DYNAMIC ASSET ALLOCATION BY STOCHASTIC PROGRAMMING METHODS
Stanford University
for many asset and liability management ("ALM") applications. Within ALM models, we look at the limitedDYNAMIC ASSET ALLOCATION BY STOCHASTIC PROGRAMMING METHODS A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING AND THE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE STUDIES OF STANFORD UNIVERSITY
Dynamic address allocation protocols for Mobile ad hoc networks
Patchipulusu, Praveena
2001-01-01
Address allocation is an important issue in Mobile ad hoc networks. This thesis proposes solutions to assign unique IP addresses to nodes participating in Mobile ad hoc networks and evaluates the proposed solutions. Address allocation protocols...
Resource allocation problems in stochastic sequential decision making
Lakshmanan, Hariharan, 1980-
2009-01-01
In this thesis, we study resource allocation problems that arise in the context of stochastic sequential decision making problems. The practical utility of optimal algorithms for these problems is limited due to their high ...
Multi-period asset allocation by stochastic dynamic programming
James J. Kung
2008-01-01
This study makes use of stochastic dynamic programming to set up a multi-period asset allocation model and derives an analytic formula for the optimal proportions invested in short and long bonds. Then maximum likelihood method is employed to estimate the relevant parameters. Finally, we implement the model through backward recursion algorithm to find numerically the optimal allocation of funds between
Distributed Stochastic Approximation for Adaptive Frequency Allocation in Subway Networks
Vázquez-Abad, Felisa J.
itineraires described as a sequence of consecutive subway plat- forms where passengers board a line than a given threshold that ensures satisfaction of the timetable for future sta- tions. In a subwayDistributed Stochastic Approximation for Adaptive Frequency Allocation in Subway Networks Felisa J
Stochastic optimization of retirement portfolio asset allocations and withdrawals
R. Gene Stout
2008-01-01
Stochastic optimization identifies the asset allocation that minimizes the probability of exhausting the retirement portfolio, thereby minimizing risk, from unmanaged (constant) and optimally managed withdrawals over the retirement life span. Optimal equity compositions and minimized probabilities of prematurely exhausting the portfolio increase with higher withdrawal rates and earlier retirements with both managed and unmanaged withdrawals. However, optimal withdrawal management from
Unexpected patterns of plastic energy allocation in stochastic environments.
Fischer, Barbara; Taborsky, Barbara; Dieckmann, Ulf
2009-03-01
When environmental conditions vary stochastically, individuals accrue fitness benefits by exhibiting phenotypic plasticity. Here we analyze a general dynamic-programming model describing an individual's optimal energy allocation in a stochastic environment. After maturation, individuals repeatedly decide how to allocate incoming energy between reproduction and maintenance. We analyze the optimal fraction of energy invested in reproduction and the resultant degree of plasticity in dependence on environmental variability and predictability. Our analyses reveal unexpected patterns of optimal energy allocation. When energy availability is low, all energy is allocated to reproduction, although this implies that individuals will not survive after reproduction. Above a certain threshold of energy availability, the optimal reproductive investment decreases to a minimum and even vanishes entirely in highly variable environments. With further improving energy availability, optimal reproductive investment gradually increases again. Costs of plasticity affect this allocation pattern only quantitatively. Our results show that optimal reproductive investment does not increase monotonically with growing energy availability and that small changes in energy availability can lead to major variations in optimal energy allocation. Our results help to unify two apparently opposing predictions from life-history theory, that organisms should increase reproductive investment both with improved environmental conditions and when conditions deteriorate ("terminal investment"). PMID:19196158
Resource allocation in stochastic project networks
John M. Burt Jr.
1971-01-01
This paper is concerned with the allocation of a single type of resource in project networks (such as the PERT representation) composed of activities whose processing times are random variables. There is a continuum of alternative processing methods for each activity and corresponding costs (resource utilizations) associated with each method. The effects of these different processing methods for any given
AdCell: Ad Allocation in Cellular Networks
Alaei, Saeed; Liaghat, Vahid; Pei, Dan; Saha, Barna
2011-01-01
With more than four billion usage of cellular phones worldwide, mobile advertising has become an attractive alternative to online advertisements. In this paper, we propose a new targeted advertising policy for Wireless Service Providers (WSPs) via SMS or MMS- namely {\\em AdCell}. In our model, a WSP charges the advertisers for showing their ads. Each advertiser has a valuation for specific types of customers in various times and locations and has a limit on the maximum available budget. Each query is in the form of time and location and is associated with one individual customer. In order to achieve a non-intrusive delivery, only a limited number of ads can be sent to each customer. Recently, new services have been introduced that offer location-based advertising over cellular network that fit in our model (e.g., ShopAlerts by AT&T) . We consider both online and offline version of the AdCell problem and develop approximation algorithms with constant competitive ratio. For the online version, we assume tha...
Stochastic optimisation of water allocation on a global scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitz, Oliver; Straatsma, Menno; Karssenberg, Derek; Bierkens, Marc F. P.
2014-05-01
Climate change, increasing population and further economic developments are expected to increase water scarcity for many regions of the world. Optimal water management strategies are required to minimise the water gap between water supply and domestic, industrial and agricultural water demand. A crucial aspect of water allocation is the spatial scale of optimisation. Blue water supply peaks at the upstream parts of large catchments, whereas demands are often largest at the industrialised downstream parts. Two extremes exist in water allocation: (i) 'First come, first serve,' which allows the upstream water demands to be fulfilled without considerations of downstream demands, and (ii) 'All for one, one for all' that satisfies water allocation over the whole catchment. In practice, water treaties govern intermediate solutions. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of these two end members on water allocation optimisation with respect to water scarcity. We conduct this study on a global scale with the year 2100 as temporal horizon. Water supply is calculated using the hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB, operating at a 5 arcminutes resolution and a daily time step. PCR-GLOBWB is forced with temperature and precipitation fields from the Hadgem2-ES global circulation model that participated in the latest coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP5). Water demands are calculated for representative concentration pathway 6.0 (RCP 6.0) and shared socio-economic pathway scenario 2 (SSP2). To enable the fast computation of the optimisation, we developed a hydrologically correct network of 1800 basin segments with an average size of 100 000 square kilometres. The maximum number of nodes in a network was 140 for the Amazon Basin. Water demands and supplies are aggregated to cubic kilometres per month per segment. A new open source implementation of the water allocation is developed for the stochastic optimisation of the water allocation. We apply a Genetic Algorithm for each segment to estimate the set of parameters that distribute the water supply for each node. We use the Python programming language and a flexible software architecture allowing to straightforwardly 1) exchange the process description for the nodes such that different water allocation schemes can be tested 2) exchange the objective function 3) apply the optimisation either to the whole catchment or to different sub-levels and 4) use multi-core CPUs concurrently and therefore reducing computation time. We demonstrate the application of the scientific workflow to the model outputs of PCR-GLOBWB and present first results on how water scarcity depends on the choice between the two extremes in water allocation.
Optimal Dynamic Asset Allocation: A Stochastic Invariance Approach
Gianni Pola; Giordano Pola
2006-01-01
Optimal asset allocation deals with how to divide the investor's wealth across some asset-classes in order to maximize the investor's gain. We consider the optimal asset allocation in a multi-period investment settings: optimal dynamic asset allocation provides the (optimal) re-balancing policy to accomplish some investment's criteria. Given a sequence of target sets, which represent the portfolio specifications at each re-balancing
Optimal Dynamic Asset Allocation: A Stochastic Invariance Approach
Gianni Pol; Giordano Pol
2006-01-01
Optimal Asset Allocation deals with how to divide the investor's wealth across some asset-classes in order to max- imize the investor's gain. We consider the Optimal Asset Allo- cation in a multi-period investment settings: Optimal Dynamic Asset Allocation provides the (optimal) re-balancing policy to accomplish some investment's criteria. Given a sequence of target sets, which represent the portfolio specifications at
Power Allocation and Hybrid Relaying Strategies for F/TDMA Ad Hoc Networks
Yener, Aylin
), and the total transmission power budget for each relay node would be limited. When this is the case, each sourcePower Allocation and Hybrid Relaying Strategies for F/TDMA Ad Hoc Networks Semih Serbetli and Aylin allocating the total power of each relay node between the transmissions it is assisting. We first obtain
A Novel Stochastic Clustering Auction for Task Allocation in Multi-Robot Teams
Barbu, Adrian
A Novel Stochastic Clustering Auction for Task Allocation in Multi-Robot Teams Kai Zhang, Emmanuel communication links between robots that were motivated by a generic topology called a "scale free network." I. INTRODUCTION Auction methods are an effective approach to task allo- cation for heterogeneous robot teams
Optimized Stochastic Policies for Task Allocation in Swarms of Robots
Spring Berman; Ádám M. Halász; M. Ani Hsieh; Vijay Kumar
2009-01-01
We present a scalable approach to dynamically allocating a swarm of homogeneous robots to multiple tasks, which are to be performed in parallel, following a desired distribution. We employ a decentralized strategy that requires no communication among robots. It is based on the development of a continuous abstraction of the swarm obtained by modeling population fractions and defining the task
A bidding algorithm for optimized utility-based resource allocation in ad hoc networks
A bidding algorithm for optimized utility-based resource allocation in ad hoc networks Calin flows are bidding for resources. The bids depend both on the flow's utility function and the intrin for evaluation we show that the problem can be formulated as a linear programming (LP) problem. Thus, we can
Approximate Optimal Power Allocation Scheme for Wireless Ad hoc Networks in Rayleigh Fading Channels
Dan Xu; Zhisheng Niu; Fangyu Hu
In this paper, a distributed power allocation scheme for mobile ad hoc networks in Rayleigh fast fading environments is proposed. With fluctuated SINR, outage probability is intro- duced as a QoS parameter. An optimization model is formulated to minimize total transmit powers with constraint conditions that outage probability of each link should be satisfied. A closed- form near optimal solution
Maximizing Throughput of Linear Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANETs) --a Stochastic Approach
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Maximizing Throughput of Linear Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANETs) -- a Stochastic Approach.Toor@inria.fr Abstract: In this paper we use stochastic geometry to propose two models for Aloha-based linear VANETs parameters. Index Terms--VANETs, MAC (Medium Access Control) Layer Optimization, Throughput I. INTRODUCTION
David Julian; Mung Chiang; Daniel O'neill; Stephen P. Boyd
2002-01-01
For wireless cellular and ad hoc networks with QoS constraints, we propose a suite of problem formulations that allocate network resources to optimize SIR, maximize throughput and minimize de- lay. The distinguishing characteristics of these resource allocation formulations is that, by using convex optimization, they accommo- date a variety of realistic QoS and fairness constraints. Their glob- ally optimal solutions
Adaptive power allocation in energy-constrained wireless ad-hoc networks
Gao Xiang; Hyung-Kun Park
2008-01-01
In this paper, we proposed a new power allocation scheme in a cooperative relay network to increase network lifetime. To maximize network lifetime, it is important to allocate power fairly among nodes in a network as well as to minimize total transmitted power. In the proposed scheme, the allocated power is proportional to the residual power, satisfies the required SNR
Claus Munk; Carsten Srensen; Tina Nygaard Vinther; Simcorp Danmark As
Abstract This paper provides the optimal asset allocation strategy of a power utility investor who can invest in cash (a bank account), nominal bonds, and stocks (the stock index) in a model that exhibits mean-reverting stock returns and real interest rate uncertainty. The capital market model is calibrated to US stock, bond, and ination data. Furthermore, in order to illustrate
Claus Munk; Carsten Sřrensen; Tina Nygaard Vinther
2004-01-01
This article provides the optimal asset allocation strategy of a power utility investor who can invest in cash (a bank account), nominal bonds, and stocks (the stock index) in a model that exhibits mean-reverting stock returns and real interest rate uncertainty. The capital market model is calibrated to U.S. stock, bond, and inflation data. Furthermore, to illustrate the optimal asset
Dynamic asset allocation under VaR constraint with stochastic interest rates
Donatien Hainaut
2009-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of dynamic asset allocation under a bounded shortfall risk in a market composed of three\\u000a assets: cash, stocks and a zero coupon bond. The dynamics of the instantaneous short rates is driven by a Hull and White model.\\u000a In this setting, we determine and compare optimal investment strategies maximizing the CRRA utility of terminal wealth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Z.; Porporato, A. M.
2012-12-01
seasonally dry areas, which are widely distributed in the world, are usually facing an intensive disparity between the lack of natural resource and the great demand of social development. In dry seasons of such areas, the distribution/allocation of water resource is an extremely critical and sensitive issue, and conflicts often occur due to lack of appropriate water allocation scheme. Among the many uses of water, the need of agricultural irrigation water is highly elastic, but this factor has not yet been made full use to free up water from agriculture use. The primary goal of this work is to design an optimal distribution scheme of water resource for dry seasons to maximize benefits from precious water resources, considering the high elasticity of agriculture water demand due to the dynamic of soil moisture affected by the uncertainty of precipitation and other factors like canopy interception. A dynamic programming model will be used to figure out an appropriate allocation of water resources among agricultural irrigation and other purposes like drinking water, industry, and hydropower, etc. In this dynamic programming model, we analytically quantify the dynamic of soil moisture in the agricultural fields by describing the interception with marked Poisson process and describing the rainfall depth with exponential distribution. Then, we figure out a water-saving irrigation scheme, which regulates the timetable and volumes of water in irrigation, in order to minimize irrigation water requirement under the premise of necessary crop yield (as a constraint condition). And then, in turn, we provide a scheme of water resource distribution/allocation among agriculture and other purposes, taking aim at maximizing benefits from precious water resources, or in other words, make best use of limited water resource.
Credit-based slot allocation for multimedia mobile ad hoc networks
Hsi-Lu Chao; Wanjiun Liao
2003-01-01
This paper studies resource management for multimedia mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). In particular, we focus on providing fair scheduling with quality-of-service (QoS) support for MANET. We consider two types of flows: guaranteed and best effort flows. The goal is to satisfy the QoS requirements of guaranteed flows and to provide global fairness for best effort flows. In this paper,
Cornelis J. Nagelkerke; Minus Van Baalen; Maurice W. Sabelis
1996-01-01
Summary Avoidance of double oviposition (ADO) is the strategy not to oviposit on food patches where another female has oviposited before. If two females oviposit on the same patch, competitive and mating interactions within and between broods may lead to both a clutch size game and a sex allocation game between the two visitors. Though the two games interact, they
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bekri, Eleni; Yannopoulos, Panayotis; Disse, Markus
2014-05-01
The Alfeios River plays a vital role for Western Peloponnisos in Greece from natural, ecological, social and economic aspect. The main river and its six tributaries, forming the longest watercourse and the highest streamflow rate of Peloponnisose, represent a significant source of water supply for the region, aiming at delivering and satisfying the expected demands from a variety of water users, including irrigation, drinking water supply, hydropower production and recreation. In the previous EGU General Assembly, a fuzzy-boundary-interval linear programming methodology, based on Li et al. (2010) and Bekri et al. (2012), has been presented for optimal water allocation under uncertain and vague system conditions in the Alfeios River Basin. Uncertainties associated with the benefit and cost coefficient in the objective function of the main water uses (hydropower production and irrigation) were expressed as probability distributions and fuzzy boundary intervals derived by associated ?-cut levels. The uncertainty of the monthly water inflows was not incorporated in the previous initial application and the analysis of all other sources of uncertainty has been applied to two extreme hydrologic years represented by a selected wet and dry year. To manage and operate the river system, decision makers should be able to analyze and evaluate the impact of various hydrologic scenarios. In the present work, the critical uncertain parameter of water inflows is analyzed and its incorporation as an additional type of uncertainty in the suggested methodology is investigated, in order to enable the assessment of optimal water allocation for hydrologic and socio-economic scenarios based both on historical data and projected climate change conditions. For this purpose, stochastic simulation analysis for a part of the Alfeios river system is undertaken, testing various stochastic models from simple stationary ones (AR and ARMA), Thomas-Fiering, ARIMA as well as more sophisticated and complete such as CASTALIA. A short description and comparison of their assumptions, the differences between them and the presentation of the results are included. Li, Y.P., Huang, G.H. and S.L., Nie, (2010), Planning water resources management systems using a fuzzy boundary interval-stochastic programming method, Elsevier Ltd, Advances in Water Resources, 33: 1105-1117. doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2010.06.015 Bekri, E.S., Disse, M. and P.C.,Yannopoulos, (2012), Methodological framework for correction of quick river discharge measurements using quality characteristics, Session of Environmental Hydraulics - Hydrodynamics, 2nd Common Conference of Hellenic Hydrotechnical Association and Greek Committee for Water Resources Management, Volume: 546-557 (in Greek).
Risk allocation strategies for distributed chance-constrained task allocation
Ponda, Sameera S.
This paper addresses the issue of allocating risk amongst agents in distributed chance-constrained planning algorithms. Building on previous research that extended chance-constrained planning to stochastic multi-agent ...
Davi Valladăo; Álvaro Veiga
2008-01-01
This paper proposes an Asset Liability Management (ALM) multistage stochastic programming model and a new method for measuring and controlling the equilibrium risk of a pension fund in the Brazilian context. According to the Society of Actuaries, ALM can be defined as an ongoing financial management process of formulating, implementing, monitoring, and revising strategies related to assets, future investments, and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonnell, Mark D.; Stocks, Nigel G.; Pearce, Charles E. M.; Abbott, Derek
2012-10-01
Preface; 1. Introduction and motivation; 2. Stochastic resonance: its definitions, history and debates; 3. Stochastic quantization; 4. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: encoding; 5. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: large N encoding; 6. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: decoding; 7. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: large N decoding; 8. Optimal stochastic quantization; 9. SSR, neural coding, and performance tradeoffs; 10. Stochastic resonance in the auditory system; 11. The future of stochastic resonance and suprathreshold stochastic resonance; Appendices; References; Index.
Optimal asset allocation for DC pension plans under inflation
Nan-wei Han; Mao-wei Hung
2012-01-01
In this paper, the stochastic dynamic programming approach is used to investigate the optimal asset allocation for a defined-contribution pension plan with downside protection under stochastic inflation. The plan participant invests the fund wealth and the stochastic interim contribution flows into the financial market. The nominal interest rate model is described by the Coxâ€“Ingersollâ€“Ross (Cox etÂ al., 1985) dynamics. To
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific whiting allocations, allocation attainment...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.323 Pacific whiting allocations, allocation attainment...Allocations. (1) Annual treaty tribal whiting allocations are provided in §...
Optimal dynamic allocation of conservation funding among priority regions.
Bode, Michael; Wilson, Kerrie; McBride, Marissa; Possingham, Hugh
2008-10-01
The optimal allocation of conservation resources between biodiverse conservation regions has generally been calculated using stochastic dynamic programming, or using myopic heuristics. These solutions are hard to interpret and may not be optimal. To overcome these two limitations, this paper approaches the optimal conservation resource allocation problem using optimal control theory. A solution using Pontryagin's maximum principle provides novel insight into the general properties of efficient conservation resource allocation strategies, and allows more extensive testing of the performance of myopic heuristics. We confirmed that a proposed heuristic (minimize short-term loss) yields near-optimal results in complex allocation situations, and found that a qualitative allocation feature observed in previous analyses (bang-bang allocation) is a general property of the optimal allocation strategy. PMID:18712571
Computation of Stochastic Nash Equilibrium via Variable Sample ...
2013-11-18
Nov 18, 2013 ... efficient simulation budget allocation with regression. This type of methods were also ... lems by sequentially solving sample average approximations. ...... A stochastic multiple leader Stackelberg model: Analysis, computation ...
Dynamic Asset Allocation with Jump-Risk
Xiangqun Yang; Guohe DENG
The portfolio problem of dynamic asset allocation for bond-cash-stock mix is considered in the imcomplete market where the spot interest rate and stock are stochastic in jump-diusion market using dynamic programming approach.We nd a form solution for the optimal strategy and analyze nally the relations between optimal choices and risk-aversion ,Jump-intensity and investment horizon T in numerical method.
Dynamic Asset Allocation with Credit Risk
Bian Shibo; Zhang Xiaoyang
\\u000a In this paper, we investigate how investors who face both equity risk and credit risk would optimally allocate her wealth\\u000a among the following securities: a defaultable bond, a stock and a bank account. We model the defaultable bond price through\\u000a a reduced-form approach and solve the dynamics of its price. Using stochastic control methods, we obtain a closed-form solution\\u000a to
Active and reactive power in stochastic resonance for energy harvesting
Kubota, Madoka; Hikihara, Takashi
2015-01-01
A power allocation to active and reactive power in stochastic resonance is discussed for energy harvesting from mechanical noise. It is confirmed that active power can be increased at stochastic resonance, in the same way of the relationship between energy and phase at an appropriate setting in resonance.
A Dynamic-Programming Approach to Multiperiod Asset Allocation
Jim Musumeci; Joe Musumeci
1999-01-01
Academicians and practitioners recently have focused a great deal of attention on the issue of retirement asset allocation. However, research on the academic side typically has assumed a static allocation of a fixed amount over the investor's lifetime, while the advice on the practitioner side has been largely ad hoc in nature. Moreover, both academics and practitioners often fail to
The allocative efficiency implications of water pollution abatement cost comparisons
James S. Shortle
1990-01-01
Assessments of the efficiency of water pollution control allocations are usually based on abatement cost comparisons. The general rule is that efficiency is improved by reallocating abatement from sources with high marginal costs to low-cost sources. The welfare-theoretic foundation of this rule is well established for situations with nonstochastic emissions. In situations with stochastic emissions, pollution control involves improving the
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The US Department of Agriculture's Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library has placed a new database online. The Drought and Water Allocation bibliography includes "71 articles on water allocation as it relates to drought and water shortages dated 1992-1999. Competition for water resources, legal rights and remedies, and economic options are highlighted."
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Ad Critic strives to enter every television advertisement into its database of online commercials, which can be downloaded for free and viewed with QuickTime. A complete list of advertisements is indexed by company and by ad title. There are, however, also indexes of newly added ads, most-downloaded ads, movie trailers, and music found in ads, making it easier for users to search for a new or favorite advertisement. Ad Critic includes a section on advertising news and commentary and provides services for advertising agencies including online market research and detailed viewer statistics.
The Allocative Efficiency Implications of Water Pollution Abatement Cost Comparisons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shortle, James S.
1990-05-01
Assessments of the efficiency of water pollution control allocations are usually based on abatement cost comparisons. The general rule is that efficiency is improved by reallocating abatement from sources with high marginal costs to low-cost sources. The welfare-theoretic foundation of this rule is well established for situations with nonstochastic emissions. In situations with stochastic emissions, pollution control involves improving the distribution of emissions. Nevertheless, efficiency analyses involving stochastic emissions usually sidestep formal consideration of the stochastic element by measuring pollution control and control costs with respect to changes in long-term average flows. An economic model of stochastic emissions is used to demonstrate that this approach can give misleading results. An alternative procedure is briefly discussed.
A Framework for Optimal Control Allocation with Structural Load Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frost, Susan A.; Taylor, Brian R.; Jutte, Christine V.; Burken, John J.; Trinh, Khanh V.; Bodson, Marc
2010-01-01
Conventional aircraft generally employ mixing algorithms or lookup tables to determine control surface deflections needed to achieve moments commanded by the flight control system. Control allocation is the problem of converting desired moments into control effector commands. Next generation aircraft may have many multipurpose, redundant control surfaces, adding considerable complexity to the control allocation problem. These issues can be addressed with optimal control allocation. Most optimal control allocation algorithms have control surface position and rate constraints. However, these constraints are insufficient to ensure that the aircraft's structural load limits will not be exceeded by commanded surface deflections. In this paper, a framework is proposed to enable a flight control system with optimal control allocation to incorporate real-time structural load feedback and structural load constraints. A proof of concept simulation that demonstrates the framework in a simulation of a generic transport aircraft is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
The Fourth IAHR International Symposium on Stochastic Hydraulics, cosponsored by AGU and the American Society of Civil Engineers, will be held July 31-August 2, 1984, at Urbana, 111. About 40 papers selected from submitted abstracts will be presented in the symposium.Topics covered will include (but not be limited to) the following areas: risk and reliability analysis; safety of dams and other hydraulic structures; stochastic models; and stochastic processes of hydraulic and hydrologic phenomena such as turbulence, sediment transport, dispersion and diffusion, and random waves.The proceedings of the Second International Conference, held in Urbana, Illinois, in June 1981, are available from Water Resources Publications, Littleton, Colo., under the title, “Urban Stormwater Hydraulics and Hydrology” and “Urban Stormwater Quality, Management, and Planning.”
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik
2014-04-01
'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response theory for small deviations from equilibrium, in which a general framework is constructed from the analysis of non-equilibrium states close to equilibrium. In a next step, Prigogine and others developed linear irreversible thermodynamics, which establishes relations between transport coefficients and entropy production on a phenomenological level in terms of thermodynamic forces and fluxes. However, beyond the realm of linear response no general theoretical results were available for quite a long time. This situation has changed drastically over the last 20 years with the development of stochastic thermodynamics, revealing that the range of validity of thermodynamic statements can indeed be extended deep into the non-equilibrium regime. Early developments in that direction trace back to the observations of symmetry relations between the probabilities for entropy production and entropy annihilation in non-equilibrium steady states [5-8] (nowadays categorized in the class of so-called detailed fluctuation theorems), and the derivations of the Bochkov-Kuzovlev [9, 10] and Jarzynski relations [11] (which are now classified as so-called integral fluctuation theorems). Apart from its fundamental theoretical interest, the developments in stochastic thermodynamics have experienced an additional boost from the recent experimental progress in fabricating, manipulating, controlling and observing systems on the micro- and nano-scale. These advances are not only of formidable use for probing and monitoring biological processes on the cellular, sub-cellular and molecular level, but even include the realization of a microscopic thermodynamic heat engine [12] or the experimental verification of Landauer's principle in a colloidal system [13]. The scientific program Stochastic Thermodynamics held between 4 and 15 March 2013, and hosted by The Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita), was attended by more than 50 scientists from the Nordic countries and elsewhere, amongst them many leading experts in the field. During the program, the most recent developments, open quest
Asset Allocation Jessica Wachter
Kahana, Michael J.
to obtaining analytical results when possible. Results under both full and limited- information assumptions allocation has played a central role in financial economics, from its very beginnings as a discipline.1 (1952)), so the focus will be on incorporating uncertainty about the return process. In contrast, much
Aid allocation and poverty reduction
Paul Collier; David Dollar
2002-01-01
This paper derives a poverty-efficient allocation of aid and compares it with actual aid allocations. The allocation of aid that has the maximum effect on poverty depends on the level of poverty and the quality of policies. Using the headcount, poverty-gap, and squared poverty gap measures of poverty, alternatively, all yield similar poverty-efficient allocations. Finally, we find that the actual
Distributed Spectrum Allocation via Local Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, P.R. China
Almeroth, Kevin C.
Distributed Spectrum Allocation via Local Bargaining Lili Cao Shanghai Jiaotong University to spectrum allocation in mobile ad-hoc networks. We propose a local bargaining approach where users affected by the mobility event self-organize into bargaining groups and adapt their spectrum assignment to approximate
ADAPTIVE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN APPLICATION TO SURVEILLANCE NETWORKS USING STOCHASTIC
Fan, Jeffrey
ADAPTIVE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN APPLICATION TO SURVEILLANCE NETWORKS USING STOCHASTIC METHODOLOGIES, and structural monitoring. This research aims to present a novel method of resource allocation in surveillance-on-a-Chip (SoC) systems. The basic idea behind the proposed framework is that a set amount of system resources
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2010-08-09
This tutorial helps students understand the basic concept of adding fractions. Each problem is illustrated with pizza slices and the steps for finding the least common denominator are clear. There is also a video in which students can watch a problem being solved on paper. There are also links to further information about finding the common denominator using two methods (either by multiplying the denominators or finding the least common denominator) and adding mixed fractions.
Safety and Reliability Driven Task Allocation in Distributed Systems
S. Srinivasan; Niraj K. Jha
1999-01-01
Distributed computer systems are increasingly being employed for critical applications, such as aircraft control, industrial process control, and banking systems. Maximizing performance has been the conventional objective in the allocation of tasks for such systems. Inherently, distributed systems are more complex than centralized systems. The added complexity could increase the potential for system failures. Some work has been done in
Parameter estimation for stochastic equations with additive fractional Brownian sheet
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂ© de
Parameter estimation for stochastic equations with additive fractional Brownian sheet Tommi equations with ad- ditive fractional Brownian sheet. We use the Girsanov transform for the the two estimator, fractional Brownian sheet, Malliavin calculus, Girsanov transform 1 Introduction The recent
Shih-Chieh Bill Chang; Chenghsien Tsai; Li-Chuan Hung
2005-01-01
We analyzes the optimal asset allocation problem for life insurers that are required to cope with significant background risks originating from life insurance businesses among a set of stochastic investment opportunities including foreign equities. The insurer is assumed to maximize the expected discounted utility of its surplus over a time horizon, and the optimalization problem is formulated in a stochastic
Selling Ad Campaigns: Online Algorithms with Cancellations
Kleinberg, Robert D.
), and location targets (where an ad is shown). Any particular advertiser request may be able to be met in markets with cancel- lations, i.e., markets in which prior allocation decisions can be revoked be canceled at a cost which is a fixed fraction of the request value. This scenario models a market for web
Blaskiewicz, M.
2011-01-01
Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.
... Learn more about reading food labels . Limit your consumption of foods with high amounts of added sugars, such as sugar-sweetened beverages. Just one 12-ounce can of regular soda contains eight teaspoons of sugar, or 130 calories and zero nutrition. How much is just right?
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-05-01
This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A town's total allocation for firefighter's wages and bene?ts in a new budget is \\$600,000. If wages are calculated at \\$40,000 per firefighter and ben...
AllocRay: memory allocation visualization for unmanaged languages
George G. Robertson; Trishul M. Chilimbi; Bongshin Lee
2010-01-01
A program's memory system performance is one of the key determinants of its overall performance. Lack of understanding of a program's memory system behavior can lead to performance problems, the most common being memory fragmentation and memory leaks. In this paper, we present AllocRay, a visualization that animates memory allocation event trace information over a time period of execution of
3739SPACE ALLOCATION/RE-ALLOCATION PROCEDURE Client identifies
Page 1 3739SPACE ALLOCATION/RE-ALLOCATION PROCEDURE Client identifies space requirement Client completes space request form Submit space request form to Space Management Office Space Management Office acknowledge receipt Is space form completed accurately Is there vacant space Space Management Office conduct
Research on allocation efficiency of the daisy chain allocation algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Weiguo
2013-03-01
With the improvement of the aircraft performance in reliability, maneuverability and survivability, the number of the control effectors increases a lot. How to distribute the three-axis moments into the control surfaces reasonably becomes an important problem. Daisy chain method is simple and easy to be carried out in the design of the allocation system. But it can not solve the allocation problem for entire attainable moment subset. For the lateral-directional allocation problem, the allocation efficiency of the daisy chain can be directly measured by the area of its subset of attainable moments. Because of the non-linear allocation characteristic, the subset of attainable moments of daisy-chain method is a complex non-convex polygon, and it is difficult to solve directly. By analyzing the two-dimensional allocation problems with a "micro-element" idea, a numerical calculation algorithm is proposed to compute the area of the non-convex polygon. In order to improve the allocation efficiency of the algorithm, a genetic algorithm with the allocation efficiency chosen as the fitness function is proposed to find the best pseudo-inverse matrix.
Computationally efficient control allocation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durham, Wayne (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A computationally efficient method for calculating near-optimal solutions to the three-objective, linear control allocation problem is disclosed. The control allocation problem is that of distributing the effort of redundant control effectors to achieve some desired set of objectives. The problem is deemed linear if control effectiveness is affine with respect to the individual control effectors. The optimal solution is that which exploits the collective maximum capability of the effectors within their individual physical limits. Computational efficiency is measured by the number of floating-point operations required for solution. The method presented returned optimal solutions in more than 90% of the cases examined; non-optimal solutions returned by the method were typically much less than 1% different from optimal and the errors tended to become smaller than 0.01% as the number of controls was increased. The magnitude of the errors returned by the present method was much smaller than those that resulted from either pseudo inverse or cascaded generalized inverse solutions. The computational complexity of the method presented varied linearly with increasing numbers of controls; the number of required floating point operations increased from 5.5 i, to seven times faster than did the minimum-norm solution (the pseudoinverse), and at about the same rate as did the cascaded generalized inverse solution. The computational requirements of the method presented were much better than that of previously described facet-searching methods which increase in proportion to the square of the number of controls.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...the PCGFMP. Allocation of Pacific whiting is described in paragraph (i...allocation of darkblotched rockfish to the whiting fisheries (MS, C/P, and IFQ combined). The distribution of the whiting trawl allocation of darkblotched...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...the PCGFMP. Allocation of Pacific whiting is described in paragraph (i...allocation of darkblotched rockfish to the whiting fisheries (MS, C/P, and IFQ combined). The distribution of the whiting trawl allocation of darkblotched...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...the PCGFMP. Allocation of Pacific whiting is described in paragraph (i...allocation of darkblotched rockfish to the whiting fisheries (MS, C/P, and IFQ combined). The distribution of the whiting trawl allocation of darkblotched...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...the PCGFMP. Allocation of Pacific whiting is described in paragraph (i...allocation of darkblotched rockfish to the whiting fisheries (MS, C/P, and IFQ combined). The distribution of the whiting trawl allocation of darkblotched...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...the PCGFMP. Allocation of Pacific whiting is described in paragraph (i...allocation of darkblotched rockfish to the whiting fisheries (MS, C/P, and IFQ combined). The distribution of the whiting trawl allocation of darkblotched...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, Miguel S.; Gonçalves, Vasco; Penedones, Joăo
2014-09-01
We develop the embedding formalism to describe symmetric traceless tensors in Anti-de Sitter space. We use this formalism to construct the bulk-to-bulk propagator of massive spin J fields and check that it has the expected short distance and massless limits. We also find a split representation for the bulk-to-bulk propagator, by writing it as an integral over the boundary of the product of two bulk-to-boundary propagators. We exemplify the use of this representation with the computation of the conformal partial wave decomposition of Witten diagrams. In particular, we determine the Mellin amplitude associated to AdS graviton exchange between minimally coupled scalars of general dimension, including the regular part of the amplitude.
Kin Wah Edward Lin; Brahim Bensaou
2009-01-01
We present a distributed fair MAC flow allocation and scheduling framework for IEEE 802.11 based wireless mesh networks. The framework consists of (1) a modified wireless ad hoc routing protocol to take into account bandwidth requirement, (2) a link information dissemination protocol to propagate local topology information, (3) a cooperative gradient-based iterative algorithm to allocate fairly MAC flow bandwidth and
Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.
2009-05-04
After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.
Albacete, Javier L. [ECT, Strada delle Tabarelle 286, I-38050, Villazzano (Tunisia) (Italy); Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)
2009-03-23
We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS{sub 5}. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS{sub 5} shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Q{sub s} is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Q{sub s}{approx}A{sup 1/3}. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5.
Resource allocation using risk analysis
Bott, T. F. (Terrence F.); Eisenhawer, S. W. (Stephen W.)
2003-01-01
Allocating limited resources among competing priorities is an important problem in management. In this paper we describe an approach to resource allocation using risk as a metric. We call this approach the Logic-Evolved Decision (LED) approach because we use logic-models to generate an exhaustive set of competing options and to describe the often highly complex model used for evaluating the risk reduction achieved by different resource allocations among these options. The risk evaluation then proceeds using probabilistic or linguistic input data.
Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice
Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Jiang, Wen; Van Der Putten, Peter E. L.; Struik, Paul C.
2014-01-01
Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation and re-allocation in rice. Methods: Two solution culture experiments using 70Zn applications at different times during crop development and an experiment on within-grain distribution of Zn are reported. In addition, results from two earlier published experiments are re-analyzed and re-interpreted. Results: A budget analysis showed that plant zinc accumulation during grain filling was larger than zinc allocation to the grains. Isotope data showed that zinc taken up during grain filling was only partly transported directly to the grains and partly allocated to the leaves. Zinc taken up during grain filling and allocated to the leaves replaced zinc re-allocated from leaves to grains. Within the grains, no major transport barrier was observed between vascular tissue and endosperm. At low tissue Zn concentrations, rice plants maintained concentrations of about 20 mg Zn kg?1 dry matter in leaf blades and reproductive tissues, but let Zn concentrations in stems, sheath, and roots drop below this level. When plant zinc concentrations increased, Zn levels in leaf blades and reproductive tissues only showed a moderate increase while Zn levels in stems, roots, and sheaths increased much more and in that order. Conclusions: In rice, the major barrier to enhanced zinc allocation towards grains is between stem and reproductive tissues. Enhancing root to shoot transfer will not contribute proportionally to grain zinc enhancement. PMID:24478788
Resource Balancing Control Allocation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc
2010-01-01
Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the control effort. The paper discusses the alternative choice of using the l1 norm for minimization of the tracking error and a normalized l(infinity) norm, or sup norm, for minimization of the control effort. The algorithm computes the norm of the actuator deflections scaled by the actuator limits. Minimization of the control effort then translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection as a percentage of its range of motion. The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of resource balancing, where the resources are the control surfaces and the algorithm balances these resources to achieve the desired command. A study of the sensitivity of the algorithms to the data is presented, which shows that the normalized l(infinity) algorithm has the lowest sensitivity, although high sensitivities are observed whenever the limits of performance are reached.
Improving Storage System Flexibility Through Virtual Allocation
Sukwoo Kang; A. L. Narasimha Reddy
This paper presents virtual allocation, a scheme for flexi- ble storage allocation. It separates storage allocation from the file system. It employs an allocate-on-write strategy, which lets applications fit into the actual usage of storage space without regard to the configured file system size. This improves flexibility by allowing storage space to be shared across different file systems. This paper
"Compute Process Allocator (CPA)" 1. Submitting Organization
-allocation strategies to achieve processor locality for parallel jobs in supercomputers. Specifically, given a stream individual job allocation with future allocations over 10,000 processors, allowing jobs to be processed of jobs from a job scheduler, the CPA allocates processors to optimize processor locality for each job
On Low-Envy Truthful Allocations
Ioannis Caragiannis; Christos Kaklamanis; Panagiotis Kanellopoulos; Maria Kyropoulou
2009-01-01
We study the problem of allocating a set of indivisible items to players having additive utility functions over the items. We consider allocations in which no player envies the bundle of items allocated to the other players too much. We present a simple proof that deterministic truthful allocations do not minimize envy by characterizing the truthful mechanisms for two players
Khem R. Sharma; PingSun Leung; Halina M. Zaleski
1999-01-01
Technical, allocative and economic efficiency measures are derived for a sample of swine producers in Hawaii using the parametric stochastic efficiency decomposition technique and nonparametric data envelopment analysis (DEA). Efficiency measures obtained from the two frontier approaches are compared. Firm-specific factors affecting productive efficiencies are also analyzed. Finally, swine producers' potential for reducing cost through improved efficiency is also examined.
A Stochastic Dynamic Programming Technique for Property Market Timing
T. C. Chin; G. T. Mills
\\u000a The problem we address in this chaper is to develop and test a market timing strategy for a property investor who has to decide\\u000a the allocation of investment funds between the risk-free savings deposit and the comparatively risky property investment.\\u000a We develop such a market timing strategy using a stochastic dynamic programming technique for optimal decision approach in\\u000a the property
Task allocation in a distributed computing system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seward, Walter D.
1987-01-01
A conceptual framework is examined for task allocation in distributed systems. Application and computing system parameters critical to task allocation decision processes are discussed. Task allocation techniques are addressed which focus on achieving a balance in the load distribution among the system's processors. Equalization of computing load among the processing elements is the goal. Examples of system performance are presented for specific applications. Both static and dynamic allocation of tasks are considered and system performance is evaluated using different task allocation methodologies.
Collaborative Resource Allocation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Raymond; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chester
2007-01-01
Collaborative Resource Allocation Networking Environment (CRANE) Version 0.5 is a prototype created to prove the newest concept of using a distributed environment to schedule Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna times in a collaborative fashion. This program is for all space-flight and terrestrial science project users and DSN schedulers to perform scheduling activities and conflict resolution, both synchronously and asynchronously. Project schedulers can, for the first time, participate directly in scheduling their tracking times into the official DSN schedule, and negotiate directly with other projects in an integrated scheduling system. A master schedule covers long-range, mid-range, near-real-time, and real-time scheduling time frames all in one, rather than the current method of separate functions that are supported by different processes and tools. CRANE also provides private workspaces (both dynamic and static), data sharing, scenario management, user control, rapid messaging (based on Java Message Service), data/time synchronization, workflow management, notification (including emails), conflict checking, and a linkage to a schedule generation engine. The data structure with corresponding database design combines object trees with multiple associated mortal instances and relational database to provide unprecedented traceability and simplify the existing DSN XML schedule representation. These technologies are used to provide traceability, schedule negotiation, conflict resolution, and load forecasting from real-time operations to long-range loading analysis up to 20 years in the future. CRANE includes a database, a stored procedure layer, an agent-based middle tier, a Web service wrapper, a Windows Integrated Analysis Environment (IAE), a Java application, and a Web page interface.
The appreciation of stochastic motion in particle accelerators
Symon, Keith; Sessler, Andrew
2003-08-03
A description is given of the analytic and numerical work, performed from July 1955 through August 1956, so as to develop, and then study, the process of making intense proton beams, suitable for colliding beams. It is shown how this investigation led, in a most natural way, to the realization that stochasticity can arise in a simple Hamiltonian system. Furthermore, the criterion for the onset of stochasticity was understood, and carefully studied, in two different situations. The first situation was the proposed (and subsequently used) ''stacking process'' for developing an intense beam, where stochasticity occurs as additional particles are added to the intense circulating beam. The second situation occurs when one seeks to develop ''stochastic accelerators'' in which particles are accelerated (continuously) by a collection of radio frequency systems. It was in the last connection that the well-known criterion for stochasticity, resonance overlap, was obtained.
Concepts and Applications of Stochastically Weighted Stochastic ...
2011-04-08
Apr 8, 2011 ... Stochastic dominance theory provides tools to compare random entities. ... user is that it allows for the representation of the evaluation of the importance of ...... may be large, they propose a cut generation method to selectively ...
Subpopulation triage: how to allocate conservation effort among populations.
McDonald-Madden, Eve; Baxter, Peter W J; Possingham, Hugh P
2008-06-01
Threatened species often exist in a small number of isolated subpopulations. Given limitations on conservation spending, managers must choose from strategies that range from managing just one subpopulation and risking all other subpopulations to managing all subpopulations equally and poorly, thereby risking the loss of all subpopulations. We took an economic approach to this problem in an effort to discover a simple rule of thumb for optimally allocating conservation effort among subpopulations. This rule was derived by maximizing the expected number of extant subpopulations remaining given n subpopulations are actually managed. We also derived a spatiotemporally optimized strategy through stochastic dynamic programming. The rule of thumb suggested that more subpopulations should be managed if the budget increases or if the cost of reducing local extinction probabilities decreases. The rule performed well against the exact optimal strategy that was the result of the stochastic dynamic program and much better than other simple strategies (e.g., always manage one extant subpopulation or half of the remaining subpopulation). We applied our approach to the allocation of funds in 2 contrasting case studies: reduction of poaching of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) and habitat acquisition for San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica). For our estimated annual budget for Sumatran tiger management, the mean time to extinction was about 32 years. For our estimated annual management budget for kit foxes in the San Joaquin Valley, the mean time to extinction was approximately 24 years. Our framework allows managers to deal with the important question of how to allocate scarce conservation resources among subpopulations of any threatened species. PMID:18477029
Stochastic volatility models and Kelvin waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipton, Alex; Sepp, Artur
2008-08-01
We use stochastic volatility models to describe the evolution of an asset price, its instantaneous volatility and its realized volatility. In particular, we concentrate on the Stein and Stein model (SSM) (1991) for the stochastic asset volatility and the Heston model (HM) (1993) for the stochastic asset variance. By construction, the volatility is not sign definite in SSM and is non-negative in HM. It is well known that both models produce closed-form expressions for the prices of vanilla option via the Lewis-Lipton formula. However, the numerical pricing of exotic options by means of the finite difference and Monte Carlo methods is much more complex for HM than for SSM. Until now, this complexity was considered to be an acceptable price to pay for ensuring that the asset volatility is non-negative. We argue that having negative stochastic volatility is a psychological rather than financial or mathematical problem, and advocate using SSM rather than HM in most applications. We extend SSM by adding volatility jumps and obtain a closed-form expression for the density of the asset price and its realized volatility. We also show that the current method of choice for solving pricing problems with stochastic volatility (via the affine ansatz for the Fourier-transformed density function) can be traced back to the Kelvin method designed in the 19th century for studying wave motion problems arising in fluid dynamics.
Stochastic String Motion Above and Below the World Sheet Horizon
Jorge Casalderrey-Solana; Keun-Young Kim; Derek Teaney
2010-03-31
We study the stochastic motion of a relativistic trailing string in black hole AdS_5. The classical string solution develops a world-sheet horizon and we determine the associated Hawking radiation spectrum. The emitted radiation causes fluctuations on the string both above and below the world-sheet horizon. In contrast to standard black hole physics, the fluctuations below the horizon are causally connected with the boundary of AdS. We derive a bulk stochastic equation of motion for the dual string and use the AdS/CFT correspondence to determine the evolution a fast heavy quark in the strongly coupled $\\N=4$ plasma. We find that the kinetic mass of the quark decreases by $\\Delta M=-\\sqrt{\\gamma \\lambda}T/2$ while the correlation time of world sheet fluctuations increases by $\\sqrt{\\gamma}$.
Task allocation among multiple intelligent robots
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gasser, L.; Bekey, G.
1987-01-01
Researchers describe the design of a decentralized mechanism for allocating assembly tasks in a multiple robot assembly workstation. Currently, the approach focuses on distributed allocation to explore its feasibility and its potential for adaptability to changing circumstances, rather than for optimizing throughput. Individual greedy robots make their own local allocation decisions using both dynamic allocation policies which propagate through a network of allocation goals, and local static and dynamic constraints describing which robots are elibible for which assembly tasks. Global coherence is achieved by proper weighting of allocation pressures propagating through the assembly plan. Deadlock avoidance and synchronization is achieved using periodic reassessments of local allocation decisions, ageing of allocation goals, and short-term allocation locks on goals.
Collective credit allocation in science
Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László
2014-01-01
Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors’ contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238
Collective credit allocation in science.
Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László
2014-08-26
Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors' contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238
Inverse Stochastic Linear Programming
2007-01-05
Keywords: Inverse Optimization, Stochastic Programming, Decomposition Algorithms ..... investment planning problem based on [16]. ... was supported by National Science Foundation grant CNS-0540000 from the Dynamic Data Driven.
New Solution Methods for Joint Chance-Constrained Stochastic Programs with Random Left-Hand Sides
Tanner, Matthew W.
2010-01-16
of this dissertation details an application of joint chance-constrained stochastic programs to a vaccination allocation problem. We show why it is necessary to formulate the problem with random parameters and also why chance-constraints are a good framework for de...
Optimal allocation of inspection resources
Markin, J.T.; Chambers, W.H.; Vaccaro, H.S.
1984-01-01
Allocation of inspection resources for international safeguards is considered as the problem of designing a complex system that is composed of individual inspection activities and that has the objective of detecting material loss. Optimization theory is applied in selecting those inspection activities that maximize a system performance measure within resource constraints. The method is applicable to a global allocation problem in which inspection resources are distributed throughout a hierarchy consisting of multiple countries, multiple facilities within each country, and multiple activities within each facility. 9 references.
Stochastic Cooling Studies in J.M. Brennan, M. Blaskiewicz, J. Wei
Stochastic Cooling Studies in RHIC J.M. Brennan, M. Blaskiewicz, J. Wei Brookhaven National Labs showed that momentum cooling could counteract IBS and increase integrated luminosity by x 2-3 [J. Wei and A.G. Ruggiero, AD/RHIC-71 1990] #12;Bunched-beam Stochastic Cooling · What would be required
Dynamic versus static allocation policies in multipurpose multireservoir systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tilmant, A.; Goor, Q.; Pinte, D.; van der Zaag, P.
2007-12-01
As the competition for water is likely to increase in the near future due to socioeconomic development and population growth, water resources managers will face hard choices when allocating water between competing users. Because water is a vital resource used in multiple sectors, including the environment, the allocation is inherently a political and social process, which is likely to become increasingly scrutinized as the competition grows between the different sectors. Since markets are usually absent or ineffective, the allocation of water between competing demands is achieved administratively taking into account key objectives such as economic efficiency, equity and maintaining the ecological integrity. When crop irrigation is involved, water is usually allocated by a system of annual rights to use a fixed, static, volume of water. In a fully-allocated basin, moving from a static to a dynamic allocation process, whereby the policies are regularly updated according to the hydrologic status of the river basin, is the first step towards the development of river basin management strategies that increase the productivity of water. More specifically, in a multipurpose multireservoir system, continuously adjusting release and withdrawal decisions based on the latest hydrologic information will increase the benefits derived from the system. However, the extent to which such an adjustment can be achieved results from complex spatial and temporal interactions between the physical characteristics of the water resources system (storage, natural flows), the economic and social consequences of rationing and the impacts on natural ecosystems. The complexity of the decision-making process, which requires the continuous evaluation of numerous trade-offs, calls for the use of integrated hydrologic-economic models. This paper compares static and dynamic management approaches for a cascade of hydropower-irrigation reservoirs using stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) formulations. As its name indicates, SDDP is an extension of SDP that removes the curse of dimensionality found in discrete SDP and can therefore be used to analyze large-scale water resources systems. For the static approach, the multiobjective (irrigation-hydropower) optimization problem is solved using the constraint method, i.e. net benefits from hydropower generation are maximized and irrigation water withdrawals are additional constraints. In the dynamic approach, the SDDP model seeks to maximize the net benefits of both hydropower and irrigation crop production. A cascade of 8 reservoirs in the Turkish and Syrian parts of the Euphrates river basin is used as a case study.
Learning Stochastic Finite Automata
Colin De La Higuera; José Oncina
2004-01-01
Stochastic deterministic finite automata have been intro- duced and are used in a variety of settings. We report here a number of results concerning the learnability of these finite state machines. In the setting of identification in the limit with probability one, we prove that stochastic deterministic finite automata cannot be identified from only a polynomial quantity of data. If
Ole Peters; Alexander Adamou
2011-01-01
It is argued that the simple trading strategy of leveraging or deleveraging an investment in the market portfolio cannot outperform the market. Such stochastic market efficiency places strong constraints on the possible stochastic properties of the market. Historical data confirm the hypothesis.
A Stochastic Employment Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wu, Teng
2013-01-01
The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…
Stochastic Complexity and Modeling
Jorma Rissanen
1986-01-01
As a modification of the notion of algorithmic complexity, the stochastic complexity of a string of data, relative to a class of probabilistic models, is defined to be the fewest number of binary digits with which the data can be encoded by taking advantage of the selected models. The computation of the stochastic complexity produces a model, which may be
Succession Model Landscape Stochasticity
100 1000 10000 patch sizes birth rate both Disturbance Model Landscape Stochasticity Low Control High" accomplished by incrementing the patch birth rate (Control: s = a = 10) A simple model of species viabilitySuccession Model Landscape Stochasticity Low Control High Very High ThresholdMultiplier 0.1 1 10
Improving locality with dynamic memory allocation
Jula, Alin Narcis
2009-05-15
. Context Friendly Previous work has used contextual information to improve performance through mem- ory allocation, and the following work serves as concrete instantiation of the generic memory allocation we propose in chapter VI. Barret and Zorn present...
Optimal Vaccination in a Stochastic Epidemic Model of Two Non-Interacting Populations
Yuan, Edwin C.; Alderson, David L.; Stromberg, Sean; Carlson, Jean M.
2015-01-01
Developing robust, quantitative methods to optimize resource allocations in response to epidemics has the potential to save lives and minimize health care costs. In this paper, we develop and apply a computationally efficient algorithm that enables us to calculate the complete probability distribution for the final epidemic size in a stochastic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model. Based on these results, we determine the optimal allocations of a limited quantity of vaccine between two non-interacting populations. We compare the stochastic solution to results obtained for the traditional, deterministic SIR model. For intermediate quantities of vaccine, the deterministic model is a poor estimate of the optimal strategy for the more realistic, stochastic case. PMID:25688857
Optimal vaccination in a stochastic epidemic model of two non-interacting populations.
Yuan, Edwin C; Alderson, David L; Stromberg, Sean; Carlson, Jean M
2015-01-01
Developing robust, quantitative methods to optimize resource allocations in response to epidemics has the potential to save lives and minimize health care costs. In this paper, we develop and apply a computationally efficient algorithm that enables us to calculate the complete probability distribution for the final epidemic size in a stochastic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model. Based on these results, we determine the optimal allocations of a limited quantity of vaccine between two non-interacting populations. We compare the stochastic solution to results obtained for the traditional, deterministic SIR model. For intermediate quantities of vaccine, the deterministic model is a poor estimate of the optimal strategy for the more realistic, stochastic case. PMID:25688857
Regulating nutrient allocation in plants
Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric
2014-12-09
The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.
Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.
2011-01-01
Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…
Resource allocation for broadband networks
Joseph Y. Hui
1988-01-01
The author suggests the use of congestion measures at the packet level, the burst level, and the call level to evaluate congestion for integrated traffic. These measures result from the fact that communication terminals can often be characterized in terms of call level, burst level, and packet level statistics. They can be used for the purpose of bandwidth allocation at
Theater level campaign resource allocation
Mikhail Krichman; Debasish Ghose; Jason L. Speyer; Jeff S. Shamma
2001-01-01
In a generic multistage multiresource theater level military game, each of the adversaries must make decisions of two types: temporal (what amount of each resource should be allocated for each stage) and spatial (movement of resources around the battlefield). This note is concerned, to a greater depth, with analysis and modeling of a temporal aspect of a game. This consideration
Allocation of attention across saccades.
Jonikaitis, Donatas; Szinte, Martin; Rolfs, Martin; Cavanagh, Patrick
2013-03-01
Whenever the eyes move, spatial attention must keep track of the locations of targets as they shift on the retina. This study investigated transsaccadic updating of visual attention to cued targets. While observers prepared a saccade, we flashed an irrelevant, but salient, color cue in their visual periphery and measured the allocation of spatial attention before and after the saccade using a tilt discrimination task. We found that just before the saccade, attention was allocated to the cue's future retinal location, its predictively "remapped" location. Attention was sustained at the cue's location in the world across the saccade, despite the change of retinal position whereas it decayed quickly at the retinal location of the cue, after the eye landed. By extinguishing the color cue across the saccade, we further demonstrate that the visual system relies only on predictive allocation of spatial attention, as the presence of the cue after the saccade did not substantially affect attentional allocation. These behavioral results support and extend physiological evidence showing predictive activation of visual neurons when an attended stimulus will fall in their receptive field after a saccade. Our results show that tracking of spatial locations across saccades is a plausible consequence of physiological remapping. PMID:23221410
Dexamethasone Added to Lidocaine Prolongs Axillary Brachial Plexus Blockade
Ali Movafegh; Mehran Razazian; Fatemeh Hajimaohamadi; Alipasha Meysamie
2006-01-01
Different additives have been used to prolong regional blockade. We designed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the effect of dexameth- asone added to lidocaine on the onset and duration of axillary brachial plexus block. Sixty patients scheduled for elective hand and forearm surgery under axillary brachial plexus block were randomly allocated to re- ceive either 34 mL lidocaine
Flexible allocation and space management in storage systems
Kang, Suk Woo
2007-09-17
scenarios, for example: (a) space on the disk is not allocated well across multiple file systems, (b) data is not organized well for typical access patterns. We propose Virtual Allocation for flexible storage allocation. Virtual allocation separates storage...
SHALE: An Efficient Algorithm for Allocation of Guaranteed Display Advertising
Bharadwaj, Vijay; Ma, Wenjing; Nagarajan, Chandrashekhar; Tomlin, John; Vassilvitskii, Sergei; Vee, Erik; Yang, Jian
2012-01-01
Motivated by the problem of optimizing allocation in guaranteed display advertising, we develop an efficient, lightweight method of generating a compact {\\em allocation plan} that can be used to guide ad server decisions. The plan itself uses just O(1) state per guaranteed contract, is robust to noise, and allows us to serve (provably) nearly optimally. The optimization method we develop is scalable, with a small in-memory footprint, and working in linear time per iteration. It is also "stop-anytime", meaning that time-critical applications can stop early and still get a good serving solution. Thus, it is particularly useful for optimizing the large problems arising in the context of display advertising. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm using actual Yahoo! data.
KOALA: a co-allocating grid scheduler
Hashim H. Mohamed; Dick H. J. Epema
2008-01-01
SUMMARY In multicluster systems, and more generally in grids, jobs may require co-allocation, that is, the simul- taneous or coordinated access of single applications to resources of possibly multiple types in multiple locations managed by different resource managers. Co-allocation presents new challenges to resource management in grids, such as locating sufficient resources in geographically distributed sites, allocating and managing resources
Communication Constrained Task Allocation For Robotic Networks
Lynch, Nancy
Communication Constrained Task Allocation For Robotic Networks Stephen L. Smith Distibuted Robotics Lab CSAIL MIT 2010 TDS Talk March 19, 2010 Joint work with Francesco Bullo Stephen L. Smith Task: robots divide tasks among themselves Stephen L. Smith Task Allocation 2 #12;Task allocation Given
Distributed Wireless Resource Allocation Game Jianwei Huang
Huang, Jianwei
. 9, 2005 J. Huang (NWU) Distributed Resource Allocation Game Sept. 9, 2005 1 / 34 #12;Wireless of Service (QoS) requirements? J. Huang (NWU) Distributed Resource Allocation Game Sept. 9, 2005 2 / 34 #12. J. Huang (NWU) Distributed Resource Allocation Game Sept. 9, 2005 3 / 34 #12;Talk Outline Network
Joint scheduling and allocation for low power
Yu Fang; Alexander Albicki
1996-01-01
In this paper, we propose a joint scheduling and allocation scheme for synthesizing low power VLSI architecture from behavioral descriptions. Sibling operations are defined and hardware sharing between them is enabled during the integrated scheduling and allocation phase. Combined with data movement minimization in register allocation and idle cycle enforcement in controller synthesis, VLSI architecture with low power consumption is
Renaud Gauthier
2014-07-25
We develop the foundations of Algebraic Stochastic Calculus, with an aim to replacing what is typically referred to as Stochastic Calculus by a purely categorical version thereof. We first give a sheaf theoretic reinterpretation of Probability Theory. We regard probability spaces (X, F, P) as Grothendieck sites (F, J_P) on which Brownian motions are defined via sheaves in symmetric monoidal infinity-categories. Due to the complex nature of such a formalism we are naturally led to considering a purely categorical, time independent formalism in which stochastic differential equations are replaced by studying problems in deformation theory.
Allocating Variability and Reserve Requirements (Presentation)
Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.
2011-10-01
This presentation describes how you could conceivably allocate variability and reserve requirements, including how to allocate aggregation benefits. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Aggregation provides benefits because individual requirements are not 100% correlated; (2) Method needed to allocate reduced requirement among participants; (3) Differences between allocation results are subtle - (a) Not immediately obvious which method is 'better'; (b) Many are numerically 'correct', they sum to the physical requirement; (c) Many are not 'fair', Results depend on sub-aggregation and/or the order individuals are included; and (4) Vector allocation method is simple and fair.
Stochastic beamforming for cochlear implant coding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morse, Robert P.; Holmes, Stephen D.; Shulgin, Boris; Nikitin, Alexander; Stocks, Nigel G.
2007-06-01
Cochlear implants are prosthetic devices used to provide hearing to people who would otherwise be profoundly deaf. The deliberate addition of noise to the electrode signals could increase the amount of information transmitted, but standard cochlear implants do not replicate the noise characteristic of normal hearing because if noise is added in an uncontrolled manner with a limited number of electrodes then it will almost certainly lead to worse performance. Only if partially independent stochastic activity can be achieved in each nerve fibre can mechanisms like suprathreshold stochastic resonance be effective. We are investigating the use of stochastic beamforming to achieve greater independence. The strategy involves presenting each electrode with a linear combination of independent Gaussian noise sources. Because the cochlea is filled with conductive salt solutions, the noise currents from the electrodes interact and the effective stimulus for each nerve fibre will therefore be a different weighted sum of the noise sources. To some extent therefore, the effective stimulus for a nerve fibre will be independent of the effective stimulus of neighbouring fibres. For a particular patient, the electrode position and the amount of current spread are fixed. The objective is therefore to find the linear combination of noise sources that leads to the greatest independence between nerve discharges. In this theoretical study we show that it is possible to get one independent point of excitation (one null) for each electrode and that stochastic beamforming can greatly decrease the correlation between the noise exciting different regions of the cochlea.
Dynamic Resource Allocation in Disaster Response: Tradeoffs in Wildfire Suppression
Petrovic, Nada; Alderson, David L.; Carlson, Jean M.
2012-01-01
Challenges associated with the allocation of limited resources to mitigate the impact of natural disasters inspire fundamentally new theoretical questions for dynamic decision making in coupled human and natural systems. Wildfires are one of several types of disaster phenomena, including oil spills and disease epidemics, where (1) the disaster evolves on the same timescale as the response effort, and (2) delays in response can lead to increased disaster severity and thus greater demand for resources. We introduce a minimal stochastic process to represent wildfire progression that nonetheless accurately captures the heavy tailed statistical distribution of fire sizes observed in nature. We then couple this model for fire spread to a series of response models that isolate fundamental tradeoffs both in the strength and timing of response and also in division of limited resources across multiple competing suppression efforts. Using this framework, we compute optimal strategies for decision making scenarios that arise in fire response policy. PMID:22514605
Efficient Algorithms for Renewable Energy Allocation to Delay Tolerant Consumers
Neely, Michael J; Dimakis, Alexandros G
2010-01-01
We investigate the problem of allocating energy from renewable sources to flexible consumers in electricity markets. We assume there is a renewable energy supplier that provides energy according to a time-varying (and possibly unpredictable) supply process. The plant must serve consumers within a specified delay window, and incurs a cost of drawing energy from other (possibly non-renewable) sources if its own supply is not sufficient to meet the deadlines. We formulate two stochastic optimization problems: The first seeks to minimize the time average cost of using the other sources (and hence strives for the most efficient utilization of the renewable source). The second allows the renewable source to dynamically set a price for its service, and seeks to maximize the resulting time average profit. These problems are solved via the Lyapunov optimization technique. Our resulting algorithms do not require knowledge of the statistics of the time-varying supply and demand processes and are robust to arbitrary samp...
Bifurcation Analysis of Stochastic Non-smooth Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaus, Nicole; Proppe, Carsten
Non-smooth systems with stochastic parameters are important models e.g. for brake and cam follower systems. They show special bifurcation phenomena, such as grazing bifurcations. This contribution studies the influence of stochastic processes on bifurcations in non-smooth systems. As an example, the classical mass on a belt system is considered, where stick-slip vibrations occur. Measurements indicate that the friction coefficient which plays a large role in the system behavior is not deterministic but can be described as a friction characteristic with added white noise. Therefore, a stochastic process is introduced into the non-smooth model and its influence on the bifurcation behavior is studied. It is shown that the stochastic process may alter the bifurcation behavior of the deterministic system.
Stochastic Optimization Modeling
2014-07-04
Budgeting problem, so that the expected profit of the advertising investment is ... survey about dynamic advertising (deterministic and stochastic approaches) can ...... A chance constraints goal programming model for the advertising planning.
Spring, William Joseph [Quantum Information and Probability Group, School of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)
2009-04-13
We consider quantum analogues of n-parameter stochastic processes, associated integrals and martingale properties extending classical results obtained in [1, 2, 3], and quantum results in [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].
Optimal Bed Allocation in Hospitals
Xiaodong Li; Patrick Beullens; Dylan Jones; Mehrdad Tamiz
In this paper a decision aiding model is introduced for optimizing the allocation of beds in a hospital. The model is based\\u000a on queueing theory and goal programming (GP). Queueing theory is used to obtain some essential characteristics of access to\\u000a various departments (or specialities) within the hospital. Results from the queueing models are used to construct a multi-objective\\u000a decision
Oh, Jae-hyuk
2015-01-01
We have studied a mathematical relationship between holographic Wilsonian renormalization group(HWRG) and stochastic quantization(SQ) of scalar field with arbitrary mass in AdS spacetime. In the stochastic theory, the field is described by an equation with a form of harmonic oscillator with time dependent frequency and its Euclidean action also shows explicit time dependent kernel in it. We have obtained the stochastic 2-point correlation function and demonstrate that it reproduces the radial evolution of the double trace operator correctly via the suggested relation given in arXiv:1209.2242. Moreover, we justify our stochastic procedure with time dependent kernel by showing that it can map to a new stochastic theory with a standard kernel without time dependence.
Jae-hyuk Oh
2015-04-13
We have studied a mathematical relationship between holographic Wilsonian renormalization group(HWRG) and stochastic quantization(SQ) of scalar field with arbitrary mass in AdS spacetime. In the stochastic theory, the field is described by an equation with a form of harmonic oscillator with time dependent frequency and its Euclidean action also shows explicit time dependent kernel in it. We have obtained the stochastic 2-point correlation function and demonstrate that it reproduces the radial evolution of the double trace operator correctly via the suggested relation given in arXiv:1209.2242. Moreover, we justify our stochastic procedure with time dependent kernel by showing that it can map to a new stochastic theory with a standard kernel without time dependence.
Stochastic Models of Evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.
To continue the discussion of randomness given in Sect. 2.2.1, we briefly touch on stochastic models of temporal evolution (random processes). They can be specified either via explicit definition of their statistical properties (probability density functions, correlation functions, etc., Sects. 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3) or via stochastic difference or differential equations. Some of the most widely known equations, their properties and applications are discussed in Sects. 4.4 and 4.5.
Paul E. Mckenney
1990-01-01
A class of algorithms called stochastic fairness queuing is presented. The algorithms are probabilistic variants of fairness queuing. They do not require an exact mapping and thus are suitable for high-speed software or firmware implementation. The algorithms span a broad range of CPU, memory, and fairness tradeoffs. It is shown that the worst-case execution-speed stochastic fairness queuing is faster than
Constant time worker thread allocation via configuration caching
Eichenberger, Alexandre E; O'Brien, John K. P.
2014-11-04
Mechanisms are provided for allocating threads for execution of a parallel region of code. A request for allocation of worker threads to execute the parallel region of code is received from a master thread. Cached thread allocation information identifying prior thread allocations that have been performed for the master thread are accessed. Worker threads are allocated to the master thread based on the cached thread allocation information. The parallel region of code is executed using the allocated worker threads.
Marquez, Horacio J.
A stochastic optimization approach to mine truck allocation C. H. TA{, J. V. KRESTA{, J. F. FORBES, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G-2V4, Canada In the mining industry, truck assignment is an important and complex; Chance-constrained; Oilsand mining 1. Introduction In the open-pit mining industry, trucks and shovels
Strategic planning for disaster recovery with stochastic last mile distribution
Bent, Russell Whitford [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van Hentenryck, Pascal [BROWN UNIV.; Coffrin, Carleton [BROWN UNIV.
2010-01-01
This paper considers the single commodity allocation problem (SCAP) for disaster recovery, a fundamental problem faced by all populated areas. SCAPs are complex stochastic optimization problems that combine resource allocation, warehouse routing, and parallel fleet routing. Moreover, these problems must be solved under tight runtime constraints to be practical in real-world disaster situations. This paper formalizes the specification of SCAPs and introduces a novel multi-stage hybrid-optimization algorithm that utilizes the strengths of mixed integer programming, constraint programming, and large neighborhood search. The algorithm was validated on hurricane disaster scenarios generated by Los Alamos National Laboratory using state-of-the-art disaster simulation tools and is deployed to aid federal organizations in the US.
Resource allocation using constraint propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, John S.
1990-01-01
The concept of constraint propagation was discussed. Performance increases are possible with careful application of these constraint mechanisms. The degree of performance increase is related to the interdependence of the different activities resource usage. Although this method of applying constraints to activities and resources is often beneficial, it is obvious that this is no panacea cure for the computational woes that are experienced by dynamic resource allocation and scheduling problems. A combined effort for execution optimization in all areas of the system during development and the selection of the appropriate development environment is still the best method of producing an efficient system.
Determining the Appropriate Asset Allocation
Johnson, Jason; Polk, Wade
2002-08-12
with your objectives and risk tolerance pro- file. It is estimated that more than 90 percent of the variation in investment returns over time is a result of asset allocation. So, deter- mining the appropriate asset allo- cation is crucial to investment suc... appropriate invest- ments. Your time horizon is the number of years you have avail- able to invest. It includes the time until you reach your goal, as well as the period during which you make withdrawals from your investment. For example, if you are saving...
An intelligent allocation algorithm for parallel processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carroll, Chester C.; Homaifar, Abdollah; Ananthram, Kishan G.
1988-01-01
The problem of allocating nodes of a program graph to processors in a parallel processing architecture is considered. The algorithm is based on critical path analysis, some allocation heuristics, and the execution granularity of nodes in a program graph. These factors, and the structure of interprocessor communication network, influence the allocation. To achieve realistic estimations of the executive durations of allocations, the algorithm considers the fact that nodes in a program graph have to communicate through varying numbers of tokens. Coarse and fine granularities have been implemented, with interprocessor token-communication duration, varying from zero up to values comparable to the execution durations of individual nodes. The effect on allocation of communication network structures is demonstrated by performing allocations for crossbar (non-blocking) and star (blocking) networks. The algorithm assumes the availability of as many processors as it needs for the optimal allocation of any program graph. Hence, the focus of allocation has been on varying token-communication durations rather than varying the number of processors. The algorithm always utilizes as many processors as necessary for the optimal allocation of any program graph, depending upon granularity and characteristics of the interprocessor communication network.
Campaign allocations under probabilistic voting
Deborah Fletcher; Steven Slutsky
2011-01-01
We develop a probabilistic voting model where candidates compete by advertising in different media markets. Ads are viewed\\u000a by everyone within a market and cannot be targeted to subgroups such as one candidate’s partisans. Candidates estimate the\\u000a distribution of voter preference intensities in a market, and campaign ads then shift this distribution. Individuals with\\u000a any intensity vote with some probability
Altarelli, F; Braunstein, A; Ramezanpour, A; Zecchina, R
2011-05-13
The matching problem plays a basic role in combinatorial optimization and in statistical mechanics. In its stochastic variants, optimization decisions have to be taken given only some probabilistic information about the instance. While the deterministic case can be solved in polynomial time, stochastic variants are worst-case intractable. We propose an efficient method to solve stochastic matching problems which combines some features of the survey propagation equations and of the cavity method. We test it on random bipartite graphs, for which we analyze the phase diagram and compare the results with exact bounds. Our approach is shown numerically to be effective on the full range of parameters, and to outperform state-of-the-art methods. Finally we discuss how the method can be generalized to other problems of optimization under uncertainty. PMID:21668134
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altarelli, F.; Braunstein, A.; Ramezanpour, A.; Zecchina, R.
2011-05-01
The matching problem plays a basic role in combinatorial optimization and in statistical mechanics. In its stochastic variants, optimization decisions have to be taken given only some probabilistic information about the instance. While the deterministic case can be solved in polynomial time, stochastic variants are worst-case intractable. We propose an efficient method to solve stochastic matching problems which combines some features of the survey propagation equations and of the cavity method. We test it on random bipartite graphs, for which we analyze the phase diagram and compare the results with exact bounds. Our approach is shown numerically to be effective on the full range of parameters, and to outperform state-of-the-art methods. Finally we discuss how the method can be generalized to other problems of optimization under uncertainty.
Basic stochastic simulation: Stochastic simulation algorithm
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2013-06-21
The stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA, Kinetic Monte Carlo, Gillespie algorithm) produces an example trajectory for a particular member of a probabilistic ensemble by looping over the following steps. The current state of the system is used to determine the likelihood of each possible chemical reaction in relative comparison to the likelihoods for the other possible reactions, as well as to determine when the next reaction is expected. Pseudo-random numbers are drawn to "roll the dice" to determine exactly when the next reaction will proceed, and which kind of reaction it will happen to be.
Lidong Zhou; Zygmunt J. Haas
1999-01-01
Ad hoc networks are a new wireless networking paradigm for mobile hosts. Unlike traditional mobile wireless networks, ad hoc networks do not rely on any fixed infrastructure. Instead, hosts rely on each other to keep the network connected. The military tactical and other security-sensitive operations are still the main applications of ad hoc networks, although there is a trend to
Stochastic Models of Human Growth.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goodrich, Robert L.
Stochastic difference equations of the Box-Jenkins form provide an adequate family of models on which to base the stochastic theory of human growth processes, but conventional time series identification methods do not apply to available data sets. A method to identify structure and parameters of stochastic difference equation models of human…
Stochastic Optimization for Machine Learning
Powell, Warren B.
with hinge loss (SVM) ||g(k)||2 G = sup ||xi||2 #12;Stochastic vs Batch Gradient Descent x1,y1 x2,y2 x3,y3 x setup, and its relationship to Statistical Learning and Online Learning · Understand Stochastic Gradient to Gradient Descent and its analysis · Become familiar with concepts and approaches Stochastic Optimization
Stochastic extensions of the regularized Schrödinger-Newton equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nimmrichter, Stefan; Hornberger, Klaus
2015-01-01
We show that the Schrödinger-Newton equation, which describes the nonlinear time evolution of self-gravitating quantum matter, can be made compatible with the no-signaling requirement by elevating it to a stochastic differential equation. In the deterministic form of the equation, as studied so far, the nonlinearity would lead to diverging energy corrections for localized wave packets and would create observable correlations admitting faster-than-light communication. By regularizing the divergencies and adding specific random jumps or a specific Brownian noise process, the effect of the nonlinearity vanishes in the stochastic average and gives rise to a linear and Galilean invariant evolution of the density operator.
Controlling of explicit internal signal stochastic resonance by external signal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ya Ping; Wang, Pin; Li, Qian Shu
2004-09-01
Explicit internal signal stochastic resonance (EISSR) is investigated in a model of energy transduction of molecular machinery when noise is added to the region of oscillation in the presence of external signal (ES). It is found that EISSR could be controlled, i.e., enhanced or suppressed by adjusting frequency (?e) and amplitude (A) of ES, and that there exits an optimal frequency for ES, which makes EISSR strength reach the maximum. Meanwhile, a critical amplitude (Ac) is found, which is a threshold of occurrence of EISSR. Finally, the difference and similarity between EISSR and IISSR (implicit internal signal stochastic resonance) are discussed.
Fairness improves throughput in energy-constrained cooperative Ad-Hoc networks
Lin Dai; Wei Chen; Leonard J. Cimini Jr.; Khaled Ben Letaief
2009-01-01
In ad-hoc networks, cooperative diversity is especially beneficial where the use of multiple antennas may be impractical. There has been a lot of work on improving the peer-to-peer link quality by using advanced coding or power and rate allocation between a single source node and its relays. However, how to fairly and efficiently allocate resources among multiple users and their
Stochasticity, a first introduction
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2013-06-21
Even when we model the dynamics of the abundances of molecules inside biological systems using calculus, it is important to remember that underlying behavior can be apparently random ("stochastic"). Even a deterministic system containing components moving in periodic ways can, at early times, support dynamics that appear disordered. The behavior of systems containing complicated collections of interacting parts can be difficult to predict with accuracy (chaos). Finally, systems can display stochasticity because the outcomes of measurements on quantum systems are indeterminate in a fundamental way. Random processes are modeled using Markov models.
Decentralized stochastic control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Speyer, J. L.
1980-01-01
Decentralized stochastic control is characterized by being decentralized in that the information to one controller is not the same as information to another controller. The system including the information has a stochastic or uncertain component. This complicates the development of decision rules which one determines under the assumption that the system is deterministic. The system is dynamic which means the present decisions affect future system responses and the information in the system. This circumstance presents a complex problem where tools like dynamic programming are no longer applicable. These difficulties are discussed from an intuitive viewpoint. Particular assumptions are introduced which allow a limited theory which produces mechanizable affine decision rules.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Here's a site that's both fun and useful to students of American pop culture. Billing itself "the world's largest searchable database of classic print ads," AdFlip may be keyword searched or browsed by several methods. The ads are indexed by category (automotive, electronic, fashion, etc.), decade (1940s to current), and several specialty categories (ad as art, famous, advocacy, provocative [a few nudes here], today's top ten). Each collection of ads (presented as thumbnails) can be displayed by date, name, or ID number. Each of the decade collections can be further refined by a number of categories, such as automotive manufacturers, women's fashion, alcohol, and furniture and appliances, among others.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grafton, R. Quentin; Chu, Hoang Long; Stewardson, Michael; Kompas, Tom
2011-12-01
A key challenge in managing semiarid basins, such as in the Murray-Darling in Australia, is to balance the trade-offs between the net benefits of allocating water for irrigated agriculture, and other uses, versus the costs of reduced surface flows for the environment. Typically, water planners do not have the tools to optimally and dynamically allocate water among competing uses. We address this problem by developing a general stochastic, dynamic programming model with four state variables (the drought status, the current weather, weather correlation, and current storage) and two controls (environmental release and irrigation allocation) to optimally allocate water between extractions and in situ uses. The model is calibrated to Australia's Murray River that generates: (1) a robust qualitative result that "pulse" or artificial flood events are an optimal way to deliver environmental flows over and above conveyance of base flows; (2) from 2001 to 2009 a water reallocation that would have given less to irrigated agriculture and more to environmental flows would have generated between half a billion and over 3 billion U.S. dollars in overall economic benefits; and (3) water markets increase optimal environmental releases by reducing the losses associated with reduced water diversions.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The creators of BadAds believe that advertising has become far too intrusive in American lives. Along with TV, magazine, radio ads, and billboards, advertisements and commercials are popping up in movie theatres, schools, public bathrooms, and even on stickers on fruit. Four criteria determine whether advertising is intrusive: an inability to turn the ad off; its entrance into your home without your consent; your lack of choice whether or not to watch it; and ads that don't support anything in particular and may actually cost you money. Rather than just venting about intrusive advertising, BadAds urges visitors to become active in the fight against bad ads by writing complaint letters to a host of venues that support intrusive advertising including movie theaters, sporting venues, television networks, and the heads of educational institutions. BadAds offers instructions on writing complaint letters as well as many suggestions as to who should receive these letters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bekri, Eleni; Yannopoulos, Panayotis; Disse, Markus
2013-04-01
In the present study, a combined linear programming methodology, based on Li et al. (2010) and Bekri et al. (2012), is employed for optimizing water allocation under uncertain system conditions in the Alfeios River Basin, in Greece. The Alfeios River is a water resources system of great natural, ecological, social and economic importance for Western Greece, since it has the longest and highest flow rate watercourse in the Peloponnisos region. Moreover, the river basin was exposed in the last decades to a plethora of environmental stresses (e.g. hydrogeological alterations, intensively irrigated agriculture, surface and groundwater overexploitation and infrastructure developments), resulting in the degradation of its quantitative and qualitative characteristics. As in most Mediterranean countries, water resource management in Alfeios River Basin has been focused up to now on an essentially supply-driven approach. It is still characterized by a lack of effective operational strategies. Authority responsibility relationships are fragmented, and law enforcement and policy implementation are weak. The present regulated water allocation puzzle entails a mixture of hydropower generation, irrigation, drinking water supply and recreational activities. Under these conditions its water resources management is characterised by high uncertainty and by vague and imprecise data. The considered methodology has been developed in order to deal with uncertainties expressed as either probability distributions, or/and fuzzy boundary intervals, derived by associated ?-cut levels. In this framework a set of deterministic submodels is studied through linear programming. The ad hoc water resources management and alternative management patterns in an Alfeios subbasin are analyzed and evaluated under various scenarios, using the above mentioned methodology, aiming to promote a sustainable and equitable water management. Li, Y.P., Huang, G.H. and S.L., Nie, (2010), Planning water resources management systems using a fuzzy-boundary interval-stochastic programming method, Elsevier Ltd, Advances in Water Resources, 33: 1105-1117. doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2010.06.015 Bekri, E.S., Disse, M. and P.C.,Yannopoulos, (2012), Methodological framework for correction of quick river discharge measurements using quality characteristics, Session of Environmental Hydraulics - Hydrodynamics, 2nd Common Conference of Hellenic Hydrotechnical Association and Greek Committee for Water Resources Management, Volume: 546-557 (in Greek).
OPTIMAL RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN DOWNLINK CDMA WIRELESS
Boucherie, Richard J.
OPTIMAL RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN DOWNLINK CDMA WIRELESS NETWORKS Irwan Endrayanto Aluicius #12;OPTIMAL RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN DOWNLINK CDMA WIRELESS NETWORKS #12;Dissertation committee Chairman : prof. The research was made possible by the Technology Foundation STW (TWI.4412), applied science division of NWO
Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baum, William M.
2012-01-01
The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: "allocation," "induction," and "correlation." Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of…
Function allocation: algorithm, alchemy or apostasy?
Thomas B. Sheridan
2000-01-01
Fitts gave us our list, the function allocation counterpart of Moses' 10 commandments, or Luther's 95 theses. Based on the qualitative axioms of Fitts, we have sought to evolve function allocation into a science. But can usable algorithms or procedures be attained? Thus far the logic has eluded us, in spite of valiant efforts. Some have declared in disgust that
Temporal Task Allocation in Periodic Environments
Birattari, Mauro
a robot swarm that has to perform task allocation in an environment that features periodic properties that synchronizes robots of the swarm with the environment and with each other. In this algorithm, robots use only that a robot swarm that uses the proposed temporal task allocation algorithm performs consider- ably more tasks
Register allocation by priority-based coloring
Frederick Chow; John L. Hennessy
1984-01-01
The classic problem of global register allocation is treated in a heuristic and practical manner by adopting the notion of priorities in node-coloring. The assignment of priorities is based on estimates of the benefits that can be derived from allocating individual quantities in registers. Using the priorities, the exponential coloring process can be made to run in linear time. Since
Budget allocation and the analytic hierarchy process
Hulme, B.L. (Hulme Mathematics (USA))
1990-10-01
This report demonstrates that the priorities calculated by the Analytic Hierarchy Process can be used as measures of benefit for budget allocation. A procedure is described that optimally allocates a budget among competing DOE waste minimization projects. The projects are compared using an analytic hierarchy already developed by Sandia National Laboratories. 2 refs., 3 tabs.
UNIVERSITY SPACE POLICY ALLOCATION OF UNIVERSITY SPACE
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN UNIVERSITY SPACE POLICY #12;ALLOCATION OF UNIVERSITY SPACE I Purpose To provide a methodology for the allocation of space across the University II Background Due to the university's success in attracting research funding, the need for space and facilities has grown
Justice in Grades Allocation: Teachers' Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Resh, Nura
2009-01-01
In this investigation I explore teachers' perspectives on just grade allocation. The study was carried out among language, math and science teachers in a national sample of Israeli high schools, where teachers were required to weigh a set of considerations that are used in the decision on grade allocation. Findings suggest that (a) a teacher's…
An Integrated Approach to Resource Allocation
Louise M. Terry
2004-01-01
Resource allocation decisions are often made on the basis of clinical and cost effectiveness at the expense of ethical inquiry into what is acceptable. This paper proposes that a more compassionate model of resource allocation would be achieved through integrating ethical awareness with clinical, financial and legal input. Where a publicly-funded healthcare system is involved, it is suggested that having
Technical and allocative efficiency in European banking
Sophocles N. Brissimis; Manthos D. Delis; Efthymios G. Tsionas
2010-01-01
This paper specifies an empirical framework for estimating both technical and allocative efficiency using the translog cost-share system, thus providing a solution to the issue known in the literature as the Greene problem. The model is applied to a large panel of European banks and the results are compared with those of a model that does not include an allocative
Evolution and Ecology of Sex Allocation
West, Stuart
sexually reproducing organism, as the same general principles underlie sex allocation in dioecious.6.3 Coefficients of relatedness 37 2.6.4 Solutions 39 #12;4 CHAPTER 3 Extreme sex ratios of green (Chelonia mydasEvolution and Ecology of Sex Allocation Sarah E Reece Submitted for the Degree of Doctor
Acquisitions Allocations: Fairness, Equity and Bundled Pricing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Packer, Donna
2001-01-01
Examined the effect of an interdisciplinary Web-based citation database with full text, the ProQuest Research Library, on the Western State University library's acquisitions allocation plan. Used list price of full-text journals to calculate increases in acquisitions funding. A list of articles discussing formula allocation is appended.…
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
...Allocations. On October 1 of each fiscal year, the FHWA will allocate 66 percent of Public Lands Highway funds, by FS Region, for FHs using values based on relative transportation needs of the NFS, after deducting such sums as deemed necessary for the...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
...Allocations. On October 1 of each fiscal year, the FHWA will allocate 66 percent of Public Lands Highway funds, by FS Region, for FHs using values based on relative transportation needs of the NFS, after deducting such sums as deemed necessary for the...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
...Allocations. On October 1 of each fiscal year, the FHWA will allocate 66 percent of Public Lands Highway funds, by FS Region, for FHs using values based on relative transportation needs of the NFS, after deducting such sums as deemed necessary for the...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...Allocations. On October 1 of each fiscal year, the FHWA will allocate 66 percent of Public Lands Highway funds, by FS Region, for FHs using values based on relative transportation needs of the NFS, after deducting such sums as deemed necessary for the...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...Allocations. On October 1 of each fiscal year, the FHWA will allocate 66 percent of Public Lands Highway funds, by FS Region, for FHs using values based on relative transportation needs of the NFS, after deducting such sums as deemed necessary for the...
47 CFR 64.903 - Cost allocation manuals.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation manuals. 64.903 Section 64.903...MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.903 Cost allocation manuals. (a) Each incumbent...
24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...ASSISTANCE FUNDS Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance... The allocation planning process should provide for the equitable distribution of available budget authority, consistent with...housing need, that the amount of budget authority being allocated...
24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...ASSISTANCE FUNDS Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance... The allocation planning process should provide for the equitable distribution of available budget authority, consistent with...housing need, that the amount of budget authority being allocated...
47 CFR 64.903 - Cost allocation manuals.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation manuals. 64.903 Section 64.903...MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.903 Cost allocation manuals. (a) Each incumbent...
Are outcome-adaptive allocation trials ethical?
Hey, Spencer Phillips; Kimmelman, Jonathan
2015-04-01
Randomization is firmly established as a cornerstone of clinical trial methodology. Yet, the ethics of randomization continues to generate controversy. The default, and most efficient, allocation scheme randomizes patients equally (1:1) across all arms of study. However, many randomized trials are using outcome-adaptive allocation schemes, which dynamically adjust the allocation ratio in favor of the better performing treatment arm. Advocates of outcome-adaptive allocation contend that it better accommodates clinical equipoise and promotes informed consent, since such trials limit patient-subject exposure to sub-optimal care. In this essay, we argue that this purported ethical advantage of outcome-adaptive allocation does not stand up to careful scrutiny in the setting of two-armed studies and/or early-phase research. PMID:25649106
Bioethics for clinicians: 13. Resource allocation
McKneally, M F; Dickens, B M; Meslin, E M; Singer, P A
1997-01-01
Questions of resource allocation can pose practical and ethical dilemmas for clinicians. In the Aristotelian conception of distributive justice, the unequal allocation of a scarce resource may be justified by morally relevant factors such as need or likelihood of benefit. Even using these criteria, it can be difficult to reconcile completing claims to determine which patients should be given priority. To what extent the physician's fiduciary duty toward a patient should supersede the interests of other patients and society as a whole is also a matter of controversy. Although the courts have been reluctant to become involved in allocation decisions in health care, they expect physicians to show allegiance to their patients regardless of budgetary concerns. The allocation of resources on the basis of clinically irrelevant factors such as religion or sexual orientation is prohibited. Clear, fair and publicly acceptable institutional and professional policies can help to ensure that resource allocation decisions are transparent and defensible. PMID:9238146
Bioethics for clinicians: 13. Resource allocation.
McKneally, M F; Dickens, B M; Meslin, E M; Singer, P A
1997-07-15
Questions of resource allocation can pose practical and ethical dilemmas for clinicians. In the Aristotelian conception of distributive justice, the unequal allocation of a scarce resource may be justified by morally relevant factors such as need or likelihood of benefit. Even using these criteria, it can be difficult to reconcile completing claims to determine which patients should be given priority. To what extent the physician's fiduciary duty toward a patient should supersede the interests of other patients and society as a whole is also a matter of controversy. Although the courts have been reluctant to become involved in allocation decisions in health care, they expect physicians to show allegiance to their patients regardless of budgetary concerns. The allocation of resources on the basis of clinically irrelevant factors such as religion or sexual orientation is prohibited. Clear, fair and publicly acceptable institutional and professional policies can help to ensure that resource allocation decisions are transparent and defensible. PMID:9238146
STOCHASTIC NETWORK INTERDICTION
Morton, David
nuclear weapon [8]. In the Wiley Encyclopedia of Operations Research and Management Science, edited, we also con- sider deterministic and stochastic models for interdicting a maximum-reliability path reserve [5]. Alternatively, the operations problem can involve transport of illicit nuclear material
Jackson, Philip JB
modulation spectrum Experiments Results TFM space Conclusion Simulation tests Â· Gaussian white noise samples Magnitude modulation spectrum Experiments Results TFM space Conclusion Simulation tests Â· Gaussian white n spectrum Experiments Results TFM space Conclusion Time-frequency-modulation representation of stochastic
AdS Phase Transitions at finite ?
Gianni Tallarita
2011-08-17
We investigate the effect of adding a Chern-Simons term coupled to an axion field to SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills in a fixed $AdS_4$/Schwarzschild background. We show that, when the axion has no potential, there is a phase transition between a Reissner-Nordstrom black-hole and one with a non-abelian condensate as per the vanishing Chern-Simons case. Furthermore, by giving the axion field a mass, one observes a phase transition between a Reissner-Nordstrom black-hole with axion hair to a "superconducting" phase which also has a non-trivial axion profile. We are able to perform a preliminary analysis for this interesting case and observe that we can shift the critical temperature at which the phase transition occurs and observe interesting features of the order parameter scaling form.
Carbon allocation and accumulation in conifers
Gower, S.T.; Isebrands, J.G.; Sheriff, D.W.
1995-07-01
Forests cover approximately 33% of the land surface of the earth, yet they are responsible for 65% of the annual carbon (C) accumulated by all terrestrial biomes. In general, total C content and net primary production rates are greater for forests than for other biomes, but C budgets differ greatly among forests. Despite several decades of research on forest C budgets, there is still an incomplete understanding of the factors controlling C allocation. Yet, if we are to understand how changing global events such as land use, climate change, atmospheric N deposition, ozone, and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} affect the global C budget, a mechanistic understanding of C assimilation, partitioning, and allocation is necessary. The objective of this chapter is to review the major factors that influence C allocation and accumulation in conifer trees and forests. In keeping with the theme of this book, we will focus primarily on evergreen conifers. However, even among evergreen conifers, leaf, canopy, and stand-level C and nutrient allocation patterns differ, often as a function of leaf development and longevity. The terminology related to C allocation literature is often inconsistent, confusing and inadequate for understanding and integrating past and current research. For example, terms often used synonymously to describe C flow or movement include translocation, transport, distribution, allocation, partitioning, apportionment, and biomass allocation. A common terminology is needed because different terms have different meanings to readers. In this paper we use C allocation, partitioning, and accumulation according to the definitions of Dickson and Isebrands (1993). Partitioning is the process of C flow into and among different chemical, storage, and transport pools. Allocation is the distribution of C to different plant parts within the plant (i.e., source to sink). Accumulation is the end product of the process of C allocation.
Estanislao Herscovich; Pablo Minces; Carmen Nunez
2006-03-15
Correlation functions of one unit spectral flowed states in string theory on AdS_3 are considered. We present the modified Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov and null vector equations to be satisfied by amplitudes containing states in winding sector one and study their solution corresponding to the four point function including one w=1 field. We compute the three point function involving two one unit spectral flowed operators and find expressions for amplitudes of three w=1 states satisfying certain particular relations among the spins of the fields. Several consistency checks are performed.
Stefano Bolognesi; David Tong
2012-04-26
We study the formation of fermion condensates in Anti de Sitter space. In particular, we describe a novel version of magnetic catalysis that arises for fermions in asymptotically AdS4 geometries which cap off in the infra-red with a hard wall. We show that the presence of a magnetic field induces a fermion condensate in the bulk that spontaneously breaks CP symmetry. From the perspective of the dual boundary theory, this corresponds to a strongly coupled version of magnetic catalysis in d=2+1.
Stochastic programming approach for portfolio selection with risk control of WCVaR
Jianwei Gao; Nianyi Bian
2008-01-01
We focus on the multi-period optimal investment allocation in the sense of minimizing the worst-case conditional value-at-risk function. In order to control the downside risk during the whole journey of investment, we develop the optimal dynamic portfolio strategy model suited to the current situation in China with stochastic programming approach, in which the future scenarios of financial market are illustrated
Water resources planning and management : A stochastic dual dynamic programming approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goor, Q.; Pinte, D.; Tilmant, A.
2008-12-01
Allocating water between different users and uses, including the environment, is one of the most challenging task facing water resources managers and has always been at the heart of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). As water scarcity is expected to increase over time, allocation decisions among the different uses will have to be found taking into account the complex interactions between water and the economy. Hydro-economic optimization models can capture those interactions while prescribing efficient allocation policies. Many hydro-economic models found in the literature are formulated as large-scale non linear optimization problems (NLP), seeking to maximize net benefits from the system operation while meeting operational and/or institutional constraints, and describing the main hydrological processes. However, those models rarely incorporate the uncertainty inherent to the availability of water, essentially because of the computational difficulties associated stochastic formulations. The purpose of this presentation is to present a stochastic programming model that can identify economically efficient allocation policies in large-scale multipurpose multireservoir systems. The model is based on stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP), an extension of traditional SDP that is not affected by the curse of dimensionality. SDDP identify efficient allocation policies while considering the hydrologic uncertainty. The objective function includes the net benefits from the hydropower and irrigation sectors, as well as penalties for not meeting operational and/or institutional constraints. To be able to implement the efficient decomposition scheme that remove the computational burden, the one-stage SDDP problem has to be a linear program. Recent developments improve the representation of the non-linear and mildly non- convex hydropower function through a convex hull approximation of the true hydropower function. This model is illustrated on a cascade of 14 reservoirs on the Nile river basin.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Doyle, Kim.
Webreference.com (discussed in the April 19, 1996 Scout Report) has recently added this interesting and thought-provoking resource to its site. The resource presents the results of a study of banner ad placement at webreference.com, conducted between March 25 and April 15, 1997 by three University of Michigan School of Business Administration students. The study concludes that changes in placement of banner ads affects "click-through" rates.
Genetically Engineered Food AD
NSDL National Science Digital Library
BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Lana Hays N:Hays; Lana ORG:Saint Henry District High School REV:2005-04-11 END:VCARD
2005-04-11
How has biotechnology been used to improve the quality of food available today? Students are placed in groups of 2 to create an advertisement for a genetically engineered food and are then asked to present their ad. The ads are created with small poster board or paper, markers, and construction paper. Students also use the computer for lettering and clip art. If enough computers and suitable software was available, the ads could be completely done on the computer.
Using genetic algorithm to solve a new multi-period stochastic optimization model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xin-Li; Zhang, Ke-Cun
2009-09-01
This paper presents a new asset allocation model based on the CVaR risk measure and transaction costs. Institutional investors manage their strategic asset mix over time to achieve favorable returns subject to various uncertainties, policy and legal constraints, and other requirements. One may use a multi-period portfolio optimization model in order to determine an optimal asset mix. Recently, an alternative stochastic programming model with simulated paths was proposed by Hibiki [N. Hibiki, A hybrid simulation/tree multi-period stochastic programming model for optimal asset allocation, in: H. Takahashi, (Ed.) The Japanese Association of Financial Econometrics and Engineering, JAFFE Journal (2001) 89-119 (in Japanese); N. Hibiki A hybrid simulation/tree stochastic optimization model for dynamic asset allocation, in: B. Scherer (Ed.), Asset and Liability Management Tools: A Handbook for Best Practice, Risk Books, 2003, pp. 269-294], which was called a hybrid model. However, the transaction costs weren't considered in that paper. In this paper, we improve Hibiki's model in the following aspects: (1) The risk measure CVaR is introduced to control the wealth loss risk while maximizing the expected utility; (2) Typical market imperfections such as short sale constraints, proportional transaction costs are considered simultaneously. (3) Applying a genetic algorithm to solve the resulting model is discussed in detail. Numerical results show the suitability and feasibility of our methodology.
Sun Zhiyuan; Yu Xin; Liu Ying [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and National Laboratory for Computational Fluid Dynamics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Gao Yitian [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and National Laboratory for Computational Fluid Dynamics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China)
2012-12-15
We investigate the dynamics of the bound vector solitons (BVSs) for the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations with the nonhomogenously stochastic perturbations added on their dispersion terms. Soliton switching (besides soliton breakup) can be observed between the two components of the BVSs. Rate of the maximum switched energy (absolute values) within the fixed propagation distance (about 10 periods of the BVSs) enhances in the sense of statistics when the amplitudes of stochastic perturbations increase. Additionally, it is revealed that the BVSs with enhanced coherence are more robust against the perturbations with nonhomogenous stochasticity. Diagram describing the approximate borders of the splitting and non-splitting areas is also given. Our results might be helpful in dynamics of the BVSs with stochastic noises in nonlinear optical fibers or with stochastic quantum fluctuations in Bose-Einstein condensates.
Ultimate open pit stochastic optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcotte, Denis; Caron, Josiane
2013-02-01
Classical open pit optimization (maximum closure problem) is made on block estimates, without directly considering the block grades uncertainty. We propose an alternative approach of stochastic optimization. The stochastic optimization is taken as the optimal pit computed on the block expected profits, rather than expected grades, computed from a series of conditional simulations. The stochastic optimization generates, by construction, larger ore and waste tonnages than the classical optimization. Contrary to the classical approach, the stochastic optimization is conditionally unbiased for the realized profit given the predicted profit. A series of simulated deposits with different variograms are used to compare the stochastic approach, the classical approach and the simulated approach that maximizes expected profit among simulated designs. Profits obtained with the stochastic optimization are generally larger than the classical or simulated pit. The main factor controlling the relative gain of stochastic optimization compared to classical approach and simulated pit is shown to be the information level as measured by the boreholes spacing/range ratio. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the classical approach increase with the treatment costs but decrease with mining costs. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the simulated pit approach increase both with the treatment and mining costs. At early stages of an open pit project, when uncertainty is large, the stochastic optimization approach appears preferable to the classical approach or the simulated pit approach for fair comparison of the values of alternative projects and for the initial design and planning of the open pit.
Stochastic Representation of RMS Dynamical Problems Group
Plant, Robert
Stochastic Representation of Convection RMS Dynamical Problems Group 9th June 2005 Bob Plant for a stochastic representation of convection 2. Some experiments so far 3. A stochastic scheme 4. Tests of scheme 5. Outlook Stochastic Representation of Convection Â p.1/3 #12;Why a stochastic representation
BLASKIEWICZ,M.BRENNAN,J.M.CAMERON,P.WEI,J.
2003-05-12
Emittance growth due to Intra-Beam Scattering significantly reduces the heavy ion luminosity lifetime in RHIC. Stochastic cooling of the stored beam could improve things considerably by counteracting IBS and preventing particles from escaping the rf bucket [1]. High frequency bunched-beam stochastic cooling is especially challenging but observations of Schottky signals in the 4-8 GHz band indicate that conditions are favorable in RHIC [2]. We report here on measurements of the longitudinal beam transfer function carried out with a pickup kicker pair on loan from FNAL TEVATRON. Results imply that for ions a coasting beam description is applicable and we outline some general features of a viable momentum cooling system for RHIC.
Stochastic Broadcast for VANET
Michael Slavik; Imad Mahgoub
2010-01-01
Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) are an emerging important type of wireless ad-hoc network. Unlike many other types of MANETs, VANET applications such as traffic data dissemination are inherently broadcast oriented and require communication protocols to be anonymous and scalable. Simple broadcast flooding satisfies these requirements, but its performance is highly dependent on network density and may lead to the broadcast
Dorogovtsev, Andrei A [Institute of Mathematics of Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)
2010-06-29
For sets in a Hilbert space the concept of quadratic entropy is introduced. It is shown that this entropy is finite for the range of a stochastic flow of Brownian particles on R. This implies, in particular, the fact that the total time of the free travel in the Arratia flow of all particles that started from a bounded interval is finite. Bibliography: 10 titles.
Stochastic Optimization: a Review
Dimitris Fouskakis; David Draper
2001-01-01
Summary We review three leading stochastic optimization methods—simulated annealing, genetic algorithms, and tabu search. In each case we analyze the method, give the exact algorithm, detail advantages and disadvantages, and summarize the literature on optimal values of the inputs. As a motivating example we describe the solution—using Bayesian decision theory, via maximization of expected utility—of a variable selection problem in
Lin, G.; Su, C. H.; Karniadakis, G. E.
2004-01-01
We obtain analytical solutions for the perturbed shock paths induced by time-varying random motions of a piston moving inside an adiabatic tube of constant area. The variance of the shock location grows quadratically with time for early times and switches to linear growth for longer times. The analytical results are confirmed by stochastic numerical simulations, and deviations for large random piston motions are established. PMID:15514024
Disruption, Succession and Stochasticity
J. Timothy Wootton; Mathieu Cusson; Sergio Navarrete; Peter S. Petraitis
\\u000a Disruptions interfere with the orderly course of a process. Ecological disturbances, physical processes that remove living\\u000a biomass from an ecosystem, are common disruptions that are frequently observed in the marine benthos. Although often associated\\u000a with climatic or geological events, some disturbances arise from biological activity. Disturbances are often pulsed, stochastic\\u000a events at a local scale. At larger spatial and temporal
Accelerated Stochastic Approximation
Harry Kesten
1958-01-01
Using a stochastic approximation procedure $\\\\{X_n\\\\}, n = 1, 2, \\\\cdots$, for a value $\\\\theta$, it seems likely that frequent fluctuations in the sign of $(X_n - \\\\theta) - (X_{n - 1} - \\\\theta) = X_n - X_{n - 1}$ indicate that $|X_n - \\\\theta|$ is small, whereas few fluctuations in the sign of $X_n - X_{n - 1}$ indicate
Ehssan Sakhaee; Abbas Jamalipour; Nei Kato
2006-01-01
There has been an enormous growth in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) in land based small to medium size networks with relatively strict power and resources. In this paper the concept of ad hoc networking between aircraft is introduced, which can be considered as a novel approach in increasing the data rate and practicality of future in-flight broadband Internet access.
Flowing from AdS5 to AdS3 with T 1 ,1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.
2014-08-01
We construct supersymmetric domain wall solutions of type IIB supergravity that interpolate between AdS5 × T 1,1 in the UV and AdS3 × 2 × S 2 × S 3 solutions in the IR. The 2 factor can be replaced with a two-torus and then the solution describes a supersymmetric flow across dimensions, similar to wrapped brane solutions. While the domain wall solutions preserve (0 , 2) supersymmetry, the AdS3 solutions in the IR have an enhanced (4 , 2) superconformal supersymmetry and are related by two T-dualities to the AdS3 × S 3 × S 3 × S 1 type IIB solutions which preserve a large (4 , 4) superconformal super-symmetry. The domain wall solutions exist within the N = 4 D = 5 gauged supergravity theory that is obtained from a consistent Kaluza-Klein truncation of type IIB supergravity on T 1,1; a feature driving the flows is that two D = 5 axion like fields, residing in the N = 4 Betti multiplet, depend linearly on the two legs of the 2 factor.
Stochastic phase synchronization in the crayfish mechanoreceptor/photoreceptor system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahar, S.; Moss, F.
2003-03-01
The two light-sensitive neurons in the crayfish's abdominal sixth ganglion ("caudal photoreceptors," or CPRs), are both primary light sensors and secondary neurons in a mechanosensory pathway. Pei et al. (1996) demonstrated that light enhances the transduction of weak, periodic hydrodynamic stimuli (measured as an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio at the stimulus frequency in the power spectrum of the recorded neural spikes). This has been interpreted as a stochastic resonance effect, in which added light increases the noise intensity of the input to the photoreceptor (possibly through fluctuations in membrane potential), leading to an enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Here, we discuss the recent demonstration (Bahar et al., 2002) of the correlation between a stochastic-resonance-like effect and an increase in stochastic phase synchronization between the neural response and a periodic mechanical stimulus. We also discuss a novel effect (Bahar et al., 2002) in which light increases the SNR of the second higher harmonic of a periodic input signal, effectively rectifying the input signal. This "second harmonic effect" can also be interpreted in terms of stochastic phase synchronization (Bahar et al., 2002). We review other recent results on the role of stochastic phase synchronization in mediating sensory responses in the crayfish nervous system.
Control Allocation with Load Balancing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bodson, Marc; Frost, Susan A.
2009-01-01
Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the actuator deflections. The paper discusses the alternative choice of the l(infinity) norm, or sup norm. Minimization of the control effort translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection (min-max optimization). The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are also investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of load balancing, where the load is th desired command and the algorithm balances this load among various actuators. The solution using the l(infinity) norm also results in better robustness to failures and to lower sensitivity to nonlinearities in illustrative examples.
Allocating the Book Budget: Measuring for Inflation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sampson, Gary S.
1978-01-01
A simple algebraic method of compensating for inflation while allocating the book budget by funds is presented. The results of attempts to generate library-resource unit cost figures based on internal measurement of buying patterns are described. (Author)
Allocation of Resources in an Information System
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bookstein, Abraham
1974-01-01
Considers the problem of allocation resources among various locations in an information system where phases of a process are carried out. Approach taken combines queueing theory and dynamic programming. (JB)
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...Development or Implementation Grants § 923.92 Allocation. (a) Subsections 303(4), 306(d)(3)(B) and 306(d)(10) of the Act foster intergovernmental cooperation in that a state, in accordance with its coastal zone...
50 CFR 660.322 - Sablefish allocations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...treaty Indian fisheries before deductions for discard mortality. The annual tribal sablefish allocations are provided...available for the primary fishery and on estimated discard mortality rates within the fishery. The size of the cumulative...
50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...through either a biennial adjustment or framework adjustment, as specified in § 648...proposal. Should a biennial adjustment or framework adjustment to authorize a sector allocation...initiated, the Council will follow the framework adjustment provisions of §...
Lexicographic Bit Allocation for MPEG Video
Hoang, Dzung T.; Linzer, Elliot L.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott
1997-01-01
We consider the problem of allocating bits among pictures in an MPEG video coder to equalize the visual quality of the coded pictures, while meeting bu er and channel constraints imposed by the MPEG Video Bu ering Veri er. ...
Optimal Resource Allocation in Library Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rouse, William B.
1975-01-01
Queueing theory is used to model processes as either waiting or balking processes. The optimal allocation of resources to these processes is defined as that which maximizes the expected value of the decision-maker's utility function. (Author)
Statistical bandwidth allocation for multiservice networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamalainen, Timo; Joutsensalo, Jyrki
2002-09-01
Multiservice networks will carry different kinds of applications in the near future. Bandwidth requirements change rapidly, and the network resource management will play an important role to guarantee the use of the limited resources in the most efficient way. We approach the channel capacity allocation problem by developing an SLA (Service Level Agreement) based channel allocation method. In our model, the channel may be wired or wireless, so this method can be adapted in multi-technique networks. The algorithm allocates resources to several different service classes via several different capacity routes. Service provider perfroms optimization by allocating data rate in such a way that the satisfactory of the customers as well as the revenue is maximized.
45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...55 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees...
45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees...
45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees...
45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...REGULATIONS IMPORTS OF WORSTED WOOL FABRIC § 335.4 Allocation. (a...the proportion of imported Worsted Wool Fabric consumed in the production of Worsted...based on an applicant's Worsted Wool Fabric production, on a weighted average...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...REGULATIONS IMPORTS OF WORSTED WOOL FABRIC § 335.4 Allocation. (a...the proportion of imported Worsted Wool Fabric consumed in the production of Worsted...based on an applicant's Worsted Wool Fabric production, on a weighted average...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...REGULATIONS IMPORTS OF WORSTED WOOL FABRIC § 335.4 Allocation. (a...the proportion of imported Worsted Wool Fabric consumed in the production of Worsted...based on an applicant's Worsted Wool Fabric production, on a weighted average...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...REGULATIONS IMPORTS OF WORSTED WOOL FABRIC § 335.4 Allocation. (a...the proportion of imported Worsted Wool Fabric consumed in the production of Worsted...based on an applicant's Worsted Wool Fabric production, on a weighted average...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...REGULATIONS IMPORTS OF WORSTED WOOL FABRIC § 335.4 Allocation. (a...the proportion of imported Worsted Wool Fabric consumed in the production of Worsted...based on an applicant's Worsted Wool Fabric production, on a weighted average...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...REGULATIONS IMPORTS OF COTTON WOVEN FABRIC § 336.4 Allocation. (a...manufacturer's quantity of imported woven fabrics described under HTS headings 9902...2000, compared to the imports of such fabric by all manufacturers that qualify...
24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...including any mixed population projects, in existence...disapproved), and the projections are reasonable; ...allocation plan data, and projections for the next two years...the accuracy of the projections contained in previous...occupancy or mixed population projects....
24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
...including any mixed population projects, in existence...disapproved), and the projections are reasonable; ...allocation plan data, and projections for the next two years...the accuracy of the projections contained in previous...occupancy or mixed population projects....
24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
...including any mixed population projects, in existence...disapproved), and the projections are reasonable; ...allocation plan data, and projections for the next two years...the accuracy of the projections contained in previous...occupancy or mixed population projects....
24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
...including any mixed population projects, in existence...disapproved), and the projections are reasonable; ...allocation plan data, and projections for the next two years...the accuracy of the projections contained in previous...occupancy or mixed population projects....
10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.503...
10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.503...
10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.503...
10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.503...
10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.503...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 2012-10-01 true Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...2011-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...2014-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...2012-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...
ORIGINAL PAPER Photosynthetic assimilation and carbohydrate allocation
Boyer, Edmond
ORIGINAL PAPER Photosynthetic assimilation and carbohydrate allocation of Quercus rubra seedlings increases in biomass and total non- structural carbohydrates (TNC), stock type differences to herbivory- mental. Keywords Animal browse . Northern red oak . Non-structural carbohydrates . Planting stock types
Layered Media Multicast Control Rate Allocation & Partitioning
Yousefi'zadeh, Homayoun
Tech n Multicast Layering Fairness n D. Rubenstein, Columbia n J. Kurose, UMass n Rate Allocation & Partitioning n S. Lam, UT Austin n J. Bolot, UCB n Error Control n I. Rhee, NCSU n J. Kurose, UMass n Feedback
Decentralized task allocation for dynamic environments
Johnson, Luke B
2012-01-01
This thesis presents an overview of the design process for creating greedy decentralized task allocation algorithms and outlines the main decisions that progressed the algorithm through three different forms. The first ...
Adaptively Parallel Processor Allocation for Cilk Jobs
Sen, Siddhartha
The problem of allocating processor resources fairly and efficiently to parallel jobs has been studied extensively in the past. Most of this work, however, assumes that the instantaneous parallelism of the jobs is known ...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...2010-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...
Essays on innovation, productivity, and talent allocation
Shu, Pian
2012-01-01
This thesis contains three essays on innovation, productivity, and talent allocation. The first essay explores a novel channel through which short-term economic fluctuations affect the long-term innovative output of the ...
45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees...
Activation-induced B cell fates are selected by intracellular stochastic competition.
Duffy, Ken R; Wellard, Cameron J; Markham, John F; Zhou, Jie H S; Holmberg, Ross; Hawkins, Edwin D; Hasbold, Jhagvaral; Dowling, Mark R; Hodgkin, Philip D
2012-01-20
In response to stimulation, B lymphocytes pursue a large number of distinct fates important for immune regulation. Whether each cell's fate is determined by external direction, internal stochastic processes, or directed asymmetric division is unknown. Measurement of times to isotype switch, to develop into a plasmablast, and to divide or to die for thousands of cells indicated that each fate is pursued autonomously and stochastically. As a consequence of competition between these processes, censorship of alternative outcomes predicts intricate correlations that are observed in the data. Stochastic competition can explain how the allocation of a proportion of B cells to each cell fate is achieved. The B cell may exemplify how other complex cell differentiation systems are controlled. PMID:22223740
Strategic Behavior in a Decentralized Protocol for Allocating Indivisible Goods
Walsh, Toby
Strategic Behavior in a Decentralized Protocol for Allocating Indivisible Goods Thomas Kalinowski for allocating a set of indivisible goods to multiple agents. Agents take turns to pick items according)? This is an example of a problem in allocating indivisible goods. A number of real world problems involve allocating
Memory Allocation Costs in Large C and C++ Programs
David Detlefs; Al Dosser; Benjamin G. Zorn
1994-01-01
Dynamic storage allocation is an important part of a large class of computer programs writtenin C and C++. High-performance algorithms for dynamic storage allocation have been, and willcontinue to be, of considerable interest. This paper presents detailed measurements of the cost ofdynamic storage allocation in 11 diverse C and C++ programs using five very different dynamicstorage allocation implementations, including a
Title: Ontario Wind Power Allocation Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources
Title: Ontario Wind Power Allocation Data Creator / Copyright Owner: Ontario Ministry of Natural/A Updates: N/A Abstract: This data consists of a polygon shapefile, Wind Power Allocation Block. A Wind Power Allocation Block is an area that could be allocated for the exploration of wind power generation
An efficient submesh allocation strategy for mesh computer systems
Po-jen Chuang; Nian-feng Tzeng
1991-01-01
A processor allocation strategy is proposed which can apply to any mesh system and recognize submeshes with arbitrary sizes at any location in a mesh system. The proposed strategy allocates a submesh of exactly the size requested by an incoming task, completely avoiding internal fragmentation. Because of its efficient allocation, this strategy exhibits better performance than an earlier allocation strategy
Accelerated Stochastic Gradient Method for Composite Regularization
Kaski, Samuel
Accelerated Stochastic Gradient Method for Composite Regularization Leon Wenliang Zhong James T theoretical convergence rate, it may be even slower than stochastic gradient descent in practice [21]. 1086 #12;Accelerated Stochastic Gradient Method for Composite Regularization To handle a combination
Channel Allocation for GPRS with Buffering Mechanisms
2003-01-01
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) provides mobile users end-to-end packet-switched services by sharing the radio channels with voice and circuit-switched services. In such a system, radio resource allocation for circuit-switched and packet-switched services is an important issue, which may affect the QoS for both services significantly. In this paper, we propose two algorithms: Dynamic Resource Allocation with Voice and Packet
Rate allocation in a remote control structure
Meadow, Charles Joe
1984-01-01
RATE ALLOCATION IN A REMOTE CONTROL STRUCTURE A Thesis by CHARLES JOE MEADOW, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1984 Major Subject...: Electrical Engineering RATE ALLOCATION IN A REMOTE CONTROL STRUCTURE A Thesis by CHARLES JOE MEADOW, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Thomas R. Fischer (Chairman of Committee) erry . Gibson ( ember) P. Frederick Dahm (Member) William B...
Neural-Network Processor Would Allocate Resources
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Moopenn, Alexander W.
1990-01-01
Global optimization problems solved quickly. Neural-network processor optimizes allocation of M resources among N expenditures according to cost of pairing each resource with each expenditure and subject to limit on number of resources feeding into each expenditure and/or limit on number of expenditures to which each resource allocated. One cell performs several analog and digital functions. Potential applications include assignment of jobs, scheduling, dispatching, and planning of military maneuvers.
Multiuser channel allocation algorithms achieving hard fairness
Issam TOUFIK; Raymond KNOPP
2004-01-01
This work investigates the performance of combined orthogonal channel and antenna allocation algorithms in multiple-antenna multi-channel systems. In (I. Toufik et al, IEEE VTC2004) a max-min allocation algorithm is proposed for an N-user system with N parallel sub-channels. Here, we extend this algorithm to the multiple-antenna systems and compare its performance in two different transmission scenarios (spatial multiplexing and space
Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.
Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh
2014-01-15
Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an additional component to an analysis that seeks to distribute water in a negotiated process. PMID:24412983
Enterprise budget development and production cost allocation
Minear, Kelly Don
1991-01-01
ENTERPRISE BUDGET DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION COST ALLOCATION A Professional Paper by Kelly Don Minear Submitted to the College of Agriculture of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master... of Agriculture December, 1991 Academic Department: Agricultural Economics Agricultural Banking and Finance ENTERPRISE BUDGET DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION COST ALLOCATION A PROFESSIONAL PAPER by Kelly Don Minear Approved as to style and content by: Chair...
Policy-Based Autonomic Storage Allocation
Murthy V. Devarakonda; David M. Chess; Ian Whalley; Alla Segal; Pawan Goyal; Aamer Sachedina; Keri Romanufa; Ed Lassettre; William H. Tetzlaff; Bill Arnold
2003-01-01
\\u000a The goal of autonomic storage allocation is to achieve management of storage resources, including allocation, performance\\u000a monitoring, and hotspot elimination, by specifying comparatively high-level goals, rather than by means of low-level manual\\u000a steps. The process of automation should allow specification of policies as administrator specified constraints under which\\u000a the resources are managed. This paper describes the system design and implementation
Allocation of authority in European health policy.
Adolph, Christopher; Greer, Scott L; Massard da Fonseca, Elize
2012-11-01
Although many study the effects of different allocations of health policy authority, few ask why countries assign responsibility over different policies as they do. We test two broad theories: fiscal federalism, which predicts rational governments will concentrate information-intensive operations at lower levels, and redistributive and regulatory functions at higher levels; and "politicized federalism", which suggests a combination of systematic and historically idiosyncratic political variables interfere with efficient allocation of authority. Drawing on the WHO Health in Transition country profiles, we present new data on the allocation of responsibility for key health care policy tasks (implementation, provision, finance, regulation, and framework legislation) and policy areas (primary, secondary and tertiary care, public health and pharmaceuticals) in the 27 EU member states and Switzerland. We use a Bayesian multinomial mixed logit model to analyze how different countries arrive at different allocations of authority over each task and area of health policy, and find the allocation of powers broadly follows fiscal federalism. Responsibility for pharmaceuticals, framework legislation, and most finance lodges at the highest levels of government, acute and primary care in the regions, and provision at the local and regional levels. Where allocation does not follow fiscal federalism, it appears to reflect ethnic divisions, the population of states and regions, the presence of mountainous terrain, and the timing of region creation. PMID:22858423
Stability analysis of multi-group deterministic and stochastic epidemic models with vaccination rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhi-Gang; Gao, Rui-Mei; Fan, Xiao-Ming; Han, Qi-Xing
2014-09-01
We discuss in this paper a deterministic multi-group MSIR epidemic model with a vaccination rate, the basic reproduction number ?0, a key parameter in epidemiology, is a threshold which determines the persistence or extinction of the disease. By using Lyapunov function techniques, we show if ?0 is greater than 1 and the deterministic model obeys some conditions, then the disease will prevail, the infective persists and the endemic state is asymptotically stable in a feasible region. If ?0 is less than or equal to 1, then the infective disappear so the disease dies out. In addition, stochastic noises around the endemic equilibrium will be added to the deterministic MSIR model in order that the deterministic model is extended to a system of stochastic ordinary differential equations. In the stochastic version, we carry out a detailed analysis on the asymptotic behavior of the stochastic model. In addition, regarding the value of ?0, when the stochastic system obeys some conditions and ?0 is greater than 1, we deduce the stochastic system is stochastically asymptotically stable. Finally, the deterministic and stochastic model dynamics are illustrated through computer simulations.
Reagents Data Portal AntibodiesNCI announces the release of monoclonal antipeptide antibodies from rabbit for distribution on the antibody portal. There are 60 recently added monoclonal antibodies, with 56 generated from mouse and 4 generated from rabbit. Print
The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP) had an Ad Hoc Advisory Committee of expert scientists and community breast cancer advocates. This committee was chaired by Dr. Mimi C. Yu. The committee met annually or as needed.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Miss Sullivan
2011-10-21
Test your brain at some addition and subtraction! Practice adding and subtracting on a number line using Line Jumper. When playing Alien Munchtime (addition) and Alien Munchtime (subtraction) select levels 1-9 and press play. ...
Chauvenet, Aliénor L M; Baxter, Peter W J; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Possingham, Hugh P
2010-04-01
Money is often a limiting factor in conservation, and attempting to conserve endangered species can be costly. Consequently, a framework for optimizing fiscally constrained conservation decisions for a single species is needed. In this paper we find the optimal budget allocation among isolated subpopulations of a threatened species to minimize local extinction probability. We solve the problem using stochastic dynamic programming, derive a useful and simple alternative guideline for allocating funds, and test its performance using forward simulation. The model considers subpopulations that persist in habitat patches of differing quality, which in our model is reflected in different relationships between money invested and extinction risk. We discover that, in most cases, subpopulations that are less efficient to manage should receive more money than those that are more efficient to manage, due to higher investment needed to reduce extinction risk. Our simple investment guideline performs almost as well as the exact optimal strategy. We illustrate our approach with a case study of the management of the Sumatran tiger, Panthera tigris sumatrae, in Kerinci Seblat National Park (KSNP), Indonesia. We find that different budgets should be allocated to the separate tiger subpopulations in KSNP. The subpopulation that is not at risk of extinction does not require any management investment. Based on the combination of risks of extinction and habitat quality, the optimal allocation for these particular tiger subpopulations is an unusual case: subpopulations that occur in higher-quality habitat (more efficient to manage) should receive more funds than the remaining subpopulation that is in lower-quality habitat. Because the yearly budget allocated to the KSNP for tiger conservation is small, to guarantee the persistence of all the subpopulations that are currently under threat we need to prioritize those that are easier to save. When allocating resources among subpopulations of a threatened species, the combined effects of differences in habitat quality, cost of action, and current subpopulation probability of extinction need to be integrated. We provide a useful guideline for allocating resources among isolated subpopulations of any threatened species. PMID:20437964
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.
1981-01-01
The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.
Remberto Sandoval-Arechiga; Felipe A. Cruz-Perez; Lauro Ortigoza-Guerrero
2007-01-01
A teletraffic analysis for the performance evaluation of the joint use of dynamic resource allocation (DRA), channel de-allocation (DAS), and channel re-allocation (RAS) strategies in GSM\\/GPRS networks is developed. In addition, an efficient DRA strategy with a link quality awareness policy, channel de-allocation and re-allocation policies as well as user prioritization (called DRA LA DAS RAS) is proposed. To the
Stochastic Waves in Space Plasmas
P. A. Robinson; B. Li; I. H. Cairns
2004-01-01
Burstiness of observed wave emissions and related processes in space plasmas has been addressed via various stochastic theories of wave growth. These include elementary burst theories (EBT) of solar microwave spike bursts, and stochastic growth theory (SGT) of type II and III radio bursts and other planetary and heliospheric sources. These theories are analytically unified here, the SGT and EBT
Lindbladians for controlled stochastic Hamiltonians
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avron, J. E.; Kenneth, O.; Retzker, A.; Shalyt, M.
2015-04-01
We construct Lindbladians associated with controlled stochastic Hamiltonians in the weak coupling regime. This construction allows us to determine the power spectrum of the noise from measurements of dephasing rates. Moreover, by studying the derived equation it is possible to optimize the control as well as to test numerical algorithms that solve controlled stochastic Schrödinger equations. A few examples are worked out in detail.
STOCHASTIC CONTROL OF BEAM DYNAMICS
N. Cufaro-Petroni; S. De Martino; F. Illuminati
The methods of stochastic control theory are proposed in the context of charged-particle beam dynamics. The stochastic dynamics that is introduced here is invariant for time reversal and can be easily recast in the form of a Schrodinger-like equation where Planck's constant is re- placed by the beam emittance. It changes a bilinear control problem for Schrodinger equation in a
COMPARISON OF STOCHASTIC RESERVING METHODS
Jackie Li
This paper compares several stochastic reserving methods on both qualitative and quantitative aspects in dealing with the outstanding claims liabilities. These methods include Bayesian estimation with Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, the chain ladder method with bootstrapping, generalised linear models (GLMs) with bootstrapping, the Kalman filter on state-space models, the Mack model, and the stochastic chain ladder method. To
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliazar, Iddo I.; Shlesinger, Michael F.
2012-01-01
We introduce and explore a Stochastic Flow Cascade (SFC) model: A general statistical model for the unidirectional flow through a tandem array of heterogeneous filters. Examples include the flow of: (i) liquid through heterogeneous porous layers; (ii) shocks through tandem shot noise systems; (iii) signals through tandem communication filters. The SFC model combines together the Langevin equation, convolution filters and moving averages, and Poissonian randomizations. A comprehensive analysis of the SFC model is carried out, yielding closed-form results. Lévy laws are shown to universally emerge from the SFC model, and characterize both heavy tailed retention times (Noah effect) and long-ranged correlations (Joseph effect).
Stochastic ontogenetic growth model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
West, B. J.; West, D.
2012-02-01
An ontogenetic growth model (OGM) for a thermodynamically closed system is generalized to satisfy both the first and second law of thermodynamics. The hypothesized stochastic ontogenetic growth model (SOGM) is shown to entail the interspecies allometry relation by explicitly averaging the basal metabolic rate and the total body mass over the steady-state probability density for the total body mass (TBM). This is the first derivation of the interspecies metabolic allometric relation from a dynamical model and the asymptotic steady-state distribution of the TBM is fit to data and shown to be inverse power law.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John
2012-01-01
The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…
Criteria for Car Parking Allocation System Criteria for Car Parking Allocation System
Mottram, Nigel
Criteria for Car Parking Allocation System Criteria for Car Parking Allocation System 2014-15 Criteria for Car Parking All #12;The issue and control of car parking permits is vested in Estates Services. The annual charges are incorporated in the application form. The car parking charges will be deducted from
Lin Dai; Wei Chen; Khaled B. Letaief; Zhigang Cao
2006-01-01
In ad-hoc networks, cooperative diversity is especially desired where the use of multiple antennas may be impractical due to the size of nodes. There has been a lot of work on improving the peer-to-peer link quality by using advanced coding or power and rate allocation between a single source node and its relays. However, how to efficiently and fairly allocate
Evans, Nick; French, James; Threlfall, Ed [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Jensen, Kristan [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)
2010-03-15
We describe hadronization events, using the AdS/CFT Correspondence, which display many of the qualitative features expected in QCD. In particular we study the motion of strings with separating end points in a back-reacted hard wall geometry. The solutions show the development of a linear QCD-like string. The end points oscillate in the absence of string breaking. We introduce string breaking by hand and evolve the new state forward in time to observe the separation of two string segments. A kink associated with this breaking evolves to the end points of the string inducing rho meson production. We explicitly compute the rho meson production at the end point.
Estimating parameters in stochastic systems: A variational Bayesian approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vrettas, Michail D.; Cornford, Dan; Opper, Manfred
2011-11-01
This work is concerned with approximate inference in dynamical systems, from a variational Bayesian perspective. When modelling real world dynamical systems, stochastic differential equations appear as a natural choice, mainly because of their ability to model the noise of the system by adding a variation of some stochastic process to the deterministic dynamics. Hence, inference in such processes has drawn much attention. Here a new extended framework is derived that is based on a local polynomial approximation of a recently proposed variational Bayesian algorithm. The paper begins by showing that the new extension of this variational algorithm can be used for state estimation (smoothing) and converges to the original algorithm. However, the main focus is on estimating the (hyper-) parameters of these systems (i.e. drift parameters and diffusion coefficients). The new approach is validated on a range of different systems which vary in dimensionality and non-linearity. These are the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, the exact likelihood of which can be computed analytically, the univariate and highly non-linear, stochastic double well and the multivariate chaotic stochastic Lorenz ’63 (3D model). As a special case the algorithm is also applied to the 40 dimensional stochastic Lorenz ’96 system. In our investigation we compare this new approach with a variety of other well known methods, such as the hybrid Monte Carlo, dual unscented Kalman filter, full weak-constraint 4D-Var algorithm and analyse empirically their asymptotic behaviour as a function of observation density or length of time window increases. In particular we show that we are able to estimate parameters in both the drift (deterministic) and the diffusion (stochastic) part of the model evolution equations using our new methods.
A stochastic multi-symplectic scheme for stochastic Maxwell equations with additive noise
Hong, Jialin, E-mail: hjl@lsec.cc.ac.cn [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Scientific/Engineering Computing, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Ji, Lihai, E-mail: jilihai@lsec.cc.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhang, Liying, E-mail: lyzhang@lsec.cc.ac.cn [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Scientific/Engineering Computing, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2014-07-01
In this paper we investigate a stochastic multi-symplectic method for stochastic Maxwell equations with additive noise. Based on the stochastic version of variational principle, we find a way to obtain the stochastic multi-symplectic structure of three-dimensional (3-D) stochastic Maxwell equations with additive noise. We propose a stochastic multi-symplectic scheme and show that it preserves the stochastic multi-symplectic conservation law and the local and global stochastic energy dissipative properties, which the equations themselves possess. Numerical experiments are performed to verify the numerical behaviors of the stochastic multi-symplectic scheme.
Entropy, Stochastic Matrices, and Quantum Operations
Lin Zhang
2013-02-22
The goal of the present paper is to derive some conditions on saturation of (strong) subadditivity inequality for the stochastic matrices. The notion of relative entropy of stochastic matrices is introduced by mimicking quantum relative entropy. Some properties of this concept are listed and the connection between the entropy of the stochastic quantum operations and that of stochastic matrices are discussed.
26 CFR 1.103(n)-5T - Certification of no consideration for allocation (temporary).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...false Certification of no consideration for allocation (temporary...5T Certification of no consideration for allocation (temporary...must certify that there was no consideration for an allocation?...
Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses
Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.
2012-05-01
The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.
Evolution of longevity through optimal resource allocation
Cicho?, M.
1997-01-01
Models of life history evolution predict optimal traits of a simplified organism under various environmental conditions, but they at most acknowledge the existence of ageing. On the other hand, genetic models of ageing do not consider the effects of ageing on life histroy traits other than fecundity and longevity. This paper reports the results of a dynamic programming model which optimizes resource allocation to growth, reproduction and somatic repair. A low extrinsic (environmentally caused) mortality rate and high repair efficiency promote allocation to repair, especially early in life, resulting in delayed ageing and low growth rates, delayed maturity, large body size and dramatic enhancement of survival and maximum lifespan. The results are generally consistent with field, comprative and experimental data. They also suggest that the relationships between maximum lifespan and age at maturity and body size observed in nature may be by-products of optimal allocation strategies.
Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.
Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P. [Knox College, Galesburg, IL; Ebbers, Johnathan [Knox College, Galesburg, IL; Price, Nicholas W. [Knox College, Galesburg, IL; Swank, Matthew [Knox College, Galesburg, IL; Feer, Stefan P. [3M Health Information Systems, Inc., Wallingford, CT; Rhodes, Zachary D. [Allstate Corporation, Northbrook, IL
2013-02-01
This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.
RES: Regularized Stochastic BFGS Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mokhtari, Aryan; Ribeiro, Alejandro
2014-12-01
RES, a regularized stochastic version of the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton method is proposed to solve convex optimization problems with stochastic objectives. The use of stochastic gradient descent algorithms is widespread, but the number of iterations required to approximate optimal arguments can be prohibitive in high dimensional problems. Application of second order methods, on the other hand, is impracticable because computation of objective function Hessian inverses incurs excessive computational cost. BFGS modifies gradient descent by introducing a Hessian approximation matrix computed from finite gradient differences. RES utilizes stochastic gradients in lieu of deterministic gradients for both, the determination of descent directions and the approximation of the objective function's curvature. Since stochastic gradients can be computed at manageable computational cost RES is realizable and retains the convergence rate advantages of its deterministic counterparts. Convergence results show that lower and upper bounds on the Hessian egeinvalues of the sample functions are sufficient to guarantee convergence to optimal arguments. Numerical experiments showcase reductions in convergence time relative to stochastic gradient descent algorithms and non-regularized stochastic versions of BFGS. An application of RES to the implementation of support vector machines is developed.
Multifractal characterization of stochastic resonance.
Silchenko, A; Hu, C K
2001-04-01
We use a multifractal formalism to study the effect of stochastic resonance in a noisy bistable system driven by various input signals. To characterize the response of a stochastic bistable system we introduce a new measure based on the calculation of a singularity spectrum for a return time sequence. We use wavelet transform modulus maxima method for the singularity spectrum computations. It is shown that the degree of multifractality defined as a width of singularity spectrum can be successfully used as a measure of complexity both in the case of periodic and aperiodic (stochastic or chaotic) input signals. We show that in the case of periodic driving force, singularity spectrum can change its structure qualitatively becoming monofractal in the regime of stochastic synchronization. This fact allows us to consider the degree of multifractality as a new measure of stochastic synchronization also. Moreover, our calculations have shown that the effect of stochastic resonance can be catched by this measure even from a very short return time sequence. We use also the proposed approach to characterize the noise-enhanced dynamics of a coupled stochastic neurons model. PMID:11308817
Stochastic Synchronization and Signal Rectification in the Crayfish Caudal Photoreceptor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahar, Sonya; Moss, Frank
2003-05-01
The crayfish possesses two light-sensitive neurons in its abdominal 6th ganglion ("caudal photoreceptors", or CPRs). In addition to being light sensors, the CPRs are secondary neurons in a mechanosensory pathway. These sensory mechanisms, mechanosensitivity and light sensitivity, interact with one another. Pei et al. (1996) demonstrated that light enhances the transduction of weak, periodic hydrodynamic stimuli (measured as an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio at the stimulus frequency in the power spectrum of the recorded neural spikes). This has been interpreted as a stochastic resonance effect, in which added light increases the noise intensity of the input to the photoreceptor (possibly through fluctuations in membrane potential), leading to an enhancement of the signal to noise ratio (SNR). We have demonstrated in the crayfish the correlation between a stochastic-resonance like effect and an increase in stochastic phase synchronization between the neural response and a periodic mechanical stimulus (Bahar et al. 2002). Here, we discuss a novel effect in which light increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the second higher harmonic of a periodic input mechanical stimulus, effectively rectifying the input signal. This "second harmonic effect" can be interpreted in terms of stochastic phase synchronization. We hypothesize that the input signal is effectively full-wave rectified via the summation of two half-wave rectified mechanosensory signals. This hypothesis can be described by a simple mathematical model which agrees well with our experimental results.
Stochastic Resonance: from climate to biology
Roberto Benzi
2007-02-05
In this paper I will review some basic aspects of the mechanism of stochastic resonance. Stochastic resonance was first introduced as a possible mechanism to explain long term climatic variation. Since then, there have been many applications of stochastic resonance in physical and biological systems. I will show that in complex system, stochastic resonance can substantially change as a function of the ``system complexity''. Also, I will briefly mention how to apply stochastic resonance for the case of Brownian motors.
Criteria for fairly allocating scarce health-care resources to genetic tests: which matter most?
Rogowski, Wolf H; Grosse, Scott D; Schmidtke, Jörg; Marckmann, Georg
2014-01-01
The use of genetic tests is expanding rapidly. Given limited health-care budgets throughout Europe and few national coverage decisions specifically for genetic tests, decisions about allocating scarce resources to genetic tests are frequently ad hoc and left to lower-level decision makers. This study assesses substantive ethical and economic criteria to prioritize genetic services in a reasonable and fair manner. Principles for allocating health-care resources can be classified into four categories: need-based allocation; maximizing total benefits; treating people equally; and promoting and rewarding social usefulness. In the face of scarcity, the degree of an individual's need for medical intervention is an important criterion. Also, different economic concepts of efficiency are of relevance in the theory and practice of prioritizing genetic tests. Equity concerns are most likely to be relevant in terms of avoiding undesirable inequities, which may also set boundaries to the use of efficiency as a prioritization criterion. The aim of promoting and rewarding social usefulness is unlikely to be relevant to the question of what priority a genetic test should have in clinical practice. Further work is needed to select an appropriate set of criteria; operationalize them; and assign weights before some kind of standardized priority information can be added to information sources for genetic services. Besides the substantive criteria, formal considerations like those pointed out in the framework of accountability for reasonableness need to be considered in decision making. PMID:23921536
Resource demands of object tracking and differential allocation of the resource.
Chen, Wei-Ying; Howe, Piers D; Holcombe, Alex O
2013-05-01
The attentional processes for tracking moving objects may be largely hemisphere-specific. Indeed, in our first two experiments the maximum object speed (speed limit) for tracking targets in one visual hemifield (left or right) was not significantly affected by a requirement to track additional targets in the other hemifield. When the additional targets instead occupied the same hemifield as the original targets, the speed limit was reduced. At slow target speeds, however, adding a second target to the same hemifield had little effect. At high target speeds, the cost of adding a same-hemifield second target was approximately as large as would occur if observers could only track one of the targets. This shows that performance with a fast-moving target is very sensitive to the amount of resource allocated. In a third experiment, we investigated whether the resources for tracking can be distributed unequally between two targets. The speed limit for a given target was higher if the second target was slow rather than fast, suggesting that more resource was allocated to the faster of the two targets. This finding was statistically significant only for targets presented in the same hemifield, consistent with the theory of independent resources in the two hemifields. Some limited evidence was also found for resource sharing across hemifields, suggesting that attentional tracking resources may not be entirely hemifield-specific. Together, these experiments indicate that the largely hemisphere-specific tracking resource can be differentially allocated to faster targets. PMID:23359355
Stochastic Engine Convergence Diagnostics
Glaser, R
2001-12-11
The stochastic engine uses a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling device to allow an analyst to construct a reasonable estimate of the state of nature that is consistent with observed data and modeling assumptions. The key engine output is a sample from the posterior distribution, which is the conditional probability distribution of the state of nature, given the data. In applications the state of nature may refer to a complicated, multi-attributed feature like the lithology map of a volume of earth, or to a particular related parameter of interest, say the centroid of the largest contiguous sub-region of specified lithology type. The posterior distribution, which we will call f, can be thought of as the best stochastic description of the state of nature that incorporates all pertinent physical and theoretical models as well as observed data. Characterization of the posterior distribution is the primary goal in the Bayesian statistical paradigm. In applications of the stochastic engine, however, analytical calculation of the posterior distribution is precluded, and only a sample drawn from the distribution is feasible. The engine's MCMC technique, which employs the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, provides a sample in the form of a sequence (chain) of possible states of nature, x{sup (1)}, x{sup (2)}, ..., x{sup (T)}, .... The sequencing is motivated by consideration of comparative likelihoods of the data. Asymptotic results ensure that the sample ultimately spans the entire posterior distribution and reveals the actual state frequencies that characterize the posterior. In mathematical jargon, the sample is an ergodic Markov chain with stationary distribution f. What this means is that once the chain has gone a sufficient number of steps, T{sub 0}, the (unconditional) distribution of the state, x{sup (T)}, at any step T {ge} T{sub 0} is the same (i.e., is ''stationary''), and is the posterior distribution, f. We call T{sub 0} the ''burn-in'' period. The MCMC process begins at a particular state, which is selected at random or by design, according to the wish of the user of the engine. After the burn-in period, the chain has essentially forgotten where it started. Moreover, the sample x{sup (t{sub 0})}, x{sup (T{sub 0}+1)},... can be used for most purposes as a random sample from f, even though the x{sup (T{sub 0}+t)}, because of Markovian dependency, are not independent. For example, averages involving x{sup (t{sub 0})}, x{sup (t{sub 0}+1)},... may have an approximate normal distribution. The purpose of this note is to discuss the monitoring techniques currently in place in the stochastic engine software that addresses the issues of burn-in, stationarity, and normality. They are loosely termed ''convergence diagnostics'', in reference to the underlying Markov chains, which converge asymptotically to the desired posterior distribution.
Update on Cosmic Censorship Violation in AdS
Thomas Hertog; Gary T. Horowitz; Kengo Maeda
2004-01-01
We reexamine our proposed counterexample (gr-qc\\/0307102) to cosmic censorship in anti de Sitter (AdS) space, and find a gap in the construction. We mention some possible ways to close the gap, but at present the question of whether cosmic censorship is violated in AdS remains open.
On square-wave-driven stochastic resonance for energy harvesting in a bistable system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Dongxu; Zheng, Rencheng; Nakano, Kimihiko; Cartmell, Matthew P.
2014-11-01
Stochastic resonance is a physical phenomenon through which the throughput of energy within an oscillator excited by a stochastic source can be boosted by adding a small modulating excitation. This study investigates the feasibility of implementing square-wave-driven stochastic resonance to enhance energy harvesting. The motivating hypothesis was that such stochastic resonance can be efficiently realized in a bistable mechanism. However, the condition for the occurrence of stochastic resonance is conventionally defined by the Kramers rate. This definition is inadequate because of the necessity and difficulty in estimating white noise density. A bistable mechanism has been designed using an explicit analytical model which implies a new approach for achieving stochastic resonance in the paper. Experimental tests confirm that the addition of a small-scale force to the bistable system excited by a random signal apparently leads to a corresponding amplification of the response that we now term square-wave-driven stochastic resonance. The study therefore indicates that this approach may be a promising way to improve the performance of an energy harvester under certain forms of random excitation.
Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Compčre, Geoffrey; Guica, Monica; Rodriguez, Maria J.
2014-12-01
We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS3 solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS3. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS3, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS3 with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro × Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS3; two different types of Virasoro × Ka?-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives.
Dynamic Memory Optimization using Pool Allocation and Prefetching
Zhao, Qin
Heap memory allocation plays an important role in modern applications. Conventional heap allocators, however, generally ignore the underlying memory hierarchy of the system, favoring instead a low runtime overhead and fast ...
Essays on the real and financial allocation of capital
Ramírez Verdugo, Arturo
2006-01-01
This dissertation consists of three papers studying how firms allocate real and financial capital, and how taxes, the labor market and asymmetric information affect these allocation decisions. The first paper studies the ...
SWORDTAIL MATE CHOICE AND REPRODUCTIVE ALLOCATION: EFFECTS OF MALE CONDITION
Simpson, Suzanne
2011-04-26
allocate differentially depending on the quality of their mate. We manipulated male diet to determine if females had a mate preference based on male chronic condition. Afterward, we dissected the females and measured their allocation using egg size and egg...
Quantifying the impact of customer allocations on supply chain performance
Sheth, Neel
2012-01-01
This project investigates the impact that customer allocations have on key cost and service indicators at Intel Corporation. Allocations provide a method to fill orders during constrained supply, when total demand for a ...
28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 false Directly allocable costs. 100.14 Section 100.14 Judicial... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS...1994 § 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is directly...
24 CFR 982.101 - Allocation of funding.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of funding. 982.101 Section 982.101 Housing and...BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Funding and PHA Application for Funding § 982.101 Allocation of funding....
24 CFR 982.101 - Allocation of funding.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation of funding. 982.101 Section 982.101 Housing and...BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Funding and PHA Application for Funding § 982.101 Allocation of funding....
24 CFR 982.101 - Allocation of funding.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation of funding. 982.101 Section 982.101 Housing and...BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Funding and PHA Application for Funding § 982.101 Allocation of funding....
30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206.260 Mineral Resources...REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to...
30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206.459 Mineral Resources...REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to...
21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 2013-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the...
21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 2014-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the...
21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 2011-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the...
21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 2012-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the...
21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 2010-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the...
47 CFR 73.182 - Engineering standards of allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Engineering standards of allocation. 73.182 Section 73.182...BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.182 Engineering standards of allocation. (a) Sections...
47 CFR 73.182 - Engineering standards of allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Engineering standards of allocation. 73.182 Section 73.182...BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.182 Engineering standards of allocation. (a) Sections...
47 CFR 73.182 - Engineering standards of allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Engineering standards of allocation. 73.182 Section 73.182...BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.182 Engineering standards of allocation. (a) Sections...
7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 2014-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section 3430.311...ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Agriculture and Food Research Initiative § 3430.311 Allocation of research funds. (a) Fundamental...
7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 2013-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section 3430.311...ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Agriculture and Food Research Initiative § 3430.311 Allocation of research funds. (a) Fundamental...
7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 2012-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section 3430.311...ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Agriculture and Food Research Initiative § 3430.311 Allocation of research funds. (a) Fundamental...
1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY: DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIES ALLOCATION FACTORS
The report describes the methodologies and data bases used to develop species allocation factors and data processing software used to develop the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) Modelers' Emissions Inventory (Version 2). Species allocation factors were...
28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...2011-07-01 false Directly allocable costs. 100.14 Section 100.14 Judicial... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS...1994 § 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is directly...
THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY: DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIES ALLOCATION FACTORS
The report describes the methodologies and data bases used to develop species allocation factors and data processing software used to develop the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) Modelers' Emissions Inventory (Version 2). Species allocation factors were...
7 CFR 1493.5 - Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...2010-01-01 false Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations...1493.5 Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations...Potential benefits that the extension of export credit guarantees...for the particular U.S. agricultural commodity under...
7 CFR 235.4 - Allocation of funds to States.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...2014-01-01 false Allocation of funds to States. 235.4 Section 235.4 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS STATE ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSE FUNDS § 235.4 Allocation of funds to States. (a) Nondiscretionary SAE...
7 CFR 235.4 - Allocation of funds to States.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...2011-01-01 false Allocation of funds to States. 235.4 Section 235.4 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS STATE ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSE FUNDS § 235.4 Allocation of funds to States. (a) Nondiscretionary SAE...
7 CFR 235.4 - Allocation of funds to States.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...2012-01-01 false Allocation of funds to States. 235.4 Section 235.4 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS STATE ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSE FUNDS § 235.4 Allocation of funds to States. (a) Nondiscretionary SAE...
7 CFR 235.4 - Allocation of funds to States.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...2013-01-01 false Allocation of funds to States. 235.4 Section 235.4 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS STATE ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSE FUNDS § 235.4 Allocation of funds to States. (a) Nondiscretionary SAE...
7 CFR 235.4 - Allocation of funds to States.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...2010-01-01 false Allocation of funds to States. 235.4 Section 235.4 Agriculture...AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS STATE ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSE FUNDS § 235.4 Allocation of funds to States. (a) Nondiscretionary SAE...
7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 2011-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section 3430.311...ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Agriculture and Food Research Initiative § 3430.311 Allocation of research funds. (a) Fundamental...
Sex allocation and population structure in apicomplexan (protozoa) parasites
West, Stuart
Sex allocation and population structure in apicomplexan (protozoa) parasites Stuart A. West* , Todd allocation theory across parasitic protozoa in the phylum Apicomplexa. This cosmopolitan phylum consists attention, the population structure of parasitic protozoa species, and in particular estimates of sel
Optimal Energy Allocation and Admission Control for Communications Satellites
Modiano, Eytan
1 Optimal Energy Allocation and Admission Control for Communications Satellites Alvin Fu, Eytan control for communications satellites in earth orbit. These satellites receive requests for transmis- sion allocation problems in wireless commu- nications. Keywords-- Satellite, Communication, Resource Alloca- tion
5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section 319.202 Administrative...EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment § 319.202...
5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section 319.202 Administrative...EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment § 319.202...
5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section 319.202 Administrative...EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment § 319.202...
5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section 319.202 Administrative...EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment § 319.202...
5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section 319.202 Administrative...EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment § 319.202...
14 CFR 93.321 - Transfer and termination of allocations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.321 Transfer and termination of allocations. (a) Allocations are not a...
14 CFR 93.321 - Transfer and termination of allocations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.321 Transfer and termination of allocations. (a) Allocations are not a...
14 CFR 93.321 - Transfer and termination of allocations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.321 Transfer and termination of allocations. (a) Allocations are not a...
14 CFR 93.321 - Transfer and termination of allocations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.321 Transfer and termination of allocations. (a) Allocations are not a...
14 CFR 93.321 - Transfer and termination of allocations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.321 Transfer and termination of allocations. (a) Allocations are not a...
Recipient allocation preferences and organizational choices: a fit perspective
Gogus, Celile Itir
2007-04-25
sample of Turkish registered nurses. Results show that recipients have differential preferences for allocation norms depending on resource type being allocated and characteristics of the environment. Furthermore, the fit or misfit between recipients...
7 CFR 1493.4 - Criteria for country allocations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...for country allocations. The criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for country allocations under the GSM-102 or GSM-103 programs, will include, but not be limited to, the following: (a) Potential benefits that the...
7 CFR 1493.4 - Criteria for country allocations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...for country allocations. The criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for country allocations under the GSM-102 or GSM-103 programs, will include, but not be limited to, the following: (a) Potential benefits that the...
AI, OR and Control Theory: A Rosetta Stone for Stochastic Optimization
Powell, Warren B.
, 2012 #12;Abstract Stochastic optimization arises in a wide range of problems, and as a result the ideas have been developed in different communities, creating fragmented styles in terms of notation, modeling (more references may be added later). At this point, I think it is fair to say that all of the concepts
Brynmor Davis; Edward Kim; J. R. Piepmeier
2004-01-01
Many new Earth remote-sensing instruments are embracing both the advantages and added complexity that result from interferometric or fully polarimetric operation. To increase instrument understanding and functionality, a model of the signals these instruments measure is presented. A stochastic model is used as it recognizes the nondeterministic nature of any real-world measurements, while also providing a tractable mathematical framework. A
PRISM-games: A Model Checker for Stochastic Multi-Player Games
Oxford, University of
PRISM-games: A Model Checker for Stochastic Multi-Player Games Taolue Chen1 , Vojtech Forejt1 of Oxford, UK 2 School of Computer Science, University of Birmingham, UK Abstract. We present PRISM checker PRISM, benefiting from its existing user interface and simulator, whilst adding novel model
Efficient Low-Rank Stochastic Gradient Descent Methods for Solving Semidefinite Programs
, CA 95014 Abstract We propose a low-rank stochastic gradient descent (LR-SGD) method for solving a class of semidefinite programming (SDP) prob- lems. LR-SGD has clear computational ad- vantages over the standard SGD peers as its iterative projection step (a SDP prob- lem) can be solved in an efficient manner
Computational Methods and Stochastic Models
Bechler, Pawel
, proteomics, Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, Expectation-Maximization, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry arising from mass spectrometry (MS) data processing. It describes computational methods for solving themComputational Methods and Stochastic Models in Proteomics Boguslaw Kluge Faculty of Mathematics
A singular stochastic integral equation
Nualart, David; Sanz, Marta
1982-03-05
This note is devoted to the discussion of the stochastic differential equation $ XdX + YdY = 0$, $ X$ and $ Y$ being continuous local martingales. A method to construct solutions of this equation is given....
Nucleon structure from stochastic estimators
Bali, Gunnar S; Gläßle, Benjamin; Göckeler, Meinulf; Najjar, Johannes; Rödl, Rudolf; Schäfer, Andreas; Sternbeck, André; Söldner, Wolfgang
2013-01-01
Using stochastic estimators for connected meson and baryon three-point functions has successfully been tried in the past years. Compared to the standard sequential source method we trade the freedom to compute the current-to-sink propagator independently of the hadron sink for additional stochastic noise in our observables. In the case of the nucleon we can use this freedom to compute many different sink-momentum/polarization combinations, which grants access to more virtualities. We will present preliminary results on the scalar, electro-magnetic and axial form factors of the nucleon in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD and contrast the performance of the stochastic method to the sequential source method. We find the stochastic method to be competitive in terms of errors at fixed cost.
Allocating scarce resources for endangered species recovery
Benjamin M. Simon; Craig S. Leff; Harvey Doerksen
1995-01-01
This article examines the relationship between fiscal year 1990 Fish and Wildlife Service spending on endangered species recovery and the priority ranking assigned by the Fish and Wildlife Service to particular species. The focus of the analysis is on the extent to which resources were allocated to species assigned higher priority rankings. The major conclusions are: species' recovery priority rank
Allocation of Resources. SPEC Kit 31.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.
This kit on resource allocation in academic and research libraries contains nine primary source documents and a concise summary of a 1976 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) survey on management of fiscal spending activities in ARL libraries. Based on responses from 70 libraries, the summary discusses 3 specific subjects within the general…
CONGESTION MANAGEMENT ALLOCATION IN MULTIPLE TRANSACTION NETWORKS
Gross, George
requirement is that the congestion management and pricing be nondiscriminatory and transparent. Various] for the so-called Poolco paradigm. In the nodal pricing approach, congestion management is performed throughCONGESTION MANAGEMENT ALLOCATION IN MULTIPLE TRANSACTION NETWORKS Shu Tao George Gross ABB Energy
Resource Allocation Patterns and Student Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
James, Lori; Pate, James; Leech, Donald; Martin, Ellice; Brockmeier, Lantry; Dees, Elizabeth
2011-01-01
This quantitative research study was designed to examine the relationship between system resource allocation patterns and student achievement, as measured by eighth grade Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) mathematics, eighth grade CRCT reading, eleventh grade Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) mathematics, eleventh grade and…
Emergent Task Allocation for Mobile Robots
Nuzhet Atay; O. Burçhan Bayazit
2007-01-01
Multi-robot systems require efficient and accurate planning in order to perform mission-critical tasks. However, algorithms that find the optimal solution are usually computa- tionally expensive and may require a large number of messages between the robots as the robots need to be aware of the global spatiotemporal information. In this paper, we introduce an emergent task allocation approach for mobile
Dynamic Allocation and Learning with Strategic Arrivals
Franz, Sven Oliver
advertising and broadcasting, allocation of bandwidth), and event management (sports, concerts, etc, Berkeley, philipp.strack@gmail.com. 1 #12;1 Introduction Revenue Management - broadly speaking, the study of constantly changing variables such as time to take-off or major event, remaining capacity, demand forecasts
Ground data systems resource allocation process
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berner, Carol A.; Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.
1989-01-01
The Ground Data Systems Resource Allocation Process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides medium- and long-range planning for the use of Deep Space Network and Mission Control and Computing Center resources in support of NASA's deep space missions and Earth-based science. Resources consist of radio antenna complexes and associated data processing and control computer networks. A semi-automated system was developed that allows operations personnel to interactively generate, edit, and revise allocation plans spanning periods of up to ten years (as opposed to only two or three weeks under the manual system) based on the relative merit of mission events. It also enhances scientific data return. A software system known as the Resource Allocation and Planning Helper (RALPH) merges the conventional methods of operations research, rule-based knowledge engineering, and advanced data base structures. RALPH employs a generic, highly modular architecture capable of solving a wide variety of scheduling and resource sequencing problems. The rule-based RALPH system has saved significant labor in resource allocation. Its successful use affirms the importance of establishing and applying event priorities based on scientific merit, and the benefit of continuity in planning provided by knowledge-based engineering. The RALPH system exhibits a strong potential for minimizing development cycles of resource and payload planning systems throughout NASA and the private sector.
Register Allocation & Spilling via Graph Coloring
Gregory J. Chaitin
1982-01-01
In a previous paper we reported the successful use of graph coloring techniques for doing global register allocation in an experimental PL\\/I optimizing compi- ler. When the compiler cannot color the register con- fliet graph with a number of colors equal to the num- ber of available machine registers, it must add code to spill and reload registers to and
Preferred allocation for registered organ donors
Griffin Trotter
2008-01-01
A shortage of transplantable organs in the United States can be traced to low rates of donation. Incentives for organ donation might partially remedy these organ shortfalls. Although incentives countervail the dominant philanthropy model, this model is neither well supported by ethical argument nor strictly applied. Preferred allocation, consisting in the practice of awarding extra priority points to previously registered
Balanced Allocations of Cake Jeff Edmonds
Pruhs, Kirk
Balanced Allocations of Cake Jeff Edmonds Kirk Pruhs Abstract We give a randomized algorithm for the well known caking cutting problem that achieves approx- imate fairness, and has complexity O in the well known cake cutting problem is to fairly apportion some resources among n players. Here we consider
Balanced Allocations of Cake Jeff Edmonds
Edmonds, Jeff
Balanced Allocations of Cake Jeff Edmonds Kirk Pruhs Abstract We give a randomized algorithm for the well known caking cutting problem that achieves approx- imate fairness, and has complexity O The protocol's goal in the well known cake cutting problem is to fairly apportion some resources among n
Energy Uptake and Allocation During Ontogeny
Brown, James H.
Energy Uptake and Allocation During Ontogeny Chen Hou,1 * Wenyun Zuo,2 Melanie E. Moses,3 William H is transformed into biomass and metabolic energy during ontogeny. When an animal is growing, some fraction is the energy re- quired to synthesize a unit of biomass. It is difficult to measure Bbasal over ontogeny
Land Tenure and Allocative Efficiency in Niger
Sarah Gavian; Marcel Fafchamps
1996-01-01
Using field-level data, we investigate whether traditional land tenure systems are an impediment to allocative efficiency in Niger. We find that yields are strongly influenced by the manpower available to farming households, an indication that marginal returns to labor and land are not equalized across households. We uncover no relationship between manuring and whether or not local customs allow land
Chapter 14:Chapter 14: Allocating Scarce Resources
Allan, Vicki H.
1 Chapter 14:Chapter 14: Allocating Scarce Resources With two player games, we had a "one shot" decision with no way ofone shot decision with no way of binding the negotiation. In this chapter, we) Stability (won't desire to change mind in stating preferences once outcome is known) Simple, quick Di
Multiple UAV task allocation using negotiation
P. B. Sujit; Arpita Sinha; Debasish Ghose
2006-01-01
A multiple UAV search and attack mission involves searching for targets in an unknown region, followed by attack on the detected targets. An effective mission involves assigning the tasks to UAVs efficiently. Task allocation becomes difficult when the UAVs have limited range to detect the targets and neighbouring UAVs. The UAVs are also subject to limited communication range. With these
Resource Allocation in U. K. Universities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taylor, Bryan J. R.
1982-01-01
Information on resource allocation in United Kingdom (UK) universities, which is derived from a study by a Working Party of the Conference of University administrators, is presented. Attention is directed to: structures and constitutions; the use of norms and formulas; administration and central services; minor works, maintenance, and space; and…
Principles of allocation of health care resources.
Knox, E G
1978-01-01
The methods and principles of allocating centrally provided health care resources to regions and areas are reviewed using the report of the Resource Allocation Working Party (RAWP) (Department of Health and Social Security, 1976) and the consultative document (Department of Health and Social Security, 1976a) as a basis. A range of practical problems arising from these papers (especially the report of the RAWP) is described and traced to the terms of reference. It is concluded that the RAWP misinterpreted aspects of social and administrative reality, and it failed to recognise clearly that the several principles on which it had to work conflicted with each other and demanded decisions of priority. The consequential errors led to (a) an injudicious imposition of 'objectivity' at all levels of allocation, (b) an unjustified insistence that the same method be used at each administrative level in an additive and transitive manner, (c) the exclusion of general practitioner services from their considerations, (d) a failure to delineate those decisions which are in fact political decisions, thus to concatenate them, inappropriately, with technical and professional issues. The main requirement in a revised system is for a mechanism which allocates different priorities to different principles at each appropriate administrative and distributive level, and adapts the working methods of each tier to meet separately defined objectives. PMID:262585
Limits on linearity of missile allocation optimization
Canavan, G.H.
1997-12-01
Optimizations of missile allocation based on linearized exchange equations produce accurate allocations, but the limits of validity of the linearization are not known. These limits are explored in the context of the upload of weapons by one side to initially small, equal forces of vulnerable and survivable weapons. The analysis compares analytic and numerical optimizations and stability induces based on aggregated interactions of the two missile forces, the first and second strikes they could deliver, and they resulting costs. This note discusses the costs and stability indices induced by unilateral uploading of weapons to an initially symmetrical low force configuration. These limits are quantified for forces with a few hundred missiles by comparing analytic and numerical optimizations of first strike costs. For forces of 100 vulnerable and 100 survivable missiles on each side, the analytic optimization agrees closely with the numerical solution. For 200 vulnerable and 200 survivable missiles on each side, the analytic optimization agrees with the induces to within about 10%, but disagrees with the allocation of the side with more weapons by about 50%. The disagreement comes from the interaction of the possession of more weapons with the shift of allocation from missiles to value that they induce.
Optimized APSK bit allocation for satellite communication
Antonio Angioi; Marco Lixia; Maurizio Murroni
2010-01-01
In this paper a novel optimal bit allocation for APSK modulation is proposed. Optimization is done by GA according to the satellite channel error sensitivity of the data. Furthermore, a new bit mapping is proposed for 16-APSK and 32-APSK. Results show the improvement of the proposed scheme with respect to the state of the art of the APSK modulation.
Distributed power allocation for vehicle management systems
Necmiye Ozay; Ufuk Topcu; Richard M. Murray
2011-01-01
We consider the problem of designing distributed control protocols -for aircraft vehicle management systems-that cooperatively allocate electric power while meeting certain higher level goals and requirements, and dynamically reacting to the changes in the internal system state and external environment. A decentralized control problem is posed where each power distribution unit is equipped with a controller that implements a local
House Allocation With Fractional Endowments Stergios Athanassoglou
Sethuraman, Jay
to her peers. For this general model, we design an algorithm to find a fractional allocation of houses house, we recover the housing market model, first considered by Shapley and Scarf [8]. For this model, Shapley and Scarf proposed the Top-Trading Cycles mechanism (attributed to Gale) that finds the unique
Internal Markets for Supply Chain Capacity Allocation
allocation problems using internal markets among employees of the same company. Unlike earlier forms's ability to pay marke participants based on factors other than just the profitability of their market of corporate, not individual, profits. Incentives for collusion among peers can be reduced by paying
THE POLICE VEHICLE LOCATION-ALLOCATION PROBLEM
M. Sher; N. Adler; A. S. Hakkert; A. Ben-Nun
The main aim of this research is to develop and apply location optimization formulations in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) to allocate police patrol vehicles such that the police car road coverage in a specific area is maximized. We will demonstrate this using a case study based on the interurban road network of Northern Israel. Currently it is
A Patrol Car Allocation Model: Background
Jan M. Chaiken; Peter Dormont
1978-01-01
Before designing a computer program for allocating police patrol cars by time and geography, a review was undertaken of previously existing programs of this type. Nearly all of the programs calculated queuing statistics for the collection of patrol cars by assuming a steady-state system with calls for service arriving within priority levels according to Poisson processes and having independent, identical,
Stochastic superparameterization in quasigeostrophic turbulence
Grooms, Ian, E-mail: grooms@cims.nyu.edu [Center for Atmosphere Ocean Science, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States); Majda, Andrew J., E-mail: jonjon@cims.nyu.edu [Center for Atmosphere Ocean Science, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States); Center for Prototype Climate Modelling, NYU-Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)
2014-08-15
In this article we expand and develop the authors' recent proposed methodology for efficient stochastic superparameterization algorithms for geophysical turbulence. Geophysical turbulence is characterized by significant intermittent cascades of energy from the unresolved to the resolved scales resulting in complex patterns of waves, jets, and vortices. Conventional superparameterization simulates large scale dynamics on a coarse grid in a physical domain, and couples these dynamics to high-resolution simulations on periodic domains embedded in the coarse grid. Stochastic superparameterization replaces the nonlinear, deterministic eddy equations on periodic embedded domains by quasilinear stochastic approximations on formally infinite embedded domains. The result is a seamless algorithm which never uses a small scale grid and is far cheaper than conventional SP, but with significant success in difficult test problems. Various design choices in the algorithm are investigated in detail here, including decoupling the timescale of evolution on the embedded domains from the length of the time step used on the coarse grid, and sensitivity to certain assumed properties of the eddies (e.g. the shape of the assumed eddy energy spectrum). We present four closures based on stochastic superparameterization which elucidate the properties of the underlying framework: a ‘null hypothesis’ stochastic closure that uncouples the eddies from the mean, a stochastic closure with nonlinearly coupled eddies and mean, a nonlinear deterministic closure, and a stochastic closure based on energy conservation. The different algorithms are compared and contrasted on a stringent test suite for quasigeostrophic turbulence involving two-layer dynamics on a ?-plane forced by an imposed background shear. The success of the algorithms developed here suggests that they may be fruitfully applied to more realistic situations. They are expected to be particularly useful in providing accurate and efficient stochastic parameterizations for use in ensemble-based state estimation and prediction.
Stochastic superparameterization in quasigeostrophic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grooms, Ian; Majda, Andrew J.
2014-08-01
In this article we expand and develop the authors' recent proposed methodology for efficient stochastic superparameterization algorithms for geophysical turbulence. Geophysical turbulence is characterized by significant intermittent cascades of energy from the unresolved to the resolved scales resulting in complex patterns of waves, jets, and vortices. Conventional superparameterization simulates large scale dynamics on a coarse grid in a physical domain, and couples these dynamics to high-resolution simulations on periodic domains embedded in the coarse grid. Stochastic superparameterization replaces the nonlinear, deterministic eddy equations on periodic embedded domains by quasilinear stochastic approximations on formally infinite embedded domains. The result is a seamless algorithm which never uses a small scale grid and is far cheaper than conventional SP, but with significant success in difficult test problems. Various design choices in the algorithm are investigated in detail here, including decoupling the timescale of evolution on the embedded domains from the length of the time step used on the coarse grid, and sensitivity to certain assumed properties of the eddies (e.g. the shape of the assumed eddy energy spectrum). We present four closures based on stochastic superparameterization which elucidate the properties of the underlying framework: a ‘null hypothesis' stochastic closure that uncouples the eddies from the mean, a stochastic closure with nonlinearly coupled eddies and mean, a nonlinear deterministic closure, and a stochastic closure based on energy conservation. The different algorithms are compared and contrasted on a stringent test suite for quasigeostrophic turbulence involving two-layer dynamics on a ?-plane forced by an imposed background shear. The success of the algorithms developed here suggests that they may be fruitfully applied to more realistic situations. They are expected to be particularly useful in providing accurate and efficient stochastic parameterizations for use in ensemble-based state estimation and prediction.
Optimal Stochastic Enhancement of Photoionization
Singh, Kamal P.; Rost, Jan M. [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)
2007-04-20
The effect of noise on the nonlinear photoionization of an atom due to a femtosecond pulse is investigated in the framework of the stochastic Schroedinger equation. A modest amount of white noise results in an enhancement of the net ionization yield by several orders of magnitude, giving rise to a form of quantum stochastic resonance. We demonstrate that this effect is preserved if the white noise is replaced by broadband chaotic light.
Control theory: Deterministic versus stochastic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdul Aziz, Nur Atiq Afiqah; Salleh, Hassilah
2013-04-01
Deterministic control theory is not something new since it has been used widely in controlling the optimization of the systems. However, the assertion of stochastic framework found to be more realistic. Hence this paper discusses both deterministic and stochastic control theory and the method used respectively in their problem solving namely numerical standard methods, dynamic programming and Hamilton Jacobi-Bellman equation (HJB). Problems of funding system and its solution by using HJB equation end this study.
Graphs and Stochastic Automata Networks
Jean-michel Fourneau; Franck Quessette
1995-01-01
We show how some graph theoretical arguments may be used toreduce the complexity of the computation of the steady-state distributionof Markov chain. We consider the directed graph associated toa Markov chain derived from a Stochastic Automata Network (SAN).The structural properties of the automata are used to establish newvarious results. First, we establish the complexity of the resolution forStochastic Automata Networks
Stochastic roots of growth phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Lauro, E.; De Martino, S.; De Siena, S.; Giorno, V.
2014-05-01
We show that the Gompertz equation describes the evolution in time of the median of a geometric stochastic process. Therefore, we induce that the process itself generates the growth. This result allows us further to exploit a stochastic variational principle to take account of self-regulation of growth through feedback of relative density variations. The conceptually well defined framework so introduced shows its usefulness by suggesting a form of control of growth by exploiting external actions.
The allocation of ecosystem net primary productivity in tropical forests
Malhi, Yadvinder; Doughty, Christopher; Galbraith, David
2011-01-01
The allocation of the net primary productivity (NPP) of an ecosystem between canopy, woody tissue and fine roots is an important descriptor of the functioning of that ecosystem, and an important feature to correctly represent in terrestrial ecosystem models. Here, we collate and analyse a global dataset of NPP allocation in tropical forests, and compare this with the representation of NPP allocation in 13 terrestrial ecosystem models. On average, the data suggest an equal partitioning of allocation between all three main components (mean 34 ± 6% canopy, 39 ± 10% wood, 27 ± 11% fine roots), but there is substantial site-to-site variation in allocation to woody tissue versus allocation to fine roots. Allocation to canopy (leaves, flowers and fruit) shows much less variance. The mean allocation of the ecosystem models is close to the mean of the data, but the spread is much greater, with several models reporting allocation partitioning outside of the spread of the data. Where all main components of NPP cannot be measured, litterfall is a good predictor of overall NPP (r2 = 0.83 for linear fit forced through origin), stem growth is a moderate predictor and fine root production a poor predictor. Across sites the major component of variation of allocation is a shifting allocation between wood and fine roots, with allocation to the canopy being a relatively invariant component of total NPP. This suggests the dominant allocation trade-off is a ‘fine root versus wood’ trade-off, as opposed to the expected ‘root–shoot’ trade-off; such a trade-off has recently been posited on theoretical grounds for old-growth forest stands. We conclude by discussing the systematic biases in estimates of allocation introduced by missing NPP components, including herbivory, large leaf litter and root exudates production. These biases have a moderate effect on overall carbon allocation estimates, but are smaller than the observed range in allocation values across sites. PMID:22006964
The allocation of ecosystem net primary productivity in tropical forests.
Malhi, Yadvinder; Doughty, Christopher; Galbraith, David
2011-11-27
The allocation of the net primary productivity (NPP) of an ecosystem between canopy, woody tissue and fine roots is an important descriptor of the functioning of that ecosystem, and an important feature to correctly represent in terrestrial ecosystem models. Here, we collate and analyse a global dataset of NPP allocation in tropical forests, and compare this with the representation of NPP allocation in 13 terrestrial ecosystem models. On average, the data suggest an equal partitioning of allocation between all three main components (mean 34 ± 6% canopy, 39 ± 10% wood, 27 ± 11% fine roots), but there is substantial site-to-site variation in allocation to woody tissue versus allocation to fine roots. Allocation to canopy (leaves, flowers and fruit) shows much less variance. The mean allocation of the ecosystem models is close to the mean of the data, but the spread is much greater, with several models reporting allocation partitioning outside of the spread of the data. Where all main components of NPP cannot be measured, litterfall is a good predictor of overall NPP (r(2) = 0.83 for linear fit forced through origin), stem growth is a moderate predictor and fine root production a poor predictor. Across sites the major component of variation of allocation is a shifting allocation between wood and fine roots, with allocation to the canopy being a relatively invariant component of total NPP. This suggests the dominant allocation trade-off is a 'fine root versus wood' trade-off, as opposed to the expected 'root-shoot' trade-off; such a trade-off has recently been posited on theoretical grounds for old-growth forest stands. We conclude by discussing the systematic biases in estimates of allocation introduced by missing NPP components, including herbivory, large leaf litter and root exudates production. These biases have a moderate effect on overall carbon allocation estimates, but are smaller than the observed range in allocation values across sites. PMID:22006964
25 CFR 170.200 - How does BIA allocate IRR Program funds?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...Reservation Roads Program Funding Tribal Transportation Allocation Methodology (ttam) § 170.200 How does BIA allocate IRR Program...This section sets forth the Tribal Transportation Allocation Methodology (TTAM) that BIA uses to allocate IRR Program...
7 CFR 761.204 - Methods of allocating funds to State Offices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...Allocation of Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.204 Methods of allocating funds to State Offices. FO and OL loan funds are allocated to State Offices using one or more of the following allocation methods: (a) Formula...
Mechanism Design for Stochastic Virtual Resource Allocation in Non-Cooperative Cloud Systems
Guo, Minyi
is efficient and incentive compatible. That is, the incorporation of mechanism design for virtualized resource computing has been fast developing from a long-held dream into a commercially viable tech- nology for users
Stochastic resonance with matched filtering
Li-Fang Li; Jian-Yang Zhu
2010-06-28
Along with the development of interferometric gravitational wave detector, we enter into an epoch of gravitational wave astronomy, which will open a brand new window for astrophysics to observe our universe. Almost all of the data analysis methods in gravitational wave detection are based on matched filtering. Gravitational wave detection is a typical example of weak signal detection, and this weak signal is buried in strong instrument noise. So it seems attractable if we can take advantage of stochastic resonance. But unfortunately, almost all of the stochastic resonance theory is based on Fourier transformation and has no relation to matched filtering. In this paper we try to relate stochastic resonance to matched filtering. Our results show that stochastic resonance can indeed be combined with matched filtering for both periodic and non-periodic input signal. This encouraging result will be the first step to apply stochastic resonance to matched filtering in gravitational wave detection. In addition, based on matched filtering, we firstly proposed a novel measurement method for stochastic resonance which is valid for both periodic and non-periodic driven signal.
An Economic Framework for Resource Allocation in Ad-hoc Grids
Kuzmanov, Georgi
and explores what are the suitable mechanisms from Grid user/owner perspectives under given circumstances. We are autonomous agents that cooperate through a simple, single metric namely the price that summarizes the global
PETROLEUM ALLOCATION AT PETROBRAS: MATHEMATICAL MODEL AND A SOLUTION
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
PETROLEUM ALLOCATION AT PETROBRAS: MATHEMATICAL MODEL AND A SOLUTION ALGORITHM Roger Rocha1 Petroleum Allocation is an important link for the integration of Petroleum Supply Chain at PETROBRAS. In this work we describe how mathematical programming is being used to solve the Petroleum Allocation Problem
Ownership and decentralization in distributed systems allocation mechanisms
Tiberiu V Stef-Praun
2006-01-01
Resource allocation is one of the most widely addressed topics in computer science. Its importance lies with the role it has in providing a foundation for building systems and applications, and with its focus on using the resources available in the environment in an efficient way. While, generally, the problem and the goals of resource allocation remain the same---efficient allocations
Distributed multiagent resource allocation in diminishing marginal return domains
Yoram Bachrach; Jeffrey S. Rosenschein
2008-01-01
We consider a multiagent resource allocation domain where the marginal production of each resource is diminishing. A set of identical, self-interested agents requires access to sharable resources in the domain. We present a distributed and random allocation procedure, and demonstrate that the allocation converges to the optimal in terms of utilitarian social welfare. The procedure is based on direct interaction
77 FR 54482 - Allocation of Costs Under the Simplified Methods
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-09-05
...REG-126770-06] RIN 1545-BG07 Allocation of Costs Under the Simplified Methods AGENCY: Internal...contains proposed regulations on allocating costs to certain property produced by the taxpayer...that are required to capitalize certain costs to the property and that allocate...
47 CFR 64.901 - Allocation of costs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation of costs. 64.901 Section 64.901 Telecommunication...RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.901 Allocation of costs. (a) Carriers required to separate their...
A comprehensive reliability allocation method for design of CNC lathes
Yiqiang Wang; Richard C. M. Yam; Ming J. Zuo; Peter Tse
2001-01-01
In the design and development of computerized numerical control lathes, an effective reliability allocation method is needed to allocate system level reliability requirements into subsystem and component levels. During the allocation process, many factors have to be considered. Some of these factors can be measured quantitatively while others have to be assessed qualitatively. In this paper, we consider seven criteria
Ejaculate allocation by male sand martins, Riparia riparia
E. H. Nicholls; T. Burke; T. R. Birkhead
2001-01-01
Males of many species allocate sperm to ejaculates strategically in response to variation in the risk and intensity of sperm competition. The notable exception is passerine birds, in which evidence for strategic allocation is absent. Here we report the results of a study testing for strategic ejaculate allocation in a passerine bird, the sand martin ( Riparia riparia ). Natural
47 CFR 64.901 - Allocation of costs.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation of costs. 64.901 Section 64.901 Telecommunication...RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.901 Allocation of costs. (a) Carriers required to separate their...
STUDENT FORUM GROUP REGISTRATION / BUDGET ALLOCATION / EVENT PLANNING
STUDENT FORUM GROUP REGISTRATION / BUDGET ALLOCATION / EVENT PLANNING IMPORTANT DATES: SEPTEMBER 17, 2010 ONLINE STUDENT GROUP REGISTRATION IS DUE! SEPTEMBER 17, 2010 BUDGET ALLOCATION REQUEST IS DUE (TO RM 422) SEPTEMBER 24, 2010 BUDGET ALLOCATIONS ARE DETERMINED. STUDENT GROUPS ARE NOTIFIED
7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761.205...of Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation...
7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761.205...of Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation...
Runtime Estimation and Resource Allocation for Concurrency Testing
Runtime Estimation and Resource Allocation for Concurrency Testing Jiri Simsa, Randy Bryant, Garth Reduction, Runtime Estimation, Resource Allocation #12;Abstract In the past 15 years, stateless exploration for estimating the total runtime of stateless exploration runs and policies for allocating resources among tests
The ethics of psychoactive ads
Michael R. Hyman; Richard Tansey
1990-01-01
Many of today's ads work by arousing the viewer's emotions. Although emotion-arousing ads are widely used and are commonly thought to be effective, their careless use produces a side-effect: the psychoactive ad. A psychoactive ad is any emotion-arousing ad that can cause a meaningful, well-defined group of viewers to feel extremely anxious, to feel hostile toward others, or to feel
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Brought to you by the folks at Adcritic.com, this Website features sixteen 30-second spots from the Presidential primary and general elections campaign. Political Ad Critic lists a "top ten," with Ralph Nader's hip parody ("The Truth: Priceless") of the popular MasterCard commercials awarded number one, and posts new ads from the campaign each week. Currently, there are four commercials from the Gore campaign posted here -- one of which has Gore speaking Spanish -- and six from Bush's camp, including the now-infamous "bureaucRATS" spot. (The QuickTime control bar allows users to advance frame by frame so they can judge for themselves the commercial's disputed subliminal content.) Commercials from the Libertarian party candidate Harry Browne, and primary contenders John McCain and Bill Bradley round out the Website. May the best commercial win.
Hagedorn Strings and Correspondence Principle in AdS(3)
Feng-Li Lin; Toshihiro Matsuo; Dan Tomino
2007-09-10
Motivated by the possibility of formulating a strings/black hole correspondence in AdS space, we extract the Hagedorn behavior of thermal AdS_3 bosonic string from 1-loop partition function of SL(2,R) WZW model. We find that the Hagedorn temperature is monotonically increasing as the AdS radius shrinks, reaches a maximum of order of string scale set by the unitarity bound of the CFT for internal space. The resulting density of states near the Hagedorn temperature resembles the form as for strings in flat space and is dominated by the space-like long string configurations. We then argue a conjectured strings/black hole correspondence in AdS space by applying the Hagedorn thermodynamics. We find the size of the corresponding black hole is a function of the AdS radius. For large AdS radius a black hole far bigger than the string scale will form. On the contrary, when the AdS and string scales are comparable a string size black hole will form. We also examine strings on BTZ background obtained through SL(2,Z) transformation. We find a tachyonic divergence for a BTZ black hole of string scale size.
On deformations of AdS n × S n supercosets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoare, B.; Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.
2014-06-01
We study the deformed AdS 5 × S 5 supercoset model of arXiv:1309.5850 which depends on one parameter ? and has classical quantum group symmetry. We confirm the conjecture that in the "maximal" deformation limit, ? ? ?, this model is T-dual to "flipped" double Wick rotation of the target space AdS 5 × S 5, i.e. dS 5 × H 5 space supported by an imaginary 5-form flux. In the imaginary deformation limit, ? ? i, the corresponding target space metric is of a pp-wave type and thus the resulting light-cone gauge S-matrix becomes relativistically invariant. Omitting non-unitary contributions of imaginary WZ terms, we find that this tree-level S-matrix is equivalent to that of the generalized sine-Gordon model representing the Pohlmeyer reduction of the undeformed AdS 5 × S 5 superstring model. We also study in some detail similar deformations of the AdS 3 × S 3 and AdS 2 × S 2 supercosets. The bosonic part of the deformed AdS 3 × S 3 model happens to be equivalent to the symmetric case of the sum of the Fateev integrable deformation of the SL(2) and SU(2) principal chiral models, while in the AdS 2 × S 2 case the role of the Fateev model is played by the 2d "sausage" model. The ? = i limits are again directly related to the Pohlmeyer reductions of the corresponding AdS n × S n supercosets: (2,2) super sine-Gordon model and its complex sine-Gordon analog. We also discuss possible deformations of AdS 3 × S 3 with more than one parameter.
AdS plane waves and entanglement entropy
K. Narayan; Tadashi Takayanagi; Sandip P. Trivedi
2013-02-22
AdS plane waves describe simple backgrounds which are dual to anisotropically excited systems with energy fluxes. Upon dimensional reduction, they reduce to hyperscaling violating spacetimes: in particular, the $AdS_5$ plane wave is known to exhibit logarithmic behavior of the entanglement entropy. In this paper, we carry out an extensive study of the holographic entanglement entropy for strip-shaped subsystems in AdS plane wave backgrounds. We find that the results depend crucially on whether the strip is parallel or orthogonal to the energy current. In the latter case, we show that there is a phenomenon analogous to a phase transition.
Li, W; Wang, B; Xie, Y L; Huang, G H; Liu, L
2015-02-01
Uncertainties exist in the water resources system, while traditional two-stage stochastic programming is risk-neutral and compares the random variables (e.g., total benefit) to identify the best decisions. To deal with the risk issues, a risk-aversion inexact two-stage stochastic programming model is developed for water resources management under uncertainty. The model was a hybrid methodology of interval-parameter programming, conditional value-at-risk measure, and a general two-stage stochastic programming framework. The method extends on the traditional two-stage stochastic programming method by enabling uncertainties presented as probability density functions and discrete intervals to be effectively incorporated within the optimization framework. It could not only provide information on the benefits of the allocation plan to the decision makers but also measure the extreme expected loss on the second-stage penalty cost. The developed model was applied to a hypothetical case of water resources management. Results showed that that could help managers generate feasible and balanced risk-aversion allocation plans, and analyze the trade-offs between system stability and economy. PMID:25226833
Stochasticity, succession, and environmental perturbations in a fluidic ecosystem
Zhou, Jizhong; Deng, Ye; Zhang, Ping; Xue, Kai; Liang, Yuting; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Stahl, David A.; Hazen, Terry C.; Tiedje, James M.; Arkin, Adam P.
2014-01-01
Unraveling the drivers of community structure and succession in response to environmental change is a central goal in ecology. Although the mechanisms shaping community structure have been intensively examined, those controlling ecological succession remain elusive. To understand the relative importance of stochastic and deterministic processes in mediating microbial community succession, a unique framework composed of four different cases was developed for fluidic and nonfluidic ecosystems. The framework was then tested for one fluidic ecosystem: a groundwater system perturbed by adding emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) for uranium immobilization. Our results revealed that groundwater microbial community diverged substantially away from the initial community after EVO amendment and eventually converged to a new community state, which was closely clustered with its initial state. However, their composition and structure were significantly different from each other. Null model analysis indicated that both deterministic and stochastic processes played important roles in controlling the assembly and succession of the groundwater microbial community, but their relative importance was time dependent. Additionally, consistent with the proposed conceptual framework but contradictory to conventional wisdom, the community succession responding to EVO amendment was primarily controlled by stochastic rather than deterministic processes. During the middle phase of the succession, the roles of stochastic processes in controlling community composition increased substantially, ranging from 81.3% to 92.0%. Finally, there are limited successional studies available to support different cases in the conceptual framework, but further well-replicated explicit time-series experiments are needed to understand the relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes in controlling community succession. PMID:24550501
A Stochastic Collocation Algorithm for Uncertainty Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mathelin, Lionel; Hussaini, M. Yousuff; Zang, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
This report describes a stochastic collocation method to adequately handle a physically intrinsic uncertainty in the variables of a numerical simulation. For instance, while the standard Galerkin approach to Polynomial Chaos requires multi-dimensional summations over the stochastic basis functions, the stochastic collocation method enables to collapse those summations to a one-dimensional summation only. This report furnishes the essential algorithmic details of the new stochastic collocation method and provides as a numerical example the solution of the Riemann problem with the stochastic collocation method used for the discretization of the stochastic parameters.
Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.
2012-05-20
The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.
Stochastic Inflation: New Results
A. Mezhlumian; A. Starobinsky
1994-06-14
This is an old article which has never been posted for public use and which only appeard in a relatively hard-to-get Proceedings of the Sakharov Conference in Moscow (May, 1991). The subject of this article has received a lot of attention in last two years. Although we acknowledge that there has been a very big progress in the field of relating the spectrum of fluctuations to scalar field potentials of inflation models, which have outdated some of our results (particularly because we never took into account the tensor fluctuations which have been shown to be crucial for reconstructing the inflaton potential) we think that some of the other ideas and approaches which we presented in this article maybe still of interest. We did not rewrite the article to include any of the newer approaches and we did not add any of the newer references. The reader is advised to refer to recent papers (for example, see the paper astro-ph/9403001 by Edward Kolb and Sharon Vadas) for state of the art review and up-to-date references. ==The original abstract of the article==: We prove that, in stochastic approach, there exists an equivalence relation between different inflationary models under some redefinition of field and time variables. The postinflationary physics is insensitive to it and one can say that related theories are in fact indistinguishable from the viewpoint
Interaction as stochastic noise
Roberto D'Agosta
2015-01-16
Interaction is so ubiquitous that imaging a world free from it is a difficult fantasy exercise. At the same time, in understanding any complex physical system, our ability of accounting for the mutual interaction of its constituents is often insufficient when not the restraining factor. Many strategies have been devised to control particle-particle interaction and explore the diverse regimes, from weak to strong interaction. Beautiful examples of these achievements are the experiments on Bose condensates, or the recent experiments on the dynamics of spin chains. Here I introduce another possibility, namely replacing the particle-particle interaction with an external stochastic field, and once again reducing the dynamics of a many-body system to the dynamics of single-particle systems. The theory is exact, in the sense that no approximations are introduced in decoupling the many-body system in its non-interacting sub-parts. Moreover, the equations of motion are linear, and no unknown external potential is inserted.
Stochastic processes in gravitropism
Meroz, Yasmine; Bastien, Renaud
2014-01-01
In this short review we focus on the role of noise in gravitropism of plants – the reorientation of plants according to the direction of gravity. We briefly introduce the conventional picture of static gravisensing in cells specialized in sensing. This model hinges on the sedimentation of statoliths (high in density and mass relative to other organelles) to the lowest part of the sensing cell. We then present experimental observations that cannot currently be understood within this framework. Lastly we introduce some current alternative models and directions that attempt to incorporate and interpret these experimental observations, including: (i) dynamic sensing, where gravisensing is suggested to be enhanced by stochastic events due to thermal and mechanical noise. These events both effectively lower the threshold of response, and lead to small-distance sedimentation, allowing amplification, and integration of the signal. (ii) The role of the cytoskeleton in signal-to-noise modulation and (iii) in signal transduction. In closing, we discuss directions that seem to either not have been explored, or that are still poorly understood. PMID:25505482
Andrzejewski, D; Zhu, X; Craven, M; Recht, B
2011-01-18
Topic models have been used successfully for a variety of problems, often in the form of application-specific extensions of the basic Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model. Because deriving these new models in order to encode domain knowledge can be difficult and time-consuming, we propose the Fold-all model, which allows the user to specify general domain knowledge in First-Order Logic (FOL). However, combining topic modeling with FOL can result in inference problems beyond the capabilities of existing techniques. We have therefore developed a scalable inference technique using stochastic gradient descent which may also be useful to the Markov Logic Network (MLN) research community. Experiments demonstrate the expressive power of Fold-all, as well as the scalability of our proposed inference method.
Three Dimensional Origin of AdS_2 Quantum Gravity
Alejandra Castro; Cynthia Keeler; Finn Larsen
2010-04-05
We study AdS_2 quantum gravity with emphasis on consistency with results from AdS_3. We lift AdS_2 black holes to three dimensions and map fluctuations around the solutions. Comparison with near extremal BTZ are discussed, with due emphasis on global aspects. The results confirm that parameters like central charges and conformal weights computed directly in 2D are consistent with standard results in 3D. Applying our results to the thermodynamics of near extreme Kerr black holes, we show that AdS_2 quantum gravity gives the correct central charge c=12J, and the entropy of excitations above the extremal limit is captured correctly.
The importance of appropriate allocation to offending behavior programs.
Palmer, Emma J; McGuire, James; Hatcher, Ruth M; Hounsome, Juliet C; Bilby, Charlotte A L; Hollin, Clive R
2008-04-01
This study examined the impact on reconviction of appropriate allocation to three general offending behavior programs involving adult male offenders in the English and Welsh Probation Service. Appropriate allocation was defined by level of risk for reconviction. There were three allocation groups: too low, appropriate, and too high. Using a quasi-experimental design, the reconviction rates of offenders who were allocated to and completed a program, offenders allocated to a program who failed to start, and a comparison group were compared. It was found that the appropriateness of allocation affected reconviction independently of treatment group. Furthermore, in line with the risk principle, there was an interaction between treatment group and the appropriateness of allocation. PMID:17684121
The complex interplay of sex allocation and sexual selection.
Booksmythe, Isobel; Schwanz, Lisa E; Kokko, Hanna
2013-03-01
It is well recognized that sex allocation strategies can be influenced by sexual selection, when females adjust offspring sex ratios in response to their mates' attractiveness. Yet the reciprocal influence of strategic sex allocation on processes of sexual selection has only recently been revealed. Recent theoretical work demonstrates that sex allocation weakens selection for female preferences, leading to the decline of male traits. However, these results have been derived assuming that females have perfect knowledge of mate attractiveness and precise control over cost-free allocation. Relaxing these assumptions highlights the importance of another feedback: that adaptive sex allocation must become difficult to maintain as traits and preferences decline. When sex allocation strategies erode not only traits and preferences but also their own selective advantage, predictions can no longer be expressed as a simple linear correlation between ornament exaggeration and adaptive sex allocation. Instead, strongest sex ratio biases may be found at intermediate trait levels. PMID:23461318
[Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Welch, Mary A., Ed.
1989-01-01
This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions, a student…
Dynamic advance reservation with delayed allocation
Vokkarane, Vinod; Somani, Arun
2014-12-02
A method of scheduling data transmissions from a source to a destination, includes the steps of: providing a communication system having a number of channels and a number of paths, each of the channels having a plurality of designated time slots; receiving two or more data transmission requests; provisioning the transmission of the data; receiving data corresponding to at least one of the two or more data transmission requests; waiting until an earliest requested start time T.sub.s; allocating at the current time each of the two or more data transmission requests; transmitting the data; and repeating the steps of waiting, allocating, and transmitting until each of the two or more data transmission requests that have been provisioned for a transmission of data is satisfied. A system to perform the method of scheduling data transmissions is also described.
Inventory Allocation for Online Graphical Display Advertising
Yang, Jian; Vassilvitskii, Sergei; Tomlin, John; Shanmugasundaram, Jayavel; Anastasakos, Tasos; Kennedy, Oliver
2010-01-01
We discuss a multi-objective/goal programming model for the allocation of inventory of graphical advertisements. The model considers two types of campaigns: guaranteed delivery (GD), which are sold months in advance, and non-guaranteed delivery (NGD), which are sold using real-time auctions. We investigate various advertiser and publisher objectives such as (a) revenue from the sale of impressions, clicks and conversions, (b) future revenue from the sale of NGD inventory, and (c) "fairness" of allocation. While the first two objectives are monetary, the third is not. This combination of demand types and objectives leads to potentially many variations of our model, which we delineate and evaluate. Our experimental results, which are based on optimization runs using real data sets, demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the proposed model.
Energy Uptake and Allocation during Ontogeny
Hou, Chen; Zuo, Wenyun; Moses, Melanie E.; Woodruff, William H.; Brown, James H.; West, Geoffrey B.
2010-01-01
All organisms face the problem of how to fuel ontogenetic growth. We present a model, empirically grounded on data from birds and mammals, that correctly predicts how growing animals allocate food energy between synthesis of new biomass and maintenance of existing biomass. Previous energy budget models have typically been based on rates of either food consumption or metabolic energy expenditure. Our model provides a framework that reconciles these two approaches and highlights the fundamental principles that determine rates of food assimilation and rates of energy allocation to maintenance, biosynthesis, activity, and storage. The model predicts that growth and assimilation rates for all animals should cluster closely around two universal curves. Data for mammals and birds of diverse body sizes and taxa support these predictions. PMID:18974352
Stochastic simulation in systems biology
Székely, Tamás; Burrage, Kevin
2014-01-01
Natural systems are, almost by definition, heterogeneous: this can be either a boon or an obstacle to be overcome, depending on the situation. Traditionally, when constructing mathematical models of these systems, heterogeneity has typically been ignored, despite its critical role. However, in recent years, stochastic computational methods have become commonplace in science. They are able to appropriately account for heterogeneity; indeed, they are based around the premise that systems inherently contain at least one source of heterogeneity (namely, intrinsic heterogeneity). In this mini-review, we give a brief introduction to theoretical modelling and simulation in systems biology and discuss the three different sources of heterogeneity in natural systems. Our main topic is an overview of stochastic simulation methods in systems biology. There are many different types of stochastic methods. We focus on one group that has become especially popular in systems biology, biochemistry, chemistry and physics. These discrete-state stochastic methods do not follow individuals over time; rather they track only total populations. They also assume that the volume of interest is spatially homogeneous. We give an overview of these methods, with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and suggest when each is more appropriate to use. We also include references to software implementations of them, so that beginners can quickly start using stochastic methods for practical problems of interest. PMID:25505503
Discrete Dynamic Programming and Capital Allocation
G. L. Nemhauser; Z. Ullmann
1969-01-01
Dynamic programming algorithms are developed for optimal capital allocation subject to budget constraints. We extend the work of Weingartner [Weingartner, H. M. 1966. Capital budgeting of interrelated projects: Survey and synthesis. Management Sci. 12(7, March) 485-516.] and Weingartner and Ness [Weingartner, H. M., D. N. Ness. 1967. Methods for the solution of the multi-dimensional 0\\/1 knapsack problem. Oper. Res. 15(1,
Optimal Bit Allocation Under Multiple Rate Constraints
Antonio Ortega
1996-01-01
We present a new Lagrangian-based iterative technique for rate--distortionoptimization under multiple rate constraints. We show how for sets of "linear" constraints this technique can be proven to be optimal up to a convexhull approximation. As an application we consider the problem of optimalbuffer-constrained bit allocation. Our technique can be used to find an excellentapproximation to the solutions achieved using dynamic
A Comparison of FFS Disk Allocation Policies
Keith A. Smith; Margo I. Seltzer
1996-01-01
The 4.4BSD file system includes a new algorithm for allocating disk blocks to files. The goal of this algo- rithm is to improve file clustering, increasing the amount of sequential I\\/O when reading or writing files, thereby improving file system performance. In this paper we study the effectiveness of this algorithm at reducing file system fragmentation. We have cre- ated
Determinants of time allocation across the lifespan
Michael Gurven; Hillard Kaplan
2006-01-01
This paper lays the groundwork for a theory of time allocation across the life course, based on the idea that strength and\\u000a skill vary as a function of age, and that return rates for different activities vary as a function of the combination of strength\\u000a and skills involved in performing those tasks. We apply the model to traditional human subsistence
Post Register Allocation Spill Code Optimization
Christopher Lupo; Kent D. Wilken
2006-01-01
A highly optimized register allocator should provide an efficient placement of save\\/restore code for procedures that contain calls. This paper presents a new approach to placing callee-saved save and restore instructions that generalizes Chow's shrink-wrapping technique (Chow, 1988). An efficient, profile-guided, hierarchical spill code placement algorithm is used to analyze the structure of a procedure to calculate the minimum dynamic
Adaptation investments: a resource allocation framework
Rhona Barr; Samuel Fankhauser; Kirk Hamilton
2010-01-01
Additional finance for adaptation is an important element of the emerging international climate change framework. This paper\\u000a discusses how adaptation funding may be allocated among developing countries in a transparent, efficient and equitable way.\\u000a We propose an approach based on three criteria: the climate change impacts experienced in a country, a country’s adaptive\\u000a capacity and its implementation capacity. Physical impact
Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency
Baum, William M
2012-01-01
The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior—behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between “operant” activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are “selected” only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the “selecting.” PMID:22287807
Do Conglomerate Firms Allocate Resources Inefficiently?
Gordon M Phillips; Vojislav Maksimovic
1999-01-01
We develop a profit-maximizing neoclassical of optimal firm size and growth across different industries. The model predicts how conglomerate firms will allocate resources across divisions over the business cycle and how their responses to industry shocks will differ from those of single-segment firms. We test our model and find that growth of conglomerate and single-segment firms is related to neoclassical
Stochastic viscosity solution for stochastic PDIEs with nonlinear Neumann boundary condition
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂ© de
Stochastic viscosity solution for stochastic PDIEs with nonlinear Neumann boundary condition Abstract This paper is an attempt to extend the notion of viscosity solution to non- linear stochastic, we prove the existence of the stochastic viscosity solution, and further extend the non- linear
Techniques in Computational Stochastic Dynamic Programming
Hanson, Floyd B.
1 Techniques in Computational Stochastic Dynamic Programming Floyd B. Hanson Âˇ University deriving finite difference versions of the dynamic programming equation. An important advantage and convergence proofs. 1. MCA Dynamic Programming Model Formulation Consider the stochastic diffusion without
Adaptive control for semilinear stochastic systems
Duncan, Tyrone E.; Maslowski, B.; Pasik-Duncan, B.
2000-01-01
An adaptive, ergodic cost stochastic control problem for a partially known, semilinear, stochastic system in an infinite dimensional space is formulated and solved. The solutions of the Hamilton--Jacobi--Bellman equations for the discounted cost...
Asset-Liability Management via Stochastic Programming for a Swedish Life Insurance Company
Fredrik Altenstedt
2001-01-01
Abstract In this work we develop,an asset liability model,for a swedish life insurance company, incorporating Swedish laws and regulations. A method for generating,representative,scenario trees from,a black box model,of the worlds economy,is developed,as well as such a black box economy,model. Stochastic programming,is employed,to find the optimal,solution to the asset allocation problem,given a scenario tree. Finally the model,is tested numerically, and its
Legal briefing: organ donation and allocation.
Pope, Thaddeus Mason
2010-01-01
This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to organ donation and allocation. This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. Organ donation and allocation have also recently been the subjects of significant public policy attention. In the past several months, legislatures and regulatory agencies across the United States and across the world have changed, or considered changing, the methods for procuring and distributing human organs for transplantation. Currently, in the U.S., more than 100,000 persons are waiting for organ transplantation. In China, more than 1.5 million people are waiting. Given the chronic shortage of available organs (especially kidneys and livers) relative to demand, the primary focus of most legal developments has been on increasing the rate of donation. These and related developments are usefully divided into the following 12 topical categories: 1. Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. 2. Presumed Consent and Opt-Out. 3. Mandated Choice. 4. Donation after Cardiac Death. 5. Payment and Compensation. 6. Donation by Prisoners. 7. Donor Registries. 8. Public Education. 9. Other Procurement Initiatives. 10. Lawsuits and Liability. 11. Trafficking and Tourism. 12. Allocation and Distribution. PMID:21089996
Rhazes (865-925 AD), the icon of Persian cardiology.
Nezhad, Golnoush Sadat Mahmoudi; Dalfardi, Behnam
2014-12-20
For many long centuries, the function of the human cardiovascular system was an important issue among scholars of different eras and areas. Abubakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya al-Razi (865-925 AD), known by the Latin name Rhazes, was one of the scholars concerned with this issue. This physician is recognized as the first great scientist of the Golden Age of Islamic Medicine (9th-12th centuries AD). He authored Kitab al-Mansuri (Liber Al-Mansuri), a ten-volume medical encyclopedia that covers a large number of medical subjects. The first chapter of this book is allocated to human anatomy and functions. In this article, we review the chapter from Al-Mansuri that deals with Rhazes' views on the cardiovascular system. PMID:25465822
The Hamiltonian Mechanics of Stochastic Acceleration
Burby, J. W.
2013-07-17
We show how to nd the physical Langevin equation describing the trajectories of particles un- dergoing collisionless stochastic acceleration. These stochastic di erential equations retain not only one-, but two-particle statistics, and inherit the Hamiltonian nature of the underlying microscopic equations. This opens the door to using stochastic variational integrators to perform simulations of stochastic interactions such as Fermi acceleration. We illustrate the theory by applying it to two example problems.
Stochastic information processing biological systems.
Hastings, H M; Pekelney, R
1982-01-01
We propose a simple, biochemically-based model for stochastic information processing in brain, genetic, and, consequently, evolutionary modelling. The essential features of reaction-diffusion processes are realized by intrinsically stochastic probabilistic automata (Shannon and Weaver, 1948; see also Ashby, 1958, von Neumann, 1966; Burks, 1970; Paz, 1971) whose definition extends that of classical automata. (Classical automata are deterministic; earlier work on probabilistic automata focused on error correction and at least approximating deterministic behavior.) We call these probabilistic automata biochemical to emphasize the role of intrinsically stochastic process in biological information processing. Our model yields descriptions of gradualism (Conrad, 1974), learning, and apparent inefficiencies in the brain, and partially resolves the near impossibility of simultaneous point mutations (Conrad, 1972, 1978) in genetics. The genetic model implies an evolutionary dynamics of punctuated equilibria (Gould and Eldredge, 1977). PMID:7104473
Stochastic determination of matrix determinants
Dorn, Sebastian
2015-01-01
Matrix determinants play an important role in data analysis, in particular when Gaussian processes are involved. Due to currently exploding data volumes linear operations - matrices - acting on the data are often not accessible directly, but are only represented indirectly in form of a computer routine. Such a routine implements the transformation a data vector undergoes under matrix multiplication. Meanwhile efficient probing routines to estimate a matrix's diagonal or trace, based solely on such computationally affordable matrix-vector multiplications, are well known and frequently used in signal inference, a stochastic estimate for its determinant is still lacking. In this work a probing method for the logarithm of a determinant of a linear operator is introduced. This method rests upon a reformulation of the log-determinant by an integral representation and the transformation of the involved terms into stochastic expressions. This stochastic determinant determination enables large-size applications in Bay...
Stochastic Gravity: Theory and Applications
B. L. Hu; E. Verdaguer
2008-02-05
Whereas semiclassical gravity is based on the semiclassical Einstein equation with sources given by the expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of quantum fields, stochastic semiclassical gravity is based on the Einstein-Langevin equation, which has in addition sources due to the noise kernel. In the first part, we describe the fundamentals of this new theory via two approaches: the axiomatic and the functional. In the second part, we describe three applications of stochastic gravity theory. First, we consider metric perturbations in a Minkowski spacetime, compute the two-point correlation functions of these perturbations and prove that Minkowski spacetime is a stable solution of semiclassical gravity. Second, we discuss structure formation from the stochastic gravity viewpoint. Third, we discuss the backreaction of Hawking radiation in the gravitational background of a black hole and describe the metric fluctuations near the event horizon of an evaporating black hole
Nonlinear optimization for stochastic simulations.
Johnson, Michael M.; Yoshimura, Ann S.; Hough, Patricia Diane; Ammerlahn, Heidi R.
2003-12-01
This report describes research targeting development of stochastic optimization algorithms and their application to mission-critical optimization problems in which uncertainty arises. The first section of this report covers the enhancement of the Trust Region Parallel Direct Search (TRPDS) algorithm to address stochastic responses and the incorporation of the algorithm into the OPT++ optimization library. The second section describes the Weapons of Mass Destruction Decision Analysis Center (WMD-DAC) suite of systems analysis tools and motivates the use of stochastic optimization techniques in such non-deterministic simulations. The third section details a batch programming interface designed to facilitate criteria-based or algorithm-driven execution of system-of-system simulations. The fourth section outlines the use of the enhanced OPT++ library and batch execution mechanism to perform systems analysis and technology trade-off studies in the WMD detection and response problem domain.
AdS Field Theory from Conformal Field Theory
A. Liam Fitzpatrick; Jared Kaplan
2012-08-01
We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a Conformal Field Theory to have a description in terms of a perturbative Effective Field Theory in AdS. The first two conditions are well-known: the existence of a perturbative `1/N' expansion and an approximate Fock space of states generated by a finite number of low-dimension operators. We add a third condition, that the Mellin amplitudes of the CFT correlators must be well-approximated by functions that are bounded by a polynomial at infinity in Mellin space, or in other words, that the Mellin amplitudes have an effective theory-type expansion. We explain the relationship between our conditions and unitarity, and provide an analogy with scattering amplitudes that becomes exact in the flat space limit of AdS. The analysis also yields a simple connection between conformal blocks and AdS diagrams, providing a new calculational tool very much in the spirit of the S-Matrix program. We also begin to explore the potential pathologies associated with higher spin fields in AdS by generalizing Weinberg's soft theorems to AdS/CFT. The AdS analog of Weinberg's argument constrains the interactions of conserved currents in CFTs, but there are potential loopholes that are unavailable to theories of massless higher spin particles in flat spacetime.
AdS field theory from conformal field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared
2013-02-01
We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a Conformal Field Theory to have a description in terms of a perturbative Effective Field Theory in AdS. The first two conditions are well-known: the existence of a perturbative `1/ N ' expansion and an approximate Fock space of states generated by a finite number of low-dimension operators. We add a third condition, that the Mellin amplitudes of the CFT correlators must be well- approximated by functions that are bounded by a polynomial at infinity in Mellin space, or in other words, that the Mellin amplitudes have an effective theory-type expansion. We explain the relationship between our conditions and unitarity, and provide an analogy with scattering amplitudes that becomes exact in the flat space limit of AdS. The analysis also yields a simple connection between conformal blocks and AdS diagrams, providing a new calculational tool very much in the spirit of the S-Matrix program. We also begin to explore the potential pathologies associated with higher spin fields in AdS by generalizing Weinberg's soft theorems to AdS/CFT. The AdS analog of Weinberg's argument constrains the interactions of conserved currents in CFTs, but there are potential loopholes that are unavailable to theories of massless higher spin particles in flat spacetime.
3, 453483, 2012 A stochastic model
Zuyev, Sergei
ESDD 3, 453483, 2012 A stochastic model for the polygonal tundra F. Cresto Aleina et al. Title paper in ESD if available. A stochastic model for the polygonal tundra based on Poisson-Voronoi Diagrams483, 2012 A stochastic model for the polygonal tundra F. Cresto Aleina et al. Title Page Abstract
ORF 527 Syllabus Spring 2011 Stochastic Calculus
van Handel, Ramon
ORF 527 Syllabus Spring 2011 Stochastic Calculus Description. This course is an introduction to stochastic calculus based on Brownian mo- tion. Topics include: construction of Brownian motion; martingales in continuous time; the It^o integral; localization; It^o calculus; stochastic differential equations; Girsanov
Stochastic Perceptron and Semiparametric Statistical Inference
Yamamoto, Hirosuke
Stochastic Perceptron and Semiparametric Statistical Inference Motoaki Kawanabe and ShunÂichi Amari METR 93Â04 March 1993 #12; Stochastic Perceptron and Semiparametric Statistical Inference Motoaki the probability model is illÂposed. We give a rigÂ orous analysis of this phenomenon in a stochastic perceptron
Stochastic Perceptron and Semiparametric Statistical Inference
Yamamoto, Hirosuke
Stochastic Perceptron and Semiparametric Statistical Inference Motoaki Kawanabe and Shun-ichi Amari METR 93-04 March 1993 #12;Stochastic Perceptron and Semiparametric Statistical Inference Motoaki the probability model is ill-posed. We give a rig- orous analysis of this phenomenon in a stochastic perceptron
Forward Stochastic Nonlinear Adaptive Control Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bayard, David S.
1990-01-01
New method of computation for optimal stochastic nonlinear and adaptive control undergoing development. Solves systematically stochastic dynamic programming equations forward in time, using nested-stochastic-approximation technique. Main advantage, simplicity of programming and reduced complexity with clear performance/computation trade-offs.
STOCHASTIC BURGERS EQUATION WITH RANDOM INITIAL VELOCITIES
Mohammed, Salah-Eldin
STOCHASTIC BURGERS EQUATION WITH RANDOM INITIAL VELOCITIES: A MALLIAVIN CALCULUS APPROACH Salah of the stochastic Burgers equation (SBE) on the unit interval with Dirichlet boundary conditions and anticipating to the following stochastic Burgers equation (SBE) with affine noise and a random (possibly anticipating) initial
STOCHASTIC BURGERS EQUATION + WITH RANDOM INITIAL VELOCITIES
Mohammed, Salah-Eldin
STOCHASTIC BURGERS EQUATION + WITH RANDOM INITIAL VELOCITIES: A MALLIAVIN CALCULUS APPROACH Salah for solutions of the stochastic Burgers equation (SBE) on the unit interval with Dirichlet boundary conditions to the following stochastic Burgers equation (SBE) with a#ne noise and a random (possibly anticipating) initial
An Optimal Method for Stochastic Composite Optimization
Guanghui Lan
2009-01-01
This paper considers an important class of convex programming problems, namely, the stochastic composite optimization (SCO), whose objective function is given by the summation of general nonsmooth and smooth stochastic components. Since SCO covers non-smooth, smooth and stochastic convex optimization as certain special cases, a valid lower bound on the rate of convergence for solving these problems is known from
Stochastic viability and dynamic programming
Doyen, Luc
2010-01-01
This paper deals with the stochastic control of nonlinear systems in the presence of state and control constraints, for uncertain discrete-time dynamics in finite dimensional spaces. In the deterministic case, the viability kernel is known to play a basic role for the analysis of such problems and the design of viable control feedbacks. In the present paper, we show how a stochastic viability kernel and viable feedbacks relying on probability (or chance) constraints can be defined and computed by a dynamic programming equation. An example illustrates most of the assertions.
Comments on optical stochastic cooling
K.Y. Ng, S.Y. Lee and Y.K. Zhang
2002-10-08
An important necessary condition for transverse phase space damping in the optical stochastic cooling with transit-time method is derived. The longitudinal and transverse damping dynamics for the optical stochastic cooling is studied. The authors also obtain an optimal laser focusing condition for laser-beam interaction in the correction undulator. The amplification factor and the output peak power of the laser amplifier are found to differ substantially from earlier publications. The required power is large for hadron colliders at very high energy.
QB1 - Stochastic Gene Regulation
Munsky, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-07-23
Summaries of this presentation are: (1) Stochastic fluctuations or 'noise' is present in the cell - Random motion and competition between reactants, Low copy, quantization of reactants, Upstream processes; (2) Fluctuations may be very important - Cell-to-cell variability, Cell fate decisions (switches), Signal amplification or damping, stochastic resonances; and (3) Some tools are available to mode these - Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (SSA and variants), Moment approximation methods, Finite State Projection. We will see how modeling these reactions can tell us more about the underlying processes of gene regulation.
Stochastic Optimization of Complex Systems
Birge, John R. [University of Chicago
2014-03-20
This project focused on methodologies for the solution of stochastic optimization problems based on relaxation and penalty methods, Monte Carlo simulation, parallel processing, and inverse optimization. The main results of the project were the development of a convergent method for the solution of models that include expectation constraints as in equilibrium models, improvement of Monte Carlo convergence through the use of a new method of sample batch optimization, the development of new parallel processing methods for stochastic unit commitment models, and the development of improved methods in combination with parallel processing for incorporating automatic differentiation methods into optimization.
Stochastic models of chaotic systems
Leith, C.E.
1995-09-01
Nonlinear dynamical systems, although strictly deterministic, often exhibit chaotic behavior which appears to be random. The determination of the probabilistic properties of such systems is, in general, an open problem. Closure approximations for moment expansion methods have been unsatisfactory. More successful has been approximation on the dynamics level by the use of linear stochastic models that attempt to generate the probabilistic properties of the original nonlinear chaotic system as closely as possible. Examples are reviewed of this approach to simple nonlinear systems, to turbulence, and to large-eddy simulation. A stochastic model that simulates the transient energy spectrum of the global atmosphere is developed.
Section 15: Applied stochastics 1 Section 15: Applied stochastics
Kohlenbach, Ulrich
ITWM Kaiserslautern): A Smooth 3D Model for Fiber Lay-down Processes Abstract 14:30 14:50: Anamika- terion for Parametric Roll in Random Seas Based on Top Lyapunov Exponent Abstract 13:50 14:10: Patrik Stilgenbauer, Martin Grothaus (TU Kaiserslautern): The Analysis of Stochastic Fiber Lay-Down Models: Geometric
Stochastic generation expansion planning by means of stochastic dynamic programming
Birger MO; Jan Hegge; Ivar Wangensteen
1991-01-01
Most generation expansion planning tools do not model uncertainties in important variables such as energy demand and prices of energy carriers together with the dynamics of the system. A method for handling these uncertainties in generation expansion problems is described. The method is based on stochastic dynamic programming. As the uncertain variables are modeled by Markov chains they give a
Adding and Subtracting Integers
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Mrs. Richins
2008-09-10
Now that you have mastered the common math operations of adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing, you are ready to tackle some more challenging, yet practical problems. For example: How much money do you have if your Mom paid you $20 for every time you mowed the lawn, but you had to pay your little brother $5 for every time he helped you, and together you accomplished the job 7 times? Or how about this one: if you picked 5 apples but 2 were rotten and you had to divide them equally between you and your five friends, how much would each person get? Current Knowledge You will need a piece of paper to record information and to write down examples, so grab one now. Number the paper from 1 to 10. Get with a partner and write down how you think the equations to solve the above problems will be written. Write these ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikuchi, Kenji
2010-06-01
Accelerator driven nuclear transmutation system has been pursued to have a clue to the solution of high-level radioactive waste management. The concept consists of super conducting linac, sub-critical reactor and the beam window. Reference model is set up to 800MW thermal power by using 1.5GeV proton beams with considerations multi-factors such as core criticality. Materials damage is simulated by high-energy particle transport codes and so on. Recent achievement on irradiation materials experiment is stated and the differences are pointed out if core burn-up is considered or not. Heat balance in tank-type ADS indicates the temperature conditions of steam generator, the beam widow and cladding materials. Lead-bismuth eutectics demonstration has been conducted. Corrosion depth rate was shown by experiments.
Delay stabilizes stochastic motion of bumps in layered neural fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kilpatrick, Zachary P.
2015-03-01
We study the effects of propagation delays on the stochastic dynamics of bumps in neural fields with multiple layers. In the absence of noise, each layer supports a stationary bump. Using linear stability analysis, we show that delayed coupling between layers causes translating perturbations of the bumps to decay in the noise-free system. Adding noise to the system causes bumps to wander as a random walk. However, coupling between layers can reduce the variability of this stochastic motion by canceling noise that perturbs bumps in opposite directions. Delays in interlaminar coupling can further reduce variability, since they couple bump positions to states from the past. We demonstrate these relationships by deriving an asymptotic approximation for the effective motion of bumps. This yields a stochastic delay-differential equation where each delayed term arises from an interlaminar coupling. The impact of delays is well approximated by using a small delay expansion, which allows us to compute the effective diffusion in bumps' positions, accurately matching results from numerical simulations.
Supergravity at the boundary of AdS supergravity
Amsel, Aaron J.; Compere, Geoffrey [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)
2009-04-15
We give a general analysis of AdS boundary conditions for spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fields and investigate boundary conditions preserving supersymmetry for a graviton multiplet in AdS{sub 4}. Linear Rarita-Schwinger fields in AdS{sub d} are shown to admit mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions when their mass is in the range 0{<=}|m|<1/2l{sub AdS}. We also demonstrate that mixed boundary conditions are allowed for larger masses when the inner product is 'renormalized' accordingly with the action. We then use the results obtained for |m|=1/l{sub AdS} to explore supersymmetric boundary conditions for N=1 AdS{sub 4} supergravity in which the metric and Rarita-Schwinger fields are fluctuating at the boundary. We classify boundary conditions that preserve boundary supersymmetry or superconformal symmetry. Under the AdS/CFT dictionary, Neumann boundary conditions in d=4 supergravity correspond to gauging the superconformal group of the three-dimensional CFT describing M2-branes, while N=1 supersymmetric mixed boundary conditions couple the CFT to N=1 superconformal topologically massive gravity.
Classification of boundary gravitons in AdS3 gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garbarz, Alan; Leston, Mauricio
2014-05-01
We revisit the description of the space of asymptotically AdS3 solutions of pure gravity in three dimensions with a negative cosmological constant as a collection of coadjoint orbits of the Virasoro group. Each orbit corresponds to a set of metrics related by diffeomorphisms which do not approach the identity fast enough at the boundary. Orbits contain more than a single element and this fact manifests the global degrees of freedom of AdS3 gravity, being each element of an orbit what we call boundary graviton. We show how this setup allows to learn features about the classical phase space that otherwise would be quite difficult. Most important are the proof of energy bounds and the characterization of boundary gravitons unrelated to BTZs and AdS3. In addition, it makes manifest the underlying mathematical structure of the space of solutions close to infinity. Notably, because of the existence of a symplectic form in each orbit, being this related with the usual Dirac bracket of the asymptotic charges, this approach is a natural starting point for the quantization of different sectors of AdS3 gravity. We finally discuss previous attempts to quantize coadjoint orbits of the Virasoro group and how this is relevant for the formulation of AdS3 quantum gravity.
Classification of Boundary Gravitons in AdS$_3$ Gravity
Alan Garbarz; Mauricio Leston
2014-07-22
We revisit the description of the space of asymptotically AdS3 solutions of pure gravity in three dimensions with a negative cosmological constant as a collection of coadjoint orbits of the Virasoro group. Each orbit corresponds to a set of metrics related by diffeomorphisms which do not approach the identity fast enough at the boundary. Orbits contain more than a single element and this fact manifests the global degrees of freedom of AdS3 gravity, being each element of an orbit what we call boundary graviton. We show how this setup allows to learn features about the classical phase space that otherwise would be quite difficult. Most important are the proof of energy bounds and the characterization of boundary gravitons unrelated to BTZs and AdS3. In addition, it makes manifest the underlying mathematical structure of the space of solutions close to infinity. Notably, because of the existence of a symplectic form in each orbit, being this related with the usual Dirac bracket of the asymptotic charges, this approach is a natural starting point for the quantization of different sectors of AdS3 gravity. We finally discuss previous attempts to quantize coadjoint orbits of the Virasoro group and how this is relevant for the formulation of AdS3 quantum gravity.
Large rotating AdS black holes from fluid mechanics
Sayantani Bhattacharyya; Subhaneil Lahiri; R. Loganayagam; Shiraz Minwalla
2008-07-25
We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to argue that large rotating black holes in global AdS(D) spaces are dual to stationary solutions of the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations on S**(D-2). Reading off the equation of state of this fluid from the thermodynamics of non-rotating black holes, we proceed to construct the nonlinear spinning solutions of fluid mechanics that are dual to rotating black holes. In all known examples, the thermodynamics and the local stress tensor of our solutions are in precise agreement with the thermodynamics and boundary stress tensor of the spinning black holes. Our fluid dynamical description applies to large non-extremal black holes as well as a class of large non-supersymmetric extremal black holes, but is never valid for supersymmetric black holes. Our results yield predictions for the thermodynamics of all large black holes in all theories of gravity on AdS spaces, for example, string theory on AdS(5) x S**5 and M theory on AdS(4) x S**7 and AdS(7) x S**4.
Stochastic-field cavitation model
Dumond, J., E-mail: julien.dumond@areva.com [AREVA Nuclear Professional School, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); AREVA GmbH, Erlangen, Paul-Gossen-Strasse 100, D-91052 Erlangen (Germany); Magagnato, F. [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Class, A. [AREVA Nuclear Professional School, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)
2013-07-15
Nonlinear phenomena can often be well described using probability density functions (pdf) and pdf transport models. Traditionally, the simulation of pdf transport requires Monte-Carlo codes based on Lagrangian “particles” or prescribed pdf assumptions including binning techniques. Recently, in the field of combustion, a novel formulation called the stochastic-field method solving pdf transport based on Eulerian fields has been proposed which eliminates the necessity to mix Eulerian and Lagrangian techniques or prescribed pdf assumptions. In the present work, for the first time the stochastic-field method is applied to multi-phase flow and, in particular, to cavitating flow. To validate the proposed stochastic-field cavitation model, two applications are considered. First, sheet cavitation is simulated in a Venturi-type nozzle. The second application is an innovative fluidic diode which exhibits coolant flashing. Agreement with experimental results is obtained for both applications with a fixed set of model constants. The stochastic-field cavitation model captures the wide range of pdf shapes present at different locations.
Stochastic resonance on a circle
Wiesenfeld, K. (School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)); Pierson, D.; Pantazelou, E.; Dames, C.; Moss, F. (Department of Physics, University of Missouri at St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121 (United States))
1994-04-04
We describe a new realization of stochastic resonance, applicable to a broad class of systems, based on an underlying excitable dynamics with deterministic reinjection. A simple but general theory of such single-trigger'' systems is compared with analog simulations of the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, as well as experimental data obtained from stimulated sensory neurons in the crayfish.
Coherent Stochastic Models for Macroevolution
David Aldous; Lea Popovic
We give a mathematician's view of evolutionary biology literature concerning stochastic models for phylogenetic trees. We spotlight a model for the tree on n extant species that would be observed if macroevolution were purely random. The model can be extended in two ways { to time series of observed taxa in a fossil record, and to dieren t levels of
Stochastic Reinforcement Benefits Skill Acquisition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dayan, Eran; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Richmond, Barry J.; Cohen, Leonardo G.
2014-01-01
Learning complex skills is driven by reinforcement, which facilitates both online within-session gains and retention of the acquired skills. Yet, in ecologically relevant situations, skills are often acquired when mapping between actions and rewarding outcomes is unknown to the learning agent, resulting in reinforcement schedules of a stochastic…
Stochastic Modelling of Hydrologic Systems
are to be used for automatic control in the waste water treatment plant. The conditional parametric modellingStochastic Modelling of Hydrologic Systems Harpa Jonsdottir Kongens Lyngby 2006 IMM-PHD-2006 to stiff systems. The system in one of the papers is stiff. In Paper [A] a conditional parametric modelling
Stochastic processes in turbulent transport
Krzysztof Gawedzki
2008-01-01
This is a set of four lectures devoted to simple ideas about turbulent transport, a ubiquitous non-equilibrium phenomenon. In the course similar to that given by the author in 2006 in Warwick [45], we discuss lessons which have been learned from naive models of turbulent mixing that employ simple random velocity ensembles and study related stochastic processes. In the first
Optimal stochastic fault detection filter
Robert H. Chen; D. Lewis Mingori; Jason L. Speyer
2003-01-01
A fault detection and identification algorithm, called optimal stochastic fault detection filter, is determined. The objective of the filter is to detect a single fault, called the target fault, and block other faults, called the nuisance faults, in the presence of the process and sensor noises. The filter is derived by maximizing the transmission from the target fault to the
Optimal stochastic fault detection filter
Robert H. Chen; Jason L. Speyer
1999-01-01
Properties of the optimal stochastic fault detection filter for fault detection and identification are determined. The objective of the filter is to monitor certain faults called target faults and block other faults which are called nuisance faults. This filter is derived by keeping the ratio of the transmission from nuisance fault to the transmission from target fault small. It is
A Stochastic Population Dynamics Model
Givens, Geof H.
A Stochastic Population Dynamics Model Geof H. Givens \\Lambda April 26, 1999 Abstract be attributed to variation \\Lambda Geof H. Givens is Assistant Professor of Statistics at the Department a minimum calving interval. The model is based on the deterministic model given in Appendix 3, which
Hausdorff dimension in stochastic dispersion
Dmitry Dolgopyat; Vadim Kaloshin; Leonid Koralov
2002-01-01
We consider the evolution of a connected set in Euclidean space carried by a periodic incompressible stochastic flow. While for almost every realization of the random flow at time t most of the particles are at a distance of order sqrt{t} away from the origin [DKK1], there is an uncountable set of measure zero of points, which escape to infinity
Stochastic calculus with anticipating integrands
D. Nualart; E. Pardoux
1988-01-01
We study the stochastic integral defined by Skorohod in [24] of a possibly anticipating integrand, as a function of its upper limit, and establish an extended Itô formula. We also introduce an extension of Stratonovich's integral, and establish the associated chain rule. In all the results, the adaptedness of the integrand is replaced by a certain smoothness requirement.
Advanced Stochastic Schedule Simulation System
Dong-Eun Lee; Tae-Hyun Bae; David Arditi
2012-01-01
This paper introduces an automated tool named Advanced Stochastic Schedule Simulation System (AS4). It integrates critical path method (CPM) schedule data exported from Primavera Project Planner (P3) and historical activity duration data obtained from a project data warehouse, computes the best-fit probability distribution functions (PDFs) of historical activity durations, assigns the PDFs identified to respective activities, computes the optimum number
Advanced Stochastic Schedule Simulation System
Dong-Eun Lee; Tae-Hyun Bae; David Arditi
2011-01-01
This paper introduces an automated tool named Advanced Stochastic Schedule Simulation System (AS4). It integrates critical path method (CPM) schedule data exported from Primavera Project Planner (P3) and historical activity duration data obtained from a project data warehouse, computes the best-fit probability distribution functions (PDFs) of historical activity durations, assigns the PDFs identified to respective activities, computes the optimum number
stochastic gradient descent nonlinear transformation
Abu-Mostafa, Yaser S.
ÁŘł× ŮŇ Đ ÓŮŘ Ř Ö stochastic gradient descent nonlinear transformation overfitting data snooping deterministic noise noisy targets bias-variance tradeoff RBF SVM weight decay regularization soft supervised online active neural networks RBF nearest neighbors SVD linear SVM aggregation input processing
Passport options with stochastic volatility
Vicky Henderson; David Hobson
2001-01-01
A passport option is a call option on the profits of a trading account. In this article, the robustness of passport option pricing is investigated by incorporating stochastic volatility. The key feature of a passport option is the holders' optimal strategy. It is known that in the case of exponential Brownian motion the strategy is to be long if the
New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.
Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda
2011-04-29
We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026
All AdS7 solutions of type II supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro
2014-04-01
In M-theory, the only AdS7 supersymmetric solutions are AdS7 × S 4 and its orbifolds. In this paper, we find and classify new supersymmetric solutions of the type AdS7 × M 3 in type II supergravity. While in IIB none exist, in IIA with Romans mass (which does not lift to M-theory) there are many new ones. We use a pure spinor approach reminiscent of generalized complex geometry. Without the need for any Ansatz, the system determines uniquely the form of the metric and fluxes, up to solving a system of ODEs. Namely, the metric on M 3 is that of an S 2 fibered over an interval; this is consistent with the Sp(1) R-symmetry of the holographically dual (1,0) theory. By including D8 brane sources, one can numerically obtain regular solutions, where topologically M 3 ? S 3.
Towards integrability for AdS3/CFT2
Alessandro Sfondrini
2014-12-17
We review the recent progress towards applying worldsheet integrability techniques to the $AdS_3/CFT_2$ correspondence to find its all-loop S matrix and Bethe-Yang equations. We study in full detail the massive sector of $AdS_3\\times S^3\\times T^4$ superstrings supported by pure Ramond-Ramond (RR) fluxes. The extension of this machinery to accommodate massless modes, to the $AdS_3\\times S^3\\times S^3\\times S^1$ pure-RR background and to backgrounds supported by mixed background fluxes is also reviewed. While the results discussed here were found elsewhere, our presentation sometimes deviates from the one found in the original literature in an effort to be pedagogical and self-contained.
Non-Replicated Dynamic Fragment Allocation in Distributed Database Systems
Nilarun Mukherjee
\\u000a Distributed databases have become the most essential technology for recent business organizations. The performance, efficiency\\u000a and availability of a Distributed Database largely depend on the fragmentation of global relations and the allocation of those\\u000a fragments at several sites of the network. In Non-Replicated fragment allocation scenario, the optimum allocation of the fragments\\u000a is the only way, which can be exploited
Allocation of energy use in petroleum refineries to petroleum products
Michael Wang; Hanjie Lee; John Molburg
2004-01-01
Aim, Scope, and Background Studies to evaluate the energy and emission impacts of vehicle\\/fuel systems have to address allocation of the energy use and\\u000a emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products because refineries produce multiple products.\\u000a The allocation is needed in evaluating energy and emission effects of individual transportation fuels. Allocation methods\\u000a used so far for petroleum-based fuels (e.g.,
Radio Resource Allocation in GSM\\/GPRS Networks
Jean-lien C. Wu; Wei-yeh Chen; Hung-huan Liu
2002-01-01
GPRS is a packet switched access mode for GSM system to improve wireless access to the Internet. In this paper, we study the\\u000a design of radio resource allocation for GPRS and GSM services by allowing guard channels to be temporarily allocated to GPRS\\u000a users to increase channel utilization. The call admission controller and channel allocation controller are employed to achieve
Comments on String Theory on $AdS_3$
Amit Giveon; David Kutasov; Nathan Seiberg
1998-01-01
We study string propagation on $AdS_3$ times a compact space from an ``old fashioned'' worldsheet point of view of perturbative string theory. We derive the spacetime CFT and its Virasoro and current algebras, thus establishing the conjectured $AdS$\\/CFT correspondence for this case in the full string theory. Our results have implications for the extreme IR limit of the $D1-D5$ system,
Mixed-symmetry fields in AdS(5), conformal fields, and AdS/CFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metsaev, R. R.
2015-01-01
Mixed-symmetry arbitrary spin massive, massless, and self-dual massive fields in AdS(5) are studied. Light-cone gauge actions for such fields leading to decoupled equations of motion are constructed. Light-cone gauge formulation of mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows in 4d flat space is also developed. AdS/CFT correspondence for normalizable and non-normalizable modes of mixed-symmetry AdS fields and the respective boundary mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows is studied. We demonstrate that the light-cone gauge action for massive mixed-symmetry AdS field evaluated on solution of the Dirichlet problem amounts to the light-cone gauge 2-point vertex of mixed-symmetry anomalous shadow. Also we show that UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massive AdS field with some particular value of mass parameter evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of long mixed-symmetry conformal field, while UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massless AdS field evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of short mixed-symmetry conformal field. We speculate on string theory interpretation of a model which involves short low-spin conformal fields and long higher-spin conformal fields.
Algorithmic advances in stochastic programming
Morton, D.P.
1993-07-01
Practical planning problems with deterministic forecasts of inherently uncertain parameters often yield unsatisfactory solutions. Stochastic programming formulations allow uncertain parameters to be modeled as random variables with known distributions, but the size of the resulting mathematical programs can be formidable. Decomposition-based algorithms take advantage of special structure and provide an attractive approach to such problems. We consider two classes of decomposition-based stochastic programming algorithms. The first type of algorithm addresses problems with a ``manageable`` number of scenarios. The second class incorporates Monte Carlo sampling within a decomposition algorithm. We develop and empirically study an enhanced Benders decomposition algorithm for solving multistage stochastic linear programs within a prespecified tolerance. The enhancements include warm start basis selection, preliminary cut generation, the multicut procedure, and decision tree traversing strategies. Computational results are presented for a collection of ``real-world`` multistage stochastic hydroelectric scheduling problems. Recently, there has been an increased focus on decomposition-based algorithms that use sampling within the optimization framework. These approaches hold much promise for solving stochastic programs with many scenarios. A critical component of such algorithms is a stopping criterion to ensure the quality of the solution. With this as motivation, we develop a stopping rule theory for algorithms in which bounds on the optimal objective function value are estimated by sampling. Rules are provided for selecting sample sizes and terminating the algorithm under which asymptotic validity of confidence interval statements for the quality of the proposed solution can be verified. Issues associated with the application of this theory to two sampling-based algorithms are considered, and preliminary empirical coverage results are presented.
Stochastic resonance in visual sensitivity.
Kundu, Ajanta; Sarkar, Sandip
2015-04-01
It is well known from psychophysical studies that stochastic resonance, in its simplest threshold paradigm, can be used as a tool to measure the detection sensitivity to fine details in noise contaminated stimuli. In the present manuscript, we report simulation studies conducted in the similar threshold paradigm of stochastic resonance. We have estimated the contrast sensitivity in detecting noisy sine-wave stimuli, with varying area and spatial frequency, as a function of noise strength. In all the cases, the measured sensitivity attained a peak at intermediate noise strength, which indicate the occurrence of stochastic resonance. The peak sensitivity exhibited a strong dependence on area and spatial frequency of the stimulus. We show that the peak contrast sensitivity varies with spatial frequency in a nonmonotonic fashion and the qualitative nature of the sensitivity variation is in good agreement with human contrast sensitivity function. We also demonstrate that the peak sensitivity first increases and then saturates with increasing area, and this result is in line with the results of psychophysical experiments. Additionally, we also show that critical area, denoting the saturation of contrast sensitivity, decreases with spatial frequency and the associated maximum contrast sensitivity varies with spatial frequency in a manner that is consistent with the results of psychophysical experiments. In all the studies, the sensitivities were elevated via a nonlinear filtering operation called stochastic resonance. Because of this nonlinear effect, it was not guaranteed that the sensitivities, estimated at each frequency, would be in agreement with the corresponding results of psychophysical experiments; on the contrary, close agreements were observed between our results and the findings of psychophysical investigations. These observations indicate the utility of stochastic resonance in human vision and suggest that this paradigm can be useful in psychophysical studies. PMID:25398687
All Static Black Holes in AdS$_3$
Nidal Haddad
2015-03-29
In this work we find the general static vacuum solution of three dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant. Even though all solutions are locally diffeomorphic to pure $AdS_{3}$, solutions that differ globally from the latter space exist. New solutions with black holes on the $AdS_3$ boundary are found in both global and Poincare coordinates. In the Poincare coordinates such solutions are known as black funnels and black droplets. The black funnel provided by our general static metric is dual to the Hartle-Hawking state in the $1+1$ boundary theory.
All Static Black Holes in AdS$_3$
Haddad, Nidal
2015-01-01
In this work we find the general static vacuum solution of three dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant. Even though all solutions are locally diffeomorphic to pure $AdS_{3}$, solutions that differ globally from the latter space exist. New solutions with black holes on the $AdS_3$ boundary are found in both global and Poincare coordinates. In the Poincare coordinates such solutions are known as black funnels and black droplets. The black funnel provided by our general static metric is dual to the Hartle-Hawking state in the $1+1$ boundary theory.
Phase Transitions in Warped AdS$_3$ Gravity
Detournay, Stéphane
2015-01-01
We consider asymptotically Warped AdS$_3$ black holes in Topologically Massive Gravity. We study their thermodynamic stability and show the existence of a Hawking-Page phase transition between the black hole and thermal background phases. At zero angular potential, the latter is shown to occur at the self-dual point of the dual Warped Conformal Field Theory partition function, in analogy with the phase transition for BTZ black holes in AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$. We also discuss how the central and vacuum charges can be obtained from inner horizon mechanics in the presence of a gravitational anomaly.
Allocating Harvests Between Competing Users in Fishery Management
questions involving commercial fishing, recreational fishing, aquaculture interests, Native American-time operations, inshore ver sus offshore fishermen, foreign versus domestic allocations, and distribution
Allocation Using GIS Christian Krog Lindeskov Master Thesis
), Operations Research (OR), Building construction, Surveying, Traffic modeling and Basic engineering) the geographic occurrence of accidents over time and three different location allocation models are investigated
Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations
Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.
2011-02-01
The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.
Data-driven resource allocation decisions : FEMA's disaster recovery centers
Moline, Julia N. (Julia Nessa)
2014-01-01
Resource allocation decisions in post-disaster operations are challenging because of situational dynamics, insufficient information, organizational culture, political context, and urgency. We propose a methodology to create ...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-06-06
...particularly economically distressed markets and/or in concert with Federal...Affiliated entities and/or will target its activities to areas of...proposed product offerings and markets served) set forth in the allocation...Investment Companies or New Markets Venture Capital...
Enhanced corticomuscular coherence by external stochastic noise
Trenado, Carlos; Mendez-Balbuena, Ignacio; Manjarrez, Elias; Huethe, Frank; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Feige, Bernd; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kristeva, Rumyana
2014-01-01
Noise can have beneficial effects as shown by the stochastic resonance (SR) phenomenon which is characterized by performance improvement when an optimal noise is added. Modern attempts to improve human performance utilize this phenomenon. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether performance improvement by addition of optimum noise (ON) is related to increased cortical motor spectral power (SP) and increased corticomuscular coherence. Eight subjects performed a visuomotor task requiring to compensate with the right index finger a static force (SF) generated by a manipulandum on which Gaussian noise was applied. The finger position was displayed on-line on a monitor as a small white dot which the subjects had to maintain in the center of a green bigger circle. Electroencephalogram from the contralateral motor area, electromyogram from active muscles and finger position were recorded. The performance was measured by the mean absolute deviation (MAD) of the white dot from the zero position. ON compared to the zero noise condition induced an improvement in motor accuracy together with an enhancement of cortical motor SP and corticomuscular coherence in beta-range. These data suggest that the improved sensorimotor performance via SR is consistent with an increase in the cortical motor SP and in the corticomuscular coherence. PMID:24904365
Online Resource Allocation Problems Patrick Jaillet
Jaillet, Patrick
and ad displays on-demand videos/movies kidney exchange programs 2 online optimization framework contexts on-demand videos/movies pj (mit) msis-rutgers & rutcor 4 / 30 #12;raft contexts kidney exchange
Learning to imitate stochastic time series in a compositional way by chaos
Jun Namikawa; Jun Tani
2008-05-13
This study shows that a mixture of RNN experts model can acquire the ability to generate sequences combining multiple primitive patterns by means of self-organizing chaos. By training of the model, each expert learns a primitive sequence pattern, and a gating network learns to imitate stochastic switching of the multiple primitives via a chaotic dynamics, utilizing a sensitive dependence on initial conditions. As a demonstration, we present a numerical simulation in which the model learns Markov chain switching among some Lissajous curves by a chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that by using a sufficient amount of training data, balanced with the network memory capacity, it is possible to satisfy the conditions for embedding the target stochastic sequences into a chaotic dynamical system. It is also shown that reconstruction of a stochastic time series by a chaotic model can be stabilized by adding a negligible amount of noise to the dynamics of the model.
On the comparative allocation of biomass, energy, and nutrients in plants
W. G. Abrahamson; H. Caswell
1982-01-01
The objective of this study was to test the assumption that biomass allocation, energy allocation, and nutrient element allocation are equivalent for studies involving ecological-strategy analysis in plants. The results for the semelparous Verbascum thapsus and five iteroparous Solidago species show that the mineral elements examined are allocated differently than biomass. Thus, in a study aimed at estimating the allocation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stothers, R. B.
1984-01-01
The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.
Janice Ann Grskovic
2000-01-01
Girls experience a significant number of problems related to AD\\/HD, which are severe enough to affect their academic and social functioning across the lifespan. Unfortunately, our current diagnostic procedures identify few girls with AD\\/HD, suggesting they are not receiving adequate services. This study used a new rating scale (Girls with AD\\/HD are Different, GAAD) and an established one (ACTeRS) to
Rate allocation as quality index performance test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richter, Thomas
2010-08-01
In a recent work,16 the author proposed to study the performance of still image quality indices such as the SSIM by using it as objective function of a rate allocation algorithm. The outcome of that work was not only a multi-scale SSIM optimal JPEG 2000 implementation, but also a first-order approximation of the MS-SSIM that is surprisingly similar to more traditional contrast-sensitivity and visual masking based approaches. It will be seen in this work that the only difference between the latter works and the MS-SSIM index is the choice of the exponent of the masking term, and furthermore, that a slight modification of the SSIM definition that reproduces more traditional exponents is able to improve the correlation with subjective tests and also improves the performance of the SSIM optimized JPEG 2000 code. That is, understanding the duality of quality indices and rate allocation helps to improve both the visual performance and the performance of the index.
Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Gurkirpal
2005-01-01
A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Baseem; Agnihotri, Ganga; Mishra, Anuprita S.
2014-12-01
In the present work authors proposed a novel method for transmission loss and cost allocation to users (generators and loads). In the developed methodology transmission losses are allocated to users based on their usage of the transmission line. After usage allocation, particular loss allocation indices (PLAI) are evaluated for loads and generators. Also Cooperative game theory approach is applied for comparison of results. The proposed method is simple and easy to implement on the practical power system. Sample 6 bus and IEEE 14 bus system is used for showing the effectiveness of proposed method.
Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel Ángel Muńoz; Paajanen, Teemu; Koikkalainen, Juha; van Gils, Mark; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Waldemar, Gunhild; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Soininen, Hilkka
2013-01-01
Purpose To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI and CSF biomarkers. Methods Altogether 391 MCI cases (158 AD converters) were selected from the ADNI cohort. All the cases had baseline cognitive tests, MRI and/or CSF levels of A?1–42 and Tau. Using baseline data, the status of MCI patients (AD or MCI) three years later was predicted using current diagnostic research guidelines and the PredictAD software tool designed for supporting clinical diagnostics. The data used were 1) clinical criteria for episodic memory loss of the hippocampal type, 2) visual MTA, 3) positive CSF markers, 4) their combinations, and 5) when the PredictAD tool was applied, automatically computed MRI measures were used instead of the visual MTA results. The accuracies of diagnosis were evaluated with the diagnosis made 3 years later. Results The PredictAD tool achieved the overall accuracy of 72% (sensitivity 73%, specificity 71%) in predicting the AD diagnosis. The corresponding number for a clinician’s prediction with the assistance of the PredictAD tool was 71% (sensitivity 75%, specificity 68%). Diagnosis with the PredictAD tool was significantly better than diagnosis by biomarkers alone or the combinations of clinical diagnosis of hippocampal pattern for the memory loss and biomarkers (p?0.037). Conclusion With the assistance of PredictAD tool, the clinician can predict AD conversion more accurately than the current diagnostic criteria. PMID:23424625
Tachyonic perturbations in AdS5 orbifolds Cyril Cartier
Durrer, Ruth
Tachyonic perturbations in AdS5 orbifolds Cyril Cartier and Ruth Durrer D´epartement de Physique Th allow normalizable tachyonic modes, i.e., instabilities. These instabilities require non vanishing II model, even though the tachyonic modes are excited, no instability develops. We argue, however
Spiky strings in $\\varkappa$-deformed $AdS$
Aritra Banerjee; Soumya Bhattacharya; Kamal L. Panigrahi
2015-03-25
We study rigidly rotating strings in $\\varkappa$-deformed $AdS$ background. We probe this classically integrable background with `spiky' strings and analyze the string profiles in the large charge limit systematically. We also discuss the dispersion relation among the conserved charges for these solutions in long string limit.
BRST quantization of string theory in AdS3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pakman, Ari
2003-06-01
We study the BRST quantization of bosonic and NSR strings propagating in AdS(3) × N backgrounds. The no-ghost theorem is proved using the Frenkel-Garland-Zuckerman method. Regular and spectrally-flowed representations of affine SL(2,R) appear on an equal footing. Possible generalizations to related curved backgrounds are discussed.
BRST Quantization of String Theory in AdS(3)
Pakman, A
2003-01-01
We study the BRST quantization of bosonic and NSR strings propagating in AdS(3) x N backgrounds. The no-ghost theorem is proved using the Frenkel-Garland-Zuckerman method. Regular and spectrally-flowed representations of affine SL(2,R) appear on an equal footing. Possible generalizations to related curved backgrounds are discussed.
Penrose Inequality for Asymptotically AdS Spaces
Igor Itkin; Yaron Oz
2011-07-07
In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.
Karniadakis, George Em; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Lin, Guang; Wan, Xiaoliang
2013-04-03
In this project, the collective efforts of all co-PIs aim to address three current limitations in modeling stochastic systems: (1) the inputs are mostly based on ad hoc models, (2) the number of independent parameters is very high, and (3) rare and critical events are difficult to capture with existing algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, J.; Cai, X.; Wang, Z.
2009-12-01
It also has been well recognized that market-based systems can have significant advantages over administered systems for water allocation. However there are not many successful water markets around the world yet and administered systems exist commonly in water allocation management practice. This paradox has been under discussion for decades and still calls for attention for both research and practice. This paper explores some insights for the paradox and tries to address why market systems have not been widely implemented for water allocation. Adopting the theory of agent-based system we develop a consistent analytical model to interpret both systems. First we derive some theorems based on the analytical model, with respect to the necessary conditions for economic efficiency of water allocation. Following that the agent-based model is used to illustrate the coherence and difference between administered and market-based systems. The two systems are compared from three aspects: 1) the driving forces acting on the system state, 2) system efficiency, and 3) equity. Regarding economic efficiency, penalty on the violation of water use permits (or rights) under an administered system can lead to system-wide economic efficiency, as well as being acceptable by some agents, which follows the theory of the so-call rational violation. Ideal equity will be realized if penalty equals incentive with an administered system and if transaction costs are zero with a market system. The performances of both agents and the over system are explained with an administered system and market system, respectively. The performances of agents are subject to different mechanisms of interactions between agents under the two systems. The system emergency (i.e., system benefit, equilibrium market price, etc), resulting from the performance at the agent level, reflects the different mechanism of the two systems, the “invisible hand” with the market system and administrative measures (penalty and subsidy) with the administered system. Furthermore, the impact of hydrological uncertainty on the performance of water users under the two systems is analyzed by extending the deterministic model to a stochastic one subject to the uncertainty of water availability. It is found that the system response to hydrologic uncertainty depends on risk management mechanics - sharing risk equally among the agents or by prescribed priorities on some agents. Figure1. Agent formulation and its implications in administered system and market-based system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nowak, W.; Leube, P.; Zinkhahn, M.; de Barros, F.; Rajagopal, R.
2012-12-01
In recent years, there has been an increase in the computational complexity of hydro(geo)logical models. This has been driven by new problems addressing large-scale relationships like global warming, reactive transport on the catchment scale or CO2 sequestration. Computational model complexity becomes even more drastic, when facing the ubiquitous need for uncertainty quantification and risk assessment in the environmental sciences. Computational complexity can be broken down into contributions ranging from spatial, temporal and stochastic resolution, e.g., spatial grid resolution, time step size and number of repeated simulations dedicated to quantify uncertainty. Controlling these resolutions allows keeping the computational cost at a tractable level whilst guaranteeing accurate and robust predictions. Having this possibility at hand triggers our overall driving question: What is the optimal resolution for independent variables (i.e. time and space) to achieve reliable prediction in the presence of uncertainty? Can we determine an overall optimum combination of the number of realizations, spatial and temporal resolutions, needed for overall statistical/physical convergence of model predictions? If so, how can we find it? In other words, how can we optimally allocate available computational resources in order to achieve highest accuracy associated with a given prediction goal? In this work, we present an approach that allows to determine the compromise among different model dimensions (space, time, probability) when allocating computational resources. The overall goal is to maximize the prediction accuracy given limited computational resources. Our analysis is based on the idea to jointly consider the discretization errors and computational costs of all individual model dimensions. This yields a cost-to-error surface which serves to aid modelers in finding an optimal allocation of the computational resources. As a pragmatic way to proceed, we propose running small cost-efficient pre-investigations in order to estimate the joint cost-to-error surface and fit underlying complexity and error models, then decide upon a design for the setup of the full simulation, and finally to perform the designed simulations at near-optimal costs. We illustrate our concept with two examples from subsurface hydrogeology (wetland management and pump-and-treat remediation) and show that the computational costs can be reduced when allocating computational resources wisely. In the two featured examples, the best ratio between spatial resolution and the number of Monte-Carlo realizations is surprising. In comparison to existing recommendations found in the literature, the ratio far on the side of fine discretization and suggests only a small number of Monte-Carlo repetitions.