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Sample records for stimulus-induced fos expression

  1. Correlation of Fos expression and circling asymmetry during gerbil vestibular compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, G. D.; Shinder, M. E.; Perachio, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    Vestibular compensation is a central nervous system process resulting in recovery of functional movement and control following a unilateral vestibular lesion. Small pressure injections of phosphorothioate 20mer oligonucleotides were used to probe the role of the Fos transcription protein during vestibular compensation in the gerbil brainstem. During isoflurane gas anesthesia, antisense probes against the c-fos mRNA sequence were injected into the medial vestibular and prepositus nuclei unilaterally prior to a unilateral surgical labyrinthectomy. Anionic dyes, which did not interact with the oligonucleotides, were used to mark the injection site and help determine the extent of diffusion. The antiFos oligonucleotide injections reduced Fos expression at the injection site in neurons which normally express Fos after the lesion, and also affected circling behavior induced by hemilabyrinthectomy. With both ipsilateral and contralateral medial vestibular and prepositus nuclei injections, less ipsilateral and more contralateral circling was noted in animals injected with antiFos injections as compared to non-injected controls. The degree of change in these behaviors was dependent upon the side of the injection. Histologically, antiFos injections reduced the number of Fos immunolabeled neurons around the injection site, and increased Fos expression contralaterally. The correlation of the number of neurons with Fos expression to turning behavior was stronger for contralateral versus ipsilateral turns, and for neurons in the caudal and ipsilateral sub-regions of the medial vestibular and prepositus nuclei. The results are discussed in terms of neuronal firing activity versus translational activity based on the asymmetrical expression of the Fos inducible transcription factor in the medial vestibular and prepositus nuclei. Although ubiquitous in the brain, transcription factors like Fos can serve localized and specific roles in sensory-specific adaptive stimuli. Antisense

  2. Hippocampal expression of c-fos is not essential for spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua; McQuade, Jill M Slane; Vorhees, Charles V; Xu, Ming

    2002-11-01

    The formation of long-term memory is thought to involve underlying changes in synaptic strength. Many studies have focused on the mechanisms of spatial learning behavior in mammals that is critically dependent on the proper function of the hippocampus. Because of the enduring nature of long-term memory, it is thought that gene expression is involved in this process. The immediate early gene (IEG) c-fos encodes a transcription factor. The c-Fos proteins form heterodimeric proteins with the c-Jun family proteins and the resulting AP-1 transcription complex plays a key role in coupling short-term events elicited by stimuli received at the cell membrane to long-term neuroplastic changes by regulating gene expression. c-fos is induced in the hippocampus after spatial learning. Despite this knowledge, the precise role of c-fos in memory formation and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To start investigating the role of c-fos in learning and memory and underlying mechanisms, we evaluated spatial learning capabilities using mice carrying a hippocampal region-specific mutation of c-fos. We found that the c-fos mutant mice exhibit normal spatial learning behaviors in both the Morris water maze and the Barnes maze tests compared to control mice. Our results suggest that hippocampal c-fos expression is not essential for spatial learning. PMID:12211087

  3. SETDB1 mediated FosB expression increases the cell proliferation rate during anticancer drug therapy

    PubMed Central

    Na, Han-Heom; Noh, Hee-Jung; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Kang, Yoonsung; Kim, Keun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of anticancer drugs depends on a variety of signaling pathways, which can be positively or negatively regulated. In this study, we show that SETDB1 HMTase is down-regulated at the transcriptional level by several anticancer drugs, due to its inherent instability. Using RNA sequence analysis, we identified FosB as being regulated by SETDB1 during anticancer drug therapy. FosB expression was increased by treatment with doxorubicin, taxol and siSETDB1. Moreover, FosB was associated with an increased rate of proliferation. Combinatory transfection of siFosB and siSETDB1 was slightly increased compared to transfection of siFosB. Furthermore, FosB was regulated by multiple kinase pathways. ChIP analysis showed that SETDB1 and H3K9me3 interact with a specific region of the FosB promoter. These results suggest that SETDB1-mediated FosB expression is a common molecular phenomenon, and might be a novel pathway responsible for the increase in cell proliferation that frequently occurs during anticancer drug therapy. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(4): 238-243] PMID:26949019

  4. Acute and repeated cocaine induces alterations in FosB/DeltaFosB expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Chocyk, Agnieszka; Czyrak, Anna; Wedzony, Krzysztof

    2006-05-23

    Apart from activation of the brain reward system, cocaine administration influences the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by affecting CRH neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). In order to find a molecular mechanism of cocaine-evoked effects in the PVN, in the present study, we investigated the impact of cocaine on the expression of FosB/DeltaFosB transcription factors in the PVN. Using an immunohistochemical method, we found that acute cocaine treatment (25 mg/kg) induced a relatively long-lasting (at least 72 h) expression of FosB/DeltaFosB in the PVN, whereas repeated cocaine administration (25 mg/kg, once daily for 5 consecutive days) caused accumulation of FosB/DeltaFosB in the PVN. The latter observation was further confirmed by the Western blot technique which revealed that repeated exposure to cocaine specifically increased the expression of a stable isoform of DeltaFosB (35 kDa). Using a double-labeling immunofluorescent method, it was established that FosB/DeltaFosB proteins induced by repeated cocaine treatment were present in a small population of CRF-immunoreactive neurons of the PVN. Furthermore, it was found that pretreatment with the specific antagonist of dopamine D1-like receptors SCH 23390 (1 mg/kg) attenuated the expression and accumulation of FosB/DeltaFosB in the PVN, evoked by repeated cocaine administration. Although functional consequences of the above effects for the process of addiction remain to be established, the obtained results indicate that cocaine administration can produce relatively long-lasting changes in the expression of FosB/DeltaFosB transcription factors in PVN neurons (in some populations of CRF-immunoreactive neurons, among others) and that dopamine D1-like receptors are involved in the above effects. Finally, it is proposed that the long-lasting expression as well as the accumulation of DeltaFosB in the PVN may constitute a molecular basis underlying adaptive changes

  5. Persistent induction of c-fos and c-jun expression by asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Heintz, N.H.; Mossman, B.T. ); Janssen, Y.M. Univ. of Limburg, Maastricht )

    1993-04-15

    To investigate the mechanisms of asbestos-induced carcinogenesis, expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes was examined in rat pleural mesothelial cells and hamster tracheal epithelial cells after exposure to crocidolite or chrysotile asbestos. In contrast to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which induces rapid and transient increases in c-fos and c-jun mRNA, asbestos causes 2- to 5-fold increases in c-fos and c-jun mRNA that persist for at least 24 hr in mesothelial cells. The induction of c-fos and c-jun mRNA by asbestos in mesothelial cells is dose-dependent and is most pronounced with crocidolite, the type of asbestos most pathogenic in the causation of pleural mesothelioma. Induction of c-jun gene expression by asbestos occurs in tracheal epithelial cells but is not accompanied by a corresponding induction of c-fos gene expression. In both cell types, asbestos induces increases in protein factors that bind specifically to the DNA sites that mediate gene expression by the AP-1 family of transcription factors. The persistent induction of AP-1 transcription factors by asbestos suggests a model of asbestos-induced carcinogenesis involving chronic stimulation of cell proliferation through activation of the early response gene pathway that includes c-jun and/or c-fos. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Fos Expression in Rat Brain During Depletion-Induced Thirst and Salt Appetite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thunhorst, R. L.; Xu, Z.; Cicha, M. Z.; Zardetto-Smith, A. M.; Johnson, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    The expression of Fos protein (Fos immunoreactivity, Fos-ir) was mapped in the brain of rats subjected to an angiotensin-dependent model of thirst and salt appetite. The physiological state associated with water and sodium ingestion was produced by the concurrent subcutaneous administration of the diuretic furosemide (10 mg/kg) and a low dose of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril (5 mg/kg; Furo/Cap treatment). The animals were killed 2 h posttreatment, and the brains were processed for Fos-ir to assess neural activation. Furo/Cap treatment significantly increased Fos-ir density above baseline levels both in structures of the lamina terminalis and hypothalamus known to mediate the actions of ANG 2 and in hindbrain regions associated with blood volume and pressure regulation. Furo/Cap treatment also typically increased Fos-ir density in these structures above levels observed after administration of furosemide or captopril separately. Fos-ir was reduced to a greater extent in forebrain than in hindbrain areas by a dose of captopril (100 mg/kg sc) known to block the actions of ACE in the brain. The present work provides further evidence that areas of lamina terminalis subserve angiotensin-dependent thirst and salt appetite.

  7. Male song quality modulates c-Fos expression in the auditory forebrain of the female canary.

    PubMed

    Monbureau, Marie; Barker, Jennifer M; Leboucher, Gérard; Balthazart, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    In canaries, specific phrases of male song (sexy songs, SS) that are difficult to produce are especially attractive for females. Females exposed to SS produce more copulation displays and deposit more testosterone into their eggs than females exposed to non-sexy songs (NS). Increased expression of the immediate early genes c-Fos or zenk (a.k.a. egr-1) has been observed in the auditory forebrain of female songbirds hearing attractive songs. C-Fos immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cell numbers were quantified here in the brain of female canaries that had been collected 30min after they had been exposed for 60min to the playback of SS or NS or control white noise. Fos-ir cell numbers increased in the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM) and caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) of SS birds as compared to controls. Song playback (pooled SS and NS) also tended to increase average Fos-ir cell numbers in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) but this effect did not reach full statistical significance. At the individual level, Fos expression in CMM was correlated with its expression in NCM and in MBH but also with the frequency of calls that females produced in response to the playbacks. These data thus indicate that male songs of different qualities induce a differential metabolic activation of NCM and CMM. The correlation between activation of auditory regions and of the MBH might reflect the link between auditory stimulation and changes in behavior and reproductive physiology. PMID:25846435

  8. Experience-dependent effects of context and restraint stress on corticolimbic c-Fos expression

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Ann N.; Anouti, Danya P.; Lacagnina, Michael J.; Nikulina, Ella M.; Hammer, Ronald P.; Conrad, Cheryl D.

    2014-01-01

    Stressors are typically multidimensional, comprised of multiple physical and sensory components that rarely occur as single isolated events. In this study, the functional activation patterns of key corticolimbic structures in response to context exposure alone, its combination with restraint, and how prior experience with either of these modulates subsequent activation was measured using Fos expression. On day 1, rats were transported to a novel context and either restrained for 6 hours or left undisturbed. On day 2, these two groups were either restrained or not in the same context, then processed for Fos immunohistochemistry. Regardless of previous experience, rats in context and not restrained expressed more Fos-like immunoreactive (IR) labeling in CA1 and CA3 of dorsal hippocampus, and basolateral and central amygdala, while this pattern was reversed in the dentate gyrus infrapyramidal blade. Conversely for the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the previous day's experience with restraint or immediate experience with restraint elevated Fos-like IR compared to rats placed in context on both days. These data show that exposure to context produces robust Fos induction in the hippocampus and amygdala, regardless of prior experience with restraint and compared to the immediate experience to restraint, with prior experience modulating Fos expression within the mPFC. PMID:23662914

  9. Preemptive Analgesia with Acupuncture Monitored by c-Fos Expression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves de Freitas, André T A; Lemonica, Lino; De Faveri, Julio; Pereira, Sergio; Bedoya Henao, Maria D

    2016-02-01

    Pain behavior and awareness are characterized by heightened alertness and anxiety, which begin to disappear as soon as the curative process starts. The present study aimed to quantify c-fos expression in rat spinal cords and brains after a surgical stimulus and with preoperative or postoperative acupuncture. Animals were randomly divided into preoperative and postoperative groups and were then further divided into control, manual acupuncture (MA), or electroacupuncture (EA) groups. Expression of c-fos was quantified using immunohistochemistry. The collected data were analyzed using the t test at a 5% probability level. Presurgery and postsurgery spinal cord c-fos expressions were similar in all of the treatment groups. In the control rats, c-fos expression was higher before surgery than after surgery, contradicting the expected outcome of acupuncture and preemptive analgesia. After treatment, the expression of c-fos in the brains of the rats in the MA and the EA groups was reduced compared with that of the rats in the control group. These findings suggest that acupuncture used as preemptive analgesia in rats is a useful model for studying its application in human treatment. PMID:26896072

  10. Effects of acute or chronic environmental enrichment on regional Fos protein expression following sucrose cue-reactivity testing in rats.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Jeffrey W; Barnes, Jesse L; Koerber, Jonathon; Glueck, Edwin; Ginder, Darren; Hyde, Jeff; Eaton, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) reduces sucrose seeking by rats with a history of sucrose self-administration. The present experiment examined whether acute or chronic EE also reduces brain Fos levels, a protein marker indicative of neuronal activation. Fos levels were also examined after either 1 or 30 days of forced abstinence to examine whether Fos levels vary with the incubation of sucrose craving. Fos expression was examined in 18 regions and was identified in brain slices using immunohistochemistry. Fos levels were higher in most regions after 30 days of forced abstinence and were decreased in most regions by either acute or chronic EE. Eleven regions had some statistically significant effect and/or interaction of EE or incubation on Fos; the most salient of these are listed here. In the prelimbic cortex, there was an incubation of Fos and EE reduced Fos at both forced abstinence time points. In contrast, in the orbitofrontal cortex, there was no Fos incubation but EE reduced Fos at both forced abstinence time points. An interaction of EE and incubation was observed in the anterior cingulate cortex and nucleus accumbens core and shell where Fos incubated but EE only decreased Fos at the day 30 forced abstinence time point. In contrast, in the dorsolateral striatum Fos incubated, but EE robustly decreased Fos expression at both forced abstinence time points. These differential expression patterns provide rationale for more detailed, site-specific molecular functional studies in how they relate to the ability of EE to reduce sucrose seeking. PMID:26068175

  11. The changes of c-Fos expression by motor cortex stimulation in the deafferentation pain model.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Kanae; Takahashi, Toshio; Suzuki, Shigeharu

    2014-01-01

    The effect of motor cortex stimulation (MCS) therapy for deafferentation pain was evaluated based on c-Fos, a known pain marker. Nineteen mature cats weighing 1.5-3.5 kg were used. Cats were divided into three groups: a deafferentation pain group in which the left trigeminal ganglion was destroyed, an MCS group in which MCS was used following destruction of the trigeminal ganglion, and a control group. Sites and levels of c-Fos expression were examined immunohistochemically. The percentage of c-Fos-positive cells in the left spinal nucleus of the trigeminus, the bilateral insula, and the bilateral operculum increased in both the deafferentation pain and the MCS groups. There were no statistically significant differences between these groups. In the cingulate gyrus, the percentage of c-Fos-positive cells increased bilaterally in the deafferentation pain group and the MCS group, but the increase was greater in the MCS group. The increase in c-Fos-positive cells in the left spinal nucleus of the trigeminus in the deafferentation group may reflect reported electrical hyperactivity. The cingulate gyrus, insula, and parietal operculum were activated after deafferentation. This change (increase in c-Fos positive cells) is related to the development of deafferentation pain. Pain relief due to MCS is not dependent on the suppression of the activated left spinal nucleus of the trigeminus or the descending analgesic mechanism of the brain stem. Activation of the cingulate gyrus appears to be a factor in the analgesic mechanism of MCS. PMID:24965534

  12. Daun02 Inactivation of Behaviorally Activated Fos-Expressing Neuronal Ensembles.

    PubMed

    Koya, Eisuke; Margetts-Smith, Gabriella; Hope, Bruce T

    2016-01-01

    Learned associations about salient experiences (e.g., drug exposure, stress) and their associated environmental stimuli are mediated by a minority of sparsely distributed, behaviorally activated neurons coined 'neuronal ensembles.' For many years, it was not known whether these neuronal ensembles played causal roles in mediating learned behaviors. However, in the last several years the 'Daun02 inactivation technique' in Fos-lacZ transgenic rats has proved very useful in establishing causal links between neuronal ensembles that express the activity-regulated protein Fos and learned behaviors. Fos-expressing neurons in these rats also express the bacterial protein β-galactosidase (β-gal) in strongly activated neurons. When the prodrug Daun02 is injected into the brains of these rats 90 min after a behavior (e.g., drug-seeking) or cue exposure, then Daun02 is converted into daunorubicin by β-gal, which selectively inactivates Fos- and β-gal-expressing neurons that were activated 90 min before the Daun02 injection. This unit presents protocols for breeding the Fos-lacZ rats and conducting appropriate Daun02 inactivation experiments. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27367964

  13. Impaired barrier function by dietary fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) in rats is accompanied by increased colonic mitochondrial gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Rodenburg, Wendy; Keijer, Jaap; Kramer, Evelien; Vink, Carolien; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg MJ

    2008-01-01

    Background Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates stimulate the gut microflora and are therefore presumed to improve host resistance to intestinal infections. However, several strictly controlled rat infection studies showed that non-digestible fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) increase, rather than decrease, translocation of Salmonella towards extra-intestinal sites. In addition, it was shown that FOS increases intestinal permeability already before infection. The mechanism responsible for this adverse effect of FOS is unclear. Possible explanations are altered mucosal integrity due to changes in tight junctions or changes in expression of defense molecules such as antimicrobials and mucins. To examine the mechanisms underlying weakening of the intestinal barrier by FOS, a controlled dietary intervention study was performed. Two groups of 12 rats were adapted to a diet with or without FOS. mRNA was collected from colonic mucosa and changes in gene expression were assessed for each individual rat using Agilent rat whole genome microarrays. Results Among the 997 FOS induced genes we observed less mucosal integrity related genes than expected with the clear permeability changes. FOS did not induce changes in tight junction genes and only 8 genes related to mucosal defense were induced by FOS. These small effects are unlikely the cause for the clear increase in intestinal permeability that is observed. FOS significantly increased expression of 177 mitochondria-related genes. More specifically, induced expression of genes involved in all five OXPHOS complexes and the TCA cycle was observed. These results indicate that dietary FOS influences intestinal mucosal energy metabolism. Furthermore, increased expression of 113 genes related to protein turnover, including proteasome genes, ribosomal genes and protein maturation related genes, was seen. FOS upregulated expression of the peptide hormone proglucagon gene, in agreement with previous studies, as well as three other peptide

  14. Light regulates expression of a Fos-related protein in rat suprachiasmatic nuclei.

    PubMed Central

    Aronin, N; Sagar, S M; Sharp, F R; Schwartz, W J

    1990-01-01

    Mammalian circadian rhythmicity is endogenously generated by a pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei and precisely entrained to the 24-hr day/night cycle by periodic environmental light cues. We show that light alters the immunoreactive levels of a transcriptional regulatory protein, Fos, in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of albino rats. Photic regulation of Fos immunoreactivity does not occur in other retino-recipient brain areas except for the intergeniculate leaflet, which appears to be involved in mediating some of the complex effects of light on expressed circadian rhythms. Our results point to a promising new functional marker for the cellular effects of light and suggest that the expression of Fos or a related nuclear protein may be part of the mechanism for photic entrainment of the circadian clock to environmental light/dark cycles. Images PMID:2116012

  15. Mechanically induced c-fos expression is mediated by cAMP in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1999-01-01

    In serum-deprived MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, mechanical stimulation caused by mild (287 x g) centrifugation induced a 10-fold increase in mRNA levels of the proto-oncogene, c-fos. Induction of c-fos was abolished by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H-89, suggesting that the transient c-fos mRNA increase is mediated by cAMP. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity by chronic TPA treatment failed to significantly reduce c-fos induction, suggesting that TPA-sensitive isoforms of PKC are not responsible for c-fos up-regulation. In addition, 287 x g centrifugation increased intracellular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels 2.8-fold (P<0. 005). Since we have previously shown that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can induce c-fos expression via a cAMP-mediated mechanism, we asked whether the increase in c-fos mRNA was due to centrifugation-induced PGE2 release. Pretreatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin and flurbiprofen did not hinder the early induction of c-fos by mechanical stimulation. We conclude that c-fos expression induced by mild mechanical loading is dependent primarily on cAMP, not PKC, and initial induction of c-fos is not necessarily dependent on the action of newly synthesized PGE2.

  16. Fos expression induced by milk ingestion in the caudal brainstem of neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Morales, Teresa; Aguilar, Leticia; Ramos, Eugenia; Mena, Flavio; Morgan, Caurnel

    2008-11-19

    Prominent Fos expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) related to feeding has been reported in the brainstem of adult animals. In this study, we used a Fos-guided immunohistochemical approach to determine the brainstem areas activated specifically in response to milk ingestion in rat pups at two different ages. Rats at 9 or 18 days postpartum were isolated from the mother for a 6-h period, after which they were returned to the mother for a suckling period of either 5 or 90 min and then perfused at 90 min after the beginning of suckling. Control groups were sacrificed before or after the 6-h-deprivation period and showed little or no Fos-ir. In contrast, a 90-min-suckling episode after 6 h of deprivation induced strong Fos-ir in the caudal regions of the NTS and in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal (SPV). Moderate expression was observed in the rostral NTS and in the nucleus raphé obscurus. In rat pups that suckled for only 5 min, the main area activated was the SPV. Fos immunostaining was detected in only 1% of the catecholaminergic neurons from the NTS after milk ingestion. The experimental design employed here allowed us to distinguish brainstem areas activated by milk ingestion from those activated by suckling action in rat pups. In contrast to adult rats, catecholaminergic neurons from the caudal NTS seem to contribute little to the regulation of feeding at this age. PMID:18823956

  17. 'Fluorescent Cell Chip' for immunotoxicity testing: Development of the c-fos expression reporter cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Trzaska, Dominika; Zembek, Patrycja; Olszewski, Maciej; Adamczewska, Violetta; Ulleras, Erik; Dastych, JarosIaw . E-mail: jdastych@cbm.pan.pl

    2005-09-01

    The Fluorescent Cell Chip for in vitro immunotoxicity testing employs cell lines derived from lymphocytes, mast cells, and monocytes-macrophages transfected with various EGFP cytokine reporter gene constructs. While cytokine expression is a valid endpoint for in vitro immunotoxicity screening, additional marker for the immediate-early response gene expression level could be of interest for further development and refinement of the Fluorescent Cell Chip. We have used BW.5147.3 murine thymoma transfected with c-fos reporter constructs to obtain reporter cell lines expressing ECFP under the control of murine c-fos promoter. These cells upon serum withdrawal and readdition and incubation with heavy metal compounds showed paralleled induction of c-Fos expression as evidenced by Real-Time PCR and ECFP fluorescence as evidenced by computer-supported fluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, we developed fluorescent reporter cell lines that could be employed in a simple and time-efficient screening assay for possible action of chemicals on c-Fos expression in lymphocytes. The evaluation of usefulness of these cells for the Fluorescent Cell Chip-based detection of immunotoxicity will require additional testing with a larger number of chemicals.

  18. Increased Fos Expression Among Midbrain Dopaminergic Cell Groups during Birdsong Tutoring

    PubMed Central

    Nordeen, E.J.; Holtzman, D.A.; Nordeen, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    During avian vocal learning, birds memorize conspecific song patterns and then use auditory feedback to match their vocal output to this acquired template. Some models of song learning posit that during tutoring, conspecific visual, social, and/or auditory cues activate neuromodulatory systems that encourage acquisition of the tutor’s song and attach incentive value to that specific acoustic pattern. This hypothesis predicts that stimuli experienced during social tutoring activate cell populations capable of signaling reward. Using immunocytochemistry for the protein product of the immediate early gene c-Fos, we found that brief exposure of juvenile male zebra finches to a live familiar male tutor increased the density of Fos+ cells within two brain regions implicated in reward processing; the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). This activation of Fos appears to involve both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic VTA/SNc neurons. Intriguingly, a familiar tutor was more effective than a novel tutor in stimulating Fos expression within these regions. In the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a dopamine-enriched cell population that has been implicated in emotional processing, Fos labeling also was increased after tutoring, with a familiar tutor once again being more effective than a novel conspecific. Since several neural regions implicated in song acquisition receive strong dopaminergic projections from these midbrain nuclei, their activation in conjunction with hearing the tutor’s song could help establish sensory representations that later guide motor sequence learning. PMID:19686474

  19. Conditioned Flavor Aversion and Brain Fos Expression Following Exposure to Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    García-Medina, Nadia E.; Jiménez-Capdeville, Maria E.; Ciucci, Marc; Martínez, Luz M.; Delgado, Juan M.; Horn, Charles C.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in the knowledge of the cellular effects of arsenic have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms of arsenic-associated carcinogenesis, immunotoxicity and cardiovascular disease. In the present experiments we tested the hypothesis that the arrival of arsenic to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is detected by the gut-brain axis, which includes hindbrain and forebrain nuclei activated by GI stimulation. As a marker of neuronal activation we measured Fos expression using immunohistochemistry. Because Fos expression in these nuclei is closely linked to the development of conditioned flavor aversion (CFA) we also tested the effect of arsenic on CFA. Our experiments indicate that arsenic ingestion is readily detected by the brain, as shown by increased Fos expression after oral administration of arsenic. Furthermore, the vagus nerve, which supplies information from the GI tract to the brain, is not involved in this response because a complete subdiaphragmatic vagotomy did not reduce the effect of arsenic on brain Fos expression, but enhanced this response. In parallel, arsenic ingestion is associated with a robust, dose-dependent CFA, which started at doses as low as 0.1 mg/kg body weight. In summary, these data indicate that arsenic given by oral administration is detected by the brain in low concentrations, and activates specific nuclei, which might trigger behavioral responses, such as CFA. PMID:17420081

  20. Non-photic manipulations induce expression of Fos protein in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and intergeniculate leaflet in the rat.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, K; Amir, S

    1995-09-01

    Expression of Fos protein in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) is considered a cellular correlate of light-induced phase-shift of circadian rhythms in rodents. Non-photic stimuli also induce phase shifts, but their effects on Fos expression have not been established. We examined induction of Fos protein in SCN and IGL regions, in response to cage change, intraperitoneal saline injection, and restraint stress. Fos immunoreactivity was observed in SCN and IGL regions, with greater expression observed in IGL during the light phase of the light-dark cycle. Results suggest that cells in SCN and IGL respond to several types of non-photic manipulations and that expression of Fos in these regions is not light-specific. PMID:8535846

  1. Context-Induced Reinstatement of Methamphetamine Seeking Is Associated with Unique Molecular Alterations in Fos-Expressing Dorsolateral Striatum Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, F. Javier; Liu, Qing-Rong; Li, Xuan; Cruz, Fabio C.; Leão, Rodrigo M.; Warren, Brandon L.; Kambhampati, Sarita; Babin, Klil R.; McPherson, Kylie B.; Cimbro, Raffaello; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-01-01

    Context-induced reinstatement of drug seeking is a well established animal model for assessing the neural mechanisms underlying context-induced drug relapse, a major factor in human drug addiction. Neural activity in striatum has previously been shown to contribute to context-induced reinstatement of heroin, cocaine, and alcohol seeking, but not yet for methamphetamine seeking. In this study, we found that context-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking increased expression of the neural activity marker Fos in dorsal but not ventral striatum. Reversible inactivation of neural activity in dorsolateral but not dorsomedial striatum using the GABA agonists muscimol and baclofen decreased context-induced reinstatement. Based on our previous findings that Fos-expressing neurons play a critical role in conditioned drug effects, we assessed whether context-induced reinstatement was associated with molecular alterations selectively induced within context-activated Fos-expressing neurons. We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate reinstatement-activated Fos-positive neurons from Fos-negative neurons in dorsal striatum and used quantitative PCR to assess gene expression within these two populations of neurons. Context-induced reinstatement was associated with increased expression of the immediate early genes Fos and FosB and the NMDA receptor subunit gene Grin2a in only Fos-positive neurons. RNAscope in situ hybridization confirmed that Grin2a, as well as Grin2b, expression were increased in only Fos-positive neurons from dorsolateral, but not dorsomedial, striatum. Our results demonstrate an important role of dorsolateral striatum in context-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking and that this reinstatement is associated with unique gene alterations in Fos-expressing neurons. PMID:25855177

  2. Problem-Solving Test: The Role of a Micro-RNA in the Regulation of "fos" Gene Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    The "fos" proto-oncogene codes for a component of the AP1 transcription factor, an important regulator of gene expression and cell proliferation. Dysregulation of AP1 function may lead to the malignant transformation of the cell. The present test describes an experiment in which the role of a micro-RNA (miR-7b) in the regulation of "fos" gene…

  3. The Changes of c-Fos Expression by Motor Cortex Stimulation in the Deafferentation Pain Model

    PubMed Central

    KUDO, Kanae; TAKAHASHI, Toshio; SUZUKI, Shigeharu

    2014-01-01

    The effect of motor cortex stimulation (MCS) therapy for deafferentation pain was evaluated based on c-Fos, a known pain marker. Nineteen mature cats weighing 1.5–3.5 kg were used. Cats were divided into three groups: a deafferentation pain group in which the left trigeminal ganglion was destroyed, an MCS group in which MCS was used following destruction of the trigeminal ganglion, and a control group. Sites and levels of c-Fos expression were examined immunohistochemically. The percentage of c-Fos-positive cells in the left spinal nucleus of the trigeminus, the bilateral insula, and the bilateral operculum increased in both the deafferentation pain and the MCS groups. There were no statistically significant differences between these groups. In the cingulate gyrus, the percentage of c-Fos-positive cells increased bilaterally in the deafferentation pain group and the MCS group, but the increase was greater in the MCS group. The increase in c-Fos-positive cells in the left spinal nucleus of the trigeminus in the deafferentation group may reflect reported electrical hyperactivity. The cingulate gyrus, insula, and parietal operculum were activated after deafferentation. This change (increase in c-Fos positive cells) is related to the development of deafferentation pain. Pain relief due to MCS is not dependent on the suppression of the activated left spinal nucleus of the trigeminus or the descending analgesic mechanism of the brain stem. Activation of the cingulate gyrus appears to be a factor in the analgesic mechanism of MCS. PMID:24965534

  4. Environmental living conditions introduced during forced abstinence alter cocaine-seeking behavior and Fos protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Kenneth J.; Pentkowski, Nathan S.; Peartree, Natalie A.; Painter, Michael R.; Neisewander, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) introduced during abstinence from cocaine self-administration is protective in reducing cue-elicited incentive motivation for cocaine in rats. This study examined neural activation associated with this protective effect of EE using Fos protein expression as a marker. Rats were trained to press a lever reinforced by cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/0.1 ml infusion) and light and tone cues across 15 consecutive days during which they were all housed in isolated conditions (IC). Rats were then assigned to either remain in IC, or to live in pair-housed conditions (PC) or EE for 30 days of forced abstinence from cocaine. Subsequently, cocaine-seeking behavior (lever presses without cocaine reinforcement) elicited by response-contingent cue presentations was assessed for 90 min, after which the rats' brains were immediately harvested for Fos protein immunohistochemistry. EE attenuated, whereas IC enhanced, cue-elicited cocaine-seeking behavior relative to PC. Also, within the prelimbic and orbitofrontal cortices and basolateral amygdala, IC enhanced, whereas EE reduced, Fos expression relative to PC. Furthermore, EE attenuated Fos expression in the infralimbic and anterior cingulate cortices, the nucleus accumbens (core and shell), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and ventral tegmental area, evident as a reduction relative to both PC and IC. In contrast, IC enhanced Fos expression in the dorsal caudate putamen, substantia nigra, and central amygdala, evident as an increase relative to both PC and EE. These results suggest that EE blunts neural activation throughout the mesocorticolimbic circuitry involved in cue-elicited incentive motivation for cocaine, whereas IC enhances activation primarily within the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway. These findings have important implications for understanding and treating drug-conditioned craving in humans. PMID:20933585

  5. Environmental living conditions introduced during forced abstinence alter cocaine-seeking behavior and Fos protein expression.

    PubMed

    Thiel, K J; Pentkowski, N S; Peartree, N A; Painter, M R; Neisewander, J L

    2010-12-29

    Environmental enrichment (EE) introduced during abstinence from cocaine self-administration is protective in reducing cue-elicited incentive motivation for cocaine in rats. This study examined neural activation associated with this protective effect of EE using Fos protein expression as a marker. Rats were trained to press a lever reinforced by cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/0.1 mL infusion) and light and tone cues across 15 consecutive days during which they were all housed in isolated conditions (IC). Rats were then assigned to either remain in IC, or to live in pair-housed conditions (PC) or EE for 30 days of forced abstinence from cocaine. Subsequently, cocaine-seeking behavior (lever presses without cocaine reinforcement) elicited by response-contingent cue presentations was assessed for 90 min, after which the rats' brains were immediately harvested for Fos protein immunohistochemistry. EE attenuated, whereas IC enhanced, cue-elicited cocaine-seeking behavior relative to PC. Also, within the prelimbic and orbitofrontal cortices and basolateral amygdala, IC enhanced, whereas EE reduced, Fos expression relative to PC. Furthermore, EE attenuated Fos expression in the infralimbic and anterior cingulate cortices, the nucleus accumbens (core and shell), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and ventral tegmental area, evident as a reduction relative to both PC and IC. In contrast, IC enhanced Fos expression in the dorsal caudate putamen, substantia nigra, and central amygdala, evident as an increase relative to both PC and EE. These results suggest that EE blunts neural activation throughout the mesocorticolimbic circuitry involved in cue-elicited incentive motivation for cocaine, whereas IC enhances activation primarily within the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway. These findings have important implications for understanding and treating drug-conditioned craving in humans. PMID:20933585

  6. The pattern of c-Fos expression and its refractory period in the brain of rats and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Barros, Vanessa N; Mundim, Mayara; Galindo, Layla Testa; Bittencourt, Simone; Porcionatto, Marimelia; Mello, Luiz E

    2015-01-01

    Intense activation of neurons triggers the appearance of immediate expression genes, including c-Fos. This gene is related to various signal cascades involved in biochemical processes such as neuronal plasticity, cell growth and mitosis. Here we investigate the expression pattern and the refractory period of c-Fos in rats and monkey's brains after stimulation with pentylenetetrazol. Rats and monkeys were sacrificed at various times after PTZ-induced seizure. Here we show that rats and monkeys already showed c-Fos expression at 0.5 h after seizure. Yet, the pattern of protein expression was longer in monkeys than rats, and also was not uniform (relative intensity) across different brain regions in monkeys as opposed to rats. In addition monkeys had a regional brain variation with regard to the temporal profile of c-Fos expression, which was not seen in rats. The refractory period after a second PTZ stimulation was also markedly different between rats and monkeys with the latter even showing a summatory effect on c-Fos expression after a second stimulation. However, assessment of c-Fos mRNA in rats indicated a post-transcriptional control mechanism underlying the duration of the refractory period. The difference in the protein expression pattern in rodents and primates characterizes a functional aspect of brain biochemistry that differs between these mammalian orders and may contribute for the more developed primate cognitive complexity as compared to rodents given c-Fos involvement in cognitive and learning tasks. PMID:25814929

  7. Heterogeneity in Lewis-X and sialyl-Lewis-X antigen expression on monocytes in whole blood: relation to stimulus-induced oxidative burst.

    PubMed Central

    Elbim, C.; Hakim, J.; Gougerot-Pocidalo, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    By using flow cytometric analysis of cells in whole blood expressing high levels of CD14, we found a subpopulation of monocytes (8% of total) with higher scatter parameters, high capacity to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), stronger expression of Lewis-X (CD15), sialyl-Lewis-X, CD11b and CD18 antigens, as well as an increased polymerized actin content. The size of this subpopulation increased after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide at the expense of the remaining monocytes, suggesting that its features were inducible. The membrane increase in Lewis-X and sialyl-Lewis-X expression observed during this conversion was largely due to the translocation of these carbohydrate structures from intracellular pools. Moreover, this subpopulation behaved as a primed monocyte subpopulation producing large amounts of H2O2 in response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Increased H2O2 production was inhibited not only by anti-CD14 but also by anti-CD15 and anti-sialyl-Lewis-X monoclonal antibodies when added before lipopolysaccharide. These results show that lipopolysaccharide priming is regulated, at least in part, by Lewis-X and sialyl-Lewis-X structures expressed on the monocyte membrane. All together, this highly reactive and inducible subpopulation of monocytes, which share phenotypic and functional characteristics with neutrophils, might play an important role in host defenses and inflammatory responses. PMID:9546369

  8. Arsenic trioxide phosphorylates c-Fos to transactivate p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} expression

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zimiao; Huang, H.-S.

    2008-12-01

    An infamous poison, arsenic also has been used as a drug for nearly 2400 years; in recently years, arsenic has been effective in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Increasing evidence suggests that opposite effects of arsenic trioxide (ATO) on tumors depend on its concentrations. For this reason, the mechanisms of action of the drug should be elucidated, and it should be used therapeutically only with extreme caution. Previously, we demonstrated the opposing effects of ERK1/2 and JNK on p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} (p21) expression in response to ATO in A431 cells. In addition, JNK phosphorylates c-Jun (Ser{sup 63/73}) to recruit TGIF/HDAC1 to suppress p21 gene expression. Presently, we demonstrated that a high concentration of ATO sustains ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and increases c-Fos biosynthesis and stability, which enhances p21 gene expression. Using site-directed mutagenesis, a DNA affinity precipitation assay, and functional assays, we demonstrated that phosphorylation of the C-terminus of c-Fos (Thr{sup 232}, Thr{sup 325}, Thr{sup 331}, and Ser{sup 374}) plays an important role in its binding to the p21 promoter, and in conjunction with N-terminus phosphorylation of c-Fos (Ser{sup 70}) to transactivate p21 promoter expression. In conclusion, a high concentration of ATO can sustain ERK1/2 activation to enhance c-Fos expression, then dimerize with dephosphorylated c-Jun (Ser{sup 63/73}) and recruit p300/CBP to the Sp1 sites (- 84/- 64) to activate p21 gene expression in A431 cells.

  9. Rapid-onset hypoglycemia suppresses Fos expression in discrete parts of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Foster, Nicholas N; Azam, Sana; Watts, Alan G

    2016-06-01

    The consensus view of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is that it is a key node in the rodent brain network controlling sympathoadrenal counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia. To identify the location of hypoglycemia-responsive neurons in the VMH, we performed a high spatial resolution Fos analysis in the VMH of rats made hypoglycemic with intraperitoneal injections of insulin. We examined Fos expression in the four constituent parts of VMH throughout its rostrocaudal extent and determined their relationship to blood glucose concentrations. Hypoglycemia significantly decreased Fos expression only in the dorsomedial and central parts of the VMH, but not its anterior or ventrolateral parts. Moreover, the number of Fos-expressing neurons was significantly and positively correlated in the two responsive regions with terminal blood glucose concentrations. We also measured Fos responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and in several levels of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), which receives strong projections from the VMH. We found the expected and highly significant increase in Fos in the neuroendocrine PVH, which was negatively correlated to terminal blood glucose concentrations, but no significant differences were seen in any part of the PAG. Our results show that there are distinct populations of VMH neurons whose Fos expression is suppressed by hypoglycemia, and their numbers correlate with blood glucose. These findings support a clear division of glycemic control functions within the different parts of the VMH. PMID:27030665

  10. Cage-induced stereotypic behaviour in laboratory mice covaries with nucleus accumbens FosB/ΔFosB expression.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Danielle; Choleris, Elena; Ervin, Kelsy S J; Fureix, Carole; Harper, Laura; Reynolds, Kathryn; Niel, Lee; Mason, Georgia J

    2016-03-15

    Stereotypic behaviour (SB) occurs in certain human disorders (e.g. autism), and animals treated with stimulants or raised in impoverished conditions, including laboratory mice in standard cages. Dysfunctional cortico-basal ganglia pathways have been implicated in these examples, but for cage-induced forms of SB, the relative roles of ventral versus dorsal striatum had not been fully ascertained. Here, we used immunohistochemical staining of FosB and ΔFosB to assess long-term activation within the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen of C57BL/6 mice. Housed in typical laboratory cages, these mice spontaneously developed different degrees of route-tracing, bar-mouthing and other forms of SB (spending 0% to over 50% of their active time budgets in this behaviour). The most highly stereotypic mice showed the most elevated FosB/ΔFosB activity in the nucleus accumbens. No such patterns occurred in the caudate-putamen. The cage-induced SB common in standard-housed mice thus involves elevated activity within the ventral striatum, suggesting an aetiology closer to compulsive gambling, eating and drug-seeking than to classic amphetamine stereotypies and other behaviours induced by motor loop over-activation. PMID:26731014

  11. Transcriptional activation and repression by Fos are independent functions: the C terminus represses immediate-early gene expression via CArG elements.

    PubMed

    Gius, D; Cao, X M; Rauscher, F J; Cohen, D R; Curran, T; Sukhatme, V P

    1990-08-01

    The Fos-Jun complex has been shown to activate transcription through the regulatory element known as the AP-1 binding site. We show that Fos down regulates several immediate-early genes (c-fos, Egr-1, and Egr-2) after mitogenic stimulation. Specifically, we demonstrate that the target for this repression is a sequence of the form CC(A/T)6GG, also known as a CArG box. Whereas Fos bound to the AP-1 site through a domain rich in basic amino acids and associated with Jun via a leucine zipper interaction, mutant Fos proteins lacking these structures were still capable of causing repression. Furthermore, Jun neither enhanced nor inhibited down regulation by Fos. Critical residues required for repression are located within the C-terminal 27 amino acids of c-Fos, since v-Fos and C-terminal truncations of c-Fos did not down regulate. In addition, transfer of 180 c-Fos C-terminal amino acids to Jun conferred upon it the ability to repress. Finally, Fra-1, a Fos-related protein which has striking similarity to Fos in its C-terminal 40 amino acids, also down regulated Egr-1 expression. Thus, Fos is a transcriptional regulator that can activate or repress gene expression by way of two separate functional domains that act on distinct regulatory elements. PMID:2115122

  12. Neural Correlates of Birth: Labor Contractions Induce C-Fos Expression In Newborn Rat Brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Daly, M. E.; Baer, L. A.; Hills, E. M.; Conway, G.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At birth, the newborn mammal must make rapid adaptations to the extrauterine environment to survive. We have previously shown that labor contractions augment the appearance of adaptive responses at birth, viz., postpartum breathing and the onset of suckling. Since neuronal activity has been shown to upregulate the activity of immediate early genes (IEGs) in the brain, we analyzed the neural distribution of c-Fos protein expression in newborn rats using immunohistochemistry. Previous studies have reported a burst of c-Fos mRNA expression in mouse and rat brain at birth however relationships to labor and delivery have not been examined. In the present study, we exposed near-term rat fetuses to elements of the vaginal birth process: 1) Simulated labor contractions. 2) Postpartum cooling (22 deg C). 3) Umbilical cord occlusion. and 4) Stroking to mimic postpartum licking by the dam. Cardinally delivered newborns (VG) were compared with those delivered by cesarean section following either prenatal exposure to compressions (C) [simulated labor contractions], or no compressions (NC) [no labor contractions]. Similar patterns of c-fos activation were observed throughout hypothalamic and thalamic nuclei, hippocampus and cerebral cortex in VG and C newborns that were not apparent in NC newborns. Our results indicate that labor contractions play a role in the induction of widespread neural activation in the newborn brain.

  13. Anxiety-like behaviour and c-fos expression in rats that inhaled vetiver essential oil.

    PubMed

    Saiyudthong, Somrudee; Pongmayteegul, Sirinun; Marsden, Charles A; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri

    2015-01-01

    Vetiver essential oil (VEO) has been used in aromatherapy for relaxation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of VEO on an anxiety-related behavioural model (the elevated plus-maze, EPM) and immediate-early gene c-fos in amygdala, known to be involved in anxiety. Male Wistar rats were administered diazepam (1 mg/kg i.p.) for 30 min or inhalated with VEO (1%, 2.5% or 5% w/w) for 7 min prior to exposure to the EPM. Then, the effects of 2.5% VEO, the anxiolytic dose, on c-fos expression in amygdala were investigated. The rats given either 2.5% VEO or diazepam exhibited an anxiolytic-like profile in the EPM. VEO and diazepam significantly increased c-fos expression in the lateral division of the central amygdaloid nucleus (CeL). Therefore, the anxiolytic properties of VEO might be associated with altering neuronal activation in CeL. However, future studies are needed to investigate the precise mechanism of action of VEO. PMID:25553641

  14. Forced expression of stabilized c-Fos in dendritic cells reduces cytokine production and immune responses in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Ryoko; Suzuki, Mayu; Sakaguchi, Ryota; Hasegawa, Eiichi; Kimura, Akihiro; Shichita, Takashi; Sekiya, Takashi; Shiraishi, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Kouji; Yoshimura, Akihiko

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendritic cells expressing stabilized c-Fos produced less inflammatory cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendritic cells expressing stabilized c-Fos activated T cells less efficiently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transgenic mice expressing stabilized c-Fos were resistant to EAE model. -- Abstract: Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) suppresses innate immunity by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytic cells. We have shown that the transcription factor c-Fos is responsible for cAMP-mediated suppression of inflammatory cytokine production, and that c-Fos protein is stabilized by IKK{beta}-mediated phosphorylation. We found that S308 is one of the major phosphorylation sites, and that the S308D mutation prolongs c-Fos halflife. To investigate the role of stabilized c-Fos protein in dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo, we generated CD11c-promoter-deriven c-FosS308D transgenic mice. As expected, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from these Tg mice produced smaller amounts of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-{alpha}, IL-12, and IL-23, but higher levels of IL-10, in response to LPS, than those from wild-type (Wt) mice. When T cells were co-cultured with BMDCs from Tg mice, production of Th1 and Th17 cytokines was reduced, although T cell proliferation was not affected. Tg mice demonstrated more resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) than did Wt mice. These data suggest that c-Fos in DCs plays a suppressive role in certain innate and adaptive immune responses.

  15. Expression of c-fos gene in central nervous system of adult medaka (Oryzias latipes) after hypergravity stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, S.; Ijiri, K.

    The immediate-early genes serve as useful neurobiological tools for mapping brain activity induced by a sensory stimulation. In this study, we have examined brain activity related to gravity perception of medaka (Oryzias latipes) by use of c-fos. The gene, which is homologous to the c-fos genes of other vertebrates, was identified in medaka. Functionally important domains are highly conserved among all the vertebrate species analyzed. Intraperitoneal administration of kainic acid transiently induced the c-fos mRNAs in medaka brain. The results indicate that the expression of c-fos can be utilized as a suitable anatomical marker for the increased neural activities in the central nervous system of medaka. Fish were continuously exposed to 3G hypergravity by centrifugation. Investigation of c-fos mRNA expression showed that c-fos mRNA significantly increased 30 minutes after a start of 3G exposure. The distribution of its transcripts within brains was analyzed by an in situ hybridization method. The 3G-treated medakas displayed c-fos positive cells in their brainstem regions, which are related to vestibular function, such as torus semicircularis, posterior octavu nucleus, nucleus tangentialis and inferior olive. Our results established the method to trace the activated area in the fish brain following gravity stimulation. The method will be a useful tool for understanding gravity perception in the brain.

  16. Differential Expression of FosB Proteins and Potential Target Genes in Select Brain Regions of Addiction and Depression Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gajewski, Paula A.; Turecki, Gustavo; Robison, Alfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to stress or drugs of abuse has been linked to altered gene expression throughout the body, and changes in gene expression in discrete brain regions are thought to underlie many psychiatric diseases, including major depressive disorder and drug addiction. Preclinical models of these disorders have provided evidence for mechanisms of this altered gene expression, including transcription factors, but evidence supporting a role for these factors in human patients has been slow to emerge. The transcription factor ΔFosB is induced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) of rodents in response to stress or cocaine, and its expression in these regions is thought to regulate their “top down” control of reward circuitry, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here, we use biochemistry to examine the expression of the FosB family of transcription factors and their potential gene targets in PFC and HPC postmortem samples from depressed patients and cocaine addicts. We demonstrate that ΔFosB and other FosB isoforms are downregulated in the HPC but not the PFC in the brains of both depressed and addicted individuals. Further, we show that potential ΔFosB transcriptional targets, including GluA2, are also downregulated in the HPC but not PFC of cocaine addicts. Thus, we provide the first evidence of FosB gene expression in human HPC and PFC in these psychiatric disorders, and in light of recent findings demonstrating the critical role of HPC ΔFosB in rodent models of learning and memory, these data suggest that reduced ΔFosB in HPC could potentially underlie cognitive deficits accompanying chronic cocaine abuse or depression. PMID:27494187

  17. Differential Expression of FosB Proteins and Potential Target Genes in Select Brain Regions of Addiction and Depression Patients.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Paula A; Turecki, Gustavo; Robison, Alfred J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to stress or drugs of abuse has been linked to altered gene expression throughout the body, and changes in gene expression in discrete brain regions are thought to underlie many psychiatric diseases, including major depressive disorder and drug addiction. Preclinical models of these disorders have provided evidence for mechanisms of this altered gene expression, including transcription factors, but evidence supporting a role for these factors in human patients has been slow to emerge. The transcription factor ΔFosB is induced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) of rodents in response to stress or cocaine, and its expression in these regions is thought to regulate their "top down" control of reward circuitry, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here, we use biochemistry to examine the expression of the FosB family of transcription factors and their potential gene targets in PFC and HPC postmortem samples from depressed patients and cocaine addicts. We demonstrate that ΔFosB and other FosB isoforms are downregulated in the HPC but not the PFC in the brains of both depressed and addicted individuals. Further, we show that potential ΔFosB transcriptional targets, including GluA2, are also downregulated in the HPC but not PFC of cocaine addicts. Thus, we provide the first evidence of FosB gene expression in human HPC and PFC in these psychiatric disorders, and in light of recent findings demonstrating the critical role of HPC ΔFosB in rodent models of learning and memory, these data suggest that reduced ΔFosB in HPC could potentially underlie cognitive deficits accompanying chronic cocaine abuse or depression. PMID:27494187

  18. Expression and colocalization of NMDA receptor and FosB/ΔFosB in sensitive brain regions in rats after chronic morphine exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Qi; Li, Tongzhou; Liu, You; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhonghai; Liu, Hongzhi; Hu, Min; Qiao, Yuehua; Niu, Haichen

    2016-02-12

    Research in the last decade demonstrated that the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) has an important role in opiate-induced neural and behavioral plasticity. In addition, increased levels of FosB-like proteins (FosB/ΔFosB) were found to be related to morphine withdrawal behaviors. However, the relationship between NMDAR and FosB/ΔFosB in sensitive brain regions during morphine withdrawal is largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate NMDAR dynamics and FosB/ΔFosB levels in multiple brain regions and whether they are related in sensitive brain regions during morphine abstinence. Quantitative immunohistochemistry was adopted to test NMDAR and FosB/ΔfosB levels during morphine withdrawal in rats. Increased NMDAR and FosB/ΔFosB levels were found in the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC), nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), central amygdaloid nucleuscapsular part (CeC), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and cingulate cortex (Cg). Double-immunofluorescence labeling indicated that NMDAR colocalized with Fos/ΔFosB in these five regions. These results suggest that multiple phenotypic regions are mediated by NMDAR and Fos/ΔFosB during morphine withdrawal, such as the motivational (AcbC, AcbSh), limbic (CeC, VTA) and executive (Cg) system pathways, and may be the primary targets of NMDAR and Fos/ΔfosB that impact morphine withdrawal behaviors. PMID:26655477

  19. Pattern of cerebrospinal immediate early gene c-fos expression in an ovine model of non-accidental head injury.

    PubMed

    Finnie, J W; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Vink, R

    2013-12-01

    Expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos, was examined in a large animal model of non-accidental head injury ("shaken baby syndrome"). Lambs were used because they have a relatively large gyrencephalic brain and weak neck muscles resembling a human infant. Neonatal lambs were manually shaken in a manner similar to that believed to occur with most abused human infants, but there was no head impact. The most striking c-fos expression was in meningothelial cells of the cranial cervical spinal cord and, to a lesser degree, in hemispheric, cerebellar, and brainstem meninges. Vascular endothelial cells also frequently showed c-fos immunopositivity in the meninges and hemispheric white matter. It was hypothesised that this c-fos immunoreactivity was due to mechanical stress induced by shaking, with differential movement of different craniospinal components. PMID:24035422

  20. c-fos expression in brainstem premotor interneurons during cholinergically induced active sleep in the cat.

    PubMed

    Morales, F R; Sampogna, S; Yamuy, J; Chase, M H

    1999-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to identify trigeminal premotor interneurons that become activated during carbachol-induced active sleep (c-AS). Their identification is a critical step in determining the neural circuits responsible for the atonia of active sleep. Accordingly, the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) was injected into the trigeminal motor nuclei complex to label trigeminal interneurons. To identify retrograde-labeled activated neurons, immunocytochemical techniques, designed to label the Fos protein, were used. Double-labeled (i.e., CTb(+), Fos(+)) neurons were found exclusively in the ventral portion of the medullary reticular formation, medial to the facial motor nucleus and lateral to the inferior olive. This region, which encompasses the ventral portion of the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis and the nucleus magnocellularis, corresponds to the rostral portion of the classic inhibitory region of. This region contained a mean of 606 +/- 41.5 ipsilateral and 90 +/- 32.0 contralateral, CTb-labeled neurons. These cells were of medium-size with an average soma diameter of 20-35 micrometer. Approximately 55% of the retrogradely labeled cells expressed c-fos during a prolonged episode of c-AS. We propose that these neurons are the interneurons responsible for the nonreciprocal postsynaptic inhibition of trigeminal motoneurons that occurs during active sleep. PMID:10531453

  1. Effects of NMDA-receptor antagonist treatment on c-fos expression in rat brain areas implicated in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Jussi; Ihalainen, Jouni; Tanila, Heikki; Castrén, Eero

    2004-12-01

    1. The noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists produce behavioral responses that closely resemble both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. These drugs also induce excitatory and neurotoxic effects in limbic cortical areas. 2. We have here mapped the brain areas which show increased activity in response to noncompetitive NMDA-receptor antagonist administration concentrating especially to those brain areas that have been suggested to be relevant in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. 3. Rats were treated intraperitoneally with a NMDA-receptor antagonist MK801 and activation of brain areas was detected by monitoring the expression of c-fos mRNA by using in situ hybridization. 4. MK801 induced c-fos mRNA expression of in the retrosplenial, entorhinal, and prefrontal cortices. Lower c-fos expression was observed in the layer IV of the parietal and frontal cortex. In the thalamus, c-fos mRNA expression was detected in the midline nuclei and in the reticular nucleus but not in the dorsomedial nucleus. In addition, c-fos mRNA was expressed in the anterior olfactory nucleus, the ventral tegmental area, and in cerebellar granule neurons. 5. NMDA-receptor antagonist ketamine increased dopamine release in the parietal cortex, in the region where NMDA-receptor antagonist increased c-fos mRNA expression. 6. Thus, the psychotropic NMDA-receptor antagonist induced c-fos mRNA expression in most, but not all, brain areas implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The high spatial resolution of in situ hybridization may help to define regions of interest for human imaging studies. PMID:15672679

  2. Dynamics of c-fos and ICER mRNA expression in rat forebrain following lithium chloride injection.

    PubMed

    Spencer, C M; Houpt, T A

    2001-09-30

    Lithium is commonly used as a treatment for affective disorders in humans and as a toxin to produce conditioned taste aversions in rats. LiCl administration in rats has been correlated with activation of c-fos and cAMP-mediated gene transcription in many brain regions; however, little is known about the timing or duration of gene activation. We hypothesized that c-fos gene transcription is rapidly stimulated by LiCl, followed later by the expression of the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) transcription factor, a negative modulator of cAMP-mediated gene transcription. By in situ hybridization, we analyzed the timecourse of c-fos and ICER mRNA expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON) at seven time points (0, 0.3, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h) after intraperitoneal LiCl injection (0.15 M, 12 ml/kg, 76 mg/kg). Expression of c-fos mRNA peaked between 20 min and 1 h and returned to baseline by 3 h in the CeA, PVN and SON. ICER mRNA was detected in these regions at 20 min, peaked at 1-3 h and returned to nearly baseline 9 h following LiCl injection. The time lag between c-fos mRNA expression and ICER mRNA expression within the same regions is consistent with ICER terminating c-fos gene transcription. However, no refractory period was detected for restimulation of c-fos transcription by a second injection of LiCl during the period of peak ICER mRNA expression, suggesting the involvement of other transcriptional modulators. PMID:11589989

  3. Amphetamine-induced c-fos mRNA expression is altered in rats with neonatal ventral hippocampal damage.

    PubMed

    Lillrank, S M; Lipska, B K; Bachus, S E; Wood, G K; Weinberger, D R

    1996-08-01

    To further characterize the mechanisms underlying enhanced dopamine-related behaviors expressed during adulthood in rats with neonatal excitotoxic ventral hippocampal (VH) damage, we studied the expression of c-fos mRNA in these rats after a single saline or amphetamine (AMPH) (10 mg/kg, i.p.) injection using in situ hybridization. The VH of rat pups was lesioned with ibotenic acid on postnatal day 7 (PD7). At the age of 90 days, rats were challenged with AMPH or saline, and the expression of c-fos mRNA using an oligonucleotide probe was assessed 30, 90, and 180 min later. AMPH significantly increased c-fos mRNA expression in medial prefrontal cortex, piriform cortex, cingulate cortex, septal region, and dorsolateral and ventromedial striatum in control and lesioned rats. However, this response to AMPH was attenuated 30 min after AMPH injection in all of these regions in the lesioned as compared to the sham-operated rats. No significant changes were seen at other time points. These results indicate that the neonatal VH lesion alters time-dependent intracellular signal transduction mechanisms measured by AMPH-induced c-fos mRNA expression in cortical and subcortical brain regions. Changes in c-fos mRNA expression in this putative animal model of schizophrenia may have implications for long-term alterations in cellular phenotype because of altered regulation of certain target genes. PMID:8855514

  4. Activation of the c-fos gene in prodynorphin- and proenkephalin-expressing cells of nucleus tractus solitarius after seizures.

    PubMed

    Kanter, R K; Erickson, J T; Millhorn, D E

    1994-10-01

    We performed studies to determine the anatomical regions and chemical phenotypes of neurons within the rat medulla oblongata activated by pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures. Activated cells were identified by their expression of the c-fos gene, detected by in situ hybridization for c-fos mRNA and immunocytochemistry for Fos protein. Activated cells were located predominantly in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), with c-fos mRNA appearing within 20 min after seizures (peak at 1-2 h), followed by Fos immunoreactivity visible at 1 h (peak at 2-4 h). Neither nonspecific noxious stimulation by intraperitoneal injection of saline nor brief exposure to hypoxic or hypercapnic gas mixtures to stimulate chemoreceptors reproduced this pattern of labeling. Prodynorphin or proenkephalin mRNA, detected by in situ hybridization, was colocalized with Fos immunoreactivity in many NTS cells. Thus, seizures activate neuronal pathways in the medulla oblongata which express genes for endogenous opioids. Potential long-term effects of seizures are suggested by the in situ hybridization finding that NTS prodynorphin mRNA increased 24 h after seizures compared to control levels. PMID:7957742

  5. c-Fos expression predicts long-term social memory retrieval in mice.

    PubMed

    Lüscher Dias, Thomaz; Fernandes Golino, Hudson; Moura de Oliveira, Vinícius Elias; Dutra Moraes, Márcio Flávio; Schenatto Pereira, Grace

    2016-10-15

    The way the rodent brain generally processes socially relevant information is rather well understood. How social information is stored into long-term social memory, however, is still under debate. Here, brain c-Fos expression was measured after adult mice were exposed to familiar or novel juveniles and expression was compared in several memory and socially relevant brain areas. Machine Learning algorithm Random Forest was then used to predict the social interaction category of adult mice based on c-Fos expression in these areas. Interaction with a familiar co-specific altered brain activation in the olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus, lateral septum and medial prefrontal cortex. Remarkably, Random Forest was able to predict interaction with a familiar juvenile with 100% accuracy. Activity in the olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex were crucial to this prediction. From our results, we suggest long-term social memory depends on initial social olfactory processing in the medial amygdala and its output connections synergistically with non-social contextual integration by the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex top-down modulation of primary olfactory structures. PMID:27449201

  6. Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, 'meow'): acute behavioural effects and distribution of Fos expression in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Motbey, Craig P; Hunt, Glenn E; Bowen, Michael T; Artiss, Suzanne; McGregor, Iain S

    2012-03-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a novel recreational drug that has rapidly increased in popularity in recent years. Users report mephedrone as having the stimulant-like qualities of methamphetamine and cocaine, combined with the prosocial, entactogenic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Anecdotal and case study reports indicate that mephedrone may have the potential to engender compulsive patterns of use as well as toxicity in overdose. However, there have been almost no neuropharmacological investigations of the drug up to this point. Here we examined the effects of two different mephedrone doses [15 and 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (IP)] relative to the well-known stimulant methamphetamine (2 mg/kg IP) in adolescent rats. Rats were injected, assessed for locomotor activity for 60 minutes and then tested in a 10-minute social preference test (measuring time spent in close proximity to a real rat versus a dummy rat). Their brains were then processed using Fos immunohistochemistry to determine patterns of brain activation. Results showed that mephedrone caused profound locomotor hyperactivity at both dose levels while tending to reduce social preference. Patterns of Fos expression with mephedrone resembled a combination of those observed with methamphetamine and MDMA, with particularly strong Fos expression in the cortex, dorsal and ventral striatum, ventral tegmental area (typical of both MDMA and methamphetamine) and supraoptic nucleus (typical of MDMA). These results demonstrate for the first time the powerful stimulant effects of mephedrone in animal models and its capacity to activate mesolimbic regions. These results also provide some empirical basis to user reports that mephedrone subjectively resembles a MDMA/methamphetamine hybrid. PMID:21995495

  7. Expression and purification of recombinant human c-Fos/c-Jun that is highly active in DNA binding and transcriptional activation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Heather A.; Goodrich, James A.

    2001-01-01

    c-Fos and c-Jun are members of the AP-1 family of transcriptional activators that regulate the expression of genes during cell proliferation. To facilitate in vitro studies of mechanisms of transcriptional activation by c-Jun and c-Fos we developed a method for obtaining recombinant c-Fos/c-Jun that is highly active in DNA binding and transcriptional activation in vitro. Full-length human c-Fos and c-Jun were expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression of c-Fos was dependent on a helper plasmid that encodes rare ArgtRNAs. Both over-expressed c-Fos and c-Jun were recovered from inclusion bodies. A c-Fos/c-Jun complex was generated by co-renaturation and purified via a His-tag on the full-length human c-Fos. The resulting c-Fos/c-Jun bound DNA with high affinity and specificity, and activated transcription in a reconstituted human RNA polymerase II transcription system. The availability of active recombinant human c-Fos/c-Jun will allow future biochemical studies of these important transcriptional activators. PMID:11600717

  8. The pattern of Fos expression in the rat auditory brainstem changes with the temporal structure of binaural electrical intracochlear stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jakob, Till F; Döring, Ulrike; Illing, Robert-Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The immediate-early-gene c-fos with its protein product Fos has been used as a powerful tool to investigate neuronal activity and plasticity following sensory stimulation. Fos combines with Jun, another IEG product, to form the dimeric transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) which has been implied in a variety of cellular functions like neuronal plasticity, apoptosis, and regeneration. The intracellular emergence of Fos indicates a functional state of nerve cells directed towards molecular and morphological changes. The central auditory system is construed to detect stimulus intensity, spectral composition, and binaural balance through neurons organized in a complex network of ascending, descending and commissural pathways. Here we compare monaural and binaural electrical intracochlear stimulation (EIS) in normal hearing and early postnatally deafened rats. Binaural stimulation was done either synchronously or asynchronously. The auditory brainstem of hearing and deaf rats responds differently, with a dramatically increasing Fos expression in the deaf group so as if the network had no pre-orientation for how to organize sensory activity. Binaural EIS does not result in a trivial sum of 2 independent monaural EIS, as asynchronous stimulation invokes stronger Fos activation compared to synchronous stimulation almost everywhere in the auditory brainstem. The differential response to synchronicity of the stimulation puts emphasis on the importance of the temporal structure of EIS with respect to its potential for changing brain structure and brain function in stimulus-specific ways. PMID:25708983

  9. The Expression Patterns of c-Fos and c-Jun Induced by Different Frequencies of Electroacupuncture in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zheng-Ying; Ding, Yi; Cui, Lu-ying; Hu, Man-Li; Ding, Ming-Xing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate patterns of c-Fos and c-Jun expression induced by different frequencies of electroacupuncture (EA) in the brain, goats were stimulated by EA of 0, 2, 60, or 100 Hz at a set of “Baihui, Santai, Ergen, and Sanyangluo” points for 30 min. The pain threshold was measured using the potassium iontophoresis method. The levels of c-Fos and c-Jun were determined with Streptavidin-Biotin Complex immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the pain threshold induced by 60 Hz was 82.2% higher (P < 0.01) than that by 0, 2, or 100 Hz (6.5%, 35.2%, or 40.9%). EA induced increased c-Fos and c-Jun expression in most analgesia-related nuclei and areas in the brain. Sixty Hz EA increased more c-Fos or c-Jun expression than 2 Hz or 100 Hz EA in all the measured nuclei and areas except for the nucleus accumbens, the area septalis lateralis, the caudate nucleus, the nucleus amygdala basalis, and the locus coeruleus, in which c-Fos or c-Jun expressions induced by 60 Hz EA did not differ from those by 2 Hz or 100 Hz EA. It was suggested that 60 Hz EA activated more extensive neural circuits in goats, which may contribute to optimal analgesic effects. PMID:26491460

  10. C-fos expression in the pons and medulla of the cat during carbachol-induced active sleep.

    PubMed

    Yamuy, J; Mancillas, J R; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1993-06-01

    Microinjection of carbachol into the rostral pontine tegmentum of the cat induces a state that is comparable to naturally occurring active (REM, rapid eye movement) sleep. We sought to determine, during this pharmacologically induced behavioral state, which we refer to as active sleep-carbachol, the distribution of activated neuron within the pons and medulla using c-fos immunocytochemistry as a functional marker. Compared with control cats, which were injected with saline, active sleep-carbachol cats exhibited higher numbers of c-fos-expressing neurons in (1) the medial and portions of the lateral reticular formation of the pons and medulla, (2) nuclei in the dorsolateral rostral pons, (3) various raphe nuclei, including the dorsal, central superior, magnus, pallidus, and obscurus, (4) the medial and lateral vestibular, prepositus hypoglossi, and intercalatus nuclei, and (5) the abducens nuclei. On the other hand, the mean number of c-fos-expressing neurons found in the masseter, facial, and hypoglossal nuclei was lower in carbachol-injected than in control cats. The data indicate that c-fos expression can be employed as a marker of state-dependent neuronal activity. The specific sites in which there were greater numbers of c-fos-expressing neurons during active sleep-carbachol are discussed in relation to the state of active sleep, as well as the functional role that these sites play in generating the various physiological patterns of activity that occur during this state. PMID:8501533

  11. Spatiotemporal analysis of Fos expression associated with cocaine- and PTZ-induced seizures in prenatally cocaine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Snyder-Keller, A; Keller, R W

    2001-07-01

    We previously reported that prenatal cocaine exposure (40 mg/kg s.c., E10-E20) increased susceptibility to convulsant-induced seizures later in life, with female rats becoming more sensitive to seizures induced by cocaine and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), and males more sensitive to PTZ-induced seizures (Snyder-Keller and Keller, 1995, 2000). In order to determine the locus of enhanced seizure susceptibility in the brains of prenatally cocaine-treated rats, we examined the distribution and density of Fos-immunoreactive cells after cocaine- and PTZ-induced seizures in mature rats. Subconvulsive cocaine doses induced c-fos in cortical areas as well as densely dopamine-innervated regions such as striatum and nucleus accumbens. Following cocaine-induced seizures, intense c-fos induction was observed in piriform cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. Quantification of the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells in the brains of prenatally cocaine-treated versus prenatally saline-treated rats revealed differences in piriform cortex and amygdala that were indicative of a lower threshold in prenatally cocaine-treated female rats. Following PTZ-induced seizures, the same pattern of limbic structures were recruited with increasing seizure severity. Only females exhibited changes in the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells as a result of prenatal cocaine treatment. Pretreatment with the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist MK-801 blocked both cocaine- and PTZ-induced seizures, and Fos expression in limbic areas was also blocked. The dopamine D1 antagonist SCH 23390 blocked cocaine-induced seizures and associated c-fos induction, but not PTZ-induced seizures or Fos. Examination of the pattern of Fos expression at 15-20 min postseizure revealed that the initial site of c-fos induction associated with PTZ-induced seizures appeared to be the piriform cortex, whereas cocaine-induced seizures induced early expression in both piriform cortex and lateral amygdala. These findings suggest that neural

  12. Expression of c-Fos in rat auditory and limbic systems following 22-kHz calls.

    PubMed

    Ouda, Ladislav; Jílek, Milan; Syka, Josef

    2016-07-15

    In the present study, adult Long-Evans rats were exposed either to natural conspecific aversive 22-kHz vocalizations or to artificial call-like stimuli with comparable frequency-temporal features, followed by c-Fos immunohistochemistry. The natural 22-kHz vocalizations was either played from a recording or produced by a foot-shocked animal located nearby (live vocalizations). In comparison with controls (non-exposed animals), c-Fos immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the inferior colliculus (IC), auditory cortex (AC), periaqueductal grey (PAG), basolateral amygdala (BA), and hippocampus (Hip) of rats exposed to either live or recorded 22-kHz natural vocalizations. Exposure to live natural vocalizations of the foot-shocked animal resulted in a similar pattern of c-Fos activity, as did exposure to the playback of the natural vocalizations. In contrast to this, foot-shocked rats (emitting the 22-kHz vocalizations) had the c-Fos positivity increased markedly in the PAG and only slightly in the AC. The expression of c-Fos also increased in the IC, AC, and in the PAG in animals exposed to the artificial call-like stimuli, when compared to controls; however, the increase was much less pronounced. In this case, c-Fos expression was not increased in the hippocampus or basolateral amygdala. Interestingly, almost no c-Fos expression was found in the medial nucleus of the geniculate body in any of the experimental groups. These findings suggest that differences exist between the processing of important natural conspecific vocalizations and artificial call-like stimuli with similar frequency-temporal features, and moreover they suggest the specific role of individual brain structures in the processing of such calls. PMID:27102341

  13. Bombesin stimulation of c-fos and c-myc gene expression in cultured of Swiss 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, A.P.; Rossino, P.; Comoglio, P.M.

    1986-11-01

    Bombesin has been show to be a potent mitogen for Swiss 3T3 cells. At nanomolar concentrations it stimulates DNA synthesis in quiescent cultures of 3T3 cells and also induces the expression of c-fos and c-myc mRNA. c-fos mRNA transcripts dramatically increase 15 min after the addition of bombesin, are still abundant after 30-60 min and then decrease. c-myc mRNA induction is detectable later, 1 h after bombesin treatment. Conversely, no changes in c-Ki-ras expression are observed after stimulation with bombesin. These results demonstrate that the increased expression of c-fos and c-myc mRNAs appears to be a common response to diverse agents that induce DNA synthesis and cell proliferation.

  14. Amygdala kindling disrupts trace and delay fear conditioning with parallel changes in Fos protein expression throughout the limbic brain.

    PubMed

    Botterill, J J; Fournier, N M; Guskjolen, A J; Lussier, A L; Marks, W N; Kalynchuk, L E

    2014-04-18

    Amygdala kindling is well known to increase unconditioned fear and anxiety. However, relatively little is known about whether this form of kindling causes functional changes within the neural circuitry that mediates fear learning and the retrieval of fear memories. To address this issue, we examined the effect of short- (i.e., 30 stimulations) and long-term (i.e., 99 stimulations) amygdala kindling in rats on trace and delay fear conditioning, which are aversive learning tasks that rely predominantly on the hippocampus and amygdala, respectively. After memory retrieval, we analyzed the pattern of neural activity with Fos, the protein product of the immediate early gene c-fos. We found that kindling had no effect on acquisition of the trace fear conditioning task but it did selectively impair retrieval of this fear memory. In contrast, kindling disrupted both acquisition and retrieval of fear memory in the delay fear conditioning task. We also found that kindling-induced impairments in memory retrieval were accompanied by decreased Fos expression in several subregions of the hippocampus, parahippocampus, and amygdala. Interestingly, decreased freezing in the trace conditioning task was significantly correlated with dampened Fos expression in hippocampal and parahippocampal regions whereas decreased freezing in the delay conditioning task was significantly correlated with dampened Fos expression in hippocampal, parahippocampal, and amygdaloid circuits. Overall, these results suggest that amygdala kindling promotes functional changes in brain regions involved in specific types of fear learning and memory. PMID:24486965

  15. Increased extracellular dopamine concentrations and FosB/DeltaFosB expression in striatal brain areas of heterozygous GDNF knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Airavaara, Mikko; Planken, Anu; Gäddnäs, Helena; Piepponen, Timo Petteri; Saarma, Mart; Ahtee, Liisa

    2004-11-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been shown to be involved in the maintenance of striatal dopaminergic neurons. To study whether reduced levels of endogenous GDNF affect the striatal dopaminergic transmission we estimated the basal extracellular levels of dopamine in vivo, the basal expression of FosB-related proteins in striatal brain areas as well as the effects of acute and repeated cocaine on locomotor activity and dopamine output in mice lacking one GDNF allele (heterozygous GDNF+/- mice). As expected the striatal GDNF protein content was found to be smaller in the GDNF+/- mice than in their wild-type littermates. Unexpectedly the extracellular dopamine concentration in the GDNF+/- mice in the dorsal striatum (CPu) was 2.0-fold, and in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) 1.6-fold the concentration found in the wild-type littermates. Also FosB/DeltaFosB-like immunoreactivity was found to be elevated in the CPu as well as in the core and in the shell of NAc of the GDNF+/- mice as compared with the wild-type mice. This suggests chronic postsynaptic activation of these brain areas and is in line with elevated extracellular dopamine concentrations. Cocaine's effects acutely and after repeated treatment on locomotor activity were similar in the GDNF+/- and the wild-type mice. Neither did cocaine's acute effects on dopamine output differ between the mice of the two strains. Our findings demonstrate that reduced levels of endogenous GDNF induce alterations in dorsal striatal and accumbal dopaminergic transmission, and stress the importance of endogenous GDNF in the regulation of the dopaminergic neurons. PMID:15525275

  16. Contrasting regional Fos expression in adolescent and young adult rats following acute administration of the antidepressant paroxetine.

    PubMed

    Karanges, Emily A; Ramos, Linnet; Dampney, Bruno; Suraev, Anastasia S; Li, Kong M; McGregor, Iain S; Hunt, Glenn E

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents and adults may respond differently to antidepressants, with poorer efficacy and greater probability of adverse effects in adolescents. The mechanisms underlying this differential response are largely unknown, but likely relate to an interaction between the neural effects of antidepressants and brain development. We used Fos immunohistochemistry to examine regional differences in adolescent (postnatal day (PND) 28) and young adult (PND 56) male, Wistar rats given a single injection of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (10mg/kg). Paroxetine induced widespread Fos expression in both adolescent and young adult rats. Commonly affected areas include the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dorsolateral), medial preoptic area, paraventricular hypothalamic and thalamic nuclei and central nucleus of the amygdala. Fos expression was generally lower in adolescents with significantly greater Fos expression observed in young adults in the prelimbic cortex, supraoptic nucleus, basolateral amygdala, lateral parabrachial and Kölliker-Fuse nuclei. However, a small subset of regions showed greater adolescent Fos expression including the nucleus accumbens shell, lateral habenula and dorsal raphe. Paroxetine increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in young adults, but not adolescents. Plasma paroxetine levels were not significantly different between the age groups. These results indicate a different c-Fos signature of acute paroxetine in adolescent rats, with greater activation in key mesolimbic and serotonergic regions, but a more subdued cortical, brainstem and hypothalamic response. This suggests that the atypical response of adolescents to paroxetine may be related to a blunted neuroendocrine response, combined with insufficient top-down regulation of limbic regions involved in reward and impulsivity. PMID:26876759

  17. Effect of Amniotic-Fluid Ingestion on Vaginal-Cervical-Stimulation-Induced Fos Expression in Female Rats During Estrus

    PubMed Central

    Hoey, Robert F.; Hurley, Seth W.; Daniels, Derek; Kristal, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    Placental Opioid-Enhancing Factor (POEF) is a substance found in amniotic fluid (AF) that, when ingested, potentiates opioid-mediated, but not non-opioid-mediated, hypoalgesia. Vaginal-cervical stimulation (VCS) produces a stimulus-bound, partially opioid-mediated hypoalgesia that previous research has shown to be potentiated by AF ingestion. To understand the mechanism of opioid enhancement by POEF we investigated the pattern of neural activation after a bout of VCS that produced hypoalgesia, with and without co-administration of AF. Specifically, virgin Long-Evans rats showing vaginal estrus were handled briefly (control) or received VCS (75 g pressure, 1 min), in a pattern that approximated early parturition rather than copulation, using a spring-loaded glass-rod probe. Rats were given an orogastric infusion (0.25 ml) of either AF or 0.9% saline resulting in four groups (VCS or handling; AF or saline). Rats were perfused 90 min after treatment and tissue was processed by immunohistochemistry for Fos. The number of Fos-immunoreactive cells was counted in structures previously shown to express Fos in response to VCS (the medial preoptic area, MPOA; the ventrolateral portion of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, vlVMH; the arcuate nucleus, ARC). We found that this pattern of VCS did not produce a significant increase in Fos expression in the MPOA and vlVMH unless it was paired with AF. VCS produced a significant increase in Fos in the ARC. The interaction of AF and VCS on Fos expression in the MPOA suggests that POEF may enhance vaginal-cervical sensory input at parturition to facilitate sensitization of the MPOA, and presumably facilitate maternal-behavior onset. PMID:21184750

  18. Activation of c-fos gene expression by a kinase-deficient epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, E R; Korf, G M; Christensen, T A; Connolly, D C; Getz, M J; Maihle, N J

    1994-01-01

    The intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to be responsible for many of the pleiotropic intracellular effects resulting from ligand stimulation [W.S. Chen, C.S. Lazar, M. Poenie, R.Y. Tsien, G.N. Gill, and M.G. Rosenfeld, Nature (London) 328:820-823, 1987; A.M. Honegger, D. Szapary, A. Schmidt, R. Lyall, E. Van Obberghen, T.J. Dull, A. Ulrich, and J. Schlessinger, Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:4568-4571, 1987]. Recently, however, it has been shown that addition of ligand to cells expressing kinase-defective EGFR mutants can result in the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (R. Campos-González and J.R. Glenney, Jr., J. Biol. Chem. 267:14535-14538, 1992; E. Selva, D.L. Raden, and R.J. Davis, J. Biol. Chem. 268:2250-2254, 1993), as well as stimulation of DNA synthesis (K.J. Coker, J.V. Staros, and C.A. Guyer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:6967-6971, 1994). Moreover, mitogen-activated protein kinase has been shown to phosphorylate the transcription factor p62TCF in vitro, leading to enhanced ternary complex formation between p62TCF, p67SRF, and the c-fos serum response element (SRE) [H. Gille, A.D. Sharrocks, and P.E. Shaw, Nature (London) 358:414-417, 1992]. On the basis of these observations, we have investigated the possibility that the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the EGFR may not be necessary for transcriptional activation mediated via p62TCF. Here, we demonstrate that a kinase-defective EGFR mutant can signal ligand-induced expression of c-fos protein and that a significant component of this induction appears to be mediated at the transcriptional level. Investigation of transcriptional activation mediated by the c-fos SRE shows that this response is impaired by mutations in the SRE which eliminate binding of p62(TCF). These data indicate that information inherent in the structure of the EGFR can be accessed by ligand stimulation independent of the receptor's catalytic kinase function

  19. Induction of c-Fos expression in the mammillary bodies, anterior thalamus and dorsal hippocampus after fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Conejo, Nélida M; González-Pardo, Héctor; López, Matías; Cantora, Raúl; Arias, Jorge L

    2007-09-14

    The aim of the present study was to provide further evidence on the role of particular subdivisions of the mammillary bodies, anterior thalamus and dorsal hippocampus to contextual and auditory fear conditioning. We used c-Fos expression as a marker of neuronal activation to compare rats that received tone-footshock pairings in a distinctive context (conditioned group) to rats being exposed to both the context and the auditory CS without receiving footshocks (unconditioned group), and naïve rats that were only handled. Fos immunoreactivity was significantly increased only in the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus and the lateral mammillary nucleus of the conditioned group. However, the dorsal hippocampus showed the highest density of c-Fos positive nuclei in the naïve group as compared to the other groups. Together, our data support previous studies indicating a particular involvement of the mammillary bodies and anterior thalamus in fear conditioning. PMID:17683804

  20. Opioid modulation of Fos protein expression and olfactory circuitry plays a pivotal role in what neonates remember

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Tania L.; Moriceau, Stephanie; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2006-01-01

    Paradoxically, fear conditioning (odor–0.5 mA shock) yields a learned odor preference in the neonate, presumably due to a unique learning and memory circuit that does not include apparent amygdala participation. Post-training opioid antagonism with naltrexone (NTX) blocks consolidation of this odor preference and instead yields memory of a learned odor aversion. Here we characterize the neural circuitry underlying this switch during memory consolidation. Experiment 1 assessed post-training opioid modulation of Fos protein expression within olfactory circuitry (olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, amygdala). Odor–shock conditioning with no post-training treatment (odor preference) induced significant changes in Fos protein expression in the granule cell layer of the olfactory bulb and anterior piriform cortex. Post-training opioid receptor antagonism (odor aversion) prevented the learning-induced changes in the anterior piriform cortex and also induced significant changes in Fos protein expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala. Experiment 2 assessed intra-amygdala opioid modulation of neonate memory consolidation. Post-training infusion of NTX within the amygdala permitted consolidation of an odor aversion, while vehicle-infused pups continued to demonstrate an odor preference. Overall, results demonstrate that opioids modulate memory consolidation in the neonate via modulating Fos protein expression in olfactory circuitry. Furthermore, these results suggest that opioids are instrumental in suppressing neonate fear behavior via modulating the amygdala. PMID:17015856

  1. A rodent model for artificial gravity: VOR adaptation and Fos expression.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Galen; Weng, Tianxiang; Ruttley, Tara

    2005-01-01

    Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) adaptation and brainstem Fos expression as a result of short radius cross-coupling stimuli were investigated to find neural correlates of the inherent Coriolis force asymmetry from an artificial gravity (AG) environment. Head-fixed gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus, N=79) were exposed, in the dark, to 60--90 minutes of cross-coupled rotations, combinations of pitch (or roll) and yaw rotation, while binocular horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye position were determined using infrared video-oculography. Centripetal acceleration in combination with angular cross-coupling was also studied. Simultaneous sinusoidal rotations in two planes (yaw with roll or pitch) provided a net symmetrical stimulus for the right and left labyrinths. In contrast, a constant velocity yaw rotation during sinusoidal roll or pitch provided the asymmetric stimulus model for AG. We found orthogonally oriented half-cycle VOR gain changes. The results depended on the direction of horizontal rotation during asymmetrical cross-coupling, and other aspects of the stimulus, including the phase relationship between the two rotational inputs, the symmetry of the stimulus, and training. Fos expression also revealed laterality differences in the prepositus and inferior olivary C subnucleus. In contrast the inferior olivary beta and ventrolateral outgrowth were labeled bilaterally. Additional cross-coupling dependent labeling was found in the flocculus, hippocampus, and several cortical regions, including the perirhinal and temporal association cortices. Analyses showed significant differences across the brain regions for several factors (symmetry, rotation velocity and direction, the presence of centripetal acceleration or a visual surround, and training). Finally, animals compensating from a unilateral surgical labyrinthectomy who received multiple cross-coupling training sessions had improved half-cycle VOR gain in the ipsilateral eye with head rotation toward the intact

  2. GABAergic neurons of the cat dorsal raphe nucleus express c-fos during carbachol-induced active sleep.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, P; Yamuy, J; Sampogna, S; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    2000-11-24

    Serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) cease firing during active sleep (AS, also called rapid-eye-movement sleep). This cessation of electrical activity is believed to play a 'permissive' role in the generation of AS. In the present study we explored the possibility that GABAergic cells in the DRN are involved in the suppression of serotonergic activity during AS. Accordingly, we examined whether immunocytochemically identified GABAergic neurons in the DRN were activated, as indicated by their expression of c-fos, during carbachol-induced AS (AS-carbachol). Three chronically-prepared cats were euthanized after prolonged episodes of AS that was induced by microinjections of carbachol into the nucleus pontis oralis. Another four cats (controls) were maintained 2 h in quiet wakefulness before being euthanized. Thereafter, immunocytochemical studies were performed on brainstem sections utilizing antibodies against Fos, GABA and serotonin. When compared with identically prepared tissue from awake cats, the number of Fos+ neurons was larger in the DRN during AS-carbachol (35.9+/-5.6 vs. 13.9+/-4.4, P<0.05). Furthermore, a larger number of GABA+ Fos+ neurons were observed during AS-carbachol than during wakefulness (24.8+/-3.3 vs. 4.0+/-1.0, P<0.001). These GABA+ Fos+ neurons were distributed asymmetrically with a larger number located ipsilaterally to the site of injection. There was no significant difference between control and experimental animals in the number of non-GABAergic neurons that expressed c-fos in the DRN. We therefore suggest that activated GABAergic neurons of the DRN are responsible for the inhibition of serotonergic neurons that occurs during natural AS. PMID:11082488

  3. Developmental Changes in Desensitisation of c-Fos Expression Induced by Repeated Maternal Separation in Pre-Weaned Mice

    PubMed Central

    Horii-Hayashi, N; Sasagawa, T; Matsunaga, W; Matsusue, Y; Azuma, C; Nishi, M

    2013-01-01

    Early-life stress has long-lasting effects on neuroendocrine and behaviour in adulthood. Maternal separation (MS) is used as a model of early-life stress and daily repeated MS (RMS) for 3 h during the first two postnatal weeks is widely used in rodent studies. However, it is not fully understood whether early-life animals desensitise/habituate to repeated stress. In the present study, we investigated the effects of daily RMS for 3 h and acute/single time MS (SMS) for 3 h on the plasma corticosterone level and c-Fos expression in the brain in mice at different postnatal ages. Mice were subjected to: (i) RMS from postnatal day (PND) 1 to 14 (RMS14); (ii) RMS from PND14 to 21 (RMS21); (iii) SMS on PND14 (SMS14); and (iv) SMS on PND21 (SMS21). Plasma corticosterone and c-Fos expression were examined on the final day in each experiment. The basal corticosterone levels in RMS14 and RMS21 were equal to those in respective age-matched controls. After the final separation, the levels were significantly increased and were comparable with those after SMS14 and SMS21, respectively. Histological analysis indicated that c-Fos expression significantly increased in many brain regions, including the paraventricular nucleus, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and basolateral and medial amygdale in both SMS14 and SMS21 mice. However, c-Fos expression in RMS14 mice significantly increased in many regions, whereas such increases were hardly seen in RMS21 mice. These results indicate that repeated early-life stress neither increases basal corticosterone, nor decreases the magnitude of the corticosterone response during the first three postnatal weeks, although desensitisation of c-Fos expression induced by repeated stress is changed during postnatal development. PMID:22913644

  4. Differential expression of immediate early genes Zif268 and c-Fos in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex following spatial learning and glutamate receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Farina, Francesca R; Commins, Sean

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of NMDAR and AMPAR antagonism on the expression of Zif268 and c-Fos in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex during spatial memory encoding in rats trained in the Morris water maze. NMDAR inhibition impaired navigation and significantly attenuated expression of Zif268, but not c-Fos, in area CA1. AMPAR channel blockade had little effect on learning or IEG expression. Overall, Zif268 and c-Fos displayed markedly different patterns of hippocampal and prefrontal expression, with Zif268 being more closely linked to spatial learning. PMID:27071329

  5. Glutamatergic vestibular neurons express Fos after vestibular stimulation and project to the NTS and the PBN in rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi-Ling; Ma, Wen-Ling; Li, Min; Guo, Jun-Sheng; Li, Yi-Qian; Wang, Li-Gang; Wang, Wei-Zhong

    2007-05-01

    In this study, retrograde tracing method combined with phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG) and Fos immunofluorescence histochemistry was used to identify glutamatergic vestibular nucleus (VN) neurons receiving vestibular inputs and projecting to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN). Conscious animals were subjected to 120 min Ferris-wheel like rotation stimulation. Neuronal activation was assessed by Fos expression in the nucleus of VN neurons. After Fluoro-gold (FG) injection into the caudal NTS, approximately 48% FG-labeled VN neurons were immunoreactive for PAG, and about 14% PAG/FG double-labeled neurons co-existed with Fos. Following FG injection into the PBN, approximately 56% FG-labeled VN neurons were double-labeled with PAG, and about 12% of the PAG/FG double-labeled neurons also expressed Fos. Careful examination of the typology and distribution pattern of these PAG-immunoreactive neurons indicated that the vast majority of these neurons were glutamatergic rather than GABAergic. These results suggest that PAG-immunoreactive VN neurons might constitute excitatory glutamatergic VN-NTS and VN-PBN transmission pathways and these pathways might be involved in vestibulo-autonomic reflexes during vestibular stimulation. PMID:17412503

  6. [Effects of ketamine and urethane on stimulation-induced c-fos expression in neurons of cat visual cortex].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Zhu, Hui; Chen, Cui-Yun; Li, Peng; Jin, Cai-Hong; Wang, Zi-Lu; Jiang, San; Hua, Tian-Miao

    2013-12-01

    The effects of ketamine and urethane on neuronal activities remain in debate. As a member of immediate early genes family, the expression of c-fos is stimulation dependent and could be treated as an index to evaluate the strength of neural activities. In this study, SABC immunohistochemical techniques were applied to compare the c-fos expression in neurons of the primary visual cortex (V1) of cats and therefore, to evaluate the effects of acute anesthesia with ketamine HCl and uethane on inhibiting neural activities. Our results showed that compared with control cats, there were no significant differences with the average densities of Nissl-stained V1 neurons in each cortical layers of either urethane or ketamine anesthetized cats. In urethane anesthetized cats, neither the average densities nor the immunoreactive intensities of c-fos positive V1 neurons showed significant difference with that of control ones. However, both the average densities and immunoreactive intensities of c-fos positive V1 neurons in ketamine anesthetized cats decreased significantly compared with that of control and urethane anesthetized cats. These results suggested that ketamine has strong inhibitory effects on the activities of visual cortical neurons, whereas urethane did not. PMID:24415690

  7. Effects of nucleus basalis magnocellularis stimulation on a socially transmitted food preference and c-Fos expression

    PubMed Central

    Boix-Trelis, Núria; Vale-Martínez, Anna; Guillazo-Blanch, Gemma; Costa-Miserachs, David; Martí-Nicolovius, Margarita

    2006-01-01

    Experiment 1 examined the effects of electrical stimulation of nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) on a relational odor-association task—the social transmission of food preference (STFP). Rats were stimulated unilaterally in the NBM for 20 min (100 μA, 1 Hz) immediately before the social training. They were tested on their ability to remember preference for the trained food either immediately or following a 24-h delay. Stimulation of NBM improved retention regardless of delay, and additional behavioral measures (social interaction, motor activity, or exploration) did not account for such effects. Experiment 2 investigated brain regions activated after NBM electrical stimulation by examining the induction of c-Fos. This treatment led to bilateral increased c-Fos expression in prefrontal regions, such as orbitofrontal, prelimbic, and infralimbic cortices, and some hippocampal subregions (dorsal CA and ventral dentate gyrus). In contrast, no differences between groups in c-Fos expression were found in basolateral amygdala, dorsal dentate gyrus, ventral CA, or ventral subiculum. Present findings indicate that pretraining NBM electrical stimulation facilitates the acquisition of STFP, supporting a role of NBM in the early stages of memory formation, and suggest that the treatment might cause such effects by inducing neural changes, related to transcription factors such as c-Fos, in the prefrontal cortex or the hippocampal formation. PMID:17101878

  8. c-Fos expression associated with reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior by response-contingent conditioned cues

    PubMed Central

    Kufahl, Peter R.; Zavala, Arturo R.; Singh, Akanksha; Thiel, Kenneth J.; Dickey, Erin D.; Joyce, Jeffrey N.; Neisewander, Janet L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The capability of cocaine cues to generate craving in cocaine-dependent humans, even after extended abstinence, is modeled in rats using cue reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior. We investigated neural activity associated with incentive motivational effects of cocaine cues using c-fos mRNA and Fos protein expression as markers. Unlike preceding studies, we used response-contingent presentation of discrete cues to elicit cocaine seeking. Rats were first trained to press a lever, resulting in cocaine reinforcement and light and tone cues. Rats then underwent extinction training, during which lever presses decreased. On the test day, rats either received response-contingent cocaine cues or received no cues. The cues reinstated extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior on the test day. In general, cue-elicited c-fos mRNA and protein expression were similar and both were enhanced in the prefrontal cortex, ventral tegmental area (VTA), dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens. Cues elicited more widespread Fos protein expression relative to our previous research in which cues were presented non-contingently without prior extinction training, including increases in the VTA, substantia nigra, ventral subiculum, and lateral entorhinal cortex. We also observed a correlation between cocaine-seeking behavior and Fos in the agranular insula (AgI) and basolateral amygdala (BLA). The findings suggest that connections between BLA and AgI play a role in cue-elicited incentive motivation for cocaine and that reinstatement of cocaine seeking by response-contingent cues activates a similar corticolimbic circuit as that observed with other modes of cue presentation; however, activation of midbrain and ventral hippocampal regions may be unique to reinstatement by response-contingent cues. PMID:19533625

  9. Intrathecal Amylin and Salmon Calcitonin Affect Formalin Induced c-Fos Expression in the Spinal Cord of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khoshdel, Zahra; Takhshid, Mohammad Ali; Owji, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Amylin and Salmon Calcitonin belong to the calcitonin family of peptides and have high affinity binding sites in the rat spinal cord. The aim of this study was to characterize receptors for Amylin and Salmon Calcitonin functionally in the spinal cord of rats. We assessed the expression of c-Fos in response to intraplantar formalin in the lumbar regions of the spinal cord in conscious rats. Methods: Amylin (0.05 nmoles) or Salmon Calcitonin (0.005 nmoles) was administered intrathecally (i.t.) 10 minutes before the start of the formalin test. Antagonists were injected intrathecally 10 minutes before the administration of either of the peptides. Results: Two hours after formalin stimulation, rats pretreated intrathecally by either Amylin or Salmon Calcitonin, showed lower numbers of c-Fos immunoreactive nuclei in their lumbar spinal cord as compared to rats pretreated with saline. These effects were reversed upon co-administration of either of the Amylin antagonists AC187 or rat amylin8-37, but not rat α-CGRP8-37. A few cells with c-Fos immunoreactivity were found in the lumbar spinal cord of rats two hours after i.t. injection of saline, Amylin and/or Salmon Calcitonin. However, Fos-like immunoreactivity was increased in the lumbar spinal cord two hours after i.t. treatment of either of the antagonists AC187 and rat amylin8-37,when compared to saline treated rats. Conclusion: Both Amylin and Salmon Calcitonin inhibit formalin induced c-Fos expression in the rat lumbar spinal cord when administered intrathecally. Effects of the two peptides were possibly produced by undefined receptors. PMID:25429177

  10. Expression of Fos-protein activated by tactile stimulation on the laryngeal vestibulum in the cat's lower brain stem.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y; Yoshida, Y; Hirano, M

    1995-01-01

    To demonstrate morphologically the neurons participating in the laryngeal reflex, Fos-expression, activated with tactile stimulation of the laryngeal vestibulum, was mapped in the cat's lower brain stem utilizing immunohistochemistry. In the stimulation group, many Fos-immunoreactive (ir) neurons were recognized in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) from the level of the most rostral portion of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus to the level of the most caudal portion of the inferior olivary nucleus (IO), and in the nucleus ambiguus (NA) from the level of the rostral end of the hypoglossal nucleus to the level of the caudal end of the IO, bilaterally. While some Fos-ir cells were found in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminus, they were also found in the reticular nuclei bilaterally. In the control group, Fos-ir cells were distinctly fewer in number than those in the stimulation group. The results suggested that in the brain stem, the laryngeal reflex pathways have more than two synaptic relays through the interneurons in between the NTS and the NA. PMID:7876735

  11. Spatial behavior and seizure-induced changes in c-fos mRNA expression in young and old rats.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Monica K; Penner, Marsha R; Olson, Kathy M; Sutherland, Vicki L; Mittelman-Smith, Melinda A; Barnes, Carol A

    2013-04-01

    The subcellular processes of gene induction and expression in the hippocampus are likely to underlie some of the known age-related impairments in spatial learning and memory. It is well established that immediate-early genes are rapidly and transiently induced in response to neuronal activity and this expression is required for stabilization of durable memories. To examine whether age-related memory impairment might be caused, in part, by differences in the level of cellular activation or subcellular processing, c-fos expression in CA1 pyramidal and dentate gyrus granule cells in the dorsal hippocampus of young and old rats was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. No significant age differences were found in the numbers of pyramidal or granule cells that show c-fos expression; however, c-fos mRNA transcripts were altered in these 2 cell types in aged animals. These findings suggest that though the networks of cells that participate in behavior or seizure-induced activity are largely maintained in aged rats, their RNA transcript levels are altered. This might, in part, contribute to cognitive deficits frequently observed with advancing age. PMID:23158763

  12. Papillomavirus-Associated Tumor Formation Critically Depends on c-Fos Expression Induced by Viral Protein E2 and Bromodomain Protein Brd4

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Markus; Schuetz, Johanna; Leiprecht, Natalie; Hudjetz, Benjamin; Brodbeck, Stephan; Corall, Silke; Dreer, Marcel; Schwab, Roxana Michaela; Grimm, Martin; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Stubenrauch, Frank; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Iftner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism of how the papillomavirus E2 transcription factor can activate promoters through activator protein (AP)1 binding sites. Using an unbiased approach with an inducible cell line expressing the viral transcription factor E2 and transcriptome analysis, we found that E2 induces the expression of the two AP1 components c-Fos and FosB in a Brd4-dependent manner. In vitro RNA interference confirmed that c-Fos is one of the AP1 members driving the expression of viral oncogenes E6/E7. Mutation analysis and in vivo RNA interference identified an essential role for c-Fos/AP1 and also for the bromodomain protein Brd4 for papillomavirus-induced tumorigenesis. Lastly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 binds together with Brd4 to a canonical E2 binding site (E2BS) in the promoter of c-Fos, thus activating c-Fos expression. Thus, we identified a novel way how E2 activates the viral oncogene promoter and show that E2 may act as a viral oncogene by direct activation of c-Fos involved in skin tumorigenesis. PMID:26727473

  13. Papillomavirus-Associated Tumor Formation Critically Depends on c-Fos Expression Induced by Viral Protein E2 and Bromodomain Protein Brd4.

    PubMed

    Delcuratolo, Maria; Fertey, Jasmin; Schneider, Markus; Schuetz, Johanna; Leiprecht, Natalie; Hudjetz, Benjamin; Brodbeck, Stephan; Corall, Silke; Dreer, Marcel; Schwab, Roxana Michaela; Grimm, Martin; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Stubenrauch, Frank; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Iftner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism of how the papillomavirus E2 transcription factor can activate promoters through activator protein (AP)1 binding sites. Using an unbiased approach with an inducible cell line expressing the viral transcription factor E2 and transcriptome analysis, we found that E2 induces the expression of the two AP1 components c-Fos and FosB in a Brd4-dependent manner. In vitro RNA interference confirmed that c-Fos is one of the AP1 members driving the expression of viral oncogenes E6/E7. Mutation analysis and in vivo RNA interference identified an essential role for c-Fos/AP1 and also for the bromodomain protein Brd4 for papillomavirus-induced tumorigenesis. Lastly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 binds together with Brd4 to a canonical E2 binding site (E2BS) in the promoter of c-Fos, thus activating c-Fos expression. Thus, we identified a novel way how E2 activates the viral oncogene promoter and show that E2 may act as a viral oncogene by direct activation of c-Fos involved in skin tumorigenesis. PMID:26727473

  14. Inhibition of carcinogen induced c-Ha-ras and c-fos proto-oncogenes expression by dietary curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Limtrakul, Porn-ngarm; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Lipigorngoson, Suwiwek; Dunn, Floyd W

    2001-01-01

    Background We investigated the chemopreventive action of dietary curcumin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12,0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted skin tumor formation in Swiss albino mice. Curcumin, a yellow coloring matter isolated from roots of Curcuma longa Linn, is a phenolic compound possessing antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and antiinflammatory properties. It has been shown by previously reported work that TPA-induced skin tumors were inhibited by topical application of curcumin, and curcumin has been shown to inhibit a variety of biological activities of TPA. Topical application of curcumin was reported to inhibit TPA-induced c-fos, c-jun and c-myc gene expression in mouse skin. This paper reports the effects of orally administered curcumin, which was consumed as a dietary component at concentrations of 0.2 % or 1 %, in ad libitum feeding. Results Animals in which tumors had been initiated with DMBA and promoted with TPA experienced significantly fewer tumors and less tumor volume if they ingested either 0.2% or 1% curcumin diets. Also, the dietary consumption of curcumin resulted in a significantly decreased expression of ras and fos proto-oncogenes in the tumorous skin, as measured by enhanced chemiluminesence Western blotting detection system (Amersham). Conclusions Whereas earlier work demonstrated that topical application of curcumin to mouse skin inhibited TPA-induced expression of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc oncogenes, our results are the first to show that orally consumed curcumin significantly inhibited DMBA- and TPA-induced ras and fos gene expression in mouse skin. PMID:11231886

  15. DC electrical field-induced c-fos expression and growth stimulation in multicellular prostate cancer spheroids.

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, H.; Hescheler, J.; Reis, D.; Diedershagen, H.; Niedermeier, W.; Wartenberg, M.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of electrical direct current (DC) field pulses on c-fos expression, growth kinetics and vitality patterns of multicellular tumour spheroids (MCSs) were studied. Monitoring the membrane potential of MCSs by di-8-ANNEPS staining and confocal microscopy during DC electrical field treatment revealed a hyperpolarization at the anode-facing side and a depolarization at the cathode-facing side. When a single 500 V m(-1) electrical field pulse with a duration of 60 s was applied to MCSs (150-350 microm in diameter) an enhancement of the growth kinetics within a period of 6 days post pulse was observed. Whereas the volume doubling time amounted to 4-5 days in control samples, it was reduced to 1-2 days in electropulsed MCSs. At day 6 post pulse the diameter of the necrotic core was significantly smaller than the control. The critical diameter for the first appearance of central necrosis amounted to 350 +/- 50 microm in the control and 450 +/- 50 microm in the electropulsed MCSs. Coincidentally, the proliferating rim was increased to 107 +/- 11 microm in electropulsed MCSs as compared with 60 +/- 6 microm in the control. The growth stimulation may be mediated by the proto-oncogene c-fos as its expression increased by a factor of 2.5 within 2 h post pulse. c-fos expression declined towards control values within 8 h post pulse. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 7 PMID:9166941

  16. Nucleus accumbens NMDA receptor activation regulates amphetamine cross-sensitization and deltaFosB expression following sexual experience in male rats.

    PubMed

    Beloate, Lauren N; Weems, Peyton W; Casey, Graham R; Webb, Ian C; Coolen, Lique M

    2016-02-01

    Sexual experience in male rats followed by a period of abstinence causes sensitization to d-Amphetamine (Amph) reward, evidenced by an increased conditioned place preference (CPP) for low doses of Amph. Moreover, sexual experience induces neural plasticity within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), including induction of deltaFosB, which plays a key role in Amph reward cross-sensitization. The NMDA receptor subunit NR1 is also upregulated by mating, but the functional relevance of NMDA receptors in sex experience-induced effects is unknown. Here, we examined the influence of intra-NAc MK 801 infusions on sex experience-induced NAc deltaFosB and cFos expression, as well as mating- and Amph-induced CPP in adult male rats. In experiment 1, males received MK 801 or saline into the NAc during each of 4 consecutive days of mating or handling and were tested for Amph CPP and experience-induced deltaFosB 10 days later. Intra-NAc MK 801 during sexual behavior prevented experience-induced increases in Amph CPP and NAc deltaFosB expression without affecting sexual behavior. In experiment 2, the effects of intra-NAc MK 801 on mating-induced CPP were examined by intra-NAc infusion of MK 801 or saline prior to mating on conditioning days. Intra-NAc MK 801 did not affect mating-induced CPP. Next, effects of intra-NAc MK 801 on mating-induced cFos immunoreactivity were examined. MK 801 prevented mating-induced cFos expression in NAc shell and core. Together, these results provide evidence that NAc NMDA receptor activation during sexual behavior plays a key role in mating-induced cFos and deltaFosB expression and subsequent experience-induced cross-sensitization to Amph reward. PMID:26391065

  17. Effects of intracerebroventricular dizocilpine (MK801) on dehydration-induced dipsogenic responses, plasma vasopressin and c-fos expression in the rat forebrain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Herbert, J

    1998-02-16

    This study determines the interaction between glutamate receptors and dehydration-induced drinking, vasopressin (AVP) release, plasma osmolality and c-fos expression in the brain of conscious rats. The NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (100 nmol infused into the cerebral ventricles) suppressed drinking following either 22 h water deprivation or intragastric injection of hypertonic saline (1.5 M), attenuated the increased plasma vasopressin induced by dehydration, but had no effects on peripheral hyperosmolality caused by either water deprivation or injections of hypertonic saline. Dizocilpine had no inhibitory effects on feeding after 24 h food deprivation. Dizocilpine also suppressed c-fos expression induced by dehydration in the median preoptic nucleus (MPN), the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei (SON and PVN), but did not influence c-fos expression in the subfornical organ (SFO). The non-NMDA receptor antagonists CNQX (400 nmol) or DNQX (60 nmol) affected neither the animals' drinking nor c-fos expression induced by dehydration. Double staining showed that suppression of c-fos expression following dizocilpine occurred in the NMDA R1 receptor containing neurons in the hypothalamus. These results suggest that the NMDA-type glutamate receptors may be involved in dehydration induced dipsogenic and neuroendocrinological responses. They complement our earlier findings that dizocilpine also attenuates drinking and c-fos expression following intraventricular infusions of angiotensin II. PMID:9518565

  18. Spinal neurons that contain gastrin-releasing peptide seldom express Fos or phosphorylate extracellular signal-regulated kinases in response to intradermal chloroquine

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Polgár, Erika; Todd, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is thought to play a role in the itch evoked by intradermal injection of chloroquine. Although some early studies suggested that GRP was expressed in pruriceptive primary afferents, it is now thought that GRP in the spinal cord is derived mainly from a population of excitatory interneurons in lamina II, and it has been suggested that these are involved in the itch pathway. To test this hypothesis, we used the transcription factor Fos and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) to look for evidence that interneurons expressing GRP were activated following intradermal injection of chloroquine into the calf, in mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in these cells. Results Injection of chloroquine resulted in numerous Fos- or phospho-ERK (pERK) positive cells in the somatotopically appropriate part of the superficial dorsal horn. The proportion of all neurons in this region that showed Fos or pERK was 18% and 21%, respectively. However, among the GRP–EGFP, only 7% were Fos-positive and 3% were pERK-positive. As such, GRP–EGFP cells were significantly less likely than other neurons to express Fos or to phosphorylate ERK. Conclusions Both expression of Fos and phosphorylation of ERK can be used to identify dorsal horn neurons activated by chloroquine injection. However, these results do not support the hypothesis that interneurons expressing GRP are critical components in the itch pathway. PMID:27270268

  19. Repeated administration of propofol upregulated the expression of c-Fos and cleaved-caspase-3 proteins in the developing mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yin; Ling-Shan, Gou; Yi, Liu; Xing-Qi, Wang; Xue-Mei, Zhuang; Xiao-Xing, Yin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives and Aim: This study was designed to analyze the relationship between the expression of c-Fos protein and apoptosis in the hippocampus following propofol administration in infant mice. There are reports that certain drugs, including the general anesthetics applied in pediatrics and obstetrics, could block N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors and activate γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. Furthermore, some anesthetics could trigger neuroapoptosis and the expression of c-Fos in the developing rodent brain. Propofol is a general anesthetic increasingly used in pediatrics and obstetrics, and is reported to be able to interact with both γ-aminobutyric acid type A and N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors. No adequate evaluations have been available as to whether the dosage of propofol to maintain anaesthesia could trigger the expression of c-Fos and apoptosis. Materials and Methods: Intraperitoneal injections of propofol (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) or vehicle were administered every 90 minutes (4 times) in infant mice (5–7 days old). 30 minutes after the final administration, the protein expressions of c-Fos and cleaved-caspase-3 in the hippocampus were determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results: It was demonstrated that the expressions of cleaved-caspase-3 and c-Fos were upregulated in the hippocampal CA3 region in this study. Conclusions: The upregulated c-Fos expression induced by repeated injections of propofol might evoke neuroapoptosis. PMID:22144767

  20. c-fos Expression in mesopontine noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons of the cat during carbachol-induced active sleep: a double-labeling study.

    PubMed

    Yamuy, J; Sampogna, S; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of cholinergic and catecholaminergic mechanisms in the mesopontine region has been hypothesized as being critical for the generation and maintenance of active (REM) sleep. To further examine this hypothesis, we sought to determine the pattern of neuronal activation (via c-fos expression) of catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurons in this region during active sleep induced by the pontine microapplication of carbachol (designated as active sleep-carbachol). Accordingly, we used two sets of double-labeling techniques; the first to identify tyrosine hydroxylase-containing neurons (putative catecholaminergic cells) which also express the c-fos protein product Fos, and the second to reveal choline acetyltransferase-containing neurons (putative cholinergic cells) which also express Fos. Compared to control cats, active sleep-carbachol cats exhibited a significantly greater number of Fos-expressing neurons in the dorsolateral region of the pons, which encompasses the locus coeruleus, the lateral pontine reticular formation, the peribrachial nuclei and the latero-dorsal and pedunculo-pontine tegmental nuclei. However, both control and active sleep-carbachol cats exhibited a similar number of catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurons in those regions that expressed Fos (i.e., double-labeled cells). A large number of c-fos-expressing neurons in the active sleep-carbachol cats whose neurotransmitter phenotype was not identified suggests that non-catecholaminergic, non-cholinergic neuronal populations in mesopontine regions are involved in the generation and maintenance of active sleep. The lack of increased c-fos expression in catecholaminergic neurons during active sleep-carbachol confirms and extends previous data that indicate that these cells are silent during active sleep-carbachol and naturally-occurring active sleep. The finding that cholinergic neurons of the dorsolateral pons were not activated either during wakefulness or active sleep

  1. The significance of the expression of Fos protein in the brain for the classification of antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Korf, J; Sebens, J B

    1997-12-01

    Samenvatting In de afgelopen zes jaar is veel onderzoek verficht naar de effecten van antipsychotica op de regionale c-fos-expressie in de hersenen. Deze benadering biedt in een dierexperimentele proefopzet de mogelijkheid op cellulair niveau de effecten van psychofarmaca te bestuderen. Het fos-gen behoort tot de groep 'immediate early genes'. Dit zijn genen die de transcriptie van andere, vaak onbekende genen reguleren. Een aantal aspecten van dit mechanisme wordt in deze bijdrage beschreven. Het onderzoek naar de effecten van antipsychotica op c-fos-expressie wordt samengevat en de betekenis voor de classificatie van antipsychotica benadrukt. Het blijkt dat deze farmaca effectief zijn in zowel de (meso)limbische gebieden (als nucleus accumbens, septum en amygdala) als ook in de basale ganglia. De relatieve effecten, wat betreft de c-fos-reactie, van de atypische antipsychotica (als clozapine en risperidon) zijn hoger in de limbische structuren, vergeleken met de effecten van de typische (als haloperidol). De potentie van de c-fos-methodiek voor verdere ontwikkelingen in dit gebied wordt aangegeven. PMID:26972456

  2. Correlation of c-fos protein expression with neuropeptide content in the lung of bronchial asthmatic rat

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haiyan; Yang, Xudong; Hou, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and analyze the correlation between the c-fos protein expression and neuropeptide content in the lung of bronchial asthmatic rats. Methods: Thirty-two (32) SD rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups of the normal control, the non-acute asthma, the acute asthma and the dexamethasone intervention. Immunohistochemistry was performed for histological observation, and substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: SP concentration in the alveolar lavage of asthmatic rat was significantly higher than that in the normal control group (P < 0.0001), whereas VIP concentration was significantly lower (P < 0.0001). The optical density of c-fos protein in the lung tissues of groups of the non-acute asthma, the acute asthma and the dexamethasone intervention was positively correlated with SP concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (r = 0.908, r = 0.967, r = 0.865), and negatively correlated with the VIP concentration in the alveolar lavage (r = -0.974, r = -0.949, r = -0.962). Conclusion: The c-fos protein expression and neuropeptide content in the lungs of asthmatic rats are related with asthma attacks. PMID:25674230

  3. Effect of hypergravity on expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos, in central nervous system of medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayaka, Shimomura-Umemura; Ijiri, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    Immediate-early genes serve as useful neurobiological tools for mapping brain activity induced by a sensory stimulation. In this study, we have examined brain activity related to gravity perception of medaka (Oryzias latipes) by use of c-fos. The gene, which is homologous to the c-fos genes of other vertebrates, was identified in medaka. Functionally important domains are highly conserved among all the vertebrate species analyzed. Intraperitoneal administration of kainic acid transiently induced the c-fos mRNAs in medaka brains. The results indicate that the expression of c-fos can be utilized as a suitable anatomical marker for the increased neural activities in the central nervous system of medaka. Fish were continuously exposed to 3 g hypergravity by centrifugation. Investigation of c-fos mRNA expression indicated that c-fos mRNA significantly increased 30 min after a start of 3 g exposure. The distribution of its transcripts within the brains was analyzed by an in situ hybridization method. The 3-g treated medakas displayed c-fos positive cells in their brainstem regions, which are related to vestibular function, such as torus semicircularis, nucleus tangentialis, posterior octavu nucleus, and inferior olive. Our results established a method to follow the effect of gravity stimulation, which can be used to investigate gravity perception.

  4. IRIDIUM exposure increases c-fos expression in the mouse brain only at levels which likely result in tissue heating.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, J J; Raney, S; Heasley, E; Rathinavelu, P; Dauphinee, M; Fallon, J H

    1999-01-01

    With the rapid development of wireless communication technology over the last 20 years, there has been some public concern over possible health effects of long-term, low-level radiofrequency exposure from cellular telephones. As an initial step in compiling a database for risk analysis by government agencies, the effects of 1-h exposure of mice to a 1.6-GHz radiofrequency signal, given as either a continuous wave or pulse modulated at 11 Hz with a duty cycle of 4:1 and a pulse duration of 9.2 ms IRIDIUM), on c-fos gene expression in the brain was investigated. The IRIDIUM signal is the operating frequency for a ground-to-satellite-to-ground cellular communications web which has recently become fully operational, and was named as such due to the original designed employment of the same number of low orbiting satellites as there are electrons orbiting the nucleus of an iridium atom. The expression of c-fos was not significantly elevated in the brains of mice until exposure levels exceeded six times the peak dose and 30 times the whole body average dose as maximal cellular telephone exposure limits in humans. Higher level exposure using either continuous wave (analog) or IRIDIUM signals elevated c-fos to a similar extent, suggesting no obvious pulsed modulation-specific effects. The pattern of c-fos elevation in limbic cortex and subcortex areas at higher exposure levels is most consistent with a stress response due to thermal perception coupled with restraint and/or neuron activity near thermoregulatory regions, and not consistent with any direct interaction of IRIDIUM energy with brain tissue. PMID:10426505

  5. AP-1 Transcription Factors c-FOS and c-JUN Mediate GnRH-Induced Cadherin-11 Expression and Trophoblast Cell Invasion.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bo; Zhu, Hua; Ma, Liyang; Wang, Yan-Ling; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-06-01

    GnRH is expressed in first-trimester human placenta and increases cell invasion in extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVTs). Invasive phenotypes have been reported to be regulated by transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) and mesenchymal cadherin-11. The aim of our study was to investigate the roles of AP-1 components (c-FOS/c-JUN) and cadherin-11 in GnRH-induced cell invasion in human EVT cells. Phosphorylated c-FOS and phosphorylated c-JUN were detected in the cell column regions of human first-trimester placental villi by immunohistochemistry. GnRH treatment increased c-FOS, c-JUN, and cadherin-11 mRNA and protein levels in immortalized EVT (HTR-8/SVneo) cells. Moreover, GnRH treatment induced c-FOS and c-JUN protein phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation. Pretreatment with antide, a GnRH antagonist, attenuated GnRH-induced cadherin-11 expression. Importantly, basal and GnRH-induced cadherin-11 expression and cell invasion were reduced by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of c-FOS, c-JUN, and cadherin-11 in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Our results suggest that GnRH induces the expression and phosphorylation of the AP-1 transcription factors c-FOS and c-JUN in trophoblast cells, which contributes to GnRH-induced elevation of cadherin-11 expression and cell invasion. PMID:25794160

  6. Electroacupuncture suppresses hyperalgesia and spinal Fos expression by activating the descending inhibitory system

    PubMed Central

    Li, Aihui; Wang, Yi; Xin, Giagia; Lao, Lixing; Ren, Ke; Berman, Brian M.; Zhang, Rui-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Although electroacupuncture (EA) is widely used to treat pain, its mechanisms have not been completely understood. The present study investigated the descending inhibitory system involvement in EA action. Inflammatory pain was induced by injecting complete Freund’s adjuvant subcutaneously into one hind paw of rats with dorsolateral funiculus lesions and sham-operated rats. EA treatment, 10 Hz at 3 mA, was given twice for 20 min each, once immediately post- and again 2 h post-Freund’s adjuvant at GB 30, at the junction of the lateral 1/3 and medial 2/3 of the distance between the greater trochanter and sacral hiatus. For sham EA control, acupuncture needles were inserted bilaterally into GB 30 without electrical or manual stimulation. Paw withdrawal latency to a noxious thermal stimulus was measured at baseline and 20 min after EA treatment. Compared to sham EA, EA significantly (P<0.05, n=9) increased withdrawal latency of the inflamed hind paws in the sham-operated rats but not in those with dorsolateral funiculus lesions, indicating that lesioning blocked EA-produced anti-hyperalgesia. EA, compared to sham EA, also significantly inhibited Fos expression in laminae I-II of the spinal cord in the sham-operated rats (58.4 ± 6.5 vs 35.2 ± 5.4 per section) but not in those with dorsolateral funiculus lesions. Further, EA activated serotonin- and catecholamine-containing neurons in the nucleus raphe magnus and locus coeruleus that project to the spinal cord. The results demonstrate that EA inhibits transmission of noxious messages and hyperalgesia by activating supraspinal neurons that project to the spinal cord. PMID:18001697

  7. [NADPH-diaphorase activity and Fos expression in brainstem nuclei involved in cardiovascular regulation following intracarotid injection of capsaicin].

    PubMed

    Xue, B J; Zhang, X X; Ding, Y F; Shi, G M; He, R R

    2001-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to define whether intracarotid injection of capsaicin induces Fos expression associated with the activation of NOS-containing neurons in brainstem nuclei by combining the immunocytochemical method for Fos with NADPH-d histochemical technique for NOS. The results obtained are as follows: (1) Intracarotid injection of capsaicin caused a significant increase of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons in area postrema (AP), nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), paragigantocellularis lateralis (PGL) and locus coeruleus (LC), without influence upon the neurons of raphe nuclei (RN) and periaqueductal gray (PAG). (2) NO-containing neurons in PGL and NTS and the double-labeled neurons in PGL were also increased significantly following intracarotid injection of capsaicin. Small numbers of NO-containing neurons were found in LC, but there was no change in the number of NO-containing neurons in RN and PAG. No NADPH-d histochemical activity could be found in AP. (3) The above responses to capsaicin were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with either a capsaicin receptor antagonist ruthenium red or a NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. The above results indicate that intracarotid injection of capsaicin may activate the neurons in brainstem nuclei involved in cardiovascular regulation, and that NO only plays an indirect role in the modulation of the responses of brainstem nuclei to capsaicin. These effects of capsaicin are mediated by capsaicin receptors with involvement of glutamate. PMID:11354801

  8. Nonlinear development of the populations of neurons expressing c-Fos under sustained electrical intracochlear stimulation in the rat auditory brainstem.

    PubMed

    Rosskothen-Kuhl, Nicole; Illing, Robert-Benjamin

    2010-08-01

    The immediate-early-gene c-fos is among the first genes to be expressed following sensory-invoked neuronal activity. Its gene product c-Fos forms the limiting monomer of the heterodimeric activator protein-1 transcription factor that triggers various genes involved in neuroplastic remodeling. This study investigated the pattern of c-Fos expression in anteroventral (AVCN) and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and central inferior colliculus (CIC) after 45 min, 73 min, 2 h, 3:15 h and 5 h of unilateral electrical intracochlear stimulation (EIS) at 50 Hz in anaesthetized rats. Following EIS, tonotopic c-Fos expression was observed for each stimulation time in ipsilateral AVCN, DCN bilaterally, and contralateral CIC. By counting c-Fos positive nuclei, we discovered temporal non-linearities in the size of the respective population of c-Fos expressing neurons. In all regions investigated, the populations significantly increased from 73 min to 2 h but decreased towards 3:15 h. In AVCN, the number rose again by 5 h of EIS. Remarkably, the same was noted for neurons with large nuclei in deep DCN. In both regions, the population of responsive neurons shifted spatially: In central AVCN, the density of c-Fos positive cells increased significantly from 2 to 5h with medial and lateral regions remaining unchanged. In DCN, the density of large c-Fos positive nuclei fell in the upper and rose in the deep layers from 45 min to 5h of EIS. In conclusion, spatiotemporally varying recruitments of neuronal subpopulations into cellular networks responding to specific patterns of sensory activity take place in the auditory brainstem. PMID:20570662

  9. Expression of Fos during sham sucrose intake in rats with central gustatory lesions.

    PubMed

    Mungarndee, Suriyaphun S; Lundy, Robert F; Norgren, Ralph

    2008-09-01

    For humans and rodents, ingesting sucrose is rewarding. This experiment tested the prediction that the neural activity produced by sapid sucrose reaches reward systems via projections from the pons through the limbic system. Gastric cannulas drained ingested fluid before absorption. For 10 days, the rats alternated an hour of this sham ingestion between sucrose and water. On the final test day, half of them sham drank water and the other half 0.6 M sucrose. Thirty minutes later, the rats were killed and their brains immunohistochemically stained for Fos. The groups consisted of controls and rats with excitotoxic lesions in the gustatory thalamus (TTA), the medial (gustatory) parabrachial nucleus (PBN), or the lateral (visceral afferent) parabrachial nucleus. In controls, compared with water, sham ingesting sucrose produced significantly more Fos-positive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract, PBN, TTA, and gustatory cortex (GC). In the ventral forebrain, sucrose sham licking increased Fos in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central nucleus of amygdala, and the shell of nucleus accumbens. Thalamic lesions blocked the sucrose effect in GC but not in the ventral forebrain. After lateral PBN lesions, the Fos distributions produced by distilled H(2)O or sucrose intake did not differ from controls. Bilateral medial PBN damage, however, eliminated the sucrose-induced Fos increase not only in the TTA and GC but also in the ventral forebrain. Thus ventral forebrain areas associated with affective responses appear to be activated directly by PBN gustatory neurons rather than via the thalamocortical taste system. PMID:18635449

  10. Expression of Fos during sham sucrose intake in rats with central gustatory lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mungarndee, Suriyaphun S.; Lundy, Robert F.; Norgren, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    For humans and rodents, ingesting sucrose is rewarding. This experiment tested the prediction that the neural activity produced by sapid sucrose reaches reward systems via projections from the pons through the limbic system. Gastric cannulas drained ingested fluid before absorption. For 10 days, the rats alternated an hour of this sham ingestion between sucrose and water. On the final test day, half of them sham drank water and the other half 0.6 M sucrose. Thirty minutes later, the rats were killed and their brains immunohistochemically stained for Fos. The groups consisted of controls and rats with excitotoxic lesions in the gustatory thalamus (TTA), the medial (gustatory) parabrachial nucleus (PBN), or the lateral (visceral afferent) parabrachial nucleus. In controls, compared with water, sham ingesting sucrose produced significantly more Fos-positive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract, PBN, TTA, and gustatory cortex (GC). In the ventral forebrain, sucrose sham licking increased Fos in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central nucleus of amygdala, and the shell of nucleus accumbens. Thalamic lesions blocked the sucrose effect in GC but not in the ventral forebrain. After lateral PBN lesions, the Fos distributions produced by distilled H2O or sucrose intake did not differ from controls. Bilateral medial PBN damage, however, eliminated the sucrose-induced Fos increase not only in the TTA and GC but also in the ventral forebrain. Thus ventral forebrain areas associated with affective responses appear to be activated directly by PBN gustatory neurons rather than via the thalamocortical taste system. PMID:18635449

  11. Effect of acute imipramine administration on the pattern of forced swim-induced c-Fos expression in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Satoru; Motomura, Keisuke; Ohashi, Ayako; Hiraoka, Kentaro; Miura, Tomofumi; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2016-08-26

    The forced swim test (FST) has been widely used for the preclinical evaluation of antidepressant drugs. Despite considerable differences in the protocol, equivalence of the FST for rats and mice has been rarely questioned. Previous research on the FST for rats revealed that repeated administration of antidepressant drugs attenuates the c-Fos response to swim stress in the hypothalamus and limbic regions. However, few studies have made similar investigations using the FST for mice. In the present study, we explored the mouse brain through immunohistochemistry staining for c-Fos after acute administration of imipramine or saline with or without a subsequent swim session. Imipramine enhanced the c-Fos density in regions of the central extended amygdala, while forced swim stress increased c-Fos expression in some hypothalamic (the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus and dorsomedial nucleus) and brain stem regions, which is consistent with previous reports. In contrast to previous literature with rats, swim stress brought a significant increase in c-Fos expression in the lateral septal nucleus and some other regions in the hypothalamus (the intermediate hypothalamic area, the paraventricular and arcuate nucleus) only in the imipramine-pretreated group, which has not been observed previously. In the arcuate nucleus, double immunostaining revealed that c-Fos was rarely co-expressed with proopiomelanocortin or tyrosine hydroxylase regardless of imipramine treatment. The present results suggest that the activation of several regions in the lateral septum and the hypothalamus underlies antidepressant-like effect in the mouse FST. PMID:27373591

  12. Nesting Behavior is Associated with VIP Expression and VIP-Fos Colocalization in a Network-Wide Manner

    PubMed Central

    Kingsbury, Marcy A.; Jan, Namratha; Klatt, James D.; Goodson, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Many species, including humans, engage in a series of behaviors that are preparatory to the arrival of offspring. Such "nesting behaviors" are of obvious importance, but relevant neuroendocrine mechanisms remain little studied. We here focus on the potential roles of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the performance of appetitive and consummatory nesting behaviors in male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Using combined immunocytochemistry for Fos and in situ hybridization for VIP, we now show that many VIP cell groups show increased transcriptional activity in response to nest building in male and female zebra finches. Particularly strong data come from the preoptic area (medial preoptic area and medial preoptic nucleus), where VIP-Fos co-expression correlates positively with three different measures of nesting behavior, as does the number of VIP-expressing cells. Remarkably, we find that VIP mRNA and/or VIP-Fos co-expression is correlated with nesting behavior in virtually every brain area that we examined, including the medial amygdala (anterior and posterior), medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial preoptic area, medial preoptic nucleus, anterior hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray complex (central gray and nucleus intercollicularis), and ventral tegmental area. Near-significant effects are also obtained in the tuberoinfundibular hypothalamus. Although most correlations are positive, negative correlations are observed for the VIP cell group of the anterior hypothalamus, a population that selectively promotes aggression, and also the periaqueductal gray complex. These data demonstrate a network-wide relationship between peptide production and social behavior that is, to our knowledge, unparalleled by other peptidergic modulators. PMID:25573700

  13. Urocortin 2 increases c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons projecting to the ventricular/periventricular system

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Matthew W.; Stamper, Christopher E.; Staub, Daniel R.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin plays an important role in the regulation of anxiety states and physiological responses to aversive stimuli. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of the stress- and anxiety-related neuropeptide urocortin 2 (Ucn 2) increases c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons in the dorsal (DRD) and caudal (DRC) parts of the dorsal raphe nucleus. These regions contain a subset of serotonergic neurons that projects via the dorsal raphe periventricular tract to periventricular structures, including the subfornical organ and ependymal layer, and to the ventricular system. To determine if Ucn 2 activates ventricle/periventricular-projecting serotonergic neurons in the midbrain raphe complex we made i.c.v. injections of the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold into the lateral ventricle, followed 7 days later by i.c.v. injection of Ucn 2. The DRD at −8.18 mm and the DRC at −8.54 mm and −9.16 mm bregma were analyzed using a combined brightfield and immunofluorescence technique. Approximately 40% of the ventricle/periventricular-projecting neurons in the subdivisions sampled were serotonergic. Urocortin 2 increased c-Fos expression in ventricle/periventricular-projecting serotonergic neurons in the DRC and in non-ventricle/periventricular-projecting serotonergic neurons in the DRD and DRC. Of the total population of ventricle/periventricular-projecting serotonergic neurons in the DRC at −8.54 and −9.16 mm bregma, 35% expressed c-Fos following Ucn 2 injections. These data are consistent with previous studies showing that i.c.v. injection of Ucn 2 activates subpopulations of serotonergic neurons restricted to the mid-rostrocaudal DRD and DRC, and further demonstrate that these include both subsets of serotonergic neurons that do and do not project to the ventricle/periventricular system. PMID:20382145

  14. Nesting behavior is associated with VIP expression and VIP-Fos colocalization in a network-wide manner.

    PubMed

    Kingsbury, Marcy A; Jan, Namratha; Klatt, James D; Goodson, James L

    2015-03-01

    Many species, including humans, engage in a series of behaviors that are preparatory to the arrival of offspring. Such "nesting behaviors" are of obvious importance, but relevant neuroendocrine mechanisms remain little studied. We here focus on the potential roles of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the performance of appetitive and consummatory nesting behaviors in male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Using combined immunocytochemistry for Fos and in situ hybridization for VIP, we now show that many VIP cell groups show increased transcriptional activity in response to nest building in male and female zebra finches. Particularly strong data come from the preoptic area (medial preoptic area and medial preoptic nucleus), where VIP-Fos co-expression correlates positively with three different measures of nesting behavior, as does the number of VIP-expressing cells. Remarkably, we find that VIP mRNA and/or VIP-Fos co-expression is correlated with nesting behavior in virtually every brain area that we examined, including the medial amygdala (anterior and posterior), medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial preoptic area, medial preoptic nucleus, anterior hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray complex (central gray and nucleus intercollicularis), and ventral tegmental area. Near-significant effects are also obtained in the tuberoinfundibular hypothalamus. Although most correlations are positive, negative correlations are observed for the VIP cell group of the anterior hypothalamus, a population that selectively promotes aggression, and also the periaqueductal gray complex. These data demonstrate a network-wide relationship between peptide production and social behavior that is, to our knowledge, unparalleled by other peptidergic modulators. PMID:25573700

  15. Persistent c-fos expression and NADPH-d reactivity in the medulla and the lumbar spinal cord in rat with short-term peripheral anosmia.

    PubMed

    Kalueff, A V; Maisky, V A; Pilyavskii, A I; Makarchuk, N E

    2001-03-30

    Here we examine hypothesis that short-term peripheral ZnSO(4)-induced anosmia can produce effects on c-fos expression within spinal cord and caudal medulla in male Wistar rats (n=4). Fos-like-immunoreactive cells revealed by avidin-biotin-peroxidase method show a significant bilateral increase in the nucleus proprius (layers 3 and 4) and medial part of layers 5 and 6. In substantia gelatinosa (layer 2(i)) and area 10 Fos-positive neurons were intermixed together with nicotin-amide adenine dineucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d)-reactive cells. Short-term anosmia enhanced c-fos expression in ventral horn (layers 7 and 8), ventrolateral segment and dorsal part of the spinal trigeminal nuclei. In anosmic rats varicose fibres and numerous NADPH-d-stained neurons were present in the gelatinous layer of the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis, and a separate population of Fos-positive cells was detected within this layer. Nucleus tractus solitaris also contained a few NADPH-d-reactive, medium sized neurons intermixed with Fos-immunoreactive cells. PMID:11248440

  16. Oocyte-Specific Expression of Mouse MEX3C652AA in the Ovary and Its Potential Role in Regulating Maternal Fos mRNA.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Li, Yan; Liu, Chunlian; Jin, Mulan; Lu, Baisong

    2016-05-01

    Currently, the human MEX3C gene is known to encode an RNA-binding protein of 659 amino acid residues. Here we show that the MEX3C gene has alternative splicing forms giving rise to multiple MEX3C variants, and some cells express MEX3C transcripts coding for short MEX3C isoforms but not transcripts for MEX3C(659AA) MEX3C(659AA) functions as an adaptor protein for Exportin 1 (XPO1)-mediated nuclear export since it increases the cytoplasmic distribution of poly(A)(+) RNA and since addition of the nuclear export signal (NES) sequence to a short MEX3C isoform MEX3C(464AA) confers similar cytoplasmic poly(A)(+) RNA accumulation activity as MEX3C(659AA) FOS mRNA is a potential MEX3C target mRNA. One mechanism by which MEX3C(659AA) could regulate FOS mRNA is by promoting its nuclear export. Overexpressing MEX3C(659AA) significantly increased FOS mRNA expression, whereas mutating the NES of MEX3C(659AA) and treating cells with leptomycin B to inhibit XPO1-mediated nuclear export attenuated FOS upregulation. FOS mRNA is unstable in somatic cells but less so in oocytes; how it is stabilized in the oocytes is unknown. Transcripts for the mouse counterpart of human MEX3C(659AA) (MEX3C(652AA)) are specifically expressed in developing oocytes in the ovary, although total Mex3c transcripts are expressed in both granulosa cells and oocytes. The specific expression of this long MEX3C isoform in oocytes and its ability to enhance FOS mRNA nuclear export and stability all suggest that MEX3C(659AA) is an RNA-binding protein that preserves maternal FOS mRNA in oocytes. PMID:27053362

  17. Age-dependent alterations of c-fos and growth regulation in human fibroblasts expressing the HPV16 E6 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Y; Ouellette, M M; Shay, J W; Wright, W E

    1996-01-01

    Normal human cells in culture become senescent after a limited number of population doublings. Senescent cells display characteristic changes in gene expression, among which is a repression of the ability to induce the c-fos gene. We have proposed a two-stage model for cellular senescence in which the mortality stage 1 (M1) mechanism can be overcome by agents that bind both the product of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (pRB)-like pocket proteins and p53. In this study we determined whether the repression of c-fos at M1 was downstream of the p53 or pRB-like "arms" of the M1 mechanism. We examined c-fos expression during the entire lifespan of normal human fibroblasts carrying E6 (which binds p53), E7 (which binds pRB), or both E6 and E7 of human papilloma virus type 16. The results indicate a dramatic change in cellular physiology at M1. Before M1, c-fos inducibility is controlled by an E6-independent mechanism that is blocked by E7. After M1, c-fos inducibility becomes dependent on E6 whereas E7 has no effect. In addition, a novel oscillation of c-fos expression with an approximately 2-h periodicity appears in E6-expressing fibroblasts post-M1. Accompanying this shift at M1 is a dramatic change in the ability to divide in low serum. Before M1, E6-expressing fibroblasts growth arrest in 0.3% serum, although they continue dividing under those conditions post-M1. These results demonstrate the unique physiology of fibroblasts during the extended lifespan between M1 and M2 and suggest that p53 might participate in the process that represses the c-fos gene at the onset of cellular senescence. Images PMID:8817002

  18. Prenatal valproic acid exposure disrupts tonotopic c-Fos expression in the rat brainstem.

    PubMed

    Dubiel, A; Kulesza, R J

    2015-12-17

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by difficulties with communication and social interactions, restricted, repetitive behaviors and sensory abnormalities. Additionally, the vast majority of subjects with ASD suffer some degree of auditory dysfunction and we have previously identified significant hypoplasia and dysmorphology in auditory brainstem centers in individuals with ASD. Prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is associated with an increased risk of ASD. In rodents, prenatal exposure to VPA is utilized as an animal model of ASD and is associated with a number of anatomical, physiological and behavioral deficits, including hypoplasia and dysmorphology in the auditory brainstem. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that such dysmorphology in VPA-exposed animals would translate into abnormal activity in brainstem circuits and irregular tonotopic maps. Herein, we have subjected control and VPA-exposed animals to 4 or 16 kHz tones and examined neuronal activation with immunohistochemistry for c-Fos. After these sound exposures, we found significantly more c-Fos-positive neurons in the auditory brainstem of VPA-exposed animals. Further, we found a larger dispersion of c-Fos-positive neurons and shifted tonotopic bands in VPA-exposed rats. We interpret these findings to suggest hyper-responsiveness to sounds and disrupted mapping of sound frequencies after prenatal VPA exposure. Based on these findings, we suggest that such abnormal patterns of activation may play a role in auditory processing deficits in ASD. PMID:26518464

  19. Prenatal valproic acid exposure disrupts tonotopic c-Fos expression in the rat brainstem.

    PubMed

    Dubiel, A; Kulesza, R J

    2016-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by difficulties in communication and social interactions, restricted, repetitive behaviors and sensory abnormalities. Notably, the vast majority of individuals with ASD experience some degree of auditory dysfunction and we have recently reported consistent hypoplasia and dysmorphology in auditory brainstem centers in individuals with ASD. Prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) is associated with an increased risk of ASD. In rodents, prenatal exposure to VPA is employed as an animal model of ASD and is associated with a number of anatomical, physiological and behavioral deficits, including hypoplasia and dysmorphology of auditory brainstem centers. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that such dysmorphology in VPA-exposed animals would translate into abnormal neuronal activity in brainstem circuits and irregular tonotopic maps. Herein, we have subjected control and VPA-exposed animals to 4- or 16-kHz tones and examined neuronal activation with immunohistochemistry for c-Fos. After these exposures, we identified significantly more c-Fos-positive neurons in the auditory brainstem of VPA-exposed animals. Additionally, we observed a larger dispersion of c-Fos-positive neurons and shifted tonotopic bands in VPA-exposed rats. We interpret these findings to suggest hyper-responsiveness to sounds and disrupted mapping of sound frequencies after prenatal VPA exposure. Based on these findings, we suggest that such abnormal patterns of activation may play a role in auditory processing deficits in ASD. PMID:27094734

  20. GABAergic neurons of the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei of the cat express c-fos during carbachol-induced active sleep.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, P; Yamuy, J; Sampogna, S; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    2001-02-23

    The laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (LDT-PPT) are involved in the generation of active sleep (AS; also called REM or rapid eye movement sleep). Although the LDT-PPT are composed principally of cholinergic neurons that participate in the control of sleep and waking states, the function of the large number of GABAergic neurons that are also located in the LDT-PPT is unknown. Consequently, we sought to determine if these neurons are activated (as indicated by their c-fos expression) during active sleep induced by the microinjection of carbachol into the rostro-dorsal pons (AS-carbachol). Accordingly, immunocytochemical double-labeling techniques were used to identify GABA and Fos protein, as well as choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), in histological sections of the LDT-PPT. Compared to control awake cats, there was a larger number of GABAergic neurons that expressed c-fos during AS-carbachol (31.5+/-6.1 vs. 112+/-15.2, P<0.005). This increase in the number of GABA+Fos+ neurons occurred on the ipsilateral side relative to the injection site; there was a small decrease in GABA+Fos+ cells in the contralateral LDT-PPT. However, the LDT-PPT neurons that exhibited the largest increase in c-fos expression during AS-carbachol were neither GABA+ nor ChAT+ (47+/-22.5 vs. 228.7+/-14.0, P<0.0005). The number of cholinergic neurons that expressed c-fos during AS-carbachol was not significantly different compared to wakefulness. These data demonstrate that, during AS-carbachol, GABAergic as well as an unidentified population of neurons are activated in the LDT-PPT. We propose that these non-cholinergic LDT-PPT neurons may participate in the regulation of active sleep. PMID:11172778

  1. Lactobacillus acidophilus stimulates intestinal P-glycoprotein expression via a c-Fos/c-Jun-dependent mechanism in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Priyamvada, Shubha; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N; Kumar, Anoop; Soni, Vikas; Alrefai, Waddah A; Gill, Ravinder K; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Saksena, Seema

    2016-04-15

    Our previous studies showed that Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) culture supernatant (CS) increased P-glycoprotein [Pgp/multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1)] function, expression, and promoter activity in Caco-2 cells. The current studies were designed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms mediating the stimulatory effects of LA CS on Pgp promoter activity. Deletion analysis indicated that the LA CS response element(s) is located in the -172/+428-bp region, and sequence analysis of this region revealed three potential binding sites for c-Fos or c-Jun: proximal activating protein (AP) 1a (-119/-98 bp), distal AP1b (-99/-78 bp), and AP1c (+175/+196 bp). LA CS (24 h) showed an approximately twofold increase in the protein expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in Caco-2 cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that LA CS markedly increased the binding of Caco-2 nuclear proteins to AP1a and AP1b, but not AP1c. The DNA-protein complex was completely eliminated by c-Fos antibody, while c-Jun antibody partially eliminated the complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis also showed that LA CS enhanced the association of c-Fos and c-Jun (by ∼4- and 1.5-fold, respectively) with endogenous Pgp promoter in Caco-2 cells (p-172/+1). Interestingly, overexpression of c-Fos or c-Jun activated Pgp promoter by nearly twofold each. This increase was further enhanced (∼14-fold) when c-Fos and c-Jun were simultaneously overexpressed, suggesting that the presence of one of these transcription factors potentiates the effect of the other. These studies, for the first time, provide evidence for the involvement of c-Fos/c-Jun in stimulation of Pgp gene expression by LA CS in the human intestine. PMID:26867563

  2. Novel cues reinstate cocaine-seeking behavior and induce Fos protein expression as effectively as conditioned cues.

    PubMed

    Bastle, Ryan M; Kufahl, Peter R; Turk, Mari N; Weber, Suzanne M; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Thiel, Kenneth J; Neisewander, Janet L

    2012-08-01

    Cue reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior is a widely used model of cue-elicited craving in abstinent human addicts. This study examined Fos protein expression in response to cocaine cues or to novel cues as a control for activation produced by test novelty. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine paired with either a light or a tone cue, or received yoked saline and cue presentations, and then underwent daily extinction training. They were then tested for reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior elicited by response-contingent presentations of either the cocaine-paired cue or a novel cue (that is, tone for those trained with a light or vice versa). Surprisingly, conditioned and novel cues both reinstated responding and increased Fos similarly in most brain regions. Exceptions included the anterior cingulate, which was sensitive to test cue modality in saline controls and the dorsomedial caudate-putamen, where Fos was correlated with responding in the novel, but not conditioned, cue groups. In subsequent experiments, we observed a similar pattern of reinstatement in rats trained and tested for sucrose-seeking behavior, whereas rats trained and tested with the cues only reinstated to a novel, and not a familiar, light or tone. The results suggest that novel cues reinstate responding to a similar extent as conditioned cues regardless of whether animals have a reinforcement history with cocaine or sucrose, and that both types of cues activate similar brain circuits. Several explanations as to why converging processes may drive drug and novel cue reinforcement and seeking behavior are discussed. PMID:22534624

  3. Novel Cues Reinstate Cocaine-Seeking Behavior and Induce Fos Protein Expression as Effectively as Conditioned Cues

    PubMed Central

    Bastle, Ryan M; Kufahl, Peter R; Turk, Mari N; Weber, Suzanne M; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Thiel, Kenneth J; Neisewander, Janet L

    2012-01-01

    Cue reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior is a widely used model of cue-elicited craving in abstinent human addicts. This study examined Fos protein expression in response to cocaine cues or to novel cues as a control for activation produced by test novelty. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine paired with either a light or a tone cue, or received yoked saline and cue presentations, and then underwent daily extinction training. They were then tested for reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior elicited by response-contingent presentations of either the cocaine-paired cue or a novel cue (that is, tone for those trained with a light or vice versa). Surprisingly, conditioned and novel cues both reinstated responding and increased Fos similarly in most brain regions. Exceptions included the anterior cingulate, which was sensitive to test cue modality in saline controls and the dorsomedial caudate-putamen, where Fos was correlated with responding in the novel, but not conditioned, cue groups. In subsequent experiments, we observed a similar pattern of reinstatement in rats trained and tested for sucrose-seeking behavior, whereas rats trained and tested with the cues only reinstated to a novel, and not a familiar, light or tone. The results suggest that novel cues reinstate responding to a similar extent as conditioned cues regardless of whether animals have a reinforcement history with cocaine or sucrose, and that both types of cues activate similar brain circuits. Several explanations as to why converging processes may drive drug and novel cue reinforcement and seeking behavior are discussed. PMID:22534624

  4. Food for Song: Expression of C-Fos and ZENK in the Zebra Finch Song Nuclei during Food Aversion Learning

    PubMed Central

    Tokarev, Kirill; Tiunova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Background Specialized neural pathways, the song system, are required for acquiring, producing, and perceiving learned avian vocalizations. Birds that do not learn to produce their vocalizations lack telencephalic song system components. It is not known whether the song system forebrain regions are exclusively evolved for song or whether they also process information not related to song that might reflect their ‘evolutionary history’. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this question we monitored the induction of two immediate-early genes (IEGs) c-Fos and ZENK in various regions of the song system in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in response to an aversive food learning paradigm; this involves the association of a food item with a noxious stimulus that affects the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity and tongue, causing subsequent avoidance of that food item. The motor response results in beak and head movements but not vocalizations. IEGs have been extensively used to map neuro-molecular correlates of song motor production and auditory processing. As previously reported, neurons in two pallial vocal motor regions, HVC and RA, expressed IEGs after singing. Surprisingly, c-Fos was induced equivalently also after food aversion learning in the absence of singing. The density of c-Fos positive neurons was significantly higher than that of birds in control conditions. This was not the case in two other pallial song nuclei important for vocal plasticity, LMAN and Area X, although singing did induce IEGs in these structures, as reported previously. Conclusions/Significance Our results are consistent with the possibility that some of the song nuclei may participate in non-vocal learning and the populations of neurons involved in the two tasks show partial overlap. These findings underscore the previously advanced notion that the specialized forebrain pre-motor nuclei controlling song evolved from circuits involved in behaviors related to feeding. PMID:21695176

  5. Effects of season, testosterone and female exposure on c-fos expression in the preoptic area and amygdala of male green anoles

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Jennifer K.; Wade, Juli

    2010-01-01

    Expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos, was used to investigate changes in neuronal activity in forebrain regions involved in male sexual behavior following social, hormonal and/or seasonal manipulations in the male green anole. These factors all influence behavior, yet it is unclear how they interact to modify neuronal activity in forebrain regions, including the preoptic area (POA) and ventromedial nucleus of the amygdala (AMY). These regions are involved in the display of sexual behaviors in male green anoles as in many other vertebrates. To determine the effects of seasonal, hormonal and social cues on these brain areas, we investigated c-fos under environmental conditions typical of the breeding or non-breeding season in adult male green anoles that were castrated and implanted with either testosterone (T) or blank (Bl) capsules. We also manipulated social cues by exposing only half of the animals in each group to females. T enhanced courtship and copulatory behaviors, but decreased c-fos expression in the AMY. A similar, although not statistically significant, pattern was observed in the POA, and the density of c-fos+ cells was negatively correlated in that region with the number of extensions of a throat fan (dewlap) used during courtship. Therefore, it appears that in the male green anole, T may diminish c-fos expression (likely in inhibitory neurons) in the POA and AMY to create a permissive environment in which the appropriate behavioral response can be displayed. PMID:17673187

  6. The Role of JNK and p38 MAPK Activities in UVA-Induced Signaling Pathways Leading to AP-1 Activation and c-Fos Expression1

    PubMed Central

    Silvers, Amy L; Bachelor, Michael A; Bowden, G Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Abstract To further delineate ultraviolet A (UVA) signaling pathways in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT, we examined the potential role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in UVA-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) transactivation and c-Fos expression. UVA-induced phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) proteins was detected immediately after irradiation and disappeared after approximately 2 hours. Conversely, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase was significantly inhibited for up to 1 hour post-UVA irradiation. To examine the role of p38 and JNK MAPKs in UVA-induced AP-1 and c-fos transactivations, the selective pharmacologic MAPK inhibitors, SB202190 (p38 inhibitor) and SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), were used to independently treat stably transfected HaCaT cells in luciferase reporter assays. Both SB202190 and SP600125 dose-dependently inhibited UVA-induced AP-1 and c-fos transactivations. SB202190 (0.25–0.5 µM) and SP600125 (62–125 nM) treatments also primarily inhibited UVA-induced c-Fos expression. These results demonstrated that activation of both JNK and p38 play critical role in UVA-mediated AP-1 transactivation and c-Fos expression in these human keratinocyte cells. Targeted inhibition of these MAPKs with their selective pharmacologic inhibitors may be effective chemopreventive strategies for UVA-induced nonmelanoma skin cancer. PMID:14511403

  7. Regional expression of c-fos antigen in the basal forebrain following intraventricular infusions of angiotensin and its modulation by drinking either water or saline.

    PubMed

    Herbert, J; Forsling, M L; Howes, S R; Stacey, P M; Shiers, H M

    1992-12-01

    The expression of c-fos protein was examined in the basal forebrains of male rats 60 min following intracerebroventricular infusions of 250 pmol angiotensin II. Levels of corticosterone and vasopressin were also measured at the same time point. In animals not allowed access to water after infusion, angiotensin II induced intense c-fos expression in a band of neurons extending throughout the anterior region of the third ventricle region, including the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, the median preoptic nucleus (nucleus medianus) and the subfornical organ. There were also high levels of expression in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus, particularly its lateral (magnocellular) region, though other, parvicellular areas were also affected. No other area of the hypothalamus was altered. There was increased c-fos expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Allowing rats to drink during the 60-min survival period modified this pattern of response. c-fos was markedly reduced in the supraoptic nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus but not in the other areas examined, including the anterior region of the third ventricle and the amygdala. When water was withheld for 15 min, but then allowed, rats drank the same total volume but c-fos expression was no longer inhibited in either the supraoptic nucleus or paraventricular nucleus. When rats were given 0.9% saline to drink, they ingested about three times as much as water, but angiotensin II-induced c-fos expression was similar to that in rats denied access to water. The pattern was similar following access to 1.8% saline, though levels in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis were reduced. There was a marked correlation between the number of c-fos-positive neurons in the supraoptic nucleus or paraventricular nucleus and plasma levels of corticosterone 60 min after infusion, but not with arginine-vasopressin levels. These

  8. Regional suppression by lesions in the anterior third ventricle of c-fos expression induced by either angiotensin II or hypertonic saline.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Herbert, J

    1995-07-01

    Angiotensin II (250 pmol) infused into the cerebral ventricles of male rats induces the expression of c-fos in the subfornical organ, supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, as well as in the lateral parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus and the nucleus of the solitary tract in the brainstem. Electrolytic lesions of the anteroventral third ventricle, principally the subcommissural (ventral) median preoptic nucleus, inhibited the dipsogenic response to i.c.v. angiotensin II and also suppressed c-fos expression in supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, lateral parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus and nucleus of the solitary tract but not in the subfornical organ or dorsal median preoptic nucleus. The stimulating effect of i.c.v. angiotensin II on corticosterone was also reduced. Median preoptic nucleus lesions also suppressed the expression of c-fos following i.v. infusions of 6 micrograms angiotensin II in supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus but not in subfornical organ, dorsal median preoptic nucleus, lateral parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus and nucleus of the solitary tract. Median preoptic nucleus lesions reduced the dipsogenic effects of an intragastric infusion of hypertonic (1.5 M) saline and suppressed c-fos expression in supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus compared to sham-lesioned rats. However, c-fos expression was unaltered in subfornical organ, dorsal median preoptic nucleus lesions had no effect on the increased corticosterone induced by hypertonic saline. Subfornical organ lesions did not alter dipsogenic responses to i.c.v. angiotensin II, nor was the i.c.v. angiotensin II-induced expression of c-fos suppressed in the basal forebrain. These experiments show that the ventral median preoptic nucleus (but not the subfornical organ), part of the anteroventral third ventricle, is critical for the expression of c-fos in more caudal areas of the brain following i.c.v. angiotensin II. c-fos expression in

  9. Blockade of NK3R signaling in the PVN decreases vasopressin and oxytocin release and c-Fos expression in the magnocellular neurons in response to hypotension.

    PubMed

    Haley, Gwendolen E; Flynn, Francis W

    2008-10-01

    Tachykinin neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) signaling has a broad role in vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) release. Hydralazine (HDZ)-induced hypotension activates NK3R expressed by magnocellular neurons, increases plasma VP and OT levels, and induces c-Fos expression in VP and OT neurons. Intraventricular pretreatment with the specific NK3R antagonist, SB-222200, eliminates the HDZ-stimulated VP and OT release. NK3R are distributed in the central pathways conveying hypotension information to the magnocellular neurons, and the NK3R antagonist could act anywhere in the pathways. Alternatively, the antagonist could act at the NK3R expressed by the magnocellular neurons. To determine whether blockade of NK3R on magnocellular neurons impairs VP and OT release to HDZ, rats were pretreated with a unilateral PVN injection of 0.15 M NaCl or SB-222200 prior to an intravenous injection of 0.15 M NaCl or HDZ. Blood samples were taken, and brains were processed for VP/c-Fos and OT/c-Fos immunohistochemistry. Intravenous injection of 0.15 M NaCl did not alter plasma hormone levels, and little c-Fos immunoreactivity was present in the PVN. Conversely, intravenous injection of HDZ increased plasma VP and OT levels and c-Fos expression in VP and OT magnocellular neurons. Intra-PVN injection of SB-222200 prior to an intravenous injection of HDZ significantly decreased c-Fos expression in both VP and OT neurons by approximately 70% and attenuated plasma VP and OT levels by 33% and 35%, respectively. Therefore, NK3R signaling in magnocellular neurons has a critical role for the release of VP and OT in response to hypotension. PMID:18650316

  10. Schisandra chinensis and Rhodiola rosea exert an anti-stress effect on the HPA axis and reduce hypothalamic c-Fos expression in rats subjected to repeated stress

    PubMed Central

    XIA, NAN; LI, JIE; WANG, HONGWEI; WANG, JIAN; WANG, YANGTIAN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis) and Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) on rats subjected to 5 h of stress, induced by water-floating followed by treadmill exercise. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and c-Fos and Fos-related antigen 2 (Fra-2) mRNA expression levels in the hypothalamus of the rats were evaluated. Rats were distributed into four groups: S. chinensis (n=12), R. rosea (n=10), stress control (n=10) and quiet control (n=8). Following a training period of 6 consecutive days, the S. chinensis, R. rosea and stress control groups underwent a 3-h water-floating session in the presence of feline predators immediately followed by 2 h treadmill running to induce psychological and physical stress. Following compound stress induction, the serum levels of corticosterone (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone and interleukin-1β and the mRNA expression levels of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), neuropeptide-Y, c-Fos and Fra-2 were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunoassay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The results indicated that S. chinensis and R. rosea markedly decreased the stress-induced elevation of CRH and peripheral CORT levels. The mRNA expression levels of c-Fos and Fra-2 in the hypothalamus were significantly increased after 5 h compound stress, and reduced levels of c-Fos expression were detected in rats treated with R. rosea. Thus, S. chinensis and R. rosea exert an anti-stress effect in rats subjected to stress by balancing the HPA axis, and possibly by reducing the expression of c-Fos in the hypothalamus. PMID:26889268

  11. miR-146a targets Fos expression in human cardiac cells

    PubMed Central

    Palomer, Xavier; Capdevila-Busquets, Eva; Botteri, Gaia; Davidson, Mercy M.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Martínez-González, José; Vidal, Francisco; Barroso, Emma; Chan, Tung O.; Feldman, Arthur M.; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT miR-146a is a microRNA whose transcript levels are induced in the heart upon activation of NF-κB, a transcription factor induced by pro-inflammatory molecules (such as TNF-α) that is strongly related to the pathogenesis of cardiac disorders. The main goal of this study consisted of studying new roles of miR-146a in cardiac pathological processes caused by the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Our results demonstrate that miR-146a transcript levels were sharply increased in cardiac ventricular tissue of transgenic mice with specific overexpression of TNF-α in the heart, and also in a cardiomyocyte cell line of human origin (AC16) exposed to TNF-α. Among all the in silico predicted miR-146a target genes, Fos mRNA and protein levels notably decreased after TNF-α treatment or miR-146a overexpression. These changes correlated with a diminution in the DNA-binding activity of AP-1, the Fos-containing transcription factor complex. Interestingly, AP-1 inhibition was accompanied by a reduction in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 mRNA levels in human cardiac cells. The specific regulation of this MMP by miR-146a was further confirmed at the secretion and enzymatic activity levels, as well as after anti-miR-mediated miR-146a inhibition. The results reported here demonstrate that Fos is a direct target of miR-146a activity and that downregulation of the Fos–AP-1 pathway by miR-146a has the capacity to inhibit MMP-9 activity. Given that MMP-9 is an AP-1 target gene involved in cardiac remodeling, myocardial dysfunction and progression of heart failure, these findings suggest that miR-146a might be a new and promising therapeutic tool for treating cardiac disorders associated with enhanced inflammation in the heart. PMID:26112171

  12. Waves of c-Fos and Arc Proteins Expression in Neuronal Populations of the Hippocampus in Response to a Single Episode of New Experience.

    PubMed

    Ivashkina, O I; Toropova, K A; Ivanov, A A; Chekhov, S A; Anokhin, K V

    2016-04-01

    Accumulation of c-Fos and Arc proteins in neurons in different regions of the hippocampus after single trial of contextual fear conditioning was studied by using immunohistochemical staining. We found that the dynamics of the c-Fos and Arc expression has a biphasic pattern: the first peak was observed in 15-30 min after learning and the second less pronounced peak in 1-3 h. Induction of Arc occurred earlier than c-Fos and the overall dynamics of the two waves slightly varied in the dentate gyrus and hippocampal CA1 and CA3 fields. The findings open the possibility of mapping the cognitive neural networks of the brain with higher temporal resolution and draw attention to fluctuations of hippocampal activity after a single brief episode of new experience. PMID:27160884

  13. The Fos expression in rat brain following electrical stimulation of dura mater surrounding the superior sagittal sinus changed with the pre-treatment of rizatriptan benzoate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolin; Yu, Shengyuan; Dong, Zhao; Jiang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Fos expression in the brain was systematically investigated by means of immunohistochemical staining after electrical stimulation of the dura mater surrounding the superior sagittal sinus in conscious rats. Fos-like immunoreactive neurons are distributed mainly in the upper cervical spinal cord, spinal trigeminal nucleus caudal part, raphe magnus nucleus, periaqueductal gray, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, and mediodorsal thalamus nucleus. With the pre-treatment of intraperitoneal injection of rizatriptan benzoate, the number of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons decreased in the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudal part and raphe magnus nucleus, increased in the periaqueductal gray, and remained unchanged in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and mediodorsal thalamus nucleus. These results provide morphological evidence that the nuclei described above are involved in the development and maintenance of the trigeminovascular headache. PMID:20934408

  14. Environmental Novelty is Associated with a Selective Increase in Fos Expression in the Output Elements of the Hippocampal Formation and the Perirhinal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanElzakker, Michael; Fevurly, Rebecca D.; Breindel, Tressa; Spencer, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    If the hippocampus plays a role in the detection of novel environmental features, then novelty should be associated with altered hippocampal neural activity and perhaps also measures of neuroplasticity. We examined Fos protein expression within subregions of rat hippocampal formation as an indicator of recent increases in neuronal excitation and…

  15. From synapse to gene product: Prolonged expression of c-fos induced by a single microinjection of carbachol in the pontomesencephalic tegmentum

    PubMed Central

    Quattrochi, James J.; Bazalakova, Mihaela; Hobson, J. Allan

    2006-01-01

    It is not known how the brain modifies its regulatory systems in response to the application of a drug, especially over the long term of weeks and months. We have developed a model system approach to this question by manipulating cholinergic cell groups of the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental (LDT/PPT) nuclei in the pontomesencephalic tegmentum (PMT), which are known to be actively involved in the timing and quantity of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In a freely moving feline model, a single microinjection of the cholinergic agonist carbachol conjugated to a latex nanosphere delivery system into the caudolateral PMT elicits a long-term enhancement of one distinguishing phasic event of REM sleep, ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves, lasting 5 days but without any significant change in REM sleep or other behavioral state. Here, we test the hypothesis that cholinergic activation within the caudolateral PMT alters the postsynaptic excitability of the PGO network, stimulating the prolonged expression of c-fos that underlies this long-term PGO enhancement (LTPE) effect. Using quantitative Fos immunohistochemistry, we found that the number of Fos-immunoreactive (Fos-IR) neurons surrounding the caudolateral PMT injection site decreased sharply by postcarbachol day 03, while the number of Fos-IR neurons in the more rostral LDT/PPT increased >30-fold and remained at a high level following the course of LTPE. These results demonstrate a sustained c-fos expression in response to pharmacological stimulation of the brain and suggest that carbachol's acute effects induce LTPE via cholinergic receptors, with subsequent transsynaptic activation of the LDT/PPT maintaining the LTPE effect. PMID:15893601

  16. Role of thalamic nuclei in the modulation of Fos expression within the cerebral cortex during hypertonic saline-induced muscle nociception.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y; Lei, J; Ye, G; Xu, H; You, H-J

    2015-09-24

    It has been proposed that thalamic mediodorsal (MD) and ventromedial (VM) nuclei form thalamic 'nociceptive discriminators' in discrimination of nociceptive afferents, and specifically govern endogenous descending facilitation and inhibition. The present study conducted in rats was to explore the role of thalamic MD and VM nuclei in modulation of cerebral neuronal activities by means of detection of spatiotemporal variations of Fos expression within the cerebral cortex. Following a unilateral intramuscular injection of 5.8% saline into the gastrocnemius muscle, Fos expression within the bilateral, different areas of the cerebral cortex except S2 was significantly increased (P<0.05). Particularly, the increases in Fos expression within the cingulate cortex and the insular cortex occurred at 0.5h, 4h and reached the peak level at 4h, 16h, respectively. Electrolytic lesion of the contralateral thalamic MD and VM nuclei significantly blocked the 5.8% saline intramuscularly induced increases in Fos expression within the bilateral cingulate and insular cortices, respectively. Additionally, the 5.8% saline-induced Fos expression in the cingulate cortex and the insular cortex were dose-dependently attenuated by microinjection of μ-opioid antagonist β-funaltrexamine hydrochloride into the thalamic MD and VM nuclei. It is suggested that (1) the neural circuits of 'thalamic MD nucleus - cingulate cortex' and 'thalamic VM nucleus - insular cortex' form two distinct pathways in the endogenous control of nociception, (2) mirror or contralateral pain is hypothesized to be related to cross-talk of neuronal activities within the bilateral cerebral cortices modulated by μ-opioid receptors within the thalamic MD and VM nuclei. PMID:26189794

  17. Cathinone increases body temperature, enhances locomotor activity, and induces striatal c-fos expression in the Siberian hamster.

    PubMed

    Jones, S; Fileccia, E L; Murphy, M; Fowler, M J; King, M V; Shortall, S E; Wigmore, P M; Green, A R; Fone, K C F; Ebling, F J P

    2014-01-24

    Cathinone is a β-keto alkaloid that is the major active constituent of khat, the leaf of the Catha edulis plant that is chewed recreationally in East Africa and the Middle East. Related compounds, such as methcathinone and mephedrone have been increasing in popularity as recreational drugs, resulting in the recent proposal to classify khat as a Class C drug in the UK. There is still limited knowledge of the pharmacological effects of cathinone. This study examined the acute effects of cathinone on core body temperature, locomotor and other behaviors, and neuronal activity in Siberian hamsters. Adult male hamsters, previously implanted with radio telemetry devices, were treated with cathinone (2 or 5mg/kg i.p.), the behavioral profile scored and core body temperature and locomotor activity recorded by radio telemetry. At the end of the study, hamsters received vehicle or cathinone (5mg/kg) and neuronal activation in the brain was determined using immunohistochemical evaluation of c-fos expression. Cathinone dose-dependently induced significant (p<0.0001) increases in both temperature and locomotor activity lasting 60-90min. Cathinone (2mg/kg) increased rearing (p<0.02), and 5mg/kg increased both rearing (p<0.001) and lateral head twitches (p<0.02). Both cathinone doses decreased the time spent at rest (p<0.001). The number of c-fos immunopositive cells were significantly increased in the striatum (p<0.0001) and suprachiasmatic nucleus (p<0.05) following cathinone, indicating increased neuronal activity. There was no effect of cathinone on food intake or body weight. It is concluded that systemic administration of cathinone induces significant behavioral changes and CNS activation in the hamster. PMID:24287379

  18. Cocaine-induced Fos expression is detectable in the frontal cortex and striatum of rats under isoflurane but not α-chloralose anesthesia: implications for FMRI

    PubMed Central

    Kufahl, Peter R.; Pentkowski, Nathan S.; Heintzelman, Krista; Neisewander, Janet L.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of intravenous cocaine to induce Fos protein expression in anesthetized rats was tested. Two anesthetic regimens commonly used for in vivo FMRI of animals, i.v. α-chloralose and gaseous isoflurane, were studied in separate cohorts. The first experiment included three groups that received the following treatments: saline i.v. and no anesthetic; 2 mg/kg cocaine i.v. and no anesthetic; and 2 mg/kg cocaine i.v. under 36 mg/kg/h α-chloralose anesthesia. The second experiment had a factorial design of four groups that were either nonanesthetized or isoflurane-treated and were either given saline or cocaine (2 mg/kg, i.v.). Anesthetized rats were maintained for 2 h under 2.5–3.5% isoflurane anesthesia, while nonanesthetized rats were kept in an alternative environment for the same time period. Rats were given 2 mg/kg cocaine or saline i.v., 30 min into the test session. Rats were perfused and their brains were processed for Fos immunohistochemistry 90 min after the i.v. treatment. In both experiments, the frontal cortex and striatum of the cocaine-treated nonanesthetized rats expressed Fos in greater amounts than the saline-treated nonanesthetized rats, as expected. The α-chloralose treatment prevented cocaine-induced Fos expression across all eight subregions of the striatum and frontal cortex that were examined. In contrast, isoflurane only partially attenuated Fos expression in the orbital and Cg2 subregions of frontal cortex. These results suggest a strong advantage for using isoflurane, as opposed to α-chloralose, when studying anesthetized rats for in vivo effects of psychostimulants. PMID:19467261

  19. Cocaine-induced Fos expression is detectable in the frontal cortex and striatum of rats under isoflurane but not alpha-chloralose anesthesia: implications for FMRI.

    PubMed

    Kufahl, Peter R; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Heintzelman, Krista; Neisewander, Janet L

    2009-07-30

    The ability of intravenous cocaine to induce Fos protein expression in anesthetized rats was tested. Two anesthetic regimens commonly used for in vivo FMRI of animals, i.v. alpha-chloralose and gaseous isoflurane, were studied in separate cohorts. The first experiment included three groups that received the following treatments: saline i.v. and no anesthetic; 2 mg/kg cocaine i.v. and no anesthetic; and 2mg/kg cocaine i.v. under 36 mg/kg/h alpha-chloralose anesthesia. The second experiment had a factorial design of four groups that were either nonanesthetized or isoflurane-treated and were either given saline or cocaine (2 mg/kg, i.v.). Anesthetized rats were maintained for 2 h under 2.5-3.5% isoflurane anesthesia, while nonanesthetized rats were kept in an alternative environment for the same time period. Rats were given 2 mg/kg cocaine or saline i.v., 30 min into the test session. Rats were perfused and their brains were processed for Fos immunohistochemistry 90 min after the i.v. treatment. In both experiments, the frontal cortex and striatum of the cocaine-treated nonanesthetized rats expressed Fos in greater amounts than the saline-treated nonanesthetized rats, as expected. The alpha-chloralose treatment prevented cocaine-induced Fos expression across all eight subregions of the striatum and frontal cortex that were examined. In contrast, isoflurane only partially attenuated Fos expression in the orbital and Cg2 subregions of frontal cortex. These results suggest a strong advantage for using isoflurane, as opposed to alpha-chloralose, when studying anesthetized rats for in vivo effects of psychostimulants. PMID:19467261

  20. Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving Is Associated with Selective Increases in Expression of Bdnf and Trkb, Glutamate Receptors, and Epigenetic Enzymes in Cue-Activated Fos-Expressing Dorsal Striatal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, F. Javier; Zeric, Tamara; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Kambhampati, Sarita; Cates, Hannah M.; Kennedy, Pamela J.; Liu, Qing-Rong; Cimbro, Raffaello; Hope, Bruce T.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Cue-induced methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal (incubation of methamphetamine craving), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We determined whether this incubation is associated with alterations in candidate genes in dorsal striatum (DS), a brain area implicated in cue- and context-induced drug relapse. We first measured mRNA expression of 24 candidate genes in whole DS extracts after short (2 d) or prolonged (1 month) withdrawal in rats following extended-access methamphetamine or saline (control condition) self-administration (9 h/d, 10 d). We found minimal changes. Next, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we compared gene expression in Fos-positive dorsal striatal neurons, which were activated during “incubated” cue-induced drug-seeking tests after prolonged withdrawal, with nonactivated Fos-negative neurons. We found significant increases in mRNA expression of immediate early genes (Arc, Egr1), Bdnf and its receptor (Trkb), glutamate receptor subunits (Gria1, Gria3, Grm1), and epigenetic enzymes (Hdac3, Hdac4, Hdac5, GLP, Dnmt3a, Kdm1a) in the Fos-positive neurons only. Using RNAscope to determine striatal subregion and cell-type specificity of the activated neurons, we measured colabeling of Fos with Drd1 and Drd2 in three DS subregions. Fos expression was neither subregion nor cell-type specific (52.5 and 39.2% of Fos expression colabeled with Drd1 and Drd2, respectively). Finally, we found that DS injections of SCH23390 (C17H18ClNO), a D1-family receptor antagonist known to block cue-induced Fos induction, decreased incubated cue-induced methamphetamine seeking after prolonged withdrawal. Results demonstrate a critical role of DS in incubation of methamphetamine craving and that this incubation is associated with selective gene-expression alterations in cue-activated D1- and D2-expressing DS neurons. PMID:26019338

  1. Insulin-stimulated expression of c-fos, fra1 and c-jun accompanies the activation of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcriptional complex.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, M R; Black, E J; Culbert, A A; Dickens, M; Shaw, P E; Gillespie, D A; Tavaré, J M

    1998-01-01

    The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcriptional complex is made up of members of the Fos (c-Fos, FosB, Fra1, Fra2) and Jun (c-Jun, JunB, JunD) families and is stimulated by insulin in several cell types. The mechanism by which insulin activates this complex is not well understood but it is dependent on the activation of the Erk1 and Erk2 isoforms of mitogen-activated protein kinases. In the current study we show that the AP-1 complex isolated from insulin-stimulated cells contained c-Fos, Fra1, c-Jun and JunB. The activation of the AP-1 complex by insulin was accompanied by (i) a transient increase in c-fos expression, and the transactivation of the ternary complex factors Elk1 and Sap1a, in an Erk1/Erk2-dependent fashion; (ii) a substantial increase in the expression of Fra1 protein and mRNA, which was preceded by a transient decrease in its electrophoretic mobility upon SDS/PAGE, indicative of phosphorylation; and (iii) a sustained increase in c-jun expression without increasing c-Jun phosphorylation on serines 63 and 73 or activation of the stress-activated kinase JNK/SAPK. In conclusion, insulin appears to stimulate the activity of the AP-1 complex primarily through a change in the abundance of the components of this complex, although there may be an additional role for Fra1 phosphorylation. PMID:9742208

  2. Fos expression in the sleep-active cell group of the ventrolateral preoptic area in the diurnal murid rodent, Arvicanthis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Novak, C M; Smale, L; Nunez, A A

    1999-02-13

    The ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) of the nocturnal laboratory rat receives direct input from the retina and is active during sleep; however, nothing is known about VLPO function in day-active (diurnal) species. In the first study, we used 24-h videotaping of Arvicanthis niloticus, a diurnal murid rodent, to estimate the distribution of sleep and wakefulness across a 12:12 light-dark cycle. Based on behavioral data, A. niloticus were perfused at a time when the animals are inactive (zeitgeber time (ZT) 20) or at a time when they are awake and active (ZT 23). The brains were processed for immunocytochemistry for Fos, an immediate early gene product used as an index of neural activity. Animals had more Fos-immunoreactive (Fos+) cells in the VLPO at ZT 20 than at ZT 23. The pattern of change in Fos expression seen in this area suggest that the VLPO serves the same function in A. niloticus as in rats. Eye injections of cholera toxin (beta subunit) were used to identify the retinal inputs to the VLPO of A. niloticus. In these animals, the VLPO had only very sparse retinal inputs compared to the rat. Together, these results raise the possibility that inputs from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) or the retina affect neuronal activity in the VLPO differently in rats and A. niloticus, thereby, contributing to differences in their sleep/wake patterns. PMID:10082823

  3. Differential expression of c-myc gene and c-fos gene in premalignant and malignant tissues from patients with familial polyposis coli.

    PubMed

    Sugio, K; Kurata, S; Sasaki, M; Soejima, J; Sasazuki, T

    1988-09-01

    The expression of 8 oncogenes and the structures of 19 oncogenes were analyzed in 15 adenocarcinomas (12 primary and 3 metastatic), 18 adenomatous polyps, and 18 normal colonic mucosae derived from 19 patients with familial polyposis coli. The expression of c-myc gene was most elevated in carcinoma, and moderately elevated in adenoma, compared with corresponding normal colonic mucosa. In contrast, the expression of c-fos gene was markedly decreased in all samples of adenoma and carcinoma, compared with that of normal colonic mucosa. These characteristic expression patterns of c-myc and c-fos genes were revealed not only in familial polyposis coli but also in cases of nonhereditary colon carcinoma. Structures of the 19 oncogenes were not modified in either adenoma or carcinoma, except for amplification of the c-myc gene detected in one carcinoma, but not in adenoma, from the same patient. Analyses of the amplified c-myc gene suggest that gene duplication may relate to the mechanism of gene amplification. Thus, the enhanced expression of c-myc gene in adenoma and carcinoma may reflect the proliferative activity, while the c-fos gene may be a prerequisite to stabilize the state of terminal differentiation of colonic epithelial cells. PMID:2842040

  4. β-glucan reduces exercise-induced stress through downregulation of c-Fos and c-Jun expression in the brains of exhausted rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Jae-Deung; Seo, Jin-Hee

    2014-05-01

    Immediate-early genes are involved in acute stress responses in the central nervous system. β-glucan stimulates innate immune defenses, exerts an anti-tumor response and increases resistance to a wide variety of types of infection. To date, the effect of β-glucan on the expression of immediate-early genes under stressful conditions has not been elucidated. In the present study, the effects of β-glucan on the expression of the oncogenes c-Fos and c-Jun in the hypothalamus, dentate gyrus and dorsal raphe in rats following exhaustive treadmill running were investigated. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 in each group) as follows: Control, exercise, exercise and 50 mg/kg β-glucan treatment, exercise and 100 mg/kg β-glucan treatment, and exercise and 200 mg/kg β-glucan treatment. Rats in the β-glucan‑treated groups were administered β-glucan at the respective dose once per day for seven days. Rats in the exercise groups performed treadmill running once per day for six days. On the seventh day of the experiment, the time to exhaustion in response to treadmill running was determined for the exercise groups. The expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in the hypothalamus, dorsal raphe and hippocampus was enhanced by exhaustive treadmill running. Administration of β-glucan resulted in an increase in the time to exhaustion and the suppression of the exercise-induced increment in c-Fos and c-Jun expression. In conclusion, β-glucan may exert an alleviating effect on exercise-induced stress through the suppression of c-Fos and c-Jun expression in the brains of exhausted rats. PMID:24604295

  5. Stimulation of the middle meningeal artery leads to Fos expression in the trigeminocervical nucleus: a comparative study of monkey and cat

    PubMed Central

    HOSKIN, KAREN L.; ZAGAMI, ALESSANDRO S.; GOADSBY, PETER J.

    1999-01-01

    The pain of a migraine attack is often described as unilateral, with a throbbing or pulsating quality. The middle meningeal artery (MMA) is the largest artery supplying the dura mater, is paired, and pain-producing in humans. This artery, or its branches, and other large intracranial extracerebral vessels have been implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine by theories suggesting neurogenic inflammation or cranial vasodilatation, or both, as explanations for the pain of migraine. Having previously studied in detail the distribution of the second order neurons that are involved in the transmission of nociceptive signals from intracranial venous sinuses, we sought to compare the distribution of second order neurons from a pain-producing intracranial artery in both monkey and cat. By electrically stimulating the middle meningeal artery in these species and using immunohistochemical detection of the proto-oncogene Fos as a marker of neuronal activation, we have mapped the sites of the central trigeminal neurons which may be involved in transmission of nociception from intracranial extracerebral arteries. Ten cats and 3 monkeys were anaesthetised with α-chloralose and the middle meningeal artery was isolated following a temporal craniotomy. The animals were maintained under stable anaesthesia for 24 h to allow Fos expression due to the initial surgery to dissipate. Following the rest period, the vessel was carefully lifted onto hook electrodes, and then left alone in control animals (cat n = 3), or stimulated (cat n = 6, monkey n = 3). Stimulation of the left middle meningeal artery evoked Fos expression in the trigeminocervical nucleus, consisting of the dorsal horn of the caudal medulla and upper 2 divisions of the cervical spinal cord, on both the ipsilateral and contralateral sides. Cats had larger amounts of Fos expressed on the ipsilateral than on the contralateral side. Fos expression in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius and its caudal extension in lamina

  6. IP{sub 3}-dependent intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release is required for cAMP-induced c-fos expression in hippocampal neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wenting; Tingare, Asmita; Ng, David Chi-Heng; Johnson, Hong W.; Schell, Michael J.; Lord, Rebecca L.; Chawla, Sangeeta

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP-induced c-fos expression in hippocampal neurons requires a submembraneous Ca{sup 2+} pool. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The submembraneous Ca{sup 2+} pool derives from intracellular ER stores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of IP{sub 3}-metabolizing enzymes inhibits cAMP-induced c-fos expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SRE-mediated and CRE-mediated gene expression is sensitive to IP{sub 3}-metabolizing enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release is required for cAMP-induced nuclear translocation of TORC1. -- Abstract: Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP are widely used in concert by neurons to relay signals from the synapse to the nucleus, where synaptic activity modulates gene expression required for synaptic plasticity. Neurons utilize different transcriptional regulators to integrate information encoded in the spatiotemporal dynamics and magnitude of Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP signals, including some that are Ca{sup 2+}-responsive, some that are cAMP-responsive and some that detect coincident Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP signals. Because Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP can influence each other's amplitude and spatiotemporal characteristics, we investigated how cAMP acts to regulate gene expression when increases in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} are buffered. We show here that cAMP-mobilizing stimuli are unable to induce expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in hippocampal neurons in the presence of the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} buffer BAPTA-AM. Expression of enzymes that attenuate intracellular IP{sub 3} levels also inhibited cAMP-dependent c-fos induction. Synaptic activity induces c-fos transcription through two cis regulatory DNA elements - the CRE and the SRE. We show here that in response to cAMP both CRE-mediated and SRE-mediated induction of a luciferase reporter gene is attenuated by IP{sub 3} metabolizing enzymes. Furthermore, cAMP-induced nuclear translocation of the CREB coactivator TORC1 was inhibited by

  7. Decline in c-myc mRNA expression but not the induction of c-fos mRNA expression is associated with differentiation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jalava, A.M.; Heikkilae, J.E.; Akerman, K.E.O. )

    1988-11-01

    The induction of differentiation in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is accompanied by a rapid and a transient expression of c-fos mRNA and a down-regulation of c-myc RNA. The TPA-induced expression of c-fos mRNA was inhibited by H-7, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C (PK-C). Dioctanoylglycerol (DiC{sub 8}) failed to induce differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells or to down-regulate c-myc mRNA but it did induce the expression of c-fos mRNA. Treatment of IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells with TPA did not cause differentiation although c-fos mRNA was induced. Since PK-C in SH-SY5Y cells was activated by both TPA and DiC{sub 8} it is suggested that the activation of PK-C alone is not sufficient to induce differentiation in SH-SY5Y cells. The down-regulation of c-myc mRNA rather than the induction of c-fos mRNA seems to be associated with differentiation process in SH-SY5Y cells.

  8. Intrathecal P/Q- and R-type calcium channel blockades on spinal substance P release and c-Fos expression

    PubMed Central

    Terashima, Tetsuji; Xu, Qinghao; Yamaguchi, Shigeki; Yaksh, Tony L.

    2013-01-01

    Intrathecal (IT) studies have shown that several voltage sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs), such as the L-, N- and T-type may play roles in nociception and that of these only the N-type regulates primary afferent substance P (SP) release. However, the actions of other VSCCs at the spinal level are not well known. We investigated the roles of spinal P/Q- and R-type VSCCs, by IT administration of R-type (SNX-482) and P/Q-type (ω-agatoxin IVA) VSCC blockers on intraplantar formalin-evoked flinching, SP release from primary afferents and c-Fos expression in spinal dorsal horn. Intraplantar injection of formalin (2.5%, 50 µL) produced an intense, characteristic biphasic paw flinching response. In rats with IT catheters, IT SNX-482 (0.5 µg) reduced formalin-evoked paw flinching in both phase 1 and 2 compared with vehicle. Intraplantar formalin caused robust neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r) internalization (indicating SP release) and c-Fos expression in the ipsilateral dorsal horn, which were blocked by IT SNX-482. IT ω-agatoxin IVA (0.03, 0.125 and 0.5 µg) did not reduce formalin-evoked paw flinching or c-Fos expression at any doses, with higher doses resulting in motor dysfunction. Thus, we demonstrated that blockade of spinal R-type, but not P/Q type VSCCs attenuated formalin-induced pain behavior, NK1r internalization and c-Fos expression in the superficial dorsal horn. This study supports a role for Cav2.3 in presynaptic neurotransmitter release from peptidergic nociceptive afferents and pain behaviors. PMID:23810829

  9. Intrathecal P/Q- and R-type calcium channel blockade of spinal substance P release and c-Fos expression.

    PubMed

    Terashima, Tetsuji; Xu, Qinghao; Yamaguchi, Shigeki; Yaksh, Tony L

    2013-12-01

    Intrathecal (IT) studies have shown that several voltage sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs), such as the L-, N- and T-type may play roles in nociception and that of these only the N-type regulates primary afferent substance P (SP) release. However, the actions of other VSCCs at the spinal level are not well known. We investigated the roles of spinal P/Q- and R-type VSCCs, by IT administration of R-type (SNX-482) and P/Q-type (ω-agatoxin IVA) VSCC blockers on intraplantar formalin-evoked flinching, SP release from primary afferents and c-Fos expression in spinal dorsal horn. Intraplantar injection of formalin (2.5%, 50 μL) produced an intense, characteristic biphasic paw flinching response. In rats with IT catheters, IT SNX-482 (0.5 μg) reduced formalin-evoked paw flinching in both phase 1 and 2 compared with vehicle. Intraplantar formalin caused robust neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r) internalization (indicating SP release) and c-Fos expression in the ipsilateral dorsal horn, which were blocked by IT SNX-482. IT ω-agatoxin IVA (0.03, 0.125 and 0.5 μg) did not reduce formalin-evoked paw flinching or c-Fos expression at any doses, with higher doses resulting in motor dysfunction. Thus, we demonstrated that blockade of spinal R-type, but not P/Q type VSCCs attenuated formalin-induced pain behavior, NK1r internalization and c-Fos expression in the superficial dorsal horn. This study supports a role for Cav2.3 in presynaptic neurotransmitter release from peptidergic nociceptive afferents and pain behaviors. PMID:23810829

  10. 5-HT(2A) receptor blockade and 5-HT(2C) receptor activation interact to reduce cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos protein expression in the caudate-putamen.

    PubMed

    Pockros, Lara A; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Conway, Sineadh M; Ullman, Teresa E; Zwick, Kimberly R; Neisewander, Janet L

    2012-12-01

    Both the 5-HT(2A) receptor (R) antagonist M100907 and the 5-HT(2C) R agonist MK212 attenuate cocaine-induced dopamine release and hyperlocomotion. This study examined whether these drugs interact to reduce cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos expression in the striatum and prefrontal cortex. We first determined from dose-effect functions a low dose of both M100907 and MK212 that failed to alter cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) hyperlocomotion. Subsequently, we examined whether these subthreshold doses given together would attenuate cocaine hyperlocomotion, consistent with a 5-HT(2A)/5-HT(2C) R interaction. Separate groups of rats received two sequential drug injections 5 min apart immediately before a 1-h locomotion test as follows: (1) saline + saline, (2) saline + cocaine, (3) 0.025 mg/kg M100907 + cocaine, (4) 0.125 mg/kg MK212 + cocaine, or (5) cocktail combination of 0.025 mg/kg M100907 and 0.125 mg/kg MK212 + cocaine. Brains were extracted for Fos immunohistochemistry 90 min after the second injection. We next examined the effects of 0.025 mg/kg M100907 and 0.125 mg/kg MK212, alone and in combination, on spontaneous locomotor activity. While neither drug given alone produced any effects, the M100907/MK212 cocktail attenuated cocaine hyperlocomotion as well as cocaine-induced Fos expression in the dorsolateral caudate-putamen (CPu), but had no effect on spontaneous locomotion. The findings suggest that 5-HT(2A) Rs and 5-HT(2C) Rs interact to attenuate cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos expression in the CPu, and that the CPu is a potential locus of the interactive effects between these 5-HT(2) R subtypes on behavior. Further research investigating combined 5-HT(2A) R antagonism and 5-HT(2C) R agonism as a treatment for cocaine dependence is warranted. PMID:22886755

  11. 5-HT2A receptor blockade and 5-HT2C receptor activation interact to reduce cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos protein expression in the caudate-putamen

    PubMed Central

    Pockros, Lara A.; Pentkowski, Nathan S.; Conway, Sineadh M.; Ullman, Teresa E.; Zwick, Kimberly R.; Neisewander, Janet L.

    2012-01-01

    Both the 5-HT2A receptor (R) antagonist M100907 and the 5-HT2CR agonist MK212 attenuate cocaine-induced dopamine release and hyperlocomotion. This study examined whether these drugs interact to reduce cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos expression in the striatum and prefrontal cortex. We first determined from dose-effect functions a low dose of both M100907 and MK212 that failed to alter cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) hyperlocomotion. Subsequently we examined whether these subthreshold doses given together would attenuate cocaine hyperlocomotion, consistent with a 5-HT2A/5-HT2CR interaction. Separate groups of rats received two sequential drug injections 5 min apart immediately before a 1-h locomotion test as follows: 1) saline + saline, 2) saline + cocaine, 3) 0.025 mg/kg M100907 + cocaine, 4) 0.125 mg/kg MK212 + cocaine, or 5) cocktail combination of 0.025 mg/kg M100907 and 0.125 mg/kg MK212 + cocaine. Brains were extracted for Fos immunohistochemistry 90 min after the second injection. We next examined the effects of 0.025 mg/kg M100907 and 0.125 mg/kg MK212, alone and in combination, on spontaneous locomotor activity. While neither drug given alone produced any effects, the M100907/MK212 cocktail attenuated cocaine hyperlocomotion as well as cocaine-induced Fos expression in the dorsolateral caudate-putamen (CPu), but had no effect on spontaneous locomotion. The findings suggest that 5-HT2ARs and 5-HT2CRs interact to attenuate cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos expression in the CPu, and that the CPu is a potential locus of the interactive effects between these 5-HT2R subtypes on behavior. Further research investigating combined 5-HT2AR antagonism and 5-HT2CR agonism as a treatment for cocaine dependence is warranted. PMID:22886755

  12. Blockade of arginine vasotocin signaling reduces aggressive behavior and c-Fos expression in the preoptic area and periventricular nucleus of the posterior tuberculum in male Amphiprion ocellaris.

    PubMed

    Yaeger, C; Ros, A M; Cross, V; Deangelis, R S; Stobaugh, D J; Rhodes, J S

    2014-05-16

    Many marine fishes change sex in response to social cues when the dominance hierarchy is perturbed. Arginine-vasotocin (AVT) and the mammalian homolog arginine vasopressin are neuropeptides involved in social and reproductive behaviors across vertebrate taxa. The goal of this study was to determine whether AVT signaling influences aggression and expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuroplasticity, in key brain regions of the social decision circuit in Amphiprion ocellaris clownfish, a species where behavioral dominance precedes gonadal sex change from male to female. In experiment 1, juvenile clownfish (average mass 2.5g) were paired together in a tank (a total of 24 pairs), matched approximately for size with one fish randomly receiving either an intraperitoneal injection of the arginine vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist (Manning compound) or saline vehicle, and evaluated for aggressive and submissive behaviors over a 10-min period. The second experiment was a repeat of the first using five pairs of mature, reproductive males, except the animals interacted for 90-min immediately followed by euthanasia for immunohistochemical detection of c-Fos protein. Numbers of c-Fos-positive cells were quantified in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA), the anterior tuberal nucleus (aTn), and periventricular nucleus of the posterior tuberculum (TPp). Manning compound significantly reduced aggression and the probability of winning the contest relative to saline (vehicle) controls. In experiment 2, saline-treated fish displayed approximately twice as many c-Fos-positive cells in the POA and 25% more in the TPp than the Manning-treated fish, no differences were observed in the aTn. Taken together, results suggest AVT signaling is necessary for aggressive behavior and expression of neuroplasticity in the POA and TPp that likely contributes to behavioral dominance and hence, sex change in A. ocellaris. PMID:24631675

  13. Stimulus-induced reflex epileptic spasms in 5p- syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Kentaro; Saito, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Atushi; Nishimura, Yoko; Tamasaki, Akiko; Maegaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-02-01

    Here we describe two patients with 5p- syndrome who suffered from epilepsy characterised by stimulus-induced epileptic spasms manifesting as head nodding. In patient 1, a series of spasms were exclusively triggered by eating, and were associated with diffuse high-voltage slow waves on ictal EEG, particularly presenting as a positive slow potential at the left mid-temporal area. Clusters of sharp waves with negative polarity emerged in the same area during the inter-spasm periods during eating. In patient 2, spasms were provoked by either eating or micturition. Ictal EEG of clustered spasms after micturition showed positive slow or triphasic waves, which correlated with each spasm, over the bifrontal and vertex areas. These findings suggest that the focal cortical areas act as trigger regions in reflex epilepsies, and that a spasm-generator responsible for the execution of reflex spasms exists either in other cortical areas or in the subcortical structures. Although epilepsy is an unusual complication of 5p- syndrome, this syndrome may have a propensity to develop reflex epilepsy, particularly epileptic spasms. However, identification of responsible genes and their roles in this phenotype requires further investigations. PMID:26298410

  14. Striatal regulation of ΔFosB, FosB, and cFos during cocaine self-administration and withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Larson, Erin B; Akkentli, Fatih; Edwards, Scott; Graham, Danielle L; Simmons, Diana L; Alibhai, Imran N; Nestler, Eric J; Self, David W

    2010-10-01

    Chronic drug exposure induces alterations in gene expression profiles that are thought to underlie the development of drug addiction. The present study examined regulation of the Fos-family of transcription factors, specifically cFos, FosB, and ΔFosB, in striatal subregions during and after chronic intravenous cocaine administration in self-administering and yoked rats. We found that cFos, FosB, and ΔFosB exhibit regionally and temporally distinct expression patterns, with greater accumulation of ΔFosB protein in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core after chronic cocaine administration, whereas ΔFosB increases in the caudate-putamen (CPu) remained similar with either acute or chronic administration. In contrast, tolerance developed to cocaine-induced mRNA for ΔFosB in all three striatal subregions with chronic administration. Tolerance also developed to FosB expression, most notably in the NAc shell and CPu. Interestingly, tolerance to cocaine-induced cFos induction was dependent on volitional control of cocaine intake in ventral but not dorsal striatal regions, whereas regulation of FosB and ΔFosB was similar in cocaine self-administering and yoked animals. Thus, ΔFosB-mediated neuroadaptations in the CPu may occur earlier than previously thought with the initiation of intravenous cocaine use and, together with greater accumulation of ΔFosB in the NAc, could contribute to addiction-related increases in cocaine-seeking behavior. PMID:20633205

  15. Appetitive and consummatory sexual and agonistic behaviour elicits FOS expression in aromatase and vasotocin neurones within the preoptic area and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of male domestic chickens.

    PubMed

    Xie, J; Kuenzel, W J; Sharp, P J; Jurkevich, A

    2011-03-01

    Some components of male sexual and agonistic behaviours are considered to be regulated by the same neurocircuitry in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and the medial portion of bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTM). To better understand this neurocircuitry, numbers of aromatase- (ARO) or arginine vasotocin- (AVT) immunoreactive (ir) neurones expressing immediate early gene protein FOS were compared in the POM and BSTM of male chickens following sexual or agonistic behaviours. Observations were made on males showing: (i) appetitive (courtship) and consummatory (copulation) sexual behaviours; (ii) only appetitive sexual behaviour, or (iii) displaying agonistic behaviour toward other males. Control males were placed on their own in the observation pen, or only handled. In the POM, appetitive sexual behaviour increased ARO+FOS colocalisation, whereas agonistic behaviour decreased the number of visible ARO-ir cells. In the dorsolateral subdivision of BSTM (BSTM1), appetitive sexual behaviour also increased ARO+FOS colocalisation, although the numbers of visible ARO-ir and AVT-ir cells were not altered by sexual or agonistic behaviours. In the ventromedial BSTM (BSTM2), appetitive sexual behaviour increased ARO+FOS and AVT+FOS colocalisation, and all behaviours decreased the number of visible ARO-ir cells, particularly in males expressing consummatory sexual behaviour. Positive correlations were found between numbers of cells with ARO+FOS and AVT+FOS colocalisation in both subdivisions of the BSTM. Waltzing frequency was positively correlated with ARO+FOS colocalisation in the lateral POM, and in both subdivisions of the BSTM in males expressing sexual behaviour. Waltzing frequency in males expressing agonistic behaviour was negatively correlated with the total number of visible ARO-ir cells in the lateral POM and BSTM2. These observations suggest a key role for ARO and AVT neurones in BSTM2 in the expression of appetitive sexual behaviour, and differential roles

  16. Hypovolemic hemorrhage induces Fos expression in the rat hypothalamus: Evidence for involvement of the lateral hypothalamus in the decompensatory phase of hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Göktalay, G; Millington, W R

    2016-05-13

    This study tested the hypothesis that the hypothalamus participates in the decompensatory phase of hemorrhage by measuring Fos immunoreactivity and by inhibiting neuronal activity in selected hypothalamic nuclei with lidocaine or cobalt chloride. Previously, we reported that inactivation of the arcuate nucleus inhibited, but did not fully prevent, the fall in arterial pressure evoked by hypotensive hemorrhage. Here, we report that hemorrhage (2.2ml/100g body weight over 20min) induced Fos expression in a high percentage of cells in the paraventricular, supraoptic and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus as shown previously. Lower densities of Fos immunoreactive cells were also found in the medial preoptic area (mPOA), anterior hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamus (LH), dorsomedial hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and posterior hypothalamus. Bilateral injection of lidocaine (2%; 0.1μl or 0.3μl) or cobalt chloride (5mM; 0.3μl) into the tuberal portion of the LH immediately before hemorrhage was initiated reduced the magnitude of hemorrhagic hypotension and bradycardia significantly. Lidocaine injection into the VMH also attenuated the fall in arterial pressure and heart rate evoked by hemorrhage although inactivation of the mPOA or rostral LH was ineffective. These findings indicate that hemorrhage activates neurons throughout much of the hypothalamus and that a relatively broad area of the hypothalamus, extending from the arcuate nucleus laterally through the caudal VMH and tuberal LH, plays an important role in the decompensatory phase of hemorrhage. PMID:26947128

  17. Fos and Egr1 expression in the rat brain in response to olfactory cue after taste-potentiated odor aversion retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Dardou, David; Datiche, Frédérique; Cattarelli, Martine

    2006-01-01

    When an odor is paired with a delayed illness, rats acquire a relatively weak odor aversion. In contrast, rats develop a strong aversion to an olfactory cue paired with delayed illness if it is presented simultaneously with a gustatory cue. Such a conditioning effect has been referred to as taste-potentiated odor aversion learning (TPOA). TPOA is an interesting model for studying neural mechanisms of plasticity because of its robustness and rapid acquisition. However, the neural substrate involved in TPOA retrieval has not been well characterized. To address this question, we used immunocytochemical detection of inducible transcription factors encoded by the immediate-early genes Fos and Egr1. Thirsty male rats were conditioned to TPOA learning, and they were submitted to retrieval in the presence of the learned odor 3 d later. Significant increases in both Fos and Egr1 expressions were observed in basolateral amygdala, insular cortex, and hippocampus in aversive rats in comparison with the all the control groups. The pattern of neuronal activity seemed unlikely to be related to the sole LiCl injection. Lastly, opposite patterns of Fos and Egr1 were noted in the entorhinal cortex and the central nucleus of amygdala, suggesting a differential involvement of these markers in retrieval of TPOA. PMID:16547160

  18. Spatial and Temporal Activation of Brain Regions in Hibernation: c-fos Expression during the Hibernation Bout in Thirteen-Lined Ground Squirrel

    PubMed Central

    BRATINCSÁK, ANDRÁS; McMULLEN, DAVID; MIYAKE, SHINICHI; TÓTH, ZSUZSANNA E.; HALLENBECK, JOHN M.; PALKOVITS, MIKLÓS

    2009-01-01

    Hibernation results in dramatic changes in body temperature and metabolism; however, the central nervous system remains active during deep torpor. By cloning c-fos cDNA from the 13-lined ground squirrel (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) and using squirrel c-fos mRNA probe for in situ hybridization histochemistry, we systematically analyzed and identified specific brain regions that were activated during six different phases of the hibernation bout. During entrance into torpor, we detected activation of the ventrolateral subdivision of the medial preoptic area (‘thermoregulatory center’), and the reticular thalamic nucleus, which is known to inhibit the somatomotor cortex. During torpor, c-fos expression in the cortex was suppressed while the reticular thalamic nucleus remained uniformly active. Throughout torpor the suprachiasmatic nucleus (‘biological clock’) showed increasing activity, likely participating in phase-change regulation of the hibernation bout. Interestingly, during torpor very strong c-fos activation was seen in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus and in tanycytes at the third ventricle, both peaking near the beginning of arousal. In arousal, activity of the suprachiasmatic and reticular thalamic nuclei and choroid epithelial cells diminished, while ependymal cells in the lateral and fourth ventricles showed stronger activity. Increasing body temperature during arousal was driven by the activation of neurons in the medial part of the preoptic area. In interbout awake animals, we demonstrated the activation of hypothalamic neurons located in the arcuate nucleus and the dorsolateral hypothalamus, areas involved in food intake. Our observations indicate that the hibernation bout is closely regulated and orchestrated by specific regions of the central nervous system. PMID:17912746

  19. Intracranial self-stimulation facilitates active-avoidance retention and induces expression of c-Fos and Nurr1 in rat brain memory systems.

    PubMed

    Aldavert-Vera, Laura; Huguet, Gemma; Costa-Miserachs, David; Ortiz, Sandra Pena de; Kádár, Elisabeth; Morgado-Bernal, Ignacio; Segura-Torres, Pilar

    2013-08-01

    Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), a special form of deep brain stimulation in which subjects self-administered electrical stimulation in brain reward areas as the lateral hypothalamus, facilitates learning and memory in a wide variety of tasks. Assuming that ICSS improves learning and memory increasing the activation of memory-related brain areas, the present work examined whether rats receiving an ICSS treatment immediately after the acquisition session of a two-way active avoidance conditioning (TWAA) show both an improved retention and a pattern of increased c-Fos and Nurr1 protein expression in the amygdala, hippocampus, dorsal striatum and/or lateral hypothalamus. The response of both activity-induced IEGs to ICSS was examined not only as markers of neural activation, but because of their reported role in the neural plasticity occurring during learning and memory formation. Results showed that the TWAA conditioning alone increased the expression of the two analysed IEGs in several hippocampal areas, and TWAA retention increased Nurr1 expression in amygdala. ICSS treatment increased the number of c-Fos and Nurr1 positive cells in almost all the brain regions studied when it was measured 70min, but not 48h, after the stimulation. Post-training ICSS treatment, as expected, facilitated the 48h retention of the conditioning. It is noteworthy that in CA3 conditioning and ICSS separately increased c-Fos expression, but this increasing was greater when both, conditioning and ICSS, were combined. Present results suggest that rapid and transient increased expression of these two synaptic plasticity and memory related IEGs in some hippocampal areas, such as CA3, could mediate the facilitative effects of ICSS on learning and memory consolidation. PMID:23624190

  20. Hypodynamia--hypokinesia induced variations in expression of fos protein in structures related to somatosensory system in the rat.

    PubMed

    Langlet, C; Canu, M H; Viltart, O; Sequeira, H; Falempin, M

    2001-06-29

    There have been many reports describing modifications of the sensory and motor cortex following various types of disuse. Hypodynamia--hypokinesia is characterized by the absence of weight-bearing and by a decrease in motor activity. We have shown a reorganization of the cortical cartography after hypodynamia--hypokinesia. In order to give an anatomical account for this cortical plasticity, we set out to determine whether cerebral and spinal structures exhibited variations of their neuronal activation. For this purpose, immunocytochemical detection of Fos protein was performed in the rat brain and spinal cord. Following stimulation of the sciatic nerve, Fos protein was detected in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex in control rats and in rats submitted to an episode of 14 days of hypodynamia--hypokinesia. Results showed that the stimulation of the sciatic nerve induced an increase in the number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in all these structures. Moreover, after hypodynamia--hypokinesia, the number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons was increased in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex and in the spinal cord. These results provide evidence for a higher activation of cortical cells after hypodynamia--hypokinesia in comparison to controls. These data support the hypothesis that hypodynamia--hypokinesia contributes to the development of functional plasticity. PMID:11423081

  1. c-Fos expression mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors following anodal polarization in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Islam, N; Moriwaki, A; Hattori, Y; Hayashi, Y; Lu, Y F; Hori, Y

    1995-05-01

    c-Fos protein-like immunoreactivity (IR) was investigated in the rat brain following an application of weak anodal direct current to the surface of the unilateral sensorimotor cortex in an attempt to elucidate the cellular and molecular bases of central plasticity. Anodal polarization resulted in a massive increase in c-Fos protein-like IR in neurons of the cingulate, piriform, frontoparietal cortices, and hippocampus ipsilateral to the polarization. The effects were dependent upon the duration and intensity of currents applied. The time-dependent induction of c-Fos protein-like IR was maximal at 1 h, became weaker by 6 h, and almost returned to the baseline within 24 h following polarization. When MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-di-hydro-5H- dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate], a noncompetitive antagonist for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, was injected intraperitoneally, the induction of this nuclear protein was reduced or completely blocked in both hemispheres, except around the polarized point itself, as a function of the time and dosage. These results suggest that the proto-oncogene c-fos is rapidly and transiently activated in the brain following anodal polarization and this activation is mediated by NMDA receptors. PMID:7601260

  2. State-dependent pattern of Fos protein expression in regionally-specific sites within the preoptic area of the cat.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Benedetto, Luciana; Lagos, Patricia; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2009-04-24

    Clinical and experimental data have shown that the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (POA) is involved in the generation and maintenance of NREM sleep. However, the activity of specific populations of POA neurons during REM sleep, NREM sleep and different waking conditions is still not firmly established. Consequently, we performed a quantitative, regionally-specific analysis of the Fos immunoreactivity of neurons in the POA of the cat during NREM sleep and REM sleep induced by microinjections of carbachol into the nucleus pontis oralis (REMc), as well as during quiet and alert wakefulness. We observed that while the total number of Fos immunoreactive neurons in the POA did not change as a function of these behavioral states, state-specific differences in neuronal activity were detected in restricted regions of the POA. An increase in the number of Fos+ neurons was observed in the rostral tip of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) during NREM (83.4+/-25.6) compared to quiet wakefulness (5.1+/-1.3, p<0.05) but not with the other behavioral states. In the median preoptic nucleus (MnPN), the number of Fos immunoreactive neurons was greater during NREM sleep (39.5+/-6.1) compared with quiet wakefulness (13.5+/-1.4, p<0.05) and REMc (16.2+/-2.0, p<0.05). State-specific Fos immunoreactive neurons were not observed in the ventro-lateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). Finally, there was no significant increase in the number of Fos+ neurons during REMc in any of the subregions of the POA. In conclusion, within the POA, a selective neuronal activation during NREM sleep was found only in the MnPN. In addition, our data suggest a potential role of the SCN in NREM sleep. Finally, based on the distribution of Fos+ neurons in the entire POA, we conclude that the neuronal network involved in the regulation of NREM sleep is dispersed and intermingled with waking-related neurons. PMID:19269274

  3. Paradoxical widespread c-Fos expression induced by a GABA agonist in the forebrain of transgenic mice with ectopic expression of the GABA(A) α6 subunit.

    PubMed

    Hellsten, K S; Linden, A-M; Korpi, E R

    2015-05-01

    A GABA-site agonist gaboxadol (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol) at 3 mg/kg induces strong anxiolytic response in a transgenic Thy1α6 mouse line ectopically expressing the GABA(A) receptor α6 subunit gene under the Thy-1.2 promoter. Now, we compared brain activation patterns between Thy1α6 and wild-type mice to identify brain structures potentially mediating this anxiolytic response. Acutely efficient anxiolytics such as benzodiazepines typically depress most brain regions while activating specifically neurons within the central extended amygdala. Gaboxadol treatment (3 mg/kg, i.p., 2 h) induced a significant increase in c-Fos expression selectively in many Thy1α6 brain regions including the limbic cortex, anterior olfactory nucleus, septal area and central and basolateral nuclei of amygdala. It failed to activate the lateral part of mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MDL) in the Thy1α6 mice that was activated in the wild-type mice. Detailed mapping of the α6 subunit mRNA by in situ hybridization revealed expression in the middle layers of the isocortex, olfactory areas, hippocampal formation and basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA) in the Thy1α6 forebrain. The ligand autoradiographies (t-butylbicyclophosphoro[(35)S]thionate ([(35)S]TBPS) and [(3)H]Ro 15-4513) revealed high levels of pharmacologically active extrasynaptic α6β and α6βγ2 GABA(A) receptors in these same areas. However, c-Fos induction by gaboxadol treatment in Thy1α6 brain was not restricted to areas highly expressing the α6-containing GABA(A) receptors suggesting that indirect pathways lead to the paradoxically widespread activation. Interestingly, the activation pattern by gaboxadol at the dose that is anxiolytic in Thy1α6 mice resembled closely that observed after various fear- and stress-provoking challenges. However, our results are consistent with a recent observation that optogenetic activation of specific neuronal pathways in the extended amygdala mediates anxiolytic

  4. Effects of Ca2+ channel blockers on cortical hypoperfusion and expression of c-Fos-like immunoreactivity after cortical spreading depression in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Shimazawa, M.; Hara, H.; Watano, T.; Sukamoto, T.

    1995-01-01

    1. We examined the effects of two Ca2+ channel blockers, lomerizine (KB-2796) and flunarizine, on the cortical hypoperfusion (measured by hydrogen clearance and laser Doppler flowmetry methods) and cortical c-Fos-like immunoreactivity that follow KCl-induced cortical spreading depression in anaesthetized rats. Cortical spreading depression was induced by application of 1 M KCl for 30 s to the cortical surface, 3.0 mm posterior to the area of cerebral blood flow measurement. 2. In control rats, KB-2796 (0.3 and 1 mg kg-1, i.v.) dose-dependently increased cerebral blood flow significantly at 30 min and 15 min, respectively, after its administration. Flunarizine (1 mg kg-1, i.v.) significantly increased cerebral blood flow 15 min after its administration. In contrast, dimetotiazine (3 mg kg-1, i.v.), a 5-HT2 and histamine H1 antagonist, failed to affect cerebral blood flow significantly. 3. After KCl application to the cortex, cerebral blood flow monitored by the laser Doppler flowmetry method increased transiently, for a few minutes, then fell and remained approximately 20 to 30% below control for at least 60 min. Cerebral blood flow monitored by the hydrogen clearance method was also approximately 20 to 30% below baseline for at least 60 min after KCl application. KB-2796 (0.3 and 1 mg kg-1, i.v.) and flunarizine (1 and 3 mg kg-1, i.v.) administered 5 min before KCl application inhibited the cortical hypoperfusion that followed KCl application, but dimetotiazine (1 and 3 mg kg-1, i.v.) did not. 4. An indicator of neuronal activation, c-Fos-like immunoreactivity, was detected in the ipsilateral, but not in the contralateral frontoparietal cortex 2 h after KCl application. No c-Fos-like immunoreactivity was seen on either side of the brain in the hippocampus, thalamus, striatum or cerebellum. 5. KB-2796 (1 mg kg-1, i.v.) and flunarizine (3 mg kg-1, i.v.), but not dimetotiazine (3 mg kg-1, i.v.), significantly attenuated the expression of c-Fos-like immunoreactivity in

  5. Differential Cortical c-Fos and Zif-268 Expression after Object and Spatial Memory Processing in a Standard or Episodic-Like Object Recognition Task

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Flávio Freitas; Santos, José Ronaldo; Meurer, Ywlliane S. Rodrigues; Macêdo, Priscila Tavares; Ferreira, Luane M. Stamatto; Pontes, Isabella M. Oliveira; Ribeiro, Alessandra Mussi; Silva, Regina Helena

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory reflects the capacity to recollect what, where, and when a specific event happened in an integrative manner. Animal studies have suggested that the medial temporal lobe and the medial pre-frontal cortex are important for episodic-like memory (ELM) formation. The goal of present study was to evaluate whether there are different patterns of expression of the immediate early genes c-Fos and Zif-268 in these cortical areas after rats are exposed to object recognition (OR) tasks with different cognitive demands. Male rats were randomly assigned to five groups: home cage control, empty open field (CTR-OF), open field with one object (CTR-OF + Obj), novel OR task, and ELM task and were killed 1 h after the last behavioral procedure. Rats were able to discriminate the objects in the OR task. In the ELM task, rats showed spatial (but not temporal) discrimination of the objects. We found an increase in the c-Fos expression in the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG) and in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) in the OR and ELM groups. The OR group also presented an increase of c-Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Additionally, the OR and ELM groups had increased expression of Zif-268 in the mPFC. Moreover, Zif-268 was increased in the dorsal CA1 and PRh only in the ELM group. In conclusion, the pattern of activation was different in tasks with different cognitive demands. Accordingly, correlation tests suggest the engagement of different neural networks in the tasks used. Specifically, perirhinal-DG co-activation was detected after the what-where memory retrieval, but not after the novel OR task. Both regions correlated with the respective behavioral outcome. These findings can be helpful in the understanding of the neural networks underlying memory tasks with different cognitive demands. PMID:23986669

  6. Differential time courses of c-fos mRNA expression in hippocampal subfields following acquisition and recall testing in mice.

    PubMed

    Bertaina, V; Destrade, C

    1995-10-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns of c-fos mRNA expression were studied in the mouse brain following the partial acquisition of an appetitive conditioning task in a Skinner box. We used two experimental situations: during the initial acquisition of the task (acquisition paradigm) and during the retention test (recall paradigm). In both paradigms the in situ hybridization signal was exclusively located in the hippocampal formation and the posterior cingulate cortex. However, the time-dependent pattern of expression was quite different according to the experimental situation: mRNA levels peaked at 90 min post-test in both paradigms but returned to basal (control) level by 180 min in the acquisition group, while in CA3 and DG subfields, high levels of mRNA expression were maintained at 180 min in the recall group. Taken together these results suggest that the IEG c-fos is implicated in the different phases of post-acquisition memory processes and involve a differential spatio-temporal regulation of its expression in hippocampal subfields. PMID:8580740

  7. Cannabidiol attenuates haloperidol-induced catalepsy and c-Fos protein expression in the dorsolateral striatum via 5-HT1A receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Sonego, Andreza B; Gomes, Felipe V; Del Bel, Elaine A; Guimaraes, Francisco S

    2016-08-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-psychoactive compound from Cannabis sativa plant. Given that CBD reduces psychotic symptoms without inducing extrapyramidal motor side-effects in animal models and schizophrenia patients, it has been proposed to act as an atypical antipsychotic. In addition, CBD reduced catalepsy induced by drugs with distinct pharmacological mechanisms, including the typical antipsychotic haloperidol. To further investigate this latter effect, we tested whether CBD (15-60mg/kg) would attenuate the catalepsy and c-Fos protein expression in the dorsal striatum induced by haloperidol (0.6mg/kg). We also evaluated if these effects occur through the facilitation of 5-HT1A receptor-mediated neurotransmission. For this, male Swiss mice were treated with CBD and haloperidol systemically and then subjected to the catalepsy test. Independent groups of animals were also treated with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (0.1mg/kg). As expected, haloperidol induced catalepsy throughout the experiments, an effect that was prevented by systemic CBD treatment 30min before haloperidol administration. Also, CBD, administered 2.5h after haloperidol, reversed haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Haloperidol also increased c-Fos protein expression in the dorsolateral striatum, an effect attenuated by previous CBD administration. CBD effects on catalepsy and c-Fos protein expression induced by haloperidol were blocked by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. We also evaluated the effects of CBD (60nmol) injection into the dorsal striatum on haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Similar to systemic administration, this treatment reduced catalepsy induced by haloperidol. Altogether, these results suggest that CBD acts in the dorsal striatum to improve haloperidol-induced catalepsy via postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. PMID:27131780

  8. Enhancement of delay eyelid conditioning by microcurrent electrical stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex is triggered by the expression of Fos protein in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, YA-JUAN; DONG, YU-CHEN; ZHU, CHAO; ZHAO, MEI-SHENG

    2016-01-01

    Eyelid conditioning, including delay eyelid conditioning and trace eyelid conditioning, has been used extensively to study neural structures and mechanisms of learning and memory as a form of associative learning. In the present study, microcurrent electrical stimulation was used to stimulate the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to induce delay eyelid conditioning in guinea pigs. The acquisition rate and relative latency of the conditioned eyelid response (CR) and the startle eyelid response (SR) were analyzed. The mPFC sites in the guinea pigs were examined under a light microscope following Nissl staining. In addition, the expression of Fos protein in neurons was detected using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The results indicated that the acquisition rates of CR and SR were increased significantly (P<0.05), whilst the relative latencies of CR and SR were decreased significantly (P<0.05). Lesions were observed in the mPFC regions in the training group when compared with the control group. In addition, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis revealed that Fos expression was significantly increased in the training group when compared with the sham group for the control and resident-intruder test guinea pigs (P<0.05). Therefore, the enhancement of delay eyelid conditioning by microcurrent electrical stimulation of the mPFC in guinea pigs was triggered by the expression of Fos protein. The observations of the present study further expand the understanding of conditioned reflexes and may aid future investigations into the formation of eyelid conditioning and the mechanisms underlying the circuit in various conditions. PMID:26998030

  9. Reduced response to chronic mild stress in PACAP mutant mice is associated with blunted FosB expression in limbic forebrain and brainstem centers.

    PubMed

    Kormos, Viktória; Gáspár, László; Kovács, László Á; Farkas, József; Gaszner, Tamás; Csernus, Valér; Balogh, András; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Reglődi, Dóra; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Gaszner, Balázs

    2016-08-25

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been implicated in stress adaptation with potential relevance in mood disorder management. PACAP deficient (KO) mice on CD1 background were shown to have depression-like phenotype. Here we aimed at investigating effects of chronic variable mild stress (CVMS) in non-injected, vehicle and imipramine-treated KO mice vs. wildtype (WT) counterparts. We hypothesized reduced FosB neuronal activity in stress-related centers, altered activity and peptide/neurotransmitter content of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) cells of the oval (ovBST) bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), urocortin 1 (Ucn1) neurons of centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus (cpEW) and serotonin (5HT) cells of dorsal raphe (DR) in PACAP deficiency. CVMS caused decreased body weight and increased adrenal size, corticosterone (CORT) titers and depression-like behavior in WT mice, in contrast to KO animals. CVMS increased FosB in the central (CeA) and medial amygdala, dorsomedial (dmBST), ventral (vBST), ovBST, CA1 area, dentate gyrus (DG), ventral lateral septum, parvo- (pPVN) and magnocellular paraventricular nucleus, lateral periaqueductal gray, cpEW and DR. Lack of PACAP blunted the CVMS-induced FosB rise in the CeA, ovBST, dmBST, vBST, CA1 area, pPVN and DR. The CVMS-induced FosB expression in ovBST-CRF and cpEW-Ucn1 neurons was abolished in KO mice. Although CVMS did not induce FosB in 5HT-DR neurons, PACAP KO mice had increased 5HT cell counts and 5HT content. We conclude that PACAP deficiency affects neuronal reactivity in a brain area-specific manner in stress centers, as well as in ovBST-CRF, cpEW-Ucn1 and 5HT-DR neurons leading to reduced CVMS response and altered depression level. PMID:27282087

  10. Regional Fos-expression induced by γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB): comparison with γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and effects of co-administration of the GABAB antagonist SCH 50911 and putative GHB antagonist NCS-382.

    PubMed

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, P S; McGregor, I S; Chebib, M; Hunt, G E

    2014-09-26

    γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has a complex array of neural actions that include effects on its own high-affinity GHB receptor, the release of neuroactive steroids, and agonist actions at GABAA and GABAB receptors. We previously reported partial overlap in the c-Fos expression patterns produced by GHB and the GABAB agonist, baclofen in rats. The present study extends these earlier findings by examining the extent to which GHB Fos expression and behavioral sedation are prevented by (2S)-(+)-5,5-dimethyl-2-morpholineacetic acid (SCH 50911), a GABAB antagonist, and NCS-382, a putative antagonist at the high-affinity GHB receptor. We also compare Fos expression caused by GHB and its precursor γ-butyrolactone (GBL), which is a pro-drug for GHB but lacks the high sodium content of the parent GHB molecule. Both GHB (1,000 mg/kg) and GBL (600 mg/kg) induced rapid sedation in rats that lasted over 90 min and caused similar Fos expression patterns, albeit with GBL causing greater activation of the nucleus accumbens (core and shell) and dentate gyrus (granular layer). Pretreatment with SCH 50911 (100mg/kg) partly reversed the sedative effects of GHB and significantly reduced GHB-induced Fos expression in only four regions: the tenia tecta, lateral habenula, dorsal raphe and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. NCS-382 (50mg/kg) had no effect on GHB-induced sedation or Fos expression. When given alone, both NCS-382 and SCH 50911 increased Fos expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central amygdala, parasubthalamic nucleus and nucleus of the solitary tract. SCH 50911 alone affected the Islands of Calleja and the medial, central and paraventricular thalamic nuclei. Overall, this study shows a surprising lack of reversal of GHB-induced Fos expression by two relevant antagonists, both of which have marked intrinsic actions. This may reflect the limited doses tested but also suggests that GHB Fos expression reflects mechanisms independent of GHB and GABAB receptors. PMID

  11. Suckling and sucrose ingestion suppress persistent hyperalgesia and spinal Fos expression after forepaw inflammation in infant rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, K; Blass, E M; Zhou, Q; Dubner, R

    1997-02-18

    Sweet taste and nonnutritive suckling produce analgesia to transient noxious stimuli in infant rats and humans. The present study evaluated the pain-modulating effects of sucrose and suckling in a rat model of persistent pain and hyperalgesia that mimics the response to tissue injury in humans. Fore- and hindpaw withdrawal latencies from a 30 degrees or 48 degrees C brass stylus were determined in 10-day-old rats following paw inflammation induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA; 1:1 injected s.c. in a 0.01 ml volume). CFA markedly decreased escape latencies to both 48 degrees and 30 degrees C stimulation, thereby demonstrating thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. The combination of nonnutritive suckling and sucrose (7.5%, 0.01-0.06 ml/min) infusion markedly increased escape latencies to forepaw stimulation in both CFA-treated and control rats. In contrast, intraoral sucrose and suckling did not increase hindpaw withdrawal latencies in either control or CFA-inflamed rats. The effect was specific to sweet taste because neither water nor isotonic saline infusion affected forepaw escape latencies. Parallel findings were obtained for CFA-induced Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI), a marker of neuronal activation. Fos-LI was selectively induced in cervical and lumbar regions ipsilateral to forepaw and hindpaw inflammation, respectively. Suckling-sucrose treatment significantly reduced Fos-LI at the cervical but not at the lumbar regions. These findings demonstrate: (i) the development of persistent pain and hyperalgesia in 10-day-old rats that can be attenuated by endogenous pain-modulating systems activated by taste and nonnutritive suckling; (ii) the mediation of the sucrose-suckling analgesia and antihyperalgesia at the spinal level; and (iii) a differential rostrocaudal maturation of descending pain-modulating systems to the spinal cord of 10-day-old rats. These findings may provide new clinical approaches for engaging endogenous analgesic mechanisms in

  12. Tatarinan O, a lignin-like compound from the roots of Acorus tatarinowii Schott inhibits osteoclast differentiation through suppressing the expression of c-Fos and NFATc1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohan; Liu, Ning; Wang, Yingjian; Pan, Lei-Chang; Wu, Donglin; Peng, Qisheng; Zhang, Maolin; Wang, Hong-Bing; Sun, Wan-Chun

    2016-05-01

    Osteoclasts (OC) are large multinucleated cells derived from monocyte/macrophage precursors. Suppressing osteoclastogenesis is considered as an effective therapeutic approach to erosive bone disease. The root of Acorus tatarinowii Schott, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine was used to treat rheumatosis and other inflammatory disease. However, the effects of tatarinan O (TO), one of the lignin-like compounds isolated from the roots of Acorus tatarinowii Schott during bone development are still unclear. In the present study, we explored the effect of TO on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. TO was found to suppress osteoclast differentiation from RANKL-stimulated mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) without significant cytotoxicity. TO also dose-dependently suppressed bone resorption activity of mature osteoclasts. Additionally, TO apparently inhibited the expression of osteoclastic marker genes, such as MMP-9, Cts K and TRAP. Furthermore, our results showed that TO decreased RANKL-induced expression of c-Fos and NFATc1 without influencing NF-κB activation and MAPK phosphorylation. Hence, for the first time we revealed that TO dose-dependently inhibited osteoclastogenesis from RANKL-stimulated mouse BMMs via decreasing the expression of NFATc1 and c-Fos. PMID:26971224

  13. Chronic stress disrupts fear extinction and enhances amygdala and hippocampal Fos expression in an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Ann N; Lorson, Nickolaus G; Sanabria, Federico; Foster Olive, M; Conrad, Cheryl D

    2014-07-01

    Chronic stress may impose a vulnerability to develop maladaptive fear-related behaviors after a traumatic event. Whereas previous work found that chronic stress impairs the acquisition and recall of extinguished fear, it is unknown how chronic stress impacts nonassociative fear, such as in the absence of the conditioned stimulus (CS) or in a novel context. Male rats were subjected to chronic stress (STR; wire mesh restraint 6 h/d/21d) or undisturbed (CON), then tested on fear acquisition (3 tone-footshock pairings), and two extinction sessions (15 tones/session) within the same context. Then each group was tested (6 tones) in the same context (SAME) or a novel context (NOVEL), and brains were processed for functional activation using Fos immunohistochemistry. Compared to CON, STR showed facilitated fear acquisition, resistance to CS extinction on the first extinction day, and robust recovery of fear responses on the second extinction day. STR also showed robust freezing to the context alone during the first extinction day compared to CON. When tested in the same or a novel context, STR exhibited higher freezing to context than did CON, suggesting that STR-induced fear was independent of context. In support of this, STR showed increased Fos-like expression in the basolateral amygdala and CA1 region of the hippocampus in both the SAME and NOVEL contexts. Increased Fos-like expression was also observed in the central amygdala in STR-NOVEL vs. CON-NOVEL. These data demonstrate that chronic stress enhances fear learning and impairs extinction, and affects nonassociative processes as demonstrated by enhanced fear in a novel context. PMID:24508064

  14. Reversal of novelty-induced hippocampal c-Fos expression in GluA1 subunit-deficient mice by chronic treatment targeting glutamatergic transmission.

    PubMed

    Maksimovic, Milica; Aitta-aho, Teemu; Korpi, Esa R

    2014-12-15

    Malfunction of glutamate transmission is implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Gria1-/- mouse line with knocked-out GluA1 subunits of ionotropic AMPA glutamate receptor displays several behavioural features of schizoaffective disorder. Typically, these mice show hyperactivity provoked by environmental novelty, which is attenuated after 4-week treatment with the standard mood-stabilisers lithium and valproate and the mood-stabilising anticonvulsants topiramate and lamotrigine (Maksimovic, M., Vekovischeva, O.Y., Aitta-Aho, T., Korpi, E.R., 2014. Chronic treatment with mood-stabilizers attenuates abnormal hyperlocomotion of GluA1-subunit deficient mice. PloS One. 9, e100188). Here, we complement our study by treating these mice chronically with perampanel, a novel non-competitive antagonist of AMPA receptors, for 4 weeks at the dose of 60 mg/kg diet, and found reduced locomotor hyperactivity in the Gria1-/- animals, while not affecting the wild-type littermates. To study the cellular mechanism by which chronic treatments with glutamate-modulating mood-stabilizing drugs alleviate this hyperactivity, we used the immediate early gene c-Fos protein expression as a marker of neuronal activity in the brain. Chronic lithium, valproate and topiramate blunted the c-Fos expression especially in the dorsal hippocampus of the Gria1-/- mice, with all of them reducing the number of c-Fos-positive cells in the CA3 region and valproate and topiramate also in the dentate gyrus (DG). Lamotrigine and perampanel treatments had the same effect in the all CA1, CA3 and DG subfields of the dorsal hippocampus of Gria1-/- mice. The results suggest that abnormal (hippocampal) glutamatergic transmission underlies the hyperactive phenotype of the Gria1-/- mice in a novel environment, and based on the efficacies of the present chronic drug treatments, this mouse model may serve as a predictive tool for studying novel mood-stabilisers. PMID:25446922

  15. Chronic stress disrupts fear extinction and enhances amygdala and hippocampal Fos expression in an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Ann N.; Lorson, Nickolaus G.; Sanabria, Federico; Olive, M. Foster; Conrad, Cheryl D.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress may impose a vulnerability to develop maladaptive fear-related behaviors after a traumatic event. Whereas previous work found that chronic stress impairs the acquisition and recall of extinguished fear, it is unknown how chronic stress impacts nonassociative fear, such as in the absence of the conditioned stimulus (CS) or in a novel context. Male rats were subjected to chronic stress (STR; wire mesh restraint 6h/d/21d) or undisturbed (CON), then tested on fear acquisition (3 tone-footshock pairings), and two extinction sessions (15 tones/session) within the same context. Then each group was tested (6 tones) in the same context (SAME) or a novel context (NOVEL), and brains were processed for functional activation using Fos immunohistochemistry. Compared to CON, STR showed facilitated fear acquisition, resistance to CS extinction on the first extinction day, and robust recovery of fear responses on the second extinction day. STR also showed robust freezing to the context alone during the first extinction day compared to CON. When tested in the same or a novel context, STR exhibited higher freezing to context than did CON, suggesting that STR-induced fear was independent of context. In support of this, STR showed increased Fos-like expression in the basolateral amygdala and CA1 region of the hippocampus in both the SAME and NOVEL contexts. Increased Fos-like expression was also observed in the central amygdala in STR-NOVEL vs. CON-NOVEL. These data demonstrate that chronic stress enhances fear learning and impairs extinction, and affects nonassociative processes as demonstrated by enhanced fear in a novel context. PMID:24508064

  16. Autoregulation of fos: the dyad symmetry element as the major target of repression.

    PubMed Central

    König, H; Ponta, H; Rahmsdorf, U; Büscher, M; Schönthal, A; Rahmsdorf, H J; Herrlich, P

    1989-01-01

    Fos and Jun co-operatively repress the fos promoter. Removal of all putative Fos/Jun binding sites from the fos promoter neither obliterates the repression by Fos/Jun in transient cotransfection experiments in NIH3T3 cells nor the turn-off kinetics of serum-induced fos expression in stably transfected NIH3T3 cells. The dyad symmetry element (DSE) suffices to subject a promoter to this type of repression. However, one of the putative Fos/Jun binding sites (-292 to -299 and thus located immediately adjacent to the DSE), determines the very low level of basal expression. Images PMID:2511006

  17. Induction of interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 expression by Broncho-Vaxom (OM-85 BV) via C-Fos/serum responsive element.

    PubMed Central

    Keul, R.; Roth, M.; Papakonstantinou, E.; Nauck, M.; Perruchoud, A. P.; Block, L. H.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Broncho-Vaxom (OM-85 BV) increases the resistance of the respiratory tract to bacterial infections by modulating host immune responses. The compound increases serum IgG levels but decreases IgE levels in patients suffering from chronic bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It increases concentrations of gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma), IgA, and interleukin (IL)-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with bronchitis. Treatment with OM-85 BV increases the number of T helper and natural killer cells. In this study the effects of OM-85 BV on transcription of cytokines is investigated in human lung fibroblasts. METHODS: Transcription and synthesis of IL-6 and IL-8 were assessed in cultured primary human lung fibroblasts using standard methods of Northern blot analysis for the level of mRNAs and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for proteins. RESULTS: Broncho-Vaxom (OM-85 BV) at different concentrations induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-8. The effect of the drug on transcription of IL-6 and IL-8 genes correlated with secretion of the proteins into cell supernatants. OM-85 BV-dependent expression of the interleukin genes involved C-Fos/serum responsive element (C-Fos/SRE). CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that the various immunopharmacological activities of OM-85 BV that have been described in clinical studies may be explained by its ability to induce expression of IL-6 and IL-8. Images PMID:8711646

  18. 'When an old rat smells a cat': A decline in defense-related, but not accessory olfactory, Fos expression in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Glenn E; Van Nieuwenhuijzen, Petra S; Chan-Ling, Tailoi; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-04-01

    Comparisons were made between young (3-6 months) and aged (20-30 months) Wistar rats on locomotor activity, emergence, social interaction and cat odor avoidance. Aged rats were less active and spent less time in the open field during the emergence test than younger rats. Older rats also showed fewer contacts with a novel conspecific in the social interaction test, although total duration of interaction did not differ. There were very few behavioral differences between male and female rats. Older rats were less reactive than younger rats in a test of cat odor avoidance. However, they expressed similar amounts of cat odor-induced Fos in the posterior accessory olfactory bulb, a critical region for processing the predator odor stimulus. Older rats had reduced Fos expression in several defense-related brain regions that are normally activated by predator odors such as the medial amygdala and dorsal premammillary nucleus. These results indicate that aged rats are less reactive than younger rats to predator odors due to decreased responsiveness in defense-related but not necessarily olfactory circuits. PMID:19394115

  19. Rats showing low and high sensitization of frequency-modulated 50-kHz vocalization response to amphetamine differ in amphetamine-induced brain Fos expression.

    PubMed

    Kaniuga, Ewelina; Taracha, Ewa; Stępień, Tomasz; Wierzba-Bobrowicz, Teresa; Płaźnik, Adam; Chrapusta, Stanisław J

    2016-10-01

    Individuals predisposed to addiction constitute a minority of drug users, in both humans and animal models of the disorder, but there are no established characteristics that would allow identifying them beforehand. Our studies demonstrate that sensitization of rat 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalization (USV) response to amphetamine shows marked inter-individual diversity but substantial intra-individual stability. Low sensitization of the response shows relevance to the acquisition of self-administration of this drug and hence might be of predictive value regarding the risk of addiction. We compared amphetamine-induced Fos expression in 16 brain regions considered important for the development of addiction between rats preselected for low and high sensitization of the response and next given nine daily amphetamine doses followed by a 2-week withdrawal and final amphetamine challenge. Ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens shell Fos-positive nuclei counts correlated positively with 50-kHz USV response to the challenge in high-sensitized rats. Compared to those in amphetamine-untreated controls, Fos-positive nuclei counts were significantly and markedly (2-6 times) higher in 12 regions in high-sensitized rats, whereas in low-sensitized rats they were significantly higher in the cingulate cortex and dorsomedial striatum only. The difference in the counts between the latter two subsets reached statistical significance in dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum and three out of four cortical regions studied. The fact that the diversification was most distinct in dorsal striatum that plays a critical role in the transition from controlled to compulsive drug intake suggests that the USV-based categorization may be related to divergent vulnerability of rats to AMPH addiction. PMID:27507424

  20. Effects of alcohol exposure during development on play behavior and c-Fos expression in response to play behavior.

    PubMed

    Charles Lawrence, R; Cale Bonner, H; Newsom, Ryan J; Kelly, Sandra J

    2008-03-17

    Developmental exposure to alcohol can produce characteristic physiological and cognitive deficits, often termed Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). More recently, social deficits have been shown to occur both in FASD and animal models of FASD; the behavioral and neural bases of these deficits remain to be determined. It was hypothesized that changes in sensory processing may in part underlie the social deficits seen in FASD. This study used a rat model of FASD and social play, a behavior critical to adult social functioning, to begin to examine this hypothesis. Somatosensory cues from dorsal contact to the nape of the neck, critical to the initiation of pinning, were systematically degraded by administration of different doses of xylocaine, a topical anesthetic. Neuronal activity after 1h of play was assessed by measurement of c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) in different brain regions. Ethanol-exposed rats showed an increased frequency of pinning during social play and were more sensitive to the degradation of somatosensory cues compared to the control groups, suggesting difficulties in processing somatosensory cues. Neuronal activity in the somatosensory cortex induced by play was significantly decreased in the ethanol-exposed group compared to the non-treated group. The c-Fos IR in the nucleus accumbens was altered in a sexually dimorphic manner in the ethanol-exposed group. Thus, the behavioral and brain measures are consistent with the hypothesis that ethanol exposure during development induces alterations in social play via deficits in processing somatosensory cues that are important to social play. PMID:18160143

  1. Lesions of structures showing FOS expression to cat presentation: effects on responsivity to a Cat, Cat odor, and nonpredator threat.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, D Caroline; Canteras, Newton S; Markham, Chris M; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Blanchard, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Exposure of rats to a cat elicits Fos activity in a number of brain areas or structures. Based on hodological relationships of these, Canteras has proposed a medial hypothalamic defense system, with input from several forebrain sites. Both electrolytic and neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal premammillary nucleus, which shows the strongest Fos response to cat exposure, produce striking decrements in a number of defensive behaviors to a cat or to cat odor stimuli, but do not have a major effect on either postshock freezing, or responsivity to the odor of a female in estrus. Neurotoxic lesions of the medial amygdala produce decrements in defensiveness to predator stimuli, particularly odor stimuli, that are consistent with a view of this structure as involved with allomonal cues. While dorsal hippocampal lesions had little effect on responsivity to predator stimuli, neurotoxic lesions of the ventral hippocampus reduced freezing and enhanced a variety of nondefensive behaviors to both cat odor and footshock, with similar reductions in defensiveness during context conditioning tests for cat odor, cat exposure and footshock. These results support the view that the dorsal premammillary nucleus is strongly and selectively involved in control of responsivity to predator stimuli. Structures with important input into the medial hypothalamic defense system appear also to be functionally involved with antipredator defensive behaviors, and these lesion studies may suggest specific hypotheses as to the particular defense functions of different areas. PMID:16084591

  2. Cyclodextrin-Complexed Ocimum basilicum Leaves Essential Oil Increases Fos Protein Expression in the Central Nervous System and Produce an Antihyperalgesic Effect in Animal Models for Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Simone S.; Araújo, Adriano A. S.; Brito, Renan G.; Serafini, Mairim R.; Menezes, Paula P.; DeSantana, Josimari M.; Lucca Júnior, Waldecy; Alves, Pericles B.; Blank, Arie F.; Oliveira, Rita C. M.; Oliveira, Aldeidia P.; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo L. C.; Almeida, Jackson R. G. S.; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.

    2014-01-01

    O. basilicum leaves produce essential oils (LEO) rich in monoterpenes. The short half-life and water insolubility are limitations for LEO medical uses. β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been employed to improve the pharmacological properties of LEO. We assessed the antihyperalgesic profile of LEO, isolated or complexed in β-CD (LEO/β-CD), on an animal model for fibromyalgia. Behavioral tests: mice were treated every day with either LEO/β-CD (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), LEO (25 mg/kg, p.o.), tramadol (TRM 4 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (saline), and 60 min after treatment behavioral parameters were assessed. Therefore, mice were evaluated for mechanical hyperalgesia (von Frey), motor coordination (Rota-rod) and muscle strength (Grip Strength Metter) in a mice fibromyalgia model. After 27 days, we evaluated the central nervous system (CNS) pathways involved in the effect induced by experimental drugs through immunofluorescence protocol to Fos protein. The differential scanning analysis (DSC), thermogravimetry/derivate thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) curves indicated that the products prepared were able to incorporate the LEO efficiently. Oral treatment with LEO or LEO-βCD, at all doses tested, produced a significant reduction of mechanical hyperalgesia and we were able to significantly increase Fos protein expression. Together, our results provide evidence that LEO, isolated or complexed with β-CD, produces analgesic effects on chronic non-inflammatory pain as fibromyalgia. PMID:25551603

  3. Cyclodextrin-complexed Ocimum basilicum leaves essential oil increases Fos protein expression in the central nervous system and produce an antihyperalgesic effect in animal models for fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Simone S; Araújo, Adriano A S; Brito, Renan G; Serafini, Mairim R; Menezes, Paula P; DeSantana, Josimari M; Lucca, Waldecy; Alves, Pericles B; Blank, Arie F; Oliveira, Rita C M; Oliveira, Aldeidia P; Albuquerque, Ricardo L C; Almeida, Jackson R G S; Quintans, Lucindo J

    2015-01-01

    O. basilicum leaves produce essential oils (LEO) rich in monoterpenes. The short half-life and water insolubility are limitations for LEO medical uses. β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been employed to improve the pharmacological properties of LEO. We assessed the antihyperalgesic profile of LEO, isolated or complexed in β-CD (LEO/β-CD), on an animal model for fibromyalgia. Behavioral tests: mice were treated every day with either LEO/β-CD (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), LEO (25 mg/kg, p.o.), tramadol (TRM 4 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle (saline), and 60 min after treatment behavioral parameters were assessed. Therefore, mice were evaluated for mechanical hyperalgesia (von Frey), motor coordination (Rota-rod) and muscle strength (Grip Strength Metter) in a mice fibromyalgia model. After 27 days, we evaluated the central nervous system (CNS) pathways involved in the effect induced by experimental drugs through immunofluorescence protocol to Fos protein. The differential scanning analysis (DSC), thermogravimetry/derivate thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) curves indicated that the products prepared were able to incorporate the LEO efficiently. Oral treatment with LEO or LEO-βCD, at all doses tested, produced a significant reduction of mechanical hyperalgesia and we were able to significantly increase Fos protein expression. Together, our results provide evidence that LEO, isolated or complexed with β-CD, produces analgesic effects on chronic non-inflammatory pain as fibromyalgia. PMID:25551603

  4. Activations of c-fos/c-jun signaling are involved in the modulation of hypothalamic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in amphetamine-mediated appetite suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Y.-S.; Yang, S.-F.; Chiou, H.-L.; Kuo, D.-Y. . E-mail: dykuo@csmu.edu.tw

    2006-04-15

    Amphetamine (AMPH) is known as an anorectic agent. The mechanism underlying the anorectic action of AMPH has been attributed to its inhibitory action on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), an appetite stimulant in the brain. This study was aimed to examine the molecular mechanisms behind the anorectic effect of AMPH. Results showed that AMPH treatment decreased food intake, which was correlated with changes of NPY mRNA level, but increased c-fos, c-jun and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA levels in hypothalamus. To determine if c-fos or c-jun was involved in the anorectic response of AMPH, infusions of antisense oligonucleotide into the brain were performed at 1 h before daily AMPH treatment in freely moving rats, and the results showed that c-fos or c-jun knockdown could block this anorectic response and restore NPY mRNA level. Moreover, c-fos or c-jun knockdown could partially block SOD mRNA level that might involve in the modulation of NPY gene expression. It was suggested that c-fos/c-jun signaling might involve in the central regulation of AMPH-mediated feeding suppression via the modulation of NPY gene expression.

  5. Enhanced Stimulus-Induced Gamma Activity in Humans during Propofol-Induced Sedation

    PubMed Central

    Diukova, Ana; Singh, Krish; Hall, Judith; Wise, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Stimulus-induced gamma oscillations in the 30–80 Hz range have been implicated in a wide number of functions including visual processing, memory and attention. While occipital gamma-band oscillations can be pharmacologically modified in animal preparations, pharmacological modulation of stimulus-induced visual gamma oscillations has yet to be demonstrated in non-invasive human recordings. Here, in fifteen healthy humans volunteers, we probed the effects of the GABAA agonist and sedative propofol on stimulus-related gamma activity recorded with magnetoencephalography, using a simple visual grating stimulus designed to elicit gamma oscillations in the primary visual cortex. During propofol sedation as compared to the normal awake state, a significant 60% increase in stimulus-induced gamma amplitude was seen together with a 94% enhancement of stimulus-induced alpha suppression and a simultaneous reduction in the amplitude of the pattern-onset evoked response. These data demonstrate, that propofol-induced sedation is accompanied by increased stimulus-induced gamma activity providing a potential window into mechanisms of gamma-oscillation generation in humans. PMID:23483920

  6. Nicotinic receptor blockade decreases fos immunoreactivity within orexin/hypocretin-expressing neurons of nicotine-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Steven J; Gentile, Taylor A; Mo, Lili; Tran, Fionya H; Ma, Sisi; Muschamp, John W

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Nicotine is the principal psychoactive ingredient in tobacco that causes addiction. The structures governing nicotine addiction, including those underlying withdrawal, are still being explored. Nicotine withdrawal is characterized by negative affective and cognitive symptoms that enhance relapse susceptibility, and suppressed dopaminergic transmission from ventral tegmental area (VTA) to target structures underlies behavioral symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. Agonist and partial agonist therapies help 1 in 4 treatment-seeking smokers at one-year post-cessation, and new targets are needed to more effectively aid smokers attempting to quit. Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons send excitatory projections to dopamine (DA)-producing neurons of VTA and modulate mesoaccumbal DA release. The effects of nicotinic receptor blockade, which is commonly used to precipitate withdrawal, on orexin neurons remain poorly investigated and present an attractive target for intervention. The present study sought to investigate the effects of nicotinic receptor blockade on hypothalamic orexin neurons using mecamylamine to precipitate withdrawal in rats. Separate groups of rats were treated with either chronic nicotine or saline for 7-days at which point effects of mecamylamine or saline on somatic signs and anxiety-like behavior were assessed. Finally, tissue from rats was harvested for immunofluorescent analysis of Fos within orexin neurons. Results demonstrate that nicotinic receptor blockade leads to reduced orexin cell activity, as indicated by lowered Fos-immunoreactivity, and suggest that this underlying cellular activity may be associated with symptoms of nicotine withdrawal as effects were most prominently observed in rats given chronic nicotine. We conclude from this study that orexin transmission becomes suppressed in rats upon nicotinic receptor blockade, and that behavioral symptoms associated

  7. The Nonpeptide Oxytocin Receptor Agonist WAY 267,464: Receptor-Binding Profile, Prosocial Effects and Distribution of c-Fos Expression in Adolescent Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, C.; Jorgensen, W.; Brown, C.; Fardell, J.; Koehbach, J.; Gruber, C. W.; Kassiou, M.; Hunt, G. E.; McGregor, I. S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the nonpeptide oxytocin receptor (OTR) agonist WAY 267,464 may only partly mimic the effects of oxytocin in rodents. The present study further explored these differences and related them to OTR and vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR) pharmacology and regional patterns of c-Fos expression. Binding data for WAY 267,464 and oxytocin were obtained by displacement binding assays on cellular membranes, while functional receptor data were generated by luciferase reporter assays. For behavioural testing, adolescent rats were tested in a social preference paradigm, the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and for locomotor activity changes following WAY 267,464 (10 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) or oxytocin (0.1 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.). The higher doses were also examined for their effects on regional c-Fos expression. Results showed that WAY 267,464 had higher affinity (Ki) at the V1aR than the OTR (113 versus 978 nm). However, it had no functional response at the V1aR and only a weak functional effect (EC50) at the OTR (881 nm). This suggests WAY 267,464 is an OTR agonist with weak affinity and a possible V1aR antagonist. Oxytocin showed high binding at the OTR (1.0 nm) and V1aR (503 nm), with a functional EC50 of 9.0 and 59.7 nm, respectively, indicating it is a potent OTR agonist and full V1aR agonist. WAY 267,464 (100 mg/kg), but not oxytocin, significantly increased the proportion of time spent with a live rat, over a dummy rat, in the social preference test. Neither compound affected EPM behaviour, whereas the higher doses of WAY 267,464 and oxytocin suppressed locomotor activity. WAY 267,464 and oxytocin produced similar c-Fos expression in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, central amygdala, lateral parabrachial nucleus and nucleus of the solitary tract, suggesting a commonality of action at the OTR with the differential doses employed. However, WAY 267,464 caused greater c-Fos expression in the medial amygdala and the supraoptic nucleus than oxytocin, and

  8. Changing and shielded magnetic fields suppress c-Fos expression in the navigation circuit: input from the magnetosensory system contributes to the internal representation of space in a subterranean rodent

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Tomáš; Lucová, Marcela; Moritz, Regina E.; Oelschläger, Helmut H. A.; Druga, Rastislav; Burda, Hynek; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Wiltschko, Roswitha; Němec, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The neural substrate subserving magnetoreception and magnetic orientation in mammals is largely unknown. Previous experiments have demonstrated that the processing of magnetic sensory information takes place in the superior colliculus. Here, the effects of magnetic field conditions on neuronal activity in the rodent navigation circuit were assessed by quantifying c-Fos expression. Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli), a mammalian model to study the mechanisms of magnetic compass orientation, were subjected to natural, periodically changing, and shielded magnetic fields while exploring an unfamiliar circular arena. In the undisturbed local geomagnetic field, the exploration of the novel environment and/or nesting behaviour induced c-Fos expression throughout the head direction system and the entorhinal–hippocampal spatial representation system. This induction was significantly suppressed by exposure to periodically changing and/or shielded magnetic fields; discrete decreases in c-Fos were seen in the dorsal tegmental nucleus, the anterodorsal and the laterodorsal thalamic nuclei, the postsubiculum, the retrosplenial and entorhinal cortices, and the hippocampus. Moreover, in inactive animals, magnetic field intensity manipulation suppressed c-Fos expression in the CA1 and CA3 fields of the hippocampus and the dorsal subiculum, but induced expression in the polymorph layer of the dentate gyrus. These findings suggest that key constituents of the rodent navigation circuit contain populations of neurons responsive to magnetic stimuli. Thus, magnetic information may be integrated with multimodal sensory and motor information into a common spatial representation of allocentric space within this circuit. PMID:20219838

  9. Neurobehavioral effects, c-Fos/Jun expression and tissue distribution in rat offspring prenatally co-exposed to MeHg and PFOA: PFOA impairs Hg retention.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinping; Fujimura, Masatake; Zhao, Wenchang; Wang, Wenhua

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) can occur simultaneously as both contaminants are found in the same food sources, especially fish, seafood, marine mammals and milk. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of exposure to MeHg (10 μg mL(-1) in drinking water) and PFOA (10 μg mL(-1) in drinking water) from gestational day 1 to postnatal day (PND) 21, alone and in combination, on neurobehavioral development and the expression of c-Fos/Jun in different brain regions in the offspring. Our findings showed that exposure to MeHg alone, and exposure to MeHg combined with PFOA significantly induced cliff avoidance reflexes and negative geotaxis reflexes. And these effects appeared to be greater following exposure to MeHg alone. MeHg and/or PFOA exposure did not significantly impair motor coordination functions, or cause significant changes in c-Fos expression in the hippocampus and cerebellum, and spatial learning tests were similar to those in the controls, thus it was impossible to determine whether combined exposure to MeHg and PFOA had any additional effects on both hippocampus and cerebellum regions. However, a significant increase in the frequency of line crossing was observed in rats treated with MeHg or PFOA alone, and there were no significant differences between the MeHg+PFOA-treated group and the controls, suggesting that PFOA was antagonistic to MeHg toxicity in the locomotor activity test. Co-exposure to MeHg and PFOA decreased all tissue Hg concentrations in pups compared to the group exposed to MeHg only, suggesting that PFOA impaired Hg retention in different tissues. PMID:23490179

  10. Effect of rhynchophylline on the expression of p-CREB and sc-Fos in triatum and hippocampal CA1 area of methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Peng, Qiu-Xian; Lin, Xiao-Liang; Luo, Chao-Hua; Jiang, Ming-Jin; Mo, Zhi-Xian; Yung, Ken Kin-Lam

    2014-01-01

    To explore the effect of rhynchophylline (Rhy) on the expression of p-CREB and c-Fos in the striatum and hippocampal CA1 area of methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) rat, methamphetamine (2 mg/kg) was injected to rats and the conditioned place preference was observed in these rats treated with or without Rhy. An immunohistochemistry assay was used to determine the expression of p-CREB and c-Fos in the striatum and hippocampal CA1 area. Methamphetamine induced significant behavior alteration in CPP, while after pretreatment with rhynchophylline or ketamine, the time of staying in methamphetamine-paired compartment of rats was significantly reduced. Methamphetamine also increased the number of p-CREB positive cells in the striatum and hippocampal CA1 zone, as well as p-Fos positive cells. However, the compound Rhy could attenuate the effect. These findings show that Rhy can suppress the acquisition of CPP in rats induced by methamphetamine and the action may be related with the reduced expression of p-CREB and p-Fos in the striatum and hippocampus. PMID:24140441

  11. Disruption of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor phosphorylation prolongs ERK1/2 MAPK activation and enhances c-fos expression

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Samra, Abdul B.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that parathyroid hormone (PTH) binding to the PTH/PTH-related peptide receptor (PPR) stimulates G protein coupling, receptor phosphorylation, β-arrestin translocation, and internalization of the ligand/receptor complex. The extracellular signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 MAPK) are downstream effectors of PPR. In the current study, we investigated the role of PPR phosphorylation in the PTH regulation of the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway. Short treatment with PTH (0–40 min) of LLCP-K1 cells stably expressing a wild-type (WT) or a phosphorylation-deficient (PD) PPR (WT-PPR or PD-PPR cells, respectively) results in similar activation of ERK1/2. Interestingly, PTH stimulation of ERK1/2 in the WT-PPR cells then decreases as a result of longer PTH (60 min) treatment, and inhibition of ERK1/2 by PTH is observed at 90 min. Strikingly, the PD-PPR cells exhibit prolonged ERK1/2 activation up to 90 min of PTH treatment. An ERK1/2-dependent increase in c-fos expression is observed in the PD-PPR cells. Subsequently, c-fos expression in the WT-PPR and PD-PPR cells was markedly attenuated by a specific ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor. Further investigations revealed that PTH treatment causes a robust recruitment of a green fluorescent protein-tagged β-arrestin2 (β-arrestin2-GFP) in the WT-PPR cells. In contrast, β-arrestin2 recruitment was reduced in the PD-PPR cells. Importantly, expression of a receptor phosphorylation-independent β-arrestin2 (R169E) in the PD-PPR cells restored the biphasic effect of PTH on ERK1/2 as in the WT-PPR cells. The study reports a novel role for receptor phosphorylation and β-arrestin2 in the subsequent inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway and in control of gene expression. PMID:22414806

  12. Extinction of opiate reward reduces dendritic arborization and c-Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens core.

    PubMed

    Leite-Morris, Kimberly A; Kobrin, Kendra L; Guy, Marsha D; Young, Angela J; Heinrichs, Stephen C; Kaplan, Gary B

    2014-04-15

    Recurrent opiate use combined with environmental cues, in which the drug was administered, provokes cue-induced drug craving and conditioned drug reward. Drug abuse craving is frequently linked with stimuli from a prior drug-taking environment via classical conditioning and associative learning. We modeled the conditioned morphine reward process by using acquisition and extinction of conditioned place preference (CPP) in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were trained to associate a morphine injection with a drug context using a classical conditioning paradigm. In morphine conditioning (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5, or 10 mg/kg) experimental mice acquired a morphine CPP dose response with 10mg/kg as most effective. During morphine CPP extinction experiments, mice were divided into three test groups: morphine CPP followed by extinction training, morphine CPP followed by sham extinction, and saline controls. Extinction of morphine CPP developed within one extinction experiment (4 days) that lasted over two more trials (another 8 days). However, the morphine CPP/sham extinction group retained a place preference that endured through all three extinction trials. Brains were harvested following CPP extinction and processed using Golgi-Cox impregnation. Changes in dendritic morphology and spine quantity were examined in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) Core and Shell neurons. In the NAcCore only, morphine CPP/extinguished mice produced less dendritic arborization, and a decrease in neuronal activity marker c-Fos compared to the morphine CPP/sham extinction group. Extinction of morphine CPP is associated with decreased structural complexity of dendrites in the NAcCore and may represent a substrate for learning induced structural plasticity relevant to addiction. PMID:24406724

  13. Absence of the GPR37/PAEL receptor impairs striatal Akt and ERK2 phosphorylation, DeltaFosB expression, and conditioned place preference to amphetamine and cocaine.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, Daniela; Di Pietro, Chiara; Mandillo, Silvia; Golini, Elisabetta; Matteoni, Rafaele; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P

    2011-06-01

    The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 37 (GPR37) colocalizes with the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) in mouse nigrostriatal presynaptic membranes, and its genetic ablation in homozygous null-mutant (GPR37-KO) mice provokes the marked increase of plasma membrane expression of DAT, alteration of psychostimulant-induced locomotor activity, and reduction of catalepsy induced by DA-receptor antagonists. We report that extracts from GPR37-KO mice displayed biochemical alterations of the nigrostriatal signaling pathways mediated by D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors. Null-mutant mice showed an increase of the basal phosphorylation level of the D2-regulated Akt kinase. The basal phosphorylation of the D1-activated ERK2 kinase was not altered, but acute treatments with amphetamine or cocaine failed to produce its specific increase, as detected in samples from wild-type littermates. Furthermore, the chronic administration of cocaine to GPR37-KO mice did not increase the expression of the ΔFosB transcription factor isoforms. Consistently, behavioral analysis showed that null-mutant animals did not respond to the incentive properties of amphetamine or cocaine, in conditioned place preference tests. Thus, the lack of GPR37 affects both ERK2- and Akt-mediated striatal signaling pathways, impairing the biochemical and behavioral responses typically induced by acute and chronic administration of psychostimulant drugs. PMID:21372109

  14. Nrf1 and Nrf2 positively and c-Fos and Fra1 negatively regulate the human antioxidant response element-mediated expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 gene.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, R; Jaiswal, A K

    1996-12-10

    Twenty-four base pairs of the human antioxidant response element (hARE) are required for high basal transcription of the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1) gene and its induction in response to xenobiotics and antioxidants. hARE is a unique cis-element that contains one perfect and one imperfect AP1 element arranged as inverse repeats separated by 3 bp, followed by a "GC" box. We report here that Jun, Fos, Fra, and Nrf nuclear transcription factors bind to the hARE. Overexpression of cDNA derived combinations of the nuclear proteins Jun and Fos or Jun and Fra1 repressed hARE-mediated chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene expression in transfected human hepatoblastoma (Hep-G2) cells. Further experiments suggested that this repression was due to overexpression of c-Fos and Fra1, but not due to Jun proteins. The Jun (c-Jun, Jun-B, and Jun-D) proteins in all the possible combinations were more or less ineffective in repression or upregulation of hARE-mediated gene expression. Interestingly, overexpression of Nrf1 and Nrf2 individually in Hep-G2 and monkey kidney (COS1) cells significantly increased CAT gene expression from reporter plasmid hARE-thymidine kinase-CAT in transfected cells that were inducible by beta-naphthoflavone and teri-butyl hydroquinone. These results indicated that hARE-mediated expression of the NQO1 gene and its induction by xenobiotics and antioxidants are mediated by Nrf1 and Nrf2. The hARE-mediated basal expression, however, is repressed by overexpression of c-Fos and Fra1. PMID:8962164

  15. Induction of FosB/DeltaFosB in the brain stress system-related structures during morphine dependence and withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Cristina; Martín, Fátima; Földes, Anna; Luisa Laorden, M; Kovács, Krisztina J; Victoria Milanés, M

    2010-07-01

    The transcription factor DeltaFosB is induced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) by drugs of abuse. This study was designed to evaluate the possible modifications in FosB/DeltaFosB expression in both hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic brain stress system during morphine dependence and withdrawal. Rats were made dependent on morphine and, on day 8, were injected with saline or naloxone. Using immunohistochemistry and western blot, the expression of FosB/DeltaFosB, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and pro-dynorphin (DYN) was measured in different nuclei from the brain stress system in morphine-dependent rats and after morphine withdrawal. Additionally, we studied the expression of FosB/DeltaFosB in CRF-, TH- and DYN-positive neurons. FosB/DeltaFosB was induced after chronic morphine administration in the parvocellular part of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), NAc-shell, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central amygdala and A(2) noradrenergic part of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS-A(2)). Morphine dependence and withdrawal evoked an increase in FosB/DeltaFosB-TH and FosB/DeltaFosB-CRF double labelling in NTS-A(2) and PVN, respectively, besides an increase in TH levels in NTS-A(2) and CRF expression in PVN. These data indicate that neuroadaptation to addictive substances, observed as accumulation of FosB/DeltaFosB, is not limited to the reward circuits but may also manifest in other brain regions, such as the brain stress system, which have been proposed to be directly related to addiction. PMID:20438612

  16. Fangchinoline inhibits rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and cell cycle progression through inhibition of ERK1/2 activation and c-fos expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-He; Fang, Lian-Hua; Ku, Bao-Shan

    2003-11-01

    Fangchinoline (FAN; a plant alkaloid isolated from Stephania tetrandrae) is a nonspecific Ca(2+) channel blocker. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of FAN on the growth factor-induced proliferation of primary cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). FAN significantly inhibited both 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS)- and 50ng/mL platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation, [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. In accordance with these findings, FAN revealed blocking of the FBS-inducible progression through G(0)/G(1) to S phase of the cell cycle in synchronized cells and caused a 62% decrease in the early elevation of c-fos expression induced after 5% FBS addition. Furthermore, significant antiproliferative activity of FAN is observed at concentrations below those required to achieve significant inhibition of Ca(2+) channels by FAN. These results suggest that FAN reduced both FBS- and PDGF-BB-induced RASMCs proliferation by perturbing cell cycle progression. This antiproliferative effect of FAN is dependent on the MAP kinase pathway, but cannot be limited to its Ca(2+) modulation. PMID:14563495

  17. FOS Gimp Test.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitch, John

    1991-07-01

    This test is designed to verify all aspects of the GIMP correction mechanism for the FOS. This test will confirm proper commanding of the SI, proper PASS calculation of the GIMP correction deltas and proper polynomial calculation for the NSSC1. It will also confirm proper FSW functioning and proper FOS firmware corrections. The end result should be a completely GIMP corrected series of observations which will allow confirmation of the proper functioning of the GIMP correction mechanism and allow all future observations to be GIMP corrected. This test will be run on both side of the detector and will use only internal sources.

  18. Immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of cellular transcription NFκB (p65), AP-1 (c-Fos and c-Jun), and JAK/STAT in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luciana Mota; Hirai, Kelly Emi; de Sousa, Jorge Rodrigues; de Souza, Juarez; Fuzii, Hellen Thais; Dias, Leonidas Braga; Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; de Souza Aarão, Tinara Leila; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões

    2015-05-01

    Leprosy is a disease whose clinical spectrum depends on the cytokine patterns produced during the early stages of the immune response. The main objective of this study was to describe the activation pattern of cellular transcription factors and to correlate these factors with the clinical forms of leprosy. Skin samples were obtained from 16 patients with the tuberculoid (TT) form and 14 with the lepromatous (LL) form. The histologic sections were immunostained with anti-c-Fos and anti-c-Jun monoclonal antibodies for investigation of AP-1, anti-NFκB p65 for the study of NFκB, and anti-JAK2, STAT1, STAT3, and STAT4 for investigation of the JAK/STAT pathway. Cells expressing STAT1 were more frequent in the TT form than in LL lesions (P = .0096), in agreement with the protective immunity provided by IFN-γ. STAT4 was also more highly expressed in the TT form than in the LL form (P = .0098). This transcription factor is essential for the development of a Th1 response because it is associated with interleukin-12. NFκB (p65) and STAT4 expression in the TT form showed a strong and significant correlation (r = 0.7556 and P = .0007). A moderate and significant correlation was observed between JAK2 and STAT4 in the TT form (r = 0.6637 and P = .0051), with these factors responding to interleukin-12 in Th1 profiles. The results suggest that STAT1, JAK2, and NFκB, together with STAT4, contribute to the development of cell-mediated immunity, which is able to contain the proliferation of Mycobacterium leprae. PMID:25771902

  19. FOS Dark Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, Charles

    1991-07-01

    Measurements of the instrumental background (dark) will be obtained as internal observations with the FOS. The exposures will be performed in pairs: the first of each pair with REJLIM set to default (no rejection) and the other with REJLIM set at a specified value. This will allow determination of pulse-height distribution of background particle-induced events.

  20. Exposure of nerve growth factor-treated PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells to a modulated radiofrequency field at 836.55 MHz: effects on c-jun and c-fos expression.

    PubMed

    Ivaschuk, O I; Jones, R A; Ishida-Jones, T; Haggren, W; Adey, W R; Phillips, J L

    1997-01-01

    Rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells have been treated with nerve growth factor and then exposed to athermal levels of a packet-modulated radiofrequency field at 836.55 MHz. This signal was produced by a prototype time-domain multiple-access (TDMA) transmitter that conforms to the North American digital cellular telephone standard. Three slot average power densities were used: 0.09, 0.9, and 9 mW/cm2. Exposures were for 20, 40, and 60 min and included an intermittent exposure regimen (20 min on/20 min off), resulting in total incubation times of 20, 60, and 100 min, respectively. Concurrent controls were sham exposed. After extracting total cellular RNA, Northern blot analysis was used to assess the expression of the immediate early genes, c-fos and c-jun, in all cell populations. No change in c-fos transcript levels were detected after 20 min exposure at each field intensity (20 min was the only time period at which c-fos message could be detected consistently). Transcript levels for c-jun were altered only after 20 min exposure to 9 mW/cm2 (average 38% decrease). PMID:9096840

  1. FOS Target Acquisition Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha

    1994-01-01

    FOS onboard target acquisition software capabilities will be verified by this test -- point source binary, point source firmware, point source peak-up, wfpc2 assisted realtime, point source peak-down, taled assisted binary, taled assisted firmware, and nth star binary modes. The primary modes are tested 3 times to determine repeatability. This test is the only test that will verify mode-to-mode acquisition offsets. This test has to be conducted for both the RED and BLUE detectors.

  2. Reciprocal Patterns of c-Fos Expression in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Amygdala after Extinction and Renewal of Conditioned Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapska, Ewelina; Maren, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    After extinction of conditioned fear, memory for the conditioning and extinction experiences becomes context dependent. Fear is suppressed in the extinction context, but renews in other contexts. This study characterizes the neural circuitry underlying the context-dependent retrieval of extinguished fear memories using c-Fos immunohistochemistry.…

  3. Fos Protein Expression in Olfactory-Related Brain Areas after Learning and after Reactivation of a Slowly Acquired Olfactory Discrimination Task in the Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roullet, Florence; Lienard, Fabienne; Datiche, Frederique; Cattarelli, Martine

    2005-01-01

    Fos protein immunodetection was used to investigate the neuronal activation elicited in some olfactory-related areas after either learning of an olfactory discrimination task or its reactivation 10 d later. Trained rats (T) progressively acquired the association between one odor of a pair and water-reward in a four-arm maze. Two groups of…

  4. Right atrial stretch alters fore- and hind-brain expression of c-fos and inhibits the rapid onset of salt appetite.

    PubMed

    De Gobbi, Juliana Irani Fratucci; Menani, Jose Vanderlei; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Ralph F; Thunhorst, Robert L; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-08-01

    The inflation of an intravascular balloon positioned at the superior vena cava and right atrial junction (SVC-RAJ) reduces sodium or water intake induced by various experimental procedures (e.g. sodium depletion; hypovolaemia). In the present study we investigated if the stretch induced by a balloon at this site inhibits a rapid onset salt appetite, and if this procedure modifies the pattern of immunohistochemical labelling for Fos protein (Fos-ir) in the brain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with SVC-RAJ balloons received a combined treatment of furosemide (Furo; 10 mg (kg bw)(-1)) plus a low dose of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (Cap; 5 mg (kg bw)(-1)). Balloon inflation greatly decreased the intake of 0.3 m NaCl for as long as the balloon was inflated. Balloon inflation over a 3 h period following Furo-Cap treatment decreased Fos-ir in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the subfornical organ and increased Fos-ir in the lateral parabrachial nucleus and caudal ventrolateral medulla. The effect of balloon inflation was specific for sodium intake because it did not affect the drinking of diluted sweetened condensed milk. Balloon inflation and deflation also did not acutely change mean arterial pressure. These results suggest that activity in forebrain circumventricular organs and in hindbrain putative body fluid/cardiovascular regulatory regions is affected by loading low pressure mechanoreceptors at the SVC-RAJ, a manipulation that also attenuates salt appetite. PMID:18556369

  5. Enriched environment attenuates nicotine self-administration and induces changes in ΔFosB expression in the rat prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Venebra-Muñoz, Arturo; Corona-Morales, Aleph; Santiago-García, Juan; Melgarejo-Gutiérrez, Montserrat; Caba, Mario; García-García, Fabio

    2014-06-18

    Environment enrichment conditions have important consequences on subsequent vulnerability to drugs of abuse. The present work examined whether exposure to an enriched environment (EE) decreases oral self-consumption of nicotine. Wistar rats were housed either in a standard environment (SE, four rats per standard cage) or in an EE during 60 days after weaning. EE consisted of eight animals housed in larger cages containing a variety of objects such as boxes, toys, and burrowing material that were changed three times a week. After this period, animals were exposed to nicotine for 3 weeks, where animals chose freely between water and a nicotine solution (0.006% in water). Fluid consumption was evaluated on a daily basis. ΔFosB immunohistochemistry in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens was also performed. Rats of the EE group consumed less nicotine solution (0.25±0.04 mg/kg/day) than SE rats (0.54±0.05 mg/kg/day). EE increased the number of ΔFos-immunoreactive (ΔFos-ir) cells in the nucleus accumbens core and shell and in the prefrontal cortex, compared with animals in the standard condition. However, rats exposed to nicotine in the SE showed higher ΔFos-ir cells in the nucleus accumbens core and shell than nonexposed rats. Nicotine consumption did not modify ΔFos-ir cells in these brain areas in EE animals. These results support the idea of a possible protective effect of the EE on reward sensitivity and the development of an addictive behavior to nicotine. PMID:24686135

  6. dimerization and DNA binding alter phosphorylation of Fos and Jun

    SciTech Connect

    Abate, C.; Baker, S.J.; Curran, T. ); Lees-Miller, S.P.; Anderson, C.W. ); Marshak, D.R. )

    1993-07-15

    Fos and Jun form dimeric complexes that bind to activator protein 1 (AP-1) DNA sequences and regulate gene expression. The levels of expression and activities of these proteins are regulated by a variety of extracellular stimuli. They are thought to function in nuclear signal transduction processes in many different cell types. The role of Fos and Jun in gene transcription is complex and may be regulated in several ways including association with different dimerization partners, interactions with other transcription factors, effects on DNA topology, and reduction/oxidation of a conserved cysteine residue in the DNA-binding domain. In addition, phosphorylation has been suggested to control the activity of Fos and Jun. Here the authors show that phosphorylation of Fos and Jun by several protein kinases is affected by dimerization and binding to DNA. Jun homodimers are phosphorylated efficiently by casein kinase II, whereas Fos-Jun heterodimers are not. DNA binding also reduces phosphorylation of Jun by casein kinase II, p34[sup cdc2] (cdc2) kinase, and protein kinase C. Phosphorylation of Fos by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and cdc2 is relatively insensitive to dimerization and DNA binding, whereas phosphorylation of Fos and Jun by DNA-dependent protein kinase is dramatically stimulated by binding to the AP-1 site. These results imply that different protein kinases can distinguish among Fos and Jun proteins in the form of monomers, homodimers, and heterodimers and between DNA-bound and non-DNA-bound proteins. Thus, potentially, these different states of Fos and Jun can be recognized and regulated independently by phosphorylation. 44 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Right atrial stretch alters fore- and hind-brain expression of c-fos and inhibits the rapid onset of salt appetite

    PubMed Central

    De Gobbi, Juliana Irani Fratucci; Menani, Jose Vanderlei; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Ralph F; Thunhorst, Robert L; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-01-01

    The inflation of an intravascular balloon positioned at the superior vena cava and right atrial junction (SVC-RAJ) reduces sodium or water intake induced by various experimental procedures (e.g. sodium depletion; hypovolaemia). In the present study we investigated if the stretch induced by a balloon at this site inhibits a rapid onset salt appetite, and if this procedure modifies the pattern of immunohistochemical labelling for Fos protein (Fos-ir) in the brain. Male Sprague–Dawley rats with SVC-RAJ balloons received a combined treatment of furosemide (Furo; 10 mg (kg bw)−1) plus a low dose of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (Cap; 5 mg (kg bw)−1). Balloon inflation greatly decreased the intake of 0.3 m NaCl for as long as the balloon was inflated. Balloon inflation over a 3 h period following Furo–Cap treatment decreased Fos-ir in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the subfornical organ and increased Fos-ir in the lateral parabrachial nucleus and caudal ventrolateral medulla. The effect of balloon inflation was specific for sodium intake because it did not affect the drinking of diluted sweetened condensed milk. Balloon inflation and deflation also did not acutely change mean arterial pressure. These results suggest that activity in forebrain circumventricular organs and in hindbrain putative body fluid/cardiovascular regulatory regions is affected by loading low pressure mechanoreceptors at the SVC-RAJ, a manipulation that also attenuates salt appetite. PMID:18556369

  8. The association of thirst, sodium appetite and vasopressin release with c-fos expression in the forebrain of the rat after intracerebroventricular injection of angiotensin II, angiotensin-(1-7) or carbachol.

    PubMed

    Mahon, J M; Allen, M; Herbert, J; Fitzsimons, J T

    1995-11-01

    The effect intracerebroventricular injections of angiotensin II (0.1 nm), angiotensin-(1-7) (1 or 100 nm) and carbachol (500 ng) on c-fos expression was examined in the forebrain of Lister hooded rats. Intense staining of the c-Fos protein was found in the median preoptic nucleus, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, subfornical organ, paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus after angiotensin II and carbachol Angiotensin II caused significantly more c-fos expression in the ventral median preoptic nucleus and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis than carbachol, whereas in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei this was reversed, with carbachol having a greater effect on c-fos expression in these areas. Angiotensin-(1-7), however, only induced c-Fos protein in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and median preoptic nucleus with the number and the intensity of staining of the nuclei significantly less in both areas than after angiotensin II or carbachol. Separate groups of Lister rats were given i.c.v. injections of the same substances at the same doses, but excluding the lower dose of angiotensin-(1-7), and the intakes of water and 1.8% NaCl over 60 min were measured. Angiotensin II stimulated intakes of both water and NaCl. The effect on water intake was almost immediate (<1 min), whereas NaCl intake did not usually start until at least 5 min after injection. Over 60 min, water (12.4 +/- 1.0 ml) and NaCl (4.2 +/- 0.9 ml) intakes were significantly greater than water (1.1 +/- 0.2 ml) and NaCl (0.6 +/- 0.5 ml) intakes of the controls. Carbachol caused less drinking than angiotensin II, the water intake over 60 min being significantly less (4.8 +/- 0.7 ml) and the latency of response greater (>5 min). Carbachol, unlike angiotensin II, had little effect on NaCl intake (0.7 +/- 0.4 ml). Angiotensin-(1-7) had no effect on water (1.1 +/- 0.3 ml) or NaCl (0.3 +/- 0.3 ml) intakes. The plasma levels of vasopressin were measured after i

  9. c-FOS suppresses ovarian cancer progression by changing adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira-Ferrer, L; Rößler, K; Haustein, V; Schröder, C; Wicklein, D; Maltseva, D; Khaustova, N; Samatov, T; Tonevitsky, A; Mahner, S; Jänicke, F; Schumacher, U; Milde-Langosch, K

    2014-01-01

    Background: C-Fos was initially described as oncogene, but was associated with favourable prognosis in ovarian cancer (OvCa) patients. The molecular and functional aspects underlying this effect are still unknown. Methods: Using stable transfectants of SKOV3 and OVCAR8 cells, proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptotic potential of c-FOS-overexpressing clones and controls were compared. Adherence to components of the extracellular matrix was analysed in static assays, and adhesion to E-selectin, endothelial and mesothelial cells in dynamic flow assays. The effect of c-FOS in vivo was studied after intraperitoneal injection of SKOV3 clones into SCID mice, and changes in gene expression were determined by microarray analysis. Results: Tumour growth after injection into SCID mice was strongly delayed by c-FOS overexpression, with reduction of lung metastases and circulating tumour cells. In vitro, c-FOS had only weak influence on proliferation and migration, but was strongly pro-apoptotic. Adhesion to components of the extracellular matrix (collagen I, IV) and to E-selectin, endothelial and mesothelial cells was significantly reduced in c-FOS-overexpressing OvCa cells. This corresponds to deregulation of adhesion proteins and glycosylation enzymes in microarray analysis. Conclusion: In addition to its known pro-apoptotic effect, c-FOS might influence OvCa progression by changing the adhesion of OvCa cells to peritoneal surfaces. PMID:24322891

  10. Fos-dependent induction of Chk1 protects osteoblasts from replication stress.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Jochen; Lopez-Contreras, Andres J; Uluçkan, Özge; Graña-Castro, Osvaldo; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar; Wagner, Erwin F

    2014-01-01

    Stable Fos expression in the osteoblast lineage results in the development of osteosarcomas (OS) in mice, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a genetic system in which Fos expression can be induced in osteoblasts in a doxycycline-dependent manner and through subsequent RNA sequencing and gene set enrichment analysis, we were able to identify novel transcriptional targets of Fos in osteoblasts. These included a distinct activation of cellular response toward replication stress (RS), exemplified by a Fos-dependent induction of the RS-suppressing Chk1 kinase. Importantly, Fos expression protects osteoblasts from RS and DNA damage likely through upregulation of Chk1 and facilitates transformation by Ras/E1A oncogenes. These data reveal a novel function of Fos in safeguarding genome stability during replication, which is particularly relevant in conditions of oncogene-induced S-phase entry. PMID:24762558

  11. Fos-dependent induction of Chk1 protects osteoblasts from replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Jochen; Lopez-Contreras, Andres J; Uluçkan, Özge; Graña-Castro, Osvaldo; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar; Wagner, Erwin F

    2014-01-01

    Stable Fos expression in the osteoblast lineage results in the development of osteosarcomas (OS) in mice, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a genetic system in which Fos expression can be induced in osteoblasts in a doxycycline-dependent manner and through subsequent RNA sequencing and gene set enrichment analysis, we were able to identify novel transcriptional targets of Fos in osteoblasts. These included a distinct activation of cellular response toward replication stress (RS), exemplified by a Fos-dependent induction of the RS-suppressing Chk1 kinase. Importantly, Fos expression protects osteoblasts from RS and DNA damage likely through upregulation of Chk1 and facilitates transformation by Ras/E1A oncogenes. These data reveal a novel function of Fos in safeguarding genome stability during replication, which is particularly relevant in conditions of oncogene-induced S-phase entry. PMID:24762558

  12. Interleukin-1 Receptor Type 2 Acts with c-Fos to Enhance the Expression of Interleukin-6 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A in Colon Cancer Cells and Induce Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mar, Ai-Chung; Chu, Chun-Ho; Lee, Hui-Ju; Chien, Chia-Wen; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Yang, Shung-Haur; Jiang, Jeng-Kai; Lee, Te-Chang

    2015-09-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor type 2 (IL1R2) acts as a decoy receptor of exogenous IL-1; however, its intracellular activity is poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that IL1R2 intracellularly activates the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines and affects cell migration. In this study, we found that intracellular IL1R2 expression was increased in human colorectal cancer cells (CRCs) compared with normal colon cells. We also observed that the mRNA levels of IL1R2 were highly correlated with IL-6 in tumor tissues of CRC patients. By modulating its expression in CRC cells, we verified that enhanced IL1R2 expression transcriptionally activated the expression of IL-6 and VEGF-A. Conditioned medium harvested from IL1R2-overexpressing CRC cells contained higher levels of IL-6 and VEGF-A than that from vector control cells and significantly enhanced the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of cultured endothelial cells. We further demonstrated a positive association of intracellular IL1R2 levels with tumor growth and microvessel density in xenograft mouse models. These results revealed that IL1R2 activates the expression of angiogenic factors. Mechanistically, we revealed that IL1R2 complexes with c-Fos and binds to the AP-1 site at the IL-6 and VEGF-A promoters. Together, these results reveal a novel function of intracellular IL1R2 that acts with c-Fos to enhance the transcription of IL-6 and VEGF-A, which promotes angiogenesis in CRC. PMID:26209639

  13. Acute nicotine enhances spontaneous recovery of contextual fear and changes c-fos early gene expression in infralimbic cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Munir G; Tumolo, Jessica M; Holliday, Erica; Garrett, Brendan; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    Exposure therapy, which focuses on extinguishing fear-triggering cues and contexts, is widely used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Yet, PTSD patients who received successful exposure therapy are vulnerable to relapse of fear response after a period of time, a phenomenon known as spontaneous recovery (SR). Increasing evidence suggests ventral hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, and infralimbic cortex may be involved in SR. PTSD patients also show high rates of comorbidity with nicotine dependence. While the comorbidity between smoking and PTSD might suggest nicotine may alter SR, the effects of nicotine on SR of contextual fear are unknown. In the present study, we tested the effects of acute nicotine administration on SR of extinguished contextual fear memories and c-fos immediate early gene immunohistochemistry in mice. Our results demonstrated that acute nicotine enhanced SR of extinguished fear whereas acute nicotine did not affect retrieval of unextinguished contextual memories. This suggests that the effect of acute nicotine on SR is specific for memories that have undergone extinction treatment. C-fos immunoreactive (IR) cells in the ventral hippocampus and basolateral amygdala were increased in the nicotine-treated mice following testing for SR, whereas the number of IR cells in the infralimbic cortex was decreased in the same group. Overall, this study suggests that nicotine may adversely affect context-specific relapse of fear memories and this effect is potentially mediated by the suppression of cortical regions and increased activity in the ventral hippocampus and amygdala. PMID:27421892

  14. Exposure of nerve growth factor-treated PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells to a modulated radiofrequency field at 836.55 MHz: Effects on c-jun and c-fos expression

    SciTech Connect

    Ivaschuk, O.I.; Jones, R.A.; Ishida-Jones, T.; Haggren, W.; Adey, W.R.; Phillips, J.L.

    1997-05-01

    Rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells have been treated with nerve growth factor and then exposed to athermal levels of a packet-modulated radiofrequency field at 836.55 MHz. This signal was produced by a prototype time-domain multiple-access (TDMA) transmitter that conforms to the North American digital cellular telephone standard. Three slot average power densities were used: 0.09, 0.9, and 9 mW/cm{sup 2}. Exposures were for 20, 40, and 60 min and included an intermittent exposure regime, resulting in total incubation times of 20, 60, and 100 min, respectively. Concurrent controls were sham exposed. After extracting total cellular RNA, Northern blot analysis was used to assess the expression of the immediate early genes, c-fos and c-jun, in all cell populations. No change in c-fos transcript levels were detected after 20 min exposure at each field intensity. Transcript levels for c-jun were altered only after 20 min exposure to 9 mW/cm{sup 2}. 51 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Disruption of the CREBBP gene and decreased expression of CREB, NFκB p65, c-JUN, c-FOS, BCL2 and c-MYC suggest immune dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Torres, Leuridan Cavalcante; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici; Ramos, Patrícia Locosque; Sugayama, Sofia Mizuko Miura; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda

    2013-08-01

    Genomic aberrations in the CREBBP (CREB-binding protein - CREBBP or CBP) gene such as point mutations, small insertions or exonic copy number changes are usually associated with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTs). In this study, the disruption of the CREBBP gene on chromosome 16p13.3, as revealed by CGH-array and FISH, suggests immune dysregulation in a patient with the Rubinstein Taybi syndrome (RTs) phenotype. Further investigation with Western blot techniques demonstrated decreased expression of CREB, NFκB, c-Jun, c-Fos, BCL2 and cMyc in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, thus indicating that the CREBBP gene is essential for the normal expression of these proteins and the regulation of immune responses. PMID:23643710

  16. Hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated renal tubular mitogenesis: effects on expression of c-myc, c-fos, c-met, VEGF and the VHL tumour-suppressor and related genes.

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, S. C.; Czapla, K.; Richards, F. M.; O'Donoghue, D. J.; Maher, E. R.

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF/SF) is a potent renal proximal tubular cell (PTEC) mitogen involved in renal development. HGF/SF is the functional ligand for the c-met proto-oncogene, and germline c-met mutations are associated with familial papillary renal cell carcinoma. Somatic von Hippel-Lindau disease tumour-suppressor gene (VHL) mutations are frequently detected in sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCC), and germline VHL mutations are the commonest cause of familial clear cell RCC. pVHL binds to the positive regulatory components of the trimeric elongin (SIII) complex (elongins B and C) and has been observed to deregulate expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene. HGF/SF has similarly been reported to up-regulate expression of the VEGF gene in non-renal experimental systems. To investigate the mechanism of HGF/SF action in PTECs and, specifically, to examine potential interactions between the HGF/c-met and the VHL-mediated pathways for renal tubular growth control, we have isolated untransformed PTECs from normal kidneys, developed conditions for their culture in vitro and used these cells to investigate changes in mRNA levels of the VHL, elongin A, B and C, VEGF, c-myc, c-fos and c-met genes after HGF/SF exposure. Significant elevations in the mRNA levels of VEGF, c-myc, c-fos, c-met and elongins A, B and C, but not VHL, were detected after HGF/SF stimulation of human PTECs (P < 0.02), with a consistent order of peak levels observed over successive replicates (c-fos at 1 h, VEGF at 2-4 h, c-myc, at 4 h, followed by c-met and all three elongin subunits at 8 h). This study highlights the spectrum of changes in gene expression observed in PTECs after HGF/SF stimulation and has identified possible candidate mediators of the HGF/SF-induced mitogenic response. Our evidence would suggest that the changes in PTEC VEGF expression induced by HGF/SF are mediated by a VHL-independent pathway. Images Figure 1 PMID:9652757

  17. The kinase c-Src and the phosphatase TC45 coordinately regulate c-Fos tyrosine phosphorylation and c-Fos phospholipid synthesis activation capacity.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, G O; Velazquez, F N; Caputto, B L

    2012-07-12

    Our previous work showed that in T98G cells, a human glioblastoma multiforme-derived cell line, the association of c-Fos to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and consequently, the capacity of c-Fos to activate phospholipid synthesis, is regulated by the phosphorylation state of tyrosine (tyr) residues #10 and #30 of c-Fos. The small amount of c-Fos present in quiescent cells is tyr-phosphorylated, is dissociated from the ER membranes and does not activate phospholipid synthesis. However, on induction of the cell to re-enter growth, c-Fos expression is rapidly induced, it is found dephosphorylated, associated to ER membranes and activating phospholipid synthesis (Portal et al., 2007). Herein, using in vivo and in vitro experimental strategies, we show that the kinase c-Src is capable of phosphorylating tyr residues of c-Fos whereas the phosphatase TC45 T-cell protein-tyr phosphatase (TC-PTP) dephosphorylates them, thus enabling c-Fos/ER association and activation of phospholipid synthesis. Results also suggest that the regulation of the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle of c-Fos occurs at the TC-PTP level: induction of cells to re-enter growth promotes the translocation of TC45 from a nuclear to a cytoplasmic location concomitant with its activation. Activated TC45 in its turn promotes dephosphorylation of pre-formed c-Fos, enabling cells to rapidly activate phospholipid synthesis to respond to its growth demands. PMID:22105363

  18. Microbial metabolic networks in a complex electrogenic biofilm recovered from a stimulus-induced metatranscriptomics approach.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Shun'ichi; Suzuki, Shino; Tenney, Aaron; Norden-Krichmar, Trina M; Nealson, Kenneth H; Bretschger, Orianna

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms almost always exist as mixed communities in nature. While the significance of microbial community activities is well appreciated, a thorough understanding about how microbial communities respond to environmental perturbations has not yet been achieved. Here we have used a combination of metagenomic, genome binning, and stimulus-induced metatranscriptomic approaches to estimate the metabolic network and stimuli-induced metabolic switches existing in a complex microbial biofilm that was producing electrical current via extracellular electron transfer (EET) to a solid electrode surface. Two stimuli were employed: to increase EET and to stop EET. An analysis of cell activity marker genes after stimuli exposure revealed that only two strains within eleven binned genomes had strong transcriptional responses to increased EET rates, with one responding positively and the other responding negatively. Potential metabolic switches between eleven dominant members were mainly observed for acetate, hydrogen, and ethanol metabolisms. These results have enabled the estimation of a multi-species metabolic network and the associated short-term responses to EET stimuli that induce changes to metabolic flow and cooperative or competitive microbial interactions. This systematic meta-omics approach represents a next step towards understanding complex microbial roles within a community and how community members respond to specific environmental stimuli. PMID:26443302

  19. Microbial metabolic networks in a complex electrogenic biofilm recovered from a stimulus-induced metatranscriptomics approach

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Shun’ichi; Suzuki, Shino; Tenney, Aaron; Norden-Krichmar, Trina M.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Bretschger, Orianna

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms almost always exist as mixed communities in nature. While the significance of microbial community activities is well appreciated, a thorough understanding about how microbial communities respond to environmental perturbations has not yet been achieved. Here we have used a combination of metagenomic, genome binning, and stimulus-induced metatranscriptomic approaches to estimate the metabolic network and stimuli-induced metabolic switches existing in a complex microbial biofilm that was producing electrical current via extracellular electron transfer (EET) to a solid electrode surface. Two stimuli were employed: to increase EET and to stop EET. An analysis of cell activity marker genes after stimuli exposure revealed that only two strains within eleven binned genomes had strong transcriptional responses to increased EET rates, with one responding positively and the other responding negatively. Potential metabolic switches between eleven dominant members were mainly observed for acetate, hydrogen, and ethanol metabolisms. These results have enabled the estimation of a multi-species metabolic network and the associated short-term responses to EET stimuli that induce changes to metabolic flow and cooperative or competitive microbial interactions. This systematic meta-omics approach represents a next step towards understanding complex microbial roles within a community and how community members respond to specific environmental stimuli. PMID:26443302

  20. Ability of predator odour exposure to elicit conditioned versus sensitised post traumatic stress disorder-like behaviours, and forebrain deltaFosB expression, in rats.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, L; Nalivaiko, E; Beig, M I; Day, T A; Walker, F R

    2010-08-25

    At present, exposure of a rodent to the odour of a predator is one of the most common animal models of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite this, the model remains incompletely characterized, particularly in regard to within subject assessment of major PTSD-like behaviours. In an attempt to redress this situation, we have extensively characterized the two broad categories of behaviour that are considered to characterize PTSD, that is sensitized behaviours such as social withdrawal and hypervigilance and conditioned behaviours such as avoidance of trauma linked cues. Specifically, we determined the presence and duration of both conditioned and sensitized behaviours, in the same cohort of animals, after three exposures to predator odour. Conditioned fear was assessed on the basis of inhibition of locomotor activity upon return to context 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after the last odour exposure session. To assess the impact on sensitization behaviours, we monitored acoustic startle responses and social interaction behaviour 4, 9, 16, 23, and 30 days after the last exposure session. In addition to examining the behavioural consequences associated with odour exposure, we also determined the key brain regions that were activated using DeltaFosB immunohistochemistry. Our results show that the two groups of behaviours thought to characterize PTSD (conditioned and sensitized) do not travel together in the predator odour model, with clear evidence of enduring changes in conditioned fear but little evidence of changes in social interaction or acoustic startle. With regard to associated patterns of activity in the brain, we observed that odour-exposed animals exhibited significantly higher numbers of FosB-positive nuclei in only the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a finding that can be viewed as being consistent with the observed behavioural changes. PMID:20478366

  1. The Effects of Pre-emptive Administration of Ketamine and norBNI on Pain Behavior, c-Fos, and Prodynorphin Protein Expression in the Rat Spinal Cord after Formalin-induced Pain Is Modulated by the DREAM Protein

    PubMed Central

    Suppian, Rapeah; Ismail, Zalina

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated the effects of pre-emptive administration of ketamine and norBNI on pain behavior and the expression of DREAM, c-Fos, and prodynorphin proteins on the ipsilateral side of the rat spinal cord at 2 and 4 hours after formalin injection. Methods Eighty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 major groups consisting of control rats (C) (n = 12), rats given only formalin injections (F) (n = 24), and rats treated with pre-emptive administration of either ketamine (K+F) (n = 24) or norBNI (N+F) (n = 24). The non-control groups were further divided into subgroups consisting of rats that were sacrificed at 2 and 4 hours (n = 12 for each group) after formalin injection. Pain behavior was recorded for 1 hour. After 2 and 4 hours, the rats were sacrificed and the spinal cords (L4-L5 sections) were removed for immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Results The pain behavior response was reduced in the K+F group compared to the other groups during the second phase of the formalin pain response. We detected an increase in the nuclear DREAM protein level in the K+F group at 2 and 4 hours and a transient decrease in the N+F group at 2 hours; however, it increased at 4 hours after injection. Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) and Prodynorphin-like immunoreactivity (PLI) neurons decreased in the K+F group but increased in the N+F group at 2 hours after injection. While FLI decreased, PLI increased in all groups at 4 hours after injection. Conclusions We suggest that NMDA and kappa opioid receptors can modulate DREAM protein expression, which can affect pain behavior and protein transcriptional processes at 2 hours and bring about either harmful or protective effects at 4 hours after formalin injection. PMID:23861999

  2. Dimerumic Acid Inhibits SW620 Cell Invasion by Attenuating H2O2-Mediated MMP-7 Expression via JNK/C-Jun and ERK/C-Fos Activation in an AP-1-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Bing-Ying; Wu, Yao-Ming; Chang, King-Jen; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the tumor microenvironment play important roles in tumor invasion and metastasis. Recently, ROS have been reported to cause a significant increase in the production and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7, which is closely correlated with metastatic colorectal cancer. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the scavenging activity of dimerumic acid (DMA) for H2O2 isolated from Monascus-fermented rice to investigate the inhibitory effects of DMA on the invasive potential of SW620 human colon cancer cells, and to explore the mechanisms underlying both these phenomena. Our results showed that increased MMP-7 expression due to H2O2 exposure was mediated by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 kinase. DMA pretreatment suppressed activation of H2O2-mediated MAPK pathways and cell invasion. Moreover, H2O2-triggered MMP-7 production was demonstrated via JNK/c-Jun and ERK/c-Fos activation in an activating protein 1 (AP-1)-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that DMA suppresses H2O2-induced cell invasion by inhibiting AP-1-mediated MMP-7 gene transcription via the JNK/c-Jun and ERK/c-Fos signaling pathways in SW620 human colon cancer cells. Our data suggest that DMA may be useful in minimizing the development of colorectal metastasis. In the future, DMA supplementation may be a beneficial antioxidant to enhance surgical outcomes. PMID:21814482

  3. Sexual reward induces Fos in the cerebellum of female rats.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Pfaus, James G; Miquel, Marta; Manzo, Jorge; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2011-02-01

    The cerebellum is generally considered a neural structure specialized in motor control and recent imaging data suggest its role in sexual behavior. Herein, we analyzed the pattern of Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in the cerebellum of female rats allowed to pace copulation as a model of sexual reward in rodents. Ovariectomized, hormone-primed, sexually naïve females formed three groups: Pacing, Nonpacing and Control. Pacing occurred in arenas bisected by a middle divider that allowed only females to control sexual interaction with stud males. For nonpaced copulation the divider was removed, and control females were allowed to pace in chambers without a male. Fos-IR was analyzed in granule and Purkinje layers of the 10 cerebellar lobules, and in the fastigial deep nucleus (FDN). Results indicated that Pacing females expressed more Fos-IR in the granule layer compared to Nonpacing and Controls, and more Fos-IR in Purkinje compared to Nonpacing. No differences were observed in FDN. Such response cannot be explained with motor activity because Pacing females moved less in general. We discuss the role of the cerebellum and its connections in the sexual reward induced by pacing. PMID:21059365

  4. Patterns of social-experience-related c-fos and Arc expression in the frontal cortices of rats exposed to saccharin or moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Derek A.; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T.; Akers, Katherine G.; Rice, James P.; Maes, Levi I.; Rosenberg, Martina; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Savage, Daniel D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings from our laboratory indicate that alterations in frontal cortex function, structural plasticity, and related social behaviors are persistent consequences of exposure to moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal brain development [24]. Fetal-ethanol-related reductions in the expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs) c-fos and Arc and alterations in dendritic spine density in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex suggest a dissociation reminiscent of that described by Kolb et al. [38] in which these aspects of frontal cortex undergo reciprocal experience-dependent changes. In addition to providing a brief review of the available data on social behavior and frontal cortex function in fetal-ethanol-exposed rats, the present paper presents novel data on social-experience-related IEG expression in four regions of frontal cortex (Zilles LO, VLO, Fr1, Fr2) that are evaluated alongside our prior data from AID and Cg3. Social experience in normal rats was related to a distinct pattern of IEG expression in ventrolateral and medial aspects of frontal cortex, with generally greater expression observed in ventrolateral frontal cortex. In contrast, weaker expression was observed in all aspects of frontal cortex in ethanol-exposed rats, with the exception of an experience-related increase in the medial agranular cortex. Behaviors related to social investigation and wrestling/boxing were differentially correlated with patterns of activity-related IEG expression in the regions under investigation for saccharin- and ethanol-exposed rats. These observations suggest that recruitment and expression of IEGs in frontal cortex following social experience are potentially important for understanding the long-term consequences of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure on frontal cortex function, synaptic plasticity, and related behaviors. PMID:20570698

  5. Expression of c-Fos protein in medial septum/diagonal band of Broca and CA3 region, associated with the temporary inactivation of the supramammillary area.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Lourdes

    2016-07-01

    The supramammillary (SuM) area is part of the diencephalic nuclei comprising the mammillary bodies, and is a key structure in the memory and spatial learning processes. It is a critical region in the modulation/generation of hippocampal theta rhythm. In addition, many papers have recently shown a clear involvement of this structure in the processes of spatial learning and memory in animal models, although it is still not known how it modulates spatial navigation and response emotional. The aim of the present research was to study the effect of the temporary inactivation of the SuM area on synaptic plasticity of crucial structures in the formation of spatial memory and emotional response. Sprague-Dawley rats were asigned in three groups: a control group where the animals were not subjected to any treatment, and two groups where the rats received microinjections of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the SuM area (5ng diluted in 0.5μl of saline) or saline (0.5μl). The microinjections were administered 90min before the perfusion. Later, cellular activity in medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DBB) and CA3 region of the dorsal hippocampus was assessed, by measuring the immediate early gene c-fos. The results show a clear hiperactivity cellular in medial septum/diagonal band of Broca and a clear hypoactivity cellular in the CA3 region of the hippocampus when there was a functional inactivation of the SuM area. It suggests that the SuM area seems to be part of the connection and information input pathways to CA3 region of the hippocampal formation, key for proper functioning in spatial memory and emotional response. PMID:26802745

  6. Microinjection of fos-specific antibodies blocks DNA synthesis in fibroblast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Riabowol, K.T.; Vosatka, R.J.; Ziff, E.B.; Lamb, N.J.; Feramisco, J.R.

    1988-04-01

    Transcription of the protooncogene c-fos is increased >10-fold within minutes of treatment of fibroblasts with serum or purified growth factors. Recent experiments with mouse 3T3 cell lines containing inducible fos antisense RNA constructs have shown that induced fos antisense RNA transcripts cause either a marked inhibition of growth in continuously proliferating cells or, conversely, a minimal effect except during the transition from a quiescent (G/sub o/) state into the cell cycle. Since intracellular production of large amounts of antisense RNA does not completely block gene expression, the authors microinjected affinity-purified antibodies raised against fos to determine whether and when during the cell cycle c-fos expression was required for cell proliferation. Using this independent method, they found that microinjected fos antibodies efficiently blocked serum-stimulated DNA synthesis when injected up to 6 to 8 h after serum stimulation of quiescent REF-52 fibroblasts. Furthermore, when fos antibodies were injected into asynchronously growing cells, a consistently greater number of cells was prevented from synthesizing DNA than when cells were injected with nonspecific immunoglobulins. Thus, whereas the activity of c-fos may be necessary for transition of fibroblasts from G/sub o/ to G/sub 1/ of the cell cycle, its function is also required during the early G/sub 1/ portion of the cell cycle to allow subsequent DNA synthesis.

  7. Tumor Restrictive Suicide Gene Therapy for Glioma Controlled by the FOS Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jiliang; Song, Weijian; Luo, Jie; Jiang, Shan; Yan, Fei; Zhai, Baojin

    2015-01-01

    Effective suicide gene delivery and expression are crucial to achieving successful effects in gene therapy. An ideal tumor-specific promoter expresses therapeutic genes in tumor cells with minimal normal tissue expression. We compared the activity of the FOS (FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog) promoter with five alternative tumor-specific promoters in glioma cells and non-malignant astrocytes. The FOS promoter caused significantly higher transcriptional activity in glioma cell lines than all alternative promoters with the exception of CMV. The FOS promoter showed 13.9%, 32.4%, and 70.8% of the transcriptional activity of CMV in three glioma cell lines (U87, U251, and U373). Importantly, however, the FOS promoter showed only 1.6% of the transcriptional activity of CMV in normal astrocytes. We also tested the biologic activity of recombinant adenovirus containing the suicide gene herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) driven by the FOS promoter, including selective killing efficacy in vitro and tumor inhibition rate in vivo. Adenoviral-mediated delivery of the HSV-tk gene controlled by the FOS promoter conferred a cytotoxic effect on human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. This study suggests that use of the FOS-tk adenovirus system is a promising strategy for glioma-specific gene therapy but still much left for improvement. PMID:26571389

  8. Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harms, R. J.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Angel, J. R. P.; Bartko, F.; Mccoy, J.; Ripp, L.; Bohlin, R.; Davidsen, A. F.; Ford, H.

    1982-01-01

    The Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) designed for use with The Space Telescope (ST), is currently preparing for instrument assembly, integration, alignment, and calibration. Nearly all optical and detector elements have been completed and calibrated, and selection of flight detectors and all but a few optical elements has been made. Calibration results for the flight detectors and optics are presented, and plans for forthcoming system calibration are briefly described.

  9. Smov Fos/rd Initial Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitch, John

    1994-01-01

    This proposal will be used to take a dark exposure and a CAL lamp exposure to verify the science data interfaces and the proper functioning of the FOS. This must be preceeded by verification that the FOS ION gauge pressure reading is less than 1E-5 Torr. This activity must also be accomplished before any other use of the HV with the FOS RED detector.

  10. Enhanced stimulus-induced neurotransmitter overflow in epinephrine-induced hypertensive rats is not mediated by prejunctional beta-adrenoceptor activation.

    PubMed

    Eikenburg, D C; Schwartz, D D

    1986-12-01

    The present study examines the effect of 6-day epinephrine treatment (100 micrograms/kg per h, s.c.) on stimulus-induced (1 Hz) endogenous neurotransmitter overflow from the isolated perfused kidney of vehicle- and epinephrine-treated rats. Renal catecholamine stores and stimulus-induced overflow in the vehicle-treated group consisted of norepinephrine only. However, epinephrine treatment resulted in the incorporation of epinephrine into renal catecholamine stores such that approximately 40% of the catecholamine present was epinephrine while the norepinephrine content was reduced by a similar degree. Total tissue catecholamine content of the kidney on a molar basis was unchanged. Stimulus-induced fractional overflow of neurotransmitter from the epinephrine-treated kidneys was approximately twice normal and consisted of both norepinephrine and epinephrine in proportions similar to those found in the kidney. This difference in fractional overflow between groups was not affected by neuronal and extraneuronal uptake blockade. Propranolol had no effect on stimulus-induced overflow in either group. Phentolamine increased stimulus-induced overflow in both groups although the increment in overflow was greater in the epinephrine-treated group. In conclusion, chronic epinephrine treatment results in enhanced fractional neurotransmitter overflow. However, neither alterations in prejunctional beta-adrenoceptor influences nor alterations in neuronal and extraneuronal uptake mechanisms appear to be responsible for this alteration. Furthermore, data obtained with phentolamine alone do not suggest alpha-adrenoceptor desensitization as the cause of the enhanced neurotransmitter overflow after epinephrine treatment. PMID:2886572

  11. Differential induction of FosB isoforms throughout the brain by fluoxetine and chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Vialou, Vincent; Thibault, Mackenzie; Kaska, Sophia; Cooper, Sarah; Gajewski, Paula; Eagle, Andrew; Mazei-Robison, Michelle; Nestler, Eric J; Robison, A J

    2015-12-01

    Major depressive disorder is thought to arise in part from dysfunction of the brain's "reward circuitry", consisting of the mesolimbic dopamine system and the glutamatergic and neuromodulatory inputs onto this system. Both chronic stress and antidepressant treatment regulate gene transcription in many of the brain regions that make up these circuits, but the exact nature of the transcription factors and target genes involved in these processes remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate induction of the FosB family of transcription factors in ∼25 distinct regions of adult mouse brain, including many parts of the reward circuitry, by chronic exposure to the antidepressant fluoxetine. We further uncover specific patterns of FosB gene product expression (i.e., differential expression of full-length FosB, ΔFosB, and Δ2ΔFosB) in brain regions associated with depression--the nucleus accumbens (NAc), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and hippocampus--in response to chronic fluoxetine treatment, and contrast these patterns with differential induction of FosB isoforms in the chronic social defeat stress model of depression with and without fluoxetine treatment. We find that chronic fluoxetine, in contrast to stress, causes induction of the unstable full-length FosB isoform in the NAc, PFC, and hippocampus even 24 h following the final injection, indicating that these brain regions may undergo chronic activation when fluoxetine is on board, even in the absence of stress. We also find that only the stable ΔFosB isoform correlates with behavioral responses to stress. These data suggest that NAc, PFC, and hippocampus may present useful targets for directed intervention in mood disorders (ie, brain stimulation or gene therapy), and that determining the gene targets of FosB-mediated transcription in these brain regions in response to fluoxetine may yield novel inroads for pharmaceutical intervention in depressive disorders. PMID:26164345

  12. Global profiling of stimulus-induced polyadenylation in cells using a poly(A) trap

    PubMed Central

    Curanovic, Dusica; Cohen, Michael; Singh, Irtisha; Slagle, Christopher E.; Leslie, Christina S.; Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2013-01-01

    Polyadenylation of mRNA leads to increased protein expression in response to diverse stimuli, but it is difficult to identify mRNAs that become polyadenylated in living cells. Here we describe a click chemistry-compatible nucleoside analog that is selectively incorporated into poly(A) tails of transcripts in cells. Next-generation sequencing of labeled mRNAs enables a transcriptome-wide profile of polyadenylation and provides insights into the mRNA sequence elements that are correlated with polyadenylation. PMID:23995769

  13. Activation of immediate-early response gene c-Fos protein in the rat paralimbic cortices after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ji Yun; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jun Hwi; Won, Moo-Ho; Hong, Seongkweon; Lee, Jae-Chul; Seo, Jeong Yeol

    2015-01-01

    c-Fos is a good biological marker for detecting the pathogenesis of central nervous system disorders. Few studies are reported on the change in myocardial infarction-induced c-Fos expression in the paralimbic regions. Thus, in this study, we investigated the changes in c-Fos expression in the rat cingulate and piriform cortices after myocardial infarction. Neuronal degeneration in cingulate and piriform cortices after myocardial infarction was detected using cresyl violet staining, NeuN immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining. c-Fos-immunoreactive cells were observed in cingulate and piriform cortices at 3 days after myocardial infarction and peaked at 7 and 14 days after myocardial infarction. But they were hardly observed at 56 days after myocardial infarction. The chronological change of c-Fos expression determined by western blot analysis was basically the same as that of c-Fos immunoreactivity. These results indicate that myocardial infarction can cause the chronological change of immediate-early response gene c-Fos protein expression, which might be associated with the neural activity induced by myocardial infarction. PMID:26487852

  14. Stimulus-induced modulation of transcriptional bursting in a single mammalian gene.

    PubMed

    Molina, Nacho; Suter, David M; Cannavo, Rosamaria; Zoller, Benjamin; Gotic, Ivana; Naef, Félix

    2013-12-17

    Mammalian genes are often transcribed discontinuously as short bursts of RNA synthesis followed by longer silent periods. However, how these "on" and "off" transitions, together with the burst sizes, are modulated in single cells to increase gene expression upon stimulation is poorly characterized. By combining single-cell time-lapse luminescence imaging with stochastic modeling of the time traces, we quantified the transcriptional responses of the endogenous connective tissue growth factor gene to different physiological stimuli: serum and TGF-β1. Both stimuli caused a rapid and acute increase in burst sizes. Whereas TGF-β1 showed prolonged transcriptional activation mediated by an increase of transcription rate, serum stimulation resulted in a large and temporally tight first transcriptional burst, followed by a refractory period in the range of hours. Our study thus reveals how different physiological stimuli can trigger kinetically distinct transcriptional responses of the same gene. PMID:24297917

  15. Stimulus-induced and state-dependent sustained gamma activity is tightly coupled to the hemodynamic response in humans.

    PubMed

    Koch, Stefan P; Werner, Peter; Steinbrink, Jens; Fries, Pascal; Obrig, Hellmuth

    2009-11-01

    A prompt behavioral response to a stimulus depends both on the salience of the stimulus as well as the subject's preparedness. Thus, both stimulus properties and cognitive factors, such as attention, may determine the strength of neuronal synchronization in the gamma range. For a comprehensive investigation of stimulus-response processing through noninvasive imaging, it is, however, a crucial issue whether both kinds of gamma modulation elicit a hemodynamic response. Here, we show that, in the human visual cortex, stimulus strength and internal state modulate sustained gamma activity and hemodynamic response in close correspondence. When participants reported velocity changes of gratings varying in contrast, gamma activity (35-70 Hz) increased systematically with contrast. For stimuli of constant contrast, the amplitude of gamma activity before the behaviorally relevant velocity change was inversely correlated to the behavioral response latency. This indicates that gamma activity also reflects an overall attentive state. For both sources of variance, gamma activity was tightly coupled to the hemodynamic response measured through optical topography. Because of the close relationship between high-frequency neuronal activity and the hemodynamic signal, we conclude that both stimulus-induced and state-dependent gamma activity trigger a metabolic demand and are amenable to vascular-based imaging. PMID:19890006

  16. Parathyroid hormone induces c-fos and c-jun messenger RNA in rat osteoblastic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clohisy, J. C.; Scott, D. K.; Brakenhoff, K. D.; Quinn, C. O.; Partridge, N. C.

    1992-01-01

    PTH is a potent regulator of osteoblast gene expression, yet the nuclear events that mediate PTH action are poorly understood. We were interested in identifying immediate early genes which may regulate PTH-altered gene expression in the osteoblast. Therefore, we examined the effects of PTH on c-fos and c-jun gene expression in a rat osteoblastic cell line (UMR 106-01). Under control conditions, c-fos and c-jun mRNAs were present at low basal levels. After PTH treatment, c-fos mRNA abundance dramatically increased, with a maximal and transient response at 30 min. PTH also stimulated an increase in c-jun mRNA, but in a biphasic manner, with maximal levels at 30 min and 2 h. These responses were dose dependent, not altered by cotreatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, and preceded PTH-induced expression of matrix metallo-proteinase-1 mRNA. Nuclear run-on assays demonstrated an increased rate of c-fos and c-jun transcription after PTH exposure. To determine the signal transduction pathways involved, second messenger analogs were tested for their ability to mimic the effects of PTH. 8-Bromo-cAMP and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused increases in the abundance of c-fos and c-jun transcripts. Ionomycin had no effect on the expression of these genes. Pretreatment of the cells with PMA resulted in a decrease in basal c-jun expression, but did not alter the PTH-mediated increase in c-fos, c-jun, or matrix metalloproteinase-1 mRNAs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  17. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ) is a critical regulator of bone homeostasis via modulation of c-Fos levels in osteoclasts†

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Ali; Decker, Corinne; Cremasco, Viviana; Hughes, Lindsey; Novack, Deborah V.; Faccio, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Increased diacylglycerol (DAG) levels are observed in numerous pathologies, including conditions associated with bone loss. However, the effects of DAG accumulation on the skeleton have never been directly examined. Because DAG is strictly controlled by tissue specific diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), we sought to examine the biological consequences of DAG accumulation on bone homeostasis by genetic deletion of DGKζ, a highly expressed DGK isoform in osteoclasts (OCs). Strikingly, DGKζ−/− mice are osteoporotic due to a marked increase in OC numbers. In vitro, DGKζ−/− bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) form more numerous, larger and highly resorptive OCs. Surprisingly, while increased DAG levels do not alter RANK/RANKL osteoclastogenic pathway, DGKζ deficiency increases responsiveness to the proliferative and pro-survival cytokine M-CSF. We find that M-CSF is responsible for increased DGKζ−/− OC differentiation by promoting higher expression of the transcription factor c-Fos, and c-Fos knockdown in DGKζ−/− cultures dose-dependently reduces OC differentiation. Using a c-Fos luciferase reporter assay lacking the TRE responsive element, we also demonstrate that M-CSF induces optimal c-Fos expression through DAG production. Finally, to demonstrate the importance of the M-CSF/DGKζ/DAG axis on regulation of c-Fos during osteoclastogenesis, we turned to PLCγ2+/− BMMs, which have reduced DAG levels and form fewer OCs due to impaired expression of the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis NFATc1 and c-Fos. Strikingly, genetic deletion of DGKζ in PLCγ2+/− mice rescues OC formation and normalizes c-Fos levels without altering NFATc1 expression. To our knowledge, this is the first report implicating M-CSF/DGKζ/DAG axis as a critical regulator of bone homeostasis via its actions on OC differentiation and c-Fos expression. PMID:25891971

  18. Long-Term Exercise Is a Potent Trigger for ΔFosB Induction in the Hippocampus along the dorso–ventral Axis

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Kawakami, Masashi; Kita, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercise improves multiple aspects of hippocampal function. In line with the notion that neuronal activity is key to promoting neuronal functions, previous literature has consistently demonstrated that acute bouts of exercise evoke neuronal activation in the hippocampus. Repeated activating stimuli lead to an accumulation of the transcription factor ΔFosB, which mediates long-term neural plasticity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that long-term voluntary wheel running induces ΔFosB expression in the hippocampus, and examined any potential region-specific effects within the hippocampal subfields along the dorso–ventral axis. Male C57BL/6 mice were housed with or without a running wheel for 4 weeks. Long-term wheel running significantly increased FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity in all hippocampal regions measured (i.e., in the DG, CA1, and CA3 subfields of both the dorsal and ventral hippocampus). Results confirmed that wheel running induced region-specific expression of FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity in the cortex, suggesting that the uniform increase in FosB/ΔFosB within the hippocampus is not a non-specific consequence of running. Western blot data indicated that the increased hippocampal FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity was primarily due to increased ΔFosB. These results suggest that long-term physical exercise is a potent trigger for ΔFosB induction throughout the entire hippocampus, which would explain why exercise can improve both dorsal and ventral hippocampus-dependent functions. Interestingly, we found that FosB/ΔFosB expression in the DG was positively correlated with the number of doublecortin-immunoreactive (i.e., immature) neurons. Although the mechanisms by which ΔFosB mediates exercise-induced neurogenesis are still uncertain, these data imply that exercise-induced neurogenesis is at least activity dependent. Taken together, our current results suggest that ΔFosB is a new molecular target involved in regulating exercise

  19. Brain c-Fos immunocytochemistry and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry after a fear conditioning task.

    PubMed

    Conejo, Nélida M; González Pardo, Héctor; López, Matías; Cantora, Raúl; Arias, Jorge L

    2007-05-01

    The involvement of the basolateral and the medial amygdala in fear conditioning was evaluated using different markers of neuronal activation. The method described here is a combination of cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry and c-Fos immunocytochemistry on fresh frozen brain sections. Freezing behavior was used as an index of auditory and contextual fear conditioning. As expected, freezing scores were significantly higher in rats exposed to tone-shock pairings in a distinctive environment (conditioned; COND), as compared to rats that did not receive any shocks (UNCD). CO labeling was increased in the basolateral and medial amygdala of the COND group. Conversely, c-Fos expression in the basolateral and medial amygdala was lower in the COND group as compared to the UNCD group. Furthermore, c-Fos expression was particularly high in the medial amygdala of the UNCD group. The data provided by both techniques indicate that these amygdalar nuclei could play different roles on auditory and contextual fear conditioning. PMID:17425902

  20. Bone development and inflammatory disease is regulated by AP-1 (Fos/Jun).

    PubMed

    Wagner, E F

    2010-01-01

    The Fos and Jun proteins are members of the AP-1 transcription factor complex, which is a central regulator for many cellular functions. This paper summarises the important functions of Fos proteins in bone development, with special emphasis on the Fos-related proteins Fra-1 and Fra-2. These factors determine the functions of osteoblasts and osteoclasts and regulate cytokine signalling during bone development. Likewise, the Jun proteins control the expression of cytokines and chemokines and are probably causally involved in inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. Investigations into the molecular mechanisms responsible for skin inflammation have revealed that Jun proteins control cytokine expression, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha by transcriptional and posttranscriptional pathways. Finally, the paper discusses the relevance of the Jun-dependent mouse model for psoriasis for preclinical studies in the field of anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:19995753

  1. Regulatory effects of ΔFosB on proliferation and apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Li, Lihui; Zheng, Huiling; Yao, Xiaotong; Zang, Wenjuan

    2016-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a vital role in tumor angiogenesis, cell migration, and invasiveness because it can degrade almost all basement membrane and extracellular matrix components. MMP-9 has been reported in many cancers including breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer. ΔFosB in mammary epithelial cells has been shown to regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and death. We found that ΔFosB increased the expression of MMP-9 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ΔFosB overexpression in MCF-7 cells increased cellular viability and decreased cell apoptosis. SB-3CT, an inhibitor of MMP-9, promoted apoptosis, inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest, and downregulated the expression of antiapoptotic genes Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl in MCF-7 cells. ΔFosB increased the number of MCF-7 cells in G2/M and S phases, upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, and protected MCF-7 cells from apoptosis induced by MMP-9 inhibition. We also found that ΔFosB overexpression in MCF-7 cells inhibited Ca(2+)-induced apoptosis and promoted cell proliferation. Therefore, ΔFosB may be a potential target in breast cancer cell apoptosis by regulating the expression of MMP-9. PMID:26608367

  2. Zero-Points of FOS Wavelength Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Michael R.; Kerber, Florian

    We have investigated the internal zero-points of the HST's Faint object spectrograph (FOS) on-orbit wavelength calibration between 1990 (launch) and 1997 (de-commissioning). The analysis is based on cross-correlating about 1200 WAVECAL exposures for the high-resolution dispersers, using as templates those exposures which define the dispersion solutions currently in use by the FOS pipeline. FOS has two channels BLUE/RED using two independent Digicon detectors. For BLUE systematic shifts of the zero-points are present, which amount to a maximum offset of 7 pixels (1.75 diodes) over the entire period. The zero-points for RED modes present an apparently random distribution with a peak-to-peak range of 7 pixels. We discu ss the effect of the geomagnetic environment as a possible cause for the observed behaviour and describe the ongoing work to reduce the uncertainty in the wavelength scale.

  3. Prostaglandin E2 and the protein kinase A pathway mediate arachidonic acid induction of c-fos in human prostate cancer cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is the precursor for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and increases growth of prostate cancer cells. To further elucidate the mechanisms involved in AA-induced prostate cell growth, induction of c-fos expression by AA was investigated in a human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. c-fos mRNA was induced shortly after addition of AA, along with a remarkable increase in PGE2 production. c-fos expression and PGE2 production induced by AA was blocked by a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen, suggesting that PGE2 mediated c-fos induction. Protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 abolished induction of c-fos expression by AA, and partially inhibited PGE2 production. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X had no significant effect on c-fos expression or PGE2 production. Expression of prostaglandin (EP) receptors, which mediate signal transduction from PGE2 to the cells, was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in several human prostate cell lines. EP4 and EP2, which are coupled to the PKA signalling pathway, were expressed in all cells tested. Expression of EP1, which activates the PKC pathway, was not detected. The current study showed that induction of the immediate early gene c-fos by AA is mediated by PGE2, which activates the PKA pathway via the EP2/4 receptor in the PC-3 cells.

  4. Fos-like protein is induced in neurons of the medulla oblongata after stimulation of the carotid sinus nerve in awake and anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Erickson, J T; Millhorn, D E

    1991-12-13

    The protooncogene c-fos is expressed rapidly, transiently and polysynaptically within neurons in response to synaptic activation and voltage-gated calcium entry into the cell. The nuclear protein product of this gene (Fos) is detectable immunohistochemically 20-90 min after cell activation and remains within the nucleus for hours after expression. The present study was undertaken to identify cells within the rat medulla oblongata that express Fos-like protein in response to stimulation of afferent fibers of the carotid sinus nerve (CSN). Direct electrical stimulation of the CSN in anesthetized animals or hypoxic stimulation in either anesthetized or awake animals resulted in a consistent and discrete distribution of Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI). Fos-LI was observed bilaterally within nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and the ventrolateral medulla (VLM), within area postrema and nucleus raphe pallidus, and bilaterally along the ventral medullary surface. Unstimulated animals were devoid of Fos-LI within the medulla oblongata. Furthermore, neither the surgical preparations alone nor the effects of anesthesia could account for the extent of Fos-LI observed. We believe these cells represent second- and higher-order neurons within the baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflex pathways. PMID:1815818

  5. Unique gene alterations are induced in FACS-purified Fos-positive neurons activated during cue-induced relapse to heroin seeking

    PubMed Central

    Fanous, Sanya; Guez-Barber, Danielle H; Goldart, Evan M; Schrama, Regina; Theberge, Florence RM; Shaham, Yavin; Hope, Bruce T

    2012-01-01

    Cue-induced heroin seeking after prolonged withdrawal is associated with neuronal activation and altered gene expression in prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, these previous studies assessed gene expression in all neurons regardless of their activity state during heroin seeking. Using Fos as a marker of neural activity, we describe distinct molecular alterations induced in activated versus non-activated neurons during cue-induced heroin seeking after prolonged withdrawal. We trained rats to self-administer heroin for 10 days (6-h/day) and assessed cue-induced heroin seeking in extinction tests after 14 or 30 days. We used fluorescent-activated cell-sorting (FACS) to purify Fos-positive and Fos-negative neurons from PFC 90 min after extinction testing. Flow cytometry showed that Fos-immunoreactivity was increased in less than 10% of sparsely distributed PFC neurons. mRNA levels of the immediate early genes fosB, arc, egr1, and egr2, as well as npy and map2k6, were increased in Fos-positive, but not Fos-negative, neurons. In support of these findings, double-label immunohistochemistry indicated substantial co-expression of NPY- and Arc-immunoreactivity in Fos-positive neurons. Our data indicate that cue-induced relapse to heroin seeking after prolonged withdrawal induces unique molecular alterations within activated PFC neurons that are distinct from those observed in the surrounding majority of non-activated neurons. PMID:23113797

  6. REGION-SPECIFIC MECHANISMS FOR TESTOSTERONE-INDUCED FOS IN HAMSTER BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Nagypál, Anita; Wood, Ruth I.

    2007-01-01

    Hamsters self-administer androgens. Previously, we determined that testosterone (T) activates select steroid- and opiate-sensitive brain regions. Is T-stimulated neuronal activation androgenic? 35 castrated males with physiologic T replacement (n=7/group) were pre-treated with the androgen antagonist flutamide (15 mg/kg sc) or ethanol (0.25 ml), and infused into the lateral ventricle (ICV) for 4h with 40 μg T (TF and TE, respectively) or 40 μl vehicle (VF and VE). To determine if androgens and opiates activate overlapping brain areas, 7 additional males received 20 μg morphine sulfate ICV following ethanol injection (ME). Immediately after ICV infusion, animals were perfused. 60 μm coronal brain slices were stained for Fos. Fos-positive neurons were counted in a 0.3 mm2 area from 5 regions previously shown to express T-induced Fos: the posteromedial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTPM), posteromedial amygdala (MeP), lateral habenula (LHb), ventral tegmental area, and lateral pontine nucleus. T induced Fos in all areas reported previously (TE vs. VE, p<0.05), except LHb (p>0.05). Morphine induced Fos in all 5 brain regions (ME vs. VE, p<0.05), indicating that androgens and opiates activate overlapping brain regions. Flutamide alone did not induce Fos (VF vs. VE, p>0.05). Moreover, flutamide treatment blocked T-induced Fos expression only in the steroid-sensitive BSTPM, suggesting that androgens mediate neuronal activation in this area (mean±SEM: TF: 68.4±13.2 vs. TE: 137.9±17.6, p<0.05). The absence of flutamide effects on T-induced Fos in the steroid-sensitive MeP (TE: 210.6±50.0 vs. TF: 215.3±28.2, p>0.05) suggests that distinct mechanisms activate Fos in individual androgen-responsive nuclei. PMID:17276422

  7. Differentiation-induced skin cancer suppression by FOS, p53, and TACE/ADAM17.

    PubMed

    Guinea-Viniegra, Juan; Zenz, Rainer; Scheuch, Harald; Jiménez, María; Bakiri, Latifa; Petzelbauer, Peter; Wagner, Erwin F

    2012-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are heterogeneous and aggressive skin tumors for which innovative, targeted therapies are needed. Here, we identify a p53/TACE pathway that is negatively regulated by FOS and show that the FOS/p53/TACE axis suppresses SCC by inducing differentiation. We found that epidermal Fos deletion in mouse tumor models or pharmacological FOS/AP-1 inhibition in human SCC cell lines induced p53 expression. Epidermal cell differentiation and skin tumor suppression were caused by a p53-dependent transcriptional activation of the metalloprotease TACE/ADAM17 (TNF-α-converting enzyme), a previously unknown p53 target gene that was required for NOTCH1 activation. Although half of cutaneous human SCCs display p53-inactivating mutations, restoring p53/TACE activity in mouse and human skin SCCs induced tumor cell differentiation independently of the p53 status. We propose FOS/AP-1 inhibition or p53/TACE reactivating strategies as differentiation-inducing therapies for SCCs. PMID:22772468

  8. Differentiation-induced skin cancer suppression by FOS, p53, and TACE/ADAM17

    PubMed Central

    Guinea-Viniegra, Juan; Zenz, Rainer; Scheuch, Harald; Jiménez, María; Bakiri, Latifa; Petzelbauer, Peter; Wagner, Erwin F.

    2012-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are heterogeneous and aggressive skin tumors for which innovative, targeted therapies are needed. Here, we identify a p53/TACE pathway that is negatively regulated by FOS and show that the FOS/p53/TACE axis suppresses SCC by inducing differentiation. We found that epidermal Fos deletion in mouse tumor models or pharmacological FOS/AP-1 inhibition in human SCC cell lines induced p53 expression. Epidermal cell differentiation and skin tumor suppression were caused by a p53-dependent transcriptional activation of the metalloprotease TACE/ADAM17 (TNF-α–converting enzyme), a previously unknown p53 target gene that was required for NOTCH1 activation. Although half of cutaneous human SCCs display p53-inactivating mutations, restoring p53/TACE activity in mouse and human skin SCCs induced tumor cell differentiation independently of the p53 status. We propose FOS/AP-1 inhibition or p53/TACE reactivating strategies as differentiation-inducing therapies for SCCs. PMID:22772468

  9. Inflammation-mediated skin tumorigenesis induced by epidermal c-Fos.

    PubMed

    Briso, Eva M; Guinea-Viniegra, Juan; Bakiri, Latifa; Rogon, Zbigniew; Petzelbauer, Peter; Eils, Roland; Wolf, Ronald; Rincón, Mercedes; Angel, Peter; Wagner, Erwin F

    2013-09-15

    Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are the second most prevalent skin cancers. Chronic skin inflammation has been associated with the development of SCCs, but the contribution of skin inflammation to SCC development remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that inducible expression of c-fos in the epidermis of adult mice is sufficient to promote inflammation-mediated epidermal hyperplasia, leading to the development of preneoplastic lesions. Interestingly, c-Fos transcriptionally controls mmp10 and s100a7a15 expression in keratinocytes, subsequently leading to CD4 T-cell recruitment to the skin, thereby promoting epidermal hyperplasia that is likely induced by CD4 T-cell-derived IL-22. Combining inducible c-fos expression in the epidermis with a single dose of the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) leads to the development of highly invasive SCCs, which are prevented by using the anti-inflammatory drug sulindac. Moreover, human SCCs display a correlation between c-FOS expression and elevated levels of MMP10 and S100A15 proteins as well as CD4 T-cell infiltration. Our studies demonstrate a bidirectional cross-talk between premalignant keratinocytes and infiltrating CD4 T cells in SCC development. Therefore, targeting inflammation along with the newly identified targets, such as MMP10 and S100A15, represents promising therapeutic strategies to treat SCCs. PMID:24029918

  10. c-fos oncogene underexpression in salivary gland tumors as measured by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Birek, C.; Lui, E.; Dardick, I.

    1993-01-01

    Tissue from 35 salivary gland tumors and 14 normal salivary glands was analyzed by in situ hybridization and computer-assisted morphometry for the expression of the c-fos oncogene. The normal salivary gland tissues were found to express c-fos focally, mainly in the acinar secretory cells. The majority of the cells in the normal tissues showed a high level of expression (47.74 +/- 5.31% of cells had 46 to 60 grains per cell and another 45.79 +/- 2.18% showed > 60 grains per cell). All the tumors examined exhibited a relatively low, uniform distribution of c-fos expression. For example, in the poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas, 96.83 +/- 04% of the cells were found to have < 15 grains per cell. A general linear model for multivariate analysis showed a significant difference between the various tumor types and the normal salivary gland tissues (P = 0.0001). These data support the hypothesis that salivary gland tumors belong to a group of epithelial neoplasias in which the loss of cellular differentiation is linked with underexpression of the c-fos oncogene. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8456948

  11. Inflammation-mediated skin tumorigenesis induced by epidermal c-Fos

    PubMed Central

    Briso, Eva M.; Guinea-Viniegra, Juan; Bakiri, Latifa; Rogon, Zbigniew; Petzelbauer, Peter; Eils, Roland; Wolf, Ronald; Rincón, Mercedes; Angel, Peter; Wagner, Erwin F.

    2013-01-01

    Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are the second most prevalent skin cancers. Chronic skin inflammation has been associated with the development of SCCs, but the contribution of skin inflammation to SCC development remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that inducible expression of c-fos in the epidermis of adult mice is sufficient to promote inflammation-mediated epidermal hyperplasia, leading to the development of preneoplastic lesions. Interestingly, c-Fos transcriptionally controls mmp10 and s100a7a15 expression in keratinocytes, subsequently leading to CD4 T-cell recruitment to the skin, thereby promoting epidermal hyperplasia that is likely induced by CD4 T-cell-derived IL-22. Combining inducible c-fos expression in the epidermis with a single dose of the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) leads to the development of highly invasive SCCs, which are prevented by using the anti-inflammatory drug sulindac. Moreover, human SCCs display a correlation between c-FOS expression and elevated levels of MMP10 and S100A15 proteins as well as CD4 T-cell infiltration. Our studies demonstrate a bidirectional cross-talk between premalignant keratinocytes and infiltrating CD4 T cells in SCC development. Therefore, targeting inflammation along with the newly identified targets, such as MMP10 and S100A15, represents promising therapeutic strategies to treat SCCs. PMID:24029918

  12. An indirect action contributes to c-fos induction in paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus by neuropeptide Y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a well-established orexigenic peptide and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) is one major brain site that mediates the orexigenic action of NPY. NPY induces abundant expression of C-Fos, an indicator for neuronal activation, in the PVH, which has been used extensively...

  13. Induction of Fos protein immunoreactivity by spinal cord contusion.

    PubMed

    Del-Bel, E A; Borges, C A; Defino, H L; Guimarães, F S

    2000-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify neurons in the central nervous system that respond to spinal contusion injury in the rat by monitoring the expression of the nuclear protein encoded by the c-fos gene, an activity-dependent gene, in spinal cord and brainstem regions. Rats were anesthetized with urethane and the injury was produced by dropping a 5-g weight from 20.0 cm onto the exposed dura at the T10-L1 vertebral level (contusion group). The spinal cord was exposed but not lesioned in anesthetized control animals (laminectomy group); intact animals were also subjected to anesthesia (intact control). Behavioral alterations were analyzed by Tarlov/Bohlman scores, 2 h after the procedures and the animals were then perfused for immunocytochemistry. The patterns of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) which were site-specific, reproducible and correlated with spinal laminae that respond predominantly to noxious stimulation or injury: laminae I-II (outer substantia gelatinosa) and X and the nucleus of the intermediolateral cell column. At the brain stem level FLI was detected in the reticular formation, area postrema and solitary tract nucleus of lesioned animals. No Fos staining was detected by immunocytochemistry in the intact control group. However, detection of FLI in the group submitted to anesthesia and surgical procedures, although less intense than in the lesion group, indicated that microtraumas may occur which are not detected by the Tarlov/Bohlman scores. There is both a local and remote effect of a distal contusion on the spinal cord of rats, implicating sensory neurons and centers related to autonomic control in the reaction to this kind of injury. PMID:10775883

  14. Fos and serotonin immunoreactivity in the raphe nuclei of the cat during carbachol-induced active sleep: a double-labeling study.

    PubMed

    Yamuy, J; Sampogna, S; López-Rodríguez, F; Luppi, P H; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1995-07-01

    The microinjection of carbachol into the nucleus pontis oralis produces a state which is polygraphically and behaviorally similar to active sleep (rapid eye movement sleep). In the present study, using double-labeling techniques for serotonin and the protein product of c-fos (Fos), we sought to examine whether immunocytochemically identified serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei of the cat were activated, as indicated by their expression of c-fos, during this pharmacologically-induced behavioral state (active sleep-carbachol). Compared with control cats, which were injected with saline, active sleep-carbachol cats exhibited a significantly greater number of c-fos-expressing neurons in the raphe dorsalis, magnus and pallidus. Whereas most of the c-fos-expressing neurons in the raphe dorsalis were small, those in the raphe magnus were medium-sized and in the raphe pallidus they were small and medium-sized. The mean number of serotonergic neurons that expressed c-fos (i.e. double-labeled cells) was similar in control and active sleep-carbachol cats. These data indicate that there is an increased number of non-serotonergic, c-fos-expressing neurons in the raphe dorsalis, magnus and pallidus during the carbachol-induced state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7477901

  15. ΔFosB regulates Ca²⁺ release and proliferation of goat mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huiling; Li, Hui; Li, Lihui; Ma, Shaoyang; Liu, Xuemei

    2014-07-25

    ΔFosB is a member of the family of transcription factor activating proteins-1 (AP-1) and is known to play important roles in Ca(2+) metabolism processes of osteoblast formation and differentiation in humans and rodents. The postpartum mammary gland is one of the significant organs for Ca(2+) metabolism processes. However, very little information is available on the role of ΔFosB in goat mammary gland. In this investigation, the full-length cDNA of ΔFosB from Xinong Saanen dairy goats was cloned, which contains an open-reading frame (ORF) of 723 bp encoding 240 amino acids. The amino acid sequence is highly homologous with cattle (99.17%). Quantitative real time PCR (QRT-PCR) and western blotting assays showed that ΔFosB was expressed in goat heart, liver, lung, and breast, but little in the hypophysis and spleen. The fluorescence signals revealed that the Ca(2+) was decreased in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) over-expressed ΔFosB at 72h. Consistently, intracellular Ca(2+) was increased in GMECs suppressing expressed ΔFosB at 72 h. QRT-PCR assay showed that ΔFosB positively regulated the mRNA expression of runt related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), SMAD family member 4 (Smad4), S100 calcium binding protein A4 (S100A4) and S100 calcium binding protein A13 (S100A13) genes in GMECs, which had been proven to be relative to calcium metabolism in humans and rodents. Ca(2+) could induce a dose-dependent increase of the ΔFosB mRNA expression and a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability when the GMECs were treated with CaCl2. Suppressing ΔFosB expression in GMECs also inhibited the cell viability. These discoveries suggest that ΔFosB plays important roles in regulating Ca(2+) release and proliferation of the GMECs, which may prove useful in regulation of milk production. PMID:24831832

  16. Trans-dominant negative mutants of Fos and Jun.

    PubMed Central

    Ransone, L J; Visvader, J; Wamsley, P; Verma, I M

    1990-01-01

    Jun and Fos nuclear oncoproteins form a complex that regulates transcription from promoters containing activator protein AP-1 binding sites. The leucine-zipper and basic-region domains of both Fos and Jun are necessary for formation of the heterodimer that binds to DNA. Reciprocal mutations in the basic region of Fos or Jun can influence the binding of the heterodimer to DNA, implying a symmetrical binding site. DNA-binding mutants of Jun exhibit increased affinity for Fos and are capable of suppressing wild-type Fos-Jun DNA-binding activity. In contrast, mutations in the basic domain of Fos, which prevent binding to DNA in association with Jun, do not significantly diminish the ability of the wild-type heterodimer to bind to DNA. These dominant negative mutants are functional in vivo and can be exploited to study the role of Fos and Jun in normal and transformed cells. Images PMID:2111017

  17. Temporal and spatial distribution of Fos protein in the parabrachial nucleus neurons during experimental tooth movement of the rat molar.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, K; Maeda, T; Hanada, K; Wakisaka, S

    2001-07-27

    The present study was undertaken to reveal spatio-temporal changes in the distribution of Fos-like immunoreactive (-IR) neurons in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN), one of the important relay nuclei for processing autonomic and somatosensory information from the oro-facial regions, following the induction of experimental tooth movement in rat upper molars. The experimental tooth movement was induced by the insertion of elastic rubber between the first and second upper molars. In normal animals, the PBN contained a smaller number of Fos-IR neurons. Following experimental tooth movement, the Fos-IR neurons increased in number significantly on both the ipsilateral and contralateral PBN, reaching a maximum at 4 h (about 10 times that of normal animals), and then decreased gradually. However, a significant number of Fos-IR neurons remained at 24 h post-operation. Remarkable side-by-side differences in the number of Fos-IR neurons were recognized at 1 to 4 h following the experimental tooth movement. Their number returned to normal (basal) levels at 5 days post. All subnuclei of PBN showed similar temporal changes in the number of Fos-IR neurons, this being particularly apparent in lateral PBN. Administrations of morphine (3 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) drastically reduced the induction of Fos-IR neurons in all subnuclei of both the ipsilateral and contralateral PBN in a dose-dependent manner, and its effect was antagonized by pretreatment with naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.). The reduction of Fos-IR neurons by morphine pretreatment suggests that the appearance of Fos-IR neurons in the PBN may be partly due to the noxious stimulation and/or stress arising from tooth movement. The bilateral expression of Fos-IR neurons in the PBN indicates that the experimental tooth movement causes the activation of PBN neurons for the processing of somatosensory as well as autonomic information. The prolonged expression of Fos-IR neurons in all the subnuclei of bilateral PBN reflects clinical features of

  18. Prostaglandin E2-induced up-regulation of c-fos messenger ribonucleic acid is primarily mediated by 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J.; Dietz, T. J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism by which the proto-oncogene, c-fos, is up-regulated in response to PGE2 in the mouse osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cell line was investigated using RT-PCR. c-fos messenger RNA up-regulation by dmPGE2 is rapid, starting 10 min post stimulation, and transient. The specific protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H89, inhibited c-fos induction. Moreover, down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity by chronic TPA treatment had no effect on the induction of c-fos by dmPGE2. We conclude that up-regulation of c-fos by dmPGE2 is primarily dependent on PKA in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. In S49 lymphoma wild-type but not S49 cyc- cells, which are deficient in cAMP signaling, dmPGE2 up-regulates c-fos and increases cell growth compared with unstimulated cells. Thus in S49 lymphoma cells, c-fos induction by PGE2 is also dependent on cAMP signaling. The minimal c-fos promoter region required for dmPGE2-induced expression was identified by transfecting c-fos promoter deletion constructs coupled to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene into Vero cells. Transfection of a plasmid containing 99 bp c-fos proximal promoter was sufficient to direct c-fos/CAT expression following stimulation with dmPGE2. Because induction of c-fos is mediated by cAMP, these data are consistent with activation of c-fos via the CRE/ATF cis element.

  19. Serum response factor promotes resilience to chronic social stress through the induction of ΔFosB

    PubMed Central

    Vialou, Vincent; Maze, Ian; Renthal, William; LaPlant, Quincey C.; Watts, Emily L.; Mouzon, Ezekiell; Ghose, Subroto; Tamminga, Carol A.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying stress- and drug-induced neuronal adaptations are incompletely understood. One molecule implicated in such adaptations is ΔFosB, a transcription factor that accumulates in the rodent nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key brain reward region, in response to either chronic stress or repeated exposure to drugs of abuse. The upstream transcriptional mechanisms controlling ΔFosB induction by these environmental stimuli remain elusive. Here, we identify the activity-dependent transcription factor, serum response factor (SRF), as a novel upstream mediator of stress-, but not cocaine-, induced ΔFosB. SRF is downregulated in NAc of both human depressed patients and in mice chronically exposed to social defeat stress. This downregulation of SRF is absent in resilient animals. Through the use of inducible mutagenesis, we show that stress-mediated induction of ΔFosB, which occurs predominantly in resilient mice, is dependent on SRF expression in this brain region. Furthermore, NAc-specific genetic deletion of SRF promotes a variety of pro-depressant- and anxiety-like phenotypes and renders animals more sensitive to the deleterious effects of chronic stress. In contrast, we demonstrate that SRF does not play a role in ΔFosB accumulation in NAc in response to chronic cocaine exposure. Furthermore, NAc-specific knockout of SRF has no effect on cocaine-induced behaviors, indicating that chronic social defeat stress and repeated cocaine exposure regulate ΔFosB accumulation and behavioral sensitivity through independent mechanisms. PMID:20980616

  20. Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) early performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harms, Richard; Fitch, John

    1991-01-01

    The on-orbit performance of the HST + FOS instrument is described and illustrated with examples of initial scientific results. The effects of the spherical aberration from the misfiguring of the HST primary mirror upon isolated point sources and in complex fields such as the nuclei of galaxies are analyzed. Possible means for eliminating the effects of spherical aberration are studied. Concepts include using image enhancement software to extract maximum spatial and spectral information from the existing data as well as several options to repair or compensate for the HST's optical performance. In particular, it may be possible to install corrective optics into the HST which will eliminate the spherical aberration for the FOS and some of the other instruments. The more promising ideas and calculations of the expected improvements in performance are briefly described.

  1. Human SWI-SNF Component BRG1 Represses Transcription of the c-fos Gene

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Daniel J.; Hardy, Stephen; Engel, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Yeast and mammalian SWI-SNF complexes regulate transcription through active modification of chromatin structure. Human SW-13 adenocarcinoma cells lack BRG1 protein, a component of SWI-SNF that has a DNA-dependent ATPase activity essential for SWI-SNF function. Expression of BRG1 in SW-13 cells potentiated transcriptional activation by the glucocorticoid receptor, which is known to require SWI-SNF function. BRG1 also specifically repressed transcription from a transfected c-fos promoter and correspondingly blocked transcriptional activation of the endogenous c-fos gene. Mutation of lysine residue 798 in the DNA-dependent ATPase domain of BRG1 significantly reduced its ability to repress c-fos transcription. Repression by BRG1 required the cyclic AMP response element of the c-fos promoter but not nearby binding sites for Sp1, YY1, or TFII-I. Using human C33A cervical carcinoma cells, which lack BRG1 and also express a nonfunctional Rb protein, transcriptional repression by BRG1 was weak unless wild-type Rb was also supplied. Interestingly, Rb-dependent repression by BRG1 was found to take place through a pathway that is independent of transcription factor E2F. PMID:10082538

  2. FOS Degaussing Pre-Gimp Test.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitch, John

    1991-07-01

    This test is designed to perform a check of the expected funtioning of the FOS when 'degaussing' is removed from the begin acquisition commanding in the microprocessor. Proper verification of this item is required for successful on orbit GIMP correction. This proposal will also verify the final GIMP correction coefficients required for on orbit GIMP correction, as well as provide a second baseline measurement to verify no temporal drifting of the coefficients has occured since 4/91.

  3. MicroRNA-101 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of bladder cancer cells via targeting c-FOS.

    PubMed

    Long, Yongqi; Wu, Zhiping; Yang, Xinhua; Chen, Lei; Han, Zhijun; Zhang, Yulong; Liu, Jinge; Liu, Wenjin; Liu, Xinyi

    2016-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) have important roles in the parthenogenesis of malignancies. While it has been suggested that deregulation of miR‑101 is involved in bladder cancer, the underlying mechanisms have remained largely elusive. The present study aimed to investigate the roles of miR‑101 in the regulation of bladder cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Reverse‑transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the expression of miR‑101 was significantly reduced in the HT‑1376, BIU87, T24 and 5637 several human bladder cancer cell lines compared to that in the SV‑HUC‑1 normal bladder epithelial cell line. Furthermore, a Targetscan search and a luciferase assay were used to identify c‑FOS as a novel target of miR‑101, and western blot analysis indicated that the protein expression of c‑FOS was shown to be negatively regulated by miR‑101 in bladder cancer T24 cells; however, c‑FOS mRNA expression was not affected. In addition, plasmid‑mediated overexpression of miR‑101 and small hairpin RNA‑mediated inhibition of c‑FOS significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasive capacity of T24 cells, as indicated by an MTT and a Transwell assay, respectively. However, plasmid‑mediated overexpression of c‑FOS reversed the inhibitory effects of miR‑101 overexpression on T24‑cell proliferation and invasion. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that miR‑101 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of bladder cancer cells, at least partly via targeting c‑FOS, suggesting that miR-101/c‑FOS signaling may represent a potential therapeutic target for bladder cancer. PMID:27485165

  4. c-Fos Protects Neurons Through a Noncanonical Mechanism Involving HDAC3 Interaction: Identification of a 21-Amino Acid Fragment with Neuroprotective Activity.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Varun; Goux, Warren; Piechaczyk, Marc; D'Mello, Santosh R

    2016-03-01

    Proteins belonging to the AP-1 family of transcription factors are known to be involved in the regulation of neuronal viability. While strides have been made to elucidate the mechanisms of how individual members regulate cell death, much remains unknown. We find that the expression of one AP-1 member, c-Fos, is reduced in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) induced to die by low potassium (LK) treatment. Restoration and increase of this expression protect CGNs against LK-induced death, whereas knockdown induces death of otherwise healthy neurons. Furthermore, forced expression can protect cortical neurons against homocysteic acid (HCA)-induced toxicity. Taken together, this suggests that c-Fos is necessary for neuronal survival and that elevating c-Fos expression has a neuroprotective effect. Consistent with this idea is the finding that c-Fos expression is reduced selectively in the striatum in two separate mouse models of Huntington's disease and forced expression protects against neuronal death resulting from mutant huntingtin (mut-Htt) expression. Interestingly, neuroprotection by c-Fos does not require its DNA-binding, transcriptional, or heteromerization domains. However, this protective activity can be inhibited by pharmacological inhibition of c-Abl, CK-I, and MEK-ERK signaling. Additionally, expression of point mutant forms of this protein has identified that mutation of a tyrosine residue, Tyr345, can convert c-Fos from neuroprotective to neurotoxic. We show that c-Fos interacts with histone deacetylase-3 (HDAC3), a protein that contributes to mut-Htt neurotoxicity and whose overexpression is sufficient to promote neuronal death. When co-expressed, c-Fos can protect against HDAC3 neurotoxicity. Finally, our study identifies a 21-amino acid region at the C-terminus of c-Fos that is sufficient to protect neurons against death induced by LK, HCA treatment, or mut-Htt expression when expressed via a plasmid transfection or as a cell-permeable peptide. This cell

  5. Effects of pelvic, pudendal, or hypogastric nerve cuts on Fos induction in the rat brain following vaginocervical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Pfaus, James G; Manitt, Colleen; Coopersmith, Carol B

    2006-12-30

    In the female rat, genitosensory input is conveyed to the central nervous system predominantly through the pelvic, pudendal, and hypogastric nerves. The present study examined the relative contribution of those three nerves in the expression of Fos immunoreactivity within brain regions previously shown to be activated by vaginocervical stimulation (VCS). Bilateral transection of those nerves, or sham neurectomy, was conducted in separate groups of ovariectomized, sexually-experienced females. After recovery, females were primed with estrogen and progesterone and given either 50 manual VCSs with a lubricated glass rod over the course of 1 h. VCS increased the number of neurons expressing Fos immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, ventromedial hypothalamus, and medial amygdala of sham neurectomized females. Transection of the pelvic nerve reduced Fos immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, ventromedial hypothalamus, and medial amygdala, whereas transection of the pudendal nerve had no effect. In contrast, transection of the hypogastric nerve increased Fos immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area and lateral septum, whereas transaction of the pelvic nerve increased Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral septum, following VCS. All females given VCS, except those with pelvic neurectomy, displayed a characteristic immobility during each application. These data confirm that the pelvic nerve is largely responsible for the neural and behavioral effects of VCS, and support a separate function for the hypogastric nerve. PMID:16959279

  6. Cycle 6 FOS Spectral Flat Field Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Jennifer

    1996-07-01

    Some FOS detector/disperser combinations have shown temporal variations in their flat field structure during previous cycles. This set of observations will produce additional flat field calibrations appropriate to the Cycle 6 time period. At one epoch during Cycle 6, high S/N spectra are obtained for G191B2B, which has a relatively feature- less spectrum and which has been the primary target for earlier flat field observations. Observations are made through the 1.0 aperture with all usable detector /disperser combinations. This epoch doubles as an IVS measurement. On three other occasions three RED side spectral elements will be monitored with 1.0 aperture.

  7. DeltaFosB induction in orbitofrontal cortex potentiates locomotor sensitization despite attenuating the cognitive dysfunction caused by cocaine.

    PubMed

    Winstanley, Catharine A; Green, Thomas A; Theobald, David E H; Renthal, William; LaPlant, Quincey; DiLeone, Ralph J; Chakravarty, Sumana; Nestler, Eric J

    2009-09-01

    The effects of addictive drugs change with repeated use: many individuals become tolerant of their pleasurable effects but also more sensitive to negative sequelae (e.g., anxiety, paranoia, and drug craving). Understanding the mechanisms underlying such tolerance and sensitization may provide valuable insight into the basis of drug dependency and addiction. We have recently shown that chronic cocaine administration reduces the ability of an acute injection of cocaine to affect impulsivity in rats. However, animals become more impulsive during withdrawal from cocaine self-administration. We have also shown that chronic administration of cocaine increases expression of the transcription factor DeltaFosB in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Mimicking this drug-induced elevation in OFC DeltaFosB through viral-mediated gene transfer mimics these behavioural changes: DeltaFosB over-expression in OFC induces tolerance to the effects of an acute cocaine challenge but sensitizes rats to the cognitive sequelae of withdrawal. Here we report novel data demonstrating that increasing DeltaFosB in the OFC also sensitizes animals to the locomotor-stimulant properties of cocaine. Analysis of nucleus accumbens tissue taken from rats over-expressing DeltaFosB in the OFC and treated chronically with saline or cocaine does not provide support for the hypothesis that increasing OFC DeltaFosB potentiates sensitization via the nucleus accumbens. These data suggest that both tolerance and sensitization to cocaine's many effects, although seemingly opposing processes, can be induced in parallel via the same biological mechanism within the same brain region, and that drug-induced changes in gene expression within the OFC play an important role in multiple aspects of addiction. PMID:19135469

  8. Fos-Zippered GH Receptor Cytosolic Tails Act as Jak2 Substrates and Signal Transducers.

    PubMed

    Nespital, Tobias; van der Velden, Lieke M; Mensinga, Anneloes; van der Vaart, Elisabeth D; Strous, Ger J

    2016-03-01

    Members of the Janus kinase (Jak) family initiate the majority of downstream signaling events of the cytokine receptor family. The prevailing principle is that the receptors act in dimers: 2 Jak2 molecules bind to the cytosolic tails of a cytokine receptor family member and initiate Jak-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling upon a conformational change in the receptor complex, induced by the cognate cytokine. Due to the complexity of signaling complexes, there is a strong need for in vitro model systems. To investigate the molecular details of the Jak2 interaction with the GH receptor (GHR), we used cytosolic tails provided with leucine zippers derived from c-Fos to mimic the dimerized state of GHR. Expressed together with Jak2, fos-zippered tails, but not unzippered tails, were stabilized. In addition, the Jak-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathway was activated by the fos-zippered tails. The stabilization depended also on α-helix rotation of the zippers. Fos-zippered GHR tails and Jak2, both purified from baculovirus-infected insect cells, interacted via box1 with a binding affinity of approximately 40nM. As expected, the Jak kinase inhibitor Ruxolitinib inhibited the stabilization but did not affect the c-Fos-zippered GHR tail-Jak2 interaction. Analysis by blue-native gel electrophoresis revealed high molecular-weight complexes containing both Jak2 and nonphosphorylated GHR tails, whereas Jak2-dissociated tails were highly phosphorylated and monomeric, implying that Jak2 detaches from its substrate upon phosphorylation. PMID:26859362

  9. c-Fos mediates repression of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter by fibroblast growth factor-19 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Ayantika; Chen, Frank; Banerjee, Swati; Xu, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF-19), a bile acid-responsive enterokine, is secreted by the ileum and regulates a variety of metabolic processes. These studies examined the signal transduction pathways operant in FGF-19-mediated repression of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT). Responses to FGF-19 were assessed in Caco-2 and CT-26 cells and in mice where c-fos was conditionally silenced in the intestine by a cre-lox strategy. FGF-19 treatment of Caco-2 cells or wild-type mice led to a significant reduction in ASBT protein expression and enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular signaling kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Fos, and c-Jun. FGF-19 treatment of Caco-2 cells led to a reduction in activity of the human ASBT promoter and this repression could be blocked by treatment with a mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK1/2) inhibitor or by silencing jun kinase 1, jun kinase 2, c-fos, or c-jun. Site directed mutagenesis of a c-fos binding element in the ASBT promoter blocked FGF-19-mediated repression in luciferase reporter constructs. ASBT promoter activity was repressed by FGF-19 in CT-26 cells and this repression could be reduced by MEK1/2 inhibition or silencing c-fos. FGF-19-mediated repression of ASBT protein expression was abrogated in mice where c-fos was conditionally silenced in the intestine. In contrast, ASBT was repressed in the c-Fos expressing gallbladders of the same mice. The studies demonstrate that FGF-19 represses the expression of ASBT in the ileum and gallbladder via a signal transduction pathway involving MEK1/2, ERK1/2, JNK1, JNK2, and c-Fos. PMID:24309182

  10. Arco chimie focuses on PA at FOS

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.

    1992-12-02

    Arco Chimie France (Fos-sur-Mer), at a recent meeting at its southern France manufacturing site, emphasized that future strategy is strongly focused on its propylene oxide (PO) and derivatives activities. The F2.5 billion ($466 million)-Fe billion/year operation manufactures 200,000 m.t./year of PO, about 70% for captive use and the balance for the merchant market; 550,000 m.t./year of methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE); 97,000 m.t./year of polyols; and 70,000 m.t./year of propylene glycols. There has been talk of Arco modifying its Fos MTBE plant to make it flexible for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) output; the parent company already operates an MTBE/ETBE pilot unit at Corpus Christi, TX. But Arco Chimie notes there is insufficient bioethanol feedstock availability to convert all production to ETBE. The company would also require investment in new storage capacity for ethanol and ETBE. However, France's biofuels program is not yet clearly defined, and it is politically sensitive because it depends heavily on government subsidies offered to farmers. That, says Arco, makes it impossible to have an accurate idea of how much ethanol will be available.