechanical properties were quantified as contractile force generated in the presence of 120 mM KCl. Passive mechanical properties (a tissues ability to resist an applied force) were measured using a multi-axial protocol. Results Vaginal contractility decreased 80% following implantation with the Gynemesh PS (p=0.001), 48% after SmartMesh (p=0.001), 68% after UltraPro parallel (p=0.001) and was highly variable after UltraPro perpendicular (p =0.16). The tissue contribution to the passive mechanical behavior of the MVC was drastically reduced for Gynemesh PS (p=0.003) but not SmartMesh (p=0.9) or UltraPro independent of the direction of implantation (p=0.68 and p=0.66, respectively). Conclusions Deterioration of the mechanical properties of the vagina was highest following implantation with the stiffest mesh, Gynemesh PS. Such a decrease associated with implantation of a device of increased stiffness is consistent with findings from other systems employing prostheses for support. PMID:23240801

  3. Damage Detection on Sudden Stiffness Reduction Based on Discrete Wavelet Transform

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Chen, Zhi-wei; Wang, Gan-jun; Xie, Wei-ping

    2014-01-01

    The sudden stiffness reduction in a structure may cause the signal discontinuity in the acceleration responses close to the damage location at the damage time instant. To this end, the damage detection on sudden stiffness reduction of building structures has been actively investigated in this study. The signal discontinuity of the structural acceleration responses of an example building is extracted based on the discrete wavelet transform. It is proved that the variation of the first level detail coefficients of the wavelet transform at damage instant is linearly proportional to the magnitude of the stiffness reduction. A new damage index is proposed and implemented to detect the damage time instant, location, and severity of a structure due to a sudden change of structural stiffness. Numerical simulation using a five-story shear building under different types of excitation is carried out to assess the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed damage index for the building at different damage levels. The sensitivity of the damage index to the intensity and frequency range of measurement noise is also investigated. The made observations demonstrate that the proposed damage index can accurately identify the sudden damage events if the noise intensity is limited. PMID:24991647

  4. Platelet mechanosensing of substrate stiffness during clot formation mediates adhesion, spreading, and activation

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yongzhi; Brown, Ashley C.; Myers, David R.; Sakurai, Yumiko; Mannino, Robert G.; Tran, Reginald; Ahn, Byungwook; Hardy, Elaissa T.; Kee, Matthew F.; Kumar, Sanjay; Bao, Gang; Lam, Wilbur A.

    2014-01-01

    As platelets aggregate and activate at the site of vascular injury to stem bleeding, they are subjected to a myriad of biochemical and biophysical signals and cues. As clot formation ensues, platelets interact with polymerizing fibrin scaffolds, exposing platelets to a large range of mechanical microenvironments. Here, we show for the first time (to our knowledge) that platelets, which are anucleate cellular fragments, sense microenvironmental mechanical properties, such as substrate stiffness, and transduce those cues into differential biological signals. Specifically, as platelets mechanosense the stiffness of the underlying fibrin/fibrinogen substrate, increasing substrate stiffness leads to increased platelet adhesion and spreading. Importantly, adhesion on stiffer substrates also leads to higher levels of platelet activation, as measured by integrin ?IIb?3 activation, ?-granule secretion, and procoagulant activity. Mechanistically, we determined that Rac1 and actomyosin activity mediate substrate stiffness-dependent platelet adhesion, spreading, and activation to different degrees. This capability of platelets to mechanosense microenvironmental cues in a growing thrombus or hemostatic plug and then mechanotransduce those cues into differential levels of platelet adhesion, spreading, and activation provides biophysical insight into the underlying mechanisms of platelet aggregation and platelet activation heterogeneity during thrombus formation. PMID:25246564

  5. Relative contributions of age and atherosclerosis to vascular stiffness.

    PubMed

    Santelices, Linda C; Rutman, Sarah J; Prantil-Baun, Rachelle; Vorp, David A; Ahearn, Joseph M

    2008-05-01

    To determine the relative contributions of aging and atherosclerosis to vascular stiffness, we studied aortic stiffness, plaque, and elastin in 8-, 16-, 25-, and 34-week-old male ApoE-KO and C57BL/6J control mice (N = 48). Stiffness increased gradually in both strains up to 25 weeks (p < 0.05), and dramatically between 25 and 34 weeks in ApoE-KO (p < 0.001). Aging ApoE-KO demonstrated increased plaque (p = 0.02), medial thickening (p < 0.001), and severe elastin fragmentation (p < 0.001). We conclude that the contribution of aging to vascular stiffness is relatively minor compared with the influence of atherosclerosis. However, the effect of atherosclerosis on stiffness is significant only with advanced stages of plaque formation. PMID:20443820

  6. Characterization of the bending stiffness of large space structure joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey

    1989-01-01

    A technique for estimating the bending stiffness of large space structure joints is developed and demonstrated for an erectable joint concept. Experimental load-deflection data from a three-point bending test was used as input to solve a closed-form expression for the joint bending stiffness which was derived from linear beam theory. Potential error sources in both the experimental and analytical procedures are identified and discussed. The bending stiffness of a mechanically preloaded erectable joint is studied at three applied moments and seven joint orientations. Using this technique, the joint bending stiffness was bounded between 6 and 17 percent of the bending stiffness of the graphite/epoxy strut member.

  7. Stiffness coupling application to modal synthesis program, users guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhar, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV computer program used to perform modal synthesis of structures by stiffness coupling, using the dynamic transformation method is described. The program was named SCAMP (Stiffness Coupling Approach Modal-Synthesis Program). The program begins with the entry of a substructure's physical mode shapes and eigenvalues or a substructure's mass and stiffness matrix. If the mass and stiffness matrices are entered, the eigen problem for the individual substructure is solved. Provisions are included for a maximum of 20 substructures which are coupled by stiffness matrix springs. Each substructure has a number degrees of freedom (DOF), except that for DOF greater than 100; vector sets having maximum row and column size of 100 were generated prior to entering SCAMP. The substructures are then coupled together via coupling springs, and the dynamic transformation is used to reduce the size of the eigen problem.

  8. Leg stiffness adjustment during hopping at different intensities and frequencies.

    PubMed

    Mrdakovic, Vladimir; Ilic, Dusko; Vulovic, Radun; Matic, Milan; Jankovic, Nenad; Filipovic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Understanding leg and joint stiffness adjustment during maximum hopping may provide important information for developing more effective training methods. It has been reported that ankle stiffness has major influence on stable spring-mass dynamics during submaximal hopping, and that knee stiffness is a major determinant for hopping performance during maximal hopping task. Furthermore, there are no reports on how the height of the previous hop could affect overall stiffness modulation of the subsequent maximum one. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether and how the jump height of the previous hop affects leg and joint stiffness for subsequent maximum hop. Ten participants completed trials in which they repeatedly hopped as high as possible (MX task) and trials in which they were instructed to perform several maximum hops with 3 preferred (optimal) height hops between each of them (P3MX task). Both hopping tasks were performed at 2.2 Hz hopping frequency and at the participant's preferred (freely chosen) frequency as well. By comparing results of those hopping tasks, we found that ankle stiffness at 2.2 Hz ( p = 0.041) and knee stiffness at preferred frequency ( p = 0.045) was significantly greater for MX versus P3MX tasks. Leg stiffness for 2.2 Hz hopping is greater than for the preferred frequency. Ankle stiffness is greater for 2.2 Hz than for preferred frequencies; opposite stands for knee stiffness. The results of this study suggest that preparatory hop height can be considered as an important factor for modulation of maximum hop. PMID:25308379

  9. Effects of varying machine stiffness and contact area in UltraForm Finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Dennis E.; Echaves, Samantha; Pidgeon, Brendan; Travis, Nathan; Ellis, Jonathan D.

    2013-09-01

    UltraForm Finishing (UFF) is a deterministic, subaperture, computer numerically controlled, grinding and polishing platform designed by OptiPro Systems. UFF is used to grind and polish a variety optics from simple spherical to fully freeform, and numerous materials from glasses to optical ceramics. The UFF system consists of an abrasive belt around a compliant wheel that rotates and contacts the part to remove material. This work aims to measure the stiffness variations in the system and how it can affect material removal rates. The stiffness of the entire system is evaluated using a triaxial load cell to measure forces and a capacitance sensor to measure deviations in height. Because the wheel is conformal and elastic, the shapes of contact areas are also of interest. For the scope of this work, the shape of the contact area is estimated via removal spot. The measured forces and removal spot area are directly related to material removal rate through Preston's equation. Using our current testing apparatus, we will demonstrate stiffness measurements and contact areas for a single UFF belt during different states of its lifecycle and assess the material removal function from spot diagrams as a function of wear. This investigation will ultimately allow us to make better estimates of Preston's coefficient and develop spot-morphing models in an effort to more accurately predict instantaneous material removal functions throughout the lifetime of a belt.

  10. DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF NEGATIVE STIFFNESS ELEMENTS USING SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING*

    E-print Network

    Seepersad, Carolyn Conner

    negative stiffness behavior and thereby increase the damping and shift the resonant frequency sintering, negative stiffness, bistable structure, transmissibility, damping, energy absorption 1 and vibrational damping. Examples of negative stiffness mechanisms include mechanical systems with bistable

  11. An experimental and morphometric test of the relationship between vertebral morphology and joint stiffness in Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).

    PubMed

    Molnar, Julia L; Pierce, Stephanie E; Hutchinson, John R

    2014-03-01

    Despite their semi-aquatic mode of life, modern crocodylians use a wide range of terrestrial locomotor behaviours, including asymmetrical gaits otherwise only found in mammals. The key to these diverse abilities may lie in the axial skeleton. Correlations between vertebral morphology and both intervertebral joint stiffness and locomotor behaviour have been found in other animals, but the vertebral mechanics of crocodylians have not yet been experimentally and quantitatively tested. We measured the passive mechanics and morphology of the thoracolumbar vertebral column in Crocodylus niloticus in order to validate a method to infer intervertebral joint stiffness based on morphology. Passive stiffness of eight thoracic and lumbar joints was tested in dorsal extension, ventral flexion and mediolateral flexion using cadaveric specimens. Fifteen measurements that we deemed to be potential correlates of stiffness were taken from each vertebra and statistically tested for correlation with joint stiffness. We found that the vertebral column of C. niloticus is stiffer in dorsoventral flexion than in lateral flexion and, in contrast to that of many mammals, shows an increase in joint stiffness in the lumbar region. Our findings suggest that the role of the axial column in crocodylian locomotion may be functionally different from that in mammals, even during analogous gaits. A moderate proportion of variation in joint stiffness (R(2)=0.279-0.520) was predicted by centrum width and height, neural spine angle and lamina width. These results support the possible utility of some vertebral morphometrics in predicting mechanical properties of the vertebral column in crocodiles, which also should be useful for forming functional hypotheses of axial motion during locomotion in extinct archosaurs. PMID:24574389

  12. Quantitative evaluation of stiffness of commercial suture materials.

    PubMed

    Chu, C C; Kizil, Z

    1989-03-01

    The bending stiffness of 22 commercial suture materials of varying size, chemical structure and physical form was quantitatively evaluated using a stiffness tester (Taber V-5, model 150B, Teledyne). The commercial sutures were Chromic catgut; Dexon (polyglycolic acid); Vicryl (polyglactin 910); PDS (polydioxanone); Maxon (polyglycolide-trimethylene carbonate); Silk (coated with silicone); Mersilene (polyester fiber); Tycron (polyester fiber); Ethibond (polyethylene terephthalate coated with polybutylene); Nurolon (nylon 66); Surgilon (nylon 66 coated with silicone); Ethilon (coated nylon 66), Prolene (polypropylene); Dermalene (polyethylene), and Gore-tex (polytetraflouroethylene). These are both natural and synthetic, absorbable and nonabsorbable and monofilament and multifilament sutures. All of these sutures were size 2-0, but Prolene sutures with sizes ranging from 1-0 to 9-0 were also tested to determine the effect of suture size on stiffness. The bending stiffness data obtained showed that a wide range of bending stiffness was observed among the 22 commercial sutures. The most flexible 2-0 suture was Gore-tex, followed by Dexon, Silk, Surgilon, Vicryl (uncoated), Tycron, Nurolon, Mersilene, Ethibond, Maxon, PDS, Ethilon, Prolene, Chromic catgut, coated Vicryl, and lastly, Dermalene. The large porous volume inherent in Gore-tex monofilament suture was the reason for its lowest flexural stiffness. Sutures with a braided structure were generally more flexible than those of a monofilament structure, irrespective of the chemical constituents. Coated sutures had significantly higher stiffness than the corresponding uncoated ones. This is particularly true when polymers rather than wax were used as the coating material. This increase in stiffness is attributable to the loss of mobility under bending force in the fibers and yarns that make up the sutures. An increase in the size of the suture significantly increased the stiffness, and the magnitude of increase depended on the chemical constituent of the suture. The flexural stiffness of sutures was also found to depend on the duration of bending in the test for stiffness. In general, monofilament sutures exhibited the largest time-dependent stiffness. This was most pronounced with the Gore-tex suture. Most braided sutures also showed less time-dependence in stiffness. Nylon sutures did not exhibit this time-dependent phenomenon regardless of physical form. PMID:2919353

  13. Polyelectrolyte multilayer films of controlled stiffness modulate myoblast cells differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Kefeng; Crouzier, Thomas; Roy, Christian; Picart, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Beside chemical properties and topographical features, mechanical properties of gels have been recently demonstrated to play an important role in various cellular processes, including cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. In this work, we used multilayer films made of poly(L-lysine)/Hyaluronan (PLL/HA) of controlled stiffness to investigate the effects of mechanical properties of thin films on skeletal muscle cells (C2C12 cells) differentiation. Prior to differentiation, cells need to adhere and proliferate in growth medium. Stiff films (E0 > 320 kPa) promoted formation of focal adhesions and organization of the cytoskeleton as well as an enhanced proliferation, whereas soft films were not favorable for cell anchoring, spreading or proliferation. Then C2C12 cells were switched to a low serum containing medium to induce cell differentiation, which was also greatly dependent on film stiffness. Although myogenin and troponin T expressions were only moderately affected by film stiffness, the morphology of the myotubes exhibited striking stiffness-dependent differences. Soft films allowed differentiation only for few days and the myotubes were very short and thick. Cell clumping followed by aggregates detachment could be observed after ~2 to 4 days. On stiffer films, significantly more elongated and thinner myotubes were observed for up to ~ 2 weeks. Myotube striation was also observed but only for the stiffer films. These results demonstrate that film stiffness modulates deeply adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, each of these processes having its own stiffness requirement. PMID:18841249

  14. Substrate stiffness-modulated registry phase correlations in cardiomyocytes map structural order to coherent beating.

    PubMed

    Dasbiswas, K; Majkut, S; Discher, D E; Safran, Samuel A

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments show that both striation, an indication of the structural registry in muscle fibres, as well as the contractile strains produced by beating cardiac muscle cells can be optimized by substrate stiffness. Here we show theoretically how the substrate rigidity dependence of the registry data can be mapped onto that of the strain measurements. We express the elasticity-mediated structural registry as a phase-order parameter using a statistical physics approach that takes the noise and disorder inherent in biological systems into account. By assuming that structurally registered myofibrils also tend to beat in phase, we explain the observed dependence of both striation and strain measurements of cardiomyocytes on substrate stiffness in a unified manner. The agreement of our ideas with experiment suggests that the correlated beating of heart cells may be limited by the structural order of the myofibrils, which in turn is regulated by their elastic environment. PMID:25597833

  15. What drives the translocation of stiff chains?

    PubMed Central

    Zandi, Roya; Reguera, David; Rudnick, Joseph; Gelbart, William M.

    2003-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the passage of a stiff chain through a pore into a cell containing particles that bind reversibly to it. Using Brownian molecular dynamics simulations we investigate the mean first-passage time as a function of the length of the chain inside for different concentrations of binding particles. As a consequence of the interactions with these particles, the chain experiences a net force along its length whose calculated value from the simulations accounts for the velocity at which it enters the cell. This force can in turn be obtained from the solution of a generalized diffusion equation incorporating an effective Langmuir adsorption free energy for the chain plus binding particles. These results suggest a role of binding particles in the translocation process that is in general quite different from that of a Brownian ratchet. Furthermore, nonequilibrium effects contribute significantly to the dynamics; e.g., the chain often enters the cell faster than particle binding can be saturated, resulting in a force several times smaller than the equilibrium value. PMID:12851462

  16. Enhancement of structural stiffness in MEMS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilias, Samir; Picard, Francis; Topart, Patrice; Larouche, Carl; Jerominek, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    Many optical applications require smooth micromirror reflective surfaces with large radius of curvature. Usually when using surface micromachining technology and as a result of residual stress and stress gradient in thin films, the control of residual curvature is a difficult task. In this work, two engineering approaches were developed to enhance structural stiffness of micromirrors. 1) By integrating stiffening structures and thermal annealing. The stiffening structures consist of U-shaped profiles integrated with the mirror (dimension 200×300 ?m2). 2) By combining selective electroplating and flip-chip based technologies. Nickel was used as electroplated material with optimal stress values around +/-10 MPa for layer thicknesses of about 10 ?m. With the former approach, typical curvature radii of about 1.5 cm and 0.6 cm along mirror width and length were obtained, respectively. With the latter approach, an important improvement in the micromirror planarity and flatness was achieved with curvature radius up to 23 cm and roughness lower than 5 nm rms for typical 1000×1000 ?m2 micromirrors.

  17. The influence of fiber length and fiber orientation on damping and stiffness of polymer composite materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Suarez; R. F. Gibson; C. T. Sun; S. K. Chaturvedi

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the theoretical analysis, the experimental results and the curve-fitting of the analytical model to the\\u000a experimental results on the influence of fiber length and fiber orientation on damping and stiffness of polymer-composite\\u000a materials. The experimental results show that, as predicted, very low fiber aspect ratios are required to produce significant\\u000a improvements in damping. Measurements and predictions also

  18. Serum hyaluronic acid levels do not explain morning stiffness in patients with fibromyalgia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-Sun Kim; Shin-Seok Lee; Tae-Jong Kim; Yong-Wook Park

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the serum levels of hyaluronic acid (HA) in Korean female patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and correlate these\\u000a levels with variables of disease severity including morning stiffness, we measured HA serum levels in 69 FM patients, 72 rheumatoid\\u000a arthritis (RA) patients, and 71 healthy controls by enzyme-linked binding protein assay. The serum levels of HA in FM patients\\u000a did

  19. Puncture resistance and stiffness of nitrile and latex dental examination gloves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H B Patel; F J T Burke; G J P Fleming

    2004-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to assess the puncture resistance and stiffness of nitrile and latex dental examination gloves.Methods Puncture resistance was measured by employing an adapted version of ASTM F1342-91 using both a 316 stainless steel puncture probe (0.8 mm diameter) and a dental injection needle (0.45 mm diameter) interfaced to a tensile testing apparatus. Glove

  20. Arterial stiffness and enlargement in mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Briet; E Bozec; S Laurent; C Fassot; G M London; C Jacquot; M Froissart; P Houillier; P Boutouyrie

    2006-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Arterial stiffness and remodeling have been well documented in patients with end-stage renal disease, but little is known about arterial phenotype in CKD patients with moderate reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In total, 95 patients (58±15 years, mean±s.d.) with CKD and GFR measured by

  1. Influence of musculo-tendinous stiffness of the plantar ankle flexor muscles upon maximal power output on a cycle ergometre.

    PubMed

    Driss, Tarak; Lambertz, Daniel; Rouis, Majdi; Vandewalle, Henry

    2012-11-01

    The importance of maximal voluntary torque (T (MVC)), maximal rate of torque development (MRTD) and musculo-tendinous stiffness of the triceps surae for maximal power output on a cycle ergometre (Pmax) was studied in 21 healthy subjects by studying the relationships between maximal cycling power related to body mass (Pmax BM(-1)) with T (MVC), MRTD and different indices of musculo-tendinous stiffness of the ankle flexor. Pmax BM(-1) was calculated from the data of an all-out force-velocity test on a Monark cycle ergometre. T (MVC) and MRTD were measured on a specific ankle ergometre. Musculo-tendinous stiffness was estimated by means of quick releases at 20, 40, 60 and 80% T (MVC) on the same ankle ergometre. Pmax BM(-1) was significantly and positively correlated with MRTD related to body mass but the positive correlation between Pmax BM(-1) and T (MVC) did not reach the significance level (0.05). Pmax BM(-1) was significantly and positively correlated with the estimation of stiffness at 40% T (MVC) (S(0.4)), but not with stiffness at 20, 60 and 80% T (MVC). The results of the present study suggest that maximal power output during cycling is significantly correlated with the level of musculo-tendinous stiffness which corresponds to torque range around peak torque at optimal pedal rate. However, the low coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.203) between Pmax BM(-1) and S (0.4) BM(-1) suggested that Pmax BM(-1) largely depended on other factors than the musculo-tendinous stiffness of the only plantar flexors. PMID:22354446

  2. Arterial stiffness and blood flow adaptations following eight weeks of resistance exercise training in young and older women.

    PubMed

    Rossow, Lindy M; Fahs, Christopher A; Thiebaud, Robert S; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Kim, Daeyeol; Mouser, James G; Shore, Erin A; Beck, Travis W; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2014-05-01

    Resistance training is recommended for all adults of both sexes. The arterial stiffness and limb blood flow responses to resistance training in young and older women have not been well-studied. The purpose of this study was to examine arterial stiffness and blood flow adaptations to high-intensity resistance exercise training in young and older women. Young (aged 18-25) and older (aged 50-64) women performed full-body high-intensity resistance exercise three times per week for eight weeks. The following measurements were performed twice prior to training and once following training: carotid to femoral and femoral to tibialis posterior pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure, heart rate, resting forearm blood flow and forearm reactive hyperemia. Data was analyzed by ANOVAs with alpha set at 0.05. Correlations were also examined between changes in arterial stiffness and baseline arterial stiffness values. Older subjects had higher carotid-femoral PWV than younger subjects. No significant effects were found for femoral-tibialis posterior PWV or for resting forearm blood flow. Changes in carotid-femoral and femoral-tibialis posterior PWV correlated significantly with their respective baseline values. Older subjects increased peak forearm blood flow while young subjects showed no change. Total hyperemia increased significantly in both groups. In conclusion, in both young and older women, eight weeks of high-intensity resistance training appeared to improve microvascular forearm function while not changing carotid-femoral or femoral-tibialis posterior arterial stiffness. However, a large degree of individual variation was found and arterial stiffness adaptations appeared positively related to the initial stiffness values. PMID:24566193

  3. Noninvasive Evaluation of Hepatic Fibrosis using Acoustic Radiation Force-Based Shear Stiffness in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Palmeri, Mark L.; Wang, Michael H.; Rouze, Ned C.; Abdelmalek, Manal F.; Guy, Cynthia D.; Moser, Barry; Diehl, Anna Mae; Nightingale, Kathryn R.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common form of chronic liver disease in developed countries, may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a minority of people. Those with NASH are at increased risk for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The potential risk and economic burden of utilizing liver biopsy to stage NAFLD in an overwhelmingly large at-risk population are enormous; thus, the discovery of sensitive, inexpensive, and reliable noninvasive diagnostic modalities is essential for population-based screening. Methods Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) shear wave imaging, a noninvasive method of assessing tissue stiffness, was used to evaluate liver fibrosis in 172 patients diagnosed with NAFLD. Liver shear stiffness measures in 3 different imaging locations were reconstructed and compared to the histologic features of NAFLD and AST-to-platelet ratio indices (APRI). Results Reconstructed shear stiffnesses were not associated with ballooned hepatocytes (p = 0.11), inflammation (p = 0.69), nor imaging location (p = 0.11). Using a predictive shear stiffness threshold of 4.24 kPa, shear stiffness distinguished low (fibrosis stage 0–2) from high (fibrosis stage 3–4) fibrosis stages with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 90% (AUC of 0.90). Shear stiffness had a mild correlation with APRI (R2 = 0.22). BMI > 40 kg/m2 was not a limiting factor for ARFI imaging, and no correlation was noted between BMI and shear stiffness (R2 = 0.05). Conclusions ARFI imaging is a promising imaging modality for assessing the presence or absence of advanced fibrosis in patients with obesity-related liver disease. PMID:21256907

  4. Time-varying stiffness of human elbow joint during cyclic voluntary movement.

    PubMed

    Bennett, D J; Hollerbach, J M; Xu, Y; Hunter, I W

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which subjects modulate their elbow joint mechanical properties during ongoing arm movement. Small pseudo-random force disturbances were applied to the wrist with an airjet actuator while subjects executed large (1 rad) elbow joint movements. Using a lumped parameter model of the muscle, tendon and proprioceptive feedback dynamics, a time-varying system identification technique was developed to analyze the phasic changes in the elbow joint's mechanical response. The mechanical properties were found to be time-varying, and well approximated by a quasi-linear second-order model. The stiffness of the arm was found to drop during movement. The arm was always underdamped, with the damping ratio changing during movement. Inertia estimates were constant and consistent with previous measurements. Overall, the moving arm was found to be very compliant, with a peak stiffness value less than the lowest value measured during posture, and a natural frequency of less than 3 Hz. Changing the speed of movement, or the load from gravity, changed the stiffness measured, but not in strict proportion to the change in net muscle torque. PMID:1577114

  5. Breakthrough Technologies Cellular Force Microscopy for in Vivo Measurements of

    E-print Network

    Kuhlemeier, Cris

    provides the possibility to map the apparent stiffness of both plasmolyzed and turgid tissue as well is negligible. In pollen tubes, the apparent stiffness has been measured using microindentation methods

  6. Study of ultrasound stiffness imaging methods using tissue mimicking phantoms.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Kavitha; Machireddy, Ramasubba Reddy; Seshadri, Suresh

    2014-02-01

    A pilot study was carried out to investigate the performance of ultrasound stiffness imaging methods namely Ultrasound Elastography Imaging (UEI) and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Imaging. Specifically their potential for characterizing different classes of solid mass lesions was analyzed using agar based tissue mimicking phantoms. Composite tissue mimicking phantom was prepared with embedded inclusions of varying stiffness from 50 kPa to 450 kPa to represent different stages of cancer. Acoustic properties such as sound speed, attenuation coefficient and acoustic impedance were characterized by pulse echo ultrasound test at 5 MHz frequency and they are ranged from (1564 ± 88 to 1671 ± 124 m/s), (0.6915 ± 0.123 to 0.8268 ± 0.755 db cm(-1)MHz(-1)) and (1.61 × 10(6) ± 0.127 to 1.76 × 10(6) ± 0.045 kg m(-2)s(-1)) respectively. The elastic property Young's Modulus of the prepared samples was measured by conducting quasi static uni axial compression test under a strain rate of 0.5mm/min upto 10 % strain, and the values are from 50 kPa to 450 kPa for a variation of agar concentration from 1.7% to 6.6% by weight. The composite phantoms were imaged by Siemens Acuson S2000 (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) machine using linear array transducer 9L4 at 8 MHz frequency; strain and displacement images were collected by UEI and ARFI. Shear wave velocity 4.43 ± 0.35 m/s was also measured for high modulus contrast (18 dB) inclusion and X.XX m/s was found for all other inclusions. The images were pre processed and parameters such as Contrast Transfer Efficiency and lateral image profile were computed and reported. The results indicate that both ARFI and UEI represent the abnormalities better than conventional US B mode imaging whereas UEI enhances the underlying modulus contrast into improved strain contrast. The results are corroborated with literature and also with clinical patient images. PMID:24083832

  7. Wing/store flutter with nonlinear pylon stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, R. N.; Reed, W. H., III

    1980-01-01

    Recent wind tunnel tests and analytical studies show that a store mounted on a pylon with soft pitch stiffness provides substantial increase in flutter speed of fighter aircraft and reduces dependency of flutter on mass and inertia of the store. This concept, termed the decoupler pylon, utilizes a low frequency control system to maintain pitch alignment of the store during maneuvers and changing flight conditions. Under rapidly changing transient loads, however, the alignment control system may allow the store to momentarily bottom against a relatively stiff backup structure in which case the pylon stiffness acts as a hardening nonlinear spring. Such structural nonlinearities are known to affect not only the flutter speed but also the basic behavior of the instability. The influence of pylon stiffness nonlinearities or the flutter characteristics of wing mounted external stores is examined.

  8. Arterial Stiffness and Renal Replacement Therapy: A Controversial Topic

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Edmundo Cabrera; Zócalo, Yanina; Galli, Cintia; Bia, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The increase of arterial stiffness has been to have a significant impact on predicting mortality in end-stage renal disease patients. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a noninvasive, reliable parameter of regional arterial stiffness that integrates the vascular geometry and arterial wall intrinsic elasticity and is capable of predicting cardiovascular mortality in this patient population. Nevertheless, reports on PWV in dialyzed patients are contradictory and sometimes inconsistent: some reports claim the arterial wall stiffness increases (i.e., PWV increase), others claim that it is reduced, and some even state that it augments in the aorta while it simultaneously decreases in the brachial artery pathway. The purpose of this study was to analyze the literature in which longitudinal or transversal studies were performed in hemodialysis and/or peritoneal dialysis patients, in order to characterize arterial stiffness and the responsiveness to renal replacement therapy.

  9. Dynamic study of tunable stiffness scanning microscope probe

    E-print Network

    Vega González, Myraida Angélica

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the dynamic characteristics of the in-plane tunable stiffness scanning microscope probe for an atomic force microscope (AFM). The analysis was carried out using finite element analysis (FEA) methods for ...

  10. Nondestrutive damage detection by simultaneous identification of stiffness and damping

    E-print Network

    Hyung, Sang Su

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this study is to develop a nondestructive damage evaluation methodology that can identify simultaneously both stiffness and damping changes in a structure. Two approaches are used to meet the stated objectives. First, a method...

  11. Residual-based Stiffness Estimation in Robots with Flexible Transmissions

    E-print Network

    De Luca, Alessandro

    joints with flexible transmissions. Based on the definition of dynamic residual signals, we derive/stiffness decoupling control law proposed in [4] for antagonistic VSA-based manipulators involves the transmission

  12. Composite Materials with Viscoelastic Stiffness Greater Than Diamond

    E-print Network

    Lakes, Roderic

    systems. For example, both negative stiffness and the resulting giant damping were observed (2 stabilizes the negative bulk modulus (inverse compressibility) of the inclusions. This negative modulus that exhibit negative refraction by inertial resonant effects. Conventional composites with positive

  13. Quantification of Magnetically Induced Changes in ECM Local Apparent Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Herath, Sahan C.B.; Yue, Du; Hui, Shi; Kim, Min-Cheol; Wang, Dong-an; Wang, Qingguo; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.; Asada, Harry; Chen, Peter C.Y.

    2014-01-01

    The stiffness of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is known to influence cell behavior. The ability to manipulate the stiffness of ECM has important implications in understanding how cells interact mechanically with their microenvironment. This article describes an approach to manipulating the stiffness ECM, whereby magnetic beads are embedded in the ECM through bioconjugation between the streptavidin-coated beads and the collagen fibers and then manipulated by an external magnetic field. It also reports both analytical results (obtained by formal modeling and numerical simulation) and statistically meaningful experimental results (obtained by atomic force microscopy) that demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. These results clearly suggest the possibility of creating desired stiffness gradients in ECM in vitro to influence cell behavior. PMID:24411265

  14. The initial torsional stiffness of shells with interior webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Paul

    1935-01-01

    A method of calculating the stresses and torsional stiffness of thin shells with interior webs is summarized. Comparisons between experimental and calculated results are given for 3 duralumin beams, 5 stainless steel beams and 2 duralumin wings. It is concluded that if the theoretical stiffness is multiplied by a correction factor of 0.9, experimental values may be expected to check calculated values within about 10 percent.

  15. Geometrical Interpretation of the CCT Stiffness Mapping for Serial Manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chintien Huang; Imin Kao

    2001-01-01

    Recent research results suggested a conservative transformation to correct the well-known congruence transformation between\\u000a Cartesian and joint stiffness matrices of a serial manipulator. This paper utilizes screw geometry to interpret the conservative\\u000a congruence transformation (CCT). The analysis using screw theory provides better geometric insights into the CCT. The effective\\u000a geometrical stiffness matrix, due to the change of manipulator geometry under

  16. Matrix cracking and bending stiffness reduction in composite laminates 

    E-print Network

    Frailey, James Alan

    1988-01-01

    MATRIX CRACKING AND BENDING STIFFNESS REDUCTION IN COAIPOSITE LAMINATES A Thesis by JAMES ALAN FRAILEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AgcM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering MATRIX CRACKING AND BENDING STIFFNESS REDUCTION IN COMPOSITE LAMINATES A Thesis by JAMES ALAN FRAILEY Approved as to style and content by: A. L. High mith (Chair of Committee) W. E...

  17. Cornering stiffness estimation based on vehicle lateral dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Sierra; E. Tseng; A. Jain; H. Peng

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the cornering stiffness estimation problem based on the vehicle bicycle (one-track) model is studied. Both time-domain and frequency-domain-based methods are analyzed, aiming to estimate the effective cornering stiffness, defined as the ratio between the lateral force and the slip angle at the two axles. Several methods based on the bicycle model were developed, each having specific pros\\/cons

  18. Boundary Stiffness Regulates Fibroblast Behavior in Collagen Gels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey John; Angela Throm Quinlan; Chiara Silvestri; Kristen Billiar

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have illustrated the profound dependence of cellular behavior on the stiffness of 2D culture substrates. The\\u000a goal of this study was to develop a method to alter the stiffness cells experience in a standard 3D collagen gel model without\\u000a affecting the physiochemical properties of the extracellular matrix. A device was developed utilizing compliant anchors (0.048–0.64 N m?1) to tune the

  19. The stiffness matrix in elastically articulated rigid-body systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kövecses; J. Angeles

    2007-01-01

    Discussed in this paper is the Cartesian stiffness matrix, which recently has received special attention within the robotics\\u000a research community. Stiffness is a fundamental concept in mechanics; its representation in mechanical systems whose potential\\u000a energy is describable by a finite set of generalized coordinates takes the form of a square matrix that is known to be, moreover,\\u000a symmetric and positive-definite

  20. Design of a variable-stiffness flapping mechanism for maximizing the thrust of a bio-inspired underwater robot.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Jai; Huh, Tae Myung; Park, Daegeun; Cho, Kyu-Jin

    2014-09-01

    Compliance can increase the thrust generated by the fin of a bio-inspired underwater vehicle. To improve the performance of a compliant fin, the compliance should change with the operating conditions; a fin should become stiffer as the oscillating frequency increases. This paper presents a novel variable-stiffness flapping (VaSF) mechanism that can change its stiffness to maximize the thrust of a bio-inspired underwater robot. The mechanism is designed on the basis of an endoskeleton structure, composed of compliant and rigid segments alternately connected in series. To determine the attachment point of tendons, the anatomy of a dolphin's fluke is considered. Two tendons run through the mechanism to adjust the stiffness. The fluke becomes stiffer when the tendons are pulled to compress the structure. The thrust generated by a prototype mechanism is measured under different conditions to show that the thrust can be maximized by changing the stiffness. The thrust of the VaSF device can approximately triple at a certain frequency just by changing the stiffness. This VaSF mechanism can be used to improve the efficiency of a bio-inspired underwater robot that uses compliance. PMID:24584214

  1. A Novel Shape Memory Plate Osteosynthesis for Noninvasive Modulation of Fixation Stiffness in a Rabbit Tibia Osteotomy Model

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christian W.; Pfeifer, Ronny; Meier, Karen; Decker, Sebastian; Reifenrath, Janin; Gösling, Thomas; Wesling, Volker; Krettek, Christian; Hurschler, Christof; Krämer, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi-SMA) implants might allow modulating fracture healing, changing their stiffness through alteration of both elastic modulus and cross-sectional shape by employing the shape memory effect (SME). Hypotheses: a novel NiTi-SMA plate stabilizes tibia osteotomies in rabbits. After noninvasive electromagnetic induction heating the alloy exhibits the SME and the plate changes towards higher stiffness (inverse dynamization) resulting in increased fixation stiffness and equal or better bony healing. In 14 rabbits, 1.0?mm tibia osteotomies were fixed with our experimental plate. Animals were randomised for control or induction heating at three weeks postoperatively. Repetitive X-ray imaging and in vivo measurements of bending stiffness were performed. After sacrifice at 8 weeks, macroscopic evaluation, µCT, and post mortem bending tests of the tibiae were carried out. One death and one early implant dislocation occurred. Following electromagnetic induction heating, radiographic and macroscopic changes of the implant proved successful SME activation. All osteotomies healed. In the treatment group, bending stiffness increased over time. Differences between groups were not significant. In conclusion, we demonstrated successful healing of rabbit tibia osteotomies using our novel NiTi-SMA plate. We demonstrated shape-changing SME in-vivo through transcutaneous electromagnetic induction heating. Thus, future orthopaedic implants could be modified without additional surgery.

  2. Fore-and-aft stiffness and damping characteristics of 30 x 11.5-14.5, Type VIII, bias-ply and radial-belted aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Mercedes C.; Davis, Pamela A.; Yeaton, Robert B.; Vogler, William A.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of footprint geometrical properties and fore and aft stiffness and damping characteristics were obtained on 30 x 11.5-14.5 bias-ply and radial-belted aircraft tires. Significant differences in stiffness and damping characteristics were found between the two design types. The results show that footprint aspect ratio effects may interfere with the improved hydroplaning potential associated with the radial-belted tire operating at higher inflation pressures.

  3. An investigation of angular stiffness and damping coefficients of an axial spline coupling in high-speed rotating machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, C.-P. Roger; Walton, James F., Jr.; Lund, Jorgen W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provided an opportunity to quantify the angular stiffness and equivalent viscous damping coefficients of an axial spline coupling used in high-speed turbomachinery. A unique test methodology and data reduction procedures were developed. The bending moments and angular deflections transmitted across an axial spline coupling were measured while a nonrotating shaft was excited by an external shaker. A rotor dynamics computer program was used to simulate the test conditions and to correlate the angular stiffness and damping coefficients. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to show that the accuracy of the dynamic coefficients do not rely on the accuracy of the data reduction procedures.

  4. Increased arterial stiffness and extracellular matrix reorganization in intrauterine growth–restricted fetal sheep

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Reuben Blair; Rozance, Paul J.; Fleenor, Bradley S.; Petrash, Carson C.; Shoemaker, Lauren G.; Hunter, Kendall S.; Ferguson, Virginia L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results in increased placental resistance to blood flow, fetal hypertension, and increased pulsatility stresses shown to lead to vascular remodeling. We tested our hypothesis that IUGR causes decreased compliance in the carotid and umbilical arteries due to altered extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and structure. METHODS A sheep model of placental insufficiency–induced IUGR (PI-IUGR) was created by exposure of the pregnant ewe to elevated ambient temperatures. Umbilical and carotid arteries from near-term fetuses were tested with pressure–diameter measurements to compare passive compliance in control and PI-IUGR tissues. ECM composition was measured via biochemical assay, and the organization was determined by using histology and second-harmonic generation imaging. RESULTS We found that PI-IUGR increased arterial stiffness with increased collagen engagement, or transition stretch. PI-IUGR carotid arteries exhibited increased collagen and elastin quantity, and PI-IUGR umbilical arteries exhibited increased sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Histomorphology showed altered collagen-to-elastin ratios with altered cellular proliferation. Increased stiffness indicates altered collagen-to-elastin ratios with less elastin contribution leading to increased collagen engagement. CONCLUSION Because vessel stiffness is a significant predictor in the development of hypertension, disrupted ECM deposition in IUGR provides a potential link between IUGR and adult hypertension. PMID:23154756

  5. Stabilizing the Central Part of Tropomyosin Increases the Bending Stiffness of the Thin Filament.

    PubMed

    Nabiev, Salavat R; Ovsyannikov, Denis A; Kopylova, Galina V; Shchepkin, Daniil V; Matyushenko, Alexander M; Koubassova, Natalia A; Levitsky, Dmitrii I; Tsaturyan, Andrey K; Bershitsky, Sergey Y

    2015-07-21

    A two-beam optical trap was used to measure the bending stiffness of F-actin and reconstructed thin filaments. A dumbbell was formed by a filament segment attached to two beads that were held in the two optical traps. One trap was static and held a bead used as a force transducer, whereas an acoustooptical deflector moved the beam holding the second bead, causing stretch of the dumbbell. The distance between the beads was measured using image analysis of micrographs. An exact solution to the problem of bending of an elastic filament attached to two beads and subjected to a stretch was used for data analysis. Substitution of noncanonical residues in the central part of tropomyosin with canonical ones, G126R and D137L, and especially their combination, caused an increase in the bending stiffness of the thin filaments. The data confirm that the effect of these mutations on the regulation of actin-myosin interactions may be caused by an increase in tropomyosin stiffness. PMID:26200873

  6. Effects of muscle damage on stretch-shortening cycle function and muscle stiffness control.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Andrew J; Gaffney, Simon D

    2004-11-01

    This experiment examined the effect of eccentric contraction-induced muscle damage on the stretch-shortening cycle and vertical leg spring stiffness during jumping activities. Ten moderately active male and female adult volunteers participated in this study (aged 23 +/- 2.3 years). Temporary muscle damage to the knee extensors was administered by a bout of eccentric contractions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Measurements were obtained of maximum voluntary force and of take-off velocities for single-leg countermovement jumps (CMJs), squat jumps (SJs), and drop jumps (DJs), performed on a specially constructed sledge and force plate apparatus. These measurements were obtained before and after the damage intervention, and the undamaged leg was used as a control. The results indicated that eccentric muscle damage significantly affected stretch-shortening cycle performance by causing relatively greater reductions in SJ performance than CMJ or DJ. The muscle damage intervention also significantly increased leg-spring stiffness, which indicates that the changes in leg stiffness may be an important adaptation resulting from eccentric exercise. PMID:15574081

  7. Effect of treatment on strength and stiffness of Western Red Cedar utility poles

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuyan, G.S. [Powertech Labs Inc., Surrey (Canada); Chetwynd, D.S. [B.C. Hydro, Burnaby (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Based on a survey of North American utilities, research organizations and manufacturers, the effect of preservative methods on strength and stiffness of new wood utility poles was found to be inconclusive. This is primarily due to the fact that no direct comparisons were made between the mechanical properties of the same poles before and after the treatment. Hence a systematic research program was carried out on thirty, forty-five foot long Western Red Cedar poles having different sizes. Two newly developed Nondestructive Evaluation instruments, based on ultrasonic principles, were used to grade and assure the quality of these poles, individually, at the green stage. Penetration resistances were quantified using an instrumented drill. The stiffness of the untreated poles were measured from full scale deflection tests. After these measurements, the poles were treated with chromate copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservatives. Change in strength, stiffness and penetration resistance due to the treatment was quantified for each pole using the above methods. This paper will summarize the results obtained from this research program.

  8. The multi-position calibration of the stiffness for atomic-force microscope cantilevers based on vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yelong; Song, Le; Hu, Gang; Cai, Xue; Liu, Hongguang; Ma, Jinyu; Zhao, Meirong; Fang, Fengzhou

    2015-05-01

    Calibration of the stiffness of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers is critical for industry and academic research. The multi-position calibration method for AFM cantilevers based on vibration is investigated. The position providing minimum uncertainty is deduced. The validity of the multi-position approach is shown via theoretical and experimental means. We applied it to the recently developed vibration method using an AFM cantilever with a normal stiffness of 0.1?N?m?1. The standard deviation of the measured stiffness is 0.002?N?m?1 with a mean value of 0.189?N?m?1 and the relative combined uncertainty is approximately 7%, which is better than the approach using the single position at the tip of the cantilever.

  9. The Relationship Between the Changes in Local Stiffness of Chicken Myofibril and the Tenderness of Muscle During Postmortem Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, T.; Hasegawa, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Nakamura, K.

    We have investigated that the relationship between the stiffness of myofibrils and the tenderness of muscle during postmortem aging. The stiffness (elasticity) of A and I bands as well as Z-line of chicken myofibrils during postmortem aging were measured by atomic force microscope. The stiffness of all regions increased till 12 hr of postmortem, then it decreased to 96 hr. This tendency was the same as the changes of shear force value of whole muscle during postmortem aging. The elasticity of the Z-line of chicken myofibrils treated with calcium ions in the presence of protease inhibitor decreased with treating time. This indicates that the nonenzymatic structural changes of myofibrils is one of the causes of meat tenderization.

  10. RX J1856-3754: Evidence for a Stiff EOS

    E-print Network

    Timothy M. Braje; Roger W. Romani

    2002-08-03

    We have examined the soft X-ray plus optical/UV spectrum of the nearby isolated neutron star RX J1856-3754, comparing with detailed models of a thermally emitting surface. Like previous investigators, we find the spectrum is best fit by a two-temperature blackbody model. In addition, our simulations constrain the allowed viewing geometry from the observed pulse fraction upper limits. These simulations show that RX J1856-3754 is very likely to be a normal young pulsar, with the non-thermal radio beam missing Earth's line of sight. The SED limits on the model parameter space put a strong constraint on the star's M/R. At the measured parallax distance, the allowed range for Mstar=1.5Msun is Rstar=13.7+/-0.6km. Under this interpretation, the EOS is relatively stiff near nuclear density and the `Quark Star' EOS posited in some previous studies is strongly excluded. The data also constrain the surface T distribution over the polar cap.

  11. Ambulatory arterial stiffness index in children after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dégi, Arianna; Kerti, Andrea; Cseprekál, Orsolya; Kis, Éva; Sallay, Péter; Szabó, Attila J; Reusz, George S

    2013-11-01

    Given the increase in CV morbidity after RTx and the scarcity of CV events in pediatrics, surrogate markers should be assessed to characterize CV damage in this population. AASI is a marker of arterial stiffness in adults, predicting cardio- and cerebrovascular morbidity. Our aim was to assess the determinants of AASI in RTx children (n = 54, 15.5 ± 3.5 yr) and to examine its relationship to central PWV. AASI was calculated from 24 h ABPM. PWV was determined by applanation tonometry, body composition by multifrequency bioimpedance measurement. The dipping state, volume overload, and time on dialysis were the main predictors of AASI (p < 0.05). Children with established HT (n = 34) had increased AASI, extracellular body water, and BNP (p < 0.05). In contrast to AASI, PWV did not differ between HT and normotensive RTx patient groups. There was no correlation between AASI and PWV. PWV was increased in children who spent more than one yr on dialysis prior to RTx. In conclusion, increased AASI in HT RTx children better characterizes the actual volume- and pressure-dependent arterial rigidity rather than long-term morphological changes in large arteries as reflected by PWV. PMID:23855604

  12. Modulating surface stiffness of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with kiloelectronvolt ion patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Boyin; Fu, Jing

    2015-06-01

    This study is to investigate the modulated surface properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with kiloelectronvolt ions. By irradiating the PDMS surface with a focused ion beam (FIB, keV Ga+), nano/microscale patterns of controlled stiffness can be fabricated with ion fluence ranging from 0.1–20?pC?µm?2. The following nanoindentation measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM) revealed that Young’s modulus increased exponentially with the increase of ion fluence and reached 2?GPa. The stiffening was found to be less significant with irradiation at a higher ion incident angle and lower accelerating voltage. Raman spectroscopy results also confirmed that disordering caused by cross-linking and hydrogen release occurred on the target PDMS surface. By modelling and experimenting on PDMS-Si3N4 bilayer structures, the volume reduction ratios of PDMS with ion beam and electron beam irradiation were estimated. The proposed site specific modulating method and understanding of detailed governing mechanisms will allow the tuning of the PDMS surface with great accuracy and flexibility towards future applications in tissue engineering and microfabrication.

  13. AMER. ZOOL., 38:771-792 (1998) Muscles, Elastic Energy, and the Dynamics of Body Stiffness in

    E-print Network

    Long Jr., John H.

    1998-01-01

    SYNOPSIS. TO investigate the capacity of the myomeric muscles to actively change the stiffness of the body the classical model of forceful shortening. For example, measure- ments of muscle activity patterns (electro or hydrodynamic loads, active muscle fibers are said to "gen- erate," from their frame of reference, neg- ative

  14. Enhanced stiffness modeling of manipulators with passive joints Anatol Pashkevicha,b,*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    stiffness matrix which allows rank-deficiency. Within the developed technique, the manipulator elements robots, which interact directly with humans, a rather low stiffness is required to eliminate collisions the mechanical stiffness of the manipulator (passive compliance) and the stiffness of the robotic system, which

  15. Robotic stiffness control and calibration as applied to human grasping tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imin Kao; Mark R. Cutkosky; Roland S. Johansson

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we study stiffness analysis as applied to human grasping. Grasp stiffness has been demonstrated to be useful for modeling and controlling robotic manipulators. The computation of general linear R3×3 stiffness matrices for grasping, which can be decomposed into symmetric (conservative) and asymmetric (nonconservative) components, offers physical insights for stiffness control in robotics as well as human grasping.

  16. Identification of intrinsic and reflexive contributions to low-back stiffness: medium-term reliability and construct validity.

    PubMed

    Larivière, Christian; Ludvig, Daniel; Kearney, Robert; Mecheri, Hakim; Caron, Jean-Maxime; Preuss, Richard

    2015-01-21

    This study aimed at testing the reliability and construct validity of a trunk perturbation protocol (TPP) that estimates the intrinsic and reflexive contributions to low-back stiffness. The TPP consists of a series of pseudorandom position-controlled trunk perturbations in an apparatus measuring forces and displacements at the harness surrounding the thorax. Intrinsic and reflexive contributions to low-back stiffness were estimated using a system identification procedure, leading to 12 parameters. Study 1 methods (reliability): 30 subjects performed five 75-s trials, on each of two separate days (eight weeks apart). Reliability was assessed using the generalizability theory, which allowed computing indexes of dependability (?, analogous to intraclass correlation coefficient) and standard errors of measurement (SEM). Study 2 methods (validity): 20 healthy subjects performed three 75-s trials for each of five experimental conditions assumed to provide different lumbar stiffness; testing the construct validity of the TPP using four conditions with different lumbar belt designs and one control condition without. Study 1 results (reliability): Learning was seen between the first and following trials. Consequently, reliability analyses were performed without the first trial. Simulations showed that averaging the scores of three trials can lead to acceptable reliability results for some TPP parameters. Study 2 results (validity): All lumbar belt designs increased low-back intrinsic stiffness, while only some of them decreased reflex stiffness, which support the construct validity of the TPP. Overall, these findings support the use of the TPP to test the effect of rehabilitation or between-groups differences with regards to trunk stiffness. PMID:25529140

  17. Imaging of local stiffness of damaged polycrystalline copper: nondestructive evaluation by resonance ultrasound microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ogi, Hirotsugu; Hayama, Noritaka; Niho, Hiroki; Hirao, Masahiko; Morishita, Tomohiro

    2007-08-01

    The distribution of the local stiffness of a polycrystalline copper exposed to a creep test was studied by resonance ultrasound microscopy. The local effective modulus was evaluated from the resonance frequency of the isolated langasite oscillator touching the specimen. Defects appeared predominantly on grain boundaries, and they were clearly visualized by the stiffness microscopy through the significant decrease of the effective stiffness. The stiffness within the grains becomes lower regardless of invisible defects. The stiffness distribution was quantitatively analyzed by the contact model between two anisotropic bodies and by the micromechanics modeling. The microscopic stiffness shows much higher sensitivity to the defects than the macroscopic stiffness. PMID:17703654

  18. Analysis and Design of Variable Stiffness Composite Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatting, Brian F.; Guerdal, Zafer

    1998-01-01

    An investigation of the possible performance improvements of thin circular cylindrical shells through the use of the variable stiffness concept is presented. The variable stiffness concept implies that the stiffness parameters change spatially throughout the structure. This situation is achieved mainly through the use of curvilinear fibers within a fiber-reinforced composite laminate, though the possibility of thickness variations and discrete stiffening elements is also allowed. These three mechanisms are incorporated into the constitutive laws for thin shells through the use of Classical Lamination Theory. The existence of stiffness variation within the structure warrants a formulation of the static equilibrium equations from the most basic principles. The governing equations include sufficient detail to correctly model several types of nonlinearity, including the formation of a nonlinear shell boundary layer as well as the Brazier effect due to nonlinear bending of long cylinders. Stress analysis and initial buckling estimates are formulated for a general variable stiffness cylinder. Results and comparisons for several simplifications of these highly complex governing equations are presented so that the ensuing numerical solutions are considered reliable and efficient enough for in-depth optimization studies. Four distinct cases of loading and stiffness variation are chosen to investigate possible areas of improvement that the variable stiffness concept may offer over traditional constant stiffness and/or stiffened structures. The initial investigation deals with the simplest solution for cylindrical shells in which all quantities are constant around the circumference of the cylinder. This axisymmetric case includes a stiffness variation exclusively in the axial direction, and the only pertinent loading scenarios include constant loads of axial compression, pressure, and torsion. The results for these cases indicate that little improvement over traditional laminates exists through the use of curvilinear fibers, mainly due to the presence of a weak link area within the stiffness variation that limits the ultimate load that the structure can withstand. Rigorous optimization studies reveal that even though slight increases in the critical loads can be produced for designs with an arbitrary variation of the fiber orientation angle, the improvements are not significant when compared to traditional design techniques that utilize ring stiffeners and frames. The second problem that is studied involves arbitrary loading of a cylinder with a stiffness variation that changes only in the circumferential direction. The end effects of the cylinder are ignored, so that the problem takes the form of an analysis of a cross-section for a short cylinder segment. Various load cases including axial compression, pressure, torsion, bending, and transverse shear forces are investigated. It is found that the most significant improvements in load-carrying capability exist for cases which involve loads that also vary around the circumference of the shell, namely bending and shear forces. The stiffness variation of the optimal designs contribute to the increased performance in two ways: lowering the stresses in the critical areas through redistribution of the stresses; and providing a relatively stiff region that alters the buckling behavior of the structure. These results lead to an in-depth optimization study involving weight optimization of a fuselage structure subjected to typical design constraints. Comparisons of the curvilinear fiber format to traditional stiffened structures constructed of isotropic and composite materials are included. It is found that standard variable stiffness designs are quite comparable in terms of weight and load-carrying capability yet offer the added advantage of tailorability of distinct regions of the structure that experience drastically different loading conditions. The last two problems presented in this work involve the nonlinear phenomenon of long tubes under bending. Though this scenario is not as applic

  19. Substrate Stiffness Regulates Filopodial Activities in Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Yu-Ren; Torng, Wen; Kao, Yu-Chiu; Sung, Kung-Bin; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Kuo, Po-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Microenvironment stiffening plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis. While filopodia are generally thought to be one of the cellular mechanosensors for probing environmental stiffness, the effects of environmental stiffness on filopodial activities of cancer cells remain unclear. In this work, we investigated the filopodial activities of human lung adenocarcinoma cells CL1-5 cultured on substrates of tunable stiffness using a novel platform. The platform consists of an optical system called structured illumination nano-profilometry, which allows time-lapsed visualization of filopodial activities without fluorescence labeling. The culturing substrates were composed of polyvinyl chloride mixed with an environmentally friendly plasticizer to yield Young's modulus ranging from 20 to 60 kPa. Cell viability studies showed that the viability of cells cultured on the substrates was similar to those cultured on commonly used elastomers such as polydimethylsiloxane. Time-lapsed live cell images were acquired and the filopodial activities in response to substrates with varying degrees of stiffness were analyzed. Statistical analyses revealed that lung cancer cells cultured on softer substrates appeared to have longer filopodia, higher filopodial densities with respect to the cellular perimeter, and slower filopodial retraction rates. Nonetheless, the temporal analysis of filopodial activities revealed that whether a filopodium decides to extend or retract is purely a stochastic process without dependency on substrate stiffness. The discrepancy of the filopodial activities between lung cancer cells cultured on substrates with different degrees of stiffness vanished when the myosin II activities were inhibited by treating the cells with blebbistatin, which suggests that the filopodial activities are closely modulated by the adhesion strength of the cells. Our data quantitatively relate filopodial activities of lung cancer cells with environmental stiffness and should shed light on the understanding and treatment of cancer progression and metastasis. PMID:24587021

  20. Clinical relevance of right ventricular diastolic stiffness in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Trip, Pia; Rain, Silvia; Handoko, M Louis; van der Bruggen, Cathelijne; Bogaard, Harm J; Marcus, J Tim; Boonstra, Anco; Westerhof, Nico; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; de Man, Frances S

    2015-06-01

    Right ventricular (RV) diastolic stiffness is increased in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients. We investigated whether RV diastolic stiffness is associated with clinical progression and assessed the contribution of RV wall thickness to RV systolic and diastolic stiffness. Using single-beat pressure-volume analyses, we determined RV end-systolic elastance (Ees), arterial elastance (Ea), RV--arterial coupling (Ees/Ea), and RV end-diastolic elastance (stiffness, Eed) in controls (n=15), baseline PAH patients (n=63) and treated PAH patients (survival >5?years n=22 and survival <5?years n=23). We observed an association between Eed and clinical progression, with baseline Eed >0.53?mmHg·mL(-1) associated with worse prognosis (age-corrected hazard ratio 0.27, p=0.02). In treated patients, Eed was higher in patients with survival <5?years than in patients with survival >5?years (0.91±0.50 versus 0.53±0.33?mmHg·mL(-1), p<0.01). Wall-thickness-corrected Eed values in PAH patients with survival >5?years were not different from control values (0.76±0.47 versus 0.60±0.41?mmHg·mL(-1), respectively, not significant), whereas in patients with survival <5?years, values were significantly higher (1.52±0.91?mmHg·mL(-1), p<0.05 versus controls). RV diastolic stiffness is related to clinical progression in both baseline and treated PAH patients. RV diastolic stiffness is explained by the increased wall thickness in patients with >5?years survival, but not in those surviving <5?years. This suggests that intrinsic myocardial changes play a distinctive role in explaining RV diastolic stiffness at different stages of PAH. PMID:25882798

  1. Performance Comparison of Ultrasound-Based Methods to Assess Aortic Diameter and Stiffness in Normal and Aneurysmal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trachet, Bram; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A.; Londono, Francisco J.; Swillens, Abigaïl; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Segers, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective Several ultrasound-based methods are currently used to assess aortic diameter, circumferential strain and stiffness in mice, but none of them is flawless and a gold standard is lacking. We aimed to assess the validity and sensitivity of these methods in control animals and animals developing dissecting abdominal aortic aneurysm. Methods and Results We first compared systolic and diastolic diameters as well as local circumferential strains obtained in 47 Angiotensin II-infused ApoE -/- mice with three different techniques (BMode, short axis MMode, long axis MMode), at two different abdominal aortic locations (supraceliac and paravisceral), and at three different time points of abdominal aneurysm formation (baseline, 14 days and 28 days). We found that short axis BMode was preferred to assess diameters, but should be avoided for strains. Short axis MMode gave good results for diameters but high standard deviations for strains. Long axis MMode should be avoided for diameters, and was comparable to short axis MMode for strains. We then compared pulse wave velocity measurements using global, ultrasound-based transit time or regional, pressure-based transit time in 10 control and 20 angiotensin II-infused, anti-TGF-Beta injected C57BL/6 mice. Both transit-time methods poorly correlated and were not able to detect a significant difference in PWV between controls and aneurysms. However, a combination of invasive pressure and MMode diameter, based on radio-frequency data, detected a highly significant difference in local aortic stiffness between controls and aneurysms, with low standard deviation. Conclusions In small animal ultrasound the short axis view is preferred over the long axis view to measure aortic diameters, local methods are preferred over transit-time methods to measure aortic stiffness, invasive pressure-diameter data are preferred over non-invasive strains to measure local aortic stiffness, and the use of radiofrequency data improves the accuracy of diameter, strain as well as stiffness measurements. PMID:26023786

  2. Use of Guided Acoustic Waves to Assess the Effects of Thermal-Mechanical Cycling on Composite Stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seale, Michael D.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new, advanced composite materials into aviation systems requires it thorough understanding of the long-term effects of combined thermal and mechanical loading. As part of a study to evaluate the effects of thermal-mechanical cycling, it guided acoustic (Lamb) wave measurement system was used to measure the bending and out-of-plane stiffness coefficients of composite laminates undergoing thermal-mechanical loading. The system uses a pulse/receive technique that excites an antisymmetric Lamb mode and measures the time-of-flight over a wide frequency range. Given the material density and plate thickness, the bending and out-of-plane shear stiffnesses are calculated from a reconstruction of the velocity dispersion curve. A series of 16 and 32-ply composite laminates were subjected to it thermal-mechanical loading profile in load frames equipped with special environmental chambers. The composite systems studied were it graphite fiber reinforced amorphous thermoplastic polyimide and it graphite fiber reinforced bismaleimide thermoset. The samples were exposed to both high and low temperature extremes its well as high and low strain profiles. The bending and out-of-plane stiffnesses for composite sample that have undergone over 6,000 cycles of thermal-mechanical loading are reported. The Lamb wave generated elastic stiffness results have shown decreases of up to 20% at 4,936 loading cycles for the graphite/thermoplastic samples and up to 64% at 4,706 loading cycles for the graphite/thermoset samples.

  3. Substrate stiffness regulates cadherin-dependent collective migration through myosin-II contractility

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Mei Rosa; Besser, Achim

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical microenvironment is known to influence single-cell migration; however, the extent to which mechanical cues affect collective migration of adherent cells is not well understood. We measured the effects of varying substrate compliance on individual cell migratory properties in an epithelial wound-healing assay. Increasing substrate stiffness increased collective cell migration speed, persistence, and directionality as well as the coordination of cell movements. Dynamic analysis revealed that wounding initiated a wave of motion coordination from the wound edge into the sheet. This was accompanied by a front-to-back gradient of myosin-II activation and establishment of cell polarity. The propagation was faster and farther reaching on stiff substrates, indicating that substrate stiffness affects the transmission of directional cues. Manipulation of myosin-II activity and cadherin–catenin complexes revealed that this transmission is mediated by coupling of contractile forces between neighboring cells. Thus, our findings suggest that the mechanical environment integrates in a feedback with cell contractility and cell–cell adhesion to regulate collective migration. PMID:23091067

  4. Matrix stiffness-modulated proliferation and secretory function of the airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Shkumatov, Artem; Thompson, Michael; Choi, Kyoung M; Sicard, Delphine; Baek, Kwanghyun; Kim, Dong Hyun; Tschumperlin, Daniel J; Prakash, Y S; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2015-06-01

    Multiple pulmonary conditions are characterized by an abnormal misbalance between various tissue components, for example, an increase in the fibrous connective tissue and loss/increase in extracellular matrix proteins (ECM). Such tissue remodeling may adversely impact physiological function of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) responsible for contraction of airways and release of a variety of bioactive molecules. However, few efforts have been made to understand the potentially significant impact of tissue remodeling on ASMCs. Therefore, this study reports how ASMCs respond to a change in mechanical stiffness of a matrix, to which ASMCs adhere because mechanical stiffness of the remodeled airways is often different from the physiological stiffness. Accordingly, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements, we found that the elastic modulus of the mouse bronchus has an arithmetic mean of 23.1 ± 14 kPa (SD) (median 18.6 kPa). By culturing ASMCs on collagen-conjugated polyacrylamide hydrogels with controlled elastic moduli, we found that gels designed to be softer than average airway tissue significantly increased cellular secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Conversely, gels stiffer than average airways stimulated cell proliferation, while reducing VEGF secretion and agonist-induced calcium responses of ASMCs. These dependencies of cellular activities on elastic modulus of the gel were correlated with changes in the expression of integrin-?1 and integrin-linked kinase (ILK). Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that changes in matrix mechanics alter cell proliferation, calcium signaling, and proangiogenic functions in ASMCs. PMID:25724668

  5. In vivo Assessment of Myocardial Stiffness with Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Stephen J.; Bouchard, Richard R.; Dumont, Douglas M.; Wolf, Patrick D.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2007-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging has been demonstrated to be capable of visualizing variations in local stiffness within soft tissue. Recent advances in ARFI beam sequencing and parallel imaging have shortened acquisition times and lessened transducer heating to a point where ARFI acquisitions can be executed at high frame rates on commercially available diagnostic scanners. In vivo ARFI images were acquired with a linear array placed on an exposed canine heart. The electrocardiogram (ECG) was also recorded. When co-registered with the ECG, ARFI displacement images of the heart reflect the expected myocardial stiffness changes during the cardiac cycle. A radiofrequency ablation was performed on the epicardial surface of the left ventricular free wall, creating a small lesion that did not vary in stiffness during a heartbeat, though continued to move with the rest of the heart. ARFI images showed a hemispherical, stiffer region at the ablation site whose displacement magnitude and temporal variation through the cardiac cycle were less than the surrounding untreated myocardium. Sequences with radiation force pulse amplitudes set to zero were acquired to measure potential cardiac motion artifacts within the ARFI images. The results show promise for real-time cardiac ARFI imaging. PMID:17698282

  6. Quantitative assessment of sample stiffness and sliding friction from force curves in atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Jon R.; Shaw, Gordon A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Kumanchik, Lee [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Burnham, Nancy A. [Department of Physics, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts 01609-2280 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    It has long been recognized that the angular deflection of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever under ''normal'' loading conditions can be profoundly influenced by the friction between the tip and the surface. It is shown here that a remarkably quantifiable hysteresis occurs in the slope of loading curves whenever the normal flexural stiffness of the AFM cantilever is greater than that of the sample. This situation arises naturally in cantilever-on-cantilever calibration, but also when trying to measure the stiffness of nanomechanical devices or test structures, or when probing any type of surface or structure that is much more compliant along the surface normal than in transverse directions. Expressions and techniques for evaluating the coefficient of sliding friction between the cantilever tip and sample from normal force curves, as well as relations for determining the stiffness of a mechanically compliant specimen are presented. The model is experimentally supported by the results of cantilever-on-cantilever spring constant calibrations. The cantilever spring constants determined here agree with the values determined using the NIST electrostatic force balance within the limits of the largest uncertainty component, which had a relative value of less than 2.5%. This points the way for quantitative testing of micromechanical and nanomechanical components, more accurate calibration of AFM force, and provides nanotribologists access to information about contact friction from normal force curves.

  7. Comparative Analysis of the Flexural Stiffness of Pinniped Vibrissae

    PubMed Central

    Ginter Summarell, Carly C.; Ingole, Sudeep; Fish, Frank E.; Marshall, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrissae are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system and are used to detect vibrotactile stimuli in the environment. Pinnipeds have the largest and most highly innervated vibrissae among mammals, and the hair shafts function as a biomechanical filter spanning the environmental stimuli and the neural mechanoreceptors deep in the follicle-sinus complex. Therefore, the material properties of these structures are critical in transferring vibrotactile information to the peripheral nervous system. Vibrissae were tested as cantilever beams and their flexural stiffness (EI) was measured to test the hypotheses that the shape of beaded vibrissae reduces EI and that vibrissae are anisotropic. EI was measured at two locations on each vibrissa, 25% and 50% of the overall length, and at two orientations to the point force. EI differed in orientations that were normal to each other, indicating a functional anisotropy. Since vibrissae taper from base to tip, the second moment of area (I) was lower at 50% than 25% of total length. The anterior orientation exhibited greater EI values at both locations compared to the dorsal orientation for all species. Smooth vibrissae were generally stiffer than beaded vibrissae. The profiles of beaded vibrissae are known to decrease the amplitude of vibrations when protruded into a flow field. The lower EI values of beaded vibrissae, along with the reduced vibrations, may function to enhance the sensitivity of mechanoreceptors to detection of small changes in flow from swimming prey by increasing the signal to noise ratio. This study builds upon previous morphological and hydrodynamic analyses of vibrissae and is the first comparative study of the mechanical properties of pinniped vibrissae. PMID:26132102

  8. Effect of heat treatment on stiffness and damping of SiC/Ti-15-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment on material properties of SiC/Ti-15-3 was measured by vibration tests. Heat treatment changes the microstructure, which was found to stiffen the matrix and reduce its damping capacity. Test results indicate how these changes in the matrix affect the corresponding properties of the composite. Measurements show that heat treatment affects damping properties of the composite to a greater extent than stiffness properties. The extent of change in mechanical properties is shown to depend on heat treatment temperature and exposure time.

  9. Progressive resistance training without volume increases does not alter arterial stiffness and aortic wave reflection.

    PubMed

    Casey, Darren P; Beck, Darren T; Braith, Randy W

    2007-10-01

    Endurance exercise is efficacious in reducing arterial stiffness. However, the effect of resistance training (RT) on arterial stiffening is controversial. High-intensity, high-volume RT has been shown to increase arterial stiffness in young adults. We tested the hypothesis that an RT protocol consisting of progressively higher intensity without concurrent increases in training volume would not elicit increases in either central or peripheral arterial stiffness or alter aortic pressure wave reflection in young men and women. The RT group (n = 24; 21 +/- 1 years) performed two sets of 8-12 repetitions to volitional fatigue on seven exercise machines on 3 days/week for 12 weeks, whereas the control group (n = 18; 22 +/- 1 years) did not perform RT. Central and peripheral arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV), aortic pressure wave reflection (augmentation index; AIx), brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and plasma levels of nitrate/nitrite (NOx) and norepinephrine (NE) were measured before and after RT. RT increased the one-repetition maximum for the chest press and the leg extension (P < 0.001). RT also increased lean body mass (P < 0.01) and reduced body fat (%; P < 0.01). However, RT did not affect carotid-radial, carotid-femoral, and femoral-distal PWV (8.4 +/- 0.2 vs. 8.0 +/- 0.2 m/sec; 6.5 +/- 0.1 vs. 6.3 +/- 0.2 m/sec; 9.5 +/- 0.3 vs. 9.5 +/- 0.3 m/sec, respectively) or AIx (2.5% +/- 2.3% vs. 4.8% +/- 1.8 %, respectively). Additionally, no changes were observed in brachial FMD, NOx, NE, or blood pressures. These results suggest that an RT protocol consisting of progressively higher intensity without concurrent increases in training volume does not increase central or peripheral arterial stiffness or alter aortic pressure wave characteristics in young subjects. PMID:17895531

  10. Impaired renal function impacts negatively on vascular stiffness in patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are independently associated with increased vascular stiffness. We examined whether renal function contributes to vascular stiffness independently of CAD status. Methods We studied 160 patients with CAD and 169 subjects without CAD. The 4-variable MDRD formula was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); impaired renal function was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured with the SphygmoCor® device. Circulating biomarkers were assessed in plasma using xMAP® multiplexing technology. Results Patients with CAD and impaired renal function had greater PWV compared to those with CAD and normal renal function (10.2 [9.1;11.2] vs 7.3 [6.9;7.7] m/s; P?stiffness even in patients with severe atherosclerotic disease. This was paralleled by differences in markers of cell adhesion and inflammation. Increased vascular stiffness may therefore be linked to inflammatory remodeling of the vasculature in people with impaired renal function, irrespective of concomitant atherosclerotic disease. PMID:23937620

  11. The Effects of Atorvastatin on Arterial Stiffness in Male Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Colin; Ashley, David T.; O'Sullivan, Eoin P.; McHenry, Claire M.; Agha, Amar; Thompson, Christopher J.; O'Gorman, Donal J.

    2015-01-01

    Statin therapy improves lipid profiles and reduces vascular inflammation, but its effects on central arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetes are unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether statin therapy reduces central arterial stiffness, in a dose-dependent manner, in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Fifty-one patients ceased statin therapy for 6 weeks, followed by randomisation to either 10 or 80?mg of atorvastatin. At randomization, 3 and 12 months, central arterial stiffness was measured via carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), along with serum markers of vascular inflammation including high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hsCRP) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). PWV decreased from 10.37 ± 1.30 to 9.68 ± 1.19?m/sec (p < 0.01 from baseline) at 3 months and 9.10 ± 1.17?m/sec (p < 0.001 from baseline) at 12 months. hsCRP and OPG decreased significantly at 3 and 12 months. Reductions in PWV did not differ significantly between the groups. Baseline PWV and OPG values correlated strongly (r = 0.48, p < 0.01), as did their response to atorvastatin over 12 months (r = 0.36 delta-OPG and delta-PWV, p < 0.01). Atorvastatin therapy appeared to reduce central arterial stiffness in male type 2 diabetes, with no dose-dependent effect observed. The correlation observed between reductions in PWV and OPG suggests that atorvastatin reduces PWV via direct anti-inflammatory effects on the vasculature.

  12. Experimental investigation of the influence of the aortic stiffness on hemodynamics in the ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Gülan, Utku; Lüthi, Beat; Holzner, Markus; Liberzon, Alex; Tsinober, Arkady; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) pulsatile aortic flow in a human ascending aorta is studied to investigate the effect of the aortic stiffness on the flow field and turbulent fluctuating velocities in the ascending aorta. A nonintrusive optical measurement technique, 3-D particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV), has been applied to anatomically accurate phantoms under clinically realistic conditions. A compliant silicon phantom was used to mimic the healthy aorta, and a rigid model was used to imitate the pathological case that appears in aortas for example as a result of aging. The realistic models are transparent which allows optical access to the investigation domain, and the index of refraction was matched to avoid optical distortions. Our results revealed that the aortic stiffness leads to an increase in systolic velocity and a decrease in the Windkessel effect, which is associated with the diastolic blood pressure. Furthermore, we found that the turbulent kinetic energy is about an order of magnitude higher for the rigid aorta, that is, an increase in aortic stiffness increases the magnitude of turbulent fluctuating velocities. The spatial distribution of the flow velocity showed that the flow is more organized and coherent spiraling patterns develop for the compliant aorta which helps to dampen the influence of disturbed flow. Finally, we observed higher Lagrangian acceleration and hence higher instantaneous forces acting on blood particles in the stiff case which implies that aging and hence arterial stiffening provokes distinctive alterations in blood flow, and these alterations may cause pathological symptoms in the cardiovascular system. PMID:24833608

  13. Arterial Stiffness: A Novel Risk Factor for Kidney Injury Progression?

    PubMed

    Georgianos, Panagiotis I; Sarafidis, Pantelis A; Liakopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-08-01

    Arterial stiffness is typical feature of vascular remodeling in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Increased arterial stiffness raises flow and pressure pulsatility and is considered the principle pathogenic mechanism of isolated systolic hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and congestive heart failure. Apart from the impact of arterial stiffness on left ventricular afterload, downstream transmission of pressure pulsatility to the level of microcirculation is suggested to promote injury of other susceptible organs. This may be of particular importance for kidney injury progression, since passive renal perfusion along with low resistance and input impedance in renal microvessels make kidneys particularly vulnerable to the damaging effect of systemic pulsatile pressure. Recent studies have provided evidence that arterial stiffness culminates in elevated pulsatility and resistance in renal microvasculature, promoting structural damage of small intra-renal arterioles. Further, prospective observational studies have shown that reduced aortic compliance is closely associated with the annual rate of renal function decline and represents independent predictor of kidney injury progression to end-stage renal disease among patients with CKD. This article provides insights into the cross-talk between macrocirculation and renal microcirculation and summarizes the currently available clinical evidence linking increased arterial stiffness with kidney disease progression. PMID:25687879

  14. Variable stiffness material and structural concepts for morphing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuder, Izabela K.; Arrieta, Andres F.; Raither, Wolfram E.; Ermanni, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Morphing, understood as the ability to undergo pronounced shape adaptations to optimally respond to a diversity of operational conditions, has been singled out as a future direction in the pursuit of maximised efficiency of lightweight structures. Whereas a certain degree of adaptivity can be accomplished conventionally by means of mechanical systems, compliance allowing for substantial reversible deformability exhibits far more potential as a morphing strategy. A promising solution to the inherent contradiction between high stiffness and reversible deformation capacity posed by morphing is offered by introducing variable stiffness components. This notion indicates the provision of a controllable range of deformation resistance levels in place of fixed properties, as required by real-time shape adaptation dictated by maximum efficiency under changing external conditions. With special emphasis on the morphing context, the current review aims to identify the main tendencies, undertaking a systematic classification of existing approaches involving stiffness variability. Four broad categories in which variable stiffness has been applied to morphing are therefore distinguished and detailed: material engineering, active mechanical design, semi-active techniques and elastic structural behaviour. Adopting a wide perspective, the study highlights key capabilities, limitations and challenges. The need for attention directed to the variable stiffness strategy is recognised and the significance of intensive research activities in a highly integrated and multidisciplinary environment emphasised if higher maturity stages of the concepts are to be reached. Finally, the potential of emerging directions of semi-active design involving electro-bonded laminates and multi-stable structures is brought into focus.

  15. Acute Achilles tendinopathy: effect of pain control on leg stiffness.

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, J; Kokalj, A

    2014-03-01

    Tendinopathies are a major cause of disability in the athletic population; the main purpose of the treatment of these injuries is to reduce pain and improve function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of NSAIDs on leg stiffness of patients suffering acute unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. Twenty-eight eligible male athletes (aged 39.1 ± 10.3 y) suffering acute Achilles tendinopathy were treated with etoricoxib (120 mg oral once daily) during 7 days. Pain (100-mm visual analogue scale-VAS), analgesic effect (percentage of 100-mm VAS reduction), and leg stiffness were evaluated pre- and post- anti-inflammatory treatment. Results of this study showed that over the 7-day treatment period, etoricoxib provided significant relief of Achilles tendon pain (VAS) compared to that experienced at baseline: 54.5 ± 21.6 and 24.5 ± 24.8, respectively (p<0.001). Leg stiffness showed a significant improvement after one-week NSAID therapy: LSR 0.89 ± 0.1 vs. 0.97 ± 0.1; (p=0.02). In conclusion, findings of this study demonstrated that patients suffering acute unilateral Achilles tendinopathy increased their leg stiffness of the affected side after oral anti-inflammatory therapy. Effective control of tendon pain in the acute phase of such sports-related injuries may contribute to improve capabilities associated with high performance like leg stiffness. PMID:24583548

  16. Probe stiffness regulates receptor-ligand bond lifetime under force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Lü, ShouQin; Long, Mian

    2011-05-01

    Receptor-ligand bond dissociation under applied force is crucial to elucidate its biological functionality when the molecular bond is usually connected to a mechanical probe. While the impact of probe stiffness, k, on bond rupture force has recently attracted more and more attention, the mechanism of how it affects the bond lifetime, however, remains unclear. Here we quantified the dissociation lifetime of selectin-ligand bond using an optical trap assay with low stiffness ranging from 3.5×10-3 to 4.7×10-2 pN/nm. Our results indicated that bond lifetime yielded distinct distributions with different probe stiffness, implying the stochastic feature of bond dissociation. It was also found that the mean lifetime varied with probe stiffness and that the catch bond nature was visualized at k?3.0×10-2 pN/nm. This work furthered the understanding of the forced dissociation of selectin-ligand bond at varied probe stiffness, which is physiologically relevant to the tethered rolling of leukocytes under blood flow.

  17. Stiffness analysis of corrugated flexure beam used in compliant mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nianfeng; Liang, Xiaohe; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-05-01

    Conventional flexible joints generally have limited range of motion and high stress concentration. To overcome these shortcomings, corrugated flexure beam(CF beam) is designed because of its large flexibility obtained from longer overall length on the same span. The successful design of compliant mechanisms using CF beam requires manipulation of the stiffnesses as the design variables. Empirical equations of the CF beam stiffness components, except of the torsional stiffness, are obtained by curve-fitting method. The application ranges of all the parameters in each empirical equation are also discussed. The ratio of off-axis to axial stiffness is considered as a key characteristic of an effective compliant joint. And parameter study shows that the radius of semi-circular segment and the length of straight segment contribute most to the ratio. At last, CF beam is used to design translational and rotational flexible joints, which also verifies the validity of the empirical equations. CF beam with large flexibility is presented, and empirical equations of its stiffness are proposed to facilitate the design of flexible joint with large range of motion.

  18. The influence of the lubricant film on the stiffness and damping characteristics of a deep groove ball bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, William; Boonen, Rene; Sas, Paul; Moens, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper experimentally investigates the formation of a lubricant film in a deep groove ball bearing and its effect on the bearing dynamics. A novel test rig is introduced, which allows testing different types and sizes of bearings in real-life conditions. The test rig dynamics are optimised such that the dynamic properties of the bearing are measured in a frequency range below the resonances of the flexible modes. Two properties of the bearing, both its stiffness and damping value in the direction of the static bearing load, are identified. The behaviour of the lubricant film between the rolling elements and raceways is measured based on the electrical resistance through the bearing. For this purpose, the bearing housing is electrically isolated from the surrounding structure. The electrical resistance, stiffness and damping of the test bearing are identified during a speed run-up. The influence of the bearing temperature is analysed as well. During a run-up at constant bearing temperature, the measurement of the electrical resistance describes the formation of the lubricant film. Due to the formation of the lubricant film, the bearing stiffness increases by 3.2% while the damping increases by 24%. During a warm-up of the bearing, the viscosity of the lubricant film decreases strongly. A resulting decrease in electrical resistance, stiffness and damping is measured. Finally, the electrical resistance, stiffness and damping are identified at different speeds, after the bearing has reached a stable temperature at each speed. A combined effect of both rotation and temperature is observed and discussed.

  19. Normal liver stiffness: A study in living donors with normal liver histology

    PubMed Central

    Alsebaey, Ayman; Allam, Naglaa; Alswat, Khalid; Waked, Imam

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To define the normal range of liver stiffness (LS) values using transient elastography in living-related liver transplantation candidate donors with normal liver histology. METHODS: LS was measured using Fibroscan in 50 (16 women, 34 men) healthy potential donors (mean age 28.4 ± 5.9 years) who were being evaluated for liver donation for their relatives at the National Liver Institute, Menoufeya University, Egypt. All potential donors had normal liver tests and were negative for hepatitis B or C virus infection. Abdominal ultrasounds showed normal findings. None of the subjects had diabetes, hypertension, renal impairment, heart disease, or body mass index > 30 kg/m2. All subjects had normal liver histology upon liver biopsy. They all donated the right lobe of their liver with successful outcomes. RESULTS: The mean LS was 4.3 ± 1.2 kPa (range: 1.8-7.1 kPa). The 5th and 95th percentiles of normal LS were 2.6 kPa and 6.8 kPa, respectively, with a median of 4 kPa; the interquartile range was 0.6 ± 0.4. LS measurements were not significantly different between men and women (4.4 ± 1.1 kPa vs 3.9 ± 1.3 kPa) and did not correlate with age. However, stiffness values were significantly lower in subjects with a body mass index < 26 kg/m2 compared to those with an index ? 26 kg/m2 (4.0 ± 1.1 kPa vs 4.6 ± 1.2 kPa; P <0.05). There were no differences in hospital stay or postoperative bilirubin, albumin,alanine and aspartate transaminases, or creatinine levels (at discharge) between donors with livers stiffness ? 4 kPa and those with stiffness > 4 kPa. CONCLUSION: Healthy donors with normal liver histology have a median LS of 4 kPa. Stiffness values are elevated relative to increase in body mass index. PMID:26052404

  20. Dynamic Instabilities in Assemblies of Molecular Motors with Finite Stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guérin, T.; Prost, J.; Joanny, J.-F.

    2010-06-01

    We propose a two-state “soft-motor” model for the collective behavior of molecular motors which takes into account both the internal motor stiffness and the periodic interaction with the filament. As in the Prandtl-Tomlinson model of tribology, the important parameter of the model is the pinning parameter, which compares the stiffness of the motors to the stiffness of the potential. The model predicts dynamic instabilities in two disconnected regions of parameter space. These parameter ranges correspond to two existing theories of motor assemblies, the rigid two-state model and the crossbridge model. The model also predicts a discontinuity of the slope of the force-velocity relation at small velocities.

  1. Evaluation of Blood Pressure Control using a New Arterial Stiffness Parameter, Cardio-ankle Vascular Index (CAVI)

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Kohji; Utino, Junji; Saiki, Atsuhito; Endo, Kei; Ohira, Masahiro; Nagayama, Daiji; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Mao; Takahara, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness has been known to be a surrogate marker of arteriosclerosis, and also of vascular function. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) had been the most popular index and was known to be a predictor of cardiovascular events. But, it depends on blood pressure at measuring time. To overcome this problem, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is developed. CAVI is derived from stiffness parameter ? by Hayashi, and the equation of Bramwell-Hill, and is independent from blood pressure at a measuring time. Then, CAVI might reflect the proper change of arterial wall by antihypertensive agents. CAVI shows high value with aging and in many arteriosclerotic diseases and is also high in persons with main coronary risk factors. Furthermore, CAVI is decreased by an administration of ?1 blocker, doxazosin for 2-4 hours, Those results suggested that CAVI reflected the arterial stiffness composed of organic components and of smooth muscle cell contracture. Angiotensin II receptor blocker, olmesartan decreased CAVI much more than that of calcium channel antagonist, amlodipine, even though the rates of decreased blood pressure were almost same. CAVI might differentiate the blood pressure-lowering agents from the point of the effects on proper arterial stiffness. This paper reviewed the principle and rationale of CAVI, and the possibilities of clinical applications, especially in the studies of hypertension. PMID:23807874

  2. THE DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF CELL MOTILE ACTIVITY THROUGH MATRIX STIFFNESS AND POROSITY IN THREE DIMENSIONAL COLLAGEN MATRICES

    PubMed Central

    Miron-Mendoza, Miguel; Seemann, Joachim; Grinnell, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    In three dimensional collagen matrices, cell motile activity results in collagen translocation, cell spreading and cell migration. Cells can penetrate into the matrix as well as spread and migrate along its surface. In the current studies, we quantitatively characterize collagen translocation, cell spreading and cell migration in relationship to collagen matrix stiffness and porosity. Collagen matrices prepared with 1 to 4 mg/ml collagen exhibited matrix stiffness (storage modulus measured by oscillating rheometry) increasing from 4 to 60 Pa and matrix porosity (measured by scanning electron microscopy) decreasing from 4 to 1 ?m2. Over this collagen concentration range, the consequences of cell motile activity changed markedly. As collagen concentration increased, cells no longer were able to cause translocation of collagen fibrils. Cell migration increased and cell spreading changed from dendritic to more flattened and polarized morphology depending on location of cells within or on the surface of the matrix. Collagen translocation appeared to depend primarily on matrix stiffness, whereas cell spreading and migration were less dependent on matrix stiffness and more dependent on collagen matrix porosity. PMID:20537378

  3. Role of Mineralocorticoid Receptors in Arterial Stiffness in Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Luttrell, Meredith; Kim, Han-Kyul; Meade, Thomas H.; English, Mark; Nichols, Wilmer W.; Christou, Demetra D.

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness, an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease, is increased in aging, but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) may contribute to oxidative stress and arterial stiffness in healthy older adults. To test the hypothesis that short-term MR blockade may reduce oxidative stress and improve arterial stiffness, we conducted a randomized, double blind, crossover study using the selective MR blocker Eplerenone or placebo in 23 older adults (age, 64±1 years; mean±SE) free from overt cardiovascular and other clinical disease (e.g, diabetes, renal and liver disease). In response to MR blockade, brachial and carotid blood pressure decreased (P?0.01). However, MR blockade had no effect on oxidative stress (oxidized LDL, 61.2±6.8 vs. 62.4±7.4 U/L, P=0.9; placebo vs. Eplerenone) and arterial stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), 9.17±1.19 vs. 8.92±1.19 m/sec, P=0.5; leg PWV, 13.45±0.45 vs. 12.81±0.47 m/sec, P=0.3; arm PWV, 11.43±0.62 vs. 11.73±0.68 m/sec, P=0.7; carotid artery compliance, 0.150±0.013 vs. 0.149±0.014 mm2/mmHg, P=0.8; distensibility, 23.1±1.8 vs. 23.3±1.7 10?3/kPa, P=0.8; ? stiffness index, 3.5±0.3 vs. 3.6±0.3, P=0.6; and augmentation index, 16.0±2.2 vs. 15.6±2.8 %, P=0.8). These results provide the first evidence that MR do not appear to contribute to oxidative stress in human aging and that short-term MR blockade does not result in reduced oxidative stress and improved arterial stiffness. PMID:23707930

  4. Aortic-brachial stiffness mismatch and mortality in dialysis population.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Catherine; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Desmeules, Simon; Marquis, Karine; De Serres, Sacha A; Lebel, Marcel; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2015-02-01

    We hypothesized that increased aortic stiffness (central elastic artery) combined with a decrease in brachial stiffness (peripheral muscular artery) leads to the reversal of the physiological stiffness gradient (ie, mismatch), promoting end-organ damages through increased forward pressure wave transmission into the microcirculation. We, therefore, examined the effect of aortic-brachial stiffness mismatch on mortality in patients in need of dialysis. In a prospective observational study, aortic-brachial arterial stiffness mismatch (pulse wave velocity ratio) was assessed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity divided by carotid-radial pulse wave velocity in 310 adult patients on dialysis. After a median follow-up of 29 months, 146 (47%) deaths occurred. The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality related to PWV ratio in a Cox regression analysis was 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.64; P<0.001 per 1 SD) and was still significant after adjustments for confounding factors, such as age, dialysis vintage, sex, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, and weight (HR, 1.23; 95% CI: 1.02-1.49). The HRs for changes in 1 SD of augmentation index (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.12-1.63), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.11-1.50), and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.95) were statistically significant in univariate analysis, but were no longer statistically significant after adjustment for age. In conclusion, aortic-brachial arterial stiffness mismatch was strongly and independently associated with increased mortality in this dialysis population. Further studies are required to confirm these finding in lower-risk groups. PMID:25452473

  5. Thermal Testing of Tow-Placed, Variable Stiffness Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Guerdal, Zafer

    2001-01-01

    Commercial systems for precise placement of pre-preg composite tows are enabling technology that allows fabrication of advanced composite structures in which the tows may be precisely laid down along curvilinear paths within a given ply. For laminates with curvilinear tow paths, the fiber orientation angle varies continuously throughout the laminate, and is not required to be straight and parallel in each ply as in conventional composite laminates. Hence, the stiffness properties vary as a function of location in the laminate, and the associated composite structure is called a "variable stiffness" composite structure.

  6. Effects of ultrasound frequency and tissue stiffness on the histotripsy intrinsic threshold for cavitation.

    PubMed

    Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Lin, Kuang-Wei; Maxwell, Adam; Warnez, Matthew T; Mancia, Lauren; Singh, Rahul; Putnam, Andrew J; Fowlkes, Brian; Johnsen, Eric; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2015-06-01

    Histotripsy is an ultrasound ablation method that depends on the initiation of a cavitation bubble cloud to fractionate soft tissue. Previous work has indicated that a cavitation cloud can be formed by a single pulse with one high-amplitude negative cycle, when the negative pressure amplitude directly exceeds a pressure threshold intrinsic to the medium. We hypothesize that the intrinsic threshold in water-based tissues is determined by the properties of the water inside the tissue, and changes in tissue stiffness or ultrasound frequency will have a minimal impact on the histotripsy intrinsic threshold. To test this hypothesis, the histotripsy intrinsic threshold was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The probability of cavitation was measured by subjecting tissue phantoms with adjustable mechanical properties and ex vivo tissues to a histotripsy pulse of 1-2 cycles produced by 345-kHz, 500-kHz, 1.5-MHz and 3-MHz histotripsy transducers. Cavitation was detected and characterized by passive cavitation detection and high-speed photography, from which the probability of cavitation was measured versus pressure amplitude. The results revealed that the intrinsic threshold (the negative pressure at which probability = 0.5) is independent of stiffness for Young's moduli (E) <1 MPa, with only a small increase (?2-3 MPa) in the intrinsic threshold for tendon (E = 380 MPa). Additionally, results for all samples revealed only a small increase of ?2-3 MPa when the frequency was increased from 345 kHz to 3 MHz. The intrinsic threshold was measured to be between 24.7 and 30.6 MPa for all samples and frequencies tested in this study. Overall, the results of this study indicate that the intrinsic threshold to initiate a histotripsy bubble cloud is not significantly affected by tissue stiffness or ultrasound frequency in the hundreds of kilohertz to megahertz range. PMID:25766571

  7. Differential effects of nebivolol and metoprolol on arterial stiffness, circulating progenitor cells, and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Salim S; Poole, Joseph C; Neuman, Robert; Morris, Alanna A; Khayata, Mohamed; Kavtaradze, Nino; Topel, Matthew L; Binongo, Jose G; Li, Qunna; Jones, Dean P; Waller, Edmund K; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2015-03-01

    Unlike traditional beta receptor antagonists, nebivolol activates nitric oxide. We hypothesized that therapy with nebivolol compared with metoprolol would improve arterial stiffness, increase levels of circulating progenitor cells (PC), and decrease oxidative stress (OS). In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study, 30 hypertensive subjects received either once daily nebivolol or metoprolol succinate for 3 months each. Pulse wave velocity and augmentation index were measured using tonometry. Flow cytometry was used to measure circulating PC. OS was measured as plasma aminothiols. Measurements were performed at baseline, and repeated at 3 and 6 months. No significant differences were present between the levels of OS, arterial stiffness, and PC numbers during treatment with metoprolol compared with nebivolol. In subgroup analyses of beta-blocker naïve subjects (n = 19), nebivolol reduced pulse wave velocity significantly compared with metoprolol (-1.4 ± 1.9 vs. -0.1 ± 2.2; P = .005). Both nebivolol and metoprolol increased circulating levels of CD34+/CD133 + PC similarly (P = .05), suggesting improved regenerative capacity. PMID:25681236

  8. Flexural stiffness of feather shafts: geometry rules over material properties.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Thomas; Emmerlich, Jens; Baumgartner, Werner; Schneider, Jochen M; Wagner, Hermann

    2012-02-01

    Flight feathers of birds interact with the flow field during flight. They bend and twist under aerodynamic loads. Two parameters are mainly responsible for flexibility in feathers: the elastic modulus (Young's modulus, E) of the material (keratin) and the geometry of the rachises, more precisely the second moment of area (I). Two independent methods were employed to determine Young's modulus of feather rachis keratin. Moreover, the second moment of area and the bending stiffness of feather shafts from fifth primaries of barn owls (Tyto alba) and pigeons (Columba livia) were calculated. These species of birds are of comparable body mass but differ in wing size and flight style. Whether their feather material (keratin) underwent an adaptation in stiffness was previously unknown. This study shows that no significant variation in Young's modulus between the two species exists. However, differences in Young's modulus between proximal and distal feather regions were found in both species. Cross-sections of pigeon rachises were particularly well developed and rich in structural elements, exemplified by dorsal ridges and a well-pronounced transversal septum. In contrast, cross-sections of barn owl rachises were less profiled but had a higher second moment of area. Consequently, the calculated bending stiffness (EI) was higher in barn owls as well. The results show that flexural stiffness is predominantly influenced by the geometry of the feathers rather than by local material properties. PMID:22246249

  9. Stiffness gradients in vascular bundles of the palm Washingtonia robusta

    PubMed Central

    Rüggeberg, Markus; Speck, Thomas; Paris, Oskar; Lapierre, Catherine; Pollet, Brigitte; Koch, Gerald; Burgert, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    Palms can grow at sites exposed to high winds experiencing large dynamic wind and gust loads. Their stems represent a system of stiff fibrous elements embedded in the soft parenchymatous tissue. The proper design of the interface of the stiffening elements and the parenchyma is crucial for the functioning of the stem. The strategy of the palm to compromise between stiff fibre caps and the soft parenchymatous tissue may serve as a model system for avoiding stress discontinuities in inhomogeneous and anisotropic fibre-reinforced composite materials. We investigated the mechanical, structural and biochemical properties of the fibre caps of the palm Washingtonia robusta at different levels of hierarchy with high spatial resolution. A gradual decrease in stiffness across the fibre cap towards the surrounding parenchymatous tissue was observed. Structural adaptations at the tissue level were found in terms of changes in cell cross sections and cell wall thickness. At the cell wall level, gradients across the fibre cap were found in the degree of orientation of the microfibrils and in the lignin level and composition. The impact of these structural variations in the local material stiffness distribution is discussed. PMID:18595839

  10. Reduced-Stiffness Method in the Theory of Shells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Gavrilenko; J. G. A. Croll

    2004-01-01

    The fundamentals of the reduced-stiffness method, which is used in buckling analysis of reinforced and perfect and imperfect nonreinforced shells, are set out. The method is validated analytically and experimentally. The lower bound determined by this method is very close to the experimental lower bound. Some aspects of the current state and prospects for development and generalization of the method

  11. Structure, Stiffness and Substates of the Dickerson-Drew Dodecamer

    PubMed Central

    Dršata, Tomáš; Pérez, Alberto; Orozco, Modesto; Morozov, Alexandre V.; Šponer, Ji??; Lankaš, Filip

    2013-01-01

    The Dickerson–Drew dodecamer (DD) d-[CGCGAATTCGCG]2 is a prototypic B-DNA molecule whose sequence-specific structure and dynamics have been investigated by many experimental and computational studies. Here, we present an analysis of DD properties based on extensive atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using different ionic conditions and water models. The 0.6–2.4-µs-long MD trajectories are compared to modern crystallographic and NMR data. In the simulations, the duplex ends can adopt an alternative base-pairing, which influences the oligomer structure. A clear relationship between the BI/BII backbone substates and the basepair step conformation has been identified, extending previous findings and exposing an interesting structural polymorphism in the helix. For a given end pairing, distributions of the basepair step coordinates can be decomposed into Gaussian-like components associated with the BI/BII backbone states. The nonlocal stiffness matrices for a rigid-base mechanical model of DD are reported for the first time, suggesting salient stiffness features of the central A-tract. The Riemann distance and Kullback–Leibler divergence are used for stiffness matrix comparison. The basic structural parameters converge very well within 300 ns, convergence of the BI/BII populations and stiffness matrices is less sharp. Our work presents new findings about the DD structural dynamics, mechanical properties, and the coupling between basepair and backbone configurations, including their statistical reliability. The results may also be useful for optimizing future force fields for DNA. PMID:23976886

  12. Magnetorheological brush - a soft structure with highly tuneable stiffness.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Mohla, Akshi; Hong, Wei; Bastawros, Ashraf F; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2014-03-14

    By combining the field-stiffening effect of magnetorheological (MR) elastomers and the Euler buckling mechanism, we developed a brush-like magneto-active structure with highly tuneable stiffness. When the applied mechanical load is within a certain range, the effective stiffness of the structure can be tuned by several orders of magnitude with the applied magnetic field. The performance of the structure and its dependence on various synthesis parameters, such as the curing field and filler concentration, were investigated experimentally. It is found that the increase in the critical load for buckling is more than the contribution from the stiffening of the MR elastomer. To unravel the relationship between the stiffness increase and the applied field, a theoretical model with coupled mechanical deformation and magnetic field is established. The prediction of the model agrees well with experimental results. The theory may also be used to model the behaviour of other similar materials, such as MR gels. The MR brush developed in this research holds promise for potential applications in smart structures or devices that require mechanical stiffness to be tuneable in a relatively large range. As the amplification mechanism is independent of the base material, it could be used in conjunction with emerging MR materials for further enhanced performance. PMID:24652105

  13. Accelerated Stochastic Simulation of the Stiff Enzyme-Substrate Reaction

    E-print Network

    Cao, Yang

    1 Accelerated Stochastic Simulation of the Stiff Enzyme-Substrate Reaction Yang Cao a) Dept, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 Abstract: The enzyme-catalyzed conversion of a substrate this process, the intermediate enzyme-substrate complex is usually much more likely to decay into its original

  14. Hyperbolic conservation laws with stiff relaxation terms and entropy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gui-Qiang Chen; C. David Levermore; Tai-Ping Liu

    1994-01-01

    We study the limiting behavior of systems of hyperbolic conservation lawswith stiff relaxation terms. Reduced systems, inviscid and viscous local conservationlaws, and weakly nonlinear limits are derived through asymptotic expansions.An entropy condition is introduced for N \\\\Theta N systems that ensuresthe hyperbolicity of the reduced inviscid system. The resulting characteristicspeeds are shown to be interlaced with those of the original

  15. Simultaneously high stiffness and damping in nanoengineered microtruss composites.

    PubMed

    Meaud, Julien; Sain, Trisha; Yeom, Bongjun; Park, Sei Jin; Shoultz, Anna Brieland; Hulbert, Gregory; Ma, Zheng-Dong; Kotov, Nicholas A; Hart, A John; Arruda, Ellen M; Waas, Anthony M

    2014-04-22

    Materials combining high stiffness and mechanical energy dissipation are needed in automotive, aviation, construction, and other technologies where structural elements are exposed to dynamic loads. In this paper we demonstrate that a judicious combination of carbon nanotube engineered trusses held in a dissipative polymer can lead to a composite material that simultaneously exhibits both high stiffness and damping. Indeed, the combination of stiffness and damping that is reported is quite high in any single monolithic material. Carbon nanotube (CNT) microstructures grown in a novel 3D truss topology form the backbone of these nanocomposites. The CNT trusses are coated by ceramics and by a nanostructured polymer film assembled using the layer-by-layer technique. The crevices of the trusses are then filled with soft polyurethane. Each constituent of the composite is accurately modeled, and these models are used to guide the manufacturing process, in particular the choice of the backbone topology and the optimization of the mechanical properties of the constituent materials. The resulting composite exhibits much higher stiffness (80 times) and similar damping (specific damping capacity of 0.8) compared to the polymer. Our work is a step forward in implementing the concept of materials by design across multiple length scales. PMID:24620996

  16. Substrata Mechanical Stiffness Can Regulate Adhesion of Viable Bacteria

    E-print Network

    Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    Substrata Mechanical Stiffness Can Regulate Adhesion of Viable Bacteria Jenny A. Lichter,, M. Todd, 2008 The competing mechanisms that regulate adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and subsequent biofilm and hospital-acquired infections due to bacteria, there is considerable interest in better understanding

  17. GEOMETRIC STIFFNESS AND STABILITY OF RIGID BODY MODES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. El-Absy; A. A. Shabana

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of geometric stiffness forces on the stability of elastic and rigid body modes. A simple rotating beam model is used to demonstrate the effect of axial forces and dynamic coupling between the modes of displacement on the rigid body motion. The effect of longitudinal deformation due to bending is systematically

  18. Verifying Stiffness Parameters Of Filament-Wound Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.; Rheinfurth, M.

    1994-01-01

    Predicted engineering stiffness parameters of filament-wound composite-material cylinders verified with respect to experimental data, by use of equations developed straightforwardly from applicable formulation of Hooke's law. Equations derived in engineering study of filament-wound rocket-motor cases, also applicable to other cylindrical pressure vessels made of orthotropic materials.

  19. Stiffness, not inertial coupling, determines path curvature of wrist motions.

    PubMed

    Charles, Steven K; Hogan, Neville

    2012-02-01

    When humans rotate their wrist in flexion-extension, radial-ulnar deviation, and combinations, the resulting paths (like the path of a laser pointer on a screen) exhibit a distinctive pattern of curvature. In this report we show that the passive stiffness of the wrist is sufficient to account for this pattern. Simulating the dynamics of wrist rotations using a demonstrably realistic model under a variety of conditions, we show that wrist stiffness can explain all characteristics of the observed pattern of curvature. We also provide evidence against other possible causes. We further demonstrate that the phenomenon is robust against variations in human wrist parameters (inertia, damping, and stiffness) and choice of model inputs. Our findings explain two previously observed phenomena: why faster wrist rotations exhibit more curvature and why path curvature rotates with pronation-supination of the forearm. Our results imply that, as in reaching, path straightness is a goal in the planning and control of wrist rotations. This requires humans to predict and compensate for wrist dynamics, but, unlike reaching, nonlinear inertial coupling (e.g., Coriolis acceleration) is insignificant. The dominant term to be compensated is wrist stiffness. PMID:22131378

  20. Substrate stiffness affects skeletal myoblast differentiation in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanazzo, Sara; Forte, Giancarlo; Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Uto, Koichiro; Pagliari, Stefania; Aoyagi, Takao; Traversa, Enrico; Taniguchi, Akiyoshi

    2012-12-01

    To maximize the therapeutic efficacy of cardiac muscle constructs produced by stem cells and tissue engineering protocols, suitable scaffolds should be designed to recapitulate all the characteristics of native muscle and mimic the microenvironment encountered by cells in vivo. Moreover, so not to interfere with cardiac contractility, the scaffold should be deformable enough to withstand muscle contraction. Recently, it was suggested that the mechanical properties of scaffolds can interfere with stem/progenitor cell functions, and thus careful consideration is required when choosing polymers for targeted applications. In this study, cross-linked poly-?-caprolactone membranes having similar chemical composition and controlled stiffness in a supra-physiological range were challenged with two sources of myoblasts to evaluate the suitability of substrates with different stiffness for cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, muscle-specific and non-related feeder layers were prepared on stiff surfaces to reveal the contribution of biological and mechanical cues to skeletal muscle progenitor differentiation. We demonstrated that substrate stiffness does affect myogenic differentiation, meaning that softer substrates can promote differentiation and that a muscle-specific feeder layer can improve the degree of maturation in skeletal muscle stem cells.

  1. Variable stiffness property study on shape memory polymer composite tube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yijin Chen; Jian Sun; Yanju Liu; Jinsong Leng

    2012-01-01

    As a typical smart material, shape memory polymers (SMPs) have the capability of variable stiffness in response to external stimuli, such as heat, electricity, magnetism and solvents. In this research, a shape memory polymer composite (SMPC) tube composed of multi-layered filament wound structures is investigated. The SMPC tube possesses considerable flexibility under high temperature and rigidity under low temperature. Significant

  2. Exploiting Passive Dynamics with Variable Stiffness Actuation in Robot Brachiation

    E-print Network

    Vijayakumar, Sethu

    such as energy storage in explosive movements from a viewpoint of performance improvement. Braun et al. [3] have focus on the passive control strategy with variable stiffness actuation for swing movements.nakanishi@ed.ac.uk, sethu.vijayakumar@ed.ac.uk Abstract--This paper explores a passive control strategy with variable

  3. The influence of musculotendinous stiffness on drop jump performance.

    PubMed

    Walshe, A D; Wilson, G J

    1997-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between musculotendinous stiffness and the ability to perform dynamic stretch-shorten cycle actions involving a range of eccentric loads. Twenty trained male subjects performed a series of quasi-static muscular actions in a supine leg press position, during which a brief perturbation was applied. The resulting damped oscillations allowed the estimation of each subject's maximal musculotendinous stiffness (k) for the lower body musculature. All subjects also performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) and a series of drop jumps (DJs) from heights of 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 cm. When the jump heights of the nine most compliant (mean k = 11.4 +/- 2.7 kNxm-1) and nine stiffest (mean k = 20.5 +/- 2.5 kNxm-1) subjects were compared the stiff subjects demonstrated significantly poorer capacity to perform under the highest (DJ80 and DJ100) eccentric loading conditions. It was hypothesised that the relatively greater forces transmitted from the skeletal system to the musculature of the stiff subjects reduced their ability to attenuate the higher eccentric loads due to less effective contractile dynamics and greater levels of reflex induced inhibition. PMID:9140666

  4. Stiff man syndrome: Clinical and laboratory findings in eight patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-M. Meinck; K. Ricker; P.-J. Hülser; E. Schmid; J. Peiffer; M. Solimena

    1994-01-01

    The clinical, biochemical, neuroimaging and neurophysiological findings of eight patients with stiff man syndroms (SMS) [four of six being tested with autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)] are presented. In two patients (one GAD-positive, one GAD-negative), transient oculomotor disturbances suggested progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM) as differential diagnosis. The catalogue of characteristic clinical symptoms of SMS is extended

  5. Haptic Rendering of Drilling into Femur Bone with Graded Stiffness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jang Ho Cho; Hoeryong Jung; Kyungno Lee; Doo Yong Lee; Hyung Soo Ahn

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents haptic rendering method of drilling into femur bone with graded stiffness. Volume rendering is preferred than surface rendering in drilling or burr simulation because the volume rendering can contain information such as density and rigidity of each voxel. However, it is difficult to implement real-time graphics and haptic rendering because of the large computational workload. Therefore, we

  6. Determination of the stiffness of rolling kinematic pairs of manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Przemys?aw Szumi?ski

    2007-01-01

    A method of determination of the radial and axial stiffness of rolling bearings and rolling kinematic pairs as a function of the external load and the kinematics of motion has been presented. In this method, an influence of the distribution of rolling elements during the bearing raceway motion (with respect to the direction the resultant vector of the radial load

  7. On implicit Taylor series methods for stiff ODEs

    SciTech Connect

    Kirlinger, G. (Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte und Numerische Mathematik); Corliss, G.F. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Several versions of implicit Taylor series methods (ITSM) are presented and evaluated. Criteria for the approximate solution of ODEs via ITSM are given. Some ideas, motivations, and remarks on the inclusion of the solution of stiff ODEs are outlined. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  8. On implicit Taylor series methods for stiff ODEs

    SciTech Connect

    Kirlinger, G. [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte und Numerische Mathematik; Corliss, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Several versions of implicit Taylor series methods (ITSM) are presented and evaluated. Criteria for the approximate solution of ODEs via ITSM are given. Some ideas, motivations, and remarks on the inclusion of the solution of stiff ODEs are outlined. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Massively parallel computation of stiff propagating combustion fronts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Garbey; Damien Tromeur-Dervout

    1997-01-01

    Gas combustion, solid combustion as well as frontal polymerization are characterized by stiff fronts that propagate with nonlinear dynamics. The multiple-scale phenomena under consideration lead to very intense computations that require parallel computing in order to reduce the elapsed time of the computation. We develop a methodology to build on the MIMD architecture a parallel numerical method based on the

  10. Electromagnetic Field in Some Anisotropic Stiff Fluid Universes

    E-print Network

    Pimentel L O

    1995-07-25

    The electromagnetic field is studied in a family of exact solutions of the Einstein equations whose material content is a perfect fluid with stiff equation of state (p = $\\epsilon $ ). The field equations are solved exactly for several members of the family.

  11. Quaternion-based impedance with nondiagonal stiffness for robot manipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrizio Caccavale; Bruno Siciliano; Luigi Villani

    1998-01-01

    In this paper an energy-based argument is used to derive the dynamic equation of a mechanical impedance at the end effector of a robot manipulator, both for its translational part and for its rotational part. The adoption of unit quaternions to describe orientation displacements leads to a geometrically consistent definition of the stiffness in the impedance equation. Remarkably, off-diagonal elements

  12. Joint stiffness identification of six-revolute industrial serial robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Dumas; Stéphane Caro; Sébastien Garnier; Benoît Furet

    2011-01-01

    Although robots tend to be as competitive as CNC machines for some operations, they are not yet widely used for machining operations. This may be due to the lack of certain technical information that is required for satisfactory machining operation. For instance, it is very difficult to get information about the stiffness of industrial robots from robot manufacturers. As a

  13. Design of a Stiff Steerable Grasper for Sinus Surgery

    E-print Network

    Webster III, Robert James

    Background With the advent of endoscopic sinus surgery in the late 1980's [1], a completely new surgical of the sinuses. Today, functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is commonly used to improve the sinusesDesign of a Stiff Steerable Grasper for Sinus Surgery Andria A. Remirez, Ray A. Lathrop, Paul T

  14. Arthroscopic Treatment of Posttraumatic Elbow Pain and Stiffness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura A. Timmerman; James R. Andrews

    1994-01-01

    Nineteen consecutive cases of posttraumatic arthrofi brosis of the elbow secondary to a fracture or fracture- dislocation and treated with arthroscopic debridement and manipulation were retrospectively reviewed. All of the patients had pain and stiffness in their elbows, and all had failed a conservative therapy program. All 19 patients were followed postoperatively for an average of 29 months (range, 12

  15. Vascular calcification: A stiff challenge for the nephrologist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID GOLDSMITH; EBERHARD RITZ; ADRIAN COVIC

    2004-01-01

    Vascular calcification: A stiff challenge for the nephrologists—Does preventing bone disease cause arterial disease? There has been an explosion of interest in vascular calcification in the last 5 years. Four key “germinal” findings have fallen onto very fertile soil. First, on the background of an increasing cardiovascular disease burden it has been found that at least cross-sectionally, and in a

  16. Averaging in damping by parametric stiffness excitation Fadi Dohnal a

    E-print Network

    Verhulst, Ferdinand

    to Elsevier 27 August 2007 #12;respectively, where x represents a deflection and c is a negative damping by a negative damping coefficient. It should be noted that linearisation works well for a descriptionAveraging in damping by parametric stiffness excitation Fadi Dohnal a , Ferdinand Verhulst b a

  17. Stiffness mapping of compliant parallel mechanisms in a serial arrangement

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Stiffness mapping of compliant parallel mechanisms in a serial arrangement Hyun K. Jung a , Carl D of a mechanism having two compliant parallel mechanisms in a serial arrange- ment. A derivative of the wrench. It is shown that the resultant compliance of two compliant parallel mechanisms that are serially arranged

  18. Differential impact of belatacept and cyclosporine A on central aortic blood pressure and arterial stiffness after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Felix S; Steltzer, Julia; Melilli, Eduardo; Grannas, Gerrit; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Bauer, Frederic; Zidek, Walter; Grinyó, Josep; Westhoff, Timm H

    2014-09-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) are potent vasoconstrictors and induce an acceleration of arteriosclerosis, thus contributing to the cardiovascular risk after renal transplantation. The study compares the impact of belatacept and cyclosporine A (CsA) on arterial stiffness and central aortic blood pressure. We performed a case-control study in 46 patients (23 on belatacept and 23 on CsA) matched for age, body mass index, time after transplantation, and time on dialysis prior to transplantation. Pulse wave analysis (SphygmoCor, AtCor(®) ) was used to assess central aortic blood pressure, aortic augmentation pressure, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of arterial stiffness. Assessment of vascular function was performed after a minimum of 20 months and a median follow-up of 81 months post-transplant. Peripheral systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not significantly differ in the two groups (p > 0.05 each). The central aortic augmentation pressure was higher in the CsA group (12.7 mmHg vs. 7.3 mmHg, p = 0.048). PWV as a measure of arterial stiffness did not differ in the two groups. Thus, belatacept is not associated with a significant difference in arterial stiffness compared to CsA after a median of 81 months post-transplant. It is associated, however, with a lower aortic augmentation pressure, a strong independent cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:24974984

  19. Skeletal muscle fibrosis and stiffness increase after rotator cuff tendon injury and neuromuscular compromise in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Sato, Eugene J; Killian, Megan L; Choi, Anthony J; Lin, Evie; Esparza, Mary C; Galatz, Leesa M; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Ward, Samuel R

    2014-09-01

    Rotator cuff tears can cause irreversible changes (e.g., fibrosis) to the structure and function of the injured muscle(s). Fibrosis leads to increased muscle stiffness resulting in increased tension at the rotator cuff repair site. This tension influences repairability and healing potential in the clinical setting. However, the micro- and meso-scale structural and molecular sources of these whole-muscle mechanical changes are poorly understood. Here, single muscle fiber and fiber bundle passive mechanical testing was performed on rat supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles with experimentally induced massive rotator cuff tears (Tenotomy) as well as massive tears with chemical denervation (Tenotomy + BTX) at 8 and 16 weeks post-injury. Titin molecular weight, collagen content, and myosin heavy chain profiles were measured and correlated with mechanical variables. Single fiber stiffness was not different between controls and experimental groups. However, fiber bundle stiffness was significantly increased at 8 weeks in the Tenotomy + BTX group compared to Tenotomy or control groups. Many of the changes were resolved by 16 weeks. Only fiber bundle passive mechanics was weakly correlated with collagen content. These data suggest that tendon injury with concomitant neuromuscular compromise results in extra-cellular matrix production and increases in stiffness of the muscle, potentially complicating subsequent attempts for surgical repair. PMID:24838823

  20. Predictors of Postoperative Finger Stiffness in Unstable Proximal Phalangeal Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Tadanobu; Shimizu, Takamasa; Fujitani, Ryotaro; Shigematsu, Koji; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for postoperative finger stiffness after open reduction and internal fixation of unstable proximal phalangeal fractures using a low-profile plate and/or screw system. We hypothesized that dorsal plate placement is a risk factor for postoperative finger stiffness. Methods: Seventy consecutive patients (50 men, 20 women; average age, 40 years) with 75 unstable proximal phalangeal fractures were treated with titanium plates and/or screws and evaluated at a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Thirty-six comminuted fractures and 24 intra-articular fractures were included, and 16 fractures had associated soft-tissue injuries. Plate fixation was performed in 59 fractures, and the remaining 16 were fixed with screws only. The implants were placed in a dorsal location in 33 fractures and in a lateral or volar location in 42 fractures. Finger stiffness was defined as a total active range of finger motion <80% for the treated finger. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on 8 variables: patient characteristics (age and sex), fracture characteristics (fracture comminution, joint involvement, and associated soft-tissue injury), and surgical characteristics (type and location of implants and removal of the implants). Results: Postoperative finger stiffness occurred in 38 fractures. The multivariate analysis indicated that plate fixation (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5–24.0; P = 0.01) and dorsal placement (odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–8.3; P = 0.03) were independent risk factors for finger stiffness. Conclusion: We recommend the use of screw fixation as much as possible for unstable proximal phalangeal fractures using a midlateral approach.

  1. Wrinkling of Stiff Films on Stretched Compliant Films: Experimental and Theoretical Studies

    E-print Network

    Yang, Yi

    2013-12-06

    Wrinkling of stiff film on semi-infinite compliant substrates has attracted attentions recently due to its important applications in stretchable electronics and micro-pattern metrology. However, wrinkling of a stiff film on a compliant thin film...

  2. jamSheets: Thin Interfaces with Tunable Stiffness Enabled by Layer Jamming

    E-print Network

    Ou, Jifei

    This works introduces layer jamming as an enabling technology for designing deformable, stiffness-tunable, thin sheet interfaces. Interfaces that exhibit tunable stiffness properties can yield dynamic haptic feedback and ...

  3. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Donley, David A.; Fournier, Sara B.; Reger, Brian L.; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E.; Olfert, I. Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT subjects (7.9 ± 0.6 to 7.2 ± 0.4 m/s) and Con-ExT (6.6 ± 1.8 to 5.6 ± 1.6 m/s). Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) central systolic pressure (116 ± 5 to 110 ± 4 mmHg), augmentation pressure (9 ± 1 to 7 ± 1 mmHg), augmentation index (19 ± 3 to 15 ± 4%), and improved myocardial efficiency (155 ± 8 to 168 ± 9), but only in the MetS group. Aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT (16.6 ± 1.0 to 19.9 ± 1.0) and Con-ExT subjects (23.8 ± 1.6 to 26.3 ± 1.6). MMP-1 and -7 were correlated with cfPWV, and both MMP-1 and -7 were reduced post-ExT in MetS subjects. These findings suggest that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved after aerobic exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. PMID:24744384

  4. Association between dietary calcium intake and arterial stiffness according to dietary vitamin D intake in men.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Hirokazu; Katsuura-Kamano, Sakurako; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Nakamoto, Mariko; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2014-10-28

    Studies on the associations of dietary Ca and vitamin D intakes with arterial stiffness are scarce. In the present study, these associations were evaluated in Japanese men. Data from a total of 535 eligible men, aged 35-69 years, who participated in the baseline survey of a cohort study in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan, and underwent brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) measurements were analysed. ba-PWV is a measure of arterial stiffness and is recognised as a marker of atherosclerotic vascular damage. Information regarding the cohort's lifestyle characteristics including dietary behaviour over the past year was obtained from a structured self-administered questionnaire. Dietary Ca and vitamin D intakes were adjusted for total energy intake using the residual method and divided into quartiles; the highest quartile was used as the reference. General linear models were used to evaluate the associations between dietary Ca and vitamin D intakes and ba-PWV values adjusted for probable covariates. The association between dietary Ca intake and ba-PWV was further evaluated using similar general linear models stratified by dietary vitamin D intake (median or below/above median). Dietary Ca intake was found to be significantly inversely associated with ba-PWV after adjusting for probable covariates (P for trend = 0·020). However, no such association was observed between dietary vitamin D intake and ba-PWV. The inverse association between dietary Ca intake and ba-PWV was striking in subjects with higher dietary vitamin D intake. However, no association was found in subjects with lower dietary vitamin D intake. These results indicate that adequate dietary Ca and vitamin D intakes may be protective against the development of arterial stiffness in Japanese men. PMID:25192171

  5. Relation of plasma adiponectin levels and aortic stiffness after acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Reinstadler, SJ; Klug, G; Feistritzer, HJ; Mayr, A; Bader, K; Mair, J; Esterhammer, R; Schocke, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pulse wave velocity is a measure of aortic stiffness and an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adiponectin is involved in atherosclerosis and inflammation. In the present study we aimed to explore the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and pulse wave velocity in the acute phase after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: Forty-six consecutive STEMI patients (mean age 57±11 years) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Plasma adiponectin was measured 2 days after index event by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was calculated by the transit-time method with the use of a velocity-encoded, phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance protocol. Results: Median plasma adiponectin concentration was 2385 ng/ml (interquartile range 1735–5403). Males had lower plasma adiponectin values than females and current smokers had lower values than non-smokers (all p<0.02). Adiponectin was significantly associated with PWV (r=0.505, p<0.001), age (r=0.437, p=0.002), and total cholesterol (r=0.468, p=0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed adiponectin as a predictor of PWV independently of age, sex, smoking status, total cholesterol, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (p=0.027). Conclusions: Plasma adiponectin concentrations are strongly associated with aortic stiffness in patients after acute STEMI treated with primary PCI. Our data support a possible role for adiponectin as an independent risk marker for increased aortic stiffness in STEMI patients. PMID:24337918

  6. Applanation tonometry in mice: a novel noninvasive technique to assess pulse wave velocity and arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Leloup, Arthur J A; Fransen, Paul; Van Hove, Cor E; Demolder, Marc; De Keulenaer, Gilles W; Schrijvers, Dorien M

    2014-07-01

    Arterial stiffening is the root cause of a range of cardiovascular complications, including myocardial infarction, left ventricular hypertrophy, stroke, renal failure, dementia, and death, and a hallmark of the aging process. The most important in vivo parameter of arterial stiffness is pulse wave velocity (PWV). Clinically, PWV is determined noninvasively using applanation tonometry. Unlike the clinical value of arterial stiffness and PWV, techniques to determine PWV in mice are scarce. The only way to determine aortic PWV noninvasively in the mouse is by using ultrasound echo Doppler velocimetry. It is a fast, efficient, and accurate technique, but the required tools are expensive and technically complex. Here, we describe the development and validation of a novel technique to assess carotid-femoral PWV noninvasively in mice. This technique is based on applanation tonometry as used clinically. We were able to establish a reproducible reference value in wild-type mice (3.96±0.05 m/s) and to detect altered carotid-femoral PWV values in endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice (4.66±0.05 m/s; P<0.001 compared with control), and in mice sedated with sodium pentobarbital (2.89±0.17 m/s; P<0.001 compared with control). Also, carotid-femoral PWV was pharmacologically modulated and measured in a longitudinal experiment with endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice to demonstrate the applicability of this technique. In general, applanation tonometry can be used to measure carotid-femoral PWV noninvasively in mice. The experimental setup is simple, and the technical requirements are basic, making this technique readily implementable in any mouse model-based research facility interested in arterial stiffness. PMID:24752435

  7. Arterial Stiffness and Vitamin D Levels: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Milaneschi, Yuri; Tanaka, Toshiko; Maggio, Marcello; Canepa, Marco; Elango, Palchamy; Vigorito, Carlo; Lakatta, Edward G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Strait, James

    2012-01-01

    Context: The importance of vitamin D for bone health has long been acknowledged. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D can also play a role in reducing the risk of several other diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Objective: The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) is an independent cross-sectional correlate of central arterial stiffness in a normative aging study population. Design and Settings: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis. Subjects: We studied 1228 healthy volunteers (50% males; age, 70 ± 12 yr) of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Main Outcome Measures: We measured carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and 25-OH D levels. Results: We found a significant inverse association between PWV and 25-OH D levels (adjusted r2 = 0.27; ? = ?0.43; P = 0.001). After adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, season of blood draw, estimated glomerular filtration rate, physical activity level, cardiovascular risk factors score (smoking, visceral obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes), calcium/vitamin D supplementation, serum calcium, and PTH levels, the association between PWV and 25-OH D levels was only slightly reduced and remained statistically significant (adjusted r2 = 0.34; ? = ?0.34; P = 0.04). Conclusions: Vitamin D levels are inversely associated with increased arterial stiffness in a normative aging population, irrespective of traditional risk factor burden. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism of this association and to test the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation can reduce arterial stiffness. PMID:22767638

  8. Smart instrumentation for determination of ligament stiffness and ligament balance in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hasenkamp, W; Villard, J; Delaloye, J R; Arami, A; Bertsch, A; Jolles, B M; Aminian, K; Renaud, P

    2014-06-01

    Ligament balance is an important and subjective task performed during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedure. For this reason, it is desirable to develop instruments to quantitatively assess the soft-tissue balance since excessive imbalance can accelerate prosthesis wear and lead to early surgical revision. The instrumented distractor proposed in this study can assist surgeons on performing ligament balance by measuring the distraction gap and applied load. Also the device allows the determination of the ligament stiffness which can contribute a better understanding of the intrinsic mechanical behavior of the knee joint. Instrumentation of the device involved the use of hall-sensors for measuring the distractor displacement and strain gauges to transduce the force. The sensors were calibrated and tested to demonstrate their suitability for surgical use. Results show the distraction gap can be measured reliably with 0.1mm accuracy and the distractive loads could be assessed with an accuracy in the range of 4N. These characteristics are consistent with those have been proposed, in this work, for a device that could assist on performing ligament balance while permitting surgeons evaluation based on his experience. Preliminary results from in vitro tests were in accordance with expected stiffness values for medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL). PMID:24405737

  9. Acute Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Arterial Stiffness and Blood Pressure in Male Smokers With Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moo-Yong Rhee; Sang-Hoon Na; Young-Kwon Kim; Myoung-Mook Lee; Hae-Young Kim

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although the acute increase of arterial stiffness and blood pressure (BP) after cigarette smoking in healthy smokers is considered a possible mechanism of increased cardiovascular risk, the acute effect of smoking on arterial stiffness in hypertensive smokers is unknown. We investigated the acute effects of cigarette smoking on arterial stiffness and BP in hypertensive male smokers.Methods: Heart rate (HR),

  10. Absence of Age-Related Increase in Central Arterial Stiffness in Physically Active Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirofumi Tanaka; Christopher A. DeSouza; Douglas R. Seals

    Increased arterial stiffness is thought to contribute to the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease with age. Little, however, is known about the influence of aging on central and peripheral arterial stiffness in females. Moreover, it is unknown whether physical activity status influences age-related increases in arterial stiffness in females. Arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AI, applanation tonometry)

  11. ORIGINAL PAPER The decreasing radial wood stiffness pattern of some tropical

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    This study examines the radial trend in wood stiffness of tropical rainforest trees. The objectiveORIGINAL PAPER The decreasing radial wood stiffness pattern of some tropical trees growing. Keywords Tropical trees . Growth strategy. Wood stiffness . Juvenile wood 1 Introduction In addition

  12. A new pre-loaded membrane geometric stiffness matrix with full rigid body capabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Bosela; D. R. Ludwiczak

    1996-01-01

    Space structures, due to economic considerations, must be light-weight. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes is critical for determining the structural adequacy of components, and designing a control system. The total stiffness of a member, in many cases, includes both the elastic stiffness of the material as well as additional geometric stiffness due to pre-load (initial stress

  13. Efficient evaluation of spur gear tooth mesh load using pseudo-interference stiffness estimation method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monsak Pimsarn; Kazem Kazerounian

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new method, pseudo-interference stiffness estimation (PISE), for evaluating the equivalent mesh stiffness and the mesh load in gear system. The PISE method is based on evaluation of the geometric overlap of two assumedly rigid bodies and estimation of the contact force based on this artificial overlap area (or volume) and the singular stiffness (at the point

  14. Improving perceived hardness of haptic rendering via stiffness shifting: an initial study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabjong Han; Seokhee Jeon; Seungmoon Choi

    2009-01-01

    Rendering a stiff virtual surface using a force-feedback haptic in- terface has been one of the most classic and important research issues in haptics. In this paper, we present an initial study for a novel haptic rendering technique, named stiffness shifting, which greatly increases the perceived hardness of a virtual surface. The key idea of stiffness shifting is to use

  15. STIFFNESS ANALYSIS OF MULTI-CHAIN PARALLEL ROBOTIC SYSTEMS WITH LOADING

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 STIFFNESS ANALYSIS OF MULTI-CHAIN PARALLEL ROBOTIC SYSTEMS WITH LOADING Anatol Pashkevich1 solution strategy of the kinetostatic equations, which allows computing the stiffness matrix for singular, stiffness analysis, kinetostatic modelling, loaded mode, Orthoglide robot Pashkevich A, Chablat D

  16. Geometrical Approach to the Conservative Congruence Transformation (CCT) for Robotic Stiffness Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shih-feng Chen; Imin Kao

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the conservative congruence transformation (CCT) for robot stiffness control is investigated by using geometrical methods. With the strategy of changing basis, it indicates that the formulation of stiffness matrix depends on the choice of coordinates. Thus, we show that the CCT can directly represent the spatial mapping relationship in robotic stiffness control. The CCT theory suggests a

  17. Stiffness Synthesis of a Variable Geometry Six-Degrees-of-Freedom Double Planar Parallel Robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabil Simaan; Moshe Shoham

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we address the stiffness synthesis problem of vari- able geometry double planar parallel robots. For a desired stiffness matrix, the free geometrical variables are calculated as a solution of a corresponding polynomial system. Since in practice the set of free geometrical variables might be deficient, the suggested solution addresses also the case where not all stiffness matrix

  18. Stiffness analysis for 6DOF mouth training parallel robot WY5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Carbone; H. Takanobu; M. Ceccarelli; A. Takanishi; K. Ohtsuki; M. Ohnishi; A. Okino

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a mouth opening and closing training robot, named WY-5 (Waseda Yamanashi version 5), is analyzed in terms of stiffness characteristics. The basic models and formulation are proposed in order to deduce the stiffness matrix as a function of the most important stiffness parameters of the WY-5 architecture. A numerical simulation is also presented to discuss main features

  19. THE COMPLIANCE OF END EFFECTOR FORCE SENSORS FOR ROBOT MANIPULATOR CONTROL (WRIST, DYNAMICS, STIFFNESS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RANDALL KEITH ROBERTS

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the effect of wrist force sensor mechanical stiffness on robot manipulator control. Typically, wrist force sensors for robotic systems have been designed and fabricated viewing the transducer as an isolated element, with mechanically stiff structures instrumented with strain gages being the most common configuration. Research has indicated, however, that force control system implementation with such stiff sensors

  20. Arterial stiffness identification of the human carotid artery using the stressstrain relationship in vivo

    E-print Network

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    Arterial stiffness identification of the human carotid artery using the stress­strain relationship in revised form 20 September 2011 Accepted 20 September 2011 Available online xxxx Keywords: Arterial stiffness Carotid artery Collagen Elastin Stress­strain relationship a b s t r a c t Arterial stiffness

  1. Negative stiffness and negative Poisson's ratio in materials which undergo a phase transformation

    E-print Network

    Lakes, Roderic

    of freedom beyond those ordinarily anticipated. We consider viscoelastic damping and negative stiffness or of viscoelastic damping. We consider several designed composite materials in which the negative stiffness arises, high viscoelastic damping and negative axial stiffness was observed [3 ] in lumped systems containing

  2. Stable extremely-high-damping discrete viscoelastic systems due to negative stiffness elements

    E-print Network

    Lakes, Roderic

    Stable extremely-high-damping discrete viscoelastic systems due to negative stiffness elements Yun with a viscoelastic damping element and a negative stiffness element can be made with overall viscoelastic damping; accepted 7 April 2004; published online 12 May 2004 Systems with negative stiffness constituents can have

  3. Clipped viscous damping with negative stiffness for semi-active cable damping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Weber; C. Boston

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates numerically and experimentally clipped viscous damping with negative stiffness for semi-active cable damping. From simulations it is concluded that unclipped and clipped viscous damping with negative stiffness is equivalent to unclipped and clipped LQR. It is shown that optimized unclipped viscous damping with negative stiffness generates critical cable damping by an anti-node at the actuator position. The

  4. Compliant thin film patterns of stiff materials as platforms for stretchable electronics

    E-print Network

    Li, Teng

    Compliant thin film patterns of stiff materials as platforms for stretchable electronics Teng Li. Such a wide serpentine, or other compliant patterns of stiff materials, can serve as a platform on which on a platform of a stiff material but a compliant pattern lying on an elastomeric substrate. These circuits

  5. The impact of change in physical activity on change in arterial stiffness in overweight or obese sedentary young adults.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Marquis; Gabriel, Kelley P; Cooper, Jennifer; Storti, Kristi L; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Kriska, Andrea

    2014-05-30

    Arterial stiffness is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. Lifestyle factors such as physical activity (PA) may reduce arterial stiffness. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of change in PA on 1-year change in arterial stiffness in 274 overweight/obese sedentary young adults. The Slow Adverse Vascular Effects of excess weight (SAVE) trial was a study evaluating the relationships between weight loss, dietary sodium, and vascular health. PA was measured with the ActiGraph AM7164 accelerometer. Intensity of activity was determined using established cut-points. Arterial stiffness was assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) using an automated device. Analysis of covariance compared changes in total accelerometer counts, minutes/day in light-intensity PA (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and sedentary time, by categories of change in baPWV. Models were adjusted for time since baseline visit, age, sex, race, homeostatis model of assessment of insulin resistance, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and weight change. Total accelerometer counts and time spent in MVPA increased from baseline to 12 months while time spent in LPA significantly decreased. Mean baPWV was similar at each time point. Those who showed decreased baPWV also showed an increase in total accelerometer counts per day and time spent in MVPA in the fully adjusted models (p<0.001). Changes in sedentary time and time spent in LPA were not associated with changes in baPWV. These results indicate that even modest increases in MVPA can reduce arterial stiffness, a risk factor for future cardiovascular events. PMID:24879662

  6. The stiffness of rabbit skeletal actomyosin cross-bridges determined with an optical tweezers transducer.

    PubMed Central

    Veigel, C; Bartoo, M L; White, D C; Sparrow, J C; Molloy, J E

    1998-01-01

    Muscle contraction is brought about by the cyclical interaction of myosin with actin coupled to the breakdown of ATP. The current view of the mechanism is that the bound actomyosin complex (or "cross-bridge") produces force and movement by a change in conformation. This process is known as the "working stroke." We have measured the stiffness and working stroke of a single cross-bridge (kappa xb, dxb, respectively) with an optical tweezers transducer. Measurements were made with the "three bead" geometry devised by Finer et al. (1994), in which two beads, supported in optical traps, are used to hold an actin filament in the vicinity of a myosin molecule, which is immobilized on the surface of a third bead. The movements and forces produced by actomyosin interactions were measured by detecting the position of both trapped beads. We measured, and corrected for, series compliance in the system, which otherwise introduces large errors. First, we used video image analysis to measure the long-range, force-extension property of the actin-to-bead connection (kappa con), which is the main source of "end compliance." We found that force-extension diagrams were nonlinear and rather variable between preparations, i.e., end compliance depended not only upon the starting tension, but also upon the F-actin-bead pair used. Second, we measured kappa xb and kappa con during a single cross-bridge attachment by driving one optical tweezer with a sinusoidal oscillation while measuring the position of both beads. In this way, the bead held in the driven optical tweezer applied force to the cross-bridge, and the motion of the other bead measured cross-bridge movement. Under our experimental conditions (at approximately 2 pN of pretension), connection stiffness (kappa con) was 0.26 +/- 0.16 pN nm-1. We found that rabbit heavy meromyosin produced a working stroke of 5.5 nm, and cross-bridge stiffness (kappa xb) was 0.69 +/- 0.47 pN nm-1. PMID:9726944

  7. A self-assembling peptide matrix used to control stiffness and binding site density supports the formation of microvascular networks in three dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, M.D.; Piristine, H.; Hogrebe, N.J.; Nocera, T.M.; Boehm, M.W.; Reen, R.K.; Koelling, K.W.; Agarwal, G.; Sarang-Sieminski, A.L.; Gooch, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) cell culture system that allows control of both substrate stiffness and integrin binding density was created and characterized. This system consisted of two self-assembling peptide (SAP) sequences that were mixed in different ratios to achieve the desired gel stiffness and adhesiveness. The specific peptides used were KFE ((acetyl)-FKFEFKFE-CONH2), which has previously been reported not to support cell adhesion or MVN formation, and KFE-RGD ((acetyl)-GRGDSP-GG-FKFEFKFE-CONH2), which is a similar sequence that incorporates the RGD integrin binding site. Storage modulus for these gels ranged from ~60 to 6000 Pa, depending on their composition and concentration. Atomic force microscopy revealed ECM-like fiber microarchitecture of gels consisting of both pure KFE and pure KFE-RGD as well as mixtures of the two peptides. This system was used to study the contributions of both matrix stiffness and adhesiveness on microvascular network (MVN) formation of endothelial cells and the morphology of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). When endothelial cells were encapsulated within 3-D gel matrices without binding sites, little cell elongation and no network formation occurred, regardless of the stiffness. In contrast, matrices containing the RGD binding site facilitated robust MVN formation, and the extent of this MVN formation was inversely proportional to matrix stiffness. Compared with a matrix of the same stiffness with no binding sites, a matrix containing RGD-functionalized peptides resulted in a ~2.5-fold increase in the average length of network structure, which was used as a quantitative measure of MVN formation. Matrices with hMSC facilitated an increased number and length of cellular projections at higher stiffness when RGD was present, but induced a round morphology at every stiffness when RGD was absent. Taken together, these results demonstrate the ability to control both substrate stiffness and binding site density within 3-D cell-populated gels and reveal an important role for both stiffness and adhesion on cellular behavior that is cell-type specific. PMID:23603000

  8. No association of dietary fiber intake with inflammation or arterial stiffness in youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Crandell, Jamie; Liese, Angela D.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Marcovina, Santica; Reynolds, Kristi; Shah, Amy S.; Urbina, Elaine M.; Wadwa, R. Paul; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To examine the association of dietary fiber intake with inflammation and arterial stiffness among youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the US. Methods Data are from youth ? 10 years old with clinically diagnosed T1D for ? 3 months and ? 1 positive diabetes autoantibody in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Fiber intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire with measurement error (ME) accounted for by structural sub-models derived using additional 24-hour dietary recall data in a calibration sample and the respective exposure-disease model covariates. Markers of inflammation, measured at baseline, included IL-6 (n=1405), CRP (n=1387), and fibrinogen (n=1340); markers of arterial stiffness, measured approximately 19 months post-baseline, were available in a subset of participants and included augmentation index (n=180), pulse wave velocity (n=184), and brachial distensibility (n=177). Results Mean (SD) T1D duration was 47.9 (43.2) months; 12.5% of participants were obese. Mean (SD) ME-adjusted fiber intake was 15 (2.8) g/day. In multivariable analyses, fiber intake was not associated with inflammation or arterial stiffness. Conclusion Among youth with T1D, fiber intake does not meet recommendations and is not associated with measures of systemic inflammation or vascular stiffness. Further research is needed to evaluate whether fiber is associated with these outcomes in older individuals with T1D or among individuals with higher intakes than those observed in the present study. PMID:24613131

  9. A method for atomic force microscopy cantilever stiffness calibration under heavy fluid loading

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Scott J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Center for Biologically Inspired Materials and Material Systems, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Cole, Daniel G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Clark, Robert L. [Hajim School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    This work presents a method for force calibration of rectangular atomic force microscopy (AFM) microcantilevers under heavy fluid loading. Theoretical modeling of the thermal response of microcantilevers is discussed including a fluid-structure interaction model of the cantilever-fluid system that incorporates the results of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. This model is curve fit to the measured thermal response of a cantilever in de-ionized water and a cost function is used to quantify the difference between the theoretical model and measured data. The curve fit is performed in a way that restricts the search space to parameters that reflect heavy fluid loading conditions. The resulting fitting parameters are used to calibrate the cantilever. For comparison, cantilevers are calibrated using Sader's method in air and the thermal noise method in both air and water. For a set of eight cantilevers ranging in stiffness from 0.050 to 5.8 N/m, the maximum difference between Sader's calibration performed in air and the new method performed in water was 9.4%. A set of three cantilevers that violate the aspect ratio assumption associated with the fluid loading model (length-to-width ratios less than 3.5) ranged in stiffness from 0.85 to 4.7 N/m and yielded differences as high as 17.8%.

  10. Stiffness of normal and pathological erythrocytes studied by means of atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Duli?ska, Ida; Targosz, Marta; Strojny, Wojciech; Lekka, Ma?gorzata; Czuba, Pawe?; Balwierz, Walentyna; Szymo?ski, Marek

    2006-03-31

    During recent years, atomic force microscopy has become a powerful technique for studying the mechanical properties (such as stiffness, viscoelasticity, hardness and adhesion) of various biological materials. The unique combination of high-resolution imaging and operation in physiological environment made it useful in investigations of cell properties. In this work, the microscope was applied to measure the stiffness of human red blood cells (erythrocytes). Erythrocytes were attached to the poly-L-lysine-coated glass surface by fixation using 0.5% glutaraldehyde for 1 min. Different erythrocyte samples were studied: erythrocytes from patients with hemolytic anemias such as hereditary spherocytosis and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency patients with thalassemia, and patients with anisocytosis of various causes. The determined Young's modulus was compared with that obtained from measurements of erythrocytes from healthy subjects. The results showed that the Young's modulus of pathological erythrocytes was higher than in normal cells. Observed differences indicate possible changes in the organization of cell cytoskeleton associated with various diseases. PMID:16443279

  11. Cooling of neutron stars and hybrid stars with a stiff hadronic EoS

    E-print Network

    H. Grigorian; D. Blaschke; D. N. Voskresensky

    2015-03-16

    Within the "nuclear medium cooling" scenario of neutron stars all reliably known temperature - age data, including those of the central compact objects in the supernova remnants of Cassiopeia A and XMMU-J1732, can be comfortably explained by a set of cooling curves obtained by variation of the star mass within the range of typical observed masses. The recent measurements of the high masses of the pulsars PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0348-0432 on the one hand, and of the low masses for PSR J0737-3039B and the companion of PSR J1756-2251 on the other, provide independent proof for the existence of neutron stars with masses in a broad range from $\\sim 1.2$ to 2 $M_\\odot$. The values $M>2 M_{\\odot}$ call for sufficiently stiff equations of state for neutron star matter. We investigate the response of the set of neutron star cooling curves to a stiffening of the nuclear equation of state so that maximum masses of about $2.4 M_\\odot$ would be accessible and to a deconfinement phase transition from such stiff nuclear matter in the outer core to color superconducting quark matter in the inner core. Without readjustment of cooling inputs the mass range required to cover all cooling data for the stiff DD2 equation of state should include masses of $2.426 M_\\odot$ for describing the fast cooling of CasA while the existence of a quark matter core accelerates the cooling so that CasA cooling data are described with a hybrid star of mass $1.674 M_\\odot$.

  12. Superoxide signaling in perivascular adipose tissue promotes age-related artery stiffness.

    PubMed

    Fleenor, Bradley S; Eng, Jason S; Sindler, Amy L; Pham, Bryant T; Kloor, Jackson D; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that superoxide signaling within aortic perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) contributes to large elastic artery stiffening in old mice. Young (4-6 months), old (26-28 months), and old treated with 4-Hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPOL), a superoxide scavenger (1 mm in drinking water for 3 weeks), male C57BL6/N mice were studied. Compared with young, old had greater large artery stiffness assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV, 436 ± 9 vs. 344 ± 5 cm s(-1)) and intrinsic mechanical testing (3821 ± 427 vs. 1925 ± 271 kPa) (both P < 0.05). TEMPOL treatment in old reversed both measures of arterial stiffness. Aortic PVAT superoxide production was greater in old (P < 0.05 vs. Y), which was normalized with TEMPOL. Compared with young, old controls had greater pro-inflammatory proteins in PVAT-conditioned media (P < 0.05). Young recipient mice transplanted with PVAT from old compared with young donors for 8 weeks had greater aPWV (409 ± 7 vs. 342 ± 8 cm s(-1)) and intrinsic mechanical properties (3197 ± 647 vs. 1889 ± 520 kPa) (both P < 0.05), which was abolished with TEMPOL supplementation in old donors. Tissue-cultured aortic segments from old in the presence of PVAT had greater mechanical stiffening compared with old cultured in the absence of PVAT and old with PVAT and TEMPOL (both, P < 0.05). In addition, PVAT-derived superoxide was associated with arterial wall hypertrophy and greater adventitial collagen I expression with aging that was attenuated by TEMPOL. Aging or TEMPOL treatment did not affect blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence for greater age-related superoxide production and pro-inflammatory proteins in PVAT, and directly link superoxide signaling in PVAT to large elastic artery stiffness. PMID:24341314

  13. Transposition of great arteries is associated with increased carotid artery stiffness.

    PubMed

    Mersich, Beatrix; Studinger, Peter; Lenard, Zsuzsanna; Kadar, Krisztina; Kollai, Mark

    2006-06-01

    Transposition of great arteries is the consequence of abnormal aorticopulmonary septation. Animal embryonic data indicate that septation and elastogenesis are related events, but human and clinical data are not available. We tested the hypothesis that large artery elastic function was impaired in patients with transposition of great arteries. We studied 34 patients aged 9 to 19 years, 12+/-3 years after atrial switch operation; 14 patients aged 7 to 9 years, 8+/-1 years after arterial switch operation; and 108 healthy control subjects matched for age. Carotid artery diastolic diameter and pulsatile distension were determined by echo wall-tracking; carotid blood pressure was measured by tonometry. Systolic pressure was higher and diastolic pressure was lower in patients than in controls. Patients with atrial and arterial switch repair were compared with their respective controls by 2-factor ANOVA. For patients with atrial switch repair versus control, stiffness index beta was 4.9+/-1.5 versus 3.1+/-1.0 (P<0.001); for patients witch arterial switch versus control, stiffness index beta was 3.8+/-1.1 versus 2.1+/-0.6 (P<0.001). Similar differences were observed for carotid compliance, distensibility, and incremental elastic modulus as well. The interaction term was not significant for any of the elastic variables, indicating that carotid stiffening was a characteristic of the condition and not the consequence of different hemodynamics. Carotid artery is markedly stiffer in patients, suggesting that impaired elastogenesis may constitute part of the congenital abnormality. Since carotid artery stiffness has been established as an independent cardiovascular risk factor, this condition may have consequences in the clinical management of these patients. PMID:16618837

  14. Analysis of Brace Stiffness Influence on Stability of the Truss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, M.; Iwicki, P.

    2015-02-01

    The paper is devoted to the numerical and experimental research of stability of a truss with side elastic supports at the top chord. The structure is a model of a real roof truss scaled by factor 1/4. The linear buckling analysis and non-linear static analysis were carried out. The buckling length factor for the compressed top chord was calculated and the limit load for the imperfect truss shell model with respect to brace stiffness was obtained. The relation between brace normal force and loading of the truss is presented. The threshold stiffness of braces necessary to obtain the maximum buckling load was found. The truss load bearing capacity obtained from numerical analysis was compared with Eurocode 3 requirements.

  15. Pseudo analytical solution to time periodic stiffness systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Zhong; Zhou, Yuan-Zi

    2011-04-01

    An analytical form of state transition matrix for a system of equations with time periodic stiffness is derived in order to solve the free response and also allow for the determination of system stability and bifurcation. A pseudo-closed form complete solution for parametrically excited systems subjected to inhomogeneous generalized forcing is developed, based on the Fourier expansion of periodic matrices and the substitution of matrix exponential terms via Lagrange—Sylvester theorem. A Mathieu type of equation with large amplitude is presented to demonstrate the method of formulating state transition matrix and Floquet multipliers. A two-degree-of-freedom system with irregular time periodic stiffness characterized by spiral bevel gear mesh vibration is presented to find forced response in stability and instability. The obtained results are presented and discussed.

  16. Depinning of stiff directed lines in random media.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Horst-Holger; Kierfeld, Jan

    2014-07-01

    Driven elastic manifolds in random media exhibit a depinning transition to a state with nonvanishing velocity at a critical driving force. We study the depinning of stiff directed lines, which are governed by a bending rigidity rather than line tension. Their equation of motion is the (quenched) Herring-Mullins equation, which also describes surface growth governed by surface diffusion. Stiff directed lines are particularly interesting as there is a localization transition in the static problem at a finite temperature and the commonly exploited time ordering of states by means of Middleton's theorems [Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 670 (1992)] is not applicable. We employ analytical arguments and numerical simulations to determine the critical exponents and compare our findings with previous works and functional renormalization group results, which we extend to the different line elasticity. We see evidence for two distinct correlation length exponents. PMID:25122245

  17. Depinning of stiff directed lines in random media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltz, Horst-Holger; Kierfeld, Jan

    2014-07-01

    Driven elastic manifolds in random media exhibit a depinning transition to a state with nonvanishing velocity at a critical driving force. We study the depinning of stiff directed lines, which are governed by a bending rigidity rather than line tension. Their equation of motion is the (quenched) Herring-Mullins equation, which also describes surface growth governed by surface diffusion. Stiff directed lines are particularly interesting as there is a localization transition in the static problem at a finite temperature and the commonly exploited time ordering of states by means of Middleton's theorems [Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 670 (1992), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.68.670] is not applicable. We employ analytical arguments and numerical simulations to determine the critical exponents and compare our findings with previous works and functional renormalization group results, which we extend to the different line elasticity. We see evidence for two distinct correlation length exponents.

  18. Force, Torque and Stiffness: Interactions in Perceptual Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Hollis, Ralph L.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether force and torque cues interact in haptic discrimination of force, torque and stiffness, and if so, how. The statistical relation between force and torque was manipulated across four experimental conditions: Either one type of cue varied while the other was constant, or both varied so as to be positively correlated, negatively correlated, or uncorrelated. Experiment 1 showed that the subjects’ ability to discriminate force was improved by positively correlated torque but impaired with uncorrelated torque, as compared to the constant torque condition. Corresponding effects were found in Experiment 2 for the influence of force on torque discrimination. These findings indicate that force and torque are integrated in perception, rather than being processed as separate dimensions. A further experiment demonstrated facilitation of stiffness discrimination by correlated force and torque, whether the correlation was positive or negative. The findings suggest new means of augmenting haptic feedback to facilitate perception of the properties of soft objects. PMID:21359137

  19. Stiff filamentous virus translocations through solid-state nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullen, Angus; de Haan, Hendrick W.; Tang, Jay X.; Stein, Derek

    2014-06-01

    The ionic conductance through a nanometer-sized pore in a membrane changes when a biopolymer slides through it, making nanopores sensitive to single molecules in solution. Their possible use for sequencing has motivated numerous studies on how DNA, a semi-flexible polymer, translocates nanopores. Here we study voltage-driven dynamics of the stiff filamentous virus fd with experiments and simulations to investigate the basic physics of polymer translocations. We find that the electric field distribution aligns an approaching fd with the nanopore, promoting its capture, but it also pulls fd sideways against the membrane after failed translocation attempts until thermal fluctuations reorient the virus for translocation. fd is too stiff to translocate in folded configurations. It therefore translocates linearly, exhibiting a voltage-independent mobility and obeying first-passage-time statistics. Surprisingly, lengthwise Brownian motion only partially accounts for the translocation velocity fluctuations. We also observe a voltage-dependent contribution whose origin is only partially determined.

  20. Mechanism of regulation of stem cell differentiation by matrix stiffness.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hongwei; Li, Lisha; Sun, Meiyu; Zhang, Yin; Chen, Li; Rong, Yue; Li, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell behaviors are regulated by multiple microenvironmental cues. As an external signal, mechanical stiffness of the extracellular matrix is capable of governing stem cell fate determination, but how this biophysical cue is translated into intracellular signaling remains elusive. Here, we elucidate mechanisms by which stem cells respond to microenvironmental stiffness through the dynamics of the cytoskeletal network, leading to changes in gene expression via biophysical transduction signaling pathways in two-dimensional culture. Furthermore, a putative rapid shift from original mechanosensing to de novo cell-derived matrix sensing in more physiologically relevant three-dimensional culture is pointed out. A comprehensive understanding of stem cell responses to this stimulus is essential for designing biomaterials that mimic the physiological environment and advancing stem cell-based clinical applications for tissue engineering. PMID:26012510