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Sample records for stochastic ad allocation

  1. Dynamic address allocation protocols for Mobile ad hoc networks

    E-print Network

    Patchipulusu, Praveena

    2001-01-01

    Address allocation is an important issue in Mobile ad hoc networks. This thesis proposes solutions to assign unique IP addresses to nodes participating in Mobile ad hoc networks and evaluates the proposed solutions. Address allocation protocols...

  2. AdCell: Ad Allocation in Cellular Networks

    E-print Network

    Alaei, Saeed; Liaghat, Vahid; Pei, Dan; Saha, Barna

    2011-01-01

    With more than four billion usage of cellular phones worldwide, mobile advertising has become an attractive alternative to online advertisements. In this paper, we propose a new targeted advertising policy for Wireless Service Providers (WSPs) via SMS or MMS- namely {\\em AdCell}. In our model, a WSP charges the advertisers for showing their ads. Each advertiser has a valuation for specific types of customers in various times and locations and has a limit on the maximum available budget. Each query is in the form of time and location and is associated with one individual customer. In order to achieve a non-intrusive delivery, only a limited number of ads can be sent to each customer. Recently, new services have been introduced that offer location-based advertising over cellular network that fit in our model (e.g., ShopAlerts by AT&T) . We consider both online and offline version of the AdCell problem and develop approximation algorithms with constant competitive ratio. For the online version, we assume tha...

  3. Notes for Offline Optimal Ads Allocation in Social Network Advertising

    E-print Network

    Srinivasan, Aravind

    Notes for Offline Optimal Ads Allocation in Social Network Advertising Hui Miao, Peixin Gao May 12, 2014 1 Social Network Advertising Social network sites (SNS) such as Facebook, Google+ and Twitter have (SNS), users expose many personal behaviors and connect to each other based on real world relationships

  4. Stochastic optimisation of water allocation on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Oliver; Straatsma, Menno; Karssenberg, Derek; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2014-05-01

    Climate change, increasing population and further economic developments are expected to increase water scarcity for many regions of the world. Optimal water management strategies are required to minimise the water gap between water supply and domestic, industrial and agricultural water demand. A crucial aspect of water allocation is the spatial scale of optimisation. Blue water supply peaks at the upstream parts of large catchments, whereas demands are often largest at the industrialised downstream parts. Two extremes exist in water allocation: (i) 'First come, first serve,' which allows the upstream water demands to be fulfilled without considerations of downstream demands, and (ii) 'All for one, one for all' that satisfies water allocation over the whole catchment. In practice, water treaties govern intermediate solutions. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of these two end members on water allocation optimisation with respect to water scarcity. We conduct this study on a global scale with the year 2100 as temporal horizon. Water supply is calculated using the hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB, operating at a 5 arcminutes resolution and a daily time step. PCR-GLOBWB is forced with temperature and precipitation fields from the Hadgem2-ES global circulation model that participated in the latest coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP5). Water demands are calculated for representative concentration pathway 6.0 (RCP 6.0) and shared socio-economic pathway scenario 2 (SSP2). To enable the fast computation of the optimisation, we developed a hydrologically correct network of 1800 basin segments with an average size of 100 000 square kilometres. The maximum number of nodes in a network was 140 for the Amazon Basin. Water demands and supplies are aggregated to cubic kilometres per month per segment. A new open source implementation of the water allocation is developed for the stochastic optimisation of the water allocation. We apply a Genetic Algorithm for each segment to estimate the set of parameters that distribute the water supply for each node. We use the Python programming language and a flexible software architecture allowing to straightforwardly 1) exchange the process description for the nodes such that different water allocation schemes can be tested 2) exchange the objective function 3) apply the optimisation either to the whole catchment or to different sub-levels and 4) use multi-core CPUs concurrently and therefore reducing computation time. We demonstrate the application of the scientific workflow to the model outputs of PCR-GLOBWB and present first results on how water scarcity depends on the choice between the two extremes in water allocation.

  5. Measuring the Robustness of Resource Allocations in a Stochastic Dynamic Environment

    E-print Network

    Maciejewski, Anthony A. "Tony"

    Measuring the Robustness of Resource Allocations in a Stochastic Dynamic Environment Jay Smith1 systems often must operate in an environment where system parameters are subject to uncertainty- source allocations in a dynamic environment where task ex- ecution times are stochastic. The methodology

  6. Production, Manufacturing and Logistics Cooperation and game-theoretic cost allocation in stochastic

    E-print Network

    Boucherie, Richard J.

    Production, Manufacturing and Logistics Cooperation and game-theoretic cost allocation 2013 Keywords: Joint replenishment Stochastic demand Cost allocation Continuous review Game theory their inventories and face Pois- son demand. Our main goal is to analyze stable cost allocations of the joint costs

  7. A Novel Stochastic Clustering Auction for Task Allocation in Multi-Robot Teams

    E-print Network

    Barbu, Adrian

    A Novel Stochastic Clustering Auction for Task Allocation in Multi-Robot Teams Kai Zhang, Emmanuel communication links between robots that were motivated by a generic topology called a "scale free network." I. INTRODUCTION Auction methods are an effective approach to task allo- cation for heterogeneous robot teams

  8. Dynamic fair node spectrum allocation for ad hoc networks using random matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmes, Mark; Lemieux, George; Chester, Dave; Sonnenberg, Jerry

    2015-05-01

    Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) is widely seen as a solution to the problem of limited spectrum, because of its ability to adapt the operating frequency of a radio. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) can extend high-capacity mobile communications over large areas where fixed and tethered-mobile systems are not available. In one use case with high potential impact, cognitive radio employs spectrum sensing to facilitate the identification of allocated frequencies not currently accessed by their primary users. Primary users own the rights to radiate at a specific frequency and geographic location, while secondary users opportunistically attempt to radiate at a specific frequency when the primary user is not using it. We populate a spatial radio environment map (REM) database with known information that can be leveraged in an ad hoc network to facilitate fair path use of the DSA-discovered links. Utilization of high-resolution geospatial data layers in RF propagation analysis is directly applicable. Random matrix theory (RMT) is useful in simulating network layer usage in nodes by a Wishart adjacency matrix. We use the Dijkstra algorithm for discovering ad hoc network node connection patterns. We present a method for analysts to dynamically allocate node-node path and link resources using fair division. User allocation of limited resources as a function of time must be dynamic and based on system fairness policies. The context of fair means that first available request for an asset is not envied as long as it is not yet allocated or tasked in order to prevent cycling of the system. This solution may also save money by offering a Pareto efficient repeatable process. We use a water fill queue algorithm to include Shapley value marginal contributions for allocation.

  9. A bidding algorithm for optimized utility-based resource allocation in ad hoc networks

    E-print Network

    , and disaster management. Mobile ad hoc networks will support a wide range of services in which soft real of Computer and Informa- tion Science, Link¨oping University, 58183 Link¨oping, Sweden. E-mail: simin case. Network resources such as bandwidth and power have to be dealt with in fundamentally different

  10. Lifetime Optimization Using Energy Allocation in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks

    E-print Network

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    decisions, or collect the distributed data from ad-hoc nodes at a base-station and later fuse the data storage that each node requires for having a balanced energy consumption throughout the network characteristics; and second, a base-station centric network where a base-station in the center collects the data

  11. Introducing health gains in location-allocation models: A stochastic model for planning the delivery of long-term care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, T.; Oliveira, M. D.; Barbosa-Pvoa, A.; Nickel, S.

    2015-05-01

    Although the maximization of health is a key objective in health care systems, location-allocation literature has not yet considered this dimension. This study proposes a multi-objective stochastic mathematical programming approach to support the planning of a multi-service network of long-term care (LTC), both in terms of services location and capacity planning. This approach is based on a mixed integer linear programming model with two objectives - the maximization of expected health gains and the minimization of expected costs - with satisficing levels in several dimensions of equity - namely, equity of access, equity of utilization, socioeconomic equity and geographical equity - being imposed as constraints. The augmented ?-constraint method is used to explore the trade-off between these conflicting objectives, with uncertainty in the demand and delivery of care being accounted for. The model is applied to analyze the (re)organization of the LTC network currently operating in the Great Lisbon region in Portugal for the 2014-2016 period. Results show that extending the network of LTC is a cost-effective investment.

  12. Online Matching with Stochastic Rewards Aranyak Mehta

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    Online Matching with Stochastic Rewards Aranyak Mehta Google Research Mountain View, CA Email: aranyak@google.com Debmalya Panigrahi Microsoft Research Redmond, WA Email: depan@microsoft.com Abstract of "successful" allocations, where success of an allocation is governed by a stochastic process which follows

  13. REGULAR PAPER Allocation algorithms for personal TV advertisements

    E-print Network

    Kraus, Sarit

    REGULAR PAPER Allocation algorithms for personal TV advertisements Ron Adany Sarit Kraus personal TV advertisements to viewers. The problem's input consists of ad requests and viewers. Each ad by the deterministic version. Keywords TV advertisements Personalization Allocation Heuristics Uncertainty 1

  14. Yield Optimization of Display Advertising with Ad Exchange Santiago Balseiro

    E-print Network

    Sandholm, Tuomas W.

    RightMedia, AdECN or DoubleClick are an emerging market for the real-time sale of online ad slots for the real-time sale of advertising slots, publishers face new challenges in choosing between the allocation problem as a stochas- tic control problem and derive an efficient policy for online ad allocation

  15. Public Review for NetShare and Stochastic NetShare

    E-print Network

    Vahdat, Amin

    for cloud services, or accounting and engineering for an enterprise data center. The services use a shared Review for NetShare and Stochastic NetShare: Predictable Bandwidth Allocation for Data Centers Vinh and Stochastic NetShare: Predictable Bandwidth Allocation for Data Centers Vinh The Lam, Sivasankar Radhakrishnan

  16. Heuristics for Robust Allocation of Resources to Parallel Applications with Uncertain Execution Times in

    E-print Network

    Maciejewski, Anthony A. "Tony"

    Heuristics for Robust Allocation of Resources to Parallel Applications with Uncertain Execution a moldable application executes is decided by the scheduler. When the application execution times challenge. A model is presented for the stochastic execution times of moldable parallel applications

  17. Techniques for Dynamic and Prioritized Bandwidth Allocation On Incoming Links

    E-print Network

    Techniques for Dynamic and Prioritized Bandwidth Allocation On Incoming Links Sa??ad Biaz Computer cannot prioritize dynamically the incoming traffic in order to limit the bandwidth used by the low the incoming TCP traffic on a link. The objective is to allocate dynamically a specific share of the incoming

  18. Planning and Scheduling Surgeries under Stochastic Environment

    E-print Network

    Choi, Sangdo 1971-

    2012-08-15

    Stochastic Integer Programming NV-CA News Vendor Capacity Allocation NV-SIP News Vendor Stochastic Integer Programming OR Operating Room OTP Overtime Penalty PACU Post Anesthesia Care Unit SICU Surgical Intensive Care Unit SIP Stochastic Integer...-operative activities and ancillary departments (e.g., post- anesthesia care unit(PACU), surgical intensive care unit(SICU), nursing), not only of ORs and surgeons. Nurse managers should ensure that the set of ORs and PACUs run compatibly each day of the week (Blake...

  19. Online allocation algorithms with applications in computational advertising

    E-print Network

    Zadimoghaddam, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few decades, a wide variety of allocation markets emerged from the Internet and introduced interesting algorithmic challenges, e.g., ad auctions, online dating markets, matching skilled workers to jobs, etc. ...

  20. Computer Processor Allocator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-03-01

    The Compute Processor Allocator (CPA) provides an efficient and reliable mechanism for managing and allotting processors in a massively parallel (MP) computer. It maintains information in a database on the health. configuration and allocation of each processor. This persistent information is factored in to each allocation decision. The CPA runs in a distributed fashion to avoid a single point of failure.

  1. Stochastic games.

    PubMed

    Solan, Eilon; Vieille, Nicolas

    2015-11-10

    In 1953, Lloyd Shapley contributed his paper "Stochastic games" to PNAS. In this paper, he defined the model of stochastic games, which were the first general dynamic model of a game to be defined, and proved that it admits a stationary equilibrium. In this Perspective, we summarize the historical context and the impact of Shapley's contribution. PMID:26556883

  2. Google's Auction for TV Ads Preliminary version

    E-print Network

    Nisan, Noam

    Google's Auction for TV Ads Preliminary version Noam Nisan Jason Bayer Deepak Chandra Tal Franji Robert Gardner Yossi Matias Neil Rhodes Misha Seltzer Danny Tom Hal Varian Dan Zigmond Google Inc. Abstract This document describes the auction system used by Google for allocation and pricing of TV ads

  3. Allocating merger savings: A flexible allocation mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Polito, J.

    1995-12-31

    Utility mergers and acquisitions are an increasingly common phenomenon. Allocating merger savings between utility ratepayers and shareholders is a sensitive issue, intimately linked to state regulatory approval, and giving rise to ratemaking issues as basic as should ratepayers be charged for premerger expenses which no longer exist. The following report presents a mechanism which can be used to allocate merger savings. The mechanism is flexible in design, does not require an explicit tracking of merger savings, and is easily calibrated to achieve any outcome with respect to (1) the overall (intended) percentage of merger savings to be received by utility ratepayers, and (2) the percentage of estimated merger savings a utility must achieve to break-even. Further, when implemented with the parameters developed below, the allocation mechanism is perfectly symmetrical; that is, potential utility upside gain is just equal to potential utility downside loss.

  4. A Framework for Optimal Control Allocation with Structural Load Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Taylor, Brian R.; Jutte, Christine V.; Burken, John J.; Trinh, Khanh V.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Conventional aircraft generally employ mixing algorithms or lookup tables to determine control surface deflections needed to achieve moments commanded by the flight control system. Control allocation is the problem of converting desired moments into control effector commands. Next generation aircraft may have many multipurpose, redundant control surfaces, adding considerable complexity to the control allocation problem. These issues can be addressed with optimal control allocation. Most optimal control allocation algorithms have control surface position and rate constraints. However, these constraints are insufficient to ensure that the aircraft's structural load limits will not be exceeded by commanded surface deflections. In this paper, a framework is proposed to enable a flight control system with optimal control allocation to incorporate real-time structural load feedback and structural load constraints. A proof of concept simulation that demonstrates the framework in a simulation of a generic transport aircraft is presented.

  5. Dynamic Resource Allocation for

    E-print Network

    Bhashyam, Srikrishna

    Algorithm Results CDMA Resource Allocation Results Summary References Broadband Wireless Internet Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) Wireless Cellular Demand for mobile wireless internet access Need support Results Summary References Broadband Wireless: Challenges t t High data rates and limited

  6. Stochastic thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik

    2014-04-01

    'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response theory for small deviations from equilibrium, in which a general framework is constructed from the analysis of non-equilibrium states close to equilibrium. In a next step, Prigogine and others developed linear irreversible thermodynamics, which establishes relations between transport coefficients and entropy production on a phenomenological level in terms of thermodynamic forces and fluxes. However, beyond the realm of linear response no general theoretical results were available for quite a long time. This situation has changed drastically over the last 20 years with the development of stochastic thermodynamics, revealing that the range of validity of thermodynamic statements can indeed be extended deep into the non-equilibrium regime. Early developments in that direction trace back to the observations of symmetry relations between the probabilities for entropy production and entropy annihilation in non-equilibrium steady states [5-8] (nowadays categorized in the class of so-called detailed fluctuation theorems), and the derivations of the Bochkov-Kuzovlev [9, 10] and Jarzynski relations [11] (which are now classified as so-called integral fluctuation theorems). Apart from its fundamental theoretical interest, the developments in stochastic thermodynamics have experienced an additional boost from the recent experimental progress in fabricating, manipulating, controlling and observing systems on the micro- and nano-scale. These advances are not only of formidable use for probing and monitoring biological processes on the cellular, sub-cellular and molecular level, but even include the realization of a microscopic thermodynamic heat engine [12] or the experimental verification of Landauer's principle in a colloidal system [13]. The scientific program Stochastic Thermodynamics held between 4 and 15 March 2013, and hosted by The Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita), was attended by more than 50 scientists from the Nordic countries and elsewhere, amongst them many leading experts in the field. During the program, the most recent developments, open quest

  7. A Method for Reducing the Severity of Epidemics by Allocating Vaccines According to Centrality

    E-print Network

    Drewniak, Krzysztof; Mikler, Armin R

    2014-01-01

    One long-standing question in epidemiological research is how best to allocate limited amounts of vaccine or similar preventative measures in order to minimize the severity of an epidemic. Much of the literature on the problem of vaccine allocation has focused on influenza epidemics and used mathematical models of epidemic spread to determine the effectiveness of proposed methods. Our work applies computational models of epidemics to the problem of geographically allocating a limited number of vaccines within several Texas counties. We developed a graph-based, stochastic model for epidemics that is based on the SEIR model, and tested vaccine allocation methods based on multiple centrality measures. This approach provides an alternative method for addressing the vaccine allocation problem, which can be combined with more conventional approaches to yield more effective epidemic suppression strategies. We found that allocation methods based on in-degree and inverse betweenness centralities tended to be the most ...

  8. Sensory Optimization by Stochastic Tuning

    PubMed Central

    Jurica, Peter; Gepshtein, Sergei; Tyukin, Ivan; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Individually, visual neurons are each selective for several aspects of stimulation, such as stimulus location, frequency content, and speed. Collectively, the neurons implement the visual systems preferential sensitivity to some stimuli over others, manifested in behavioral sensitivity functions. We ask how the individual neurons are coordinated to optimize visual sensitivity. We model synaptic plasticity in a generic neural circuit, and find that stochastic changes in strengths of synaptic connections entail fluctuations in parameters of neural receptive fields. The fluctuations correlate with uncertainty of sensory measurement in individual neurons: the higher the uncertainty the larger the amplitude of fluctuation. We show that this simple relationship is sufficient for the stochastic fluctuations to steer sensitivities of neurons toward a characteristic distribution, from which follows a sensitivity function observed in human psychophysics, and which is predicted by a theory of optimal allocation of receptive fields. The optimal allocation arises in our simulations without supervision or feedback about system performance and independently of coupling between neurons, making the system highly adaptive and sensitive to prevailing stimulation. PMID:24219849

  9. Immigration-extinction dynamics of stochastic populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerson, Baruch; Ovaskainen, Otso

    2013-07-01

    How high should be the rate of immigration into a stochastic population in order to significantly reduce the probability of observing the population become extinct? Is there any relation between the population size distributions with and without immigration? Under what conditions can one justify the simple patch occupancy models, which ignore the population distribution and its dynamics in a patch, and treat a patch simply as either occupied or empty? We answer these questions by exactly solving a simple stochastic model obtained by adding a steady immigration to a variant of the Verhulst model: a prototypical model of an isolated stochastic population.

  10. Resource allocation: whose realism?

    PubMed

    Lewis, P A

    1990-09-01

    Using data from the Cardiff [Wales] Health Survey, Lewis and M. Charny authored a paper on the use of public opinion surveys to help make resource allocation decisions in health care (JME 1989 Mar; 15(1): 28-32). The paper elicited critical responses from D. Lamb (JME 1989 Mar; 15(1): 33-34), and from P. Whitaker (JME 1990 Sep; 16(3): 129-131). Here Lewis responds to Lamb and Whitaker by emphasizing points in his and Charny's analysis of the Cardiff data. Lewis addresses the following issues: the need of clinicians for guidance in assigning priorities for allocating resources among patients; the role of moral philosophers in the allocation debate; the need to ration health care resources regardless of funding levels; the notion of population responsibility versus individual/family responsibility for future population groups; and who will be the architects and who will be the executors of health care rationing. PMID:2231636

  11. An Efficient Stochastic Clustering Auction for Heterogeneous Robot Teams

    E-print Network

    Barbu, Adrian

    An Efficient Stochastic Clustering Auction for Heterogeneous Robot Teams Kai Zhang and Emmanuel G for effective coordination of heterogeneous robotic systems have numerous applications. For example, they can be used for efficient task allocation for teams of robots in many application domains [1], [2] such as col

  12. The benefits of allocating sex

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart A; Herre, E Allen; Sheldon, Ben C

    2000-01-01

    Evolutionary biologists have developed an excellent understanding of the selective factors that shape the way that a given organism allocates resourses to male and female offspring- a process called sex allocation.

  13. Distributed Spectrum Allocation via Local Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, P.R. China

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Distributed Spectrum Allocation via Local Bargaining Lili Cao Shanghai Jiaotong University to spectrum allocation in mobile ad-hoc networks. We propose a local bargaining approach where users affected by the mobility event self-organize into bargaining groups and adapt their spectrum assignment to approximate

  14. Resource Allocation in Fading Ad-Hoc Networks

    E-print Network

    Yousefi'zadeh, Homayoun

    ­ p.9/16 #12;BER, SER and Data Rate Adaptive Modulation, M-QAM, Mi,s BERi,s = 0.2 exp(-1.6SIRi,s Mi,s-1 ) curve-fitting for M-QAM, [Chung et al.] SERi,s = 1 - (1 - BERi,s)log2 Mi,s log2 Mi,sBERi,s Ri

  15. Energy and Deadline Constrained Robust Stochastic Static Resource Allocation

    E-print Network

    Pasricha, Sudeep

    model from [2], however that work addresses the problem of minimizing energy consumption and DVFS to balance the tradeoff between performance and energy consumption to maximize robustness under an energy constraint. The use of DVFS to balance performance and energy consumption has been studied widely

  16. Stochastic Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

  17. Stochastic desertification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissmann, Haim; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2014-04-01

    The process of desertification is usually modeled as a first-order transition, where a change of an external parameter (e.g., precipitation) leads to a catastrophic bifurcation followed by an ecological regime shift. However, vegetation elements like shrubs and trees undergo a stochastic birth-death process with an absorbing state; such a process supports a second-order continuous transition with no hysteresis. Here we study a minimal model of a first-order transition with an absorbing state. When the external parameter varies adiabatically the transition is indeed continuous, and we present some empirical evidence that supports this scenario. The front velocity renormalizes to zero at the extinction transition, leaving a finite quantum region where domain walls are stable and the desertification takes place via accumulation of local extinctions. A catastrophic regime shift may occur as a dynamical hysteresis, if the pace of environmental variations is too fast.

  18. Allocations for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    The Data Integration 2000 Project will result in an integrated and comprehensive set of functional applications containing core information necessary to support the Project Hanford Management Contract. It is based on the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf product solution with commercially proven business processes. The COTS product solution set, of PassPort and People Soft software, supports finance, supply and chemical management/Material Safety Data Sheet, human resources. Allocations at Fluor Daniel Hanford are burdens added to base costs using a predetermined rate.

  19. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  20. June 24, 2002 Conference on Stochastic Networks 1 Do Greedy Autonomous Systems Make for a Sensible Internet?

    E-print Network

    Hajek, Bruce

    1 June 24, 2002 Conference on Stochastic Networks 1 Do Greedy Autonomous Systems Make on the fairness of allocation of network resources. (Joint work with Ganesh Gopal) June 24, 2002 Conference brokers June 24, 2002 Conference on Stochastic Networks 3 Paying Networks for Marks X X X $$ $$ June 24

  1. Google's Auction for Radio and TV Ads Preliminary version

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    Google's Auction for Radio and TV Ads Preliminary version Noam Nisan Jason Bayer Deepak Chandra Tal Franji Robert Gardner Yossi Matias Neil Rhodes Misha Seltzer Danny Tom Hal Varian Dan Zigmond Google Inc. Abstract This document describes the auction system used by Google for allocation and pricing of TV ads

  2. Telescope Time Allocation Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, J.

    2005-03-01

    TaToo is ESO's new Time Allocation Tool. This software scheduler is a combination of a user-friendly graphical user interface and an intelligent constraint-programming engine fine-tuned to ESO's scheduling problem. TaToo is able to produce a high quality and reliable schedule taking into consideration all constraints of the recommended programs for all telescopes in about 15 minutes. This performance allows schedulers at ESO-VISAS to simulate and evaluate different scenarios, optimize the scheduling of engineering activities at the observatories, and in the end construct the most science efficient schedule possible.

  3. 76 FR 32392 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2011 Allocation Round...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ...receives an allocation in this allocation round (or its Subsidiary transferee) may not...receives an allocation in this allocation round (or its Subsidiary transferee) at any...applications in which all required questions and tables are fully completed. Additional...

  4. Research on allocation efficiency of the daisy chain allocation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-03-01

    With the improvement of the aircraft performance in reliability, maneuverability and survivability, the number of the control effectors increases a lot. How to distribute the three-axis moments into the control surfaces reasonably becomes an important problem. Daisy chain method is simple and easy to be carried out in the design of the allocation system. But it can not solve the allocation problem for entire attainable moment subset. For the lateral-directional allocation problem, the allocation efficiency of the daisy chain can be directly measured by the area of its subset of attainable moments. Because of the non-linear allocation characteristic, the subset of attainable moments of daisy-chain method is a complex non-convex polygon, and it is difficult to solve directly. By analyzing the two-dimensional allocation problems with a "micro-element" idea, a numerical calculation algorithm is proposed to compute the area of the non-convex polygon. In order to improve the allocation efficiency of the algorithm, a genetic algorithm with the allocation efficiency chosen as the fitness function is proposed to find the best pseudo-inverse matrix.

  5. Computationally efficient control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A computationally efficient method for calculating near-optimal solutions to the three-objective, linear control allocation problem is disclosed. The control allocation problem is that of distributing the effort of redundant control effectors to achieve some desired set of objectives. The problem is deemed linear if control effectiveness is affine with respect to the individual control effectors. The optimal solution is that which exploits the collective maximum capability of the effectors within their individual physical limits. Computational efficiency is measured by the number of floating-point operations required for solution. The method presented returned optimal solutions in more than 90% of the cases examined; non-optimal solutions returned by the method were typically much less than 1% different from optimal and the errors tended to become smaller than 0.01% as the number of controls was increased. The magnitude of the errors returned by the present method was much smaller than those that resulted from either pseudo inverse or cascaded generalized inverse solutions. The computational complexity of the method presented varied linearly with increasing numbers of controls; the number of required floating point operations increased from 5.5 i, to seven times faster than did the minimum-norm solution (the pseudoinverse), and at about the same rate as did the cascaded generalized inverse solution. The computational requirements of the method presented were much better than that of previously described facet-searching methods which increase in proportion to the square of the number of controls.

  6. Stochastic cooling in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.

    2009-05-04

    After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.

  7. Solitons and AdS String Solutions

    E-print Network

    Antal Jevicki; Kewang Jin

    2008-04-02

    In this contribution we describe some soliton based techniques for generating classical AdS string solutions. The methods introduced are useful for further understanding of rotating AdS configurations with spikes which correspond to higher twist operators in SYM theory. The main identification (accomplished in arXiv:0712.1193) between solitons and string spikes is reviewed and extended. We describe how inverse scattering technique can be applied for reconstructing AdS string configurations from soliton solutions of sinh-Gordon theory (in the example of ${\\rm AdS}_3$).

  8. Solitons and AdS String Solutions

    E-print Network

    Jevicki, Antal

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution we describe some soliton based techniques for generating classical AdS string solutions. The methods introduced are useful for further understanding of rotating AdS configurations with spikes which correspond to higher twist operators in SYM theory. The main identification (accomplished in arXiv:0712.1193) between solitons and string spikes is reviewed and extended. We describe how inverse scattering technique can be applied for reconstructing AdS string configurations from soliton solutions of sinh-Gordon theory (in the example of ${\\rm AdS}_3$).

  9. Asset Allocation Jessica A. Wachter

    E-print Network

    Kahana, Michael J.

    , such as leverage or short-sale constraints. This is not to deny the importance of other asset classes, the field has drawn a distinction between the study of allocation to broad asset classes and allocation to individual assets within a class. This article focuses on the former. In fact, the empirical applications

  10. The Principal as Resource Allocator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Kent D.

    The effect of political influences on the allocation of personnel, money, facilities, and equipment by elementary school principals is discussed in this paper. The use of Zald's political economy framework as a tool for understanding the principal's role in allocating resources is described by the author. He suggests that the principal occupies a

  11. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...by the Pacific Coast treaty Indian Tribal harvest (allocations... (1) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribal allocations, set-asides...lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91...allocation to Pacific coast treaty Indian tribes is identified...

  12. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...by the Pacific Coast treaty Indian Tribal harvest (allocations... (1) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribal allocations, set-asides...lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91...allocation to Pacific coast treaty Indian tribes is identified...

  13. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...by the Pacific Coast treaty Indian Tribal harvest (allocations... (1) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribal allocations, set-asides...lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91...allocation to Pacific coast treaty Indian tribes is identified...

  14. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...by the Pacific Coast treaty Indian Tribal harvest (allocations... (1) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribal allocations, set-asides...lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91...allocation to Pacific coast treaty Indian tribes is identified...

  15. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...by the Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribal harvest (allocations... (1) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribal allocations, set-asides...lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91...allocation to Pacific coast treaty Indian tribes is identified...

  16. Educational and Military Resource Allocation in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiff, Hans

    1982-01-01

    Compares financial and human resource allocations for education and the military in Asian countries. Statistical evidence indicates cutbacks in educational allocations but none in military funding. (AM)

  17. Resource allocation using risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T. F.; Eisenhawer, S. W.

    2003-01-01

    Allocating limited resources among competing priorities is an important problem in management. In this paper we describe an approach to resource allocation using risk as a metric. We call this approach the Logic-Evolved Decision (LED) approach because we use logic-models to generate an exhaustive set of competing options and to describe the often highly complex model used for evaluating the risk reduction achieved by different resource allocations among these options. The risk evaluation then proceeds using probabilistic or linguistic input data.

  18. TOWARD A STOCHASTIC CALCULUS, II*

    PubMed Central

    McShane, E. J.

    1969-01-01

    In a preceding note (these Proceedings, 63, 275 (1969)) singly and doubly stochastic integrals were defined. Here correspondingly generalized stochastic differential equations are studied. For constructing stochastic models of physical processes with random noises, by proper selection of the doubly stochastic terms, we remove the apparent discordances between classical and stochastic models. PMID:16578704

  19. Resource Balancing Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the control effort. The paper discusses the alternative choice of using the l1 norm for minimization of the tracking error and a normalized l(infinity) norm, or sup norm, for minimization of the control effort. The algorithm computes the norm of the actuator deflections scaled by the actuator limits. Minimization of the control effort then translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection as a percentage of its range of motion. The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of resource balancing, where the resources are the control surfaces and the algorithm balances these resources to achieve the desired command. A study of the sensitivity of the algorithms to the data is presented, which shows that the normalized l(infinity) algorithm has the lowest sensitivity, although high sensitivities are observed whenever the limits of performance are reached.

  20. Social evolution sex allocation theory

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    -evolution of soldier production and brood allocation in polyembryonic parasitoid wasps 161 Chapter 6: Discussion 203, Tiago, Paula, Dave, Andr and Clara, for making me feel at home in a new country, and to Manuela

  1. Collective credit allocation in science

    E-print Network

    Shen, Hua-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, since the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors' contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability...

  2. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula 92.50 Formula allocation. (a) Jurisdictions eligible for a formula allocation. HUD...

  3. WHEN TO STORE ENERGY IN A STOCHASTIC ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Barbara; Dieckmann, Ulf; Taborsky, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The ability to store energy enables organisms to deal with temporarily harsh and uncertain conditions. Empirical studies have demonstrated that organisms adapted to fluctuating energy availability plastically adjust their storage strategies. So far, however, theoretical studies have investigated general storage strategies only in constant or deterministically varying environments. In this study, we analyze how the ability to store energy influences optimal energy allocation to storage, reproduction, and maintenance in environments in which energy availability varies stochastically. We find that allocation to storage is evolutionarily optimal when environmental energy availability is intermediate and energy stores are not yet too full. In environments with low variability and low predictability of energy availability, it is not optimal to store energy. As environments become more variable or more predictable, energy allocation to storage is increasingly favored. By varying environmental variability, environmental predictability, and the cost of survival, we obtain a variety of different optimal life-history strategies, from highly iteroparous to semelparous, which differ significantly in their storage patterns. Our results demonstrate that in a stochastically varying environment simultaneous allocation to reproduction, maintenance, and storage can be optimal, which contrasts with previous findings obtained for deterministic environments. PMID:21108636

  4. Inverse Statistics and Asset Allocation Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolgorian, Meysam

    In this paper using inverse statistics analysis, the effect of investment horizon on the efficiency of portfolio selection is examined. Inverse statistics analysis is a general tool also known as probability distribution of exit time that is used for detecting the distribution of the time in which a stochastic process exits from a zone. This analysis was used in Refs. 1 and 2 for studying the financial returns time series. This distribution provides an optimal investment horizon which determines the most likely horizon for gaining a specific return. Using samples of stocks from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) as an emerging market and S&P 500 as a developed market, effect of optimal investment horizon in asset allocation is assessed. It is found that taking into account the optimal investment horizon in TSE leads to more efficiency for large size portfolios while for stocks selected from S&P 500, regardless of portfolio size, this strategy does not only not produce more efficient portfolios, but also longer investment horizons provides more efficiency.

  5. Magnetic Monopoles in AdS

    SciTech Connect

    Sutcliffe, Paul

    2011-09-22

    Applications to holographic theories have led to some recent interest in magnetic monopoles in four-dimensional Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. Some analytic and numerical results are discussed for monopoles in AdS, including the symmetries of minimal energy monopoles (which are often Platonic), a connection to Skyrmions, and the emergence of a hexagonal lattice in the large charge limit.

  6. Collaborative Resource Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Raymond; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative Resource Allocation Networking Environment (CRANE) Version 0.5 is a prototype created to prove the newest concept of using a distributed environment to schedule Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna times in a collaborative fashion. This program is for all space-flight and terrestrial science project users and DSN schedulers to perform scheduling activities and conflict resolution, both synchronously and asynchronously. Project schedulers can, for the first time, participate directly in scheduling their tracking times into the official DSN schedule, and negotiate directly with other projects in an integrated scheduling system. A master schedule covers long-range, mid-range, near-real-time, and real-time scheduling time frames all in one, rather than the current method of separate functions that are supported by different processes and tools. CRANE also provides private workspaces (both dynamic and static), data sharing, scenario management, user control, rapid messaging (based on Java Message Service), data/time synchronization, workflow management, notification (including emails), conflict checking, and a linkage to a schedule generation engine. The data structure with corresponding database design combines object trees with multiple associated mortal instances and relational database to provide unprecedented traceability and simplify the existing DSN XML schedule representation. These technologies are used to provide traceability, schedule negotiation, conflict resolution, and load forecasting from real-time operations to long-range loading analysis up to 20 years in the future. CRANE includes a database, a stored procedure layer, an agent-based middle tier, a Web service wrapper, a Windows Integrated Analysis Environment (IAE), a Java application, and a Web page interface.

  7. Subpopulation triage: how to allocate conservation effort among populations.

    PubMed

    McDonald-Madden, Eve; Baxter, Peter W J; Possingham, Hugh P

    2008-06-01

    Threatened species often exist in a small number of isolated subpopulations. Given limitations on conservation spending, managers must choose from strategies that range from managing just one subpopulation and risking all other subpopulations to managing all subpopulations equally and poorly, thereby risking the loss of all subpopulations. We took an economic approach to this problem in an effort to discover a simple rule of thumb for optimally allocating conservation effort among subpopulations. This rule was derived by maximizing the expected number of extant subpopulations remaining given n subpopulations are actually managed. We also derived a spatiotemporally optimized strategy through stochastic dynamic programming. The rule of thumb suggested that more subpopulations should be managed if the budget increases or if the cost of reducing local extinction probabilities decreases. The rule performed well against the exact optimal strategy that was the result of the stochastic dynamic program and much better than other simple strategies (e.g., always manage one extant subpopulation or half of the remaining subpopulation). We applied our approach to the allocation of funds in 2 contrasting case studies: reduction of poaching of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) and habitat acquisition for San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica). For our estimated annual budget for Sumatran tiger management, the mean time to extinction was about 32 years. For our estimated annual management budget for kit foxes in the San Joaquin Valley, the mean time to extinction was approximately 24 years. Our framework allows managers to deal with the important question of how to allocate scarce conservation resources among subpopulations of any threatened species. PMID:18477029

  8. Stochastic Programming Approach to Hydraulic Fracture Design for the Lower Tertiary Gulf of Mexico

    E-print Network

    Podhoretz, Seth

    2013-07-27

    ....................................... 47 Finite Conductivity Fracture Approximation ..................................... 52 Proppant Allocation in Multilayer Reservoirs .................................... 53 vi IV STOCHASTIC OPTIMIZATION.... ................................................................... 51 3.4 Vertical fracture, dimensionless productivity. .......................................... 53 3.5 Productivity index vs. ratio of proppant numbers. ..................................... 56 4.1 DVS schematic...

  9. Stochastic chaplygin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochgerner, Simon

    2010-12-01

    We mimic the stochastic Hamiltonian reduction of Lazaro-Cami and Ortega [18, 19] for the case of certain nonholonomic systems with symmetries. Using the nonholonomic connection it is shown that the drift of the stochastically perturbed n-dimensional Chaplygin ball is a certain gradient of the density of the preserved measure of the deterministic system.

  10. Succession Model Landscape Stochasticity

    E-print Network

    100 1000 10000 patch sizes birth rate both Disturbance Model Landscape Stochasticity Low Control High" accomplished by incrementing the patch birth rate (Control: s = a = 10) A simple model of species viabilitySuccession Model Landscape Stochasticity Low Control High Very High ThresholdMultiplier 0.1 1 10

  11. Stochastic Convection Parameterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teixeira, Joao; Reynolds, Carolyn; Suselj, Kay; Matheou, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    computational fluid dynamics, radiation, clouds, turbulence, convection, gravity waves, surface interaction, radiation interaction, cloud and aerosol microphysics, complexity (vegetation, biogeochemistry, radiation versus turbulence/convection stochastic approach, non-linearities, Monte Carlo, high resolutions, large-Eddy Simulations, cloud structure, plumes, saturation in tropics, forecasting, parameterizations, stochastic, radiation-clod interaction, hurricane forecasts

  12. A Stochastic Employment Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Teng

    2013-01-01

    The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball

  13. Amplification by stochastic interference

    E-print Network

    K. Svozil; D. Felix; K. Ehrenberger

    2002-11-19

    A new method is introduced to obtain a strong signal by the interference of weak signals in noisy channels. The method is based on the interference of 1/f noise from parallel channels. One realization of stochastic interference is the auditory nervous system. Stochastic interference may have broad potential applications in the information transmission by parallel noisy channels.

  14. Collective credit allocation in science.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabsi, Albert-Lszl

    2014-08-26

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors' contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  15. Collective credit allocation in science

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabsi, Albert-Lszl

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  16. Task allocation among multiple intelligent robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, L.; Bekey, G.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers describe the design of a decentralized mechanism for allocating assembly tasks in a multiple robot assembly workstation. Currently, the approach focuses on distributed allocation to explore its feasibility and its potential for adaptability to changing circumstances, rather than for optimizing throughput. Individual greedy robots make their own local allocation decisions using both dynamic allocation policies which propagate through a network of allocation goals, and local static and dynamic constraints describing which robots are elibible for which assembly tasks. Global coherence is achieved by proper weighting of allocation pressures propagating through the assembly plan. Deadlock avoidance and synchronization is achieved using periodic reassessments of local allocation decisions, ageing of allocation goals, and short-term allocation locks on goals.

  17. Polarised Black Holes in AdS

    E-print Network

    Costa, Miguel S; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, Joo; Santos, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...

  18. Generating AdS String Solutions

    E-print Network

    Antal Jevicki; Kewang Jin; Chrysostomos Kalousios; Anastasia Volovich

    2008-01-13

    We use a Pohlmeyer type reduction to generate classical string solutions in AdS spacetime. In this framework we describe a correspondence between spikes in AdS_3 and soliton profiles of the sinh-Gordon equation. The null cusp string solution and its closed spinning string counterpart are related to the sinh-Gordon vacuum. We construct classical string solutions corresponding to sinh-Gordon solitons, antisolitons and breathers by the inverse scattering technique. The breather solutions can also be reproduced by the sigma model dressing method.

  19. Generating AdS String Solutions

    E-print Network

    Jevicki, Antal; Kalousios, Chrysostomos; Volovich, Anastasia

    2008-01-01

    We use a Pohlmeyer type reduction to generate classical string solutions in AdS spacetime. In this framework we describe a correspondence between spikes in AdS_3 and soliton profiles of the sinh-Gordon equation. The null cusp string solution and its closed spinning string counterpart are related to the sinh-Gordon vacuum. We construct classical string solutions corresponding to sinh-Gordon solitons, antisolitons and breathers by the inverse scattering technique. The breather solutions can also be reproduced by the sigma model dressing method.

  20. Improving locality with dynamic memory allocation

    E-print Network

    Jula, Alin Narcis

    2009-05-15

    memory allocators that explore dierentallocation strategies that enhance an application's locality. We conduct the rststudy that shows that allocation speed, fragmentation and locality improving goalsare antagonistic. We develop an automatic method...

  1. 24 CFR 594.15 - Allocation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES JOHN HEINZ NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Funding Allocation and Criteria 594.15 Allocation amounts. (a)...

  2. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Fishing 600.517 Allocations. The Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Secretary, determines the allocation among foreign nations of fish species and species groups. The Secretary of State officially notifies each foreign...

  3. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Fishing 600.517 Allocations. The Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Secretary, determines the allocation among foreign nations of fish species and species groups. The Secretary of State officially notifies each foreign...

  4. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Fishing 600.517 Allocations. The Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Secretary, determines the allocation among foreign nations of fish species and species groups. The Secretary of State officially notifies each foreign...

  5. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Fishing 600.517 Allocations. The Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Secretary, determines the allocation among foreign nations of fish species and species groups. The Secretary of State officially notifies each foreign...

  6. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Fishing 600.517 Allocations. The Secretary of State, in cooperation with the Secretary, determines the allocation among foreign nations of fish species and species groups. The Secretary of State officially notifies each foreign...

  7. SHALE: An Efficient Algorithm for Allocation of Guaranteed Display Advertising

    E-print Network

    Bharadwaj, Vijay; Ma, Wenjing; Nagarajan, Chandrashekhar; Tomlin, John; Vassilvitskii, Sergei; Vee, Erik; Yang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the problem of optimizing allocation in guaranteed display advertising, we develop an efficient, lightweight method of generating a compact {\\em allocation plan} that can be used to guide ad server decisions. The plan itself uses just O(1) state per guaranteed contract, is robust to noise, and allows us to serve (provably) nearly optimally. The optimization method we develop is scalable, with a small in-memory footprint, and working in linear time per iteration. It is also "stop-anytime", meaning that time-critical applications can stop early and still get a good serving solution. Thus, it is particularly useful for optimizing the large problems arising in the context of display advertising. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm using actual Yahoo! data.

  8. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional

  9. Formula for Allocating Matriculation Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Susan P.; Tuma, John E.

    In spring 1990, the Chancellor of the California Community Colleges convened the Matriculation Funding Task Force to review the standards used to estimate matriculation costs and the formula used to allocate state funds among districts. The task force expanded the scope of the matriculation services used as standards for estimating the cost of

  10. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    DOEpatents

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  11. Planning and Resource Allocation Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jack W.

    1986-01-01

    Modern scientific management techniques provide college administrators with valuable planning and resource allocation insights and enhances the decision process. The planning model should incorporate assessment, strategic planning, dynamic and long-term budgeting, operational planning, and feedback and control for actual operations. (MSE)

  12. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Allocations 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50 percent based on the State's eligible legalized...

  13. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO, CL, or...allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...criteria, data sources, and weights: Criteria Loan type...

  14. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO, CL, or...allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...criteria, data sources, and weights: Criteria Loan type...

  15. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO, CL, or...allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...criteria, data sources, and weights: Criteria Loan type...

  16. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO, CL, or...allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...criteria, data sources, and weights: Criteria Loan type...

  17. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO or OL loan...allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...criteria, data sources, and weights: Criteria Loan type...

  18. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Allocations 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50 percent based on the State's eligible legalized...

  19. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Allocations 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50 percent based on the State's eligible legalized...

  20. AdS orbifolds and Penrose limits

    SciTech Connect

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.; Tatar, Radu

    2002-12-09

    In this paper we study the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} orbifolds. The orbifold can be either in the pure spatial directions or space and time directions. For the AdS{sub 5}/{Lambda} x S{sup 5} spatial orbifold we observe that after the Penrose limit we obtain the same result as the Penrose limit of AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}/{Lambda}. We identify the corresponding BMN operators in terms of operators of the gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}/{Lambda}. The semi-classical description of rotating strings in these backgrounds have also been studied. For the spatial AdS orbifold we show that in the quadratic order the obtained action for the fluctuations is the same as that in S{sup 5} orbifold, however, the higher loop correction can distinguish between two cases.

  1. Expectations for Household Task Allocation and Actual Task Allocation: A New Zealand Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman-Boyden, Peggy G.; Abbott, Max

    1985-01-01

    Compares engaged couples' expected gender-role differentiation of labor in marriage with their actual household task allocation one year after marriage. The acceptance of feminist ideology was the dominant predictor of household task allocation for both males and females. Parental household task allocation did not predict task allocation.

  2. Determinants of Time Allocation across the Lifespan

    E-print Network

    Gurven, Michael

    ). KEYWORDS: Behavioral ecology; Family; Hunter-gatherers; Life history theory; Time allocation The allocation of New Mexico This paper lays the groundwork for a theory of time allocation across the life course-strength/low-skill tasks early in life (domestic tasks and several forms of fishing), switch to higher

  3. Quantum Stochastic Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Spring, William Joseph

    2009-04-13

    We consider quantum analogues of n-parameter stochastic processes, associated integrals and martingale properties extending classical results obtained in [1, 2, 3], and quantum results in [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].

  4. 50 CFR 660.323 - Pacific whiting allocations, allocation attainment, and inseason allocation reapportionment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...the start of the primary whiting season...lat.Specific sector allocations for...lat. before the primary season for the shore-based sector begins north of...time the southern primary season would resume...That portion of a sector's...

  5. Resource Allocation in Market-based Grids Using a History-based Pricing Mechanism

    E-print Network

    Bertels, Koen

    Resource Allocation in Market-based Grids Using a History-based Pricing Mechanism Behnaz of Technology Delft, The Netherlands {behnaz, arash, koen}@ce.et.tudelft.nl Abstract-In an ad-hoc Grid and producers determine their bid and ask prices using a sophisticated history-based dynamic pricing strategy

  6. Dynamic Resource Allocation in Disaster Response: Tradeoffs in Wildfire Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Petrovic, Nada; Alderson, David L.; Carlson, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    Challenges associated with the allocation of limited resources to mitigate the impact of natural disasters inspire fundamentally new theoretical questions for dynamic decision making in coupled human and natural systems. Wildfires are one of several types of disaster phenomena, including oil spills and disease epidemics, where (1) the disaster evolves on the same timescale as the response effort, and (2) delays in response can lead to increased disaster severity and thus greater demand for resources. We introduce a minimal stochastic process to represent wildfire progression that nonetheless accurately captures the heavy tailed statistical distribution of fire sizes observed in nature. We then couple this model for fire spread to a series of response models that isolate fundamental tradeoffs both in the strength and timing of response and also in division of limited resources across multiple competing suppression efforts. Using this framework, we compute optimal strategies for decision making scenarios that arise in fire response policy. PMID:22514605

  7. Baby Skyrmions in AdS

    E-print Network

    Matthew Elliot-Ripley; Thomas Winyard

    2015-07-21

    We study the baby Skyrme model in a pure AdS background without a mass term. The tail decays and scalings of massless radial solutions are demonstrated to take a similar form to those of the massive flat space model, with the AdS curvature playing a similar role to the flat space pion mass. We also numerically find minimal energy solutions for a range of higher topological charges and find that they form concentric ring-like solutions. Popcorn transitions (named in analogy with studies of toy models of holographic QCD) from an n layer to an n+1-layer configuration are observed at topological charges 9 and 27 and further popcorn transitions for higher charges are predicted. Finally, a point-particle approximation for the model is derived and used to successfully predict the ring structures and popcorn transitions for higher charge solitons.

  8. Baby Skyrmions in AdS

    E-print Network

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We study the baby Skyrme model in a pure AdS background without a mass term. The tail decays and scalings of massless radial solutions are demonstrated to take a similar form to those of the massive flat space model, with the AdS curvature playing a similar role to the flat space pion mass. We also numerically find minimal energy solutions for a range of higher topological charges and find that they form concentric ring-like solutions. Popcorn transitions (named in analogy with studies of toy models of holographic QCD) from an n layer to an n+1-layer configuration are observed at topological charges 9 and 27 and further popcorn transitions for higher charges are predicted. Finally, a point-particle approximation for the model is derived and used to successfully predict the ring structures and popcorn transitions for higher charge solitons.

  9. Communication patterns and allocation strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Mache, Jens Wolfgang; Bunde, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by observations about job runtimes on the CPlant system, we use a trace-driven microsimulator to begin characterizing the performance of different classes of allocation algorithms on jobs with different communication patterns in space-shared parallel systems with mesh topology. We show that relative performance varies considerably with communication pattern. The Paging strategy using the Hilbert space-filling curve and the Best Fit heuristic performed best across several communication patterns.

  10. Strategic planning for disaster recovery with stochastic last mile distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell Whitford; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Coffrin, Carleton

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the single commodity allocation problem (SCAP) for disaster recovery, a fundamental problem faced by all populated areas. SCAPs are complex stochastic optimization problems that combine resource allocation, warehouse routing, and parallel fleet routing. Moreover, these problems must be solved under tight runtime constraints to be practical in real-world disaster situations. This paper formalizes the specification of SCAPs and introduces a novel multi-stage hybrid-optimization algorithm that utilizes the strengths of mixed integer programming, constraint programming, and large neighborhood search. The algorithm was validated on hurricane disaster scenarios generated by Los Alamos National Laboratory using state-of-the-art disaster simulation tools and is deployed to aid federal organizations in the US.

  11. Stochastic Optimization for Machine Learning

    E-print Network

    Powell, Warren B.

    Stochastic Optimization for Machine Learning ICML 2010, Haifa, Israel Tutorial by Nati Srebro Descent: formulation, analysis and use in machine learning Learn about extensions and generalizations, and their Machine Learning counterparts Main Goal: Machine Learning is Stochastic Optimization #12;Outline

  12. STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEMS WITH MEMORY

    E-print Network

    Mohammed, Salah-Eldin

    - ery of the stochastic calculus of variations. It seemed appropriate at this tim* *e to include on the past history of* * the state. We shall frequently refer to such systems as stochastic functional

  13. STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEMS WITH MEMORY

    E-print Network

    Mohammed, Salah-Eldin

    the machin ery of the stochastic calculus of variations. It seemed appropriate at this time to include the reader to certain aspects of stochastic di#erential systems, whose evolution depends on the past history

  14. Understanding of stochastic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seo-Min; Lim, Chang-Moon; Jung, Mi-Rim; Kim, Young-Sik; Kwon, Won-Taik; Ahn, Chang-Nam; Sun, Kyu-Tae; Fumar-Pici, Anita; Chen, Alek C.

    2015-03-01

    Stochastic noise has strong impact on local variability such as LWR (Line Width Roughness), LCDU (Local Critical Dimension Uniformity) and LPE (Local Placement Error), and it is basically originated from the particle nature of photon. Statistical uncertainties of particles, same as the stochastic noises, can be analytically calculated by considering aerial image as a probability density function of photons. Contact-hole is the best pattern for counting its photon, so LCDU of contact-hole array is estimated and compared with experimental results. Among several possible statistical events from mask to resist pattern, three independent events of aerial image formation, photon absorption in resist, and chemical reaction including acid generation are considered to predict stochastic noise for both EUV (Extreme Ultra Violet) and ArF immersion lithography.

  15. Stochastic matching problem.

    PubMed

    Altarelli, F; Braunstein, A; Ramezanpour, A; Zecchina, R

    2011-05-13

    The matching problem plays a basic role in combinatorial optimization and in statistical mechanics. In its stochastic variants, optimization decisions have to be taken given only some probabilistic information about the instance. While the deterministic case can be solved in polynomial time, stochastic variants are worst-case intractable. We propose an efficient method to solve stochastic matching problems which combines some features of the survey propagation equations and of the cavity method. We test it on random bipartite graphs, for which we analyze the phase diagram and compare the results with exact bounds. Our approach is shown numerically to be effective on the full range of parameters, and to outperform state-of-the-art methods. Finally we discuss how the method can be generalized to other problems of optimization under uncertainty. PMID:21668134

  16. On impulsive integrated pest management models with stochastic effects

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Olcay; Comar, Timothy D.; Hrozencik, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We extend existing impulsive differential equation models for integrated pest management (IPM) by including stage structure for both predator and prey as well as by adding stochastic elements in the birth rate of the prey. Based on our model, we propose an approach that incorporates various competing stochastic components. This approach enables us to select a model with optimally determined weights for maximum accuracy and precision in parameter estimation. This is significant in the case of IPM because the proposed model accommodates varying unknown environmental and climatic conditions, which affect the resources needed for pest eradication. PMID:25954144

  17. Constant time worker thread allocation via configuration caching

    DOEpatents

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; O'Brien, John K. P.

    2014-11-04

    Mechanisms are provided for allocating threads for execution of a parallel region of code. A request for allocation of worker threads to execute the parallel region of code is received from a master thread. Cached thread allocation information identifying prior thread allocations that have been performed for the master thread are accessed. Worker threads are allocated to the master thread based on the cached thread allocation information. The parallel region of code is executed using the allocated worker threads.

  18. Stochastic Gauss equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierret, Frdric

    2015-10-01

    We derived the equations of Celestial Mechanics governing the variation of the orbital elements under a stochastic perturbation, thereby generalizing the classical Gauss equations. Explicit formulas are given for the semimajor axis, the eccentricity, the inclination, the longitude of the ascending node, the pericenter angle, and the mean anomaly, which are expressed in term of the angular momentum vector H per unit of mass and the energy E per unit of mass. Together, these formulas are called the stochastic Gauss equations, and they are illustrated numerically on an example from satellite dynamics.

  19. Winding Strings in AdS_3

    E-print Network

    Estanislao Herscovich; Pablo Minces; Carmen Nunez

    2006-03-15

    Correlation functions of one unit spectral flowed states in string theory on AdS_3 are considered. We present the modified Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov and null vector equations to be satisfied by amplitudes containing states in winding sector one and study their solution corresponding to the four point function including one w=1 field. We compute the three point function involving two one unit spectral flowed operators and find expressions for amplitudes of three w=1 states satisfying certain particular relations among the spins of the fields. Several consistency checks are performed.

  20. Black hole microstates in AdS

    E-print Network

    Shaghoulian, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    We extend a recently derived higher-dimensional Cardy formula to include angular momenta, which we use to obtain the Bekensten-Hawking entropy of AdS black branes, compactified rotating branes, and large Schwarzschild/Kerr black holes. This is the natural generalization of Strominger's microscopic derivation of the BTZ black hole entropy to higher dimensions. We propose an extension to include $U(1)$ charge, which agrees with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of large Reissner-Nordstrom/Kerr-Newman black holes at high temperature. We extend the results to arbitrary hyperscaling violation exponent (this captures the case of black D$p$-branes as a subclass) and reproduce logarithmic corrections.

  1. Stochastic entrainment of a stochastic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanyu; Peskin, Charles S.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we consider a stochastic oscillator described by a discrete-state continuous-time Markov chain, in which the states are arranged in a circle, and there is a constant probability per unit time of jumping from one state to the next in a specified direction around the circle. At each of a sequence of equally spaced times, the oscillator has a specified probability of being reset to a particular state. The focus of this work is the entrainment of the oscillator by this periodic but stochastic stimulus. We consider a distinguished limit, in which (i) the number of states of the oscillator approaches infinity, as does the probability per unit time of jumping from one state to the next, so that the natural mean period of the oscillator remains constant, (ii) the resetting probability approaches zero, and (iii) the period of the resetting signal approaches a multiple, by a ratio of small integers, of the natural mean period of the oscillator. In this distinguished limit, we use analytic and numerical methods to study the extent to which entrainment occurs.

  2. Allocation, incentives and distortions: the impact of EU ETS emissions allowance allocations to the electricity sector

    E-print Network

    Neuhoff, Karsten; Keats, Kim; Sato, Misato

    has to follow an iterative process. If power generators anticipate that their current behaviour will affect future allowance allocation, then this can distort todayâ??s decisions. Furthermore, the National Allocation Plans (NAPs) contain multiple...

  3. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    E-print Network

    S. Prem Kumar; Vladislav Vaganov

    2015-10-28

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of N=8 supergravity on AdS_4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor a_{max} . Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy E \\leq a_{max}, while geodesics with E > a_{max} terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outward" in the Penrose diagram for the deformed AdS backgrounds, and thus geodesic limits of the antipodal correlators do not directly probe the crunch. Beyond the geodesic limit, we point out that the scalar wave equation, analytically continued into the FRW patch, has a potential which is singular at the crunch along with complex WKB turning points in the vicinity of the FRW crunch. We then argue that the frequency space Green's function has a branch point determined by a_{max} which corresponds to the lowest quasinormal frequency.

  4. Elementary stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Tollestrup, A.V.; Dugan, G

    1983-12-01

    Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck equation; calculation of constants in the Fokker-Planck equation; and beam feedback. (GHT)

  5. Review the allocated accounting details Review the allocated accounting details Quick Reference Guide 1

    E-print Network

    Balasuriya, Sanjeeva

    ePro Review the allocated accounting details Review the allocated accounting details Quick when the requestor wants to review what details where allocated for the Accounting details of the requisition. During the create requisition process, the "Modify Line/Shipping/Accounting" button on the Review

  6. Digital Measures Allocation of Effort Entry 1 Digital Measures Allocation of Effort Guide for Data Entry

    E-print Network

    Hanley, Kathryn A.

    Digital Measures Allocation of Effort Entry 1 Digital Measures Allocation of Effort Guide for Data Entry Revised Feb 2014 Welcome to Digital Measures! These instructions outline data entry for the Digital Measures Workload Information screen where the Allocation of Effort form is located. If you have

  7. 75 FR 18016 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2010 Allocation Round...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ...Applications for the CY 2010 Allocation Round of the New Markets Tax Credit Program Funding...Applications for the CY 2010 Allocation Round of the New Markets Tax Credit Program...calendar year 2010 tax credit allocation round of the New Markets Tax Credit...

  8. A combined linear optimisation methodology for water resources allocation in Alfeios River Basin (Greece) under uncertain and vague system conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekri, Eleni; Yannopoulos, Panayotis; Disse, Markus

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, a combined linear programming methodology, based on Li et al. (2010) and Bekri et al. (2012), is employed for optimizing water allocation under uncertain system conditions in the Alfeios River Basin, in Greece. The Alfeios River is a water resources system of great natural, ecological, social and economic importance for Western Greece, since it has the longest and highest flow rate watercourse in the Peloponnisos region. Moreover, the river basin was exposed in the last decades to a plethora of environmental stresses (e.g. hydrogeological alterations, intensively irrigated agriculture, surface and groundwater overexploitation and infrastructure developments), resulting in the degradation of its quantitative and qualitative characteristics. As in most Mediterranean countries, water resource management in Alfeios River Basin has been focused up to now on an essentially supply-driven approach. It is still characterized by a lack of effective operational strategies. Authority responsibility relationships are fragmented, and law enforcement and policy implementation are weak. The present regulated water allocation puzzle entails a mixture of hydropower generation, irrigation, drinking water supply and recreational activities. Under these conditions its water resources management is characterised by high uncertainty and by vague and imprecise data. The considered methodology has been developed in order to deal with uncertainties expressed as either probability distributions, or/and fuzzy boundary intervals, derived by associated ?-cut levels. In this framework a set of deterministic submodels is studied through linear programming. The ad hoc water resources management and alternative management patterns in an Alfeios subbasin are analyzed and evaluated under various scenarios, using the above mentioned methodology, aiming to promote a sustainable and equitable water management. Li, Y.P., Huang, G.H. and S.L., Nie, (2010), Planning water resources management systems using a fuzzy-boundary interval-stochastic programming method, Elsevier Ltd, Advances in Water Resources, 33: 1105-1117. doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2010.06.015 Bekri, E.S., Disse, M. and P.C.,Yannopoulos, (2012), Methodological framework for correction of quick river discharge measurements using quality characteristics, Session of Environmental Hydraulics - Hydrodynamics, 2nd Common Conference of Hellenic Hydrotechnical Association and Greek Committee for Water Resources Management, Volume: 546-557 (in Greek).

  9. Asymptotic theory for the dynamic of networks with heterogenous social capital allocation

    E-print Network

    Ubaldi, Enrico; Karsai, Mrton; Vezzani, Alessandro; Burioni, Raffaella; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The structure and dynamic of social network are largely determined by the heterogeneous interaction activity and social capital allocation of individuals. These features interplay in a non-trivial way in the formation of network and challenge a rigorous dynamical system theory of network evolution. Here we study seven real networks describing temporal human interactions in three different settings: scientific collaborations, Twitter mentions, and mobile phone calls. We find that the node's activity and social capital allocation can be described by two general functional forms that can be used to define a simple stochastic model for social network dynamic. This model allows the explicit asymptotic solution of the Master Equation describing the system dynamic, and provides the scaling laws characterizing the time evolution of the social network degree distribution and individual node's ego network. The analytical predictions reproduce with accuracy the empirical observations validating the theoretical approach....

  10. Allocation Variable-Based Probabilistic Algorithm to Deal with Label Switching Problem in Bayesian Mixture Models

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jia-Chiun; Liu, Chih-Min; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Huang, Guan-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The label switching problem occurs as a result of the nonidentifiability of posterior distribution over various permutations of component labels when using Bayesian approach to estimate parameters in mixture models. In the cases where the number of components is fixed and known, we propose a relabelling algorithm, an allocation variable-based (denoted by AVP) probabilistic relabelling approach, to deal with label switching problem. We establish a model for the posterior distribution of allocation variables with label switching phenomenon. The AVP algorithm stochastically relabel the posterior samples according to the posterior probabilities of the established model. Some existing deterministic and other probabilistic algorithms are compared with AVP algorithm in simulation studies, and the success of the proposed approach is demonstrated in simulation studies and a real dataset. PMID:26458185

  11. Optimal dynamic water allocation: Irrigation extractions and environmental tradeoffs in the Murray River, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafton, R. Quentin; Chu, Hoang Long; Stewardson, Michael; Kompas, Tom

    2011-12-01

    A key challenge in managing semiarid basins, such as in the Murray-Darling in Australia, is to balance the trade-offs between the net benefits of allocating water for irrigated agriculture, and other uses, versus the costs of reduced surface flows for the environment. Typically, water planners do not have the tools to optimally and dynamically allocate water among competing uses. We address this problem by developing a general stochastic, dynamic programming model with four state variables (the drought status, the current weather, weather correlation, and current storage) and two controls (environmental release and irrigation allocation) to optimally allocate water between extractions and in situ uses. The model is calibrated to Australia's Murray River that generates: (1) a robust qualitative result that "pulse" or artificial flood events are an optimal way to deliver environmental flows over and above conveyance of base flows; (2) from 2001 to 2009 a water reallocation that would have given less to irrigated agriculture and more to environmental flows would have generated between half a billion and over 3 billion U.S. dollars in overall economic benefits; and (3) water markets increase optimal environmental releases by reducing the losses associated with reduced water diversions.

  12. Camera scheduling and energy allocation for lifetime maximization in user-centric visual sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Sharma, Gaurav

    2010-08-01

    We explore camera scheduling and energy allocation strategies for lifetime optimization in image sensor networks. For the application scenarios that we consider, visual coverage over a monitored region is obtained by deploying wireless, battery-powered image sensors. Each sensor camera provides coverage over a part of the monitored region and a central processor coordinates the sensors in order to gather required visual data. For the purpose of maximizing the network operational lifetime, we consider two problems in this setting: a) camera scheduling, i.e., the selection, among available possibilities, of a set of cameras providing the desired coverage at each time instance, and b) energy allocation, i.e., the distribution of total available energy between the camera sensor nodes. We model the network lifetime as a stochastic random variable that depends upon the coverage geometry for the sensors and the distribution of data requests over the monitored region, two key characteristics that distinguish our problem from other wireless sensor network applications. By suitably abstracting this model of network lifetime and utilizing asymptotic analysis, we propose lifetime-maximizing camera scheduling and energy allocation strategies. The effectiveness of the proposed camera scheduling and energy allocation strategies is validated by simulations. PMID:20350857

  13. Markov processes Stochastic analysis for additive functionals Geometry of rough spaces Stochastic analysis for Markov processes

    E-print Network

    Weber, Stefan

    Markov processes Stochastic analysis for additive functionals Geometry of rough spaces Stochastic analysis for Markov processes Michael Hinz Bielefeld University Colloquium Stochastic Analysis, Leibniz for Markov processes #12;Markov processes Stochastic analysis for additive functionals Geometry of rough

  14. Probing crunching AdS cosmologies

    E-print Network

    Kumar, S Prem

    2015-01-01

    Holographic gravity duals of deformations of CFTs formulated on de Sitter spacetime contain FRW geometries behind a horizon, with cosmological big crunch singularities. Using a specific analytically tractable solution within a particular single scalar truncation of N=8 supergravity on AdS_4, we first probe such crunching cosmologies with spacelike radial geodesics that compute spatially antipodal correlators of large dimension boundary operators. At late times, the geodesics lie on the FRW slice of maximal expansion behind the horizon. The late time two-point functions factorise, and when transformed to the Einstein static universe, they exhibit a temporal non-analyticity determined by the maximal value of the scale factor a_{max} . Radial geodesics connecting antipodal points necessarily have de Sitter energy E \\leq a_{max}, while geodesics with E > a_{max} terminate at the crunch, the two categories of geodesics being separated by the maximal expansion slice. The spacelike crunch singularity is curved "outw...

  15. Stochastic model for aerodynamic force dynamics on wind turbine blades in unsteady wind inflow

    E-print Network

    Luhur, Muhammad Ramzan; Khn, Martin; Wchter, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a stochastic approach to estimate the aerodynamic forces with local dynamics on wind turbine blades in unsteady wind inflow. This is done by integrating a stochastic model of lift and drag dynamics for an airfoil into the aerodynamic simulation software AeroDyn. The model is added as an alternative to the static table lookup approach in blade element momentum (BEM) wake model used by AeroDyn. The stochastic forces are obtained for a rotor blade element using full field turbulence simulated wind data input and compared with the classical BEM and dynamic stall models for identical conditions. The comparison shows that the stochastic model generates additional extended dynamic response in terms of local force fluctuations. Further, the comparison of statistics between the classical BEM, dynamic stall and stochastic models' results in terms of their increment probability density functions gives consistent results.

  16. Approximating Rainfall-Runoff Modelling Response Using a Stochastic Integral Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hromadka, T. V., II; Whitley, R. J.

    1996-07-01

    Rainfall-runoff modelling uncertainty can be analysed by the use of a stochastic integral formulation. The stochastic integral equation can be based on the rainfall-runoff model input of model rainfall or model rainfall excess. Similarly, the stochastic integral equation can be based on the rainfall-runoff model output of the modelled runoff hydrograph. The residual between actual measured runoff data and modelled runoff (from the rainfall-runoff model) is analysed here by the use of a stochastic integral equation. This approach is used to develop a set of convolution integral transfer function realizations that represent the chosen rainfall-runoff modelling error. The resulting stochastic integral component is a distribution of possible residual outcomes that may be directly added to the rainfall-runoff model's deterministic outcome, to develop a distribution of probable runoff hydrograph realizations from the chosen rainfall-runoff model.

  17. Switching of bound vector solitons for the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations with nonhomogenously stochastic perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Zhiyuan; Yu Xin; Liu Ying; Gao Yitian

    2012-12-15

    We investigate the dynamics of the bound vector solitons (BVSs) for the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations with the nonhomogenously stochastic perturbations added on their dispersion terms. Soliton switching (besides soliton breakup) can be observed between the two components of the BVSs. Rate of the maximum switched energy (absolute values) within the fixed propagation distance (about 10 periods of the BVSs) enhances in the sense of statistics when the amplitudes of stochastic perturbations increase. Additionally, it is revealed that the BVSs with enhanced coherence are more robust against the perturbations with nonhomogenous stochasticity. Diagram describing the approximate borders of the splitting and non-splitting areas is also given. Our results might be helpful in dynamics of the BVSs with stochastic noises in nonlinear optical fibers or with stochastic quantum fluctuations in Bose-Einstein condensates.

  18. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways 660.107 Allocations. On October 1 of each fiscal year, the FHWA...

  19. Acquisitions Allocations: Fairness, Equity and Bundled Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effect of an interdisciplinary Web-based citation database with full text, the ProQuest Research Library, on the Western State University library's acquisitions allocation plan. Used list price of full-text journals to calculate increases in acquisitions funding. A list of articles discussing formula allocation is appended.

  20. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... permit sanctions pursuant to 15 CFR part 904. If an ACE allocated to a sector is not exceeded in a given... CFR part 904, each sector, permit/vessel owner, and vessel operator participating in the sector may be... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sector allocation. 648.87 Section...

  1. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  2. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  3. Capacity Allocation with Competitive Retailers Masabumi Furuhata

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Dongmo

    competing interests. We present a formal model of allocation mechanisms for such settings that a supplier Copyright 2006 ACM 1-59593-392-1 ...$5.00. In many industries a market supplier often confronts member selection and auction [5, 12, 8]. In particu- lar, allocation mechanisms have been employed

  4. 45 CFR 304.15 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION 304.15 Cost allocation. A State agency in support of its claims under... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in Subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 304.15 Section 304.15...

  5. 45 CFR 304.15 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION 304.15 Cost allocation. A State agency in support of its claims under... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in Subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 304.15 Section 304.15...

  6. Boat Allocations, Football Inspections, Cargo Handling, and

    E-print Network

    Detection with Taxis 5 #12;Example I: Coast Guard Boat Allocation Problem We have worked with the US Coast data analysis tools Rutgers group touring Port of Philadelphia with Coast Guard Sector Delaware Bay 6 #12;Boat Allocation Module (BAM) The US Coast Guard has boat stations all around the country Each

  7. A Time Allocation Study of University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Albert N.; Swann, Christopher A.; Bozeman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Many previous time allocation studies treat work as a single activity and examine trade-offs between work and other activities. This paper investigates the at-work allocation of time among teaching, research, grant writing and service by science and engineering faculty at top US research universities. We focus on the relationship between tenure

  8. GUIDELINES FOR RESEARCH SPACE ALLOCATION AND MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    University School of Medicine. 2.2. Research is a dynamic process and research space needs expand;Guidelines for Research Space Allocation and Management Wayne State University School of Medicine Page 2 of 51 GUIDELINES FOR RESEARCH SPACE ALLOCATION AND MANAGEMENT July, 2001 1. Scope and Applicability

  9. UNIVERSITY SPACE POLICY ALLOCATION OF UNIVERSITY SPACE

    E-print Network

    UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN UNIVERSITY SPACE POLICY #12;ALLOCATION OF UNIVERSITY SPACE I Purpose To provide a methodology for the allocation of space across the University II Background Due to the university's success in attracting research funding, the need for space and facilities has grown

  10. Energy Uptake and Allocation During Ontogeny

    E-print Network

    Brown, James H.

    Energy Uptake and Allocation During Ontogeny Chen Hou,1 * Wenyun Zuo,2 Melanie E. Moses,3 William H predicts how growing animals allocate food energy between synthesis of new biomass and maintenance of existing biomass. Previous energy budget models have typically had their bases in rates of either food

  11. Equilibrium Participation in Public Goods Allocations 1

    E-print Network

    Equilibrium Participation in Public Goods Allocations 1 Paul J. Healy 2 Abstract An alternative planner. The set of allocations such that unanimous participation is a Nash equilibrium is shown to be sub allow a no-trade option. The resulting constraint, called equilibrium participation, requires

  12. Thematic Mapper data for forest resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeff, Ilene S.; Merry, Carolyn J.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for classifying a Landsat Thematic Mapper image was demonstrated on the Wayne National Forest of southeastern Ohio. The classified image was integrated into a geographic information system database, and prescriptive forest land use allocation models were developed using the techniques of cartographic modeling. Timber harvest sites and accompanying haul roads were allocated.

  13. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocations. 660.55 Section 660.55 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries 660.55 Allocations. (a) General. An...

  14. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 4010? N. lat. 75 25 Splitnose S. of 4010? N. lat... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is further subdivided among the... nonwhiting fishery. (B) Pacific Ocean Perch (POP). Allocate 17 percent or 30 mt, whichever is greater, of...

  15. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sablefish S. of 36 N. lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 4010? N. lat. 75 25... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation will be further subdivided among.... For darkblotched rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is...

  16. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sablefish S. of 36 N. lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 4010? N. lat. 75 25... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation will be further subdivided among.... For darkblotched rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is...

  17. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocations. 660.55 Section 660.55 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries 660.55 Allocations. (a) General. An...

  18. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing 600.517 Allocations. The...

  19. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  20. Thematic Mapper data for forest resource allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Zeff, I.S.; Merry, C.J. )

    1993-01-01

    A technique for classifying a Landsat Thematic Mapper image was demonstrated on the Wayne National Forest of southeastern Ohio. The classified image was integrated into a geographic information system database, and prescriptive forest land use allocation models were developed using the techniques of cartographic modeling. Timber harvest sites and accompanying haul roads were allocated. 16 refs.

  1. House Allocation With Fractional Endowments Stergios Athanassoglou

    E-print Network

    Sethuraman, Jay

    House Allocation With Fractional Endowments Stergios Athanassoglou Jay Sethuraman July 2009; revised January 2010 Abstract We study a generalization of the well known house allocation problem in which agents may own fractions of different houses summing to an arbitrary quantity, but have use

  2. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  3. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  4. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  5. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  6. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  7. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  8. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  9. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  10. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  11. 45 CFR 96.124 - Certain allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Certain allocations. 96.124 Section 96.124 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant 96.124 Certain allocations. (a) States are required to expend the Block Grant on various activities in...

  12. Ultimate open pit stochastic optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, Denis; Caron, Josiane

    2013-02-01

    Classical open pit optimization (maximum closure problem) is made on block estimates, without directly considering the block grades uncertainty. We propose an alternative approach of stochastic optimization. The stochastic optimization is taken as the optimal pit computed on the block expected profits, rather than expected grades, computed from a series of conditional simulations. The stochastic optimization generates, by construction, larger ore and waste tonnages than the classical optimization. Contrary to the classical approach, the stochastic optimization is conditionally unbiased for the realized profit given the predicted profit. A series of simulated deposits with different variograms are used to compare the stochastic approach, the classical approach and the simulated approach that maximizes expected profit among simulated designs. Profits obtained with the stochastic optimization are generally larger than the classical or simulated pit. The main factor controlling the relative gain of stochastic optimization compared to classical approach and simulated pit is shown to be the information level as measured by the boreholes spacing/range ratio. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the classical approach increase with the treatment costs but decrease with mining costs. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the simulated pit approach increase both with the treatment and mining costs. At early stages of an open pit project, when uncertainty is large, the stochastic optimization approach appears preferable to the classical approach or the simulated pit approach for fair comparison of the values of alternative projects and for the initial design and planning of the open pit.

  13. 47 CFR 64.903 - Cost allocation manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation manuals. 64.903 Section 64.903...MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs 64.903 Cost allocation manuals. (a) Each incumbent...

  14. 42 CFR 121.8 - Allocation of organs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Special rule for initial revision of liver allocation policies. When the OPTN transmits...the Secretary its initial revision of the liver allocation policies, as directed by...would have been treated had the revised liver allocation policies not become...

  15. 42 CFR 121.8 - Allocation of organs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Special rule for initial revision of liver allocation policies. When the OPTN transmits...the Secretary its initial revision of the liver allocation policies, as directed by...would have been treated had the revised liver allocation policies not become...

  16. 42 CFR 121.8 - Allocation of organs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Special rule for initial revision of liver allocation policies. When the OPTN transmits...the Secretary its initial revision of the liver allocation policies, as directed by...would have been treated had the revised liver allocation policies not become...

  17. 42 CFR 121.8 - Allocation of organs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Special rule for initial revision of liver allocation policies. When the OPTN transmits...the Secretary its initial revision of the liver allocation policies, as directed by...would have been treated had the revised liver allocation policies not become...

  18. 42 CFR 121.8 - Allocation of organs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Special rule for initial revision of liver allocation policies. When the OPTN transmits...the Secretary its initial revision of the liver allocation policies, as directed by...would have been treated had the revised liver allocation policies not become...

  19. A Participation Incentive Market Mechanism for Allocating Heterogeneous Network Services

    E-print Network

    Varela, Carlos

    A Participation Incentive Market Mechanism for Allocating Heterogeneous Network Services Juong-- This paper studies an auction based allocation of network resources for short-term contracts for heterogeneous network services. The combinatorial winner selection yields the optimal resources allocation

  20. Systematization of water allocation systems: an engineering approach

    E-print Network

    Santos Roman, Deborah Matilde

    2007-04-25

    The allocation of water resources is typically accomplished within the framework of water allocation systems (WAS). In general, a WAS sets priorities, applies rules, and organizes responses to a range of water allocation scenarios. This research...

  1. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... basis. 5.164Additional allocation: in Albania, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina....187Alternative allocation: in Albania, the band 81-87.5 MHz is allocated to the broadcasting service on a...

  2. Using genetic algorithm to solve a new multi-period stochastic optimization model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin-Li; Zhang, Ke-Cun

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents a new asset allocation model based on the CVaR risk measure and transaction costs. Institutional investors manage their strategic asset mix over time to achieve favorable returns subject to various uncertainties, policy and legal constraints, and other requirements. One may use a multi-period portfolio optimization model in order to determine an optimal asset mix. Recently, an alternative stochastic programming model with simulated paths was proposed by Hibiki [N. Hibiki, A hybrid simulation/tree multi-period stochastic programming model for optimal asset allocation, in: H. Takahashi, (Ed.) The Japanese Association of Financial Econometrics and Engineering, JAFFE Journal (2001) 89-119 (in Japanese); N. Hibiki A hybrid simulation/tree stochastic optimization model for dynamic asset allocation, in: B. Scherer (Ed.), Asset and Liability Management Tools: A Handbook for Best Practice, Risk Books, 2003, pp. 269-294], which was called a hybrid model. However, the transaction costs weren't considered in that paper. In this paper, we improve Hibiki's model in the following aspects: (1) The risk measure CVaR is introduced to control the wealth loss risk while maximizing the expected utility; (2) Typical market imperfections such as short sale constraints, proportional transaction costs are considered simultaneously. (3) Applying a genetic algorithm to solve the resulting model is discussed in detail. Numerical results show the suitability and feasibility of our methodology.

  3. Carbon allocation and accumulation in conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Gower, S.T.; Isebrands, J.G.; Sheriff, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Forests cover approximately 33% of the land surface of the earth, yet they are responsible for 65% of the annual carbon (C) accumulated by all terrestrial biomes. In general, total C content and net primary production rates are greater for forests than for other biomes, but C budgets differ greatly among forests. Despite several decades of research on forest C budgets, there is still an incomplete understanding of the factors controlling C allocation. Yet, if we are to understand how changing global events such as land use, climate change, atmospheric N deposition, ozone, and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} affect the global C budget, a mechanistic understanding of C assimilation, partitioning, and allocation is necessary. The objective of this chapter is to review the major factors that influence C allocation and accumulation in conifer trees and forests. In keeping with the theme of this book, we will focus primarily on evergreen conifers. However, even among evergreen conifers, leaf, canopy, and stand-level C and nutrient allocation patterns differ, often as a function of leaf development and longevity. The terminology related to C allocation literature is often inconsistent, confusing and inadequate for understanding and integrating past and current research. For example, terms often used synonymously to describe C flow or movement include translocation, transport, distribution, allocation, partitioning, apportionment, and biomass allocation. A common terminology is needed because different terms have different meanings to readers. In this paper we use C allocation, partitioning, and accumulation according to the definitions of Dickson and Isebrands (1993). Partitioning is the process of C flow into and among different chemical, storage, and transport pools. Allocation is the distribution of C to different plant parts within the plant (i.e., source to sink). Accumulation is the end product of the process of C allocation.

  4. STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ,M.BRENNAN,J.M.CAMERON,P.WEI,J.

    2003-05-12

    Emittance growth due to Intra-Beam Scattering significantly reduces the heavy ion luminosity lifetime in RHIC. Stochastic cooling of the stored beam could improve things considerably by counteracting IBS and preventing particles from escaping the rf bucket [1]. High frequency bunched-beam stochastic cooling is especially challenging but observations of Schottky signals in the 4-8 GHz band indicate that conditions are favorable in RHIC [2]. We report here on measurements of the longitudinal beam transfer function carried out with a pickup kicker pair on loan from FNAL TEVATRON. Results imply that for ions a coasting beam description is applicable and we outline some general features of a viable momentum cooling system for RHIC.

  5. Stochastic calcium oscillations.

    PubMed

    Keener, James P

    2006-03-01

    While the oscillatory release of calcium from intracellular stores is comprised of fundamentally stochastic events, most models of calcium oscillations are deterministic. As a result, the transition to calcium oscillations as parameters, such as IP(3) concentration, are changed is not described correctly. The fundamental difficulty is that whole-cell models of calcium dynamics are based on the assumptions that the calcium concentration is spatially homogeneous, and that there are a sufficiently large number of release sites per unit volume so that the law of large numbers is applicable. For situations where these underlying assumptions are not applicable, a new modelling approach is needed. In this paper, we present a model and its analysis of calcium dynamics that incorporates the fundamental stochasticity of release events. The model is based on the assumptions that release events are rapid, while reactivation is slow. The model presented here is comprised of two parts. In the first, a stochastic version of the fire-diffuse-fire model is studied in order to understand the spark-to-wave transition and the probability of sparks resulting in abortive waves versus whole-cell calcium release. In the second, this information about the spark-to-wave transition is incorporated into a stochastic model (a Chapman-Kolmogorov equation) that tracks the number of activated and inactivated calcium release sites as a function of time. By solving this model numerically, information about the timing of whole-cell calcium release is obtained. The results of this analysis show a transition to oscillations that agrees well with data and with Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:16517550

  6. Entropy of stochastic flows

    SciTech Connect

    Dorogovtsev, Andrei A

    2010-06-29

    For sets in a Hilbert space the concept of quadratic entropy is introduced. It is shown that this entropy is finite for the range of a stochastic flow of Brownian particles on R. This implies, in particular, the fact that the total time of the free travel in the Arratia flow of all particles that started from a bounded interval is finite. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  7. The stochastic piston problem

    PubMed Central

    Lin, G.; Su, C. H.; Karniadakis, G. E.

    2004-01-01

    We obtain analytical solutions for the perturbed shock paths induced by time-varying random motions of a piston moving inside an adiabatic tube of constant area. The variance of the shock location grows quadratically with time for early times and switches to linear growth for longer times. The analytical results are confirmed by stochastic numerical simulations, and deviations for large random piston motions are established. PMID:15514024

  8. Age and equity in liver transplantation: An organ allocation model.

    PubMed

    Cucchetti, Alessandro; Ross, Lainie Friedman; Thistlethwaite, J Richard; Vitale, Alessandro; Ravaioli, Matteo; Cescon, Matteo; Ercolani, Giorgio; Burra, Patrizia; Cillo, Umberto; Pinna, Antonio Daniele

    2015-10-01

    A moral liver allocation policy must be fair. We considered a 2-step, 2-principle allocation system called "age mapping." Its first principle, equal opportunity, ensures that candidates of all ages have an equal chance of getting an organ. Its second principle, prudential lifespan equity, allocates younger donor grafts to younger candidates and older donors to older candidates in order to increase the likelihood that all recipients achieve a "full lifespan." Data from 2476 candidates and 1371 consecutive adult liver transplantations (from 1999 to 2012) were used to determine whether age mapping can reduce the gap in years of life lost (YLL) between younger and older recipients. A parametric Weibull prognostic model was developed to estimate total life expectancy after transplantation using survival of the general population matched by sex and age as a reference. Life expectancy from birth was calculated by adding age at transplant and total life expectancy after transplantation. In multivariate analysis, recipient age, hepatitis C virus status, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score at transplant of >30, and donor age were significantly related to prognosis after surgery (P?allocation model, for various age groups were: recipients 18-47 years (n = 340) = 65.2 (3.3); 48-55 years (n = 387) = 72.7 (2.1); 56-61 years (n = 372) = 74.7 (1.7) and for recipients >61 years (n = 272) = 77.4 (1.4). The total number of YLL equaled 523 years. Redistributing liver grafts, using an age mapping algorithm, reduces the lifespan gap between younger and older candidates by 33% (from 12.3% to 8.3%) and achieves a 14% overall reduction of YLL (73 years) compared to baseline liver distribution. In conclusion, deliberately incorporating age into an allocation algorithm promotes fairness and increases efficiency. Liver Transpl 21:1241-1249, 2015. 2015 AASLD. PMID:26174971

  9. A retrodictive stochastic simulation algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, T.G. Drummond, P.D.; Drummond, A.J.

    2010-05-20

    In this paper we describe a simple method for inferring the initial states of systems evolving stochastically according to master equations, given knowledge of the final states. This is achieved through the use of a retrodictive stochastic simulation algorithm which complements the usual predictive stochastic simulation approach. We demonstrate the utility of this new algorithm by applying it to example problems, including the derivation of likely ancestral states of a gene sequence given a Markovian model of genetic mutation.

  10. Recently Added Antibodies

    Cancer.gov

    Reagents Data Portal AntibodiesNCI announces the release of monoclonal antipeptide antibodies from rabbit for distribution on the antibody portal. There are 60 recently added monoclonal antibodies, with 56 generated from mouse and 4 generated from rabbit. Print

  11. Ad Hoc Advisors

    Cancer.gov

    The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP) had an Ad Hoc Advisory Committee of expert scientists and community breast cancer advocates. This committee was chaired by Dr. Mimi C. Yu. The committee met annually or as needed.

  12. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  13. Stochastic dynamic programming models for water quality management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardwell, Hal; Ellis, Hugh

    1993-04-01

    This paper presents optimization models for waste load allocation from multiple point sources which include both parameter (Type II) and model (Type I) uncertainty. These optimization models employ more sophisticated water quality simulation models, for example, in the case of dissolved oxygen modeling, QUAL2E and WASP4, than is typically the norm in studies on the optimization of waste load allocation. Variability in selected input parameters to the water quality simulation models gives rise to stochastic dynamic programming approaches. Two types of reliability and feasibility attributes are highlighted, associated with the management options that are generated. Several dissolved oxygen simulation models are incorporated into the optimization procedures to explore the effects of Type I uncertainty on control decisions. Information from simultaneous consideration of multiple simulation models is aggregated in the dynamic programming framework through two regret-based formulations. By accommodating both model and parameter uncertainty in the modeling framework, trade-offs can be generated between the two so as to assess their influence on control decisions. The models are applied to a waste load allocation problem for the Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania.

  14. Stability analysis of multi-group deterministic and stochastic epidemic models with vaccination rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Gao, Rui-Mei; Fan, Xiao-Ming; Han, Qi-Xing

    2014-09-01

    We discuss in this paper a deterministic multi-group MSIR epidemic model with a vaccination rate, the basic reproduction number ?0, a key parameter in epidemiology, is a threshold which determines the persistence or extinction of the disease. By using Lyapunov function techniques, we show if ?0 is greater than 1 and the deterministic model obeys some conditions, then the disease will prevail, the infective persists and the endemic state is asymptotically stable in a feasible region. If ?0 is less than or equal to 1, then the infective disappear so the disease dies out. In addition, stochastic noises around the endemic equilibrium will be added to the deterministic MSIR model in order that the deterministic model is extended to a system of stochastic ordinary differential equations. In the stochastic version, we carry out a detailed analysis on the asymptotic behavior of the stochastic model. In addition, regarding the value of ?0, when the stochastic system obeys some conditions and ?0 is greater than 1, we deduce the stochastic system is stochastically asymptotically stable. Finally, the deterministic and stochastic model dynamics are illustrated through computer simulations.

  15. ESTRADA, FLEET, JEPSON: STOCHASTIC IMAGE DENOISING 1 Stochastic Image Denoising

    E-print Network

    Jepson, Allan D.

    ESTRADA, FLEET, JEPSON: STOCHASTIC IMAGE DENOISING 1 Stochastic Image Denoising Francisco Estrada1 http://www.cs.utoronto.ca/~strider David Fleet1 fleet@cs.utoronto.ca Allan Jepson2 jepson@cs.utoronto.ca 1 University of Toronto at Scarborough 1265 Military Road, M1C 1A4 Toronto, On. CANADA 2 University

  16. ESTRADA, FLEET, JEPSON: STOCHASTIC IMAGE DENOISING 1 Stochastic Image Denoising

    E-print Network

    Estrada, Francisco

    ESTRADA, FLEET, JEPSON: STOCHASTIC IMAGE DENOISING 1 Stochastic Image Denoising Francisco Estrada1 http://www.cs.utoronto.ca/~strider David Fleet1,2 fleet@cs.utoronto.ca Allan Jepson2 jepson@cs.utoronto.ca 1 University of Toronto at Scarborough 1265 Military Trail, M1C 1A4 Toronto, On. CANADA 2 University

  17. Hadronization at the AdS wall

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Nick; French, James; Threlfall, Ed; Jensen, Kristan

    2010-03-15

    We describe hadronization events, using the AdS/CFT Correspondence, which display many of the qualitative features expected in QCD. In particular we study the motion of strings with separating end points in a back-reacted hard wall geometry. The solutions show the development of a linear QCD-like string. The end points oscillate in the absence of string breaking. We introduce string breaking by hand and evolve the new state forward in time to observe the separation of two string segments. A kink associated with this breaking evolves to the end points of the string inducing rho meson production. We explicitly compute the rho meson production at the end point.

  18. Screening for predementia AD

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Leah C.; Wang, Cuiling; Katz, Mindy J.; Zimmerman, Molly E.; LItalien, Gilbert; Guo, Zhenchao; Berman, Robert M.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Data from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS) were used to prospectively evaluate the free recall score from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT-FR) and Logical Memory I immediate recall (LM-IR) subtest of the Wechsler Memory ScaleRevised for prediction of incident Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia among individuals from a community-based cohort with memory complaints. Methods: Analyses included 854 participants, age ?70 years, who initially had no dementia, and had memory complaints. Clinic evaluations were completed annually and AD dementia was diagnosed using standard criteria (n = 86 cases; average follow-up 4.1 years). Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the prognostic ability of FCSRT-FR and LM-IR for incident AD over various durations of follow-up. Results: For identifying those with memory complaints who will develop incident AD dementia over 24 years, the FCSRT-FR had better operating characteristics than LM-IR. APOE ?4 status, age, and education did not affect cut points; however, positive predictive values were higher among APOE ?4-positive individuals. Conclusions: For follow-up intervals of 24 years, the FCSRT-FR is more predictive than the LM-IR for identifying individuals with memory complaints who will develop incident AD. APOE ?4 status improves positive predictive value, but does not affect the choice of optimal cuts. PMID:23468542

  19. Control Allocation with Load Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodson, Marc; Frost, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the actuator deflections. The paper discusses the alternative choice of the l(infinity) norm, or sup norm. Minimization of the control effort translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection (min-max optimization). The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are also investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of load balancing, where the load is th desired command and the algorithm balances this load among various actuators. The solution using the l(infinity) norm also results in better robustness to failures and to lower sensitivity to nonlinearities in illustrative examples.

  20. Allocation Games: Addressing the Ill-Posed Nature of Allocation in Life-Cycle Inventories.

    PubMed

    Hanes, Rebecca J; Cruze, Nathan B; Goel, Prem K; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2015-07-01

    Allocation is required when a life cycle contains multi-functional processes. One approach to allocation is to partition the embodied resources in proportion to a criterion, such as product mass or cost. Many practitioners apply multiple partitioning criteria to avoid choosing one arbitrarily. However, life cycle results from different allocation methods frequently contradict each other, making it difficult or impossible for the practitioner to draw any meaningful conclusions from the study. Using the matrix notation for life-cycle inventory data, we show that an inventory that requires allocation leads to an ill-posed problem: an inventory based on allocation is one of an infinite number of inventories that are highly dependent upon allocation methods. This insight is applied to comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA), in which products with the same function but different life cycles are compared. Recently, there have been several studies that applied multiple allocation methods and found that different products were preferred under different methods. We develop the Comprehensive Allocation Investigation Strategy (CAIS) to examine any given inventory under all possible allocation decisions, enabling us to detect comparisons that are not robust to allocation, even when the comparison appears robust under conventional partitioning methods. While CAIS does not solve the ill-posed problem, it provides a systematic way to parametrize and examine the effects of partitioning allocation. The practical usefulness of this approach is demonstrated with two case studies. The first compares ethanol produced from corn stover hydrolysis, corn stover gasification, and corn grain fermentation. This comparison was not robust to allocation. The second case study compares 1,3-propanediol (PDO) produced from fossil fuels and from biomass, which was found to be a robust comparison. PMID:26061700

  1. Stochastic ontogenetic growth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, B. J.; West, D.

    2012-02-01

    An ontogenetic growth model (OGM) for a thermodynamically closed system is generalized to satisfy both the first and second law of thermodynamics. The hypothesized stochastic ontogenetic growth model (SOGM) is shown to entail the interspecies allometry relation by explicitly averaging the basal metabolic rate and the total body mass over the steady-state probability density for the total body mass (TBM). This is the first derivation of the interspecies metabolic allometric relation from a dynamical model and the asymptotic steady-state distribution of the TBM is fit to data and shown to be inverse power law.

  2. Adaptively Parallel Processor Allocation for Cilk Jobs

    E-print Network

    Sen, Siddhartha

    The problem of allocating processor resources fairly and efficiently to parallel jobs has been studied extensively in the past. Most of this work, however, assumes that the instantaneous parallelism of the jobs is known ...

  3. STORAGE CAPACITY ALLOCATION ALGORITHMS FOR HIERARCHICAL

    E-print Network

    Stavrakakis, Ioannis

    , Vassilios Zissimopoulos, Ioannis Stavrakakis Dep. of Informatics and Telecommunications, University: content distribution; web caching; storage allocation; heuristic algo- rithms. 1. INTRODUCTION This paper on demand distribution). The dimensioning of web caches and content distribution nodes has received a rather

  4. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees...

  5. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...55 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees...

  6. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees...

  7. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees...

  8. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees...

  9. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  10. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  11. Optimal dynamic bandwidth allocation for complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Liang, Man-Gui; Li, Qian; Guo, Dong-Chao

    2013-03-01

    Traffic capacity of one network strongly depends on the links bandwidth allocation strategy. In previous bandwidth allocation mechanisms, once one links bandwidth is allocated, it will be fixed throughout the overall traffic transmission process. However, the traffic load of every link changes from time to time. In this paper, with finite total bandwidth resource of the network, we propose to dynamically allocate the total bandwidth resource in which each links bandwidth is proportional to the queue length of the output buffer of the link per time step. With plenty of data packets in the network, the traffic handling ability of all links of the network achieves full utilization. The theoretical analysis and the extensive simulation results on complex networks are consistent. This work is valuable for network service providers to improve network performance or to do reasonable network design efficiently.

  12. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program 490.503...

  13. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program 490.503...

  14. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program 490.503...

  15. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program 490.503...

  16. Internal Markets for Supply Chain Capacity Allocation

    E-print Network

    McAdams, David

    2005-07-08

    This paper explores the possibility of solving supply chain capacity allocation problems using internal markets among employees of the same company. Unlike earlier forms of transfer pricing, IT now makes it easier for such ...

  17. 40 CFR 74.26 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...74.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources 74.26 Allocation formula. (a) The...

  18. Essays on innovation, productivity, and talent allocation

    E-print Network

    Shu, Pian

    2012-01-01

    This thesis contains three essays on innovation, productivity, and talent allocation. The first essay explores a novel channel through which short-term economic fluctuations affect the long-term innovative output of the ...

  19. METHODS OF ANALYSIS FOR WASTE LOAD ALLOCATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research has addressed several unresolved questions concerning the allocation of allowable waste loads among multiple wastewater dischargers within a water quality limited stream segment. First, the traditional assumptions about critical design conditions for waste load allo...

  20. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program 490.503...

  1. Decentralized task allocation for dynamic environments

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Luke B

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents an overview of the design process for creating greedy decentralized task allocation algorithms and outlines the main decisions that progressed the algorithm through three different forms. The first ...

  2. Asynchronous Decentralized Task Allocation for Dynamic Environments

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Luke B.

    This work builds on a decentralized task allocation algorithm for networked agents communicating through an asynchronous channel, by extending the Asynchronous Consensus-Based Bundle Algorithm (ACBBA) to account for more ...

  3. 15 CFR 923.92 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL...regional agencies, interstate entities, or Indian tribes, if the work to result from such...allocated to local governments. (2) Indian Tribes. Tribal participation in...

  4. 15 CFR 923.92 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL...regional agencies, interstate entities, or Indian tribes, if the work to result from such...allocated to local governments. (2) Indian Tribes. Tribal participation in...

  5. 15 CFR 923.92 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL...regional agencies, interstate entities, or Indian tribes, if the work to result from such...allocated to local governments. (2) Indian Tribes. Tribal participation in...

  6. 15 CFR 923.92 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL...regional agencies, interstate entities, or Indian tribes, if the work to result from such...allocated to local governments. (2) Indian Tribes. Tribal participation in...

  7. 15 CFR 923.92 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL...regional agencies, interstate entities, or Indian tribes, if the work to result from such...allocated to local governments. (2) Indian Tribes. Tribal participation in...

  8. 15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Allocation...administering that state's management program, if the state matches...according to the following ratios of Federal-to-state...

  9. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...amount to ensure the total potential catch, the stock-level ACL plus the carryover amount, does not exceed the stock overfishing limit. Any such reduction of carryover amount shall be done consistent with the APA. (D) Maximum ACE allocation....

  10. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 347.303... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of Allocated Transfer Risk Reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated...

  11. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  12. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  13. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  14. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Editorial...

  15. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  16. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  17. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  18. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 347.303... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of Allocated Transfer Risk Reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated...

  19. 50 CFR 648.70 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... allocation shall be divided by 32 to determine the appropriate number of cage tags to be issued or acquired... shall be rounded upward to the nearest whole number, so that allocations are specified in whole cages... and the allocation in bushels and cage tags for each species. An allocation permit is only valid...

  20. 26 CFR 1.460-5 - Cost allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Overview. This section prescribes methods of allocating costs to long-term contracts accounted for using... rules concerning consistency in method of allocating costs to long-term contracts. (b) Cost allocation... this section, a taxpayer must allocate costs to each long-term contract subject to the PCM in the...

  1. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33); and (e) A current copy of the Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33) as of the date of the allocation... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section...

  2. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33); and (e) A current copy of the Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33) as of the date of the allocation... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section...

  3. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33); and (e) A current copy of the Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33) as of the date of the allocation... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section...

  4. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part 217), which is part of the Federal Priorities and Allocations System; and (e) A current copy of the Energy Priorities and Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section...

  5. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part 217), which is part of the Federal Priorities and Allocations System; and (e) A current copy of the Energy Priorities and Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section...

  6. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part 217), which is part of the Federal Priorities and Allocations System; and (e) A current copy of the Energy Priorities and Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section...

  7. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Editorial...

  8. Strategic Behavior in a Decentralized Protocol for Allocating Indivisible Goods

    E-print Network

    Walsh, Toby

    Strategic Behavior in a Decentralized Protocol for Allocating Indivisible Goods Thomas Kalinowski for allocating a set of indivisible goods to multiple agents. Agents take turns to pick items according)? This is an example of a problem in allocating indivisible goods. A number of real world problems involve allocating

  9. Variance decomposition in stochastic simulators.

    PubMed

    Le Matre, O P; Knio, O M; Moraes, A

    2015-06-28

    This work aims at the development of a mathematical and computational approach that enables quantification of the inherent sources of stochasticity and of the corresponding sensitivities in stochastic simulations of chemical reaction networks. The approach is based on reformulating the system dynamics as being generated by independent standardized Poisson processes. This reformulation affords a straightforward identification of individual realizations for the stochastic dynamics of each reaction channel, and consequently a quantitative characterization of the inherent sources of stochasticity in the system. By relying on the Sobol-Hoeffding decomposition, the reformulation enables us to perform an orthogonal decomposition of the solution variance. Thus, by judiciously exploiting the inherent stochasticity of the system, one is able to quantify the variance-based sensitivities associated with individual reaction channels, as well as the importance of channel interactions. Implementation of the algorithms is illustrated in light of simulations of simplified systems, including the birth-death, Schlgl, and Michaelis-Menten models. PMID:26133418

  10. Value-Added Measures for Schools in England: Looking inside the "Black Box" of Complex Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony; Downey, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Value-added measures can be used to allocate funding to schools, to identify those institutions in need of special attention and to underpin government guidance on targets. In England, there has been a tendency to include in these measures an ever-greater number of contextualising variables and to develop ever-more complex models that encourage

  11. Stochastic power flow modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The stochastic nature of customer demand and equipment failure on large interconnected electric power networks has produced a keen interest in the accurate modeling and analysis of the effects of probabilistic behavior on steady state power system operation. The principle avenue of approach has been to obtain a solution to the steady state network flow equations which adhere both to Kirchhoff's Laws and probabilistic laws, using either combinatorial or functional approximation techniques. Clearly the need of the present is to develop sound techniques for producing meaningful data to serve as input. This research has addressed this end and serves to bridge the gap between electric demand modeling, equipment failure analysis, etc., and the area of algorithm development. Therefore, the scope of this work lies squarely on developing an efficient means of producing sensible input information in the form of probability distributions for the many types of solution algorithms that have been developed. Two major areas of development are described in detail: a decomposition of stochastic processes which gives hope of stationarity, ergodicity, and perhaps even normality; and a powerful surrogate probability approach using proportions of time which allows the calculation of joint events from one dimensional probability spaces.

  12. Estimating parameters in stochastic systems: A variational Bayesian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrettas, Michail D.; Cornford, Dan; Opper, Manfred

    2011-11-01

    This work is concerned with approximate inference in dynamical systems, from a variational Bayesian perspective. When modelling real world dynamical systems, stochastic differential equations appear as a natural choice, mainly because of their ability to model the noise of the system by adding a variation of some stochastic process to the deterministic dynamics. Hence, inference in such processes has drawn much attention. Here a new extended framework is derived that is based on a local polynomial approximation of a recently proposed variational Bayesian algorithm. The paper begins by showing that the new extension of this variational algorithm can be used for state estimation (smoothing) and converges to the original algorithm. However, the main focus is on estimating the (hyper-) parameters of these systems (i.e. drift parameters and diffusion coefficients). The new approach is validated on a range of different systems which vary in dimensionality and non-linearity. These are the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, the exact likelihood of which can be computed analytically, the univariate and highly non-linear, stochastic double well and the multivariate chaotic stochastic Lorenz 63 (3D model). As a special case the algorithm is also applied to the 40 dimensional stochastic Lorenz 96 system. In our investigation we compare this new approach with a variety of other well known methods, such as the hybrid Monte Carlo, dual unscented Kalman filter, full weak-constraint 4D-Var algorithm and analyse empirically their asymptotic behaviour as a function of observation density or length of time window increases. In particular we show that we are able to estimate parameters in both the drift (deterministic) and the diffusion (stochastic) part of the model evolution equations using our new methods.

  13. A stochastic multi-symplectic scheme for stochastic Maxwell equations with additive noise

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Jialin; Zhang, Liying

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we investigate a stochastic multi-symplectic method for stochastic Maxwell equations with additive noise. Based on the stochastic version of variational principle, we find a way to obtain the stochastic multi-symplectic structure of three-dimensional (3-D) stochastic Maxwell equations with additive noise. We propose a stochastic multi-symplectic scheme and show that it preserves the stochastic multi-symplectic conservation law and the local and global stochastic energy dissipative properties, which the equations themselves possess. Numerical experiments are performed to verify the numerical behaviors of the stochastic multi-symplectic scheme.

  14. Update on Cosmic Censorship Violation in AdS

    E-print Network

    Thomas Hertog; Gary T. Horowitz; Kengo Maeda

    2004-06-04

    We reexamine our proposed counterexample (gr-qc/0307102) to cosmic censorship in anti de Sitter (AdS) space, and find a gap in the construction. We mention some possible ways to close the gap, but at present the question of whether cosmic censorship is violated in AdS remains open.

  15. HUMANSCIENCES ADDING A TECHNOLOGICAL

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    IIT LEWIS COLLEGE OF HUMANSCIENCES ADDING A TECHNOLOGICAL FOCUS TO THE STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL with excellent problem-solving skills. In Assistant Professor Libby Hemphill's "Social Networks" course, playing SCIENCES, AND HUMANITIES. #12;CUSTOMIZED. Technology is playing an increasingly large role in shaping how

  16. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple

  17. Optimal allocation of conservation effort among subpopulations of a threatened species: how important is patch quality?

    PubMed

    Chauvenet, Alinor L M; Baxter, Peter W J; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Possingham, Hugh P

    2010-04-01

    Money is often a limiting factor in conservation, and attempting to conserve endangered species can be costly. Consequently, a framework for optimizing fiscally constrained conservation decisions for a single species is needed. In this paper we find the optimal budget allocation among isolated subpopulations of a threatened species to minimize local extinction probability. We solve the problem using stochastic dynamic programming, derive a useful and simple alternative guideline for allocating funds, and test its performance using forward simulation. The model considers subpopulations that persist in habitat patches of differing quality, which in our model is reflected in different relationships between money invested and extinction risk. We discover that, in most cases, subpopulations that are less efficient to manage should receive more money than those that are more efficient to manage, due to higher investment needed to reduce extinction risk. Our simple investment guideline performs almost as well as the exact optimal strategy. We illustrate our approach with a case study of the management of the Sumatran tiger, Panthera tigris sumatrae, in Kerinci Seblat National Park (KSNP), Indonesia. We find that different budgets should be allocated to the separate tiger subpopulations in KSNP. The subpopulation that is not at risk of extinction does not require any management investment. Based on the combination of risks of extinction and habitat quality, the optimal allocation for these particular tiger subpopulations is an unusual case: subpopulations that occur in higher-quality habitat (more efficient to manage) should receive more funds than the remaining subpopulation that is in lower-quality habitat. Because the yearly budget allocated to the KSNP for tiger conservation is small, to guarantee the persistence of all the subpopulations that are currently under threat we need to prioritize those that are easier to save. When allocating resources among subpopulations of a threatened species, the combined effects of differences in habitat quality, cost of action, and current subpopulation probability of extinction need to be integrated. We provide a useful guideline for allocating resources among isolated subpopulations of any threatened species. PMID:20437964

  18. Optimal fund assignment and allocation models for pipe repair maintenance in leaky water distribution networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Nguyen Luong; Fujiwara, Okitsugu; Luong, Huynh Trung

    2000-05-01

    In pipe repair maintenance operations for leaky water distribution networks in cities, it is usually the practice that whenever pipe leaks are detected, repair actions are undertaken until the funds assigned are exhausted. The allocation of limited repair funds to different pipe sections is normally done without careful quantitative analysis but according to an intuitive rule, whereby the section of the larger leak volume receives the larger share of funds. This paper proposes a new modeling approach to determine optimal repair fund allocation to different sections of a city. A basic periodic-review stochastic demand inventory model is first applied to ascertain the optimal funds to be assigned to a city under an assumption of no fund limitation. The model is then extended to determine the optimal allocation of the limited funds to different sections of a city. The models minimize the expected total system cost composed of repair cost, storage cost (of spare parts and materials), and penalty cost for water loss due to lack of funds. Numerical experiments are then conducted to illustrate the applicability of the proposed models, and the characteristics of the optimal solutions with regard to parameter variations are investigated. Data used in the numerical example are taken from actual data of the secondary network of Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam.

  19. Stochastic effect in grazing ion surface scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, M.; Kurose, T.; Inoue, N.; Hasegawa, T.; Matsuzawa, K.

    1992-04-01

    The energy distribution of scattered ions is determined by the trajectory and the stochastic effect. In this paper, we discuss the stochastic effect, which originates from the stochastic nature of electronic excitations, and derive a simple relation between the energy loss and the energy straggling associated with the stochastic effect (stochastic energy straggling). For the Firsov model of the inelastic energy loss, the stochastic energy straggling can be calculated directly from the magnitude of the energy loss. We also discuss the ratio of the stochastic to the trajectory energy straggling obtained from recent experiments.

  20. Criteria for Car Parking Allocation System Criteria for Car Parking Allocation System

    E-print Network

    Judd, Martin

    Criteria for Car Parking Allocation System Criteria for Car Parking Allocation System 2015-16 Criteria for Car Parking All #12;The issue and control of car parking permits is vested in Estates Services. The annual charges are incorporated in the application form. The car parking charges will be deducted from

  1. Stochastic Resonance: from climate to biology

    E-print Network

    Roberto Benzi

    2007-02-05

    In this paper I will review some basic aspects of the mechanism of stochastic resonance. Stochastic resonance was first introduced as a possible mechanism to explain long term climatic variation. Since then, there have been many applications of stochastic resonance in physical and biological systems. I will show that in complex system, stochastic resonance can substantially change as a function of the ``system complexity''. Also, I will briefly mention how to apply stochastic resonance for the case of Brownian motors.

  2. Stochastic Bose superfluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma?kowiak, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The ideas of Mitus et al. are exploited to define the liquid state as a state of matter, in which particles perform locally ordered motion. The presence of the liquid phase is accounted for by a stochastic term in the Hamiltonian, which simulates this property of a liquid. The Bogoliubov-Lee-Huang theory of He II, recently modified by use of effective temperature scale and more stringent reduction procedure (DHSET theory) is extended, by incorporating this term into the 4He Hamiltonian. The resulting thermodynamics accounts for effects, which are beyond the scope of other He I and He II theories, e.g., the atomic momentum distribution and excitation spectrum have the form of diffused bands, similarly as in He II; the He I, theoretical heat capacity CV(T) is a convex function, with a minimum at Tmin > T?, which qualitatively simulates experimental He I heat capacity. Other thermodynamic functions are similar to those of DHSET theory.

  3. Mixed Membership Stochastic Blockmodels

    PubMed Central

    Airoldi, Edoardo M.; Blei, David M.; Fienberg, Stephen E.; Xing, Eric P.

    2008-01-01

    Observations consisting of measurements on relationships for pairs of objects arise in many settings, such as protein interaction and gene regulatory networks, collections of author-recipient email, and social networks. Analyzing such data with probabilisic models can be delicate because the simple exchangeability assumptions underlying many boilerplate models no longer hold. In this paper, we describe a latent variable model of such data called the mixed membership stochastic blockmodel. This model extends blockmodels for relational data to ones which capture mixed membership latent relational structure, thus providing an object-specific low-dimensional representation. We develop a general variational inference algorithm for fast approximate posterior inference. We explore applications to social and protein interaction networks. PMID:21701698

  4. Stochastic reconstruction of sandstones

    PubMed

    Manwart; Torquato; Hilfer

    2000-07-01

    A simulated annealing algorithm is employed to generate a stochastic model for a Berea sandstone and a Fontainebleau sandstone, with each a prescribed two-point probability function, lineal-path function, and "pore size" distribution function, respectively. We find that the temperature decrease of the annealing has to be rather quick to yield isotropic and percolating configurations. A comparison of simple morphological quantities indicates good agreement between the reconstructions and the original sandstones. Also, the mean survival time of a random walker in the pore space is reproduced with good accuracy. However, a more detailed investigation by means of local porosity theory shows that there may be significant differences of the geometrical connectivity between the reconstructed and the experimental samples. PMID:11088546

  5. Stochastic partial differential equations driven by colored noise

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jingyu

    2015-05-31

    This dissertation studies some problems for stochastic partial differential equations, in particular, (nonlinear) stochastic heat and stochastic wave equations, driven by (multiplicative) colored Gaussian noises. These problems considered...

  6. Stochastic model for detection of signals in noise Stanley A. Klein* and Dennis M. Levi

    E-print Network

    Klein, Stanley

    years by the addition of multipass and classification-image methods for opening up the black boxStochastic model for detection of signals in noise Stanley A. Klein* and Dennis M. Levi School was the utility of adding external noise to the sig- nals of interest. These methods have been enhanced in recent

  7. PRISM-games: A Model Checker for Stochastic Multi-Player Games

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    PRISM-games: A Model Checker for Stochastic Multi-Player Games Taolue Chen1 , Vojtech Forejt1 of Oxford, UK 2 School of Computer Science, University of Birmingham, UK Abstract. We present PRISM checker PRISM, benefiting from its existing user interface and simulator, whilst adding novel model

  8. AN EFFICIENT STOCHASTIC DECOMPOSITION APPROACH FOR LARGE-SCALE SUBSURFACE FLOW

    E-print Network

    Lu, Zhiming

    . Such uncertainties add another dimension in probability space to the already large-scale subsurface problems. In this work, we develop an accurate yet efficient approach for solving flow and transport problems in large fluid flow and transport problems in a stochastic framework. The added dimension in probability space

  9. On deformations of AdS n S n supercosets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, B.; Roiban, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2014-06-01

    We study the deformed AdS 5 S 5 supercoset model of arXiv:1309.5850 which depends on one parameter ? and has classical quantum group symmetry. We confirm the conjecture that in the "maximal" deformation limit, ? ? ?, this model is T-dual to "flipped" double Wick rotation of the target space AdS 5 S 5, i.e. dS 5 H 5 space supported by an imaginary 5-form flux. In the imaginary deformation limit, ? ? i, the corresponding target space metric is of a pp-wave type and thus the resulting light-cone gauge S-matrix becomes relativistically invariant. Omitting non-unitary contributions of imaginary WZ terms, we find that this tree-level S-matrix is equivalent to that of the generalized sine-Gordon model representing the Pohlmeyer reduction of the undeformed AdS 5 S 5 superstring model. We also study in some detail similar deformations of the AdS 3 S 3 and AdS 2 S 2 supercosets. The bosonic part of the deformed AdS 3 S 3 model happens to be equivalent to the symmetric case of the sum of the Fateev integrable deformation of the SL(2) and SU(2) principal chiral models, while in the AdS 2 S 2 case the role of the Fateev model is played by the 2d "sausage" model. The ? = i limits are again directly related to the Pohlmeyer reductions of the corresponding AdS n S n supercosets: (2,2) super sine-Gordon model and its complex sine-Gordon analog. We also discuss possible deformations of AdS 3 S 3 with more than one parameter.

  10. Recently fixed carbon allocation in strawberry plants and concurrent inorganic nitrogen uptake through arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Tom, Elisabetta; Tagliavini, Massimo; Scandellari, Francesca

    2015-05-01

    Most crop species form a symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, receiving plant photosynthate and exchanging nutrients from the soil. The plant carbon (C) allocation to AM fungi and the nitrogen feedback are rarely studied together. In this study, a dual (13)CO2 and (15)NH4(15)NO3 pulse labeling experiment was carried out to determine the allocation of recent photosynthates to mycorrhizal hyphae and the translocation of N absorbed by hyphae to strawberry plants. Plants were grown in pots in which a 50 ?m mesh net allowed the physical separation of the mycorrhizal hyphae from the roots in one portion of the pot. An inorganic source of (15)N was added to the hyphal compartment at the same time of the (13)CO2 pulse labeling. One and seven days after pulse labeling, the plants were destructively harvested and the amount of the recently fixed carbon (C) and of the absorbed N was determined. (13)C allocated to belowground organs such as roots and mycorrhizal hyphae accounted for an average of 10%, with 4.3% allocated to mycorrhizal hyphae within the first 24h after the pulse labeling. Mycorrhizae absorbed labeled inorganic nitrogen, of which almost 23% was retained in the fungal mycelium. The N uptake was linearly correlated with the (13)C fixed by the plants suggesting a positive correlation between a plant photosynthetic rate and the hyphal absorption capacity. PMID:25841208

  11. Stochastic superparameterization in quasigeostrophic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Grooms, Ian; Majda, Andrew J.

    2014-08-15

    In this article we expand and develop the authors' recent proposed methodology for efficient stochastic superparameterization algorithms for geophysical turbulence. Geophysical turbulence is characterized by significant intermittent cascades of energy from the unresolved to the resolved scales resulting in complex patterns of waves, jets, and vortices. Conventional superparameterization simulates large scale dynamics on a coarse grid in a physical domain, and couples these dynamics to high-resolution simulations on periodic domains embedded in the coarse grid. Stochastic superparameterization replaces the nonlinear, deterministic eddy equations on periodic embedded domains by quasilinear stochastic approximations on formally infinite embedded domains. The result is a seamless algorithm which never uses a small scale grid and is far cheaper than conventional SP, but with significant success in difficult test problems. Various design choices in the algorithm are investigated in detail here, including decoupling the timescale of evolution on the embedded domains from the length of the time step used on the coarse grid, and sensitivity to certain assumed properties of the eddies (e.g. the shape of the assumed eddy energy spectrum). We present four closures based on stochastic superparameterization which elucidate the properties of the underlying framework: a null hypothesis stochastic closure that uncouples the eddies from the mean, a stochastic closure with nonlinearly coupled eddies and mean, a nonlinear deterministic closure, and a stochastic closure based on energy conservation. The different algorithms are compared and contrasted on a stringent test suite for quasigeostrophic turbulence involving two-layer dynamics on a ?-plane forced by an imposed background shear. The success of the algorithms developed here suggests that they may be fruitfully applied to more realistic situations. They are expected to be particularly useful in providing accurate and efficient stochastic parameterizations for use in ensemble-based state estimation and prediction.

  12. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    SciTech Connect

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  13. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  14. Criteria for fairly allocating scarce health-care resources to genetic tests: which matter most?

    PubMed Central

    Rogowski, Wolf H; Grosse, Scott D; Schmidtke, Jrg; Marckmann, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The use of genetic tests is expanding rapidly. Given limited health-care budgets throughout Europe and few national coverage decisions specifically for genetic tests, decisions about allocating scarce resources to genetic tests are frequently ad hoc and left to lower-level decision makers. This study assesses substantive ethical and economic criteria to prioritize genetic services in a reasonable and fair manner. Principles for allocating health-care resources can be classified into four categories: need-based allocation; maximizing total benefits; treating people equally; and promoting and rewarding social usefulness. In the face of scarcity, the degree of an individual's need for medical intervention is an important criterion. Also, different economic concepts of efficiency are of relevance in the theory and practice of prioritizing genetic tests. Equity concerns are most likely to be relevant in terms of avoiding undesirable inequities, which may also set boundaries to the use of efficiency as a prioritization criterion. The aim of promoting and rewarding social usefulness is unlikely to be relevant to the question of what priority a genetic test should have in clinical practice. Further work is needed to select an appropriate set of criteria; operationalize them; and assign weights before some kind of standardized priority information can be added to information sources for genetic services. Besides the substantive criteria, formal considerations like those pointed out in the framework of accountability for reasonableness need to be considered in decision making. PMID:23921536

  15. Dynamics of (SUSY) AdS Space Isometry Breaking

    E-print Network

    S. T. Love

    2006-11-17

    Actions governing the dynamics of the Nambu-Goldstone modes resulting from the spontaneous breaking of the SO(4,2) and $SU(2,2|1)$ isometries of five dimensional anti-de Sitter space ($AdS_{5}$) and SUSY $AdS_{5}\\times S_1$ spaces respectively due to a restriction of the motion to embedded four dimensional $AdS_{4}$ space and four dimensional Minkowski space ($M_4$) probe branes are presented. The dilatonic Nambu-Goldstone mode governing the motion of the $M_4$ space probe brane into the covolume of the SUSY $AdS_5\\times S_1$ space is found to be unstable. No such instablility appears in the other cases. Gauging these symmetries leads to an Einstein-Hilbert action containing, in addition to the gravitational vierbein, a massive Abelian vector field coupled to gravity.

  16. Three Dimensional Origin of AdS_2 Quantum Gravity

    E-print Network

    Alejandra Castro; Cynthia Keeler; Finn Larsen

    2010-04-05

    We study AdS_2 quantum gravity with emphasis on consistency with results from AdS_3. We lift AdS_2 black holes to three dimensions and map fluctuations around the solutions. Comparison with near extremal BTZ are discussed, with due emphasis on global aspects. The results confirm that parameters like central charges and conformal weights computed directly in 2D are consistent with standard results in 3D. Applying our results to the thermodynamics of near extreme Kerr black holes, we show that AdS_2 quantum gravity gives the correct central charge c=12J, and the entropy of excitations above the extremal limit is captured correctly.

  17. Price/Utility-based Optimized Resource Allocation in Wireless Ad hoc Networks

    E-print Network

    and Simin Nadjm-Tehrani Department of Computer and Information Science Link¨oping University [calcu to provide a wide range of services in which soft real-time (multimedia), and high priority critical data). Network resources such as bandwidth and power have to be dealt with in fundamentally different ways

  18. Comparative Study of Price-based Resource Allocation Algorithms for Ad Hoc Networks

    E-print Network

    ¨uthi, Simin Nadjm-Tehrani , Calin Curescu Department of Computer and Information Science Link¨oping University networks aim to provide a wide range of services in which soft real-time (multime- dia), and high priority and signalling overhead. While CPU utilisation and power are impor- tant resources to consider, here we focus

  19. Models of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almheiri, Ahmed; Polchinski, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    We develop models of 1+1 dimensional dilaton gravity describing flows to AdS2 from higher dimensional AdS and other spaces. We use these to study the effects of backreaction on holographic correlators. We show that this scales as a relevant effect at low energies, for compact transverse spaces. We also discuss effects of matter loops, as in the CGHS model.

  20. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions, a student

  1. Stochastic modeling to allocate and assess disaster response capacity in logistics networks

    E-print Network

    Seelbach, Lauren A

    2015-01-01

    When a disaster occurs in the United States, individuals in the impacted areas look to the local, state and federal government agencies to provide aid in the form of food, water, shelter, and other essential commodities. ...

  2. Stochastically Robust Static Resource Allocation for Energy Minimization with a Makespan Constraint

    E-print Network

    Maciejewski, Anthony A. "Tony"

    scale computing environment. Task execution times/energy consumption may vary significantly across complete by a system deadline is at least 90%. To minimize the energy consumption of a specific resource minimization of energy consumption. In this research, we propose three different heuristics that employ DVFS

  3. A Stochastic Collocation Algorithm for Uncertainty Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathelin, Lionel; Hussaini, M. Yousuff; Zang, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a stochastic collocation method to adequately handle a physically intrinsic uncertainty in the variables of a numerical simulation. For instance, while the standard Galerkin approach to Polynomial Chaos requires multi-dimensional summations over the stochastic basis functions, the stochastic collocation method enables to collapse those summations to a one-dimensional summation only. This report furnishes the essential algorithmic details of the new stochastic collocation method and provides as a numerical example the solution of the Riemann problem with the stochastic collocation method used for the discretization of the stochastic parameters.

  4. Hybrid approximation of stochastic process algebras for systems biology

    E-print Network

    Bortolussi, Luca

    of stochastic Concurrent Constraint Programming (sCCP), a stochastic programming methodology based on logic programming. Our technique automatically associates to a stochastic model an hybrid automaton, i. Keywords: Stochastic programming, Hybrid systems, Approximate analysis, Computer simulation, Biosystems 1

  5. Stochastic cooling in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

    2012-05-20

    The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

  6. Stochastic processes in gravitropism

    PubMed Central

    Meroz, Yasmine; Bastien, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    In this short review we focus on the role of noise in gravitropism of plants the reorientation of plants according to the direction of gravity. We briefly introduce the conventional picture of static gravisensing in cells specialized in sensing. This model hinges on the sedimentation of statoliths (high in density and mass relative to other organelles) to the lowest part of the sensing cell. We then present experimental observations that cannot currently be understood within this framework. Lastly we introduce some current alternative models and directions that attempt to incorporate and interpret these experimental observations, including: (i) dynamic sensing, where gravisensing is suggested to be enhanced by stochastic events due to thermal and mechanical noise. These events both effectively lower the threshold of response, and lead to small-distance sedimentation, allowing amplification, and integration of the signal. (ii) The role of the cytoskeleton in signal-to-noise modulation and (iii) in signal transduction. In closing, we discuss directions that seem to either not have been explored, or that are still poorly understood. PMID:25505482

  7. Interaction as stochastic noise

    E-print Network

    Roberto D'Agosta

    2015-01-16

    Interaction is so ubiquitous that imaging a world free from it is a difficult fantasy exercise. At the same time, in understanding any complex physical system, our ability of accounting for the mutual interaction of its constituents is often insufficient when not the restraining factor. Many strategies have been devised to control particle-particle interaction and explore the diverse regimes, from weak to strong interaction. Beautiful examples of these achievements are the experiments on Bose condensates, or the recent experiments on the dynamics of spin chains. Here I introduce another possibility, namely replacing the particle-particle interaction with an external stochastic field, and once again reducing the dynamics of a many-body system to the dynamics of single-particle systems. The theory is exact, in the sense that no approximations are introduced in decoupling the many-body system in its non-interacting sub-parts. Moreover, the equations of motion are linear, and no unknown external potential is inserted.

  8. Evaluation of non-cubic processor allocation in hybercubes

    E-print Network

    Shah, Kuntal

    1996-01-01

    the processors. Whereas, cubic and contiguous allocation of processors in Hypercube has been well studied, non-cubic and non-contiguous allocations have been largely neglected because of potential message-contention and larger number of hops between source...

  9. Essays on the real and financial allocation of capital

    E-print Network

    Ramrez Verdugo, Arturo

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three papers studying how firms allocate real and financial capital, and how taxes, the labor market and asymmetric information affect these allocation decisions. The first paper studies the ...

  10. 7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section 3430.311...ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Agriculture and Food Research Initiative 3430.311 Allocation of research funds. (a) Fundamental...

  11. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Directly allocable costs. 100.14 Section 100.14 Judicial... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS...1994 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is directly...

  12. SWORDTAIL MATE CHOICE AND REPRODUCTIVE ALLOCATION: EFFECTS OF MALE CONDITION

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Suzanne

    2011-04-26

    allocate differentially depending on the quality of their mate. We manipulated male diet to determine if females had a mate preference based on male chronic condition. Afterward, we dissected the females and measured their allocation using egg size and egg...

  13. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703... ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a)...

  14. 24 CFR 982.101 - Allocation of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of funding. 982.101 Section 982.101 Housing and...BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Funding and PHA Application for Funding 982.101 Allocation of funding....

  15. Sex allocation and population structure in apicomplexan (protozoa) parasites

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    Sex allocation and population structure in apicomplexan (protozoa) parasites Stuart A. West* , Todd allocation theory across parasitic protozoa in the phylum Apicomplexa. This cosmopolitan phylum consists attention, the population structure of parasitic protozoa species, and in particular estimates of sel

  16. 26 CFR 1.826-4 - Allocation of expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) 1.826-4 Allocation of expenses. An attorney-in-fact allocating...

  17. 26 CFR 1.826-4 - Allocation of expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) 1.826-4 Allocation of expenses. An attorney-in-fact allocating...

  18. 26 CFR 1.826-4 - Allocation of expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) 1.826-4 Allocation of expenses. An attorney-in-fact allocating...

  19. 26 CFR 1.826-4 - Allocation of expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) 1.826-4 Allocation of expenses. An attorney-in-fact allocating...

  20. 26 CFR 1.826-4 - Allocation of expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...other Than Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which Operate on Basis of Perpetual Policies Or Premium Deposits) 1.826-4 Allocation of expenses. An attorney-in-fact allocating...

  1. 45 CFR 1080.3 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Allocation of funds. 1080.3 Section...Continued) OFFICE OF COMMUNITY SERVICES, ADMINISTRATION...FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES EMERGENCY COMMUNITY SERVICES HOMELESS...3 Allocation of funds. From the...

  2. Recipient allocation preferences and organizational choices: a fit perspective

    E-print Network

    Gogus, Celile Itir

    2007-04-25

    The purpose of this dissertation is to understand how individualsâ?? preferences for resource allocation affect their attitudinal and behavioral responses towards the organization. Building on the three main allocation norms (equity norm...

  3. 45 CFR 402.34 - Allocation of unexpended funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STATE LEGALIZATION IMPACT ASSISTANCE GRANTS State Allocations 402.34 Allocation of...

  4. 45 CFR 402.34 - Allocation of unexpended funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STATE LEGALIZATION IMPACT ASSISTANCE GRANTS State Allocations 402.34 Allocation of...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section 1206.260 Mineral...Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to...

  6. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206.459 Mineral Resources...REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to...

  7. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section 1206.459 Mineral...Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to...

  8. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206.260 Mineral Resources...REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to...

  9. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the...

  10. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the...

  11. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the...

  12. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the...

  13. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the...

  14. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... secondary basis. (WRC-07) 5.164Additional allocation: in Albania, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and... fixed and mobile services is on a primary basis (see No. 5.33). 5.187Alternative allocation: in...

  15. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and land mobile services on a secondary basis. (WRC-07) 5.164Additional allocation: in Albania... fixed and mobile services is on a primary basis (see No. 5.33). 5.187Alternative allocation: in...

  16. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and land mobile services on a secondary basis. (WRC-07) 5.164Additional allocation: in Albania... fixed and mobile services is on a primary basis (see No. 5.33). 5.187Alternative allocation: in...

  17. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and land mobile services on a secondary basis. (WRC-07) 5.164Additional allocation: in Albania... fixed and mobile services is on a primary basis (see No. 5.33). 5.187Alternative allocation: in...

  18. THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY: OVERVIEW OF ALLOCATION FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development of temporal, spatial, and species allocation factors for the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) anthropogenic point and area source emissions inventories. These allocation factors are used to apportion annual emissions...

  19. 14 CFR 93.215 - Initial allocation of slots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports 93.215 Initial allocation of slots. (a) Each air carrier and commuter operator...

  20. 14 CFR 93.215 - Initial allocation of slots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports 93.215 Initial allocation of slots. (a) Each air carrier and commuter operator...

  1. 14 CFR 93.215 - Initial allocation of slots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports 93.215 Initial allocation of slots. (a) Each air carrier and commuter operator...

  2. 14 CFR 93.215 - Initial allocation of slots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports 93.215 Initial allocation of slots. (a) Each air carrier and commuter operator...

  3. 14 CFR 93.215 - Initial allocation of slots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR Operations at High Density Traffic Airports 93.215 Initial allocation of slots. (a) Each air carrier and commuter operator...

  4. An inexact mixed risk-aversion two-stage stochastic programming model for water resources management under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Wang, B; Xie, Y L; Huang, G H; Liu, L

    2015-02-01

    Uncertainties exist in the water resources system, while traditional two-stage stochastic programming is risk-neutral and compares the random variables (e.g., total benefit) to identify the best decisions. To deal with the risk issues, a risk-aversion inexact two-stage stochastic programming model is developed for water resources management under uncertainty. The model was a hybrid methodology of interval-parameter programming, conditional value-at-risk measure, and a general two-stage stochastic programming framework. The method extends on the traditional two-stage stochastic programming method by enabling uncertainties presented as probability density functions and discrete intervals to be effectively incorporated within the optimization framework. It could not only provide information on the benefits of the allocation plan to the decision makers but also measure the extreme expected loss on the second-stage penalty cost. The developed model was applied to a hypothetical case of water resources management. Results showed that that could help managers generate feasible and balanced risk-aversion allocation plans, and analyze the trade-offs between system stability and economy. PMID:25226833

  5. Constrained Ratio Approach to Allocating Instructional Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, William B.

    1975-01-01

    Principal budgetary approaches underlying the allocation of instructional resources to an institution of higher education to maintain its continuing programs are briefly considered from several standpoints, and an alternative approach is developed. The constrained ratio approach is conducive to innovation but maintains resource control. (LBH)

  6. Multiattribute Decision Making by Sequential Resource Allocation

    E-print Network

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Multiattribute Decision Making by Sequential Resource Allocation PETER A. MORRIS Applied Decision that the preference information revealed by the decision-maker's choices is exactly the information necessary to make with a single criterion. Individuals, corporations and govern- ments make daily decisions that involve different

  7. Masucci et al. Optimal Blockwise Subcarrier Allocation

    E-print Network

    Fijalkow, Inbar

    offset (CFO), we observe the robustness of the proposed blockwise allocation policy to the CFO effects], [7]. CFO is responsible for the loss of orthogonality among #12;Masucci et al. Page 2 of 23). In this work, we show that the SC-FDMA uplink systems without CFO and with imposed independent subcarriers

  8. CAPACITY ALLOCATION IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    Boucherie, Richard J.

    component of wireless network performance analysis with a gradual transition of the realistic `best server.4 CAPACITY ALLOCATION MECHANISMS 15 1.5 CONTRIBUTION AND APPROACHES 21 1.6 OVERVIEW OF THIS MONOGRAPH 24 215 6.4 MODEL 217 6.5 EVALUATION APPROACH 221 6.6 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 221 6.7 NUMERICAL RESULTS 234 6

  9. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... overages, jointly and severally for civil penalties and permit sanctions pursuant to 15 CFR part 904. If an... issued pursuant to paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Pursuant to 15 CFR part 904, each sector, permit... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sector allocation. 648.87 Section...

  10. Limits on linearity of missile allocation optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-12-01

    Optimizations of missile allocation based on linearized exchange equations produce accurate allocations, but the limits of validity of the linearization are not known. These limits are explored in the context of the upload of weapons by one side to initially small, equal forces of vulnerable and survivable weapons. The analysis compares analytic and numerical optimizations and stability induces based on aggregated interactions of the two missile forces, the first and second strikes they could deliver, and they resulting costs. This note discusses the costs and stability indices induced by unilateral uploading of weapons to an initially symmetrical low force configuration. These limits are quantified for forces with a few hundred missiles by comparing analytic and numerical optimizations of first strike costs. For forces of 100 vulnerable and 100 survivable missiles on each side, the analytic optimization agrees closely with the numerical solution. For 200 vulnerable and 200 survivable missiles on each side, the analytic optimization agrees with the induces to within about 10%, but disagrees with the allocation of the side with more weapons by about 50%. The disagreement comes from the interaction of the possession of more weapons with the shift of allocation from missiles to value that they induce.

  11. Book Review Sex Allocation. Stuart West.

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    - nomic groups (within plants and animals) and encompasses a diversity of issues that center on why empirical tests of Fisher's fundamental theoretical work. Chapters 35 focus on how cooperative and competitive interac- tions among relatives can favor biased sex allocation. These chapters review specific

  12. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation plan. 945.203 Section 945.203 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT DESIGNATED HOUSING-PUBLIC...

  13. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation plan. 945.203 Section 945.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT DESIGNATED HOUSING-PUBLIC...

  14. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... previous fiscal year, are metropolitan cities, urban counties, or consortia approved under 92.101;...

  15. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... previous fiscal year, are metropolitan cities, urban counties, or consortia approved under 92.101;...

  16. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... previous fiscal year, are metropolitan cities, urban counties, or consortia approved under 92.101;...

  17. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... previous fiscal year, are metropolitan cities, urban counties, or consortia approved under 92.101;...

  18. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... quantity thereunder, by written notice, at no cost to the Government. However, the Government shall not...

  19. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... quantity thereunder, by written notice, at no cost to the Government. However, the Government shall not...

  20. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... quantity thereunder, by written notice, at no cost to the Government. However, the Government shall not...

  1. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocations. 574.130 Section 574.130 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES...

  2. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... population data provided by the U.S. Census. The number of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome used... statistical areas with more than 500,000 population. Each qualifying city's allocation reflects its EMSA's... AIDS. The high incidence factor is computed by multiplying the population of the...

  3. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  4. PROCESS PER PROCESSOR ALLOCATION USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS

    E-print Network

    Cirstea, Horatiu

    PROCESS PER PROCESSOR ALLOCATION USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS PROF. NICOLAE TAPUS, HORATIU CIRSTEA Keywords: mapping problem, genetic algorithms This paper addresses an application of genetic algorithms be applied in real situations. To speed up the search we can use heuristics (genetic algorithms, simulated

  5. Power Allocation and Spectrum Sharing in Wireless

    E-print Network

    Teneketzis, Demosthenis

    , live audio and video broadcasting, email, Internet etc.), each with its own quality of service the resource allocation so as to maximize their own benefit. This poses a challenge to efficient resource and preferences, but also needs to take into account the users' strategic behavior. In recent years game theoretic

  6. RESOURCES ALLOCATION TO OPTIMIZE MINING POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive model for mine drainage simulation and optimization of resource allocation to control mine acid pollution in a watershed has been developed. The model is capable of: (a) Producing a time trace of acid load and flow from acid drainage sources as a function of clima...

  7. Conclusions Adding 3D sound

    E-print Network

    Conclusions Adding 3D sound did enhance the self-motion illusion, even though the visual illusion alone was already quite compelling We conclude that adding spatialized 3D-sound that moves concordantly the 3D-sound (9.9s vection onset time, which is quite low for a FOV of just 54x40.5). Merely adding

  8. Male rock sparrows differentially allocate nest defence but not food provisioning to offspring

    E-print Network

    Pilastro, Andrea

    Male rock sparrows differentially allocate nest defence but not food provisioning to offspring differential allocation based on a female ornament in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia), a monomorphic of male differential allocation in rock sparrows. Keywords: differential allocation hypothesis, parental

  9. 25 CFR 170.200 - How does BIA allocate IRR Program funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Reservation Roads Program Funding Tribal Transportation Allocation Methodology (ttam) 170.200 How does BIA allocate IRR Program...This section sets forth the Tribal Transportation Allocation Methodology (TTAM) that BIA uses to allocate IRR Program...

  10. 29 CFR 4211.31 - Allocation of unfunded vested benefits following the merger of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ALLOCATING UNFUNDED VESTED BENEFITS TO WITHDRAWING EMPLOYERS ...Allocation of unfunded vested benefits following the merger of plans...35 without PBGC approval; adoption of any other allocation method...the amount of unfunded vested benefits allocable to a...

  11. 29 CFR 4211.31 - Allocation of unfunded vested benefits following the merger of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ALLOCATING UNFUNDED VESTED BENEFITS TO WITHDRAWING EMPLOYERS ...Allocation of unfunded vested benefits following the merger of plans...35 without PBGC approval; adoption of any other allocation method...the amount of unfunded vested benefits allocable to a...

  12. 77 FR 43418 - Funding Opportunity Title: Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ...receives an allocation in this allocation round (or its Subsidiary transferee) may not...receives an allocation in this allocation round (or its Subsidiary transferee) at any...applications in which all required questions and tables are fully completed. Additional...

  13. Systemic risk in dynamical networks with stochastic failure criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, B.; Horvatic, D.; Bertella, M. A.; Feng, L.; Huang, X.; Li, B.

    2014-06-01

    Complex non-linear interactions between banks and assets we model by two time-dependent Erd?s-Renyi network models where each node, representing a bank, can invest either to a single asset (model I) or multiple assets (model II). We use a dynamical network approach to evaluate the collective financial failure systemic risk quantified by the fraction of active nodes. The systemic risk can be calculated over any future time period, divided into sub-periods, where within each sub-period banks may contiguously fail due to links to either i) assets or ii) other banks, controlled by two parameters, probability of internal failure p and threshold Th (solvency parameter). The systemic risk decreases with the average network degree faster when all assets are equally distributed across banks than if assets are randomly distributed. The more inactive banks each bank can sustain (smaller Th), the smaller the systemic risk for some Th values in I we report a discontinuity in systemic risk. When contiguous spreading becomes stochastic ii) controlled by probability p2 a condition for the bank to be solvent (active) is stochastic the systemic risk decreases with decreasing p2. We analyse the asset allocation for the U.S. banks.

  14. 7 CFR 1466.5 - National allocation and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false National allocation and management. 1466.5 Section... PROGRAM General Provisions 1466.5 National allocation and management. The Chief allocates EQIP funds to... adjustments to national priorities and information about resource concerns and program performance. The...

  15. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 211.43 Section... risk reserve. (a) Establishment of Allocated Transfer Risk Reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk reserve (ATRR) for specified international assets when required by...

  16. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 211.43 Section... risk reserve. (a) Establishment of Allocated Transfer Risk Reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk reserve (ATRR) for specified international assets when required by...

  17. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 211.43 Section... risk reserve. (a) Establishment of Allocated Transfer Risk Reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk reserve (ATRR) for specified international assets when required by...

  18. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to...

  19. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to...

  20. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to...

  1. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to...

  2. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred...allocations, based on the number of acres of sugarcane base being transferred and the pro...to allocation of the processor for the sugarcane base being transferred, will be...

  3. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred...allocations, based on the number of acres of sugarcane base being transferred and the pro...to allocation of the processor for the sugarcane base being transferred, will be...

  4. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred...allocations, based on the number of acres of sugarcane base being transferred and the pro...to allocation of the processor for the sugarcane base being transferred, will be...

  5. 47 CFR 64.901 - Allocation of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation of costs. 64.901 Section 64.901 Telecommunication...RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs 64.901 Allocation of costs. (a) Carriers required to separate their...

  6. Reward Allocation and Academic versus Social Orientation toward School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Peterson, James L.

    1978-01-01

    Correlates 138 elementary school children's views about the purposes of school to their styles of reward allocation: academically motivated students allocated rewards equally to two hypothetical performers who had unequally helped a teacher perform a manual chore, while socially motivated children allocated rewards in an equity (performance-based)

  7. Multilingual Acoustic Model Splitting and Merging by Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    E-print Network

    Model) Tri-phone Tri-phone State-Tying (LDA, Latent Dirichlet Allocation) (Intra-clustering Multilingual Acoustic Model Splitting and Merging by Latent Dirichlet Allocation Jui-Feng Yeh National Chiayi University s0990431@mail.ncyu.edu.tw (LDA, Latent Dirichlet Allocation) (LDA, Latent

  8. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to the...

  9. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  10. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  11. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  12. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  13. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  14. 40 CFR 45.145 - Allocability and allowability of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocability and allowability of costs. 45.145 Section 45.145 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRAINING ASSISTANCE 45.145 Allocability and allowability of costs. (a) Allocability and allowability of costs will be determined...

  15. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61 Section 1260.61 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of...

  16. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61 Section 1260.61 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of...

  17. Ecient Algorithms for Bu er Allocation James E. Schor

    E-print Network

    Gershwin, Stanley B.

    Ecient Algorithms for Bu#11;er Allocation by James E. Schor Bachelor of Science, University#11;er Allocation by James E. Schor Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer, Department of Mechanical Engineering #12; Ecient Algorithms for Bu#11;er Allocation by James E. Schor

  18. PETROLEUM ALLOCATION AT PETROBRAS: MATHEMATICAL MODEL AND A SOLUTION

    E-print Network

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    PETROLEUM ALLOCATION AT PETROBRAS: MATHEMATICAL MODEL AND A SOLUTION ALGORITHM Roger Rocha1 Petroleum Allocation is an important link for the integration of Petroleum Supply Chain at PETROBRAS. In this work we describe how mathematical programming is being used to solve the Petroleum Allocation Problem

  19. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  20. Report of the Task Force on Allocations Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Diana; And Others

    This task force report examines the University of Wyoming's current allocation practices, the allocations themselves, and the expenditure process according to how effectively they support the university library's collection development goals. Individual aspects of the current allocation process are reviewed, including the university budget

  1. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... United States of America and Mexico, the allocation of the band 415-435 kHz to the aeronautical..., Mexico, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay, the band 1850-2000 kHz is allocated to the fixed, mobile except..., Mexico, Peru and Uruguay, the band 3230-3400 kHz is also allocated to the radiolocation service on...

  2. TASK ALLOCATION METHODOLOGIES FOR MULTI-ROBOT SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Kansas, University of

    1 TASK ALLOCATION METHODOLOGIES FOR MULTI-ROBOT SYSTEMS Khashayar R. Baghaei Arvin Agah Technical The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 ABSTRACT One of most important aspects in the design of multi-robot systems is the allocation of tasks among the robots in a productive and efficient manner. Task allocation

  3. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section 28.52 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INTERNATIONAL BANKING... allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  4. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section 28.52 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INTERNATIONAL BANKING... allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  5. 10 CFR 217.2 - Priorities and allocations authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Priorities and allocations authority. 217.2 Section 217.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM General 217.2 Priorities and allocations authority. (a) Section 201 of E.O. 12919 (59 FR 29525) delegates the President's authority under section 101 of the Defense...

  6. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section...13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning...Administrator assigns weights to various performance...factors to be used and the weights to be assigned to each...changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants...

  7. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section...13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning...Administrator assigns weights to various performance...factors to be used and the weights to be assigned to each...changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants...

  8. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section...13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning...Administrator assigns weights to various performance...factors to be used and the weights to be assigned to each...changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants...

  9. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section...13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning...Administrator assigns weights to various performance...factors to be used and the weights to be assigned to each...changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants...

  10. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section...13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning...Administrator assigns weights to various performance...factors to be used and the weights to be assigned to each...changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants...

  11. 5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section... IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment 319.202 Allocation of positions. SL and ST positions may be established only under a...

  12. 5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section... IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment 319.202 Allocation of positions. SL and ST positions may be established only under a...

  13. 5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section... IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment 319.202 Allocation of positions. SL and ST positions may be established only under a...

  14. 5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section... IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment 319.202 Allocation of positions. SL and ST positions may be established only under a...

  15. 5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section... IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment 319.202 Allocation of positions. SL and ST positions may be established only under a...

  16. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  17. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  18. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  19. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  20. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  1. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  2. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  3. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  4. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  6. 7 CFR 1493.4 - Criteria for country allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for country allocations. 1493.4 Section 1493... Restrictions and Criteria for Export Credit Guarantee Programs 1493.4 Criteria for country allocations. The criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for country allocations under the GSM-102 or...

  7. 7 CFR 1493.4 - Criteria for country allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for country allocations. 1493.4 Section 1493... Restrictions and Criteria for Export Credit Guarantee Programs 1493.4 Criteria for country allocations. The criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for country allocations under the GSM-102 or...

  8. Quantum Techniques for Stochastic Mechanics

    E-print Network

    John C. Baez; Jacob Biamonte

    2015-10-22

    Some ideas from quantum theory are just beginning to percolate back to classical probability theory. For example, there is a widely used and successful theory of "chemical reaction networks", which describes the interactions of molecules in a stochastic rather than quantum way. Computer science and population biology use the same ideas under a different name: "stochastic Petri nets". But if we look at these theories from the perspective of quantum theory, they turn out to involve creation and annihilation operators, coherent states and other well-known ideas - but in a context where probabilities replace amplitudes. We explain this connection as part of a detailed analogy between quantum mechanics and stochastic mechanics. We use this analogy to present new proofs of two major results in the theory of chemical reaction networks: the deficiency zero theorem and the Anderson-Craciun-Kurtz theorem. We also study the overlap of quantum mechanics and stochastic mechanics, which involves Hamiltonians that can generate either unitary or stochastic time evolution. These Hamiltonians are called "Dirichlet forms", and they arise naturally from electrical circuits made only of resistors.

  9. Stochastic models: theory and simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Richard V., Jr.

    2008-03-01

    Many problems in applied science and engineering involve physical phenomena that behave randomly in time and/or space. Examples are diverse and include turbulent flow over an aircraft wing, Earth climatology, material microstructure, and the financial markets. Mathematical models for these random phenomena are referred to as stochastic processes and/or random fields, and Monte Carlo simulation is the only general-purpose tool for solving problems of this type. The use of Monte Carlo simulation requires methods and algorithms to generate samples of the appropriate stochastic model; these samples then become inputs and/or boundary conditions to established deterministic simulation codes. While numerous algorithms and tools currently exist to generate samples of simple random variables and vectors, no cohesive simulation tool yet exists for generating samples of stochastic processes and/or random fields. There are two objectives of this report. First, we provide some theoretical background on stochastic processes and random fields that can be used to model phenomena that are random in space and/or time. Second, we provide simple algorithms that can be used to generate independent samples of general stochastic models. The theory and simulation of random variables and vectors is also reviewed for completeness.

  10. ADS Development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Accelerator driven nuclear transmutation system has been pursued to have a clue to the solution of high-level radioactive waste management. The concept consists of super conducting linac, sub-critical reactor and the beam window. Reference model is set up to 800MW thermal power by using 1.5GeV proton beams with considerations multi-factors such as core criticality. Materials damage is simulated by high-energy particle transport codes and so on. Recent achievement on irradiation materials experiment is stated and the differences are pointed out if core burn-up is considered or not. Heat balance in tank-type ADS indicates the temperature conditions of steam generator, the beam widow and cladding materials. Lead-bismuth eutectics demonstration has been conducted. Corrosion depth rate was shown by experiments.

  11. The stochastic dance of early HIV infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Stephen J.

    2005-12-01

    The stochastic nature of early HIV infection is described in a series of models, each of which captures aspects of the dance of HIV during the early stages of infection. It is to this highly variable target that the immune response must respond. The adaptability of the various components of the immune response is an important aspect of the system's operation, as the nature of the pathogens that the response will be required to respond to and the order in which those responses must be made cannot be known beforehand. As HIV infection has direct influence over cells responsible for the immune response, the dance predicts that the immune response will be also in a variable state of readiness and capability for this task of adaptation. The description of the stochastic dance of HIV here will use the tools of stochastic models, and for the most part, simulation. The justification for this approach is that the early stages and the development of HIV diversity require that the model to be able to describe both individual sample path and patient-to-patient variability. In addition, as early viral dynamics are best described using branching processes, the explosive growth of these models both predicts high variability and rapid response of HIV to changes in system parameters.In this paper, a basic viral growth model based on a time dependent continuous-time branching process is used to describe the growth of HIV infected cells in the macrophage and lymphocyte populations. Immigration from the reservoir population is added to the basic model to describe the incubation time distribution. This distribution is deduced directly from the modeling assumptions and the model of viral growth. A system of two branching processes, one in the infected macrophage population and one in the infected lymphocyte population is used to provide a description of the relationship between the development of HIV diversity as it relates to tropism (host cell preference). The role of the immune response to HIV and HIV infected cells is used to describe the movement of the infection from a few infected macrophages to a disease of infected CD4+ T lymphocytes.

  12. Stochastic Control of Event-Driven Feedback in Multi-Antenna Interference Channels

    E-print Network

    Huang, Kaibin; Kim, Dongku

    2010-01-01

    Spatial interference avoidance is a simple and effective way of mitigating interference in multi-antenna wireless networks. The deployment of this technique requires channel-state information (CSI) feedback from each receiver to all interferers, resulting in substantial network overhead. To address this issue, this paper proposes the method of distributive feedback control that intelligently allocates feedback bits over multiple feedback links and adapts feedback to channel dynamics. For symmetric channel distributions, it is optimal for each receiver to equally allocate the average sum-feedback rate for different feedback links, thereby decoupling their control. For low mobility and using the criterion of minimum sum-interference power, the optimal feedback-control policy is shown using stochastic optimization theory to exhibit opportunism. Specifically, a specific feedback link is turned on only when the corresponding transmit-CSI error is significant or interference-channel gain is large, and the optimal n...

  13. Adaptive control for semilinear stochastic systems

    E-print Network

    Duncan, Tyrone E.; Maslowski, Bozenna J.; Pasik-Duncan, B.

    2000-01-01

    An adaptive, ergodic cost stochastic control problem for a partially known, semilinear, stochastic system in an infinite dimensional space is formulated and solved. The solutions of the Hamilton--Jacobi--Bellman equations for the discounted cost...

  14. Supergravity at the boundary of AdS supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Amsel, Aaron J.; Compere, Geoffrey

    2009-04-15

    We give a general analysis of AdS boundary conditions for spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fields and investigate boundary conditions preserving supersymmetry for a graviton multiplet in AdS{sub 4}. Linear Rarita-Schwinger fields in AdS{sub d} are shown to admit mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions when their mass is in the range 0{<=}|m|<1/2l{sub AdS}. We also demonstrate that mixed boundary conditions are allowed for larger masses when the inner product is 'renormalized' accordingly with the action. We then use the results obtained for |m|=1/l{sub AdS} to explore supersymmetric boundary conditions for N=1 AdS{sub 4} supergravity in which the metric and Rarita-Schwinger fields are fluctuating at the boundary. We classify boundary conditions that preserve boundary supersymmetry or superconformal symmetry. Under the AdS/CFT dictionary, Neumann boundary conditions in d=4 supergravity correspond to gauging the superconformal group of the three-dimensional CFT describing M2-branes, while N=1 supersymmetric mixed boundary conditions couple the CFT to N=1 superconformal topologically massive gravity.

  15. Large rotating AdS black holes from fluid mechanics

    E-print Network

    Sayantani Bhattacharyya; Subhaneil Lahiri; R. Loganayagam; Shiraz Minwalla

    2008-07-25

    We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to argue that large rotating black holes in global AdS(D) spaces are dual to stationary solutions of the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations on S**(D-2). Reading off the equation of state of this fluid from the thermodynamics of non-rotating black holes, we proceed to construct the nonlinear spinning solutions of fluid mechanics that are dual to rotating black holes. In all known examples, the thermodynamics and the local stress tensor of our solutions are in precise agreement with the thermodynamics and boundary stress tensor of the spinning black holes. Our fluid dynamical description applies to large non-extremal black holes as well as a class of large non-supersymmetric extremal black holes, but is never valid for supersymmetric black holes. Our results yield predictions for the thermodynamics of all large black holes in all theories of gravity on AdS spaces, for example, string theory on AdS(5) x S**5 and M theory on AdS(4) x S**7 and AdS(7) x S**4.

  16. The Hamiltonian Mechanics of Stochastic Acceleration

    E-print Network

    J. W. Burby; A. I. Zhmoginov; H. Qin

    2013-12-13

    We show how to find the physical Langevin equation describing the trajectories of particles undergoing collisionless stochastic acceleration. These stochastic differential equations retain not only one-, but two-particle statistics, and inherit the Hamiltonian nature of the underlying microscopic equations. This opens the door to using stochastic variational integrators to perform simulations of stochastic interactions such as Fermi acceleration. We illustrate the theory by applying it to two example problems.

  17. Stochastic differential equations, their interpretation and application.

    PubMed

    Mohapl, J

    1991-01-01

    The work is recommended to readers with some, maybe heuristic, imagine about stochastic processes that want to meet the notion stochastic differential equation and its interpretation. The notions like Brownian motion and stochastic integral with interpretations in concrete situations in areas of biology and medicine are discussed. The questions are related to mathematical modelling and they may be interpreted in connection with stochastic signal filtering and optimal queuing theory. PMID:1837669

  18. Transport in a stochastic magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.B.; Wu, Yanlin; Rax, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    Collisional heat transport in a stochastic magnetic field configuration is investigated. Well above stochastic threshold, a numerical solution of a Chirikov-Taylor model shows a short-time nonlocal regime, but at large time the Rechester-Rosenbluth effective diffusion is confirmed. Near stochastic threshold, subdiffusive behavior is observed for short mean free paths. The nature of this subdiffusive behavior is understood in terms of the spectrum of islands in the stochastic sea.

  19. The Hamiltonian Mechanics of Stochastic Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Burby, J. W.

    2013-07-17

    We show how to nd the physical Langevin equation describing the trajectories of particles un- dergoing collisionless stochastic acceleration. These stochastic di erential equations retain not only one-, but two-particle statistics, and inherit the Hamiltonian nature of the underlying microscopic equations. This opens the door to using stochastic variational integrators to perform simulations of stochastic interactions such as Fermi acceleration. We illustrate the theory by applying it to two example problems.

  20. Stochastic determination of matrix determinants

    E-print Network

    Dorn, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Matrix determinants play an important role in data analysis, in particular when Gaussian processes are involved. Due to currently exploding data volumes linear operations - matrices - acting on the data are often not accessible directly, but are only represented indirectly in form of a computer routine. Such a routine implements the transformation a data vector undergoes under matrix multiplication. Meanwhile efficient probing routines to estimate a matrix's diagonal or trace, based solely on such computationally affordable matrix-vector multiplications, are well known and frequently used in signal inference, a stochastic estimate for its determinant is still lacking. In this work a probing method for the logarithm of a determinant of a linear operator is introduced. This method rests upon a reformulation of the log-determinant by an integral representation and the transformation of the involved terms into stochastic expressions. This stochastic determinant determination enables large-size applications in Bay...

  1. Stochastic determination of matrix determinants.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Sebastian; Ensslin, Torsten A

    2015-07-01

    Matrix determinants play an important role in data analysis, in particular when Gaussian processes are involved. Due to currently exploding data volumes, linear operations-matrices-acting on the data are often not accessible directly but are only represented indirectly in form of a computer routine. Such a routine implements the transformation a data vector undergoes under matrix multiplication. While efficient probing routines to estimate a matrix's diagonal or trace, based solely on such computationally affordable matrix-vector multiplications, are well known and frequently used in signal inference, there is no stochastic estimate for its determinant. We introduce a probing method for the logarithm of a determinant of a linear operator. Our method rests upon a reformulation of the log-determinant by an integral representation and the transformation of the involved terms into stochastic expressions. This stochastic determinant determination enables large-size applications in Bayesian inference, in particular evidence calculations, model comparison, and posterior determination. PMID:26274302

  2. Stochastic determination of matrix determinants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Sebastian; Enlin, Torsten A.

    2015-07-01

    Matrix determinants play an important role in data analysis, in particular when Gaussian processes are involved. Due to currently exploding data volumes, linear operationsmatricesacting on the data are often not accessible directly but are only represented indirectly in form of a computer routine. Such a routine implements the transformation a data vector undergoes under matrix multiplication. While efficient probing routines to estimate a matrix's diagonal or trace, based solely on such computationally affordable matrix-vector multiplications, are well known and frequently used in signal inference, there is no stochastic estimate for its determinant. We introduce a probing method for the logarithm of a determinant of a linear operator. Our method rests upon a reformulation of the log-determinant by an integral representation and the transformation of the involved terms into stochastic expressions. This stochastic determinant determination enables large-size applications in Bayesian inference, in particular evidence calculations, model comparison, and posterior determination.

  3. A Framework for Incorporating General Domain Knowledge into Latent Dirichlet Allocation using First-Order Logic

    SciTech Connect

    Andrzejewski, D; Zhu, X; Craven, M; Recht, B

    2011-01-18

    Topic models have been used successfully for a variety of problems, often in the form of application-specific extensions of the basic Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model. Because deriving these new models in order to encode domain knowledge can be difficult and time-consuming, we propose the Fold-all model, which allows the user to specify general domain knowledge in First-Order Logic (FOL). However, combining topic modeling with FOL can result in inference problems beyond the capabilities of existing techniques. We have therefore developed a scalable inference technique using stochastic gradient descent which may also be useful to the Markov Logic Network (MLN) research community. Experiments demonstrate the expressive power of Fold-all, as well as the scalability of our proposed inference method.

  4. Finite-time stabilization for a class of stochastic nonlinear systems via output feedback.

    PubMed

    Zha, Wenting; Zhai, Junyong; Fei, Shumin; Wang, Yunji

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the problem of global finite-time stabilization in probability for a class of stochastic nonlinear systems. The drift and diffusion terms satisfy lower-triangular or upper-triangular homogeneous growth conditions. By adding one power integrator technique, an output feedback controller is first designed for the nominal system without perturbing nonlinearities. Based on homogeneous domination approach and stochastic finite-time stability theorem, it is proved that the solution of the closed-loop system will converge to the origin in finite time and stay at the origin thereafter with probability one. Two simulation examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design procedure. PMID:24530195

  5. ORF 527 Syllabus Spring 2011 Stochastic Calculus

    E-print Network

    van Handel, Ramon

    ORF 527 Syllabus Spring 2011 Stochastic Calculus Description. This course is an introduction to stochastic calculus based on Brownian mo- tion. Topics include: construction of Brownian motion; martingales in continuous time; the It^o integral; localization; It^o calculus; stochastic differential equations; Girsanov

  6. Stochastic force in gravitational systems

    E-print Network

    A. Del Popolo

    2001-05-10

    In this paper I study the probability distribution of the gravitational force in gravitational systems through numerical experiments. I show that Kandrup's (1980) and Antonuccio-Delogu & Atrio-Barandela's (1992) theories describe correctly the stochastic force probability distribution respectively in inhomogeneous and clustered systems. I find equations for the probability distribution of stochastic forces in finite systems, both homogeneous and clustered, which I use to compare the theoretical predictions with Montecarlo simulations of spherically symmetric systems. The agreement between theoretical predictions and simulations proves to be quite satisfactory.

  7. QB1 - Stochastic Gene Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Munsky, Brian

    2012-07-23

    Summaries of this presentation are: (1) Stochastic fluctuations or 'noise' is present in the cell - Random motion and competition between reactants, Low copy, quantization of reactants, Upstream processes; (2) Fluctuations may be very important - Cell-to-cell variability, Cell fate decisions (switches), Signal amplification or damping, stochastic resonances; and (3) Some tools are available to mode these - Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (SSA and variants), Moment approximation methods, Finite State Projection. We will see how modeling these reactions can tell us more about the underlying processes of gene regulation.

  8. Stochastic Optimization of Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Birge, John R.

    2014-03-20

    This project focused on methodologies for the solution of stochastic optimization problems based on relaxation and penalty methods, Monte Carlo simulation, parallel processing, and inverse optimization. The main results of the project were the development of a convergent method for the solution of models that include expectation constraints as in equilibrium models, improvement of Monte Carlo convergence through the use of a new method of sample batch optimization, the development of new parallel processing methods for stochastic unit commitment models, and the development of improved methods in combination with parallel processing for incorporating automatic differentiation methods into optimization.

  9. Comments on optical stochastic cooling

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng, S.Y. Lee and Y.K. Zhang

    2002-10-08

    An important necessary condition for transverse phase space damping in the optical stochastic cooling with transit-time method is derived. The longitudinal and transverse damping dynamics for the optical stochastic cooling is studied. The authors also obtain an optimal laser focusing condition for laser-beam interaction in the correction undulator. The amplification factor and the output peak power of the laser amplifier are found to differ substantially from earlier publications. The required power is large for hadron colliders at very high energy.

  10. Logarithmic AdS Waves and Zwei-Dreibein Gravity

    E-print Network

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Merbis, Wout; Rosseel, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We show that the parameter space of Zwei-Dreibein Gravity (ZDG) in AdS3 exhibits critical points, where massive graviton modes coincide with pure gauge modes and new `logarithmic' modes appear, similar to what happens in New Massive Gravity. The existence of critical points is shown both at the linearized level, as well as by finding AdS wave solutions of the full non-linear theory, that behave as logarithmic modes towards the AdS boundary. In order to find these solutions explicitly, we give a reformulation of ZDG in terms of a single Dreibein, that involves an infinite number of derivatives. At the critical points, ZDG can be conjectured to be dual to a logarithmic conformal field theory with zero central charges, characterized by new anomalies whose conjectured values are calculated.

  11. Constrained supermanifolds for AdS M-theory backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fr, Pietro; Grassi, Pietro Antonio

    2008-01-01

    A long standing problem is the supergauge completion of AdS4 ({Script G/H})7 or AdS5 ({Script G/H})5 backgrounds which preserve less then maximal supersymmetry. In parallel with the supersolvable realization of the AdS4 Bbb S7 background based on ?-symmetry, we develop a technique which amounts to solving the above-mentioned problem in a way useful for pure spinor quantization for supermembranes and superstrings. Instead of gauge fixing some of the superspace coordinates using ?-symmetry, we impose an additional constraint on them reproducing the simplifications of the supersolvable representations. The constraints are quadratic, homogeneous, Sp(4,Bbb R)-covariant, and consistent from the quantum point of view in the pure spinor approach. Here we provide the geometrical solution which, in a subsequent work, will be applied to the membrane and the superstring sigma models.

  12. AN ECONOMICS-BASED POWER-AWARE PROTOCOL FOR COMPUTATION DISTRIBUTION IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    Shang, Li

    -hoc wireless networks, mobile computation devices are usually battery-powered. A limited energy budget that expend all their energy can only be recharged when they leave the network. Therefore, it is beneficial as an energy resource allocation mechanism for ad-hoc mobile networks. The rest of this paper is organized

  13. AdS black holes as reflecting cavities

    E-print Network

    Irene Amado; Carlos Hoyos-Badajoz

    2008-07-23

    We use the identification between null singularities of correlators in the bulk with time singularities in the boundary correlators to study the analytic structure of time-dependent thermal Green functions using the eikonal approximation for classical solutions in the AdS black hole background. We show that the location of singularities in complex time can be understood in terms of null rays bouncing on the boundaries and singularities of the eternal black hole, giving the picture of a `reflecting cavity'. We can then extract the general analytic expression for the asymptotic values of the frequencies of quasinormal modes in large AdS black holes.

  14. Simple variables for AdS5 S5 superspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Hidehiko

    2015-11-01

    We introduce simple variables for describing the AdS5 S5 superspace, i.e.PSU (2,2|4)/SO(4,1) SO (5). The idea is to embed the coset superspace into a space described by variables which are in linear (ray) representations of the supergroup PSU (2 , 2 | 4) by imposing certain supersymmetric quadratic constraints (up to two overall U(1) factors). The construction can be considered as a supersymmetric generalisation of the elementary realisations of the AdS5 and the S5 spaces by the SO(4,2) and SO(6) invariant quadratic constraints on two six-dimensional flat spaces.

  15. EDITORIAL: Stochasticity in fusion plasmas Stochasticity in fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterberg, Bernhard

    2010-03-01

    Structure formation and transport in stochastic plasmas is a topic of growing importance in many fields of plasma physics from astrophysics to fusion research. In particular, the possibility to control transport in the boundary of confined fusion plasmas by resonant magnetic perturbations has been investigated extensively during recent years. A major research achievement was finding that the intense transient particle and heat fluxes associated with edge localized modes (here type-I ELMs) in magnetically confined fusion plasmas can be mitigated or even suppressed by resonant magnetic perturbation fields. This observation opened up a possible scheme to avoid too large erosion and material damage by such transients in future fusion devices such as ITER. However, it is widely recognized that a more basic understanding is needed to extrapolate the results obtained in present experiments to future fusion devices. The 4th workshop on Stochasticity in Fusion Plasmas was held in Jlich, Germany, from 2 to 4 March 2009. This series of workshops aims at gathering fusion experts from various plasma configurations such as tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches to exchange knowledge on structure formation and transport in stochastic fusion plasmas. The workshops have attracted colleagues from both experiment and theory and stimulated fruitful discussions about the basics of stochastic fusion plasmas. Important papers from the first three workshops in 2003, 2005 and 2007 have been published in previous special issues of Nuclear Fusion (stacks.iop.org/NF/44/i=6, stacks.iop.org/NF/46/i=4 and stacks.iop.org/NF/48/i=2). This special issue comprises contributions presented at the 4th SFP workshop, dealing with the main subjects such as formation of stochastic magnetic layers, energy and particle transport in stochastic magnetic fields, plasma response to external, non-axis-symmetric perturbations and last but not least application of resonant magnetic perturbations for ELM control and implications for ITER. The next workshop is planned for February/March 2011 in Jlich. For details see http://www.fz-juelich.de/sfp/. We hope that this special issue of Nuclear Fusion will further stimulate interest in the fascinating and important subject of stochasticity in fusion plasmas.

  16. Per aspirin ad astra...

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Taking the 110th anniversary of marketing of aspirin as starting point, the almost scary toxicological profile of aspirin is contrasted with its actual use experience. The author concludes that we are lucky that, in 1899, there was no regulatory toxicology. Adding, for the purpose of this article, a fourth R to the Three Rs, i.e. Realism, three reality-checks are carried out. The first one comes to the conclusion that the tools of toxicology are hardly adequate for the challenges ahead. The second one concludes that, specifically, the implementation of the EU REACH system is not feasible with these tools, mainly with regard to throughput. The third one challenges the belief that classical alternative methods, i.e. replacing animal test-based tools one by one, is actually leading to a new toxicology - it appears to change only patches of the patchwork, but not to overcome any inherent limitations other than ethical ones. The perspective lies in the Toxicology for the 21st Century initiatives, which aim to create a new approach from the scratch, by an evidence-based toxicology and a global "Human Toxicology Programme". PMID:20105011

  17. Delay stabilizes stochastic motion of bumps in layered neural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.

    2015-03-01

    We study the effects of propagation delays on the stochastic dynamics of bumps in neural fields with multiple layers. In the absence of noise, each layer supports a stationary bump. Using linear stability analysis, we show that delayed coupling between layers causes translating perturbations of the bumps to decay in the noise-free system. Adding noise to the system causes bumps to wander as a random walk. However, coupling between layers can reduce the variability of this stochastic motion by canceling noise that perturbs bumps in opposite directions. Delays in interlaminar coupling can further reduce variability, since they couple bump positions to states from the past. We demonstrate these relationships by deriving an asymptotic approximation for the effective motion of bumps. This yields a stochastic delay-differential equation where each delayed term arises from an interlaminar coupling. The impact of delays is well approximated by using a small delay expansion, which allows us to compute the effective diffusion in bumps' positions, accurately matching results from numerical simulations.

  18. Dynamic advance reservation with delayed allocation

    DOEpatents

    Vokkarane, Vinod; Somani, Arun

    2014-12-02

    A method of scheduling data transmissions from a source to a destination, includes the steps of: providing a communication system having a number of channels and a number of paths, each of the channels having a plurality of designated time slots; receiving two or more data transmission requests; provisioning the transmission of the data; receiving data corresponding to at least one of the two or more data transmission requests; waiting until an earliest requested start time T.sub.s; allocating at the current time each of the two or more data transmission requests; transmitting the data; and repeating the steps of waiting, allocating, and transmitting until each of the two or more data transmission requests that have been provisioned for a transmission of data is satisfied. A system to perform the method of scheduling data transmissions is also described.

  19. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behaviorbehavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between operant activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are selected only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the selecting. PMID:22287807

  20. Optimal allocation of trend following strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.

  1. Mystery cloud of AD 536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.

  2. Processor Allocation on Cplant: Achieving General Processor Locality Using One-Dimensional Allocation Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    LEUNG,VITUS J.; ARKIN,ESTHER M.; BENDER,MICHAEL A.; BUNDE,DAVID; JOHNSTON,JEANETTE R.; LAL,ALOK; MITCHELL,JOSEPH S.B.; PHILLIPS,CYNTHIA; SEIDEN,STEVEN S.

    2002-07-01

    The Computational Plant, or Cplant is a commodity-based supercomputer under development at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper describes resource-allocation strategies to achieve processor locality for parallel jobs in Cplant and other supercomputers. Users of Cplant and other Sandia supercomputers submit parallel jobs to a job queue. When a job is scheduled to run, it is assigned to a set of processors. To obtain maximum throughput, jobs should be allocated to localized clusters of processors to minimize communication costs and to avoid bandwidth contention caused by overlapping jobs. This paper introduces new allocation strategies and performance metrics based on space-tilling curves and one dimensional allocation strategies. These algorithms are general and simple. Preliminary simulations and Cplant experiments indicate that both space-filling curves and one-dimensional packing improve processor locality compared to the sorted free list strategy previously used on Cplant. These new allocation strategies are implemented in the new release of the Cplant System Software, Version 2.0, phased into the Cplant systems at Sandia by May 2002.

  3. Stochastic Resonance and Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolis, C.

    2014-12-01

    A dynamical system giving rise to multiple steady states and subjected to noise and a periodic forcing is analyzed from the standpoint of information theory. It is shown that stochastic resonance has a clearcut signature on information entropy, information transfer and other related quantities characterizing information transduction within the system.

  4. Stochastic-field cavitation model

    SciTech Connect

    Dumond, J.; Magagnato, F.; Class, A.

    2013-07-15

    Nonlinear phenomena can often be well described using probability density functions (pdf) and pdf transport models. Traditionally, the simulation of pdf transport requires Monte-Carlo codes based on Lagrangian particles or prescribed pdf assumptions including binning techniques. Recently, in the field of combustion, a novel formulation called the stochastic-field method solving pdf transport based on Eulerian fields has been proposed which eliminates the necessity to mix Eulerian and Lagrangian techniques or prescribed pdf assumptions. In the present work, for the first time the stochastic-field method is applied to multi-phase flow and, in particular, to cavitating flow. To validate the proposed stochastic-field cavitation model, two applications are considered. First, sheet cavitation is simulated in a Venturi-type nozzle. The second application is an innovative fluidic diode which exhibits coolant flashing. Agreement with experimental results is obtained for both applications with a fixed set of model constants. The stochastic-field cavitation model captures the wide range of pdf shapes present at different locations.

  5. Stochastic-field cavitation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumond, J.; Magagnato, F.; Class, A.

    2013-07-01

    Nonlinear phenomena can often be well described using probability density functions (pdf) and pdf transport models. Traditionally, the simulation of pdf transport requires Monte-Carlo codes based on Lagrangian "particles" or prescribed pdf assumptions including binning techniques. Recently, in the field of combustion, a novel formulation called the stochastic-field method solving pdf transport based on Eulerian fields has been proposed which eliminates the necessity to mix Eulerian and Lagrangian techniques or prescribed pdf assumptions. In the present work, for the first time the stochastic-field method is applied to multi-phase flow and, in particular, to cavitating flow. To validate the proposed stochastic-field cavitation model, two applications are considered. First, sheet cavitation is simulated in a Venturi-type nozzle. The second application is an innovative fluidic diode which exhibits coolant flashing. Agreement with experimental results is obtained for both applications with a fixed set of model constants. The stochastic-field cavitation model captures the wide range of pdf shapes present at different locations.

  6. Stochastic Reinforcement Benefits Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayan, Eran; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Richmond, Barry J.; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2014-01-01

    Learning complex skills is driven by reinforcement, which facilitates both online within-session gains and retention of the acquired skills. Yet, in ecologically relevant situations, skills are often acquired when mapping between actions and rewarding outcomes is unknown to the learning agent, resulting in reinforcement schedules of a stochastic

  7. Universality in stochastic exponential growth.

    PubMed

    Iyer-Biswas, Srividya; Crooks, Gavin E; Scherer, Norbert F; Dinner, Aaron R

    2014-07-11

    Recent imaging data for single bacterial cells reveal that their mean sizes grow exponentially in time and that their size distributions collapse to a single curve when rescaled by their means. An analogous result holds for the division-time distributions. A model is needed to delineate the minimal requirements for these scaling behaviors. We formulate a microscopic theory of stochastic exponential growth as a Master Equation that accounts for these observations, in contrast to existing quantitative models of stochastic exponential growth (e.g., the Black-Scholes equation or geometric Brownian motion). Our model, the stochastic Hinshelwood cycle (SHC), is an autocatalytic reaction cycle in which each molecular species catalyzes the production of the next. By finding exact analytical solutions to the SHC and the corresponding first passage time problem, we uncover universal signatures of fluctuations in exponential growth and division. The model makes minimal assumptions, and we describe how more complex reaction networks can reduce to such a cycle. We thus expect similar scalings to be discovered in stochastic processes resulting in exponential growth that appear in diverse contexts such as cosmology, finance, technology, and population growth. PMID:25062238

  8. Universality in Stochastic Exponential Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer-Biswas, Srividya; Crooks, Gavin E.; Scherer, Norbert F.; Dinner, Aaron R.

    2014-07-01

    Recent imaging data for single bacterial cells reveal that their mean sizes grow exponentially in time and that their size distributions collapse to a single curve when rescaled by their means. An analogous result holds for the division-time distributions. A model is needed to delineate the minimal requirements for these scaling behaviors. We formulate a microscopic theory of stochastic exponential growth as a Master Equation that accounts for these observations, in contrast to existing quantitative models of stochastic exponential growth (e.g., the Black-Scholes equation or geometric Brownian motion). Our model, the stochastic Hinshelwood cycle (SHC), is an autocatalytic reaction cycle in which each molecular species catalyzes the production of the next. By finding exact analytical solutions to the SHC and the corresponding first passage time problem, we uncover universal signatures of fluctuations in exponential growth and division. The model makes minimal assumptions, and we describe how more complex reaction networks can reduce to such a cycle. We thus expect similar scalings to be discovered in stochastic processes resulting in exponential growth that appear in diverse contexts such as cosmology, finance, technology, and population growth.

  9. Stochastic non-linear oscillator models of EEG: the Alzheimer's disease case

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanian, Parham; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Ashrafiuon, Hashem

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the Electroencephalography (EEG) signal of the human brain is modeled as the output of stochastic non-linear coupled oscillator networks. It is shown that EEG signals recorded under different brain states in healthy as well as Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may be understood as distinct, statistically significant realizations of the model. EEG signals recorded during resting eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) resting conditions in a pilot study with AD patients and age-matched healthy control subjects (CTL) are employed. An optimization scheme is then utilized to match the output of the stochastic Duffingvan der Pol double oscillator network with EEG signals recorded during each condition for AD and CTL subjects by selecting the model physical parameters and noise intensity. The selected signal characteristics are power spectral densities in major brain frequency bands Shannon and sample entropies. These measures allow matching of linear time varying frequency content as well as non-linear signal information content and complexity. The main finding of the work is that statistically significant unique models represent the EC and EO conditions for both CTL and AD subjects. However, it is also shown that the inclusion of sample entropy in the optimization process, to match the complexity of the EEG signal, enhances the stochastic non-linear oscillator model performance. PMID:25964756

  10. Stochastic non-linear oscillator models of EEG: the Alzheimer's disease case.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanian, Parham; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Ashrafiuon, Hashem

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the Electroencephalography (EEG) signal of the human brain is modeled as the output of stochastic non-linear coupled oscillator networks. It is shown that EEG signals recorded under different brain states in healthy as well as Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may be understood as distinct, statistically significant realizations of the model. EEG signals recorded during resting eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) resting conditions in a pilot study with AD patients and age-matched healthy control subjects (CTL) are employed. An optimization scheme is then utilized to match the output of the stochastic Duffing-van der Pol double oscillator network with EEG signals recorded during each condition for AD and CTL subjects by selecting the model physical parameters and noise intensity. The selected signal characteristics are power spectral densities in major brain frequency bands Shannon and sample entropies. These measures allow matching of linear time varying frequency content as well as non-linear signal information content and complexity. The main finding of the work is that statistically significant unique models represent the EC and EO conditions for both CTL and AD subjects. However, it is also shown that the inclusion of sample entropy in the optimization process, to match the complexity of the EEG signal, enhances the stochastic non-linear oscillator model performance. PMID:25964756

  11. Tachyonic perturbations in AdS5 orbifolds Cyril Cartier

    E-print Network

    Durrer, Ruth

    Tachyonic perturbations in AdS5 orbifolds Cyril Cartier and Ruth Durrer Departement de Physique Th allow normalizable tachyonic modes, i.e., instabilities. These instabilities require non vanishing II model, even though the tachyonic modes are excited, no instability develops. We argue, however

  12. Algorithmic advances in stochastic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, D.P.

    1993-07-01

    Practical planning problems with deterministic forecasts of inherently uncertain parameters often yield unsatisfactory solutions. Stochastic programming formulations allow uncertain parameters to be modeled as random variables with known distributions, but the size of the resulting mathematical programs can be formidable. Decomposition-based algorithms take advantage of special structure and provide an attractive approach to such problems. We consider two classes of decomposition-based stochastic programming algorithms. The first type of algorithm addresses problems with a ``manageable`` number of scenarios. The second class incorporates Monte Carlo sampling within a decomposition algorithm. We develop and empirically study an enhanced Benders decomposition algorithm for solving multistage stochastic linear programs within a prespecified tolerance. The enhancements include warm start basis selection, preliminary cut generation, the multicut procedure, and decision tree traversing strategies. Computational results are presented for a collection of ``real-world`` multistage stochastic hydroelectric scheduling problems. Recently, there has been an increased focus on decomposition-based algorithms that use sampling within the optimization framework. These approaches hold much promise for solving stochastic programs with many scenarios. A critical component of such algorithms is a stopping criterion to ensure the quality of the solution. With this as motivation, we develop a stopping rule theory for algorithms in which bounds on the optimal objective function value are estimated by sampling. Rules are provided for selecting sample sizes and terminating the algorithm under which asymptotic validity of confidence interval statements for the quality of the proposed solution can be verified. Issues associated with the application of this theory to two sampling-based algorithms are considered, and preliminary empirical coverage results are presented.

  13. Wilson lines for AdS5 black strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Kiril; Katmadas, Stefanos

    2015-02-01

    We describe a simple method of extending AdS5 black string solutions of 5d gauged supergravity in a supersymmetric way by addition of Wilson lines along a circular direction in space. When this direction is chosen along the string, and due to the specific form of 5d supergravity that features Chern-Simons terms, the existence of magnetic charges automatically generates conserved electric charges in a 5d analogue of the Witten effect. Therefore we find a rather generic, model-independent way of adding electric charges to already existing solutions with no backreaction from the geometry or breaking of any symmetry. We use this method to explicitly write down more general versions of the Benini-Bobev black strings [1, 2] and comment on the implications for the dual field theory and the similarities with generalizations of the Cacciatori-Klemm black holes [3] in AdS4.

  14. Stochastic resonance in human vision and audition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Lawrence M.; Desai, Simren; Rootman, Daniel; Tata, Matthew; Moss, Frank

    2001-03-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) has been demonstrated in numerous dynamical systems, both model and real, including peripheral sensory neurons and whole animal behavior. We present the first direct evidence that SR is demonstrable also, at a level relevant to behavior in the natural environment, in human visual and auditory signal detection. Human subjects detected either square or sine wave gratings presented mixed with different amounts of pixel noise in the dark on a high-resolution computer monitor, or 3 Hz beats in a 70-Hz base tone, again mixed with different amounts of auditory noise and presented in a sound attenuation chamber while wearing industrial-quality sound-attenuating headphones. In both cases an unbiased index of performance was maximal for intermediate amounts of added noise, indicating that SR enhanced detection of subthreshold signals in both modalities. We present simple and approximate theories of performance in these experiments based on a nondynamical, or threshold, version of SR. We also discuss the possibility that SR is a general property of biological information processing that has been utilized by evolutionary processes.

  15. Usual Intake of Added sugars

    Cancer.gov

    Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

  16. Beware the "Argumentum ad Hominem."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grau, Phyllis Nelson

    1986-01-01

    Differences between arguing "ad hominem" and "ad rem" are explored in two case studies of fifth-grade gifted boys, demonstrating the need for gifted children to be helped to approach problems by considering issues rather than personalities. (Author/DB)

  17. Final Technical Report - Stochastic Nonlinear Data-Reduction Methods with Detection and Prediction of Critical Rare Event

    SciTech Connect

    Karniadakis, George Em; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Lin, Guang; Wan, Xiaoliang

    2013-04-03

    In this project, the collective efforts of all co-PIs aim to address three current limitations in modeling stochastic systems: (1) the inputs are mostly based on ad hoc models, (2) the number of independent parameters is very high, and (3) rare and critical events are difficult to capture with existing algorithms

  18. One-loop diagrams in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Hung Lingyan; Shang Yanwen

    2011-01-15

    We study the complex scalar loop corrections to the boundary-boundary gauge two-point function in pure AdS space in Poincare coordinates, in the presence of boundary quadratic perturbations to the scalar. These perturbations correspond to double-trace perturbations in the dual CFT and modify the boundary conditions of the bulk scalars in AdS. We find that, in addition to the usual UV divergences, the one-loop calculation suffers from a divergence originating in the limit as the loop vertices approach the AdS horizon. We show that this type of divergence is independent of the boundary coupling; making use of this we extract the finite relative variation of the imaginary part of the loop via Cutkosky rules as the boundary perturbation varies. Applying our methods to compute the effects of a time-dependent impurity to the conductivities using the replica trick in AdS/CFT, we find that generally an IR-relevant disorder reduces the conductivity and that in the extreme low frequency limit the correction due to the impurities overwhelms the planar CFT result even though it is supposedly 1/N{sup 2} suppressed. We also comment on the more physical scenario of a time-independent impurity.

  19. Ultraviolet asymptotics for quasiperiodic AdS_4 perturbations

    E-print Network

    Ben Craps; Oleg Evnin; Puttarak Jai-akson; Joris Vanhoof

    2015-10-29

    Spherically symmetric perturbations in AdS-scalar field systems of small amplitude epsilon approximately periodic on time scales of order 1/epsilon^2 (in the sense that no significant transfer of energy between the AdS normal modes occurs) have played an important role in considerations of AdS stability. They are seen as anchors of stability islands where collapse of small perturbations to black holes does not occur. (This collapse, if it happens, typically develops on time scales of the order 1/epsilon^2.) We construct an analytic treatment of the frequency spectra of such quasiperiodic perturbations, paying special attention to the large frequency asymptotics. For the case of a self-interacting phi^4 scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, we arrive at a fairly complete analytic picture involving quasiperiodic spectra with an exponential suppression modulated by a power law at large mode numbers. For the case of dynamical gravity, the structure of the large frequency asymptotics is more complicated. We give analytic explanations for the general qualitative features of quasiperiodic solutions localized around a single mode, in close parallel to our discussion of the probe scalar field, and find numerical evidence for logarithmic modulations in the gravitational quasiperiodic spectra existing on top of the formulas previously reported in the literature.

  20. Ultraviolet asymptotics for quasiperiodic AdS4 perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Jai-akson, Puttarak; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-10-01

    Spherically symmetric perturbations in AdS-scalar field systems of small amplitude ? approximately periodic on time scales of order 1/ ? 2 (in the sense that no significant transfer of energy between the AdS normal modes occurs) have played an important role in considerations of AdS stability. They are seen as anchors of stability islands where collapse of small perturbations to black holes does not occur. (This collapse, if it happens, typically develops on time scales of the order 1/ ? 2.) We construct an analytic treatment of the frequency spectra of such quasiperiodic perturbations, paying special attention to the large frequency asymptotics. For the case of a self-interacting ? 4 scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, we arrive at a fairly complete analytic picture involving quasiperiodic spectra with an exponential suppression modulated by a power law at large mode numbers. For the case of dynamical gravity, the structure of the large frequency asymptotics is more complicated. We give analytic explanations for the general qualitative features of quasiperiodic solutions localized around a single mode, in close parallel to our discussion of the probe scalar field, and find numerical evidence for logarithmic modulations in the gravitational quasiperiodic spectra existing on top of the formulas previously reported in the literature.

  1. Ultraviolet asymptotics for quasiperiodic AdS_4 perturbations

    E-print Network

    Craps, Ben; Jai-akson, Puttarak; Vanhoof, Joris

    2015-01-01

    Spherically symmetric perturbations in AdS-scalar field systems of small amplitude epsilon approximately periodic on time scales of order 1/epsilon^2 (in the sense that no significant transfer of energy between the AdS normal modes occurs) have played an important role in considerations of AdS stability. They are seen as anchors of stability islands where collapse of small perturbations to black holes does not occur. (This collapse, if it happens, typically develops on time scales of the order 1/epsilon^2.) We construct an analytic treatment of the frequency spectra of such quasiperiodic perturbations, paying special attention to the large frequency asymptotics. For the case of a self-interacting phi^4 scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, we arrive at a fairly complete analytic picture involving quasiperiodic spectra with an exponential suppression modulated by a power law at large mode numbers. For the case of dynamical gravity, the structure of the large frequency asymptotics is more complicated....

  2. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  3. New national allocation policy for deceased donor kidneys in the United States and possible effect on patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Israni, Ajay K; Salkowski, Nicholas; Gustafson, Sally; Snyder, Jon J; Friedewald, John J; Formica, Richard N; Wang, Xinyue; Shteyn, Eugene; Cherikh, Wida; Stewart, Darren; Samana, Ciara J; Chung, Adrine; Hart, Allyson; Kasiske, Bertram L

    2014-08-01

    In 2013, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network in the United States approved a new national deceased donor kidney allocation policy that introduces the kidney donor profile index (KDPI), which gives scores of 0%-100% based on 10 donor factors. Kidneys with lower KDPI scores are associated with better post-transplant survival. Important features of the new policy include first allocating kidneys from donors with a KDPI?20% to candidates in the top 20th percentile of estimated post-transplant survival, adding waiting time from dialysis initiation, conferring priority points for a calculated panel-reactive antibody (CPRA)>19%, broader sharing of kidneys for candidates with a CPRA?99%, broader sharing of kidneys from donors with a KDPI>85%, eliminating the payback system, and allocating blood type A2 and A2B kidneys to blood type B candidates. We simulated the distribution of kidneys under the new policy compared with the current allocation policy. The simulation showed increases in projected median allograft years of life with the new policy (9.07 years) compared with the current policy (8.82 years). With the new policy, candidates with a CPRA>20%, with blood type B, and aged 18-49 years were more likely to undergo transplant, but transplants declined in candidates aged 50-64 years (4.1% decline) and ?65 years (2.7% decline). These simulations demonstrate that the new deceased donor kidney allocation policy may improve overall post-transplant survival and access for highly sensitized candidates, with minimal effects on access to transplant by race/ethnicity and declines in kidney allocation for candidates aged ?50 years. PMID:24833128

  4. The forecaster's added value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2009-09-01

    To the authors' knowledge there are relatively few studies that try to answer this topic: "Are humans able to add value to computer-generated forecasts and warnings ?". Moreover, the answers are not always positive. In particular some postprocessing method is competitive or superior to human forecast (see for instance Baars et al., 2005, Charba et al., 2002, Doswell C., 2003, Roebber et al., 1996, Sanders F., 1986). Within the alert system of ARPA Piemonte it is possible to study in an objective manner if the human forecaster is able to add value with respect to computer-generated forecasts. Every day the meteorology group of the Centro Funzionale of Regione Piemonte produces the HQPF (Human QPF) in terms of an areal average for each of the 13 regional warning areas, which have been created according to meteo-hydrological criteria. This allows the decision makers to produce an evaluation of the expected effects by comparing these HQPFs with predefined rainfall thresholds. Another important ingredient in this study is the very dense non-GTS network of rain gauges available that makes possible a high resolution verification. In this context the most useful verification approach is the measure of the QPF and HQPF skills by first converting precipitation expressed as continuous amounts into exceedance'' categories (yes-no statements indicating whether precipitation equals or exceeds selected thresholds) and then computing the performances for each threshold. In particular in this work we compare the performances of the latest three years of QPF derived from two meteorological models COSMO-I7 (the Italian version of the COSMO Model, a mesoscale model developed in the framework of the COSMO Consortium) and IFS (the ECMWF global model) with the HQPF. In this analysis it is possible to introduce the hypothesis test developed by Hamill (1999), in which a confidence interval is calculated with the bootstrap method in order to establish the real difference between the skill scores of two competitive forecast. It is important to underline that the conclusions refer to the analysis of the Piemonte operational alert system, so they cannot be directly taken as universally true. But we think that some of the main lessons that can be derived from this study could be useful for the meteorological community. In details, the main conclusions are the following: - despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use, that is, the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance; - in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterisation and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; - eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical techniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.

  5. Moduli spaces in AdS 4 supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Alwis, Senarath; Louis, Jan; McAllister, Liam; Triendl, Hagen; Westphal, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    We study the structure of the supersymmetric moduli spaces of = 1 and = 2 supergravity theories in AdS 4 backgrounds. In the = 1 case, the moduli space cannot be a complex submanifold of the Khler field space, but is instead real with respect to the inherited complex structure. In = 2 supergravity the same result holds for the vector multiplet moduli space, while the hypermultiplet moduli space is a Khler submanifold of the quaternionic-Khler field space. These findings are in agreement with AdS/CFT considerations.

  6. Impact of deterministic and stochastic updates on network reciprocity in the prisoner's dilemma game.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Jun

    2014-08-01

    In 2 2 prisoner's dilemma games, network reciprocity is one mechanism for adding social viscosity, which leads to cooperative equilibrium. This study introduced an intriguing framework for the strategy update rule that allows any combination of a purely deterministic method, imitation max (IM), and a purely probabilistic one, pairwise Fermi (Fermi-PW). A series of simulations covering the whole range from IM to Fermi-PW reveals that, as a general tendency, the larger fractions of stochastic updating reduce network reciprocity, so long as the underlying lattice contains no noise in the degree of distribution. However, a small amount of stochastic flavor added to an otherwise perfectly deterministic update rule was actually found to enhance network reciprocity. This occurs because a subtle stochastic effect in the update rule improves the evolutionary trail in games having more stag-hunt-type dilemmas, although the same stochastic effect degenerates evolutionary trails in games having more chicken-type dilemmas. We explain these effects by dividing evolutionary trails into the enduring and expanding periods defined by Shigaki et al. [Phys. Rev. E 86, 031141 (2012)]. PMID:25215687

  7. Canopy bidirectional reflectance calculation based on Adding method and SAIL formalism: AddingS/AddingSD

    E-print Network

    Canopy bidirectional reflectance calculation based on Adding method and SAIL formalism: Adding SAIL model Kuusk' model The SAIL model (proposed by Verhoef) is largely used in the remote sensing to the assumption that the multiple scattered fluxes are isotropically distributed. The SAIL parameters

  8. Sex allocation theory aids species conservation.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Bruce C; Elliott, Graeme P; Eason, Daryl K; Clout, Mick N; Gemmell, Neil J

    2006-06-22

    Supplementary feeding is often a key tool in the intensive management of captive and threatened species. Although it can increase such parameters as breeding frequency and individual survival, supplementary feeding may produce undesirable side effects that increase overall extinction risk. Recent attempts to increase breeding frequency and success in the kakapo Strigops habroptilus using supplementary feeding inadvertently resulted in highly male-biased chick sex ratios. Here, we describe how the inclusion of sex allocation theory has remedied this conservation dilemma. Our study is the first to manipulate chick sex ratios in an endangered species by altering maternal condition and highlights the importance of incorporating evolutionary theory into modern conservation practice. PMID:17148369

  9. Stochastic scanning multiphoton multifocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jureller, Justin E; Kim, Hee Y; Scherer, Norbert F

    2006-04-17

    Multiparticle tracking with scanning confocal and multiphoton fluorescence imaging is increasingly important for elucidating biological function, as in the transport of intracellular cargo-carrying vesicles. We demonstrate a simple rapid-sampling stochastic scanning multifocal multiphoton microscopy (SS-MMM) fluorescence imaging technique that enables multiparticle tracking without specialized hardware at rates 1,000 times greater than conventional single point raster scanning. Stochastic scanning of a diffractive optic generated 10x10 hexagonal array of foci with a white noise driven galvanometer yields a scan pattern that is random yet space-filling. SS-MMM creates a more uniformly sampled image with fewer spatio-temporal artifacts than obtained by conventional or multibeam raster scanning. SS-MMM is verified by simulation and experimentally demonstrated by tracking microsphere diffusion in solution. PMID:19516485

  10. Stochastic Processes, Slaves and Supersymmetry

    E-print Network

    Drummond, I T

    2011-01-01

    We extend the work of Tanase-Nicola and Kurchan on the structure of diffusion processes and the associated supersymmetry algebra by examining the responses of a simple statistical system to external disturbances of various kinds. We consider both the stochastic differential equations (SDEs) for the process and the associated diffusion equation. The influence of the disturbances can be understood by augmenting the original SDE with an equation for {\\it slave variables}. The evolution of the slave variables describes the behaviour of line elements carried along in the stochastic flow. These line elements together with the associated surface and volume elements constructed from them provide the basis of the supersymmetry properties of the theory. For ease of visualisation, and in order to emphasise a helpful electromagnetic analogy, we work in three dimensions. The results are all generalisable to higher dimensions and can be specialised to one and two dimensions. The electromagnetic analogy is a useful starting...

  11. Semiclassical Virasoro Blocks from AdS$_3$ Gravity

    E-print Network

    Eliot Hijano; Per Kraus; Eric Perlmutter; River Snively

    2015-08-21

    We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in arXiv:1508.00501, evaluated in locally AdS$_3$ geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block -- in which two external operators become parametrically heavy -- as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS$_3$; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.

  12. Supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions of type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Nakwoo; Suh, Minwoo

    2015-10-01

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS_6. This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing {SL}(3,{R})/{SO}(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) subset {SL}(3,{R}) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity.

  13. Smoothed Transitions in Higher Spin AdS Gravity

    E-print Network

    Shamik Banerjee; Alejandra Castro; Simeon Hellerman; Eliot Hijano; Arnaud Lepage-Jutier; Alexander Maloney; Stephen Shenker

    2012-10-11

    We consider CFTs conjectured to be dual to higher spin theories of gravity in AdS_3 and AdS_4. Two dimensional CFTs with W_N symmetry are considered in the lambda=0 (k --> infinity) limit, where they are conjectured to be described by continuous orbifolds. The torus partition function is computed, using reasonable assumptions, and equals that of a free field theory. We find no phase transition at temperatures of order one; the usual Hawking-Page phase transition is removed by the highly degenerate light states associated with conical defect states in the bulk. Three dimensional Chern-Simons-matter CFTs with vector-like matter are considered on T^3, where the dynamics is described by an effective theory for the eigenvalues of the holonomies. Likewise, we find no evidence for a Hawking-Page phase transition at large level k.

  14. The Mixed Phase of Charged AdS Black holes

    E-print Network

    Piyabut Burikham; Chatchai Promsiri

    2015-01-20

    We study the mixed phase of charged AdS black hole and radiation when the total energy is fixed below the threshold to produce a stable charged black hole branch. The coexistence conditions for the charged AdS black hole and radiation are derived for the generic case when radiation particles carry charge. The phase diagram of the mixed phase is demonstrated for both fixed potential and charge ensemble. In the dual gauge picture, they correspond to the mixed phase of quark-gluon plasma~(QGP) and hadron gas in the fixed chemical potential and density ensemble respectively. In the nuclei and heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies, the mixed phase of exotic QGP and hadron gas could be produced. The mixed phase will condensate and evaporate into the hadron gas as the fireball expands.

  15. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  16. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a... comply with any International Monetary Fund or other suitable adjustment program; or (B) Whether...

  17. 28 CFR 90.54 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Indian Tribal Governments Discretionary Program 90.54 Allocation...account the applicants' varying needs in addressing violence against...

  18. Data-driven resource allocation decisions : FEMA's disaster recovery centers

    E-print Network

    Moline, Julia N. (Julia Nessa)

    2014-01-01

    Resource allocation decisions in post-disaster operations are challenging because of situational dynamics, insufficient information, organizational culture, political context, and urgency. We propose a methodology to create ...

  19. Spiky Strings on AdS(4) X CP**3

    E-print Network

    Bum-Hoon Lee; Kamal L. Panigrahi; Chanyong Park

    2008-11-07

    We study a giant magnon and a spike solution for the string rotating on AdS(4) X CP**3 geometry. We consider rigid rotating fundamental string in the SU(2) X SU(2) sector inside the CP**3 and find out the general form of all the conserved charges. We find out the dispersion relation corresponding to both the known giant magnon and the new spike solutions. We further study the finite size correction in both cases.

  20. Universal Kounterterms in Lovelock AdS gravity

    E-print Network

    Georgios Kofinas; Rodrigo Olea

    2008-06-06

    We show the universal form of the boundary term (Kounterterm series) which regularizes the Euclidean action and background-independent definition of conserved quantities for any Lovelock gravity theory with AdS asymptotics (including Einstein-Hilbert and Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet). We discuss on the connection of this procedure to the existence of topological invariants and Chern-Simons forms in the corresponding dimensions.

  1. Moduli Dynamics of AdS_3 Strings

    E-print Network

    Antal Jevicki; Kewang Jin

    2009-04-03

    We construct a general class of solutions for a classical string in AdS_3 spacetime. The construction is based on a Pohlmeyer type reduction, with the sinh-Gordon model providing the general N-soliton solutions. The corresponding exact spiky string configurations are then reconstructed through the inverse scattering method. It is shown that the string moduli are determined entirely by those of the solitons.

  2. Moduli Dynamics of AdS_3 Strings

    E-print Network

    Jevicki, Antal

    2009-01-01

    We construct a general class of solutions for a classical string in AdS_3 spacetime. The construction is based on a Pohlmeyer type reduction, with the sinh-Gordon model providing the general N-soliton solutions. The corresponding exact spiky string configurations are then reconstructed through the inverse scattering method. It is shown that the string moduli are determined entirely by those of the solitons.

  3. Stochastic models for relativistic diffusion.

    PubMed

    Baeumer, Boris; Meerschaert, Mark M; Naber, Mark

    2010-07-01

    The diffusion equation is related to the Schrdinger equation by analytic continuation. The formula E2=p2c2 + m2c4 leads to a relativistic Schrdinger equation, and analytic continuation yields a relativistic diffusion equation that involves fractional calculus. This paper develops stochastic models for relativistic diffusion and equivalent differential equations with no fractional derivatives. Connections to anomalous diffusion are also discussed, along with alternative models. PMID:20866590

  4. Stochastic Cascade Amplification of Fluctuations

    E-print Network

    Michael Wilkinson; Robin Guichardaz; Marc Pradas; Alain Pumir

    2015-02-20

    We consider a dynamical system which has a stable attractor and which is perturbed by an additive noise. Under some quite typical conditions, the fluctuations from the attractor are intermittent and have a probability distribution with power-law tails. We show that this results from a stochastic cascade of amplification of fluctuations due to transient periods of instability. The exponent of the power-law is interpreted as a negative fractal dimension.

  5. Stochastic models for relativistic diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Baeumer, Boris; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Naber, Mark

    2010-07-15

    The diffusion equation is related to the Schroedinger equation by analytic continuation. The formula E{sup 2}=p{sup 2}c{sup 2}+m{sup 2}c{sup 4} leads to a relativistic Schroedinger equation, and analytic continuation yields a relativistic diffusion equation that involves fractional calculus. This paper develops stochastic models for relativistic diffusion and equivalent differential equations with no fractional derivatives. Connections to anomalous diffusion are also discussed, along with alternative models.

  6. Stochastic background of atmospheric cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, G. ); Wlodarczyk, Z. )

    1993-06-15

    Fluctuations in the atmospheric cascades developing during the propagation of very high energy cosmic rays through the atmosphere are investigated using stochastic branching model of pure birth process with immigration. In particular, we show that the multiplicity distributions of secondaries emerging from gamma families are much narrower than those resulting from hadronic families. We argue that the strong intermittent like behaviour found recently in atmospheric families results from the fluctuations in the cascades themselves and are insensitive to the details of elementary interactions.

  7. Deterministic and stochastic bifurcations in the Hindmarsh-Rose neuronal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dtchetgnia Djeundam, S. R.; Yamapi, R.; Kofane, T. C.; Aziz-Alaoui, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    We analyze the bifurcations occurring in the 3D Hindmarsh-Rose neuronal model with and without random signal. When under a sufficient stimulus, the neuron activity takes place; we observe various types of bifurcations that lead to chaotic transitions. Beside the equilibrium solutions and their stability, we also investigate the deterministic bifurcation. It appears that the neuronal activity consists of chaotic transitions between two periodic phases called bursting and spiking solutions. The stochastic bifurcation, defined as a sudden change in character of a stochastic attractor when the bifurcation parameter of the system passes through a critical value, or under certain condition as the collision of a stochastic attractor with a stochastic saddle, occurs when a random Gaussian signal is added. Our study reveals two kinds of stochastic bifurcation: the phenomenological bifurcation (P-bifurcations) and the dynamical bifurcation (D-bifurcations). The asymptotical method is used to analyze phenomenological bifurcation. We find that the neuronal activity of spiking and bursting chaos remains for finite values of the noise intensity.

  8. Stochastic Drift in Mitochondrial DNA Point Mutations: A Novel Perspective Ex Silico

    PubMed Central

    Poovathingal, Suresh Kumar; Gruber, Jan; Halliwell, Barry; Gunawan, Rudiyanto

    2009-01-01

    The mitochondrial free radical theory of aging (mFRTA) implicates Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-induced mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a major cause of aging. However, fifty years after its inception, several of its premises are intensely debated. Much of this uncertainty is due to the large range of values in the reported experimental data, for example on oxidative damage and mutational burden in mtDNA. This is in part due to limitations with available measurement technologies. Here we show that sample preparations in some assays necessitating high dilution of DNA (single molecule level) may introduce significant statistical variability. Adding to this complexity is the intrinsically stochastic nature of cellular processes, which manifests in cells from the same tissue harboring varying mutation load. In conjunction, these random elements make the determination of the underlying mutation dynamics extremely challenging. Our in silico stochastic study reveals the effect of coupling the experimental variability and the intrinsic stochasticity of aging process in some of the reported experimental data. We also show that the stochastic nature of a de novo point mutation generated during embryonic development is a major contributor of different mutation burdens in the individuals of mouse population. Analysis of simulation results leads to several new insights on the relevance of mutation stochasticity in the context of dividing tissues and the plausibility of ROS vicious cycle hypothesis. PMID:19936024

  9. Quintessence and effective AdS brane geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, K. Priyabrat; Singh, Abhishek K.; Singh, Sunita; Kar, Supriya

    2015-04-01

    A geometric torsion dynamics leading to an effective curvature in a second-order formalism on a D4-brane is revisited with a renewed interest. We obtain two effective AdS4 brane geometries on a vacuum created pair of (D{\\bar D})3-brane. One of them is shown to describe an AdS Schwarzschild spinning black hole and the other is shown to describe a spinning black hole bound state. It is argued that a D-instanton in a vacuum created anti-D3-brane within a pair may describe a quintessence. It may seem to incorporate a varying vacuum energy density in a brane universe. We consider the effective curvature scalar on S1 S1 to analyze torsionless geometries on a vacuum created pair of (D{\\bar D})2-brane. The emergent AdS3 brane is shown to describe a Schwarzschild and a Reissner-Nordstrom (RN) geometries in the presence of extra dimension(s).

  10. Generalized spectral decomposition for stochastic nonlinear problems

    SciTech Connect

    Nouy, Anthony Le Maitre, Olivier P.

    2009-01-10

    We present an extension of the generalized spectral decomposition method for the resolution of nonlinear stochastic problems. The method consists in the construction of a reduced basis approximation of the Galerkin solution and is independent of the stochastic discretization selected (polynomial chaos, stochastic multi-element or multi-wavelets). Two algorithms are proposed for the sequential construction of the successive generalized spectral modes. They involve decoupled resolutions of a series of deterministic and low-dimensional stochastic problems. Compared to the classical Galerkin method, the algorithms allow for significant computational savings and require minor adaptations of the deterministic codes. The methodology is detailed and tested on two model problems, the one-dimensional steady viscous Burgers equation and a two-dimensional nonlinear diffusion problem. These examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms which exhibit convergence rates with the number of modes essentially dependent on the spectrum of the stochastic solution but independent of the dimension of the stochastic approximation space.

  11. Transformation invariant stochastic catastrophe theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Grasman, Raoul P. P. P.; Hartelman, Pascal A. I.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2005-11-01

    Catastrophe theory is a mathematical formalism for modeling nonlinear systems whose discontinuous behavior is determined by smooth changes in a small number of driving parameters. Fitting a catastrophe model to noisy data constitutes a serious challenge, however, because catastrophe theory was formulated specifically for deterministic systems. Loren Cobb addressed this challenge by developing a stochastic counterpart of catastrophe theory (SCT) based on It stochastic differential equations. In SCT, the stable and unstable equilibrium states of the system correspond to the modes and the antimodes of the empirical probability density function, respectively. Unfortunately, SCT is not invariant under smooth and invertible transformations of variables-this is an important limitation, since invariance to diffeomorphic transformations is essential in deterministic catastrophe theory. From the It transformation rules we derive a generalized version of SCT that does remain invariant under transformation and can include Cobbs SCT as a special case. We show that an invariant function is obtained by multiplying the probability density function with the diffusion function of the stochastic process. This invariant function can be estimated by a straightforward time series analysis based on level crossings. We illustrate the invariance problem and its solution with two applications.

  12. Stochastic Processes, Slaves and Supersymmetry

    E-print Network

    I. T. Drummond; R. R. Horgan

    2011-06-14

    We extend the work of Tanase-Nicola and Kurchan on the structure of diffusion processes and the associated supersymmetry algebra by examining the responses of a simple statistical system to external disturbances of various kinds. We consider both the stochastic differential equations (SDEs) for the process and the associated diffusion equation. The influence of the disturbances can be understood by augmenting the original SDE with an equation for {\\it slave variables}. The evolution of the slave variables describes the behaviour of line elements carried along in the stochastic flow. These line elements together with the associated surface and volume elements constructed from them provide the basis of the supersymmetry properties of the theory. For ease of visualisation, and in order to emphasise a helpful electromagnetic analogy, we work in three dimensions. The results are all generalisable to higher dimensions and can be specialised to one and two dimensions. The electromagnetic analogy is a useful starting point for calculating asymptotic results at low temperature that can be compared with direct numerical evaluations. We also examine the problems that arise in a direct numerical simulation of the stochastic equation together with the slave equations. We pay special attention to the dependence of the slave variable statistics on temperature. We identify in specific models the critical temperature below which the slave variable distribution ceases to have a variance and consider the effect on estimates of susceptibilities.

  13. Stochastic ranking process Amazon.co.jp

    E-print Network

    Hattori, Tetsuya

    Stochastic ranking process Amazon.co.jp Amazon.co.jp web long tail Stochastic ranking process Stochastic ranking process Amazon.co.jp jump Pareto (loglinear ) i wi = a (N/i)1/b t = 0 1 t xC(t) N (1-b(at)b (-b, at))+1 (z, p) = p e-w wz-1 dw 500 1000 1500 2000 500000 Amazon.co.jp xC(t) N, a, b 4 77 b 0

  14. Stochastic Vorticity and Associated Filtering Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Amirdjanova, A.; Kallianpur, G.

    2002-12-19

    The focus of this work is on a two-dimensional stochastic vorticity equation for an incompressible homogeneous viscous fluid. We consider a signed measure-valued stochastic partial differential equation for a vorticity process based on the Skorohod-Ito evolution of a system of N randomly moving point vortices. A nonlinear filtering problem associated with the evolution of the vorticity is considered and a corresponding Fujisaki-Kallianpur-Kunita stochastic differential equation for the optimal filter is derived.

  15. Optimal resource allocation in cellular sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Govern, Christopher C; Ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2014-12-01

    Living cells deploy many resources to sense their environments, including receptors, downstream signaling molecules, time, and fuel. However, it is not known which resources fundamentally limit the precision of sensing, like weak links in a chain, and which can compensate each other, leading to trade-offs between them. We present a theory for the optimal design of the large class of sensing systems in which a receptor drives a push-pull network. The theory identifies three classes of resources that are required for sensing: receptors and their integration time, readout molecules, and energy (fuel turnover). Each resource class sets a fundamental sensing limit, which means that the sensing precision is bounded by the limiting resource class and cannot be enhanced by increasing another class--the different classes cannot compensate each other. This result yields a previously unidentified design principle, namely that of optimal resource allocation in cellular sensing. It states that, in an optimally designed sensing system, each class of resources is equally limiting so that no resource is wasted. We apply our theory to what is arguably the best-characterized sensing system in biology, the chemotaxis network of Escherichia coli. Our analysis reveals that this system obeys the principle of optimal resource allocation, indicating a selective pressure for the efficient design of cellular sensing systems. PMID:25422473

  16. Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Gurkirpal

    2005-01-01

    A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.

  17. An Approach for Transmission Loss and Cost Allocation by Loss Allocation Index and Co-operative Game Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Baseem; Agnihotri, Ganga; Mishra, Anuprita S.

    2014-12-01

    In the present work authors proposed a novel method for transmission loss and cost allocation to users (generators and loads). In the developed methodology transmission losses are allocated to users based on their usage of the transmission line. After usage allocation, particular loss allocation indices (PLAI) are evaluated for loads and generators. Also Cooperative game theory approach is applied for comparison of results. The proposed method is simple and easy to implement on the practical power system. Sample 6 bus and IEEE 14 bus system is used for showing the effectiveness of proposed method.

  18. AESS: Accelerated Exact Stochastic Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, David D.; Peterson, Gregory D.

    2011-12-01

    The Stochastic Simulation Algorithm (SSA) developed by Gillespie provides a powerful mechanism for exploring the behavior of chemical systems with small species populations or with important noise contributions. Gene circuit simulations for systems biology commonly employ the SSA method, as do ecological applications. This algorithm tends to be computationally expensive, so researchers seek an efficient implementation of SSA. In this program package, the Accelerated Exact Stochastic Simulation Algorithm (AESS) contains optimized implementations of Gillespie's SSA that improve the performance of individual simulation runs or ensembles of simulations used for sweeping parameters or to provide statistically significant results. Program summaryProgram title: AESS Catalogue identifier: AEJW_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: University of Tennessee copyright agreement No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 10 861 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 394 631 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C for processors, CUDA for NVIDIA GPUs Computer: Developed and tested on various x86 computers and NVIDIA C1060 Tesla and GTX 480 Fermi GPUs. The system targets x86 workstations, optionally with multicore processors or NVIDIA GPUs as accelerators. Operating system: Tested under Ubuntu Linux OS and CentOS 5.5 Linux OS Classification: 3, 16.12 Nature of problem: Simulation of chemical systems, particularly with low species populations, can be accurately performed using Gillespie's method of stochastic simulation. Numerous variations on the original stochastic simulation algorithm have been developed, including approaches that produce results with statistics that exactly match the chemical master equation (CME) as well as other approaches that approximate the CME. Solution method: The Accelerated Exact Stochastic Simulation (AESS) tool provides implementations of a wide variety of popular variations on the Gillespie method. Users can select the specific algorithm considered most appropriate. Comparisons between the methods and with other available implementations indicate that AESS provides the fastest known implementation of Gillespie's method for a variety of test models. Users may wish to execute ensembles of simulations to sweep parameters or to obtain better statistical results, so AESS supports acceleration of ensembles of simulation using parallel processing with MPI, SSE vector units on x86 processors, and/or using NVIDIA GPUs with CUDA.

  19. Towards Optimal Allocation of Computer Resources: Trade-offs between Uncertainty, Discretization and Model Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, W.; Leube, P.; Zinkhahn, M.; de Barros, F.; Rajagopal, R.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the computational complexity of hydro(geo)logical models. This has been driven by new problems addressing large-scale relationships like global warming, reactive transport on the catchment scale or CO2 sequestration. Computational model complexity becomes even more drastic, when facing the ubiquitous need for uncertainty quantification and risk assessment in the environmental sciences. Computational complexity can be broken down into contributions ranging from spatial, temporal and stochastic resolution, e.g., spatial grid resolution, time step size and number of repeated simulations dedicated to quantify uncertainty. Controlling these resolutions allows keeping the computational cost at a tractable level whilst guaranteeing accurate and robust predictions. Having this possibility at hand triggers our overall driving question: What is the optimal resolution for independent variables (i.e. time and space) to achieve reliable prediction in the presence of uncertainty? Can we determine an overall optimum combination of the number of realizations, spatial and temporal resolutions, needed for overall statistical/physical convergence of model predictions? If so, how can we find it? In other words, how can we optimally allocate available computational resources in order to achieve highest accuracy associated with a given prediction goal? In this work, we present an approach that allows to determine the compromise among different model dimensions (space, time, probability) when allocating computational resources. The overall goal is to maximize the prediction accuracy given limited computational resources. Our analysis is based on the idea to jointly consider the discretization errors and computational costs of all individual model dimensions. This yields a cost-to-error surface which serves to aid modelers in finding an optimal allocation of the computational resources. As a pragmatic way to proceed, we propose running small cost-efficient pre-investigations in order to estimate the joint cost-to-error surface and fit underlying complexity and error models, then decide upon a design for the setup of the full simulation, and finally to perform the designed simulations at near-optimal costs. We illustrate our concept with two examples from subsurface hydrogeology (wetland management and pump-and-treat remediation) and show that the computational costs can be reduced when allocating computational resources wisely. In the two featured examples, the best ratio between spatial resolution and the number of Monte-Carlo realizations is surprising. In comparison to existing recommendations found in the literature, the ratio far on the side of fine discretization and suggests only a small number of Monte-Carlo repetitions.

  20. Towards optimal allocation of computer resources: trade-offs between uncertainty, discretization and model reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkhahn, M.; Leube, P.; Nowak, W.; de Barros, F. P. J.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the computational complexity of hydro(geo)logical models. This has been driven by new problems addressing large-scale relationships like global warming, reactive transport on the catchment scale or CO2 sequestration. Computational model complexity becomes even more drastic, when facing the ubiquitous need for uncertainty quantification and risk assessment in the environmental sciences. Complexity can be broken down into contributions ranging from spatial, temporal and stochastic resolution, e.g., spatial grid resolution, time step size and number of repeated simulations dedicated to quantify uncertainty. Controlling these resolutions allows keeping the computational cost at a tractable level whilst guaranteeing accurate and robust predictions. Having this possibility at hand triggers our overall driving question: What is the optimal resolution for independent variables (i.e. time and space) to achieve reliable prediction in the presence of uncertainty? Can we determine an overall optimum combination of the number of realizations, spatial and temporal resolutions, needed for overall statistical/physical convergence of model predictions? If so, how can we find it? In other words, how can we optimally allocate available computational resources in order to achieve highest accuracy associated with a given prediction goal? In this work, we present an approach that allows to determine the compromise among different model dimensions (space, time, probability) when allocating computational resources. The overall goal is to maximize the prediction accuracy given limited computational resources. Our analysis is based on the idea to jointly consider the discretization errors and computational costs of all individual model dimensions. This yields a cost-to-error surface which serves to aid modelers in finding an optimal allocation of the computational resources. As a pragmatic way to proceed, we propose running small cost-efficient pre-investigations in order to estimate the joint cost-to-error surface and fit underlying complexity and error models, then decide upon a design for the setup of the full simulation, and finally to perform the designed simulations at near-optimal costs. We illustrate our concept with two examples from subsurface hydrogeology and show that the computational costs can be reduced when allocating computational resources wisely.